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Sample records for zinc deficient rats

  1. Zinc content of selected tissues and taste perception in rats fed zinc deficient and zinc adequate rations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckner, L.S.; Kies, C.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding zinc sufficient and zinc deficient rations on taste sensitivity and zinc contents of selected organs in rats. The 36 Sprague-Dawley male weanling rats were divided into 2 groups and fed zinc deficient or zinc adequate rations. The animals were subjected to 4 trial periods in which a choice of deionized distilled water or a solution of quinine sulfate at 1.28 x 10 -6 was given. A randomized schedule for rat sacrifice was used. No differences were found between zinc deficient and zinc adequate rats in taste preference aversion scores for quinine sulfate in the first three trial periods; however, in the last trial period rats in the zinc sufficient group drank somewhat less water containing quinine sulfate as a percentage of total water consumption than did rats fed the zinc deficient ration. Significantly higher zinc contents of kidney, brain and parotid salivary glands were seen in zinc adequate rats compared to zinc deficient rats at the end of the study. However, liver and tongue zinc levels were lower for both groups at the close of the study than were those of rats sacrificed at the beginning of the study

  2. Tracing of Zinc Nanocrystals in the Anterior Pituitary of Zinc-Deficient Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldeep, Anjana; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, Ranveer Singh

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to trace zinc nanocrystals in the anterior pituitary of zinc-deficient Wistar rats by using autometallographic technique. Male Wistar rats (30-40 days of age, pre-pubertal period) of 40-50 g body weight were divided into the following: the ZC (zinc control) group-fed with 100 ppm zinc in diet, the ZD (zinc-deficient) group-fed with zinc-deficient (1.00 ppm) diet and the PF (pair-fed) group-received 100 ppm zinc in diet. The experiments were set for 2 and 4 weeks. Pituitary was removed and processed for the autometallographic technique. The control and pair-fed groups retained their normal morphological features. However, male Wistar rats fed on zinc-deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks displayed a wide range of symptoms such as significant (P zinc nanocrystals in the nuclei. The present findings suggest that the dietary zinc deficiency causes decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals localization and their distribution in the pituitary thereby contributing to the dysfunction of the pituitary of the male Wistar rats. The severity of zinc deficiency symptoms progressed after the second week of the experiment. Decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals attenuates the pituitary function which would exert its affect on other endocrine organs impairing their functions indicating that the metabolic regulation of pituitary is mediated to a certain extent by zinc and/or hypothalamus-hypophysial system which also reflects its essentiality during the period of growth.

  3. Improving Effect Of Vitamin E Supplementation In Rats Suffering From Zinc Deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matta, T.F.

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin E is a membrane-bound soluble lipid and naturally occurring antioxidant which protects animal tissues against oxidative damage. Several studies have suggested a possible interaction between zinc status and vitamin E in animals. The current investigation was conduced to elucidate the improving effect of vitamin E supplementation on some selected biochemical variables in the blood and tissues of albino rats suffering from zinc deficiency.Zinc deficiency was induced in rats by feeding male rats a low zinc diet for 6 weeks. Dietary vitamin E and zinc, separated or combined, were used to ameliorate the impacts of zinc deficiency in the last two weeks of the experiment. Fifty male albino rats weighing 70-80g in 5 equal groups were given for 6 weeks five semi purified diets different in their contents of vitamin E and zinc / kg diet as follows: Zn adequate diet (Zn =35 ppm) for group (I) served as control, Zn deficient diet (Zn = 3 ppm) for group (II), Zn deficient diet plus supplemental zinc (Zn = 84 ppm) for group (III), Zn deficient diet plus supplemental vitamin E (50 IU) for group (IV) and Zn deficient diet plus supplemental zinc and vitamin E (Zn = 84 ppm + i.p. 50 IU vitamin E) for group (V). Supplemental zinc and vitamin E were only given on the last two weeks of the experiment.The obtained results revealed that Zn deficiency led to a significant (P 4 , T 3 and testosterone levels were declined significantly in Zn deficient rats as well as a significant (P < 0.05) rise in TSH level as compared with their levels in the Zn deficient rats supplemented with Zn and vitamin E.In contrast, the concentration of serum total cholesterol (T.Chol) and triglycerides (TG) in Zn deficient rats were significantly increased than those recorded in control group. On the other hand, the activities of cytochrome P450 reductase and microsomal NADPH reductase were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in liver homogenates while significant increase was recorded in their corresponding

  4. Effect of zinc gluconate, sage oil on inflammatory patterns and hyperglycemia in zinc deficient diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elseweidy, Mohamed M; Ali, Abdel-Moniem A; Elabidine, Nabila Zein; Mursey, Nada M

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between zinc homeostasis and pancreatic function had been established. In this study we aimed firstly to configure the inflammatory pattern and hyperglycemia in zinc deficient diabetic rats. Secondly to illustrate the effect of two selected agents namely Zinc gluconate and sage oil (Salvia Officinalis, family Lamiaceae). Rats were fed on Zinc deficient diet, deionized water for 28days along with Zinc level check up at intervals to achieve zinc deficient state then rats were rendered diabetic through receiving one dose of alloxan monohydrate (120mg/kg) body weight, classified later into 5 subgroups. Treatment with sage oil (0.042mg/kg IP) and Zinc gluconate orally (150mg/kg) body weight daily for 8 weeks significantly reduced serum glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α), interleukins-6 1 β, inflammatory8 (IFN ȣ), pancreatic 1L1-β along with an increase in serum Zinc and pancreatic Zinc transporter 8 (ZNT8). Histopathological results of pancreatic tissues showed a good correlation with the biochemical findings. Both sage oil and zinc gluconate induced an improvement in the glycemic and inflammatory states. This may be of value like the therapeutic agent for diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the endogenous phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, P.G.; Allen, O.B.; Bettger, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of dietary zinc deficiency on patterns of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane proteins and erythrocyte filterability was examined. Weanling male Wistar rats were fed an egg white-based diet containing less than 1.1 mg zinc/kg diet ad libitum for 3 wk. Control rats were either pair-fed or ad libitum-fed the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg zinc/kg diet. Net phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of erythrocyte membrane proteins were carried out by an in vitro assay utilizing [gamma- 32 P]ATP. The membrane proteins were subsequently separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the 32 P content of gel slices was counted by Cerenkov counting. Erythrocyte filterability was measured as the filtration time of suspensions of erythrocytes, both untreated and preincubated with diamide, under constant pressure. Erythrocyte ghosts from zinc-deficient rats demonstrated greater dephosphorylation of protein bands R1 plus R2 and R7 than pair-fed rats and greater net phosphorylation of band R2.2 than pair-fed or ad libitum-fed control rats (P less than 0.05). Erythrocytes from ad libitum-fed control rats showed significantly longer filtration times than those from zinc-deficient or pair-fed control rats. In conclusion, dietary zinc deficiency alters in vitro patterns of erythrocyte membrane protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, whereas the depression in food intake associated with the zinc deficiency increases erythrocyte filterability. 71 references

  6. Zinc deficiency leads to lipofuscin accumulation in the retinal pigment epithelium of pigmented rats.

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    Sylvie Julien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is associated with lipofuscin accumulation whereas the content of melanosomes decreases. Melanosomes are the main storage of zinc in the pigmented tissues. Since the elderly population, as the most affected group for AMD, is prone to zinc deficit, we investigated the chemical and ultrastructural effects of zinc deficiency in pigmented rat eyes after a six-month zinc penury diet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult Long Evans (LE rats were investigated. The control animals were fed with a normal alimentation whereas the zinc-deficiency rats (ZD-LE were fed with a zinc deficient diet for six months. Quantitative Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX microanalysis yielded the zinc mole fractions of melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. The lateral resolution of the analysis was 100 nm. The zinc mole fractions of melanosomes were significantly smaller in the RPE of ZD-LE rats as compared to the LE control rats. Light, fluorescence and electron microscopy, as well as immunohistochemistry were performed. The numbers of lipofuscin granules in the RPE and of infiltrated cells (Ø>3 µm found in the choroid were quantified. The number of lipofuscin granules significantly increased in ZD-LE as compared to control rats. Infiltrated cells bigger than 3 µm were only detected in the choroid of ZD-LE animals. Moreover, the thickness of the Bruch's membrane of ZD-LE rats varied between 0.4-3 µm and thin, rangy ED1 positive macrophages were found attached at these sites of Bruch's membrane or even inside it. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In pigmented rats, zinc deficiency yielded an accumulation of lipofuscin in the RPE and of large pigmented macrophages in the choroids as well as the appearance of thin, rangy macrophages at Bruch's membrane. Moreover, we showed that a zinc diet reduced the zinc mole fraction of melanosomes in the RPE and modulated the thickness of the Bruch's membrane.

  7. Iron and zinc concentrations and 59Fe retention in developing fetuses of zinc-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.M.; Loennerdal, B.H.; Hurley, L.S.; Keen, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Because disturbances in iron metabolism might contribute to the teratogenicity of zinc deficiency, we examined the effect of zinc deficiency on fetal iron accumulation and maternal and fetal retention of 59 Fe. Pregnant rats were fed from mating a purified diet containing 0.5, 4.5 or 100 micrograms Zn/g. Laparotomies were performed on d 12, 16, 19 and 21 of gestation. Maternal blood and concepti were analyzed for zinc and iron. Additional groups of dams fed 0.5 or 100 micrograms Zn/g diet were gavaged on d 19 with a diet containing 59 Fe. Six hours later maternal blood and tissues, fetuses and placentas were counted for 59 Fe. Maternal plasma zinc, but not iron, concentration was affected by zinc deficiency on d 12. Embryo zinc concentration on d 12 increased with increasing maternal dietary zinc, whereas iron concentration was not different among groups. On d 16-21 plasma iron was higher in dams fed 0.5 micrograms Zn/g diet than in those fed 4.5 or 100 micrograms/g, whereas plasma zinc was lower in dams fed 0.5 or 4.5 micrograms Zn/g than in those fed 100 micrograms Zn/g diet. On d 19 zinc concentration in fetuses from dams fed 0.5 micrograms/g zinc was not different from that of those fed 4.5 micrograms/g zinc, and iron concentration was higher in the 0.5 microgram Zn/g diet group. The increase in iron concentration in zinc-deficient fetuses thus occurs too late to be involved in major structural teratogenesis. Although whole blood concentration of 59 Fe was not different in zinc-deficient and control dams, zinc-deficient dams had more 59 Fe in the plasma fraction

  8. Developmental programming of vascular dysfunction by prenatal and postnatal zinc deficiency in male and female rats.

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    Mendes Garrido Abregú, Facundo; Gobetto, María Natalia; Juriol, Lorena Vanesa; Caniffi, Carolina; Elesgaray, Rosana; Tomat, Analía Lorena; Arranz, Cristina

    2018-06-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition during intrauterine and postnatal growth may program cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. We examined whether moderate zinc restriction in male and female rats throughout fetal life, lactation and/or postweaning growth induces alterations that can predispose to the onset of vascular dysfunction in adulthood. Female Wistar rats were fed low- or control zinc diets from pregnancy to offspring weaning. After weaning, offspring were fed either a low- or a control zinc diet until 81 days. We evaluated systolic blood pressure (SBP), thoracic aorta morphology, nitric oxide (NO) system and vascular reactivity in 6- and/or 81-day-old offspring. At day 6, zinc-deficient male and female offspring showed a decrease in aortic NO synthase (NOS) activity accompanied by an increase in oxidative stress. Zinc-deficient 81-day-old male rats exhibited an increase in collagen deposition in tunica media, as well as lower activity of endothelial NOS (eNOS) that could not be reversed with an adequate zinc diet during postweaning life. Zinc deficiency programmed a reduction in eNOS protein expression and higher SBP only in males. Adult zinc-deficient rats of both sexes showed reduced vasodilator response dependent on eNOS activity and impaired aortic vasoconstrictor response to angiotensin-II associated with alterations in intracellular calcium mobilization. Female rats were less sensitive to the effects of zinc deficiency and exhibited higher eNOS activity and/or expression than males, without alterations in SBP or aortic histology. This work strengthens the importance of a balanced intake of micronutrients during perinatal growth to ensure adequate vascular function in adult life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Zinc deficient diet consequences for pregnancy andoffsprings of Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Solé, Dirceu; Rieckmann, Brigitte; Lippelt, Raquel Mattos Costa; Lippelt, Ronaldo Tadeu Tucci; Amâncio, Olga Maria Silverio; Queiroz, Suzana de Souza; Naspitz, Charles Kirov

    1995-01-01

    Adult female Wistar rats (90 days old; weight 180 to 220 grams) were submitted to different zinc deficient diets (Zn; severe = 2.6 ppm; mild = 9.0 ppm and normal diet = 81.6 ppm), during 6 weeks. After this time they were coupled with normal male Wistar rats. No differences regarding fecundity and sterility were observed between the groups. During pregnancy, part of the animals from severe and mild Zn deficient groups received the same diet and the others received normal diet. The animals fro...

  10. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the accumulation of cadmium and metallothionein in selected tissues of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of continuous dietary zinc deficiency on the metabolism of the toxic heavy metal cadmium has not been widely studied. This investigation was designed to assess the effects of subadequate dietary zinc intake on the accumulation of dietary cadmium and on metallothionein (MT) and zinc concentrations in target organs of cadmium toxicity. Adult male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were allowed, ad libitum, diets either adequate (60 ppm) or deficient (7 ppm) in zinc for a total of 9 wk. The zinc-deficient diet resulted in an approximately 40% reduction in plasma zinc (assessed at 3, 6, and 9 wk) in the absence of overt signs of zinc deficiency (i.e., reduced weight gain, alopecia, etc.). Separate groups of rats were also maintained on zinc-defined diets for a total of 9 wk, but cadmium was added to the diet (0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 ppm) a the end of wk 3 and maintained at that level throughout the remaining 6 wk of the study, when the rats were killed. The feeding of the zinc-deficient diet markedly enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the liver, kidney, and testes. Hepatic, renal, and testicular zinc concentrations were not affected by suboptimal zinc intake alone. However, marked reductions in renal and testicular zinc concentrations were caused by zinc deficiency in concert with cadmium exposure. MT levels, when related to tissue cadmium concentrations, were elevated to a significantly lesser extent in the kidneys of zinc-deficient animals. These results indicate that marginal zinc deficiency markedly increases cadmium accumulation in various organs and reduces zinc content and MT induction in some organs.

  11. Tissue levels of iron, copper, zinc and magnesium in iron deficient rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of iron deficiency on the levels of iron, copper, zinc and magnesium in the brain, liver, kidney, heart and lungs of albino rats (Rattus novergicus) was investigated. Forty rats were divided into two groups and the first group was fed a control diet containing 1.09g iron/kg diet while the test group was fed diet ...

  12. Delayed plasma clearance and hepatic uptake of lymph chylomicron 14C-cholesterol in marginally zinc-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, S.I.; Algilani, K.; Norvell, J.E.; Henderson, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Previously, chylomicrons from marginally zinc-deficient rats were shown to be abnormally large, with markedly reduced levels of apoproteins C and E. In the present study, effects of such changes on the plasma clearance and hepatic uptake of chylomicron cholesterol were investigated in rats fed 3 ppm of zinc (ZD), as compared with those fed 30 ppm of zinc (CT). The rate of plasma clearance was determined by plasma 14C-radioactivity at different intervals after intravenous injection of lymph chylomicrons labeled in vivo with 14C-cholesterol. The 14C-clearance curves were nonlinear, consisting of an initial rapid phase followed by a slow phase of clearance. The initial 14C-clearance was significantly (p less than 0.05) delayed whether the labeled chylomicrons from ZD donors were injected into ZD or CT recipients. The hepatic 14C-recovery in extracted lipids was also significantly lower in ZD rats. The present data provide first evidence that a marginal level of zinc deficiency produces a significant delay in the plasma clearance and hepatic uptake of chylomicron cholesterol. This may be attributable in part to the molecular alterations of chylomicrons induced by zinc deficiency

  13. Early-in-life dietary zinc deficiency and supplementation and mammary tumor development in adulthood female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Flávia R M; Grassi, Tony F; Zapaterini, Joyce R; Bidinotto, Lucas T; Barbisan, Luis F

    2017-06-01

    Zinc deficiency during pregnancy and postnatal life can adversely increase risk of developing human diseases at adulthood. The present study was designed to evaluate whether dietary zinc deficiency or supplementation during the pregnancy, lactation and juvenile stages interferes in the development of mammary tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Pregnant female SD rats were allocated into three groups: zinc-adequate diet (ZnA - 35-mg/kg chow), zinc-deficient diet (ZnD - 3-mg/kg chow) or zinc-supplemented diet (ZnS - 180-mg/kg chow) during gestational day 10 (GD 10) until the litters' weaning. Female offspring received the same diets as their dams until postnatal day (PND) 51. At PND 51, the animals received a single dose of DMBA (50 mg/kg, ig) and zinc-adequate diets. At PND 180, female were euthanized, and tumor samples were processed for histological evaluation and gene expression microarray analysis. The ZnD induced a significant reduction in female offspring body weight evolution and in mammary gland development. At late in life, the ZnD or ZnS did not alter the latency, incidence, multiplicity, volume or histological types of mammary tumors in relation to the ZnA group. However, the total tumor number in ZnS group was higher than in ZnA group, accompanied by distinct expression of 4 genes up- and 15 genes down-regulated. The present findings indicate that early-in-life dietary zinc supplementation, differently to zinc deficiency, has a potential to modify the susceptibility to the development of mammary tumors induced by DMBA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular basis for the effects of zinc deficiency on spermatogenesis: An experimental study in the Sprague-dawley rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E Omu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of zinc deficiency on spermatogenesis in the Sprague-Dawley (SD rat. Materials and Methods: Three groups of eight adult male SD rats were maintained for 4 weeks on a normal diet as control, zinc deficient diet and zinc deficient diet with zinc supplementation of 28 mg zinc/kg body weight respectively. Using standard techniques, the following parameters were compared between the three groups of experimental animals at the end of 4 weeks: (a Serum zinc, magnesium (Mg, copper (Cu, selenium (Se and cadmium (Cd, (b serum sex hormones, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX, (c interleukin-4 (IL-4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 expression in the testes, (d assessment of apoptosis of testicular cells using electron microscopy and (e testicular volume and histology using the orchidometer and Johnsen score, respectively. Results: The zinc deficient group showed a reduction of testicular volume, serum concentrations of Zn, Cu, Se, Mg, SOD, GPX, IL-4, Bcl-2 and testosterone (P < 0.05, as well as increased levels of serum Cd, MDA and tissue TNF-α, Bax, caspase-3 and apoptosis of the germ cells (P < 0.05 compared with control and zinc supplementation groups. Conclusion: Zinc deficiency is associated with impaired spermatogenesis because of reduced testosterone production, increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. These findings suggest that zinc has a role in male reproduction.

  15. Dietary zinc deficiency effects dorso-lateral and ventral prostate of Wistar rats: histological, biochemical and trace element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sangeeta; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, R S

    2014-10-01

    Zinc deficiency has become a global problem affecting the developed and developing countries due to inhibitors in the diet which prevents its absorption or due to a very low concentration of bioavailable zinc in the diet. Being present in high concentration in the prostate and having diverse biological function, we investigated the effects of dietary zinc deficiency for 2 and 4 weeks on dorso-lateral and ventral prostate. Sixty prepubertal rats were divided into three groups: zinc control (ZC), pair fed (PF) and zinc deficient (ZD) and fed on 100 μg/g (zinc control and pair fed groups) and 1 μg/g (zinc deficient) diet. Zinc deficiency was associated with degenerative changes in dorso-lateral and ventral prostate as made evident by karyolysis, karyorhexis, cytoplasmolysis, loss of cellularisation, decreased intraluminar secretion and degeneration of fibromuscular stroma. In response, protein carbonyl, nitric oxide, acid phosphatase, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase increased, exhibiting variable level of significance. Total protein and total zinc concentration in dorso-lateral and ventral prostate as well as in serum decreased (P dorso-lateral and ventral prostate after dietary zinc deficiency as well as impairment of metabolic and secretory activity, reduced gonadotropin levels by hypothalamus -hypophysial system which is indicative of a critical role of zinc in maintaining the prostate integrity.

  16. The effect of severe zinc deficiency and zinc supplement on spatial learning and memory.

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    Tahmasebi Boroujeni, S; Naghdi, N; Shahbazi, M; Farrokhi, A; Bagherzadeh, F; Kazemnejad, A; Javadian, M

    2009-07-01

    Zinc deficiency during pregnancy and during lactation has been shown to impair cognitive function and motor activity in offspring rats. In the present study, the effect of zinc deficiency and zinc supplement on spatial learning and memory in Morris Water Maze (MWM) and motor activity in open field were investigated. Pregnant rats after mating were divided to three groups. Control group fed a standard diet and a zinc deficient (ZnD) group fed a diet deficient in zinc (0.5-1.5 ppm) and a zinc supplement (ZnS) group fed a standard diet and enhanced zinc in the drinking water (10 ppm). All the diets were exposed during the last trisemester of pregnancy and during lactation. Rat's offspring in these groups were tested for spatial learning and memory in MWM at post natal day (PND) 56 and were tested for motor activity in open field at PND 66.The Escape Latency (EL) and Traveled Distance (TD) in the ZnD group were increased but Percentage of Time Spent in the target quadrant (PTS) was decreased compared to the control group. In addition, these were no significant differences in EL and TD, but PTS had significant increase in ZnS compared to the control group. In the open field, Total Distance Moved (TDM) and Time of Motor Activity (TMA) for the ZnD were decreased compared to the control group, but there were no significant differences in TDM and TMA between control and ZnS groups. These findings suggest that zinc deficiency during the last trimester of pregnancy and during lactation impaired spatial learning and memory in their offsprings and has also negative effect on motor activity. In addition, ZnS has a significant effect on spatial learning and memory but no effect on motor activity in their offsprings.

  17. The cognitive impairment induced by zinc deficiency in rats aged 0∼2 months related to BDNF DNA methylation changes in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan-Dan; Pang, Wei; He, Cong-Cong; Lu, Hao; Liu, Wei; Wang, Zi-Yu; Liu, Yan-Qiang; Huang, Cheng-Yu; Jiang, Yu-Gang

    2017-11-01

    This study was carried out to understand the effects of zinc deficiency in rats aged 0∼2 months on learning and memory, and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene methylation status in the hippocampus. The lactating mother rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 12): zinc-adequate group (ZA: zinc 30 mg/kg diet), zinc-deprived group (ZD: zinc 1 mg/kg diet), and a pair-fed group (PF: zinc 30 mg/kg diet), in which the rats were pair-fed to those in the ZD group. After weaning (on day 23), offspring were fed the same diets as their mothers. After 37 days, the zinc concentrations in the plasma and hippocampus were measured, and the behavioral function of the offspring rats was measured using the passive avoidance performance test. We then assessed the DNA methylation patterns of the exon IX of BDNF by methylation-specific quantitative real-time PCR and the mRNA expression of BDNF in the hippocampus by RT-PCR. Compared with the ZA and PF groups, rats in the ZD group had shorter latency period, lower zinc concentrations in the plasma and hippocampus (P zinc-deficient diet during 0∼2 month period. Furthermore, this work supports the speculative notion that altered DNA methylation of BDNF in the hippocampus is one of the main causes of cognitive impairment by zinc deficiency.

  18. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Zinc or copper deficiency-induced impaired inflammatory response to brain trauma may be caused by the concomitant metallothionein changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Giralt, M.; Thomsen, Pernille Sjølin

    2001-01-01

    , and this response was significantly blunted by zinc deficiency. The MT-III isoform was moderately increased by both TBI and zinc deficiency. TBI strongly increased oxidative stress levels, as demonstrated by malondialdehyde (MDA), protein tyrosine nitration (NITT), and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) levels irs......, all of which were potentiated by zinc deficiency. Further analysis revealed unbalanced expression of prooxidant and antioxidant proteins besides MT, since the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and Cu,Zn-SOD were increased and decreased, respectively, by zinc deficiency. All......The role of zinc- and copper-deficient diets on the inflammatory response to traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been evaluated in adult rats. As expected, zinc deficiency decreased food intake and body weight gain, and the latter effect was higher than that observed in pair-fed rats. In noninjured...

  20. Prevention of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in zinc-deficient rodents: Inefficacy of genetic or pharmacological disruption of COX-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Louise Y.Y.; Jiang, Yubao; Riley, Maurisa; Liu, Xianglan; Smalley, Karl J.; Guttridge, Denis C.; Farber, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Zinc deficiency in humans is associated with an increased risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer. In rodents, zinc deficiency predisposes to carcinogenesis by causing proliferation and alterations in gene expression. We examined whether in zinc-deficient rodents, targeted disruption of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 pathway by the COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib or by genetic deletion prevent UADT carcinogenesis. Tongue cancer prevention studies were conducted in zinc-deficient rats previously exposed to a tongue carcinogen by celecoxib treatment with or without zinc replenishment, or by zinc replenishment alone. The ability of genetic COX-2 deletion to protect against chemically-induced for-estomach tumorigenesis was examined in mice on zinc-deficient versus zinc-sufficient diet. The expression of 3 predictive bio-markers COX-2, nuclear factor (NF)-κ B p65 and leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) was examined by immunohistochemistry. In zinc-deficient rats, celecoxib without zinc replenishment reduced lingual tumor multiplicity but not progression to malignancy. Celecoxib with zinc replenishment or zinc replenishment alone significantly lowered lingual squamous cell carcinoma incidence, as well as tumor multiplicity. Celecoxib alone reduced overexpression of the 3 biomarkers in tumors slightly, compared with intervention with zinc replenishment. Instead of being protected, zinc-deficient COX-2 null mice developed significantly greater tumor multiplicity and forestomach carcinoma incidence than wild-type controls. Additionally, zinc-deficient COX-2−/− forestomachs displayed strong LTA4H immunostaining, indicating activation of an alter-native pathway under zinc deficiency when the COX-2 pathway is blocked. Thus, targeting only the COX-2 pathway in zinc-deficient animals did not prevent UADT carcinogenesis. Our data suggest zinc supplementation should be more thoroughly explored in human prevention clinical trials for UADT cancer. PMID:17985342

  1. Enhancement of hippocampal mossy fiber activity in zinc deficiency and its influence on behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Itoh, Hiromasa; Yamada, Kohei; Tamano, Haruna; Oku, Naoto

    2008-10-01

    The extracellular concentration of glutamate in the hippocampus is increased by hippocampal perfusion with CaEDTA, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator, suggesting that the activity of glutamatergic neurons in the hippocampus are influenced by the extracellular concentrations of zinc. In the present study, the relationship between the extracellular concentrations of zinc and mossy fiber activity in the hippocampus was examined in mice and rats fed a zinc-deficient diet for 4 weeks. Timm's stain, by which histochemically reactive zinc in the presynaptic vesicles is detected, was attenuated in the hippocampus in zinc deficiency. The extracellular signal of ZnAF-2, a membrane-impermeable zinc indicator, was also lower in the hippocampal CA3, suggesting that the basal extracellular concentrations of zinc are lower maintained in zinc deficiency. To check mossy fiber activity after 4-week zinc deprivation, the decrease in the signal of FM4-64, an indicator of presynaptic activity (exocytosis), at mossy fiber synapses was measured under the condition of spontaneous depolarization. The decrease was significantly facilitated by zinc deficiency, suggesting that the basal exocytosis at mossy fiber synapses is enhanced by zinc deficiency. On the other hand, the increase in anxiety-like behavior was observed in the open-field test after 4-week zinc deprivation. The present study demonstrates that the decrease in the basal extracellular concentrations of zinc may be linked to the enhancement of the basal mossy fiber activity in zinc deficiency. This decrease seems to be also involved in neuropsychological behavior in zinc deficiency.

  2. Carbohydrate metabolism in erythrocytes of copper deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S P J; Cockell, K A; Dawson, B A; Ratnayake, W M N; Lampi, B J; Belonje, B; Black, D B; Plouffe, L J

    2003-11-01

    Dietary copper deficiency is known to adversely affect the circulatory system of fructose-fed rats. Part of the problem may lie in the effect of copper deficiency on intermediary metabolism. To test this, weanling male Long-Evans rats were fed for 4 or 8 weeks on sucrose-based diets containing low or adequate copper content. Copper deficient rats had significantly lower plasma and tissue copper as well as lower plasma copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase activity. Copper deficient rats also had a significantly higher heart:body weight ratio when compared to pair-fed controls. Direct measurement of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway flux in erythrocytes using (13)C NMR showed no differences in carbon flux from glucose or fructose to pyruvate but a significantly higher flux through the lactate dehydrogenase locus in copper deficient rats (approximately 1.3 times, average of glucose and glucose + fructose measurements). Copper-deficient animals had significantly higher erythrocyte concentrations of glucose, fructose, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and NAD(+). Liver metabolite levels were also affected by copper deficiency being elevated in glycogen and fructose 1-phosphate content. The results show small changes in carbohydrate metabolism of copper deficient rats.

  3. Zinc Deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cediel, Gustavo; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Cori, Héctor; López de Romaña, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Zinc deficiency affects multiple vital functions in the life cycle, especially growth. Limited information is available on the magnitude of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean. To examine the latest available information on both the prevalence of zinc deficiency and the risk of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was identified through a systematic review looking for the latest available data on serum zinc concentrations from surveys or studies with national representativeness conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. The risk of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean was estimated based on dietary zinc inadequacy (according to the 2011 National Food Balance Sheets) and stunting in children under 5 years of age. Only four countries had available national biochemical data. Mexican, Colombian, Ecuadorian, and Guatemalan children under 6 years of age and women 12 to 49 years of age had a high prevalence of zinc deficiency (19.1% to 56.3%). The countries with the highest risk of zinc deficiency (estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake > 25% plus prevalence of stunting > 20%) were Belize, Bolivia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Zinc dietary inadequacy was directly correlated with stunting (r = 0.64, p zinc deficiency in children under 6 years of age and women 12 to 49 years of age. High rates of both estimated zinc dietary inadequacy and stunting were also reported in most Latin America and Caribbean countries.

  4. Symptomatic zinc deficiency in experimental zinc deprivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, C M; Goode, H F; Aggett, P J; Bremner, I; Walker, B E; Kelleher, J

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of indices of poor zinc status was undertaken in five male subjects in whom dietary zinc intake was reduced from 85 mumol d-1 in an initial phase of the study to 14 mumol d-1. One of the subjects developed features consistent with zinc deficiency after receiving the low zinc diet for 12 days. These features included retroauricular acneform macullo-papular lesions on the face, neck, and shoulders and reductions in plasma zinc, red blood cell zinc, neutrophil zinc and plasma alkal...

  5. Behavioral impairments in animal models for zinc deficiency

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    Simone eHagmeyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from teratogenic and pathological effects of zinc deficiency such as the occurrence of skin lesions, anorexia, growth retardation, depressed wound healing, altered immune function, impaired night vision, and alterations in taste and smell acuity, characteristic behavioral changes in animal models and human patients suffering from zinc deficiency have been observed. Given that it is estimated that about 17% of the worldwide population are at risk for zinc deficiency and that zinc deficiency is associated with a variety of brain disorders and disease states in humans, it is of major interest to investigate, how these behavioral changes will affect the individual and a putative course of a disease. Thus, here, we provide a state of the art overview about the behavioral phenotypes observed in various models of zinc deficiency, among them environmentally produced zinc deficient animals as well as animal models based on a genetic alteration of a particular zinc homeostasis gene. Finally, we compare the behavioral phenotypes to the human condition of mild to severe zinc deficiency and provide a model, how zinc deficiency that is associated with many neurodegenerative and neuropsychological disorders might modify the disease pathologies.

  6. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

    OpenAIRE

    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in ...

  7. Zinc deficiency among a healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Timimi, D.; Al-Najjar, F.; Al-Sharbatti, Shatha S.

    2005-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency and the current zinc status among a sample selected from the healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq. We carried out a community-based study in Baghdad City, Iraq from November through June 2002. We selected a sample of 2090 healthy subjects (aged 1 month to 85 years). We used a pre-tested questionnaire, designed to obtain information on gender, birth dates, height, weight, residence, habitual food consumption patterns, and social status. We performed laboratory assessment of serum zinc level, dietary assessment of food frequency and usual zinc intake. We considered subjects with serum zinc concentration of /-7.7 to 12.3 umol/l mild to moderately zinc deficient. The prevalence of zinc deficiency among the studied sample was 2.7%. We found mild to moderate zinc deficiency among 55.7% of the study sample. Dietary zinc intake assessment showed that 74.8% of the studied sample consumed less than the recommended intake, and in 62.3%, the intakes were deficient and grossly deficient. Mean daily zinc ranged from 5.2 mg in children to 8.5 mg in adults. We observed a high prevalence of mild to moderate zinc deficiency, with inadequate dietary zinc intake among a considerable proportion of the studied sample. Zinc supplementation may be an effective public health intervention means to improve the zinc status of the population. (author)

  8. Zinc deficiency in the pediatric age group is common but underevaluated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuralli, Dogus; Tumer, Leyla; Hasanoglu, Alev

    2017-08-01

    Subclinical micronutrient deficiencies have been gradually becoming more important as a public health problem and drawing attention of the health authorities. Today it has been known that detecting and treating people having deficiency symptoms alone is no longer sufficient. It is important to detect and prevent any deficiency before it displays clinical manifestations. Zinc deficiency is one of the most widespread micronutrient deficiencies. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the zinc status and the associated factors in healthy school-age children. The study was carried out in schools in Altindag, the district of Ankara. A total of 1063 healthy children, 585 girls and 478 boys, aged 5-16 years were included in the study. Serum zinc, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels and white blood cell count were measured. A serum zinc level zinc deficiency for children zinc concentration were set at 66 μg/dL for females and 70 μg/dL for males. A questionnaire was developed to collect socioeconomic and demographic information of the participants. The prevalence of subclinical zinc deficiency in children attending the study was detected to be 27.8%. This high ratio showed zinc deficiency was an important health problem in the Altindag district of Ankara, Turkey. Evaluating the indicators of zinc deficiency such as serum zinc concentration, dietary zinc intake and stunting prevalence, this study is the most comprehensive epidemiological study performed in children in Turkey. This study reveals the high prevalence of subclinical zinc deficiency and indicates that zinc deficiency is a public health concern for the study population.

  9. Influence of zinc deficiency on cell-membrane fluidity in Jurkat, 3T3 and IMR-32 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Sandra V; Zago, M Paola; MacKenzie, Gerardo G; Keen, Carl L; Oteiza, Patricia I

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether zinc deficiency can affect plasma membrane rheology. Three cell lines, human leukaemia T-cells (Jurkat), rat fibroblasts (3T3) and human neuroblastoma cells (IMR-32), were cultured for 48 h in control medium, in zinc-deficient medium (1.5 microM zinc; 1.5 Zn), or in the zinc-deficient medium supplemented with 15 microM zinc (15 Zn). The number of viable cells was lower in the 1.5 Zn group than in the control and 15 Zn groups. The frequency of apoptosis was higher in the 1.5 Zn group than in the control and 15 Zn groups. Membrane fluidity was evaluated using the 6-(9-anthroyloxy)stearic acid and 16-(9-anthroyloxy)palmitic acid probes. Membrane fluidity was higher in 1.5 Zn cells than in the control cells; no differences were observed between control cells and 15 Zn cells. The effect of zinc deficiency on membrane fluidity at the water/lipid interface was associated with a higher phosphatidylserine externalization. The higher membrane fluidity in the hydrophobic region of the bilayer was correlated with a lower content of arachidonic acid. We suggest that the increased fluidity of the membrane secondary to zinc deficiency is in part due to a decrease in arachidonic acid content and the apoptosis-related changes in phosphatidylserine distribution. PMID:14629198

  10. Influence of zinc on growth, somatomedin, and glycosaminoglycan metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolze, M.S.; Reeves, R.D.; Lindbeck, F.E.; Elders, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Weanling male rats were fed control ad libitum, zinc-deficient (ZD, 1 ppm zinc) or pair-fed (PF) control diets for 13 days. Rats subsequently were refed control diets for up to 8 days and serially killed. ZD and PF diets significantly decreased growth rate, feed intake, and feed efficiency compared to controls. Body weight and feed efficiency, but not feed intake, were significantly less in ZD compared to PF. Bone zinc was 315, 286, and 109 μg/g for control, PF, and ZD at the end of depletion. 35 SO 4 uptake by glycosaminoglycans (GAG) was significantly less in ZD compared to either control ad libitum or PF rats. Xylosyltransferase activity was decreased significantly below PF and control by ZD, suggesting depressed enzyme activity and/or decreased GAG acceptor sites. Bioassayable somatomedin (Sm) activity was 0.81, 0.42 and 0.33 +/- 0.09 relative activity for control, PF and ZD at the end of depletion. Sm was statistically less in ZD compared to PF at day 2 and 5 of refeeding, but not at the end of depletion. Sm activity and GAG metabolism returned to normal after refeeding for 2-5 days in PF and for 5-8 days in ZD rats. Serum insulin but not glucose was significantly depressed by ZD and PF diets. Thus, zinc deficiency depressed growth and cartilage metabolism and was associated with decreased Sm activity and insulin levels. Some of these changes could be attributed to decreased feed intake as a result of ZD

  11. Zinc deficiency is common in several psychiatric disorders.

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    Ole Grønli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests a link between low zinc levels and depression. There is, however, little knowledge about zinc levels in older persons with other psychiatric diagnoses. Therefore, we explore the zinc status of elderly patients suffering from a wide range of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Clinical data and blood samples for zinc analyzes were collected from 100 psychogeriatric patients over 64 of age. Psychiatric and cognitive symptoms were assessed using the Montgomery and Aasberg Depression Rating Scale, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Clockdrawing Test, clinical interviews and a review of medical records. In addition, a diagnostic interview was conducted using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview instrument. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in patients with depression was compared with the prevalence in patients without depression, and the prevalence in a control group of 882 older persons sampled from a population study. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in zinc deficiency prevalence between the control group (14.4% and the patient group (41.0% (χ(2 = 44.81, df = 1, p<0.001. In a logistic model with relevant predictors, zinc deficiency was positively associated with gender and with serum albumin level. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in the patient group was significantly higher in patients without depression (i.e. with other diagnoses than in patients with depression as a main diagnosis or comorbid depression (χ(2 = 4.36, df = 1, p = 0.037. CONCLUSIONS: Zinc deficiency is quite common among psychogeriatric patients and appears to be even more prominent in patients suffering from other psychiatric disorders than depression. LIMITATIONS: This study does not provide a clear answer as to whether the observed differences represent a causal relationship between zinc deficiency and psychiatric symptoms. The blood sample collection time points

  12. Clinical Aspects of Trace Elements: Zinc in Human Nutrition – Zinc Deficiency and Toxicity

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    Michelle M Pluhator

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Available evidence suggests that trace elements, such as zinc, once thought to have no nutritional relevance, are possibly deficient in large sections of the human population. Conditioned deficiencies have been reported to result from malabsorption syndromes, acrodermatitis enteropathica, alcoholism, gastrointestinal disease, thermal injury, chronic diseases (eg, diabetes, sickle cell anemia, and in total parenteral nutrition therapy. Awareness that patients with these problems are at risk has led health professionals to focus increasingly on the importance of zinc therapy in the prevention and treatment of deficiency. More recently zinc toxicity and its role in human nutrition and well-being have come under investigation. Reports have focused on the role of zinc toxicity in causes of copper deficiency, changes in the immune system and alterations in blood lipids. As the numerous challenges presented by the study of zinc in human nutrition are met, more appropriate recommendations for dietary and therapeutic zinc intake are being made.

  13. Effect of consuming zinc-fortified bread on serum zinc and iron status of zinc-deficient women: A double blind, randomized clinical trial

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    Akbar Badii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fortification. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of consuming zinc-fortified breads on the zinc and iron status in the blood serum. In this study, three types of bread were prepared from non-fortified and fortified flours, with 50 and 100 ppm elemental zinc in the form of sulfate. Eighty zinc-deficient women aged 19 to 49 years were randomly assigned to three groups; The volunteers received, daily, (1 a non-fortified bread, (2 a high-zinc bread, and (3 a low-zinc bread for one month. Serum zinc and iron were measured by Atomic Absorption before and after the study. Results showed a significant increase in serum zinc and iron levels in all groups (p 0.05. Absorption of zinc and iron in the group that consumed high-zinc bread was significantly greater than that in the group that received low-zinc bread (p < 0.01. It was concluded that fortification of flour with 50-100 ppm zinc was an effective way to achieve adequate zinc intake and absorption in zinc-deficient people. It also appeared that consuming zinc-fortified bread improved iron absorption.

  14. Effect of Consuming Zinc-fortified Bread on Serum Zinc and Iron Status of Zinc-deficient Women: A Double Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badii, Akbar; Nekouei, Niloufar; Fazilati, Mohammad; Shahedi, Mohammad; Badiei, Sajad

    2012-03-01

    After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fortification. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of consuming zinc-fortified breads on the zinc and iron status in the blood serum. In this study, three types of bread were prepared from non-fortified and fortified flours, with 50 and 100 ppm elemental zinc in the form of sulfate. Eighty zinc-deficient women aged 19 to 49 years were randomly assigned to three groups; The volunteers received, daily, (1) a non-fortified bread, (2) a high-zinc bread, and (3) a low-zinc bread for one month. Serum zinc and iron were measured by Atomic Absorption before and after the study. Results showed a significant increase in serum zinc and iron levels in all groups (p 0.05). Absorption of zinc and iron in the group that consumed high-zinc bread was significantly greater than that in the group that received low-zinc bread (p bread improved iron absorption.

  15. Combinatorial effects of zinc deficiency and arsenic exposure on zebrafish (Danio rerio development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Beaver

    Full Text Available Zinc deficiency and chronic low level exposures to inorganic arsenic in drinking water are both significant public health concerns that affect millions of people including pregnant women. These two conditions can co-exist in the human population but little is known about their interaction, and in particular, whether zinc deficiency sensitizes individuals to arsenic exposure and toxicity, especially during critical windows of development. To address this, we utilized the Danio rerio (zebrafish model to test the hypothesis that parental zinc deficiency sensitizes the developing embryo to low-concentration arsenic toxicity, leading to altered developmental outcomes. Adult zebrafish were fed defined zinc deficient and zinc adequate diets and were spawned resulting in zinc adequate and zinc deficient embryos. The embryos were treated with environmentally relevant concentrations of 0, 50, and 500 ppb arsenic. Arsenic exposure significantly reduced the amount of zinc in the developing embryo by ~7%. The combination of zinc deficiency and low-level arsenic exposures did not sensitize the developing embryo to increased developmental malformations or mortality. The combination did cause a 40% decline in physical activity of the embryos, and this decline was significantly greater than what was observed with zinc deficiency or arsenic exposure alone. Significant changes in RNA expression of genes that regulate zinc homeostasis, response to oxidative stress and insulin production (including zip1, znt7, nrf2, ogg1, pax4, and insa were found in zinc deficient, or zinc deficiency and arsenic exposed embryos. Overall, the data suggests that the combination of zinc deficiency and arsenic exposure has harmful effects on the developing embryo and may increase the risk for developing chronic diseases like diabetes.

  16. Bioavailability of Zinc in Wistar Rats Fed with Rice Fortified with Zinc Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Santos, Laura Luiza Menezes; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina da Cruz; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina da Cruz; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2014-01-01

    The study of zinc bioavailability in foods is important because this mineral intake does not meet the recommended doses for some population groups. Also, the presence of dietary factors that reduce zinc absorption contributes to its deficiency. Rice fortified with micronutrients (Ultra Rice®) is a viable alternative for fortification since this cereal is already inserted into the population habit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in rice fortified with zinc oxide. During 42 days, rats were divided into four groups and fed with diets containing two different sources of Zn (test diet: UR® fortified with zinc oxide, or control diet: zinc carbonate (ZnCO3)), supplying 50% or 100%, respectively, of the recommendations of this mineral for animals. Weight gain, food intake, feed efficiency ratio, weight, thickness and length of femur; retention of zinc, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the femur and the concentrations of Zn in femur, plasma and erythrocytes were evaluated. Control diet showed higher weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, retention of Zn and Zn concentration in the femur (p 0.05) for dietary intake, length and thickness of the femur, erythrocyte and plasmatic Zn between groups. Although rice fortified with zinc oxide showed a lower bioavailability compared to ZnCO3, this food can be a viable alternative to be used as a vehicle for fortification. PMID:24932657

  17. Zinc Deficiency-Like Syndrome in Fleckvieh Calves: Clinical and Pathological Findings and Differentiation from Bovine Hereditary Zinc Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenmayer, M C; Jung, S; Majzoub-Altweck, M; Trefz, F M; Seifert, C; Knubben-Schweizer, G; Fries, R; Hermanns, W; Gollnick, N S

    2018-03-01

    Zinc deficiency-like (ZDL) syndrome is an inherited defect of Fleckvieh calves, with striking similarity to bovine hereditary zinc deficiency (BHZD). However, the causative mutation in a phospholipase D4 encoding gene (PLD4) shows no connection to zinc metabolism. To describe clinical signs, laboratory variables, and pathological findings of ZDL syndrome and their utility to differentiate ZDL from BHZD and infectious diseases with similar phenotype. Nine hospitalized calves with crusting dermatitis and confirmed mutation in PLD4 and medical records from 25 calves with crusting dermatitis or suspected zinc deficiency. Prospective and retrospective case series. The 9 calves (age: 5-53 weeks) displayed a moderate to severe crusting dermatitis mainly on the head, ventrum, and joints. Respiratory and digestive tract inflammations were frequently observed. Zinc supplementation did not lead to remission of clinical signs in 4 calves. Laboratory variables revealed slight anemia in 8 calves, hypoalbuminemia in 6 calves, but reduced serum zinc concentrations in only 3 calves. Mucosal erosions/ulcerations were present in 7 calves and thymus atrophy or reduced thymic weights in 8 calves. Histologically, skin lesions were indistinguishable from BHZD. Retrospective analysis of medical records revealed the presence of this phenotype since 1988 and pedigree analysis revealed a common ancestor of several affected calves. ZDL syndrome should be suspected in Fleckvieh calves with crusting dermatitis together with diarrhea or respiratory tract inflammations without response to oral zinc supplementation. Definite diagnosis requires molecular genetic confirmation of the PLD4 mutation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Marginal zinc deficiency in pregnant rats impairs bone matrix formation and bone mineralization in their neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Masashi; Kayanoma, Megumu; Takahashi, Takeshi; Kaneko, Tetsuo; Hara, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency during pregnancy may result in a variety of defects in the offspring. We evaluated the influence of marginal Zn deficiency during pregnancy on neonatal bone status. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups and fed AIN-93G-based experimental diets containing 35 mg Zn/kg (Zn adequately supplied, N) or 7 mg Zn/kg (low level of Zn, L) from 14-day preconception to 20 days of gestation, that is, 1 day before normal delivery. Neonates were delivered by cesarean section. Litter size and neonate weight were not different between the two groups. However, in the L-diet-fed dam group, bone matrix formation in isolated neonatal calvaria culture was clearly impaired and was not recovered by the addition of Zn into the culture media. Additionally, serum concentration of osteocalcin, as a bone formation parameter, was lower in neonates from the L-diet-fed dam group. Impaired bone mineralization was observed with a significantly lower content of phosphorus in neonate femurs from L-diet-fed dams compared with those from N-diet-fed dams. Moreover, Zn content in the femur and calvaria of neonates from the L-diet group was lower than that of the N-diet-fed group. In the marginally Zn-deficient dams, femoral Zn content, serum concentrations of Zn, and osteocalcin were reduced when compared with control dams. We conclude that maternal Zn deficiency causes impairment of bone matrix formation and bone mineralization in neonates, implying the importance of Zn intake during pregnancy for proper bone development of offspring.

  19. Intestinal absorption and excretion of zinc in streptozotocin-diabetic rats as affected by dietary zinc and protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.T.; Canfield, W.K.

    1985-01-01

    65 Zn was used to examine the effects of dietary zinc and protein on true zinc absorption and intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc by an isotope dilution technique in streptozotocin-diabetic and control rats. Four groups each of diabetic and control rats were fed diets containing 20 ppm Zn, 20% egg white protein (HMHP); 20 ppm Zn, 10% egg white protein (HMLP); 10 ppm Zn, 20% egg white protein (LMHP); and 10 ppm Zn, 10% egg white protein (LMLP). Measurement of zinc balance was begun 9 d after an i.m. injection of 65 Zn. True zinc absorption and the contribution of endogenous zinc to fecal zinc excretion were calculated from the isotopically labeled and unlabeled zinc in the feces, duodenum and kidney. Results from the isotope dilution study indicated that diabetic rats, but not control rats, absorbed more zinc from 20 ppm zinc diets than from 10ppm zinc diets and that all rats absorbed more zinc from 20% protein diets than from 10% protein diets. Furthermore, all rats excreted more endogenous zinc from their intestines when dietary zinc and protein levels resulted in greater zinc absorption. In diabetic and control rats, consuming equivalent amounts of zinc, the amount of zinc absorbed was not significantly different, but the amount of zinc excreted by the intestine was less in the diabetic rats. Decreased intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc may be a homeostatic response to the increased urinary excretion of endogenous zinc in the diabetic rats and may also lead to the elevated zinc concentrations observed in some organs of the diabetic rats

  20. The co-occurrence of zinc deficiency and social isolation has the opposite effects on mood compared with either condition alone due to changes in the central norepinephrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuya, Hironori; Omata, Naoto; Kiyono, Yasushi; Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Murata, Tetsuhito; Mita, Kayo; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Wada, Yuji

    2015-05-01

    Nutritional and social environmental problems during the early stages of life are closely associated with the pathophysiology of mood disorders such as depression. Disruption or dysfunction of the central norepinephrine (NE) system is also considered to play a role in mood disorders. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of zinc deficiency and/or social isolation on mood and changes in the central NE system using rats. Compared with the controls, the rats subjected to zinc deficiency or social isolation alone exhibited increased anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze and greater depression-like behavior in the forced swim test. However, the co-occurrence of zinc deficiency and social isolation resulted in decreased anxiety-related behavior and control levels of depression-like behavior. Social isolation alone decreased the rats' cerebral NE concentrations. The expression of the NE transporter was not affected by social isolation alone, but its expression in the locus coeruleus was markedly decreased by the co-occurrence of social isolation and zinc deficiency, and this change was accompanied by an increase in the blood concentration of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, which is a marker of central NE system activity. These findings suggest that zinc deficiency or social isolation alone induce anxious or depressive symptoms, but the presence of both conditions has anxiolytic or antidepressive effects. Furthermore, these opposing effects of mood-related behaviors were found to be associated with changes in the central NE system. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of zinc deficiency-induced changes in the phospholipid-protein balance of blood serum in animal depression model by Raman, FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depciuch, J; Sowa-Kućma, M; Nowak, G; Szewczyk, B; Doboszewska, U; Parlinska-Wojtan, M

    2017-05-01

    Depression is a serious mental illness. To study the mechanisms of diseases and search for new, more effective therapies, animal models are used. Unfortunately, none of the available models does reflect all symptoms of depression. Zinc deficiency is proposed as a new animal model of depression. However, it has not been yet validated in a detailed manner. Recently, spectroscopic techniques are increasingly being used both in clinical and preclinical studies. Here we examined the effect of zinc deficiency and amitryptyline treatment on the phospholipid - protein balance in the blood serum of rats using Raman, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and UV-vis technique. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed with a zinc ample diet (ZnA, 50mg Zn/kg) or a zinc deficient diet (ZnD, 3mg Zn/kg) for 4 weeks. Then amitriptyline administration (AMI, 10mg/kg, i.p.) was started. After injecting the drug for 2-weeks, blood samples were collected and analyzed. It was found that zinc deficiency decreases both the level of phospholipids and proteins and also causes structural changes in their structures. In the ZnD group amitriptyline treatment influenced the protein level and structure. UV-vis spectroscopy combined with the second derivative calculated from the FTIR spectra provided information that the proteins in blood serum of rat fed with a low Zn diet regain their intact structure after amitriptyline medication. Simultaneously, the antidepressant therapy did not have any effect on the level of phospholipids in this group of rats. Additionally, our results show, that amitriptyline administration can change the structure of phospholipids in rats subjected to zinc ample diet. This altered structure of phospholipids was identified as shortening of carbon chains. Our findings indicate that the decreased level of zinc may be the cause of depressive disorders, as it leads to changes in the phospholipid-protein balance necessary for the proper functioning of the body. This study also shows

  2. [Advances in the research of zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation treatment in patients with severe burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X X; Zhang, M J; Li, X B

    2018-01-20

    Zinc is one of the essential trace elements in human body, which plays an important role in regulating acute inflammatory response, glucose metabolism, anti-oxidation, immune and gastrointestinal function of patients with severe burns. Patients with severe burns may suffer from zinc deficiency because of insufficient amount of zinc intake from the diet and a large amount of zinc lose through wounds and urine. Zinc deficiency may affect their wound healing process and prognosis. This article reviews the characteristics of zinc metabolism in patients with severe burns through dynamic monitoring the plasma and urinary concentration of zinc. An adequate dosage of zinc supplemented to patients with severe burns by an appropriate method can increase the level of zinc in plasma and skin tissue and improve wound healing, as well as reduce the infection rates and mortality. At the same time, it is important to observe the symptoms and signs of nausea, dizziness, leukopenia and arrhythmia in patients with severe burns after supplementing excessive zinc.

  3. Nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Marília Gomes Dantas Lopes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required for numerous metabolic functions, and zinc deficiency results in growth retardation, cell-mediated immune dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. Objective: This study evaluated nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children. Design: We performed a randomised, controlled, triple-blind study. The children were divided into a control group (10% sorbitol, n=31 and an experimental group (10 mg Zn/day, n=31 for 3 months. Anthropometric and dietary assessments as well as bioelectrical measurements were performed in all children. Results: Our study showed (1 an increased body mass index for age and an increased phase angle in the experimental group; (2 a positive correlation between nutritional assessment parameters in both groups; (3 increased soft tissue, and mainly fat-free mass, in the body composition of the experimental group, as determined using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis; (4 increased consumption of all nutrients, including zinc, in the experimental group; and (5 an increased serum zinc concentration in both groups (p<0.0001. Conclusions: Given that a reference for body composition analysis does not exist for intervention studies, longitudinal studies are needed to investigate vector migration during zinc supplementation. These results reinforce the importance of employing multiple techniques to assess the nutritional status of populations.

  4. ZINC-INDUCED HYPERLEPTINEMIA IN RATS RELATED TO THE AMELIORATION OF SUCROSE-INDUCED OBESITY WITH ZINC REPLETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEIBASHY, M.I.; EL-NAHLA, A.M.; ASHOUR, I.; SALEH, SH.Y.A.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty adult albino rats (Rattus rattus) at 6 weeks of age were divided into three groups (ten for each). The first group was fed a standard laboratory diet for 8 weeks (control). The second group was made obese by giving them 32% sucrose solution in addition to the standard laboratory diet .The third group was received zinc supplementation (50 mg zinc acetate/ litre) with their sucrose solution. Body weight of all rats was measured weekly for 8 weeks. At 14 weeks of age, rats were killed and fasting blood samples were obtained. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α and zinc were measured.Results showed remarkable changes in body weights in sucrose fed rats only when compared to control and supplemented zinc rats group. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased in sucrose fed rats than both control and sucrose with zinc group. Serum leptin showed significant increase in sucrose fed rats than control and also showed higher significant value in sucrose fed rats supplemented with zinc comparing with sucrose fed rats and control ones. Tumour necrosis factor-? did not show any significant difference between all groups. Serum zinc concentration was decreased significantly in sucrose fed rats as compared to control. On the other hand, it was increased significantly in sucrose fed rats supplemented with zinc than other both groups. It could be concluded that zinc supplementation induced hyperleptinemia caused ameliorating effects in obese rats

  5. Alterations in protein kinase C activity and processing during zinc-deficiency-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Susan S; Clegg, Michael S; Momma, Tony Y; Niles, Brad J; Duffy, Jodie Y; Daston, George P; Keen, Carl L

    2004-10-01

    Protein kinases C (PKCs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases that are critical for signal transduction pathways involved in growth, differentiation and cell death. All PKC isoforms have four conserved domains, C1-C4. The C1 domain contains cysteine-rich finger-like motifs, which bind two zinc atoms. The zinc-finger motifs modulate diacylglycerol binding; thus, intracellular zinc concentrations could influence the activity and localization of PKC family members. 3T3 cells were cultured in zinc-deficient or zinc-supplemented medium for up to 32 h. Cells cultured in zinc-deficient medium had decreased zinc content, lowered cytosolic classical PKC activity, increased caspase-3 processing and activity, and reduced cell number. Zinc-deficient cytosols had decreased activity and expression levels of PKC-alpha, whereas PKC-alpha phosphorylation was not altered. Inhibition of PKC-alpha with Gö6976 had no effect on cell number in the zinc-deficient group. Proteolysis of the novel PKC family member, PKC-delta, to its 40-kDa catalytic fragment occurred in cells cultured in the zinc-deficient medium. Occurrence of the PKC-delta fragment in mitochondria was co-incident with caspase-3 activation. Addition of the PKC-delta inhibitor, rottlerin, or zinc to deficient medium reduced or eliminated proteolysis of PKC-delta, activated caspase-3 and restored cell number. Inhibition of caspase-3 processing by Z-DQMD-FMK (Z-Asp-Gln-Met-Asp-fluoromethylketone) did not restore cell number in the zinc-deficient group, but resulted in processing of full-length PKC-delta to a 56-kDa fragment. These results support the concept that intracellular zinc concentrations influence PKC activity and processing, and that zinc-deficiency-induced apoptosis occurs in part through PKC-dependent pathways.

  6. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

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    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in blood does not decrease in proportion of the Zn deficiency. Adverse effects of Zn deficiency vary with age: low weight gain, diarrhoea, aneroxia and neurobehavioral disturbances are observed in infants, while skin changes and dwarfism are frequent in toddlers and adolescents. Common manifestations of Zn deficiency among elderly include hypogeusia, chronic non-healing ulcers and recurrent infections.Ameliorative measures of Zn deficiency in humans can be classified in two groups, namely, nutraceutical and biofortification of food grains. Nutraceutical interventions include pharmaceutical supplements, dietary supplements and dietary diversification, while biofortification of food grains can be achieved by genetic modification (GM of crops or by agronomic techniques that include soil or/and foliar fertilization of crops.The major disadvantage of nutraceutical approaches is that the major beneficiaries are urban people and the poor rural masses that need adequate Zn nutrition most are left out. Genetic biofortification of food grains requires large amounts of funds and a fairly long-period of time. Further, a large number of countries have not yet accepted genetically modified (GM foods. On the other hand agronomic biofortification of food grains yields immediate effects and rural and urban people are equally benefitted. Our studies have shown that Zn concentration in cereals (rice, wheat etc and pulses can be considerably increased by soil or/and foliar

  7. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in blood does not decrease in proportion of the Zn deficiency. Adverse effects of Zn deficiency vary with age: low weight gain, diarrhoea, aneroxia and neurobehavioral disturbances are observed in infants, while skin changes and dwarfism are frequent in toddlers and adolescents. Common manifestations of Zn deficiency among elderly include hypogeusia, chronic non-healing ulcers and recurrent infections. Ameliorative measures of Zn deficiency in humans can be classified in two groups, namely, nutraceutical and biofortification of food grains. Nutraceutical interventions include pharmaceutical supplements, dietary supplements and dietary diversification, while biofortification of food grains can be achieved by genetic modification (GM of crops or by agronomic techniques that include soil or/and foliar fertilization of crops. The major disadvantage of nutraceutical approaches is that the major beneficiaries are urban people and the poor rural masses that need adequate Zn nutrition most are left out. Genetic biofortification of food grains requires large amounts of funds and a fairly long-period of time. Further, a large number of countries have not yet accepted genetically modified (GM foods. On the other hand agronomic biofortification of food grains yields immediate effects and rural and urban people are equally benefitted. Our studies have shown that Zn concentration in cereals (rice, wheat etc and pulses can be considerably increased by soil or/and foliar

  8. Nutrition intervention strategies to combat zinc deficiency in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, R S; Ferguson, E L

    1998-06-01

    Widespread zinc deficiency is likely to exist in developing countries where staple diets are predominantly plant based and intakes of animal tissues are low. The severe negative consequences of zinc deficiency on human health in developing countries, however, have only recently been recognized. An integrated approach employing targeted supplementation, fortification and dietary strategies must be used to maximize the likelihood of eliminating zinc deficiency at a national level in developing countries. Supplementation is appropriate only for populations whose zinc status must be improved over a relatively short time period, and when requirements cannot be met from habitual dietary sources. As well, the health system must be capable of providing consistent supply, distribution, delivery and consumption of the zinc supplement to the targeted groups. Uncertainties still exist about the type, frequency, and level of supplemental zinc required for prevention and treatment of zinc deficiency. Salts that are readily absorbed and at levels that will not induce antagonistic nutrient interactions must be used. At a national level, fortification with multiple micronutrients could be a cost effective method for improving micronutrient status, including zinc, provided that a suitable food vehicle which is centrally processed is available. Alternatively, fortification could be targeted for certain high risk groups (e.g. complementary foods for infants). Efforts should be made to develop protected fortificants for zinc, so that potent inhibitors of zinc absorption (e.g. phytate) present either in the food vehicle and/or indigenous meals do not compromise zinc absorption. Fortification does not require any changes in the existing food beliefs and practices for the consumer and, unlike supplementation, does not impose a burden on the health sector. A quality assurance programme is required, however, to ensure the quality of the fortified food product from production to consumption

  9. Deficiencia de zinc y sus implicaciones funcionales Zinc deficiency and its functional implications

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    JORGE L ROSADO

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objeto revisar los aspectos teóricos y los estudios realizados en México que sugieren la existencia de la deficiencia moderada de zinc en niños de población rural, así como algunas de las consecuencias de dicha deficiencia en la salud. El zinc es un nutrimento indispensable para el organismo de los humanos y juega un papel importante en una serie de procesos metabólicos: participa en el sitio catalítico de varios sistemas enzimáticos; participa como ion estructural en membranas biológicas, y guarda una estrecha relación con la síntesis de proteínas, entre otras cosas. Es por esto que la deficiencia de zinc está asociada con consecuencias importantes en la salud y la funcionalidad de los individuos, especialmente durante las primeras etapas de la vida. De relevancia para México es la existencia de una deficiencia moderada de zinc en los niños y las consecuencias que ésta pueda tener en la salud de los mismos. Los estudios realizados sugieren que la deficiencia moderada de zinc se presenta asociada con la ingestión de dietas basadas en alimentos de origen vegetal, las cuales contienen cantidades importantes de inhibidores de la absorción de zinc. Este tipo de dietas se consume habitualmente en las zonas rurales y en la población marginal de las ciudades en el país. Entre las consecuencias más importantes de esta deficiencia se encontró un aumento en la presencia de enfermedades infecciosas, especialmente de diarrea, y posibles alteraciones en el desarrollo de la capacidad cognoscitiva.The purpose of this article is to review theoretical aspects and research performed in Mexico suggesting the existence of marginal zinc deficiency in rural children and its consequences on health. Zinc is an indispensable nutrient for humans since it plays an important role in several metabolic pathways: it participates in the catalytic site of several enzymes, as a structural ion of biological membranes and is

  10. Supplementation with zinc in rats enhances memory and reverses an age-dependent increase in plasma copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandusky-Beltran, Leslie A; Manchester, Bryce L; McNay, Ewan C

    2017-08-30

    Zinc and copper are essential trace elements. Dyshomeostasis in these two metals has been observed in Alzheimer's disease, which causes profound cognitive impairment. Insulin therapy has been shown to enhance cognitive performance; however, recent data suggest that this effect may be at least in part due to the inclusion of zinc in the insulin formulation used. Zinc plays a key role in regulation of neuronal glutamate signaling, suggesting a possible link between zinc and memory processes. Consistent with this, zinc deficiency causes cognitive impairments in children. The effect of zinc supplementation on short- and long-term recognition memory, and on spatial working memory, was explored in young and adult male Sprague Dawley rats. After behavioral testing, hippocampal and plasma zinc and copper were measured. Age increased hippocampal zinc and copper, as well as plasma copper, and decreased plasma zinc. An interaction between age and treatment affecting plasma copper was also found, with zinc supplementation reversing elevated plasma copper concentration in adult rats. Zinc supplementation enhanced cognitive performance across tasks. These data support zinc as a plausible therapeutic intervention to ameliorate cognitive impairment in disorders characterized by alterations in zinc and copper, such as Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Zinc Deficiency with Acrodermatitis Enteropathica-like Eruption After Pancreaticoduodenectomy

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    Hsin-Hsien Yu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD is the standard operation for periampullary lesions. Most reports have focused on the clinical outcome, complications and tumor recurrence after PD. Few studies have focused on the nutritional sequelae that result from the extended resection of the upper gastrointestinal tract and disruption of the normal physiologic process of digestion. Zinc is absorbed mainly in the duodenum and proximal jejunum, which are removed during PD. Herein, we report two patients who experienced zinc deficiency with acrodermatitis enteropathica-like eruption, alopecia, glossitis and nail dystrophy after PD. The lesions improved dramatically after supplementation with zinc sulfate, pancreatic enzyme and diet instructions. No symptoms related to zinc deficiency were noted on follow-up after nutritional instructions had been given to the patients.

  12. Repletion of zinc in zinc-deficient cells strongly up-regulates IL-1β-induced IL-2 production in T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daaboul, Doha; Rosenkranz, Eva; Uciechowski, Peter; Rink, Lothar

    2012-10-01

    Mild zinc deficiency in humans negatively affects IL-2 production resulting in declined percentages of cytolytic T cells and decreased NK cell lytic activity, which enhances the susceptibility to infections and malignancies. T-cell activation is critically regulated by zinc and the normal physiological zinc level in T-cells slightly lies below the optimal concentration for T-cell functions. A further reduction in zinc level leads to T-cell dysfunction and autoreactivity, whereas high zinc concentrations (100 μM) were shown to inhibit interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced IL-1 receptor kinase (IRAK) activation. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which zinc regulates the IL-1β-induced IL-2 expression in T-cells. Zinc supplementation to zinc-deficient T-cells increased intracellular zinc levels by altering the expression of zinc transporters, particularly Zip10 and Zip12. A zinc signal was observed in the murine T-cell line EL-4 6.1 after 1 h of stimulation with IL-1β, measured by specific zinc sensors FluoZin-3 and ZinPyr-1. This signal is required for the phosphorylation of MAPK p38 and NF-κB subunit p65, which triggers the transcription of IL-2 and strongly increases its production. These results indicate that short-term zinc supplementation to zinc-deficient T-cells leads to a fast rise in zinc levels which subsequently enhance cytokine production. In conclusion, low and excessive zinc levels might be equally problematic for zinc-deficient subjects, and stabilized zinc levels seem to be essential to avoid negative concentration-dependent zinc effects on T-cell activation.

  13. Effect of zinc-containing β-tricalcium phosphate nano particles injection on jawbone mineral density and mechanical strength of osteoporosis model rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokudome, Yoshihiro; Otsuka, Makoto; Ito, Atsuo

    2011-01-01

    Zinc-containing β-tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP) nano particles were injected into zinc-deficient rats to promote osteogenesis. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (4 weeks old, average weight of 70 g) were divided into four groups: Normal rats (not ovariectomized (OVX)), Control rats (OVX), and OVX rats injected with a suspension of ZnTCP nano particles or ZnSO 4 . The ZnTCP contained 6.17% zinc. The suspensions (0.6 mg as a zinc volume/0.2 ml) were injected around the jaw bone once a week for 12 weeks. Local effects on the bone mineral content (BMC) of jawbone, and systemic effects on body weight, the BMC of both femurs determined by X-ray computed tomography, and bone mechanical strength (BMS) measured by the three-point bending method, were examined. The BMC of jaw bone was significantly higher in the ZnTCP-treated group than un-treated or ZnSO 4 -treated group. Body weight, the BMC of femurs, and BMS were also significantly higher in the ZnTCP treated-group. The zinc-containing β-tricalcium phosphate nano particles were effective at preventing bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats and have potential uses for treating periodontitis. (author)

  14. Zinc deficiency with reduced mastication impairs spatial memory in young adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Kumiko; Tsuji, Tadataka; Tanaka, Susumu; Kogo, Mikihiko

    2015-12-01

    Sufficient oral microelements such as zinc and fully chewing of foods are required to maintain cognitive function despite aging. No knowledge exists about the combination of factors such as zinc deficiency and reduced mastication on learning and memory. Here we show that tooth extraction only in 8-week-old mice did not change the density of glial fibrillary acidic protein-labeled astrocytes in the hippocampus or spatial memory parameters. However, tooth extraction followed by zinc deprivation strongly impaired spatial memory and led to an increase in astrocytic density in the hippocampal CA1 region. The impaired spatial performance in the zinc-deficient only (ZD) mice also coincided well with the increase in the astrocytic density in the hippocampal CA1 region. After switching both zinc-deficient groups to a normal diet with sufficient zinc, spatial memory recovered, and more time was spent in the quadrant with the goal in the probe test in the mice with tooth extraction followed by zinc deprivation (EZD) compared to the ZD mice. Interestingly, we found no differences in astrocytic density in the CA1 region among all groups at 22 weeks of age. Furthermore, the escape latency in a visible probe test at all times was longer in zinc-deficient groups than the others and demonstrated a negative correlation with body weight. No significant differences in escape latency were observed in the visible probe test among the ZD, EZD, and normal-fed control at 4 weeks (CT4w) groups in which body weight was standardized to that of the EZD group, or in the daily reduction in latency between the normal-fed control and CT4w groups. Our data showed that zinc-deficient feeding during a young age impairs spatial memory performance and leads to an increase in astrocytic density in the hippocampal CA1 region and that zinc-sufficient feeding is followed by recovery of the impaired spatial memory along with changes in astrocytic density. The combination of the two factors, zinc deficiency

  15. Kinetic analysis of zinc uptake and serosal transfer by vascularly perfused rat intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoadley, J.E.; Leinart, A.S.; Cousins, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Transport kinetics were examined for uptake of 65 Zn from the lumen and for transport of mucosal 65 Zn subsequent to uptake in the isolated, vascularly perfused intestines of rats fed either a zinc-deficient or zinc-adequate diet. Zinc depletion influenced the intestinal transport of zinc by 1) stimulating a saturable uptake mechanisms, 2) reducing secretion of mucosal 65 Zn into the lumen, and 3) increasing the rate of 65 Zn turnover in a rapidly absorbed mucosal zinc compartment. Uptake of 65 Zn involved both saturable and nonsaturable processes. The saturable process was stimulated by zinc depletion with the apparent maximal transport rate for the saturable mechanism increasing from 60 to 180 nmol Zn x g -1 x 30 min -1 . Most of the 65 Zn taken up was not involved in the short-term secretion or absorption, and mucosal 65 Zn retention was independent of dietary zinc status. Absorption of mucosal 65 Zn was nonsaturable, involved a rapid exchanging zinc compartment, and was stimulated by zinc depletion. The half-life for 65 Zn in this mucosal zinc compartment was ∼ 24 min in the zinc-adequate group and 13 min in the zinc-depleted group

  16. Red mold rice promoted antioxidase activity against oxidative injury and improved the memory ability of zinc-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bao-Hong; Ho, Bing-Ying; Wang, Chin-Thin; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2009-11-25

    Zn deficiency is a common disease leading to memory impairment with increasing age. This study evaluated the protection effects of red mold rice (RMR) administration and Zn supplementation against memory and learning ability impairments from oxidative stress caused by Zn deficiency. Rats (4 weeks old) were induced to be Zn deficiency by a Zn-deficient diet for 12 weeks. After that, rats were administered Zn, 1xRMR, 5xRMR, and various dosages of RMR plus Zn, respectively. Decreases of antioxidant enzyme activities in the hippocampus and cortex were observed, and the levels of Ca, Fe, and Mg were increased in the hippocampus and cortex of Zn-deficient rats, leading to memory and learning ability injury. However, the administration of RMR (1- or 5-fold dosage) and with or without Zn significantly improved the antioxidase and neural activity to maintain cortex and hippocampus functions. This study demonstrates that RMR is a possible functional food for the prevention or cure of neural injury associated with Zn deficiency.

  17. Leptin, NPY, Melatonin and Zinc Levels in Experimental Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism: The Relation to Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasım; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2017-06-01

    Since zinc mediates the effects of many hormones or is found in the structure of numerous hormone receptors, zinc deficiency leads to various functional impairments in the hormone balance. And also thyroid hormones have important activity on metabolism and feeding. NPY and leptin are affective on food intake and regulation of appetite. The present study is conducted to determine how zinc supplementation and deficiency affect thyroid hormones (free and total T3 and T4), melatonin, leptin, and NPY levels in thyroid dysfunction in rats. The experiment groups in the study were formed as follows: Control (C); Hypothyroidism (PTU); Hypothyroidism+Zinc (PTU+Zn); Hypothyroidism+Zinc deficient; Hyperthyroidism (H); Hyperthyroidism+Zinc (H+Zn); and Hyperthyroidism+Zinc deficient. Thyroid hormone parameters (FT 3 , FT 4 , TT 3 , and TT 4 ) were found to be reduced in hypothyroidism groups and elevated in the hyperthyroidism groups. Melatonin values increased in hyperthyroidism and decreased in hypothyroidism. Leptin and NPY levels both increased in hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Zinc levels, on the other hand, decreased in hypothyroidism and increased in hyperthyroidism. Zinc supplementation, particularly when thyroid function is impaired, has been demonstrated to markedly prevent these changes.

  18. Prevalence of zinc deficiency among primary school children in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Few zinc-rich sources appeared in the diet that was predominantly plant-based. Mean dietary zinc intake was 4.6±2.2 mg/day. The mean value of serum zinc was 66.4±21.5 μg/dL, with 46% of the children having values less than the 70 μg/dL cutoff. The findings indicate a high risk of zinc deficiency and suboptimal zinc ...

  19. High Frequency of Symptomatic Zinc Deficiency in Infants in Northern Ethiopia

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    Federica Dassoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Zinc deficiency occurs in infants when its demand exceeds its supply. It presents with cutaneous signs which, in severe cases, are associated with diarrhea, alopecia, and irritability. Genetic and acquired forms of zinc deficiency have been reported and often overlap clinical features. Malnutrition, prematurity, malabsorption syndromes, and burns may cause an increased demand for zinc. Methods. Cases of acquired transient infantile zinc deficiency (TIZD observed during a period of 3 years at Ayder Referral Hospital of Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia, are reported here. Since no sophisticated tests were available at our center, the diagnosis was based on the clinical signs and prompt response to oral zinc supplementation. Results. We observed 18 cases of TIZD at our center. All patients were full-term and breastfeeding infants with no relevant associated diseases. Conclusions. In this region, a high incidence of this condition is observed. We could not rule out whether heterozygosity for the genetic mutation was present or that the disease was caused by a nutritional deficiency in the mothers or more probably because both the factors coexisted together. However, further studies are necessary to better understand the causes of the increased incidence of this disease in Northern Ethiopia.

  20. Zinc Deficiency Is associated With Depressive Symptoms-Results From the Berlin Aging Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Alissa; Spira, Dominik; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Demuth, Ilja; Norman, Kristina

    2017-08-01

    Zinc plays an important role for behavioral and mental function, maintaining the correct functions of intracellular signal transduction, cellular and trans-membrane transport, protein synthesis, and antioxidant system. We investigated both dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc levels and the correlation with depressive symptoms in a large sample of community-dwelling old. One thousand five hundred fourteen older people (aged 60-84 years, 772 women) from the Berlin Aging Study II were included. Zinc intake was assessed by the EPIC Food Frequency Questionnaire. Plasma zinc levels were assessed with atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the "Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale" and the "Geriatric Depression Scale." Zinc deficiency in blood plasma was found in 18.7% of participants, and depressive symptoms in 15.7%. Participants with depressive symptoms had lower energy-adjusted zinc intake (median 11.1 vs 11.6 µmol/L; p = .048) and lower plasma zinc levels (median 12.2 vs12.3 mg/dL; p = .037). Even after adjustment for known predictors of depression, plasma zinc deficiency remained significantly associated with depressive symptoms (odds ratio: 1.490, 95% confidence interval: 1.027-2.164; p = .036). In the multiple logistic regression model stratified by sex, we found that plasma zinc deficiency was strongly associated with a higher risk for depressive symptoms in women (odds ratio: 1.739, 95% confidence interval: 1.068-2.833; p = .026). Plasma zinc deficiency was common in our old study population. An increase in dietary zinc and higher plasma zinc levels may reduce the risk of depressive symptoms. A screening for reduced dietary zinc intake or plasma zinc deficiency might be beneficial in older people at risk of depressive symptoms. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The effect of a moderate zinc deficiency and dietary fat source on the activity and expression of the Δ(3)Δ (2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase in the liver of growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, Jennifer; Weigand, Edgar

    2014-06-01

    Auxiliary enzymes participate in β-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of a moderate zinc deficiency and a high intake of polyunsaturated fat on Δ(3)Δ(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase (ECI) in the liver and other tissues. Five groups of eight weanling rats each were fed moderately zinc-deficient (ZD) or zinc-adequate (ZA) semisynthetic diets (7 or 50 mg Zn/kg) enriched with 22 % cocoa butter (CB) or 22 % safflower oil (SO) for 4 weeks: (1) ZD-CB, fed free choice; (2) ZA-CBR, ZA-CB diet fed in equivalent amounts consumed by the ZD-CB group; (3) ZD-SO, fed free choice; (4) ZA-SOR, ZA-SO diet fed in equivalent amounts consumed by the ZD-SO group; and (5) ZA-SO, fed free choice. Growth and Zn status markers were markedly reduced in the ZD groups. ECI activity in the liver of the animals fed the ZD- and ZA-SO diets were significantly higher (approximately 2- and 3-fold, respectively) as compared with the CB-fed animals, whereas activities in extrahepatic tissues (kidneys, heart, skeletal muscle, testes, adipose tissue) were not altered by dietary treatments. Transcript levels of the mitochondrial Eci gene in the liver did not significantly differ between ZD and ZA rats, but were 1.6-fold higher in the ZA-SO- than in the ZD-CB-fed animals (P safflower oil as a source high in linoleic acid induce markedly increased hepatic ECI activities and that a moderate Zn deficiency does not affect transcription of the mitochondrial Eci gene in the liver.

  2. Deficient maternal zinc intake-but not folate-is associated with lower fetal heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Marisa N; Smerling, Jennifer; Gustafsson, Hanna; Foss, Sophie; Altemus, Margaret; Monk, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Few studies of maternal prenatal diet and child development examine micronutrient status in relation to fetal assessment. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall of zinc and folate and 20min of fetal heart rate were collected from 3rd trimester pregnant adolescents. Deficient zinc was associated with less fetal heart rate variability. Deficient folate had no associations with HRV. Neither deficient zinc nor deficient folate was related to fetal heart rate. These findings, from naturalistic observation, are consistent with emerging data on prenatal zinc supplementation using a randomized control design. Taken together, the findings suggest that maternal prenatal zinc intake is an important and novel factor for understanding child ANS development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Deficient maternal zinc intake—but not folate—is associated with lower fetal heart rate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Marisa N.; Smerling, Jennifer; Gustafsson, Hanna; Foss, Sophie; Altemus, Margaret; Monk, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Objective Few studies of maternal prenatal diet and child development examine micronutrient status in relation to fetal assessment. Methods Twenty-four-hour dietary recall of zinc and folate and 20min of fetal heart rate were collected from 3rd trimester pregnant adolescents. Results Deficient zinc was associated with less fetal heart rate variability. Deficient folate had no associations with HRV. Neither deficient zinc nor deficient folate was related to fetal heart rate. Conclusions These findings, from naturalistic observation, are consistent with emerging data on prenatal zinc supplementation using a randomized control design. Practical Implication Taken together, the findings suggest that maternal prenatal zinc intake is an important and novel factor for understanding child ANS development. PMID:25658874

  4. Zinc-enriched boutons in rat spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Danscher, G; Jo, S M

    2000-01-01

    The rat spinal cord reveals a complex pattern of zinc-enriched (ZEN) boutons. As a result of in vivo exposure to selenide ions, nanosized clusters of zinc selenide are created in places where zinc ions are present, including the zinc-containing synaptic vesicles of ZEN boutons. The clusters can...

  5. Down regulation by a low-zinc diet in gene expression of rat prostatic thymidylate synthase and thymidine kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sassa Shuji

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc has a wide spectrum of biological activities and its deficiency is related to various abnormalities of cell metabolism. Methods Wistar male rats, at age of 4 weeks, were fed a low-zinc diet for six weeks. The levels of bromodeoxyuridine incorporated into the prostatic DNA and the mRNA expression levels of prostate thymidylate synthase and thymidine kinase were examined. Result The low-zinc diet caused a marked reduction in the body growth and organ weights, resulted in a low hematopoiesis, hypo-albuminemia and hypocholesterolemia. Although there were few differences in plasma biochemical markers, plasma levels of luteinizing hormone and testosterone were reduced by the low-zinc diet. Bromodeoxyuridine-immunoreactive (S-phase cells and mRNA expression levels of thymidylate synthase and thymidine kinase in the prostate cells were markedly affected by the low-zinc diet. Conclusion A low-zinc diet appears to reduce the body growth and organ weights including prostate, causing low plasma levels of luteinizing hormone and testosterone and reduction in prostate DNA replication in growing-rats.

  6. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Du, Libo [Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Wenlan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Liu, Yang [Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Hudson, Laurie G. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Liu, Ke Jian, E-mail: kliu@salud.unm.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  7. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi; Du, Libo; Liu, Wenlan; Liu, Yang; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  8. Bioavailability of zinc from sweet potato roots and leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baiden, H.N.; Ercanli-Huffman, F.G.

    1986-01-01

    Bioavailability of zinc from sweet potato (SP) roots and leaves were determined, by extrinsic labeling technique, in rats fed control and zinc deficient diets. Weanling male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (60-75g) were divided into 4 groups, and fed laboratory chow, a control diet (ad libitum and pair fed) and a zinc deficient diet, for 4 weeks. Each group then was divided into at least 2 sub groups, containing 6 rats, which were intubated with one of 3 tubing solutions extrinsically labeled with 65 Zn; baked sweet potato roots (BSPR), raw sweet potato leaves (RSPL) and cooked sweet potato leaves (CSPL). Five hours after intubation the rats were sacrificed, blood, liver, testes, spleen, heart, brain, thymus and lungs were removed. Feces, urine, and GI tract contents were collected and their 65 Zn activity was determined in a gamma counter. In all treatment groups zinc bioavailability from BSPR, RSPL or CSPL were not significantly different. Zinc deficient rats absorbed significantly more (P 65 Zn (86-90% of the dose), regardless of type of tubing solution than the pairfed or control animals (35-58% of the dose). The highest retention of 65 Zn was found in the liver (12-20% of absorbed dose), GI tract (6-17% of absorbed dose), kidney (2-8% of absorbed dose), and blood (1-5% of absorbed dose). The lowest retention was found in the brain, heart, thymus and testes. (< 1% of absorbed dose)

  9. Zinc deficiency alters soybean susceptibility to pathogens and pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inadequate plant nutrition and biotic stress are key threats to current and future crop yields. Zinc deficiency and toxicity in major crop plants have been documented, but there is limited information on how pathogen and pest damage may be affected by differing plant zinc levels. In our study, we us...

  10. Quantification of gene expression in agrostis species subjected to zinc deficiency /

    OpenAIRE

    Canlı, Özge; Canli, Ozge

    2007-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient involved in many cellular mechanisms in biologycal systems and its deficiency causes severe reductions in crop yield and human health.In this study, our goal is to identify and characterize the genes expressed in three Agrostis species; Creeping (Agrostis stolonifera), Colonial (Agrostis capillaris) and Velvet (Agrostis canina) bentgrass upon exposure to zinc deficiency using mRNA differential display method. Differentially expressed fragments were sequenced...

  11. Zinc: physiology, deficiency, and parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Callum

    2015-06-01

    The essential trace element zinc (Zn) has a large number of physiologic roles, in particular being required for growth and functioning of the immune system. Adaptive mechanisms enable the body to maintain normal total body Zn status over a wide range of intakes, but deficiency can occur because of reduced absorption or increased gastrointestinal losses. Deficiency impairs physiologic processes, leading to clinical consequences that include failure to thrive, skin rash, and impaired wound healing. Mild deficiency that is not clinically overt may still cause nonspecific consequences, such as susceptibility to infection and poor growth. The plasma Zn concentration has poor sensitivity and specificity as a test of deficiency. Consequently, diagnosis of deficiency requires a combination of clinical assessment and biochemical tests. Patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) are susceptible to Zn deficiency and its consequences. Nutrition support teams should have a strategy for assessing Zn status and optimizing this by appropriate supplementation. Nutrition guidelines recommend generous Zn provision from the start of PN. This review covers the physiology of Zn, the consequences of its deficiency, and the assessment of its status, before discussing its role in PN. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  12. Acute dietary zinc deficiency before conception compromises oocyte epigenetic programming and disrupts embryonic development

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, X; Diaz, FJ

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings show that zinc is an important factor necessary for regulating the meiotic cell cycle and ovulation. However, the role of zinc in promoting oocyte quality and developmental potential is not known. Using an in vivo model of acute dietary zinc deficiency, we show that feeding a zinc deficient diet (ZDD) for 3–5 days before ovulation (preconception) dramatically disrupts oocyte chromatin methylation and preimplantation development. There was a dramatic decrease in histone H3K4 tr...

  13. Model of how plants sense zinc deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assuncao, Ana G.L.; Persson, Daniel Olof; Husted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    to develop plant-based solutions addressing nutrient-use-efficiency and adaptation to nutrient-limited or -toxic soils. Recently two transcription factors of the bZIP family (basic-region leucine zipper) have been identified in Arabidopsis and shown to be pivotal in the adaptation response to zinc deficiency...

  14. Zinc treatment ameliorates diarrhea and intestinal inflammation in undernourished rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Camila A A; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves C; Frota, Priscila B; Figueiredo, Italo L; Aragão, Karoline S; Magalhães, Carlos Emanuel C; de Carvalho, Cibele B M; Lima, Aldo Ângelo M; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Guerrant, Richard L; Moore, Sean R; Oriá, Reinaldo B

    2014-08-05

    WHO guidelines recommend zinc supplementation as a key adjunct therapy for childhood diarrhea in developing countries, however zinc's anti-diarrheal effects remain only partially understood. Recently, it has been recognized that low-grade inflammation may influence stunting. In this study, we examined whether oral zinc supplementation could improve weight, intestinal inflammation, and diarrhea in undernourished weanling rats. Rats were undernourished using a northeastern Brazil regional diet (RBD) for two weeks, followed by oral gavage with a saturated lactose solution (30 g/kg) in the last 7 days to induce osmotic diarrhea. Animals were checked for diarrhea daily after lactose intake. Blood was drawn in order to measure serum zinc levels by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were euthanized to harvest jejunal tissue for histology and cytokine profiles by ELISA. In a subset of animals, spleen samples were harvested under aseptic conditions to quantify bacterial translocation. Oral zinc supplementation increased serum zinc levels following lactose-induced osmotic diarrhea. In undernourished rats, zinc improved weight gain following osmotic diarrhea and significantly reduced diarrheal scores by the third day of lactose intake (p diarrhea and undernutrition and support the use of zinc to prevent the vicious cycle of malnutrition and diarrhea.

  15. Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc absorption, turnover and distribution in rats fed diet marginal and adequate in zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A.B.; Schwartz, R.

    1987-04-01

    Ethambutol, (CH/sub 3/CH/sub 2/-CH(CH/sub 2/OH)-NH-CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/ (EMB), is an oral antituberculous agent that is administered therapeutically over extended time periods. It has chelating properties and may affect mineral metabolism. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats received 0, 400 or 600 mg EMB per kilogram body weight daily by gavage for 30 d. They were fed a casein-based diet with either adequate (49 ppm) or marginal (11 ppm) zinc. Both adequate-Zn (AZn) and marginal-Zn (MZn) rats receiving EMB showed alopecia and dose-dependent reductions in feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency. None of these changes was seen in rats fed the MZn diet without EMB. Serum and tissue zinc levels were similar in rats not receiving EMB, regardless of the dietary zinc level. Serum zinc was consistently lower in AZn and MZn rats receiving EMB than in rats without EMB. Apparent zinc absorption, measured by /sup 65/Zn balance, was higher in AZn rats receiving EMB than in AZn rats without EMB. Thus, changes in absorption could not account for lower serum zinc levels in EMB-treated rats. However, /sup 65/Zn turnover was also higher in EMB groups. This suggests that EMB may have increased urinary zinc losses resulting in reduced circulating zinc and a consequent increase in zinc absorption.

  16. Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc absorption, turnover and distribution in rats fed diet marginal and adequate in zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.B.; Schwartz, R.

    1987-01-01

    Ethambutol, [CH 3 CH 2 -CH(CH 2 OH)-NH-CH 2 ] 2 (EMB), is an oral antituberculous agent that is administered therapeutically over extended time periods. It has chelating properties and may affect mineral metabolism. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats received 0, 400 or 600 mg EMB per kilogram body weight daily by gavage for 30 d. They were fed a casein-based diet with either adequate (49 ppm) or marginal (11 ppm) zinc. Both adequate-Zn (AZn) and marginal-Zn (MZn) rats receiving EMB showed alopecia and dose-dependent reductions in feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency. None of these changes was seen in rats fed the MZn diet without EMB. Serum and tissue zinc levels were similar in rats not receiving EMB, regardless of the dietary zinc level. Serum zinc was consistently lower in AZn and MZn rats receiving EMB than in rats without EMB. Apparent zinc absorption, measured by 65 Zn balance, was higher in AZn rats receiving EMB than in AZn rats without EMB. Thus, changes in absorption could not account for lower serum zinc levels in EMB-treated rats. However, 65 Zn turnover was also higher in EMB groups. This suggests that EMB may have increased urinary zinc losses resulting in reduced circulating zinc and a consequent increase in zinc absorption

  17. Acute dietary zinc deficiency before conception compromises oocyte epigenetic programming and disrupts embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X; Diaz, F J

    2013-04-01

    Recent findings show that zinc is an important factor necessary for regulating the meiotic cell cycle and ovulation. However, the role of zinc in promoting oocyte quality and developmental potential is not known. Using an in vivo model of acute dietary zinc deficiency, we show that feeding a zinc deficient diet (ZDD) for 3-5 days before ovulation (preconception) dramatically disrupts oocyte chromatin methylation and preimplantation development. There was a dramatic decrease in histone H3K4 trimethylation and global DNA methylation in zinc deficient oocytes. Moreover, there was a 3-20 fold increase in transcript abundance of repetitive elements (Iap, Line1, Sineb1, Sineb2), but a decrease in Gdf9, Zp3 and Figla mRNA. Only 53% and 8% of mature eggs reached the 2-cell stage after IVF in animals receiving a 3 and 5 days ZDD, respectively, while a 5 day ZDD in vivo reduced the proportion of 2-cells to 49%. In vivo fertilized 2-cell embryos cultured in vitro formed fewer (38%) blastocysts compared to control embryos (74%). Likewise, fewer blastocyst and expanded blastocyst were collected from the reproductive tract of zinc deficient animals on day 3.5 of pregnancy. This could be due to a decrease in Igf2 and H19 mRNA in ZDD blastocyst. Supplementation with a methyl donor (SAM) during IVM restored histone H3K4me3 and doubled the IVF success rate from 17% to 43% in oocytes from zinc deficient animals. Thus, the terminal period of oocyte development is extremely sensitive to perturbation in dietary zinc availability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chronic zinc deficiency alters chick gut microbiota composition and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a prevalent micronutrient insufficiency. Although the gut is a vital organ for Zn utilization, and Zn deficiency is associated with impaired intestinal permeability and a global decrease in gastrointestinal health, alterations in the gut microbial ecology of the host under co...

  19. The correlation of prenatal zinc concentration and deficiency with anthropometric factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehr Hanachi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the status of serum zinc in pregnant women in different gestational ages and correlation with socio-demographic and anthropometric factors in Iranian women referring to prenatal care public health clinics.We analyzed the zinc concentrations in plasma samples obtained at different gestational ages from 961 women and recorded BMI at the first trimester in pregnant women who were screened for a trial designed to evaluate the zinc concentration. Subjects were from different socio economical backgrounds and attended public health clinics for their prenatal care. All analyses were performed by SPSS (version 16. P values < 0.05 were considered significant.The results showed that after plasma zinc concentrations were adjusted with Parity, weight (early pregnancy, BMI (at early pregnancy, age and educational statues. Plasma zinc deficiency declined as gestational age progressed, however it was not significant. There was no significant correlation between zinc concentration, anthropometric, method of contraception and socio factors. However, there were significant relation between parity (p = 0.007 and weight at early pregnancy (p= 0.039 with serum zinc levels.We conclude that plasma zinc concentrations decreased during the late first trimester to the early third trimester and with parity. These findings may indicate that the deficient levels of zinc in the latter third of pregnancy suggest a tendency for insufficient maternal nutrition. However larger studies are required to support this finding.

  20. Zinc deficiency in field-grown pecan trees: changes in leaf nutrient concentrations and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-Barrios, Dámaris; Abadía, Javier; Lombardini, Leonardo; Abadía, Anunciación; Vázquez, Saúl

    2012-06-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a typical nutritional disorder in pecan trees [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] grown under field conditions in calcareous soils in North America, including northern Mexico and south-western United States. The aim of this study was to assess the morphological and nutritional changes in pecan leaves affected by Zn deficiency as well as the Zn distribution within leaves. Zinc deficiency led to decreases in leaf chlorophyll concentrations, leaf area and trunk cross-sectional area. Zinc deficiency increased significantly the leaf concentrations of K and Ca, and decreased the leaf concentrations of Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu. All nutrient values found in Zn-deficient leaves were within the sufficiency ranges, with the only exception of Zn, which was approximately 44, 11 and 9 µg g(-1) dry weight in Zn-sufficient, moderately and markedly Zn-deficient leaves, respectively. Zinc deficiency led to decreases in leaf thickness, mainly due to a reduction in the thickness of the palisade parenchyma, as well as to increases in stomatal density and size. The localisation of Zn was determined using the fluorophore Zinpyr-1 and ratio-imaging technique. Zinc was mainly localised in the palisade mesophyll area in Zn-sufficient leaves, whereas no signal could be obtained in Zn-deficient leaves. The effects of Zn deficiency on the leaf characteristics of pecan trees include not only decreases in leaf chlorophyll and Zn concentrations, but also a reduction in the thickness of the palisade parenchyma, an increase in stomatal density and pore size and the practical disappearance of Zn leaf pools. These characteristics must be taken into account to design strategies to correct Zn deficiency in pecan tree in the field. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. A Moderate Zinc Deficiency Does Not Alter Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of Weanling Rats Fed Diets Rich in Cocoa Butter or Safflower Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Edgar; Egenolf, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each), were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ) and 22% cocoa butter (CB) or 22% safflower oil (SF) for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control). The rats fed the LZ diets had significantly lower energy intakes and final body weights than the ad libitum control group, and lower plasma and femur Zn concentrations than the animals consuming the HZ diets. Hepatic cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid concentrations, and fatty acid composition of hepatic triacylglycerols and phospholipids did not significantly differ between the LZ and their respective HZ groups, but were greatly affected by dietary fat source. In conclusion, the moderate Zn deficiency did not significantly alter liver lipid concentrations and fatty acid composition.

  2. A Moderate Zinc Deficiency Does Not Alter Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of Weanling Rats Fed Diets Rich in Cocoa Butter or Safflower Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Weigand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each, were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ and 22% cocoa butter (CB or 22% safflower oil (SF for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control. The rats fed the LZ diets had significantly lower energy intakes and final body weights than the ad libitum control group, and lower plasma and femur Zn concentrations than the animals consuming the HZ diets. Hepatic cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid concentrations, and fatty acid composition of hepatic triacylglycerols and phospholipids did not significantly differ between the LZ and their respective HZ groups, but were greatly affected by dietary fat source. In conclusion, the moderate Zn deficiency did not significantly alter liver lipid concentrations and fatty acid composition.

  3. Symptomatic acquired zinc deficiency in at-risk premature infants: high dose preventive supplementation is necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarot, Sébastien; Chantier, Emilie; Kuster, Alice; Hello, Muriel; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Blouin, Eric; Stalder, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    Zinc is a cofactor for several enzymes involved in many metabolisms. Zinc deficiency induces various disorders such as acrodermatitis enteropathica, either inherited or acquired. We report three cases of premature infants (24-31 wks gestational age) with low birthweight (650 to 940 g) and enteropathy, two of whom presented with necrotizing enterocolitis. All infants were fed by total parenteral nutrition. At a chronological age ranging from 73 to 80 days, all infants developed a periorificial dermatitis. Before the onset of the first signs, they had received zinc supplementation ranging from 146% to 195% of the recommended dose (400 microg/kg/day). Increased zinc supplementation over a course of 6-18 days induced a complete resolution of symptoms in all cases. No abnormality in the neurologic examination and no recurrence were observed at the end of the zinc treatment. Low birthweight premature infants with enteropathy on total parenteral nutrition are at risk of developing zinc deficiency. The usual recommended zinc supplementation is probably insufficient for those infants. A delay in the diagnosis of zinc deficiency may lead to severe complications.

  4. Reactivation in vitro of zinc-requiring apo-enzymes by rat liver zinc-thionein

    OpenAIRE

    Udom, Albert O.; Brady, Frank O.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of rat liver zinc-thionein to donate its metal to the apo-enzymes of the zinc enzymes horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase, yeast aldolase, thermolysin, Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase and bovine erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase was investigated. Zinc-thionein was as good as, or better than, ZnSO4, Zn(CH3CO2)2 or Zn(NO3)2 in donating its zinc to these apo-enzymes. Apo-(alcohol dehydrogenase) could not be reactivated by zinc salts or by zinc-thionein. Incubation of the other apo-e...

  5. The effect of zinc on healing of renal damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehipour, Mehdi; Monabbati, Ahmad; Ensafdaran, Mohammad Reza; Adib, Ali; Babaei, Amir Hossein

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have previously been performed to promote kidney healing after injuries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of zinc on renal healing after traumatic injury in rats. Forty healthy female rats were selected and one of their kidneys was incised. Half of the incisions were limited only to the cortex (renal injury type I) and the other ones reached the pelvocalyceal system of the kidney (renal injury type II). All the rats in the zinc treated group (case group) received 36.3 mg zinc sulfate (contained 8.25 mg zinc) orally. After 28 days, the damaged kidneys were removed for histopathological studies. In the rats with type I injury, kidney inflammation of the case group was significantly lower than that of the control group. However, the result was not significant in rats with type II injury. Tissue loss and granulation tissue formation were significantly lower in the case group than the control group in both type I and II kidney injuries. Overall, Zinc can contribute to better healing of the rat's kidneys after a traumatic injury.

  6. Effects of Nano-zinc on Biochemical Parameters in Cadmium-Exposed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazy, Marzie; Koohi, Mohammad Kazem

    2017-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic environmental and occupational pollutant with reported toxic effects on the kidneys, liver, lungs, bones, and the immunity system. Based on its physicochemical similarity to cadmium, zinc (Zn) shows protective effects against cadmium toxicity and cadmium accumulation in the body. Nano-zinc and nano-zinc oxide (ZnO), recently used in foods and pharmaceutical products, can release a great amount of Zn 2+ in their environment. This research was carried out to investigate the more potent properties of the metal zinc among sub-acute cadmium intoxicated rats. Seventy-five male Wistar rats were caged in 15 groups. Cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) was used in drinking water to induce cadmium toxicity. Different sizes (15, 20, and 30 nm) and doses of nano-zinc particles (3, 10, 100 mg/kg body weight [bw]) were administered solely and simultaneously with CdCl 2 (2-5 mg/kg bw) for 28 days. The experimental animals were decapitated, and the biochemical biomarkers (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) were determined in their serum after oral exposure to nano-zinc and cadmium. Statistical analysis was carried out with a one-way ANOVA and t test. P zinc-treated rats. AST, ALT, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, and free fatty acids increased significantly in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls. However, albumin, total protein, and HDLc significantly decreased in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls (P zinc, the smaller sizes with low doses and the larger sizes with high doses are more toxic than metallic zinc. In a few cases, an inverse dose-dependent relationship was seen as well. This research showed that in spite of larger sizes of zinc, smaller sizes of nano-zinc particles are not suitable for protection against cadmium intoxication.

  7. Increased glucose dependence in resting, iron-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, G.A.; Henderson, S.A.; Dallman, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Rates of blood glucose and lactate turnover were assessed in resting iron-deficient and iron-sufficient (control) rats to test the hypothesis that dependence on glucose metabolism is increased in iron deficiency. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 21 days old, were fed a diet containing either 6 mg iron/kg feed (iron-deficient group) or 50 mg iron/kg feed (iron-sufficient group) for 3-4 wk. The iron-deficient group became anemic, with hemoglobin levels of 6.4 ± 0.2 compared with 13.8 ± 0.3 g/dl for controls. Rats received a 90-min primed continuous infusion of D-[6- 3 H]glucose and sodium L-[U- 14 C]lactate via a jugular catheter. Serial samples were taken from a carotid catheter for concentration and specific activity determinations. Iron-deficient rats had significantly higher blood glucose and lactate concentrations than controls. The iron-deficient group had a significantly higher glucose turnover rate than the control group. Significantly more metabolite recycling in iron-deficient rats was indicated by greater incorporation of 14 C into blood glucose. Assuming a carbon crossover correction factor of 2, half of blood glucose arose from lactate in deficient animals. By comparison, only 25% of glucose arose from lactate in controls. Lack of a difference in lactate turnover rates between deficient rats and controls was attributed to 14 C recycling. The results indicate a greater dependence on glucose metabolism in iron-deficient rats

  8. Effect of Extracellular Zinc Chelator on Rat Retinal Ganglion Cell Number, and Taurine and Zinc Transporters in These Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asarí Márquez García

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc deficiency in humans causes decreased antioxidants in the retina and is related with abnormal darkness adaptation, cataracts, blindness, and macular degeneration. There is little information about the effects of zinc on the taurine system in mammalian retinal cells. Therefore, we studied the effect of zinc on the taurine transporter (TAUT and zinc transporters (ZnT-1 and 3 using the extracellular zinc chelator, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA by fluorescence immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry in the ganglion cells (CG and cell layers of the retina of rats. Three days after administration of DTPA (10µM primary antibodies and secondary antibodies conjugated with rhodamine or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC were used as required. For immunocytochemical labeling approximately three hundred cells per condition were counted. For immunohistochemical labeling, the fluorescence intensity was measured as integrated optical density (DOI in four areas for each layer of tissue. DTPA produced a decrease of 32 % and 29 % in GC of the total cells labeled with antibody against glycoprotein Thy 1.1 and γ-synuclein, respectively. It also produced a significant decrease in TAUT localization in 27 and 28 % compared to controls. DTPA produced a decrease in the localization of ZnT-1 and ZnT-3 in the retina layers (ganglion cells, GCC and the outer and inner plexiform, CEP and CIP. The study of these molecules in the retina is relevant to understanding the interactions of taurine and zinc in this structure.

  9. Bioavailability of zinc to rats from defatted soy flour, acid-precipitated soy concentrate and neutralized soy concentrate as determined by intrinsic and extrinsic labeling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelsen, S.M.; Stuart, M.A.; Weaver, C.M.; Forbes, R.M.; Erdman, J.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The bioavailability of 65Zn from intrinsically and extrinsically labeled soy flour, acid-precipitated soy concentrate and neutralized soy concentrate was evaluated in rats. Weanling rats were fed marginally zinc-deficient diets, providing 8 ppm zinc from one of these three soy products, for 7 days. The rats then received a radioactively labeled test meal, identical in composition to the previous diet except that the soy product was either intrinsically or extrinsically labeled with 65Zn. After the test meal the rats were again fed diets the same as those consumed prior to the test meal. Whole-body retention of 65Zn at 24 hours and 12 days as well as 65Zn retained in tibias of rats given meals containing neutralized concentrate-based meals was significantly lower than for rats given meals containing the soy flour or acid-precipitated concentrate. In addition, retention of 65Zn from the extrinsically labeled acid-precipitated concentrate-based meal was significantly higher than from the same product intrinsically labeled. These findings confirm the results of previous feeding studies from which it was suggested that neutralization of soy protein concentrates reduces zinc bioavailability to the rat. In addition, the results are taken to suggest that experimental conditions may influence the validity of the extrinsic labeling technique for zinc

  10. Iron and zinc deficiencies in China: existing problems and possible solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guansheng Ma,

    2007-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies affect the health and development of the population of China as well as its socia] and economic development. Iron and zinc deficiencies are quite prevalent, while insufficient intake and poor bioavailability are the major causes. Phytate is be!ieved to bc a potent

  11. Sulfur amino acids metabolism in magnesium deficient rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tojo, H.; Kosokawa, Y.; Yamaguchi, K.

    1984-01-01

    Effect of magnesium (Mg) deficiency on sulfur amino acid metabolism was investigated in rats. Young male rats were fed on the diet containing either 2.26 (deficient rats) or 63.18 mg Mg/100g diet (control and low protein rats) for 2 weeks. A remarkable decrease of body weight gain, serum Mg contents and a slight decreases in the hematological parameters such as Hb, Ht and RBC was observed, while the hepatic Mg and Ca was not significantly changed. Erythema and cramps were observed 5 days after feeding on the Mg-depleted diet. The hepatic glutathione and cysteine contents increased in Mg-deficient rats. However, no significant change of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) activity and taurine content in Mg-deficient rat liver was observed. These results suggest that Mg deficiency affects the utilization and biosynthesis of hepatic glutathione but not the cysteine catabolism.

  12. A syndrome of acute zinc deficiency during total parenteral alimentation in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, R G; Tasman-Jones, C; Pybus, J; Whiting, R; Black, H

    1976-01-01

    Changes in the plasma and urine levels of the trace metal zinc have been followed in a series of 37 adult patients totally supported by intravenous alimentation. Copper has also been determined in more recent cases. In such a seriously ill group, although urinary zinc loss may be very high at the height of catabolism, severe plasma depletion does not occur unless there is a subsequent phase of sustained anabolism and weight gain. In four patients plasma zinc fell to very low levels during this phase and three of this group developed a syndrome characterized by diarrhea, mental depression, para-nasal, oral and peri-oral dermatitis, and alopecia. The response to oral or intravenous zinc therapy is striking, except for hair regrowth which is delayed but eventually complete. The syndrome we have recognized in adult man has not been previously described. It resembles however the parakeratosis of zinc deficient swine and it is also very similar to Acrodermatitis enteropathica, a genetically determined disorder of infants very recently linked to zinc deficiency. Zinc is clearly essential to human metabolism and it should be included in all parenteral alimentation regimes particularly during the period of rapid, sustained, weight gain. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:817677

  13. Zinc-deficiency acrodermatitis in a patient with chronic alcoholism and gastric bypass: a case report

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    Dariush Shahsavari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Acquired adult-onset zinc deficiency is occasionally reported in patients with malnutrition states, such as alcoholism, or malabsorptive states, such as post-bariatric surgery. The defining symptoms of hypozincemia include a classic triad of necrolytic dermatitis, diffuse alopecia, and diarrhea. We report a case of zinc deficiency in a 39-year-old man with history of gastric bypass surgery and alcoholism. For this patient, severe hypozincemia confirmed acrodermatitis, and zinc supplementation was met with gradual improvement.

  14. Zinc deficiency-induced iron accumulation, a consequence of alterations in iron regulatory protein-binding activity, iron transporters, and iron storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Brad J; Clegg, Michael S; Hanna, Lynn A; Chou, Susan S; Momma, Tony Y; Hong, Heeok; Keen, Carl L

    2008-02-22

    One consequence of zinc deficiency is an elevation in cell and tissue iron concentrations. To examine the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon, Swiss 3T3 cells were cultured in zinc-deficient (D, 0.5 microM zinc), zinc-supplemented (S, 50 microM zinc), or control (C, 4 microM zinc) media. After 24 h of culture, cells in the D group were characterized by a 50% decrease in intracellular zinc and a 35% increase in intracellular iron relative to cells in the S and C groups. The increase in cellular iron was associated with increased transferrin receptor 1 protein and mRNA levels and increased ferritin light chain expression. The divalent metal transporter 1(+)iron-responsive element isoform mRNA was decreased during zinc deficiency-induced iron accumulation. Examination of zinc-deficient cells revealed increased binding of iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) and decreased binding of IRP1 to a consensus iron-responsive element. The increased IRP2-binding activity in zinc-deficient cells coincided with an increased level of IRP2 protein. The accumulation of IRP2 protein was independent of zinc deficiency-induced intracellular nitric oxide production but was attenuated by the addition of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or ascorbate to the D medium. These data support the concept that zinc deficiency can result in alterations in iron transporter, storage, and regulatory proteins, which facilitate iron accumulation.

  15. Zinc transporter 7 deficiency affects lipid synthesis in adipocytes by inhibiting insulin-dependent Akt activity and glucose uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mice deficient for zinc transporter 7 (Znt7) are mildly zinc deficient, accompanied with low body weight gain and body fat accumulation. To investigate the underlying mechanism of Znt7 deficiency in body adiposity, we investigated fatty acid composition and insulin sensitivity in visceral (epididyma...

  16. The effect of oral zinc loading on the absorption of 65Zinc in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, H.; Weismann, K.

    1979-01-01

    Seven groups of 8 rats each were orally loaded with zinc, the daily dose varying from 1.8 to 58 mg, corresponding to about 3 to 100 times of their estimated daily intake of zinc. To record the absorption of zinc, the rats were given a single dose of 65 Zn. The rentention of the isotope was measured in a whole animal counter at regular intervals. The dose of 58mg was obviously toxis, since half of the animals died within 5 days. The net absorption of zinc in the remaining experimental groups was found to vary from about 7% in the group receiving the smallest loading dose to 1.8% in the group receiving the highest dose. From the absorption values, as determined by extrapolation of semilog retention curves, the total amount of absorbed zinc was estimated. It was found to differ from about 170μg to about 530μg zinc daily, increasing three times as the loading dose was increased 16 times. This discrepancy suggests the existence of regulatory mechanisms of the absorption of zinc from the intestine. (orig.) [de

  17. Stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in rural areas with low soil zinc concentrations in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Yu; Boonstra, A.; Zhao, J.; Wu, M.; Hu, X.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in north rural area of Jiangsu Province with low soil zinc concentrations, eastern part of China. METHODS: Two data collection rounds were conducted. In the first data collection round, 2268 primary school children aged

  18. Effects of zinc supplementation on sexual behavior of male rats

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    DMAB Dissanayake

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Effects of zinc on male sexual competence are poorly understood. Aim: To study the effects of different doses of zinc on the sexual competence of males using a rat model. Materials and Methods: Three subsets (eight in each subset of sexually experienced adult male rats were supplemented with three different oral doses of zinc sulphate (a daily dose of 1 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg respectively for two weeks. A subset of eight animals without zinc supplementation was used as the control group Sexual behavior was observed by placing them individually in cages with receptive females. Statistical Analysis : Data analysis was done using SPSS v10 for windows computer software. Results: Supplementation of 5 mg of zinc/day for two weeks led to a prolongation of ejaculatory latency; 711.6 sec. (SEM 85.47 vs. 489.50 sec. (SEM 67.66, P 0.05. However, partner preference index was positive and 5 mg zinc supplementation did not exert a significant adverse effect on the muscle strength and co-ordination. The subset of rats supplemented with 1 mg/day did not show a difference from the control group while supplementation with 10 mg/day led to a reduction of the libido index, number of mounts and intromissions. Conclusions : Zinc therapy improves sexual competence of male rats; the effect is dose dependent. Increase in the T levels is beneficial in this regard. However, increase in PRL is responsible for the reduced libido index. Further studies on pigs and monkeys are needed to evaluate the therapeutic use of zinc in sexual dysfunction.

  19. Zinc Deficiency‐Like Syndrome in Fleckvieh Calves: Clinical and Pathological Findings and Differentiation from Bovine Hereditary Zinc Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S.; Majzoub‐Altweck, M.; Trefz, F.M.; Seifert, C.; Knubben‐Schweizer, G.; Fries, R.; Hermanns, W.; Gollnick, N.S.

    2018-01-01

    Background Zinc deficiency‐like (ZDL) syndrome is an inherited defect of Fleckvieh calves, with striking similarity to bovine hereditary zinc deficiency (BHZD). However, the causative mutation in a phospholipase D4 encoding gene (PLD4) shows no connection to zinc metabolism. Objectives To describe clinical signs, laboratory variables, and pathological findings of ZDL syndrome and their utility to differentiate ZDL from BHZD and infectious diseases with similar phenotype. Animals Nine hospitalized calves with crusting dermatitis and confirmed mutation in PLD4 and medical records from 25 calves with crusting dermatitis or suspected zinc deficiency. Methods Prospective and retrospective case series. Results The 9 calves (age: 5–53 weeks) displayed a moderate to severe crusting dermatitis mainly on the head, ventrum, and joints. Respiratory and digestive tract inflammations were frequently observed. Zinc supplementation did not lead to remission of clinical signs in 4 calves. Laboratory variables revealed slight anemia in 8 calves, hypoalbuminemia in 6 calves, but reduced serum zinc concentrations in only 3 calves. Mucosal erosions/ulcerations were present in 7 calves and thymus atrophy or reduced thymic weights in 8 calves. Histologically, skin lesions were indistinguishable from BHZD. Retrospective analysis of medical records revealed the presence of this phenotype since 1988 and pedigree analysis revealed a common ancestor of several affected calves. Conclusions and Clinical Importance ZDL syndrome should be suspected in Fleckvieh calves with crusting dermatitis together with diarrhea or respiratory tract inflammations without response to oral zinc supplementation. Definite diagnosis requires molecular genetic confirmation of the PLD4 mutation. PMID:29424482

  20. Generation of knockout rats with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID using zinc-finger nucleases.

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    Tomoji Mashimo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the rat is extensively used as a laboratory model, the inability to utilize germ line-competent rat embryonic stem (ES cells has been a major drawback for studies that aim to elucidate gene functions. Recently, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs were successfully used to create genome-specific double-stranded breaks and thereby induce targeted gene mutations in a wide variety of organisms including plants, drosophila, zebrafish, etc. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report here on ZFN-induced gene targeting of the rat interleukin 2 receptor gamma (Il2rg locus, where orthologous human and mouse mutations cause X-linked severe combined immune deficiency (X-SCID. Co-injection of mRNAs encoding custom-designed ZFNs into the pronucleus of fertilized oocytes yielded genetically modified offspring at rates greater than 20%, which possessed a wide variety of deletion/insertion mutations. ZFN-modified founders faithfully transmitted their genetic changes to the next generation along with the severe combined immune deficiency phenotype. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The efficient and rapid generation of gene knockout rats shows that using ZFN technology is a new strategy for creating gene-targeted rat models of human diseases. In addition, the X-SCID rats that were established in this study will be valuable in vivo tools for evaluating drug treatment or gene therapy as well as model systems for examining the treatment of xenotransplanted malignancies.

  1. Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase is lower and copper chaperone CCS is higher in erythrocytes of copper-deficient rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Elizabeth C; Prohaska, Joseph R

    2004-09-01

    Discovery of a sensitive blood biochemical marker of copper status would be valuable for assessing marginal copper intakes. Rodent models were used to investigate whether erythrocyte concentrations of copper,zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the copper metallochaperone for SOD (CCS) were sensitive to dietary copper changes. Several models of copper deficiency were studied in postweanling male Holtzman rats, male Swiss Webster mice offspring, and both rat and mouse dams. Treatment resulted in variable but significantly altered copper status as evaluated by the presence of anemia, and lower liver copper and higher liver iron concentrations in copper-deficient compared with copper-adequate animals. Associated with this copper deficiency were consistent reductions in immunoreactive SOD and robust enhancements in CCS. In most cases, the ratio of CCS:SOD was several-fold higher in red blood cell extracts from copper-deficient compared with copper-adequate rodents. Determination of red cell CCS:SOD may be useful for assessing copper status of humans.

  2. Zinc supplementation in rats impairs hippocampal-dependent memory consolidation and dampens post-traumatic recollection of stressful event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contestabile, Antonio; Peña-Altamira, Emiliano; Virgili, Marco; Monti, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Zinc is a trace element important for synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Zinc deficiency, both during pregnancy and after birth, impairs cognitive performance and, in addition to memory deficits, also results in alterations of attention, activity, neuropsychological behavior and motor development. The effects of zinc supplementation on cognition, particularly in the adult, are less clear. We demonstrate here in adult rats, that 4 week-long zinc supplementation given by drinking water, and approximately doubling normal daily intake, strongly impairs consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memory, tested through contextual fear conditioning and inhibitory avoidance. Furthermore, the same treatment started after memory consolidation of training for the same behavioral tests, substantially dampens the recall of the stressful event occurred 4 weeks before. A molecular correlate of the amnesic effect of zinc supplementation is represented by a dysregulated function of GSK-3ß in the hippocampus, a kinase that participates in memory processes. The possible relevance of these data for humans, in particular regarding post-traumatic stress disorders, is discussed in view of future investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinically distinct presentations of copper deficiency myeloneuropathy and cytopenias in a patient using excessive zinc-containing denture adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, Sahara J; Sofronescu, Alina G

    2017-08-01

    While copper deficiency has long been known to cause cytopenias, copper deficiency myeloneuropathy is a more recently described entity. Here, we present the case of two clinically distinct presentations of acquired copper deficiency syndromes secondary to excessive use of zinc-containing denture adhesive over five years: myeloneuropathy and severe macrocytic anemia and neutropenia. Extensive laboratory testing and histologic evaluation of the liver and bone marrow, were necessary to rule out other disease processes and establish the diagnosis of copper deficiency. The initial presentation consisted of a myelopathy involving the posterior columns. Serum and urine copper were significantly decreased, and serum zinc was elevated. On second presentation (five years later), multiple hematological abnormalities were detected. Serum copper was again decreased, while serum zinc was elevated. Zinc overload is a preventable cause of copper deficiency syndromes. This rare entity presented herein highlights the importance of patient, as well as provider, education. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Absorption of plutonium in the iron-deficient rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    Iron deficiency did not enhance absorption of plutonium following intragastric gavage of rats. Absorption of plutonium citrate in both control and iron-deficient rats was about 0.03% of the administered dose

  5. Effect of Zinc Deficiency and Excess on the Growth and Photosynthesis of Winter Wheat

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    N.M. Kaznina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is one of the necessary micronutrients for plants, which performs a number of various functions in their cells. Therefore, the deficiency of this element negatively affects on plants and leads to a significant decrease of their productivity. On the other hand, zinc in high concentrations is toxic to plants, and its accumulation in aerial organs, especially in cereals, represent a real danger to human and animal health. In this investigation the effect of the deficiency (Zn 0 μM and the excess of zinc (Zn 1000 μM on the growth and photosynthesis of the winter wheat (cv. Mironovskaya 39 was studied. As a result, similarities and differences in the response of plants to these two types of stress were revealed. In particular, both with a lack and with an excess of metal in the nutrient solution, shoot growth and photosynthesis rate are inhibited which leads to a decrease in the accumulation of dry biomass. Excess of metal, in contrast to its deficiency, leads to inhibition of root growth, and also a negative impact on pigment content, including light-harvesting complexes, and on maximum quantum yield of PS II. It is assumed that these changes in the photosynthetic apparatus are the main causes of a decrease of photosynthesis rate in plants under these conditions, whereas in the case of zinc deficiency, an inhibition of the process intensity is most likely due to a change in the activity of zinc-containing enzymes involved in the dark reactions of photosynthesis.

  6. Anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiency in Mexican adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Gaona, Berenice; Villalpando, Salvador; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Robledo, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    To describe the frequency of anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiencies among Mexican adolescents in the probabilistic survey ENSANUT 2006. The sample included 2447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 y. Capillary hemoglobin and venous blood samples were collected to measure the concentrations of ferritin, sTFR, CRP, zinc, iron, copper and magnesium. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for mineral deficiencies. The overall prevalence of anemia was 11.8 and 4.6%, body iron deficiency 18.2 and 7.9% for females and males, respectively. Overall prevalence of tissue iron deficiency was 6.9%, low serum copper were 14.4 and 12.25%; zinc 28.4 and 24.5%, magnesium 40 and 35.3%; for females and males, respectively. There is a high prevalence of mineral deficiency in Mexican adolescents; females were more prone to have more mineral deficiencies. Nutritional interventions are necessaries in order to reduce and control them.

  7. Zinc treatment ameliorates diarrhea and intestinal inflammation in undernourished rats

    OpenAIRE

    de Queiroz, Camila AA; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves C; Frota, Priscila B; Figueiredo, Ítalo L; Aragão, Karoline S; Magalhães, Carlos Emanuel C; de Carvalho, Cibele BM; Lima, Aldo Ângelo M; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Guerrant, Richard L; Moore, Sean R; Oriá, Reinaldo B

    2014-01-01

    Background WHO guidelines recommend zinc supplementation as a key adjunct therapy for childhood diarrhea in developing countries, however zinc’s anti-diarrheal effects remain only partially understood. Recently, it has been recognized that low-grade inflammation may influence stunting. In this study, we examined whether oral zinc supplementation could improve weight, intestinal inflammation, and diarrhea in undernourished weanling rats. Methods Rats were undernourished using a northeastern Br...

  8. Estimating the global prevalence of zinc deficiency: results based on zinc availability in national food supplies and the prevalence of stunting.

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    K Ryan Wessells

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adequate zinc nutrition is essential for adequate growth, immunocompetence and neurobehavioral development, but limited information on population zinc status hinders the expansion of interventions to control zinc deficiency. The present analyses were conducted to: (1 estimate the country-specific prevalence of inadequate zinc intake; and (2 investigate relationships between country-specific estimated prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and dietary patterns and stunting prevalence. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: National food balance sheet data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake were calculated based on the estimated absorbable zinc content of the national food supply, International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group estimated physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, and demographic data obtained from United Nations estimates. Stunting data were obtained from a recent systematic analysis based on World Health Organization growth standards. An estimated 17.3% of the world's population is at risk of inadequate zinc intake. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was negatively correlated with the total energy and zinc contents of the national food supply and the percent of zinc obtained from animal source foods, and positively correlated with the phytate: zinc molar ratio of the food supply. The estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was correlated with the prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age in children under five years of age (r = 0.48, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These results, which indicate that inadequate dietary zinc intake may be fairly common, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, allow inter-country comparisons regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health problem. Data from these analyses should be used to determine

  9. Effect of Zinc Deficiency and Excess on the Growth and Photosynthesis of Winter Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    N.M. Kaznina; A.F. Titov

    2017-01-01

    Zinc is one of the necessary micronutrients for plants, which performs a number of various functions in their cells. Therefore, the deficiency of this element negatively affects on plants and leads to a significant decrease of their productivity. On the other hand, zinc in high concentrations is toxic to plants, and its accumulation in aerial organs, especially in cereals, represent a real danger to human and animal health. In this investigation the effect of the deficiency (Zn 0 μM) and the ...

  10. Evaluation of the serum zinc level in adult patients with melasma: Is there a relationship with serum zinc deficiency and melasma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami Mogaddam, Majid; Safavi Ardabili, Nastaran; Iranparvar Alamdari, Manouchehr; Maleki, Nasrollah; Aghabalaei Danesh, Maryam

    2017-11-12

    Melasma is a common acquired hypermelanosis of sun-exposed skin, particularly on the face, which presents as symmetric, light- to gray-brown-colored macules and patches. There are several studies of serum zinc levels in cutaneous disorders. So far, no studies have been carried out to assess the serum zinc level in patients with melasma. The aim of this study is to determine the serum zinc level in patients with melasma compared to healthy subjects. A total of 118 patients with melasma and 118 healthy controls were enrolled in this prospective cross-sectional study. The two groups were matched for age and sex. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure serum zinc levels. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. The mean serum level of zinc in melasma patients and controls was 77.4±23.2 μg/dL and 82.2±23.9 μg/dL, respectively (P-value=.0001). Serum zinc deficiency was found in 45.8% and 23.7% of melasma patients and control subjects, respectively. A positive family history of melasma in first-degree relatives was present in 46 (39%) of the cases, and a history of taking oral contraceptive pill was found in 95 (81%) of women with melasma. The aggravating factors for melasma were stated as: sun exposure (11.1%), pregnancy (15.3%), nutrition (2.5%), oral contraceptive pills (18.6%), and emotional stress (5.9%). The malar and centrofacial patterns were seen in 3.4% and 72% of cases, respectively, whereas 24.6% of the patients had both centrofacial distribution and malar distribution, and there was no patient with mandibular pattern. Among patients with melasma, 20.3% had thyroid dysfunction, while in the control subjects, 8.4% had thyroid dysfunction (P=.001). There is a significant relationship between low levels of zinc and melasma. Zinc deficiency may be involved in the pathogenesis of melasma. Also, treatment with oral zinc supplements can be tried in these patients to see the outcome. However, to make recommendations on

  11. Influence of usual zinc intake and zinc in a meal on 65Zn retention and turnover in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.R.; Johnson, P.E.; Swan, P.B.

    1987-01-01

    The influences of zinc in a meal and usual zinc intake on zinc retention and turnover were investigated in 7-wk-old male rats fed diets containing 12-151 mg Zn/kg for 3 wk before and after consuming a 65 Zn-labeled meal containing ZnCl 2 . Retention corrected to zero time and turnover rate were determined by whole-body counting. Percent zinc retention was inversely proportional to the natural logarithm of the meal zinc, between 0.09 and 26 mumol. In comparison to lower doses, higher doses resulted in lower percent retention but greater amounts of zinc retained. Although the latter relationship was slightly curvilinear, there was no indication of a limited capacity for zinc retention with high doses. However, doses above 4 mumol resulted in higher turnover rates in rats accustomed to lower zinc intakes. Percent retention and the reciprocal of the turnover rate were proportional to the reciprocal of the dietary zinc concentration. The greatest differences in retention and turnover occurred between 12 and 26 mg Zn/kg diet. The zinc dose in a meal and the usual dietary zinc separately influenced percent zinc retention. These factors also interacted, such that greater dose effects were observed at lower zinc intakes and greater dietary zinc effects were observed at lower doses

  12. Interaction between nanoparticles generated by zinc chloride treatment and oxidative responses in rat liver

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    Azzouz I

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Inès Azzouz, Hamdi Trabelsi, Amel Hanini, Soumaya Ferchichi, Olfa Tebourbi, Mohsen Sakly, Hafedh AbdelmelekLaboratory of Integrative Physiology, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, Carthage University, TunisiaAbstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction of zinc chloride (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [ip] in rat liver in terms of the biosynthesis of nanoparticles. Zinc treatment increased zinc content in rat liver. Analysis of fluorescence revealed the presence of red fluorescence in the liver following zinc treatment. Interestingly, the co-exposure to zinc (3 mg/kg, ip and selenium (0.20 mg/L, per os [by mouth] led to a higher intensity of red fluorescence compared to zinc-treated rats. In addition, X-ray diffraction measurements carried out on liver fractions of zinc-treated rats point to the biosynthesis of zinc sulfide and/or selenide nanocomplexes at nearly 51.60 nm in size. Moreover, co-exposure led to nanocomplexes of about 72.60 nm in size. The interaction of zinc with other mineral elements (S, Se generates several nanocomplexes, such as ZnS and/or ZnSe. The nanocomplex ZnX could interact directly with enzyme activity or indirectly by the disruption of mineral elements' bioavailability in cells. Subacute zinc or selenium treatment decreased malondialdehyde levels, indicating a drop in lipid peroxidation. In addition, antioxidant enzyme assays showed that treatment with zinc or co-treatment with zinc and selenium increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. Consequently, zinc complexation with sulfur and/or selenium at nanoscale level could enhance antioxidative responses, which is correlated to the ratio of number of ZnX nanoparticles (X=sulfur or X=selenium to malondialdehyde level in rat liver.Keywords: nanocomplexes biosynthesis, antioxidative responses, X-ray diffraction, fluorescence microscopy, liver

  13. Zinc deficiency in children with environmental enteropathy—development of new strategies: report from an expert workshop1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Graeme P; Mortimer, Elissa K; Gopalsamy, Geetha L; Alpers, David H; Binder, Henry J; Manary, Mark J; Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan S; Brown, Ian L; Brewer, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    Zinc deficiency is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The WHO/UNICEF strategy for zinc supplementation as adjunctive therapy for diarrhea is poorly implemented. A conference of experts in zinc nutrition and gastrointestinal disorders was convened to consider approaches that might complement the current recommendation and what research was needed to develop these approaches. Several key points were identified. The design of novel zinc interventions would be facilitated by a better understanding of how disturbed gut function, such as environmental (or tropical) enteropathy, affects zinc absorption, losses, and homeostasis. Because only 10% of zinc stores are able to be rapidly turned over, and appear to be rapidly depleted by acute intestinal illness, they are probably best maintained by complementary regular supplementation in a primary prevention strategy rather than secondary prevention triggered by acute diarrhea. The assessment of zinc status is challenging and complex without simple, validated measures to facilitate field testing of novel interventions. Zinc bioavailability may be a crucial factor in the success of primary prevention strategies, and a range of options, all still inadequately explored, might be valuable in improving zinc nutrition. Some therapeutic actions of zinc on diarrhea seem attributable to pharmacologic effects, whereas others are related to the reversal of deficiency (ie, nutritional). The distinction between these 2 mechanisms cannot be clarified given the insensitivity of serum zinc to identify subclinical deficiency states. Why zinc seems to be less effective than expected at all ages, and ineffective for secondary prevention of diarrhea in children zinc and whether to provide a complementary public health primary prevention zinc strategy. This requires careful consideration of the zinc product to be used as well as strategies for its delivery. PMID:25240082

  14. Zinc deficiency in children with environmental enteropathy - development of new strategies: Report from an expert workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc deficiency is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The WHO/UNICEF strategy for zinc supplementation as adjunctive therapy for diarrhea is poorly implemented. A conference of experts in zinc nutrition and gastrointestinal disorders was convened to consider approaches that might co...

  15. Impact of maternal and postnatal zinc dietary status on the prostate of pubescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camora, Lucas F; Silva, Ana Priscila G; Santos, Sérgio A A; Justulin, Luis A; Perobelli, Juliana E; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Scarano, Wellerson R

    2017-11-01

    Zinc is important for cell physiology and alteration of its levels during development can modulate a series of biological events. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary zinc deficiency or supplementation during morphogenesis and early postnatal development could interfere in prostate maturation. Pregnant rats were exposed to a standard diet (NZ:35 mg Zn/kg chow), low-zinc diet (LZ:3 mg of Zn/kg chow) and zinc-supplemented diet (HZ:180 mg/Kg chow) from gestational day 10 (GD10) through postnatal day 21 (PND21). After weaning, male offspring were divided into three groups that were submitted to the same food conditions as their mothers until PND53. The animals were euthanized at PND53 and PND115. The ventral prostate was removed, weighed and its fragments were subjected to histological, western blot and zymography analysis. PND53: body and prostate weight were lower in LZ compared to NZ; the epithelial compartment was reduced while the stromal compartment was increased in LZ compared to NZ; there was an increase in the amount of collagen and reduction in AR and SIRT1 expression in LZ compared to NZ. PND115: body weight was lower in LZ compared to NZ and prostate weight was similar among the groups; peripheral physiological hyperplasia was observed, as well as an increased epithelial proliferation index and reduced PAR4 expression in LZ and HZ compared to NZ. Zinc deficiency during prostate morphogenesis and differentiation is potentially harmful to its morphology, however, by restoring the standard dietary environment, the gland responds to the new microenvironment independent of the previous dietary condition. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  16. Vitamin A, iron and zinc deficiency in Indonesia : micronutrient interactions and effects of supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, M.A.; Wieringa, F.T.

    2001-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was concerned with vitamin A, iron and zinc deficiency in pregnant and lactating women and in infants. The effects of supplementation withβ-carotene, iron and zinc on micronutrient status, growth, pregnancy outcome and immune function, and interactions

  17. [Improvement in zinc nutrition due to zinc transporter-targeting strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Taiho

    2016-07-01

    Adequate intake of zinc from the daily diet is indispensable to maintain health. However, the dietary zinc content often fails to fulfill the recommended daily intake, leading to zinc deficiency and also increases the risk of developing chronic diseases, particularly in elderly individuals. Therefore, increased attention is required to overcome zinc deficiency and it is important to improve zinc nutrition in daily life. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter, ZIP4, functions as a component that is essential for zinc absorption. In this manuscript, we present a brief overview regarding zinc deficiency. Moreover, we review a novel strategy, called "ZIP4-targeting", which has the potential to enable efficient zinc absorption from the diet. ZIP4-targeting strategy is possibly a major step in preventing zinc deficiency and improving human health.

  18. Zinc deficiency promotes cystitis-related bladder pain by enhancing function and expression of Cav3.2 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Tomoka; Matsuoka, Junki; Tsubota, Maho; Tomita, Shiori; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Minami, Takeshi; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2018-01-15

    Ca v 3.2 T-type Ca 2+ channel activity is suppressed by zinc that binds to the extracellular histidine-191 of Ca v 3.2, and enhanced by H 2 S that interacts with zinc. Ca v 3.2 in nociceptors is upregulated in an activity-dependent manner. The enhanced Ca v 3.2 activity by H 2 S formed by the upregulated cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) is involved in the cyclophosphamide (CPA)-induced cystitis-related bladder pain in mice. We thus asked if zinc deficiency affects the cystitis-related bladder pain in mice by altering Ca v 3.2 function and/or expression. Dietary zinc deficiency for 2 weeks greatly decreased zinc concentrations in the plasma but not bladder tissue, and enhanced the bladder pain/referred hyperalgesia (BP/RH) following CPA at 200mg/kg, a subeffective dose, but not 400mg/kg, a maximal dose, an effect abolished by pharmacological blockade or gene silencing of Ca v 3.2. Acute zinc deficiency caused by systemic N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl)-ethylendiamine (TPEN), a zinc chelator, mimicked the dietary zinc deficiency-induced Ca v 3.2-dependent promotion of BP/RH following CPA at 200mg/kg. CPA at 400mg/kg alone or TPEN plus CPA at 200mg/kg caused Ca v 3.2 overexpression accompanied by upregulation of Egr-1 and USP5, known to promote transcriptional expression and reduce proteasomal degradation of Ca v 3.2, respectively, in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). The CSE inhibitor, β-cyano-l-alanine, prevented the BP/RH and upregulation of Ca v 3.2, Egr-1 and USP5 in DRG following TPEN plus CPA at 200mg/kg. Together, zinc deficiency promotes bladder pain accompanying CPA-induced cystitis by enhancing function and expression of Ca v 3.2 in nociceptors, suggesting a novel therapeutic avenue for treatment of bladder pain, such as zinc supplementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Loss of synaptic zinc transport in progranulin deficient mice may contribute to progranulin-associated psychopathology and chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Stefanie; Heidler, Juliana; Albuquerque, Boris; Valek, Lucie; Altmann, Christine; Wilken-Schmitz, Annett; Schäfer, Michael K E; Wittig, Ilka; Tegeder, Irmgard

    2017-11-01

    Affective and cognitive processing of nociception contributes to the development of chronic pain and vice versa, pain may precipitate psychopathologic symptoms. We hypothesized a higher risk for the latter with immanent neurologic diseases and studied this potential interrelationship in progranulin-deficient mice, which are a model for frontotemporal dementia, a disease dominated by behavioral abnormalities in humans. Young naïve progranulin deficient mice behaved normal in tests of short-term memory, anxiety, depression and nociception, but after peripheral nerve injury, they showed attention-deficit and depression-like behavior, over-activity, loss of shelter-seeking, reduced impulse control and compulsive feeding behavior, which did not occur in equally injured controls. Hence, only the interaction of 'pain x progranulin deficiency' resulted in the complex phenotype at young age, but neither pain nor progranulin deficiency alone. A deep proteome analysis of the prefrontal cortex and olfactory bulb revealed progranulin-dependent alterations of proteins involved in synaptic transport, including neurotransmitter transporters of the solute carrier superfamily. In particular, progranulin deficiency was associated with a deficiency of nuclear and synaptic zinc transporters (ZnT9/Slc30a9; ZnT3/Slc30a3) with low plasma zinc. Dietary zinc supplementation partly normalized the attention deficit of progranulin-deficient mice, which was in part reminiscent of autism-like and compulsive behavior of synaptic zinc transporter Znt3-knockout mice. Hence, the molecular studies point to defective zinc transport possibly contributing to progranulin-deficiency-associated psychopathology. Translated to humans, our data suggest that neuropathic pain may precipitate cognitive and psychopathological symptoms of an inherent, still silent neurodegenerative disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Zinc Deficiency Induces Apoptosis via Mitochondrial p53- and Caspase-Dependent Pathways in Human Neuronal Precursor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Rohit; Corniola, Rikki S.; Gower-Winter, Shannon D.; Morgan, Thomas J., Jr.; Bishop, Brian; Levenson, Cathy W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that zinc deficiency leads to apoptosis of neuronal precursor cells in vivo and in vitro. In addition to the role of p53 as a nuclear transcription factor in zinc deficient cultured human neuronal precursors (NT-2), we have now identified the translocation of phosphorylated p53 to the mitochondria and p53-dependent…

  1. Zinc supplementation alleviates the progression of diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting the overexpression of oxidative-stress-mediated molecular markers in streptozotocin-induced experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Susmita; Pradeep, Seetur R; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2018-04-01

    Zinc deficiency during diabetes projects a role for zinc nutrition in the management of diabetic nephropathy. The current study explored whether zinc supplementation protects against diabetic nephropathy through modulation of kidney oxidative stress and stress-induced expression related to the inflammatory process in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Groups of hyperglycemic rats were exposed to dietary interventions for 6 weeks with zinc supplementation (5 times and 10 times the normal level). Supplemental-zinc-fed diabetic groups showed a significant reversal of increased kidney weight and creatinine clearance. There was a significant reduction in hyperlipidemic condition along with improved PUFA:SFA ratio in the renal tissue. Expression of the lipid oxidative marker and expression of inflammatory markers, cytokines, fibrosis factors and apoptotic regulatory proteins observed in diabetic kidney were beneficially modulated by zinc supplementation, the ameliorative effect being concomitant with elevated antiapoptosis. There was a significant reduction in advanced glycation, expression of the receptor of the glycated products and oxidative stress markers. Zinc supplementation countered the higher activity and expression of polyol pathway enzymes in the kidney. Overexpression of the glucose transporters, as an adaptation to the increased need for glucose transport in diabetic condition, was minimized by zinc treatment. The pathological abnormalities in the renal architecture of diabetic animals were corrected by zinc intervention. Thus, dietary zinc supplementation has a significant beneficial effect in the control of diabetic nephropathy. This was exerted through a protective influence on oxidative-stress-induced cytokines, inflammatory proliferation and consequent renal injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of vitamin a, zinc, iodine deficiency and anaemia among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children are the most nutritionally vulnerable group of society as children are dependants and they are also at a critical stage of the growing process. They need adequate vitamin A, zinc, iron and iodine for their development and school performance. Most often iron deficiency causes anaemia with resultant fatigue and low ...

  3. Evidence for a zinc/proton antiporter in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, R A; Davis, N; Nipper, R W; Carter, P A

    2000-05-01

    The data presented in this paper are consistent with the existence of a plasma membrane zinc/proton antiport activity in rat brain. Experiments were performed using purified plasma membrane vesicles isolated from whole rat brain. Incubating vesicles in the presence of various concentrations of 65Zn2+ resulted in a rapid accumulation of 65Zn2+. Hill plot analysis demonstrated a lack of cooperativity in zinc activation of 65Zn2+ uptake. Zinc uptake was inhibited in the presence of 1 mM Ni2+, Cd2+, or CO2+. Calcium (1 mM) was less effective at inhibiting 65Zn2+ uptake and Mg2+ and Mn2+ had no effect. The initial rate of vesicular 65Zn2+ uptake was inhibited by increasing extravesicular H+ concentration. Vesicles preloaded with 65Zn2+ could be induced to release 65Zn2+ by increasing extravesicular H+ or addition of 1 mM nonradioactive Zn2+. Hill plot analysis showed a lack of cooperativity in H+ activation of 65Zn2+ release. Based on the Hill analyses, the stoichiometry of transport may include Zn2+/Zn2+ exchange and Zn2+/H+ antiport, the latter being potentially electrogenic. Zinc/proton antiport may be an important mode of zinc uptake into neurons and contribute to the reuptake of zinc to replenish presynaptic vesicle stores after stimulation.

  4. Protective effects of zinc acetate toward the toxicity of nickelous acetate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, M.P.; Kasprzak, K.S.; Ohshima, M.; Poirier, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of zinc pretreatment on the acute toxicity of nickel. Male Fischer rats received either nickel alone (i.p.), zinc alone (s.c.), zinc plus nickel, or saline (i.p. and s.c.; controls). Zinc pretreatment significantly increased the 14-day survival of nickel-related rats. Zinc did not, however, prevent the reduction in weight gain over 2 weeks seen with nickel treatment. Histopathologically, at 120 h following nickel exposure, kidneys in the group receiving nickel alone generally showed moderate nephropathy (multifocal proximal tubule degeneration with necrosis) while in the zinc plus nickel group the nephropathy was generally mild. Zinc pretreatment had no apparent effect on the pharmacokinetics of nickel over 24 h as assessed by urinary excretion, blood levels or organ distribution. Zinc pretreatment also did not alter the subcellular distribution of renal nickel 6 h after nickel exposure. Enhanced synthesis of metallothionein did not appear to play a critical role in the reduction of nickel toxicity, since renal concentrations of this metalbuilding protein, although elevated compared to control, were not different in rats receiving zinc and nickel or zinc alone. Zinc pretreatment did, however, have marked effect on nickel-induced hyperglycemia, reducing both the duration and severity of elevated blood glucose levels. Results of the study show that zinc can prevent some of the toxic effects of nickel and that the mechanism of this action does not appear to involve either metalothionein or alterations in the pharmacokinetics of nickel. (author)

  5. Effects of betaine supplementation and choline deficiency on folate deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Yi-qun; Morita, Tatsuya; Sugiyama, Kimio

    2012-01-01

    The effect of betaine status on folate deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia was investigated to determine whether folate deficiency impairs homocysteine removal not only by the methionine synthase (MS) pathway but also by the betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) pathway. For this purpose, we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with betaine at a high level (1%) in rats fed a folate-deprived 10% casein diet (10C) and 20% casein diet (20C). We also investigated the effect of choline deprivation on folate deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in rats fed 20C. Supplementation of folate-deprived 10C and 20C with 1% betaine significantly suppressed folate deprivation-induced hyperhomocysteinemia, but the extent of suppression was partial or limited, especially in rats fed 10C, the suppression of plasma homocysteine increment being 48.5% in rats fed 10C and 69.7% in rats fed 20C. Although betaine supplementation greatly increased hepatic betaine concentration and BHMT activity, these increases did not fully explain why the effect of betaine supplementation was partial or limited. Folate deprivation markedly increased the hepatic concentration of N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), a known inhibitor of BHMT, and there was a significant positive correlation between hepatic DMG concentration and plasma homocysteine concentration, suggesting that folate deficiency increases hepatic DMG concentration and thereby depresses BHMT reaction, leading to interference with the effect of betaine supplementation. Choline deprivation did not increase plasma homocysteine concentration in rats fed 20C, but it markedly enhanced plasma homocysteine concentration when rats were fed folate-deprived 20C. This indicates that choline deprivation reinforced folate deprivation-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Increased hepatic DMG concentration was also associated with such an effect. These results support the concept that folate deficiency impairs homocysteine metabolism not only

  6. Negative Effect of Zinc on Testes, Testosterone and Gonadotrophins Levels in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sohrabi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesThe toxic effects of zinc leading to sebaceous gland closure, skin eczema and blister have been previously demonstrated in other studies. The aim of this study is to determine the chronic effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2 on testicular tissues, testosterone and gonadotrophins in adult male Wistar rats.Methods Twenty four Adult male Wistar rats were divided in to two groups of study and control with each group consisting of 12 rats. Study group rats received 10 mg/kg interaperitoneal Zinc chloride in normal saline (N.S every other day for 30 days. Control group rats received N.S during this time. Blood sample for hormonal evaluation were collected from hearts of these rats. The rats were destroyed and their testes were removed and fixed in a 10% formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde solution.ResultsThe results of this study showed a significant decrease in the level of LH and testosterone hormone among the rats in the study group compared to the control group with p< 0.001 and p< 0.01 respectively. Study of fine structure of testicular cells and tissues in the study group rats revealed swelling of mitochondria, increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum vacuolization and lysosomic granules (Autophagic vacuoles in cytosol of their germinal cells.ConclusionBased on the results of this study consumption of large amount of compounds which contain zinc should be controlled and limited among men. There is a need for further studies to evaluate and determine the reversibility of most hormonal and physiological changes due to usage of zinc containing compounds.Keywords: Zinc Chloride; Testis; Testosterone; Gonadotrophins

  7. Influence of zinc on the biokinetics of Zn-65 and hepatic trace elements of ethanol treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhawan, D.K.; Pathak, A.; Pathak, R.; Mahmood, A.

    2002-01-01

    Influence of zinc on the biokinetics of 65 Zn and hepatic trace elements of ethanol treated rats. The effect of zinc on the biokinetics of 65 Zn in liver and whole body and its relation to the hepatic levels of different elements was evaluated in male wistar rats under alcoholic conditions. The rats were segregated into four treatment groups viz., normal control, ethanol treated, zinc treated and combined zinc+ethanol treated. Animals were fed 3ml of 30% ethanol orally daily and zinc in the form of zinc sulfate (ZnSo 4 7H 2 O) was administrated to rats at a dose level of 227mg/L mixed in their drinking water for a total duration of 2 months. Whole body counting studies indicated that the Tb 1 i.e., the faster elimination of the radiotracer. On the contrary, Tb 2 i.e., the slower component was increased significantly following ethanol treatment. Percent uptake values of 65 Zn were found to be increased in liver, intestine, muscle and kidney and decreased in bone under alcoholic conditions. A significant elevation was noticed in in vitro uptake 65 Zn in ethanol treated animals. In the above said conditions, the values were reverted back to within normal limits upon zinc supplementation to these ethanol intoxicated animals, except in the case of in vitro 65 Zn uptake in liver where the uptake was further increased upon combined treatment. A significant decrease in zinc contents was noticed in ethanol treated rats, which however were raised to normal levels upon zinc supplementation. Copper levels, on the other hand, were found to be significantly enhanced in both ethanol fed and combined ethanol+zinc supplemented animals. Calcium levels were found to e significantly decreased in both ethanol and zinc treated rats, which however were further reduced upon zinc supplementation to ethanol fed rats. However, no significant change was observed in the concentrations of sodium and potassium in any of the treatment groups. Therefore, zinc appears to play a protective role by

  8. Intrauterine Zn Deficiency Favors Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone-Increasing Effects on Thyrotropin Serum Levels and Induces Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Weaned Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Alcántara-Alonso

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who consume a diet deficient in zinc (Zn-deficient develop alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function, i.e., a low metabolic rate and cold insensitivity. Although those disturbances are related to primary hypothyroidism, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficient adults have an increased thyrotropin (TSH concentration, but unchanged thyroid hormone (TH levels and decreased body weight. This does not support the view that the hypothyroidism develops due to a low Zn intake. In addition, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficiency in weaned and adult rats reduces the activity of pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase II (PPII in the medial-basal hypothalamus (MBH. PPII is an enzyme that degrades thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH. This hypothalamic peptide stimulates its receptor in adenohypophysis, thereby increasing TSH release. We analyzed whether earlier low TH is responsible for the high TSH levels reported in adults, or if TRH release is enhanced by Zn deficiency at weaning. Dams were fed a 2 ppm Zn-deficient diet in the period from one week prior to gestation and up to three weeks after delivery. We found a high release of hypothalamic TRH, which along with reduced MBH PPII activity, increased TSH levels in Zn-deficient pups independently of changes in TH concentration. We found that primary hypothyroidism did not develop in intrauterine Zn-deficient weaned rats and we confirmed that metal deficiency enhances TSH levels since early-life, favoring subclinical hypothyroidism development which remains into adulthood.

  9. Beer improves copper metabolism and increases longevity in Cu-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.J.; Klevay, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages decreases risk of death from ischemic heart disease (IHD). Evidence suggests that Cu-deficiency is important in the etiology and pathophysiology of IHD. The effect of beer (25 ng Cu/ml) drinking on the severity of Cu-deficiency was examined in weanling, male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a low Cu diet (0.84 μg Cu/g). Beer drinking increased median longevity to 204 or 299 d from 62 or 42 d respectively in rats drinking water in two experiments (15 rats/group). In experiment 3, a single dose of 67 Cu (3.3 μCi as chloride) was added to 1 g of feed and given to 12-h fasted rats 30 d after the start of the experiment. Whole body counting over 13 d showed apparent Cu absorption and t 1/2 (biological) were greater in Cu-deficient rats drinking beer than in similar rats drinking water. Plasma cholesterol was lower but hematocrit and liver Cu were higher in surviving rats drinking beer than in rats drinking water. Body weight was not affected by beer in any experiment. In experiment 4, a 4% aqueous ethanol solution had no effect on longevity of copper deficient rats. A non-alcohol component of beer alters Cu metabolism and mitigates the severity of nutritional Cu-deficiency in rats

  10. Ascorbic acid deficiency aggravates stress-induced gastric mucosal lesions in genetically scorbutic ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Y; Chiba, S; Imai, Y; Kamiya, Y; Arisawa, T; Kitagawa, A

    2006-12-01

    We examined whether ascorbic acid (AA) deficiency aggravates water immersion restraint stress (WIRS)-induced gastric mucosal lesions in genetically scorbutic ODS rats. ODS rats received scorbutic diet with either distilled water containing AA (1 g/l) or distilled water for 2 weeks. AA-deficient rats had 12% of gastric mucosal AA content in AA-sufficient rats. AA-deficient rats showed more severe gastric mucosal lesions than AA-sufficient rats at 1, 3 or 6 h after the onset of WIRS, although AA-deficient rats had a slight decrease in gastric mucosal AA content, while AA-sufficient rats had a large decrease in that content. AA-deficient rats had more decreased gastric mucosal nonprotein SH and vitamin E contents and increased gastric mucosal lipid peroxide content than AA-sufficient rats at 1, 3 or 6 h of WIRS. These results indicate that AA deficiency aggravates WIRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions in ODS rats by enhancing oxidative damage in the gastric mucosa.

  11. Work within the coordinated programme on isotope-aided micronutrient studies in rice production with special reference to zinc deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, L.

    1980-04-01

    A series of pot and field experiments with flooded rice were carried out on contrasting soil types of Bangladesh to study the zinc status of soils, evaluate chemical methods for extracting zinc from soils in terms of ability to identify zinc deficiency, 65 Zn-aided experiments including the residual effect of zinc fertilizers to evaluate the efficiency of zinc sources and methods of zinc application to rice. The results show that (1) the available zinc extracted successively with 0.1 N HCl showed a significant, positive correlation between available soil zinc and plant zinc content; (2) among rice soils of Bangladesh the zinc content from critical limits to adequate levels in the south and south-eastern part of the country was determined. In the northern part of the country, deficiency problems were clearly seen; (3) the rates and methods of zinc application under experimental conditions influences the yield parameters differently and may show an apparent or significant change; (4) 5-7 kg Zn/ha as zinc sulfate were introduced as optimal rates for the soils under experiments; (5) significant yield increases due to the residual effect of zinc fertilizer were obtained on the experiments under dry season conditions but not under wet conditions

  12. Comparative Study of Antidiabetic Activity and Oxidative Stress Induced by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Zinc Sulfate in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarizadeh, Ali; Asri-Rezaie, Siamak

    2016-08-01

    In the current study, antidiabetic activity and toxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) were investigated in diabetic rats compared to zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) with particular emphasis on oxidative stress parameters. One hundred and twenty male Wistar rats were divided into two healthy and diabetic groups, randomly. Each major group was further subdivided into five subgroups and then orally supplemented with various doses of ZnO (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) and ZnSO4 (30 mg/kg) for 56 consecutive days. ZnO showed greater antidiabetic activity compared to ZnSO4 evidenced by improved glucose disposal, insulin levels, and zinc status. The altered activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes as well as raised levels of lipid peroxidation and a marked reduction of total antioxidant capacity were observed in rats receiving ZnO. ZnO nanoparticles acted as a potent antidiabetic agent, however, severely elicited oxidative stress particularly at higher doses.

  13. Iron, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Zinc Deficiencies in Children Presenting with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Villagomez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder increasing in prevalence. Although there is limited evidence to support treating ADHD with mineral/vitamin supplements, research does exist showing that patients with ADHD may have reduced levels of vitamin D, zinc, ferritin, and magnesium. These nutrients have important roles in neurologic function, including involvement in neurotransmitter synthesis. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of each of these nutrients in the brain, the possible altered levels of these nutrients in patients with ADHD, possible reasons for a differential level in children with ADHD, and safety and effect of supplementation. With this knowledge, clinicians may choose in certain patients at high risk of deficiency, to screen for possible deficiencies of magnesium, vitamin D, zinc, and iron by checking RBC-magnesium, 25-OH vitamin D, serum/plasma zinc, and ferritin. Although children with ADHD may be more likely to have lower levels of vitamin D, zinc, magnesium, and iron, it cannot be stated that these lower levels caused ADHD. However, supplementing areas of deficiency may be a safe and justified intervention.

  14. Micronutrient supplementation adherence and influence on the prevalences of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies in preemies with a corrected age of six months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunnella Alcantara Chagas de Freitas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze adherence to the recommended iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines for preemies, the factors associated with this adherence, and the influence of adherence on the occurrence of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies. METHODS: This prospective cohort study followed 58 preemies born in 2014 until they reached six months corrected age. The preemies were followed at a referral secondary health service and represented 63.7% of the preterm infants born that year. Outcomes of interest included high or low adherence to iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines; prevalence of anemia; and prevalences of iron, zinc, and vitamin A deficiencies. The prevalence ratios were calculated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Thirty-eight (65.5% preemies presented high adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines. At six months of corrected age, no preemie had vitamin A deficiency. The prevalences of anemia, iron deficiency and zinc deficiency were higher in the low-adherence group but also concerning in the high-adherence group. Preemies with low adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines were 2.5 times more likely to develop anemia and 3.1 times more likely to develop zinc deficiency. Low maternal education level increased the likelihood of nonadherence to all three supplements by 2.2 times. CONCLUSIONS: Low maternal education level was independently associated with low adherence to iron, zinc and vitamin A supplementation guidelines in preemies, which impacted the prevalences of anemia and iron and zinc deficiencies at six months of corrected age.

  15. Cytoarchitectonic distribution of zinc in the hippocampus of man and the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederickson, C.J.; Klitenick, M.A.; Manton, W.I.; Kirkpatrick, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    Zinc was measured in whole hippocampus and in hippocampal sub-regions by stable-isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Lyophilized tissues were spiked by a precisely-known amount of zinc-64. The zinc-64/zinc-66 isotope ratio was determined by mass spectrometry. In both man and the rat, the most zinc (102-145 ppm, dry weight) was found in the hilar region, the least (27-35) in the fimbria. The amount of zinc directly associated with mossy-fiber axons was estimated to be approximately 8% of the total zinc in the hippocampus, and the concentration of mossy-fiber zinc was estimated at 220-300 μM. Methodological and theoretical implications of the quantitative findings were discussed. (Auth.)

  16. Discrimination between low dietary zinc and endotoxin exposure : a model study on weaning rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouwe, van J.P.; Veldhuizen, M.; Hamer, van den C.J.A.; de Goeij, J.J.M.

    1990-01-01

    To establish a parameter for zinc status that is independent of the occurrence of infection, we studied the effects of low dietary zinc and endotoxin in weaning rats 21 d after 65Zn intubation. We monitored aspects of zinc status (tissue zinc content, 65Zn distribution, and specific 65Zn activity in

  17. Vitamin C deficiency exerts paradoxical cardiovascular effects in osteogenic disorder Shionogi (ODS) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergely, Catherine; Goirand, Françoise; Ecarnot-Laubriet, Aline; Renard, Céline; Moreau, Daniel; Guilland, Jean-Claude; Dumas, Monique; Rochette, Luc

    2004-04-01

    Vitamin C is considered to be a very efficient water-soluble antioxidant, for which several new cardiovascular properties were recently described. The aim of this study was to determine in vivo the effects of a severe depletion of vitamin C on cardiac and vascular variables and reperfusion arrhythmias. For this purpose, we used a mutant strain of Wistar rats, osteogenic disorder Shionogi (ODS). After 15 d of consuming a vitamin C-deficient diet, ODS rats had a 90% decrease in plasma and tissue levels of ascorbate compared with ODS vitamin C-supplemented rats and normal Wistar rats. However, plasma antioxidant capacity, proteins, alpha-tocopherol, urate, catecholamines, lipids, and nitrate were not influenced by the vitamin C deficiency in ODS rats. Moreover, there was no difference between ODS vitamin C-deficient and -supplemented rats in heart rate and arterial pressure. After 5 min of an in vivo regional myocardial ischemia, various severe arrhythmias were observed, but their intensities were not modified by vitamin C in vitamin C-deficient ODS rats. The vascular reactivity, measured in vitro on thoracic arteries, was not altered by ascorbate deficiency in ODS rats. These unexpected results suggest that unidentified compensatory mechanisms play a role in maintaining normal cardiac function and vascular reactivity in vitamin C-deficient rats.

  18. Negative Effect of Zinc on Testes, Testosterone and Gonadotrophins Levels in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Sohrabi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    The toxic effects of zinc leading to sebaceous gland closure, skin eczema and blister have been previously demonstrated in other studies. The aim of this study is to determine the chronic effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2   on testicular tissues, testosterone and gonadotrophins in adult male Wistar rats.

     

    Methods

    Twenty four Adult male Wistar rats were divided in to two groups of study and control with each group consisting of 12 rats. Study group rats received 10 mg/kg interaperitoneal Zinc chloride in normal saline (N.S every other day for 30 days. Control group rats received N.S during this time. Blood sample for hormonal evaluation were collected from hearts of these rats. The rats were destroyed and their testes were removed and fixed in a 10% formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde solution.

     

    Results

    The results of this study showed a significant decrease in the level of LH and testosterone hormone among the rats in the study group compared to the control group with p< 0.001  and

    p< 0.01 respectively. Study of fine structure of testicular cells and tissues in the study group rats  revealed swelling of mitochondria, increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum vacuolization and lysosomic granules (Autophagic vacuoles in cytosol of their germinal cells.

     

    Conclusion

    Based on the results of this study consumption of large amount of compounds which contain zinc should be controlled and limited among men. There is a need for further studies to evaluate and determine the reversibility of most hormonal and physiological changes due to usage of zinc containing compounds.

  19. Micronutrient problems of crops in Pakistan with special reference to zinc and copper deficiency in rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, F.M.; Sharif, M.

    1975-01-01

    Studies on the mechanisms of zinc-65 adsorption by various types of soil are being conducted. The soils of the Hyderabad region of the Sind province appear to de deficient in Zn for maize and in B for cotton, sweet clover, wheat and millets. Zinc, Cu and B deficiency seems to be widespread for wheat on many non-rice growing soils of the Punjab. In the North Frontier Province, sugarbeet and citrus orchards respond markedly to the application of Zn, Cu and Fe. Lowland rice responds to the addition of Zn in all the provinces of Pakistan. In rice tracts of the Punjab, Zn and Cu deficiency is quite prevalent for rice. The scope of necessary future research is discussed

  20. Effect of subchronic zinc toxicity on rat salivary glands and serum composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizari, Nazer; Hirbod-Mobarakeh, Armin; Shahinpour, Shervin; Ghalichi-Tabriz, Mostafa; Beigy, Maani; Yamini, Ali; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2012-11-01

    Zinc plays an important role in a wide variety of metabolic processes in animal systems. The role of zinc in preservative treatment, fungicidal action and medicine, and addition of supplementary zinc have increased the probability of zinc toxicity, specially the chronic type. It is known that the composition and quantity of saliva influence the oral health. Regarding people's exposure to zinc in routine life and the importance of saliva, our purpose was to investigate the effects of oral zinc intoxication on secretory function in rat salivary glands and also on serum composition. In this study, there were five groups of female rats. Four groups received zinc acetate dehydrate through their drinking water. After 3 months of experiment, the chemical characteristics and flow rate of saliva and weight of salivary glands were determined. The effects of zinc on hematological and chemical factors of plasma were assessed too. Flow rate of submandibular glands was significantly lower in experimental groups and there were significant changes in Na(+), Ca(2+) and K(+) concentration both in saliva and in plasma. The serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glucose levels in the plasma and urine creatinine levels were also altered in experimental groups in comparison with the control group. Our results show that zinc toxicity will affect the quantity and quality of saliva probably through changes in the various neurologic pathways to the salivary glands or effects on acinar cells of the salivary glands. Furthermore, our results showed that zinc toxicity will affect the liver and renal function.

  1. Cytosolic labile zinc: a marker for apoptosis in the developing rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Yong; Hwang, Jung Jin; Park, Mi-Ha; Koh, Jae-Young

    2006-01-01

    Cytosolic zinc accumulation was thought to occur specifically in neuronal death (necrosis) following acute injury. However, a recent study demonstrated that zinc accumulation also occurs in adult rat neurons undergoing apoptosis following target ablation, and in vitro experiments have shown that zinc accumulation may play a causal role in various forms of apoptosis. Here, we examined whether intraneuronal zinc accumulation occurs in central neurons undergoing apoptosis during development. Embryonic and newborn Sprague-Dawley rat brains were double-stained for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL) detection of apoptosis and immunohistochemical detection of stage-specific neuronal markers, such as nestin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), TuJ1 and neuronal nuclear specific protein (NeuN). The results revealed that apoptotic cell death occurred in neurons of diverse stages (neural stem cells, and dividing, young and adult neurons) throughout the brain during the embryonic and early postnatal periods. Further staining of brain sections with acid fuchsin or zinc-specific fluorescent dyes showed that all of the apoptotic neurons were acidophilic and contained labile zinc in their cell bodies. Cytosolic zinc accumulation was also observed in cultured cortical neurons undergoing staurosporine- or sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced apoptosis. In contrast, zinc chelation with CaEDTA or N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) reduced SNP-induced apoptosis but not staurosporine-induced apoptosis, indicating that cytosolic zinc accumulation does not play a causal role in all forms of apoptosis. Finally, the specific cytosolic zinc accumulation may have a practical application as a relatively simple marker for neurons undergoing developmental apoptosis.

  2. Chelation of hippocampal zinc enhances long-term potentiation and synaptic tagging/capture in CA1 pyramidal neurons of aged rats: implications to aging and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Mahesh Shivarama; Sharma, Mahima; Sajikumar, Sreedharan

    2017-02-01

    Aging is associated with decline in cognitive functions, prominently in the memory consolidation and association capabilities. Hippocampus plays a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of long-term associative memories, and a significant body of evidence shows that impairments in hippocampal function correlate with aging-related memory loss. A number of studies have implicated alterations in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation (LTP), in age-related cognitive decline although exact mechanisms underlying are not completely clear. Zinc deficiency and the resultant adverse effects on cognition have been well studied. However, the role of excess of zinc in synaptic plasticity, especially in aging, is not addressed well. Here, we have investigated the hippocampal zinc levels and the impairments in synaptic plasticity, such as LTP and synaptic tagging and capture (STC), in the CA1 region of acute hippocampal slices from 82- to 84-week-old male Wistar rats. We report increased zinc levels in the hippocampus of aged rats and also deficits in the tetani-induced and dopaminergic agonist-induced late-LTP and STC. The observed deficits in synaptic plasticity were restored upon chelation of zinc using a cell-permeable chelator. These data suggest that functional plasticity and associativity can be successfully established in aged neural networks by chelating zinc with cell-permeable chelating agents. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Perinatal ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supply modifies brain zinc homeostasis during adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasooriya, Anura P.; Ackland, M. Leigh; Mathai, Michael L.; Sinclair, Andrew J.; Weisinger, Harrison S.; Weisinger, Richard S.; Halver, John E.; Kitajka, Klára; Puskás, László G.

    2005-01-01

    Dietary ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) influences the expression of a number of genes in the brain. Zinc transporter (ZnT) 3 has been identified as a putative transporter of zinc into synaptic vesicles of neurons and is found in brain areas such as hippocampus and cortex. Neuronal zinc is involved in the formation of amyloid plaques, a major characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. The present study evaluated the influence of dietary ω-3 PUFA on the expression of the ZnT3 gene in the brains of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were raised and/or maintained on a control (CON) diet that contained ω-3 PUFA or a diet deficient (DEF) in ω-3 PUFA. ZnT3 gene expression was analyzed by using real-time PCR, free zinc in brain tissue was determined by zinquin staining, and total zinc concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Compared with CON-raised animals, DEF-raised animals had increased expression of ZnT3 in the brain that was associated with an increased level of free zinc in the hippocampus. In addition, compared with CON-raised animals, DEF-raised animals had decreased plasma zinc level. No difference in cerebrospinal fluid zinc level was observed. The results suggest that overexpression of ZnT3 due to a perinatal ω-3 PUFA deficiency caused abnormal zinc metabolism in the brain. Conceivably, the influence of dietary ω-3 PUFA on brain zinc metabolism could explain the observation made in population studies that the consumption of fish is associated with a reduced risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:15883362

  4. Perinatal omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supply modifies brain zinc homeostasis during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasooriya, Anura P; Ackland, M Leigh; Mathai, Michael L; Sinclair, Andrew J; Weisinger, Harrison S; Weisinger, Richard S; Halver, John E; Kitajka, Klára; Puskás, László G

    2005-05-17

    Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) influences the expression of a number of genes in the brain. Zinc transporter (ZnT) 3 has been identified as a putative transporter of zinc into synaptic vesicles of neurons and is found in brain areas such as hippocampus and cortex. Neuronal zinc is involved in the formation of amyloid plaques, a major characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. The present study evaluated the influence of dietary omega-3 PUFA on the expression of the ZnT3 gene in the brains of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were raised and/or maintained on a control (CON) diet that contained omega-3 PUFA or a diet deficient (DEF) in omega-3 PUFA. ZnT3 gene expression was analyzed by using real-time PCR, free zinc in brain tissue was determined by zinquin staining, and total zinc concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Compared with CON-raised animals, DEF-raised animals had increased expression of ZnT3 in the brain that was associated with an increased level of free zinc in the hippocampus. In addition, compared with CON-raised animals, DEF-raised animals had decreased plasma zinc level. No difference in cerebrospinal fluid zinc level was observed. The results suggest that overexpression of ZnT3 due to a perinatal omega-3 PUFA deficiency caused abnormal zinc metabolism in the brain. Conceivably, the influence of dietary omega-3 PUFA on brain zinc metabolism could explain the observation made in population studies that the consumption of fish is associated with a reduced risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Effect of supplementary zinc on orthodontic tooth movement in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegh, Ahmad Akhoundi Mohammad; Rezvaneh, Ghazanfari; Shahroo, Etemad-Moghadam; Mojgan, Alaeddini; Azam, Khorshidian; Shahram, Rabbani; Reza, Shamshiri Ahmad; Nafiseh, Momeni

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Osteoclasts and osteoblasts are responsible for regulating bone homeostasis during which the trace element zinc has been shown to exert a cumulative effect on bone mass by stimulating osteoblastic bone formation and inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of zinc (Zn) on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in a rat model. Material and Methods: A total of 44 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 11 animals each and received 0, 1.5, 20 and 50 ppm Zn in distilled water for 60 days. In the last 21 days of the study, nickel-titanium closed coil springs were ligated between maxillary right incisors and first molars of all rats, and tooth movement was measured at the end of this period. Histological analysis of hematoxylin/eosin slides was performed to assess root resorption lacunae, osteoclast number and periodontal ligament (PDL) width. Results: Mean OTM was calculated as 51.8, 49.1, 35.5 and 45 µm in the 0, 1.5, 20 and 50 ppm zinc-receiving groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in neither OTM nor histological parameters among the study groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: According to the results obtained in the current investigation, increase in supplementary zinc up to 50 ppm does not affect the rate of OTM neither bone and root resorption in rats. PMID:27275614

  6. Effect of supplementary zinc on orthodontic tooth movement in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Akhoundi Mohammad Sadegh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Osteoclasts and osteoblasts are responsible for regulating bone homeostasis during which the trace element zinc has been shown to exert a cumulative effect on bone mass by stimulating osteoblastic bone formation and inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of zinc (Zn on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM in a rat model. Material and Methods: A total of 44 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 11 animals each and received 0, 1.5, 20 and 50 ppm Zn in distilled water for 60 days. In the last 21 days of the study, nickel-titanium closed coil springs were ligated between maxillary right incisors and first molars of all rats, and tooth movement was measured at the end of this period. Histological analysis of hematoxylin/eosin slides was performed to assess root resorption lacunae, osteoclast number and periodontal ligament (PDL width. Results: Mean OTM was calculated as 51.8, 49.1, 35.5 and 45 µm in the 0, 1.5, 20 and 50 ppm zinc-receiving groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in neither OTM nor histological parameters among the study groups (p > 0.05. Conclusion: According to the results obtained in the current investigation, increase in supplementary zinc up to 50 ppm does not affect the rate of OTM neither bone and root resorption in rats.

  7. Increased periodontal bone loss in temporarily B lymphocyte-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, B; Hougen, H P; Fiehn, N E

    1989-01-01

    In order to study the role of T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes in the development of marginal periodontitis, experiments were performed on specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rats with various immunologic profiles. The study comprised nude (congenitally T lymphocyte-deficient), thymus-grafted nude (T-lym......-lymphocyte deficiency did not interfere with the development of periodontal disease in this model, whereas a temporary and moderate reduction in B-lymphocyte numbers seemed to predispose for aggravation of periodontal bone loss.......In order to study the role of T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes in the development of marginal periodontitis, experiments were performed on specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rats with various immunologic profiles. The study comprised nude (congenitally T lymphocyte-deficient), thymus-grafted nude (T...... had significantly less periodontal bone support than controls. Anti-mu treated inoculated rats had significantly less periodontal bone support than nude and normal rats, whereas no difference was found between normal, nude, and thymus-grafted rats. It is concluded that permanent T...

  8. Effects of Chronic and Acute Zinc Supplementation on Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyıldırım, Serhan; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Sahna, Engin; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2017-07-01

    The present study aims to explore the effects of chronic and acute zinc sulfate supplementation on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. The study registered 50 adult male rats which were divided into five groups in equal numbers as follows: group 1, normal control; group 2, sham; group 3, myocardial ischemia reperfusion (My/IR): the group which was fed on a normal diet and in which myocardial I/R was induced; group 4, myocardial ischemia reperfusion + chronic zinc: (5 mg/kg i.p. zinc sulfate for 15 days); and group 5, myocardial ischemia reperfusion + acute zinc: the group which was administered 15 mg/kg i.p. zinc sulfate an hour before the operation and in which myocardial I/R was induced. The collected blood and cardiac tissue samples were analyzed using spectrophotometric method to determine levels of MDA, as an indicator of tissue injury, and GSH, as an indicator of antioxidant activity. The highest plasma and heart tissue MDA levels were measured in group 3 (p zinc administration and markedly by chronic zinc supplementation.

  9. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C; Leiva-Revilla, J; Rubio, J; Gasco, M; Gonzales, G F

    2012-05-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a plant that grows exclusively above 4000 m in the Peruvian central Andes. Red maca (RM) extract significantly reduced prostate size in rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone enanthate (TE). Zinc is an important regulator of prostate function. This study aimed to determine the effect of RM on prostate zinc levels in rats with BPH induced by TE. Also, the study attempted to determine the best marker for the effect of RM on sex accessory glands. Rats treated with RM extract from day 1 to day 14 reversed the effect of TE administration on prostate weight and zinc levels. However, RM administered from day 7 to day 14 did not reduce the effect of TE on all studied variables. Finasteride (FN) reduced prostate, seminal vesicle and preputial gland weights in rats treated with TE. Although RM and FN reduced prostate zinc levels, the greatest effect was observed in TE-treated rats with RM from day 1 to day 14. In addition, prostate weight and zinc levels showed the higher diagnosis values than preputial and seminal vesicle weights. In conclusion, RM administered from day 1 to day 14 reduced prostate size and zinc levels in rats where prostatic hyperplasia was induced with TE. Also, this experimental model could be used as accurately assay to determine the effect of maca obtained under different conditions and/or the effect of different products based on maca. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Copper uptake and retention in liver parenchymal cells isolated from nutritionally copper-deficient rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den G.J.; de Goeij, J.J.M.; Bock, I.; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Brouwer, A.; Lei, K.Y.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Copper uptake and retention were studied in primary cultures of liver parenchymal cells isolated from copper-deficient rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper-deficient diet (<1 mg Cu/kg) for 10 wk. Copper-deficient rats were characterized by low copper concentrations in plasma and liver,

  11. Copper uptake and retention in liver parenchymal cells isolated from nutritionally copper-deficient rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, G.J. van den; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Bock, I.; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Brouwer, A.; Lei, K.Y.; Hendruiks, H.F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Copper uptake and retention were studied in primary cultures of liver parenchymal cells isolated from copper-deficient rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper-deficient diet (< 1 mg Cu/kg) for 10 wk. Copper-deficient rats were characterized by low copper concentrations in plasma and liver,

  12. Promoting Effect of Foliage Sprayed Zinc Sulfate on Accumulation of Sugar and Phenolics in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot Growing on Zinc Deficient Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Zheng Song

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas.

  13. Zinc prevents sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharides after a stress challenge in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago B Kirsten

    Full Text Available Sickness behavior is considered part of the specific beneficial adaptive behavioral and neuroimmune changes that occur in individuals in response to infectious/inflammatory processes. However, in dangerous and stressful situations, sickness behavior should be momentarily abrogated to prioritize survival behaviors, such as fight or flight. Taking this assumption into account, we experimentally induced sickness behavior in rats using lipopolysaccharides (LPS, an endotoxin that mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, and then exposed these rats to a restraint stress challenge. Zinc has been shown to play a regulatory role in the immune and nervous systems. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of zinc treatment on the sickness response of stress-challenged rats. We evaluated 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations, open-field behavior, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, corticosterone, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plasma levels. LPS administration induced sickness behavior in rats compared to controls, i.e., decreases in the distance traveled, average velocity, rearing frequency, self-grooming, and number of vocalizations, as well as an increase in the plasma levels of TNF-α, compared with controls after a stressor challenge. LPS also decreased BDNF expression but did not influence anxiety parameters. Zinc treatment was able to prevent sickness behavior in LPS-exposed rats after the stress challenge, restoring exploratory/motor behaviors, communication, and TNF-α levels similar to those of the control group. Thus, zinc treatment appears to be beneficial for sick animals when they are facing risky/stressful situations.

  14. Effect of pyridoxine deficiency on cholesterogenesis in rats fed different levels of protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Mitsuko; Iwami, Tamako

    1977-01-01

    Hepatic cholesterol contents in rats fed a 70% or 20% casein diet with or without pyridoxine was determined. In the case of the 70% casein group, pyridoxine-deficient rats showed a higher content than the control. The increment was mainly due to the accumulation of an ester form of the cholesterol. On the other hand, pyridoxine-deficient rats in the 20% casein group showed a slightly lower content. The cholesterol content in liver microsomal fractions was lower in the 20%-casein pyridoxine-deficient group and serum cholesterol level was lower in the 70%-casein pyridoxine-deficient group than those in respective control groups. Incorporation of [ 14 C] acetate into cholesterol was studied using liver slices, and significant stimulation was observed in pyridoxine-deficient rat fed a 20% or 70% casein diet. There was no difference in intestinal cholesterogenesis between the control and the deficient groups. (auth.)

  15. Thyroid function and deiodinase activities in rats with marginal iodine deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.P.L.T.M.K. Janssen (Karin); D. van der Heide (Daan); T.J. Visser (Theo); E. Kaptein (Ellen); A.C. Beynen (Anton)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe hypothesis tested was whether marginal iodine deficiency for a period of 6 wk affects iodothyronine deiodinase activities in liver and brain of rats. Male rats were fed purified diets either deficient or sufficient in iodine; the diets were fed on a restricted basis (60% of ad

  16. Zinc and antioxidant vitamin deficiency in patients with severe sickle cell anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasanato, R.M. W.

    2006-01-01

    Patients with severe sickle cell anemia (SCA) have a higher potential for oxidative damage due to chronic redox imbalance in red blood cells that often leads to hemolysis, endothelial injury and recurrent vaso-occlusive episodes. This study evaluated the plasma levels of Vitamin A, C and E as indicators of antioxidants status. In addition, serum levels of zinc and copper were also estimated. Twenty-five adult patients with severe sickle cell anemia (12 males and 13 females aged 29.72+-12.94 years) and 25 matched controls were studied. Plasma levels of vitamin A, C and E were measured by HPLC technique. Serum zinc and copper levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. There was significant decrease in plasma levels of vitamins A, C and E and in serum levels of zinc in patients with SCA as compared with controls (P<0.0001). Serum copper levels were significantly elevated compared with controls (P<0.0001). These findings emphasized the significant deficiencies of the antioxidant vitamins A, C and E and the trace element zinc along with the significant elevation of serum copper in patients with severe sickle cell disease. Further studies are needed to find out whether supplementation of antioxidant vitamins and zinc may ameliorate some sickle cell disease complications. (author)

  17. Taurine zinc solid dispersions attenuate doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan; Lu, Wenping; Li, Binglong; Xu, Donghui

    2015-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of anthracycline anti-neoplastic agents is limited by cardiac and hepatic toxicities. The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effects of taurine zinc solid dispersions, which is a newly-synthesized taurine zinc compound, against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in Sprague–Dawley rats intraperitoneally injected with doxorubicin hydrochloride (3 mg/kg) three times a week (seven injections) over 28 days. Hemodynamic parameters, levels of liver toxicity markers and oxidative stress were assessed. Taurine zinc significantly attenuated the reductions in blood pressure, left ventricular pressure and ± dp/dtmax, increases in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and reductions in serum Zn 2+ and albumin levels (P < 0.05 or 0.01) induced by doxorubicin. In rats treated with doxorubicin, taurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione concentration, and decreased malondialdehyde level (P < 0.01). qBase + was used to evaluate the stability of eight candidate reference genes for real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Taurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver heme oxygenase-1 and UDP-glucuronyl transferase mRNA and protein expression (P < 0.01). Western blotting demonstrated that taurine zinc inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation by upregulating dual-specificity phosphoprotein phosphatase-1. Additionally, taurine zinc inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis as there was decreased TUNEL/DAPI positivity and protein expression of caspase-3. These results indicate that taurine zinc solid dispersions prevent the side-effects of anthracycline-based anticancer therapy. The mechanisms might be associated with the enhancement of antioxidant defense system partly through activating transcription to synthesize endogenous phase II medicine enzymes and anti-apoptosis through inhibiting JNK phosphorylation. - Highlights:

  18. Taurine zinc solid dispersions attenuate doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan; Lu, Wenping; Li, Binglong; Xu, Donghui, E-mail: Donghuixu007@163.com

    2015-11-15

    The clinical efficacy of anthracycline anti-neoplastic agents is limited by cardiac and hepatic toxicities. The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effects of taurine zinc solid dispersions, which is a newly-synthesized taurine zinc compound, against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in Sprague–Dawley rats intraperitoneally injected with doxorubicin hydrochloride (3 mg/kg) three times a week (seven injections) over 28 days. Hemodynamic parameters, levels of liver toxicity markers and oxidative stress were assessed. Taurine zinc significantly attenuated the reductions in blood pressure, left ventricular pressure and ± dp/dtmax, increases in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and reductions in serum Zn{sup 2+} and albumin levels (P < 0.05 or 0.01) induced by doxorubicin. In rats treated with doxorubicin, taurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione concentration, and decreased malondialdehyde level (P < 0.01). qBase{sup +} was used to evaluate the stability of eight candidate reference genes for real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Taurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver heme oxygenase-1 and UDP-glucuronyl transferase mRNA and protein expression (P < 0.01). Western blotting demonstrated that taurine zinc inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation by upregulating dual-specificity phosphoprotein phosphatase-1. Additionally, taurine zinc inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis as there was decreased TUNEL/DAPI positivity and protein expression of caspase-3. These results indicate that taurine zinc solid dispersions prevent the side-effects of anthracycline-based anticancer therapy. The mechanisms might be associated with the enhancement of antioxidant defense system partly through activating transcription to synthesize endogenous phase II medicine enzymes and anti-apoptosis through inhibiting JNK phosphorylation. - Highlights:

  19. The effect of zinc supplementation of lactating rats on short-term and long-term memory of their male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Mohammad; Ehsanivostacolaee, Simin; Moazedi, Ali Ahmad; Nosrati, Anahita

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effect of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) administration on the short-term and long-term memory of rats were assessed. We enrolled six groups of adult female and control group of eight Wistar rats in each group. One group was control group with free access to food and water, and five groups drunk zinc chloride in different doses (20, 30, 50, 70 and 100 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for two weeks during lactation .One month after birth, a shuttle box used to short- term and long-term memory and the latency in entering the dark chamber as well. This experiment showed that maternal 70 mg/kg dietary zinc during lactation influenced the working memory of rats' offspring in all groups. Rats received 100 mg/kg/day zinc during lactation so they had significant impairment in working memory (short-term) of their offspring (Plong-term) memory of all groups. Drug consumption below70 mg/kg/day zinc chloride during lactation had no effect. While enhanced 100 mg/ kg/ day zinc in lactating rats could cause short-term memory impairment.

  20. Decreased autophosphorylation of EGF receptor in insulin-deficient diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, M.; Kahn, C.R.; Maron, R.; White, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that despite an increase in receptor concentration, there is a decrease in autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor in insulin-deficient diabetic rats. To determine if other tyrosine kinases might be altered, they have studied the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor kinase in wheat germ agglutinin-purified, Triton X-100-solubilized liver membranes from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and the insulin-deficient BB rat. They find that autophosphorylation of EGF receptor is decreased in proportion to the severity of the diabetic state in STZ rats with a maximal decrease of 67%. A similar decrease in autophosphorylation was observed in diabetic BB rats that was partially normalized by insulin treatment. Separation of tryptic phosphopeptides by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed a decrease in labeling at all sites of autophosphorylation. A parallel decrease in EGF receptor phosphorylation was also found by immunoblotting with an antiphosphotyrosine antibody. EGF receptor concentration, determined by Scatchard analysis of 125 I-labeled EGF binding, was decreased by 39% in the STZ rat and 27% in the diabetic BB rat. Thus autophosphorylation of EGF receptor, like that of the insulin receptor, is decreased in insulin-deficient rat liver. In the case of EGF receptor, this is due in part to a decrease in receptor number and in part to a decrease in the specific activity of the kinase

  1. Effect of zinc supplementation of pregnant rats on short-term and long-term memory of their offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.A.; Ghotbeddin, Z.; Parham, G.H.

    2007-01-01

    To see the dose dependent effects of zinc chloride on the short-term and long-term memory in a shuttle box (rats). Six pair adult wistar rats were taken for this experiment. One group of pregnant rats received a daily oral dose of 20 mg/kg Zn as zinc chloride and the remaining groups received a daily oral dose of (30, 50, 70,100 mg/kg) zinc chloride for two weeks by gavage. One month after birth, a shuttle box was used to test short-term and long-term memory. Two criteria were considered to behavioral test, including latency in entering dark chamber and time spent in the dark chamber. This experiment showed that oral administration of ZnCl/sub 2/ with (20, 30, 50 mg/kg/day) doses after 2 weeks at the stage of pregnancy, can improve the working memory of their offspring (p<0.05). Where as ZnCl/sub 2/ with 30 mg/kg/day dose has been more effective than other doses (p<0.001). But rat which received ZnCl/sub 2/ with 100 mg/kg/day at the stage of pregnancy, has shown significant impairment in working (short-term) memory of their offspring (p<0.05) and there was no significant difference in reference (long-term) memory 3 for any of groups. This study has demonstrated that zinc chloride consumption with 30 mg/kg/day dose for two weeks at the stage of pregnancy in rats, has positive effect on short-term memory on their offspring. But consumption of enhanced zinc 100 mg/kg/day in pregnant rats can cause short-term memory impairment. On the other hand, zinc supplementation such as zinc chloride has no effect on long-term memory. (author)

  2. Effects of dietary zinc status on seizure susceptibility and hippocampal zinc content in the El (epilepsy) mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahori, M; Itoh, M

    1990-10-08

    The effects of dietary zinc status on the development of convulsive seizures, and zinc concentrations in discrete hippocampal areas and other parts of the limbic system were studied in the El mouse model receiving zinc-adequate, zinc-deficient or zinc-loaded diets. Seizure susceptibility of the El mouse was increased by zinc deficiency, and decreased by zinc loading, while an adequate diet had no effect. Zinc loading was accompanied by a marked increase in hippocampal zinc content in the El mouse. Conversely, hippocampal zinc content declined in the El mouse fed a zinc-deficient diet. These results suggest that zinc may have a preventive effect on the development of seizures in the El mouse, and hippocampal zinc may play an important role in the pathophysiology of convulsive seizures of epilepsy.

  3. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuong D. Tran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease.

  4. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cuong D.; Gopalsamy, Geetha L.; Mortimer, Elissa K.; Young, Graeme P.

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease. PMID:26035248

  5. Effect of zinc supplementation on E-ADA activity, seric zinc, and cytokines levels of Trypanosoma evansi infected Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Baldissera, Matheus D; Oliveira, Camila B; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta M M F; Leal, Marta L R; Thomé, Gustavo R; Zanini, Daniela; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Nunes, Matheus A G; Dressler, Valderi L; Monteiro, Silvia G; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on the ecto-adenosine deaminase activity (E-ADA), zinc seric levels and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and IL -10) on rats experimentally infected by Trypanosoma evansi. Four groups with 10 rats each were used as negative controls (groups A and B), while the animals from the groups C and D were infected intraperitoneally with 0.1 mL of cryopreserved blood containing 1.4 × 10(4) of trypanosomes. Animals of groups B and D received two doses of Zinc (Zn) at 5 mg kg(-1), subcutaneously, on the 2nd and 7th day post-infection (PI). Blood samples were collected on days 5 (n = 5) and 15 PI (n = 5). Zn supplementation was able to increase the rat's longevity and to reduce their parasitemia. It was observed that seric Zn levels were increased on infected animals under Zn supplementation. Animals that were infected and supplemented with Zn showed changes in E-ADA activity and in cytokine levels (P ADA activity, as well as reduced the concentration of cytokines. Infected animals from groups C and D showed increased levels of cytokines. Finally, we observed that Zn supplementation led to a modulation on cytokine's level in rats infected by T. evansi, as well as in E-ADA activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prenatal zinc reduces stress response in adult rat offspring exposed to lipopolysaccharide during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Marcella C; Chaves-Kirsten, Gabriela P; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Carvalho, Virgínia M; Bernardi, Maria M; Kirsten, Thiago B

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg, intraperitoneally) on gestation day (GD) 9.5 in rats, which mimics infections by Gram-negative bacteria, induces short- and long-term behavioral and neuroimmune changes in the offspring. Because LPS induces hypozincemia, dams were treated with zinc after LPS in an attempt to prevent or ameliorate the impairments induced by prenatal LPS exposure. LPS can also interfere with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis development; thus, behavioral and neuroendocrine parameters linked to HPA axis were evaluated in adult offspring after a restraint stress session. We prenatally exposed Wistar rats to LPS (100 μg/kg, intraperitoneally, on GD 9.5). One hour later they received zinc (ZnSO4, 2 mg/kg, subcutaneously). Adult female offspring that were in metestrus/diestrus were submitted to a 2 h restraint stress session. Immediately after the stressor, 22 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations, open field behavior, serum corticosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, and striatal and hypothalamic neurotransmitter and metabolite levels were assessed. Offspring that received prenatal zinc after LPS presented longer periods in silence, increased locomotion, and reduced serum corticosterone and striatal norepinephrine turnover compared with rats treated with LPS and saline. Prenatal zinc reduced acute restraint stress response in adult rats prenatally exposed to LPS. Our findings suggest a potential beneficial effect of prenatal zinc, in which the stress response was reduced in offspring that were stricken with infectious/inflammatory processes during gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of selenium and zinc in rat plasma by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz A, Luis.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the effects on the thyroid function when simple or multiple zinc, selenium and iodine deficiency are induced, research was carried out in laboratory animals. For simultaneously determining the Zn and Se concentration in rat plasma, an instrumental neutron activation analysis technique was applied. A clean laboratory, was used for the preparation of samples. High purity materials were used for sample collection and storage. Irradiation, decay and counting parameters were optimized to obtain the best sensitivity, accuracy and precision analysis. The Zn and Se concentrations were determined from the peak area of gamma-rays of 1115 and 265 KeV respectively. The analytical methodology used was validated with standard reference materials. The procedure used for the analysis, including the phases of collection, treatment of the samples and analytical determination was considered suitable for the study of trace elements in biological samples, especially plasma. (author) [es

  8. Increased uracil misincorporation in lymphocytes from folate-deficient rats

    OpenAIRE

    Duthie, S J; Grant, G; Narayanan, S

    2000-01-01

    The development of certain human cancers has been linked with inadequate intake of folates. The effects of folate deficiency in vivo on DNA stability (strand breakage, misincorporated uracil and oxidative base damage) in lymphocytes isolated from rats fed a diet deficient in folic acid was determined. Because the metabolic pathways of folate and other methyl donors are closely coupled, the effects of methionine and choline deficiency alone or in combination with folate deficiency were determi...

  9. GC-MS analysis of headspace and liquid extracts for metabolomic differentiation of citrus Huanglongbing and zinc deficiency in leaves of 'Valencia' sweet orange from commercial groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan Manuel; García-Torres, Rosalía; Etxeberria, Edgardo; Reyes-De-Corcuera, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is considered the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. Symptoms-based detection of HLB is difficult due to similarities with zinc deficiency. To find metabolic differences between leaves from HLB-infected, zinc-deficient, and healthy 'Valencia' orange trees by using GC-MS based metabolomics. Analysis based on GC-MS methods for untargeted metabolite analysis of citrus leaves was developed and optimized. Sample extracts from healthy, zinc deficient, or HLB-infected sweet orange leaves were submitted to headspace solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and derivatization treatments prior to GC-MS analysis. Principal components analysis achieved correct classification of all the derivatized liquid extracts. Analysis of variance revealed 6 possible biomarkers for HLB, of which 5 were identified as proline, β-elemene, (-)trans- caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Significant (P < 0.05) differences in oxo-butanedioic acid, arabitol, and neo-inositol were exclusively detected in samples from plants with zinc deficiency. Levels of isocaryophyllen, α-selinene, β-selinene, and fructose were significantly (P < 0.05) different in healthy leaves only. Results suggest the potential of using identified HLB biomarkers for rapid differentiation of HLB from zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Vitamin K deficiency in SPF-rats fed a semisynthetic irradiated diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhr, N C; Dietzel, L; Horn, J [Freie Universitaet, Berlin(West). Fachbereich Veterinaermedizin

    1975-01-01

    A case of vitamin K deficiency in male SPF-rats fed an irradiated semisynthetic diet (24% Soyprotein, 0.25% DL-Methionin, 48% Cornstarch, 10% Sucrose, 5% Soyoil and 7% Cellulose and a vitamin- and mineral mixture) with a vitamin K content of 0.63 mg/kg diet is reported including clinical symptoms, pathological findings, coagulation parameters and investigations of intestinal flora. The deficiency could be reproduced experimentally in SPF- and germfree male rats and prevented by vitamin K supplementation (K/sub 3/ in the water or K/sub 1/ parenterally). Monoassoziation with an E. coli strain as well as conventionalization of SPF-rats were effective to prevent deficiency symptoms. The significance of a stable intestinal flora for intestinal vitamin K synthesis is emphasized. Nutrients and their influence on the intestinal flora are discussed with special reference to the mechanism of coprophagy, which makes intestinal vitamin K synthesis available to the rat.

  11. Vitamin K deficiency in SPF-rats fed a semisynthetic irradiated diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhr, N.C.; Dietzel, L.; Horn, J.

    1975-01-01

    A case of vitamin K deficiency in male SPF-rats fed an irradiated semisynthetic diet (24% Soyprotein, 0.25% DL-Methionin, 48% Cornstarch, 10% Sucrose, 5% Soyoil and 7% Cellulose and a vitamin- and mineralmixture) with a vitamin K content of 0.63 mg/kg diet is reported including clinical symptoms, pathological findings, coagulation parameters and investigations of intestinal flora. The deficiency could be reproduced experimentally in SPF- and germfree male rats and prevented by vitamin K supplementation (K 3 in the water or K 1 parenterally). Monoassoziation with an E. coli strain as well as conventionalization of SPF-rats were effective to prevent deficiency symptoms. The significance of a stable intestinal flora for intestinal vitamin K synthesis is emphasized. Nutrients and their influence on the intestinal flora are discussed with special reference to the mechanism of coprophagy, which makes intestinal vitamin K synthesis available to the rat

  12. Zinc Is Indispensable in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection against Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Left Ventricular Function Impairment in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-I Chen

    Full Text Available In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, recurrent obstruction of the upper airway leads to intermittent hypoxia (IH during sleep, which can result in impairment of cardiac function. Although exercise can have beneficial effects against IH-induced cardiac dysfunction, the mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the interactions of zinc and exercise on IH-triggered left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model that mimics IH in OSA patients. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON or to a group receiving 10 weeks of exercise training (EXE. During weeks 9 and 10, half the rats in each group were subjected to IH for 8 h per day for 14 days (IHCON, IHEXE, whereas the remainder continued to breathe room air. Rats within each of the CON, IHCON, EXE, and IHEXE groups were further randomly assigned to receive intraperitoneal injections of either zinc chloride, the zinc chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl ethylenediamine (TPEN, or injection vehicle only. IH induced a lower left ventricular fractional shortening, reduced ejection fraction, higher myocardial levels of inflammatory factors, increased levels oxidative stress, and lower levels of antioxidative capacity, all of which were abolished by zinc treatment. IHEXE rats exhibited higher levels of cardiac function and antioxidant capacity and lower levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress than IHCON rats; however, IHEXE rats receiving TPEN did not exhibit these better outcomes. In conclusion, zinc is required for protecting against IH-induced LV functional impairment and likely plays a critical role in exercise-induced cardioprotection by exerting a dual antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect.

  13. Zinc Is Indispensable in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection against Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Left Ventricular Function Impairment in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michael Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), recurrent obstruction of the upper airway leads to intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, which can result in impairment of cardiac function. Although exercise can have beneficial effects against IH-induced cardiac dysfunction, the mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the interactions of zinc and exercise on IH-triggered left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model that mimics IH in OSA patients. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON) or to a group receiving 10 weeks of exercise training (EXE). During weeks 9 and 10, half the rats in each group were subjected to IH for 8 h per day for 14 days (IHCON, IHEXE), whereas the remainder continued to breathe room air. Rats within each of the CON, IHCON, EXE, and IHEXE groups were further randomly assigned to receive intraperitoneal injections of either zinc chloride, the zinc chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), or injection vehicle only. IH induced a lower left ventricular fractional shortening, reduced ejection fraction, higher myocardial levels of inflammatory factors, increased levels oxidative stress, and lower levels of antioxidative capacity, all of which were abolished by zinc treatment. IHEXE rats exhibited higher levels of cardiac function and antioxidant capacity and lower levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress than IHCON rats; however, IHEXE rats receiving TPEN did not exhibit these better outcomes. In conclusion, zinc is required for protecting against IH-induced LV functional impairment and likely plays a critical role in exercise-induced cardioprotection by exerting a dual antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:27977796

  14. Influence of injected caffeine on the metabolism of calcium and the retention and excretion of sodium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc and copper in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, J K; Aloia, J F; Semla, H M; Chen, S Y

    1986-02-01

    Mineral metabolism was studied by the metabolic balance technique in rats with and without administration of caffeine. Caffeine was injected subcutaneously each day at either 2.5 mg or 10 mg/100 g body weight for 2 wk before the balance studies. Urinary volume excretion was higher in the group given caffeine than in the control group, but the creatinine clearance was not different. Urinary excretion of potassium, sodium, inorganic phosphate, magnesium and calcium, but not of zinc and copper, was also higher in the rats given caffeine. The rank order of the difference was the same as the percent of ingested mineral excreted in urine in the absence of caffeine. Caffeine caused a negative balance of potassium, sodium and inorganic phosphate. There was no significant difference from the control levels and in the apparent metabolic balance of calcium and magnesium. The urinary and fecal excretion of zinc and copper were found to be unaffected by caffeine. It is suggested that chronic administration of caffeine may lead to a tendency toward deficiency of those minerals that are excreted primarily in urine.

  15. [Interaction between fluorine and zinc after long-term oral administration into the digestive system of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek-Mochol, Małgorzata

    2002-01-01

    Drug interactions are the side effect of administration of two or more drugs or a drug-food combination. Although some drug interactions are intentional and beneficial to the patient, the majority are unintentional and associated with a potentially harmful effect. The aim of this study was to search for interactions in rats between fluoride and zinc administered orally for 12 weeks and to elucidate any potential toxicological and therapeutic consequences. 60 male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of ten rats each and exposed to: 1. controls (distilled water); 2. sodium fluoride (NaF); 3. low-dose zinc (Zn); 4. high-dose zinc; 5. NaF + low-dose Zn; 6. NaF + high-dose Zn. At the end of the experiment the content of F- and Zn+ in serum, urine, incisors, femur and mandible was measured and densitometry of femoral bones was performed. Serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities, as well as bilirubin and creatinine concentrations were determined to confirm non-toxicity of fluoride dose. Animals receiving NaF only demonstrated higher content of fluorine in serum, urine bones and teeth. Zinc concentrations in serum, urine, bones and teeth were elevated in rats receiving zinc with or without NaF. Fluorine accumulation in bones and teeth was reduced by Zn, but in general the effect lacked statistical significance. Zinc slightly reduced the concentrations of fluorine in serum and urine. Sodium fluoride slightly reduced the concentration of zinc in serum and urine. Bone mineral content (BMC) was significantly increased by NaF and was not further increased by co-administration of zinc. No changes in serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities, bilirubin and creatinine concentrations were detected. In conclusion, simultaneous administration of fluorine and zinc may be beneficial for prevention and treatment of pathologic conditions in bones and teeth and is not accompanied by an increase in fluorine

  16. Natural genetic variation of seed micronutrients of Arabidopsis thaliana grown in zinc-deficient and zinc-amended soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochao Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality of edible seeds for human and animal nutrition is crucially dependent on high zinc (Zn and iron (Fe seed concentrations. The micronutrient bioavailability is strongly reduced by seed phytate that forms complexes with seed cations. Superior genotypes with increased seed Zn concentrations had been identified, but low micronutrient seed levels often prevail when the plants are grown in Zn-deficient soils, which are globally widespread and correlate with human Zn-deficiency. Here, seed Zn concentrations of Arabidopsis accessions grown in Zn-deficient and Zn-amended conditions were measured together with seed Fe and manganese (Mn, in a panel of 108 accessions. By applying genome-wide association, de novo candidate genes potentially involved in the seed micronutrient accumulation were identified. However, a candidate inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase 3 gene (ITPK3, located close to a significant nucleotide polymorphism associated with relative Zn seed concentrations, was dispensable for seed micronutrients accumulation in Col-0. Loss of this gene in itpk3-1 did neither affect phytate seed levels, nor seed Zn, Fe and Mn. It is concluded that large natural variance of micronutrient seed levels is identified in the population and several accessions maintain high seed Zn despite growth in Zn-deficient conditions.

  17. Rapid crown root development confers tolerance to zinc deficiency in rice

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    Amrit Kaur eNanda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is one of the leading nutrient disorders in rice (Oryza sativa. Many studies have identified Zn efficient rice genotypes, but causal mechanisms for Zn deficiency tolerance remain poorly understood. Here we report a detailed study of the impact of Zn deficiency on crown root development of rice genotypes, differing in their tolerance to this stress. Zn deficiency delayed crown root development and plant biomass accumulation in both Zn efficient and inefficient genotypes, with the effects being much stronger in the latter. Zn efficient genotypes had developed new crown roots as early as three days after transplanting (DAT to a Zn deficient field and that was followed by a significant increase in total biomass by 7 DAT. Zn-inefficient genotypes developed few new crown roots and did not increase biomass during the first seven days following transplanting. This correlated with Zn efficient genotypes retranslocating a higher proportion of shoot Zn to their roots, compared to Zn inefficient genotypes. These latter genotypes were furthermore not efficient in utilizing the limited Zn for root development. Histological analyses indicated no anomalies in crown tissue of Zn-efficient or inefficient genotypes that would have suggested crown root emergence was impeded. We therefore conclude that the rate of crown root initiation was differentially affected by Zn deficiency between genotypes. Rapid crown root development, following transplanting, was identified as a main causative trait for tolerance to Zn deficiency and better Zn retranslocation from shoot to root was a key attribute of Zn-efficient genotypes.

  18. Associations between Zinc Deficiency and Metabolic Abnormalities in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease

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    Takashi Himoto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn is an essential trace element which has favorable antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and apoptotic effects. The liver mainly plays a crucial role in maintaining systemic Zn homeostasis. Therefore, the occurrence of chronic liver diseases, such as chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, or fatty liver, results in the impairment of Zn metabolism, and subsequently Zn deficiency. Zn deficiency causes plenty of metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis and hepatic encephalopathy. Inversely, metabolic abnormalities like hypoalbuminemia in patients with liver cirrhosis often result in Zn deficiency. Recent studies have revealed the putative mechanisms by which Zn deficiency evokes a variety of metabolic abnormalities in chronic liver disease. Zn supplementation has shown beneficial effects on such metabolic abnormalities in experimental models and actual patients with chronic liver disease. This review summarizes the pathogenesis of metabolic abnormalities deriving from Zn deficiency and the favorable effects of Zn administration in patients with chronic liver disease. In addition, we also highlight the interactions between Zn and other trace elements, vitamins, amino acids, or hormones in such patients.

  19. The Protective Role of Zinc Sulphate on Ethanol -Induced Liver and Kidney Damages in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Damegh, Mona Abdalla

    2007-01-01

    Around the world more and more people suffer from alcoholism. Addiction problems, alcoholism and excessive use of drugs both medical and nonmedical, are major causes of liver and kidney damage in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate on the protective role of zinc sulphate on liver and kidney in rats with acute alcoholism. Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I; control group, group 2; given only Zinc Sulphate (100 mg/kg/day for 3days), group 3; rats given absolute ethanol (1 ml of absolute ethanol administrated by gavage technique to each rat), group 4 given Zinc sulphate prior to the administration of absolute ethanol. The results of this study revealed that acute ethanol exposure caused degenerative morphological changes in the liver and kidney. Significant difference were found in the levels of serum, liver, kidney super oxide dismutase(SOD), catalase (CAT), nitric oxide(NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the ethanol group compared to the control group. Moreover ,serum urea, creatnine, uric acid, alkaline phoshpatase and transaminases activities (GOTand GPT) were increased in the ethanol group compared to the control group. On the other hand,administration of zinc sulphate in the ethanol group caused a significant decrease in the degenerative changes, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes, and nitric oxide in serum, liver, and kidney. It can be concluded that zinc Sulphate has a protective role on the ethanol induced liver and kidney injury. In addition ,nitric oxide is involved in the mechanism of acute alcohol intoxication. (author)

  20. Involvement of amygdalar extracellular zinc in rat behavior for passive avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Minami, Akira; Yamaide, Rie; Oku, Naoto

    2004-03-25

    On the basis of the evidence that zinc is released from glutamatergic neuron terminals in the amygdala, the effect of chelation of amygdalar extracellular zinc on glutamate release from the neuron terminals was studied by using in vivo microdialysis. When the amygdala was perfused with 100 microM CaEDTA to chelate extracellular zinc, glutamate concentration in the perfusate was decreased significantly, whereas that tended to be increased by perfusion with 100 microM ZnEDTA as a control. The effect of CaEDTA on extracellular glutamate levels was different between the amygdala and hippocampus, implying that modulation of glutamate signaling by zinc is different between them. To evaluate chelation of zinc in rat behavior, perfusion of the amygdala with CaEDTA was started 40 min before behavioral test for passive avoidance. The behavior for passive avoidance was impaired during perfusion with CaEDTA. On the other hand, the behavior during perfusion with ZnEDTA was more rapidly developed than that with vehicle only. These results suggest that amygdalar extracellular zinc is involved in the behavior for passive avoidance.

  1. Changes in Serum Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin Levels of Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.I.; Shaban, H.A.; El Gohary, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    Rats are whole body irradiated with different Gamma radiation doses. Zinc and Copper, two important trace elements in the biological processes and Ceruloplasmin, a protein which carries more than 95% of serum Cu and has important roles in many vital processes are followed up in the irradiated rat sera. This work aimed to determine the changes in the serum levels of the three parameters (Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin) through eight weeks follow up period (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, and 8th week) post whole body gamma irradiation with three sub-lethal doses (2, 3.5 and 5 Gy) of rats. All the experimental animals did not receive any medical treatment. Zinc and Copper were measured using discrete nebulization flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Ceruloplasmin was measured using a colorimetric method. The statistical analyses of the results show that the Zinc levels of the irradiated groups decreased significantly post irradiation and then were recovered at the 6th week post irradiation. The Copper levels of the irradiated groups increased significantly and then were recovered at 6th week post irradiation. The levels of Ceruloplasmin in the same groups increased significantly throughout the whole follow up period. The conclusion is that, Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin levels changed significantly in the irradiated groups compared to the control group with a maximum effect noted in the groups irradiated with the higher doses and that the lower dose irradiated groups recover earlier than the higher ones. Also the correlation between Copper and Zinc is reversible at different doses and that between Copper and Ceruloplasmin is direct

  2. Anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiency in Mexican adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Anemia y deficiencia de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en adolescentes mexicanos: resultados de la ENSANUT 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa De la Cruz-Góngora

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: To describe the frequency of anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiencies among Mexican adolescents in the probabilistic survey ENSANUT 2006. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample included 2447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 y. Capillary hemoglobin and venous blood samples were collected to measure the concentrations of ferritin, sTFR, CRP, zinc, iron, copper and magnesium. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for mineral deficiencies. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anemia was 11.8 and 4.6%, body iron deficiency 18.2 and 7.9% for females and males, respectively. Overall prevalence of tissue iron deficiency was 6.9%, low serum copper were14.4 and 12.25%; zinc 28.4 and 24.5%, magnesium 40 and 35.3%; for females and males, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of mineral deficiency in Mexican adolescents; females were more prone to have more mineral deficiencies. Nutritional interventions are necessaries in order to reduce and control them.OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia de anemia y deficiencia de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en adolescentes mexicanos en la encuesta probabilística ENSANUT 2006. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La muestra incluyó 2447 adolescentes de 12 a 19 años de edad. Se tomó hemoglobina capilar y muestras de sangre venosa para medir las concentraciones séricas de ferritina, sTFR, CRP, zinc, hierro, cobre y magnesio. Se construyeron modelos de regresión logística para evaluar el riesgo de deficiencia de minerales. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de anemia fue de 11.8% en mujeres y 4.6% en hombres. Las deficiencias de hierro fueron de 18.2 y 7.9% La deficiencia tisular de hierro fue 6.9%; la baja concentración de cobre fue de 14.4 y 12.25% la de zinc de 28.4 y 24.5%, la de magnesio fue 40 y 35.3% en mujeres y hombres, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Existe una alta prevalencia de deficiencia de minerales en los adolescentes; las mujeres tuvieron mayor riesgo. Son necesarias

  3. Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters multiple neurotransmitter systems in the neonatal rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P; Turner, Karly M; Alexander, Suzanne; Eyles, Darryl W; McGrath, John J; Burne, Thomas H J

    2017-11-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is a risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. DVD deficiency in rats is associated with altered brain structure and adult behaviours indicating alterations in dopamine and glutamate signalling. Developmental alterations in dopamine neurotransmission have also been observed in DVD-deficient rats but a comprehensive assessment of brain neurochemistry has not been undertaken. Thus, the current study determined the regional concentrations of dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin, glutamine, glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and associated metabolites, in DVD-deficient neonates. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a vitamin D deficient diet or control diet six weeks prior to mating until birth and housed under UVB-free lighting conditions. Neurotransmitter concentration was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography on post-mortem neonatal brain tissue. Ubiquitous reductions in the levels of glutamine (12-24%) were observed in DVD-deficient neonates compared with control neonates. Similarly, in multiple brain regions DVD-deficient neonates had increased levels of noradrenaline and serine compared with control neonates. In contrast, increased levels of dopamine and decreased levels of serotonin in DVD-deficient neonates were limited to striatal subregions compared with controls. Our results confirm that DVD deficiency leads to changes in multiple neurotransmitter systems in the neonate brain. Importantly, this regionally-based assessment in DVD-deficient neonates identified both widespread neurotransmitter changes (glutamine/noradrenaline) and regionally selective neurotransmitter changes (dopamine/serotonin). Thus, vitamin D may have both general and local actions depending on the neurotransmitter system being investigated. Taken together, these data suggest that DVD deficiency alters neurotransmitter systems relevant to schizophrenia in the developing rat

  4. Depression of calcium pump activity in renal cortex of vitamin D-deficient rats with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Saitoh, Michiyo; Takita, Yumiko; Nakano, Toshiaki; Tamura, Teiichi

    1990-01-01

    To examine the hormonal regulation of the ATP-dependent Ca 2+ pump in the kidneys, the ATP-dependent Ca 2+ uptake by the basolateral membrane vesicles in the renal cortex was measured using radioactive calcium ( 45 Ca 2+ ) in rats with vitamin D deficiency or rats undergoing thyroparathyroidectomy. The V max of the Ca 2+ pump activity was increased not only by administering calcitriol, but also by normalizing the serum calcium level in vitamin D-deficient rats. PTH suppressed the Ca 2+ pump activity in normocalcemic vitamin D-deficient rats. Thyroparathyroidectomy did not affect the Ca 2+ pump activity in the kidneys of normal rats. It was concluded that the ATP-dependent Ca 2+ pump activity was depressed by secondary hyperparathyroidism in vitamin D-deficient rats. (author)

  5. The Effect of Zinc Supplementation of Lactating Rats on Short-Term and Long-Term Memory of Their Male Offspring

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    Mohammad Karami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study the effect of zinc chloride (ZnCl2 administration on the short-term and long-term memory of rats were assessed. Methods: We enrolled six groups of adult female and control group of eight Wistar rats in each group. One group was control group with free access to food and water, and five groups drunk zinc chloride in different doses (20, 30, 50, 70 and 100 mg/kg/day in drinking water for two weeks during lactation .One month after birth, a shuttle box used to short- term and long-term memory and the latency in entering the dark chamber as well. Results: This experiment showed that maternal 70 mg/kg dietary zinc during lactation influenced the working memory of rats’ offspring in all groups. Rats received 100 mg/kg/day zinc during lactation so they had significant impairment in working memory (short-term of their offspring (P<0.05. There was no significant difference in reference (long-term memory of all groups. Conclusion: Drug consumption below70 mg/kg/day zinc chloride during lactation had no effect. While enhanced 100 mg/ kg/ day zinc in lactating rats could cause short-term memory impairment.

  6. Physical activity prevents augmented body fat accretion in moderately iron-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, James P; Andersen, Nancy E; Tarr, Tyson N; Stahl, Chad H; Young, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    Recent studies describe an association between poor iron status and obesity in humans, although the mechanism explaining this relationship is unclear. The present study aimed to determine the effect of moderate iron deficiency and physical activity (PA) on body composition in an animal model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed iron-adequate (IA; 40 mg/kg) or moderately iron-deficient (ID; 9 mg/kg) diets ad libitum for 12 wk. Rats were assigned to 4 treatment groups (n = 10 per group): IA, sedentary (IAS); IA, PA (IAPA); ID, sedentary (IDS); or ID, PA (IDPA). Activity involved running on motorized running wheels at 4 m/min for 1 h/d for 5 d/wk. After 12 wk, ID rats were not anemic, but body iron stores were reduced as indicated by diminished (P IA rats. Treatment group did not affect body weight or feed consumption. However, fat mass was greater (P IAS (31.8 +/- 2.9%), IAPA (31.8 +/- 2.0%), and IDPA (32.8 +/- 4.5%) rats. Furthermore, lean body mass was diminished in IDS rats (58.7 +/- 6.8%) compared with IAS (65.6 +/- 3.0%), IAPA (65.6 +/- 2.1%), and IDPA (64.7 +/- 4.5%) rats. Thus, moderate iron deficiency may cause increased body fat accretion in rats and PA attenuates that effect.

  7. Exogenous recombinant human growth hormone effects during suboptimal energy and zinc intake

    OpenAIRE

    Rising, Russell; Scaglia, Julio F; Cole, Conrad; Tverskaya, Rozalia; Duro, Debora; Lifshitz, Fima

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Energy and Zinc (Zn) deficiencies have been associated with nutritional related growth retardation as well as growth hormone (GH) resistance. In this study, the relationship between suboptimal energy and/or Zn intake and growth in rats and their response to immunoreactive exogenous recombinant human GH (GHi), was determined. Results Rats treated with GHi and fed ad-libitum energy and Zn (100/100) had increased IGFBP-3 (p < 0.05) as compared with NSS (215 ± 23 vs. 185 ± 17 ...

  8. Effects of iron deficiency on the absorption and distribution of lead and cadmium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of iron deficiency on the absorption of pollutant metals, an iron-deficient diet was fed to young rats until their tissue-iron stores were depleted. Prior to the development of anemia, the iron-deficient rats and littermate controls were administered an intragastric gavage of lead-210 or cadmium-109 and were killed 48 hr later. The body burden of lead was approximately 6 times greater, and that of cadmium approximately 7 times greater, in iron-deficient rats than in the controls. No consistent effects were observed on concentrations of serum total lipids or serum proteins nor on protein electrophoretic patterns in rats with a deficit in iron stores

  9. Time course and pattern of compensatory ingestive behavioral adjustments to lysine deficiency in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markison, S; Thompson, B L; Smith, J C; Spector, A C

    2000-05-01

    We and others have demonstrated that rats deficient in an essential amino acid (EAA) will consume sufficient quantities of the lacking nutrient to produce repletion when it is made available in solution. In the current series of experiments, we made rats deficient in lysine (LYS) by limiting the level of this EAA in the diet. We then examined licking behavior during approximately 23-h two-bottle intake tests over 4 consecutive days. In three separate experiments, rats were presented with the following: 1) 0.1 mol/L LYS and water, 2) 0.2 mol/L threonine (THR) and water and 3) 0.1 mol/L LYS and 0.2 mol/L THR. Lysine-deficient (LYS-DEF) rats drink significantly more LYS than did nondepleted controls (CON) when this amino acid was available. Meal pattern analysis revealed that the enhanced intake of LYS occurred as a function of a greater number of ingestive bouts, not changes in bout size. A cumulative analysis of LYS intake between CON and LYS-DEF rats revealed that a potentiation of intake developed within 30 min of sampling the solution when LYS and water were available and within 90 min when LYS and THR were the contrasting choices. In conclusion, increased LYS intake in the deficient rats occurs relatively rapidly and appears to be at least somewhat specific. Moreover, LYS deficiency does not seem to enhance the palatability of the limiting amino acid as judged by behaviors such as lick rate and bout size. Instead, LYS-DEF rats relieve the deficiency by increasing the number of drinking episodes initiated.

  10. Regression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Zinc and Selenium Co-supplementation after Disease Progression in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidfar, Farzad; Faghihi, Amirhosein; Amiri, Hamid Lorvand; Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda

    2018-01-01

    Studies have shown that zinc and selenium deficiency is common in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the effects of zinc and selenium co-supplementation before and/or after disease progression on NAFLD are not clear enough. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of zinc and selenium co-supplementation before and/or after disease progression on NAFLD prognosis. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats (197±4 g) were randomly assigned to 4 dietary groups: normal-fat diet (NFD; receiving 9% of calories as fat), high-fat diet (HFD; receiving 82% of calories as fat), supplementation before disease progression (S+HFD), and supplementation after disease progression (HFD+S). The diets were implemented over a 20-week period in all the groups. Biochemical and histologic parameters were compared between the 4 groups, and between-group comparisons were also carried out. There were significant differences in the average food dietary intake (P<0.001), weight (P<0.001), fasting blood sugar (P=0.005), triglyceride (P<0.001), total cholesterol (P<0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.002), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.001), alanine aminotransferase (P<0.001), and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.001) between the 4 dietary groups. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly lower in the HFD+S Group than in the S+HFD Group (P<0.001 and P=0.003, respectively). Fat accumulation was significantly reduced in the HFD+S Group (P<0.001). Zinc and selenium co-supplementation after disease progression improved biochemical and histologic parameters in an experimental model of NAFLD.

  11. Protective effect of zinc aspartate against acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, E.T.; Said, A.I.; El-Sayed, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required in humans and animals for many physiological functions, including antioxidant functions. The evidence to date indicates that zinc is an important element that links antioxidant system and tissue damage. Acetaminophen (AP), a widely used analgesic and antipyretic, produces hepatocyte and renal tubular necrosis in human and animals following overdose. In human, AP is one of the most common causes of acute liver failure as a result of accidental or deliberate overdose. Moreover, the initial event in AP toxicity is a toxic metabolic injury with the release of free radicals and subsequent cellular death by necrosis and apoptosis. This study was designed to evaluate the potential protective role of zinc aspartate in case of acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity in rats. A total number of 32 adult male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups: group I (control group), group II (zinc aspartate treated group), group III (acetaminophen treated group; by a single oral dose of 750 mg/kg body weight) and group IV acetaminophen plus zinc treated group; (zinc aspartate was intraperitoneally given one hour after acetaminophen administration in a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight). Serum levels of: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, direct bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, xanthine oxidase (XO), glutathione (GSH), malonaldehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were assessed in all groups. The results of this study showed that treatment with acetaminophen alone (group III) produced a significant increase in serum levels of the liver enzymes and direct bilirubin. Moreover, in the same group there was a significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine compared to the control group. In addition, there was a significant increase in XO and MDA and a significant decrease in GSH and NO level. Injection of rats with zinc aspartate after acetaminophen treatment could produce a

  12. Zinc status in South Asian populations--an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2013-06-01

    This article attempts to highlight the prevalence of zinc deficiency and its health and economic consequences in South Asian developing countries and to shed light on possible approaches to combating zinc deficiency. A computer-based search was performed on PubMed, Google, and ScienceDirect.com to retrieve relevant scientific literature published between 2000 and 2012. The search yielded 194 articles, of which 71 were culled. Studies were further screened on the basis of population groups, age and sex, pregnancy, and lactation. The most relevant articles were included in the review. Cutoffs for serum zinc concentration defined for zinc deficiency were 65 microg/dL for males and females aged or = 10 years. Population segments from rural and urban areas of South Asian developing countries were included in the analysis. They comprised pregnant and lactating women, preschool and school children. The analysis reveals that zinc deficiency is high among children, pregnant and lactating women in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. Diarrhoea has been established as a leading cause to intensify zinc deficiency in Bangladesh. Little has been done in Sri Lanka and Nepal to estimate the prevalence of zinc deficiency precisely. A substantial population segment of the South Asian developing countries is predisposed to zinc deficiency which is further provoked by increased requirements for zinc under certain physiological conditions. Supplementation, fortification, and dietary diversification are the most viable strategies to enhancing zinc status among various population groups.

  13. Trace elements cadmium and zinc in the pathogenesis of experimental hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockett, C.J.R.

    1980-01-01

    In human kidneys cadmium is bound by a protein, metallothionein, which also contains zinc, and because cadmium apparently competes with zinc on the same binding sites, the cadmium-zinc ratio is particularly important. An increase in this ratio would mean a relative deficiency in zinc which might result in some forms of hypertension in man and animals. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of small amounts of supplementary dietary cadmium on weanling and adult albino rats. Two colonies of rats were examined. The object of this study was to determine if hypertension could be induced and to investigate its effects on renal function and renin levels in these animals. Sodium and potassium levels and balances, renin, angiotensin II, and urea output were therefore estimated in these animals. In order to assess the effect of length of exposure to cadmium in relation to growth and maturation upon blood pressure, experiments were done on a second colony of male weanling rats. Tissue levels of cadmium and zinc, and serum levels of sodium, potassium, chloride, carbon dioxide, urea and urate were measured. All supplemented diets caused hypertension and a significant drop in urinary urea excretion levels. Plasma angiotensin in males, and renal cadmium-zinc ratios were higher than in controls. The results of the studies in adult rats showed slight sodium and water retention. Weanlings showed a more rapid uptake of cadmium and reached higher blood pressure levels. In conclusion, cadmium does seem to be a factor in selected animal hypertension. A possible mechanism is via interference with renal function, and our data regarding urea output support the idea of renal function impairment. The initiation of a renin-angiotensin hypertension is suggested by the raised angiotensin levels which were detected

  14. Metabolism of fatty acids and the levels of ketone bodies in the livers of pyridoxine-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomikawa, Shuzo; Okada, Mitsuko

    1978-01-01

    Lipid metabolism was examined in rats fed a high-protein pyridoxine-deficient diet, and their livers were found to contain large amounts of lipids, mainly in the forms of triglycerides and cholesteryl ester. The contents of ketone bodies in the livers of pyridoxine-deficient and the control rats were similar. Their NAD + /NADH ratios, calculated from the amounts of ketone bodies, were also similar in pyridoxine-deficient and control groups when the animals were fed, but the ratio in pyridoxine-deficient rats was lower than that of control rats when the animals were starved. After injection of 14 C-linoleic acid, the amounts of expired 14 CO 2 in pyridoxine-deficient and control rats were similar. The pattern of incorporations of 14 C-linoleic acid into various lipid components of the livers were examined; incorporation into the phospholipid fraction was similar in control and deficient rats, but the incorporation into the triglyceride fraction was slower, and the incorporation into cholesterol was faster in deficient animals than in controls. (auth.)

  15. The impact of adult vitamin D deficiency on behaviour and brain function in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline H Byrne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the adult population, and this has been linked to depression and cognitive outcomes in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adult vitamin D (AVD deficiency on behavioural tasks of relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders in male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Ten-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control or vitamin D deficient diet for 6 weeks prior to, and during behavioural testing. We first examined a range of behavioural domains including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, social behaviour, learned helplessness, sensorimotor gating, and nociception. We then assessed locomotor response to the psychomimetic drugs, amphetamine and MK-801. Attention and vigilance were assessed using the 5 choice serial reaction time task (5C-SRT and the 5 choice continuous performance task (5C-CPT and, in a separate cohort, working memory was assessed using the delay match to sample (DMTS task. We also examined excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in prefrontal cortex and striatum. RESULTS: AVD-deficient rats were deficient in vitamin D3 (<10 nM and had normal calcium and phosphate levels after 8-10 weeks on the diet. Overall, AVD deficiency was not associated with an altered phenotype across the range of behavioural domains tested. On the 5C-SRT AVD-deficient rats made more premature responses and more head entries during longer inter-trial intervals (ITI than control rats. On the 5C-CPT AVD-deficient rats took longer to make false alarm (FA responses than control rats. AVD-deficient rats had increases in baseline GABA levels and the ratio of DOPAC/HVA within the striatum. CONCLUSIONS: AVD-deficient rats exhibited no major impairments in any of the behavioural domains tested. Impairments in premature responses in AVD-deficient rats may indicate that these animals have specific alterations in striatal systems governing compulsive or reward-seeking behaviour.

  16. The protective role of Gamma-Tocopherol and zinc cysteine against oxidative stress induced by gamma irradiation in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anis, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the capability of α tocopherol (naturally occurring antioxidant) and zinc cysteine against radiation induced oxidative stress. α Tocopherol was dissolved in corn oil and g, to the animals for ten successive days at a dose of 20 mg/kg b weight/day. Zinc cysteine was delivered to rats via intraperitoneal inject at a concentration of 25 mg/kg body weight/day for two successive days, rats were exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of Gy. The activities of super oxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase and also concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (Mi . were determined in the blood. The levels of metallothionein, zinc and copper were estimated in the serum, liver and kidney of the tested animals. The obtained results revealed that administration of a-tocopherol and zinc cysteine before gamma radiation exposure diminish significantly the decrease in blood SOD and catalase activities as compared to untreated irradiated rats. Also, the decrease in blood GSH concentration was less manifested and the decrease in the level of MDA was significant. The pre-gamma irradiation administration of zinc cysteine induced significant changes in the levels of metallothionein compared to both a-tocopherol supplemented and gamma irradiated rat groups. The amelioration occurred in the levels of zinc and copper postulated the positive role of vitamin E and zinc cysteine in alleviating all the levels of these elements

  17. The triad of Iron deficiency anemia, hepatosplenomegaly and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-04

    Dec 4, 2014 ... In conclusion, iron deficiency anemia occurring in the triad without zinc deficiency as .... a negative zinc balance and mask existing zinc deficiency.[10] ... erythropoiesis‑stimulating agents in men with chronic kidney disease.

  18. Evaluation of calcium, magnesium, zinc, aluminum and manganese deposition in bones and CNS of rats fed calcium-deficient diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Masayuki; Ota, Kiichiro; Sasajima, Kazuhisa; Iwata, Shiro.

    1994-01-01

    The long term intake of unbalanced mineral diets has been reported to be one of the pathogenetic factors of central nervous system (CNS) degeneration, and the unbalanced mineral distribution in the bones clinically is expressed as a metabolic bone disorder or deposition of neurotoxic minerals/metals. The unbalanced mineral or metal diets in animals provoke the unbalanced mineral distribution in bones and soft tissues. In this study, the calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) contents in the CNS and the bones of rats maintained on unbalanced mineral diets were analyzed to investigate the roles of bone on CNS degeneration. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 90 days on the following diets: (A) standard diet, (B) low Ca diet, (C) low Ca-Mg diet, (D) low Ca-Mg diet with high Al. Al and Mn contents were determined in the frontal cortex, spinal cord, lumbar spine and femur using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) for Ca, Mg and Zn, and neutron activation analysis (NAA) for Al and Mn. Intake of low Ca and Mg with added Al in rats led to the abnormal distribution of metals or minerals in the bones and in the CNS. These results illustrate that unbalanced mineral diets and metal-metal interactions may lead to the irregular deposition of Al and Mn in the bones and ultimately in the CNS, thus inducing CNS degeneration. (author)

  19. Effect of zinc fertilization on cadmium toxicity in durum and bread wheat grown in zinc-deficient soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeleli, Nurcan; Eker, Selim; Cakmak, Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The effect of increasing application of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) on shoot dry weight and shoot concentrations of Zn and Cd was studied in bread and durum wheat cultivars. Plants were grown in severely Zn-deficient calcareous soil treated with increasing Zn (0 and 10 mg kg -1 soil) and Cd (0, 10 and 25 mg kg -1 soil) and harvested after 35 and 65 days of growth under greenhouse conditions. Growing plants without Zn fertilization caused severe depression in shoot growth, especially in durum wheat and at high Cd treatment. Cadmium treatments resulted in rapid development of necrotic patches on the base and sheath parts of the oldest leaves of both wheat cultivars, but symptoms were more severe in durum wheat and under Zn deficiency. Decreases in shoot dry weight from increasing Cd application were more severe in Zn-deficient plants. Severity of Cd toxicity symptoms in durum and bread wheat at different Zn treatments did not show any relation to the Cd concentrations in shoot. Increasing Cd application to Zn-deficient plants tended to decrease Zn concentrations in Zn-deficient plants, whereas in plants with adequate Zn, concentrations of Zn were either not affected or increased by Cd. The results show that durum wheat was more sensitive to both Zn deficiency and Cd toxicity as compared to bread wheat. Cadmium toxicity in the shoot was alleviated by Zn treatment, but this was not accompanied by a corresponding decrease in shoot concentrations of Cd. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that Zn protects plants from Cd toxicity by improving plant defense against Cd-induced oxidative stress and by competing with Cd for binding to critical cell constituents such as enzymes and membrane protein and lipids

  20. Effects of serum zinc level on tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkiten, Güler; Kumral, Tolgar Lütfi; Yıldırım, Güven; Salturk, Ziya; Uyar, Yavuz; Atar, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess zinc levels in tinnitus patients, and to evaluate the effects of zinc deficiency on tinnitus and hearing loss. One-hundred patients, who presented to an outpatient clinic with tinnitus between June 2009 and 2014, were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups according to age: Group I (patients between 18 and 30years of age); Group II (patients between 31 and 60years of age); and Group III (patients between 61 and 78years of age). Following a complete ear, nose and throat examination, serum zinc levels were measured and the severity of tinnitus was quantified using the Tinnitus Severity Index Questionnaire (TSIQ). Patients were subsequently asked to provide a subjective judgment regarding the loudness of their tinnitus. The hearing status of patients was evaluated by audiometry and high-frequency audiometry. An average hearing sensitivity was calculated as the mean value of hearing thresholds between 250 and 20,000Hz. Serum zinc levels between 70 and 120μg/dl were considered normal. The severity and loudness of tinnitus, and the hearing thresholds of the normal zinc level and zinc-deficient groups, were compared. Twelve of 100 (12%) patients exhibited low zinc levels. The mean age of the zinc-deficient group was 65.41±12.77years. Serum zinc levels were significantly lower in group III (p<0.01). The severity and loudness of tinnitus were greater in zinc-deficient patients (p=0.011 and p=0.015, respectively). Moreover, the mean thresholds of air conduction were significantly higher in zinc-deficient patients (p=0.000). We observed that zinc levels decrease as age increases. In addition, there was a significant correlation between zinc level and the severity and loudness of tinnitus. Zinc deficiency was also associated with impairments in hearing thresholds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Zinc and Melatonin on Oxidative Stress and Serum Inhibin-B Levels in a Rat Testicular Torsion-Detorsion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semercioz, Atilla; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Avunduk, Mustafa Cihat

    2017-12-01

    The present study was aimed to examine the effects of 3-week zinc and melatonin administration on testicular tissue injury and serum Inhibin-B levels caused by unilateral testicular torsion-detorsion in rats. The study was performed on 60 Wistar Albino-type adult male rats. The animals were allocated to 6 groups in equal numbers. 1. Control; 2. Sham; 3. Ischemia-reperfusion; 4. Zinc + ischemia-reperfusion; 5. Melatonin + ischemia-reperfusion; 6. Zinc + melatonin + ischemia-reperfusion. Zinc and melatonin were administered before ischemia-reperfusion at doses of 5 and 3 mg/kg respectively, by intraperitoneal route for a period of 3 weeks. Testicular torsion-detorsion procedures consisted of ischemia for 1 h and then reperfusion for another hour of the left testis. Blood and testicular tissue samples were collected to analyze erythrocyte and tissue GSH and plasma and tissue MDA, Inhibin-B levels. The highest erythrocyte and testis GSH values were found in zinc, melatonin, and zinc + melatonin groups (p zinc-, melatonin-, and melatonin + zinc-supplemented groups have higher inhibin-B and spermatogenetic activity (p zinc, melatonin, and melatonin + zinc administration partially restores the increased oxidative stress, as well as the reduced inhibin-B and spermatogenic activity levels in testes ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Suppressed inhibin-B levels in the testicular tissue may be a marker of oxidative stress.

  2. Voluntary wheel running is beneficial to the amino acid profile of lysine-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Kenji; Bannai, Makoto; Seki, Shinobu; Kawai, Nobuhiro; Mori, Masato; Takahashi, Michio

    2010-06-01

    Rats voluntarily run up to a dozen kilometers per night when their cages are equipped with a running wheel. Daily voluntary running is generally thought to enhance protein turnover. Thus, we sought to determine whether running worsens or improves protein degradation caused by a lysine-deficient diet and whether it changes the utilization of free amino acids released by proteolysis. Rats were fed a lysine-deficient diet and were given free access to a running wheel or remained sedentary (control) for 4 wk. Amino acid levels in plasma, muscle, and liver were measured together with plasma insulin levels and tissue weight. The lysine-deficient diet induced anorexia, skeletal muscle loss, and serine and threonine aminoacidemia, and it depleted plasma insulin and essential amino acids in skeletal muscle. Allowing rats to run voluntarily improved these symptoms; thus, voluntary wheel running made the rats less susceptible to dietary lysine deficiency. Amelioration of the declines in muscular leucine and plasma insulin observed in running rats could contribute to protein synthesis together with the enhanced availability of lysine and other essential amino acids in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that voluntary wheel running under lysine-deficient conditions does not enhance protein catabolism; on the contrary, it accelerates protein synthesis and contributes to the maintenance of muscle mass. The intense nocturnal voluntary running that characterizes rodents might be an adaptation of lysine-deficient grain eaters that allows them to maximize opportunities for food acquisition.

  3. Prenatal exposure to nanosized zinc oxide in rats: neurotoxicity and postnatal impaired learning and memory ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoli, Feng; Junrong, Wu; Xuan, Lai; Yanli, Zhang; Limin, Wei; Jia, Liu; Longquan, Shao

    2017-04-01

    To examine the neurotoxicity of prenatal exposure to ZnO nanoparticles on rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) by gavage. Toxicity was assessed including zinc biodistribution, cerebral histopathology, antioxidant status and learning and memory capability. A significantly elevated concentration of zinc was detected in offspring brains. Transmission electron microscope observations showed abnormal neuron ultrastructures. Histopathologic changes such as decreased proliferation and higher apoptotic death were observed. An obvious imbalanced antioxidant status occurred in brains. Adult experimental offspring exhibited impaired learning and memory behavior in the Morris water maze test compared with control groups. These adverse effects on offspring brain may cause impaired learning and memory capabilities in adulthood, particularly in female rats.

  4. Regression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Zinc and Selenium Co-supplementation after Disease Progression in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Shidfar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that zinc and selenium deficiency is common in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. However, the effects of zinc and selenium co-supplementation before and/or after disease progression on NAFLD are not clear enough. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of zinc and selenium co-supplementation before and/or after disease progression on NAFLD prognosis. Methods: Forty male Sprague–Dawley rats (197±4 g were randomly assigned to 4 dietary groups: normal-fat diet (NFD; receiving 9% of calories as fat, high-fat diet (HFD; receiving 82% of calories as fat, supplementation before disease progression (S+HFD, and supplementation after disease progression (HFD+S. The diets were implemented over a 20-week period in all the groups. Biochemical and histologic parameters were compared between the 4 groups, and between-group comparisons were also carried out. Results: There were significant differences in the average food dietary intake (P<0.001, weight (P<0.001, fasting blood sugar (P=0.005, triglyceride (P<0.001, total cholesterol (P<0.001, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.002, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.001, alanine aminotransferase (P<0.001, and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.001 between the 4 dietary groups. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly lower in the HFD+S Group than in the S+HFD Group (P<0.001 and P=0.003, respectively. Fat accumulation was significantly reduced in the HFD+S Group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Zinc and selenium co-supplementation after disease progression improved biochemical and histologic parameters in an experimental model of NAFLD.

  5. Effect of long-term intraperitoneal zinc administration on liver glycogen levels in diabetic rats subjected to acute forced swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Mursel; Gunay, Mehmet; Akil, Mustafa; Avunduk, Mustafa Cihat; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim

    2011-03-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of zinc administration on liver glycogen levels of rats in which diabetes was induced with streptozotocin and which were subjected to acute swimming exercise. The study was conducted on 80 adult Sprague-Dawley male rats, which were equally allocated to eight groups: group 1, general control; group 2, zinc-administrated control; group 3, zinc-administrated diabetic control; group 4, swimming control; group 5, zinc-administrated swimming; group 6, zinc-administrated diabetic swimming; group 7, diabetic swimming; group 8, diabetic control group. In order to induce diabetes, animals were injected with 40 mg/kg intraperitoneal (ip) streptozotocin. The injections were repeated in the same dose after 24 h. Animals which had blood glucose at or above 300 mg/dl 6 days after the last injections were accepted as diabetic. Zinc was administrated ip for 4 weeks as 6 mg/kg/day per rat. Hepatic tissue samples taken from the animals at the end of the study were fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol. Cross sections of 5 µm thickness, taken by the help of a microtome from the tissue samples buried in paraffin, were placed on a microscope slide and stained with periodic acid-Schiff and evaluated by light microscope. All microscopic images were transferred to a PC and assessed with the help of Clemex PE3.5 image analysis software. The lowest liver glycogen levels in the study were obtained in groups 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8. Liver glycogen levels in group 5 were higher than groups 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8, but lower than groups 1 and 2 (p swimming exercise were restored by zinc administration and that diabetes induced in rats prevented the protective effect of zinc.

  6. Influence of histidine on zinc transport into rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Suzuki, Mai; Okada, Shoji; Oku, Naoto

    2000-01-01

    The brain of rats injected intravenously with 65 Zn-His or 65 ZnCl 2 was subjected to autoradiography to study the role of histidine on zinc transport into the brain. One hour after injection, the radioactivity from 65 Zn-His was largely concentrated in the choroid plexus in the ventricles. Six days after injection, the radioactivity from 65 Zn-His was relatively concentrated in the hippocampal CA3 and dentate gyrus and the amygdala. The relative distribution of 65 Zn-His in the brain was similar to that of 65 ZnCl 2 group at both 1 h and 6 days, suggesting that histidine may participate in zinc uptake in the brain. On the other hand, the clearance of the 65 Zn-His group from the blood was higher than that of the 65 ZnCl 2 group. Brain uptake of the former was lower than that of the latter both 1 h and 6 days after injection. These results suggest that zinc uptake in the brain is influenced by histidine levels in the bloodstream. (author)

  7. Research within the coordinated programme on isotope-aided micro-nutrient studies in rice production with special reference to zinc deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.

    1981-03-01

    A series of pot and field experiments with flooded rice were carried out on contrasting soil types of the Punjab, Pakistan to study the zinc status of soils, evaluate chemical methods for extracting available zinc and copper in flooded rice soils, study the residual effects of zinc fertilizer, evaluate the efficiency of zinc application to rice. The results show a wide-spread deficiency of Zn and, to some extent, of Cu in rice plants; (2) the correlation coefficient values between soil-available Zn and Cu and that extracted by rice plants were very small; (3) the various sources of Zn applied to rice by different ways proved quite effective in alleviating Zn deficiency under pot and field experiments; (4) uptake of N, P, Cu in rice plants was variably affected with Zn applied; (5) the addition of P in any form alone and with Zn or Cu invariably depressed Zn uptake by rice plants; (6) both Zn and Cu concentrations in plants were depressed with manure applications alone, as well as when Zn or Cu was respectively applied with it; (7) Zn reduced Cu while Cu induced Zn concentration in plants

  8. Attenuation of acoustic and tactile startle responses of vitamin B-6 deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, M C

    1987-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 deficient rats exhibit changes in behavior, sensory function, and other nervous system abnormalities such as convulsive seizures and motor disturbances. Sensorimotor reactivity was evaluated quantitatively by measuring auditory and tactile startle responses in 12 week old female Long-Evans rats fed a diet devoid of added vitamin B-6 (DEF) or a control diet, either ad lib (AL-CON) or pair-fed to deficient rats (PF-CON). Deficiency was confirmed with a tryptophan-load test administered to a separate group of rats fed simultaneously according to the same protocol. At week 18, body weight and feed efficiency were different among groups (p less than 0.001), and were lowest in DEF. Amplitude of response to both acoustic and tactile stimuli was depressed in DEF compared to both control groups, which generally did not differ in response. This effect was seen most dramatically in responses to the acoustic stimulus (p = 0.034), and especially to the first presentation (p = 0.017). Latency to maximum response was not affected by diet. Possible mechanisms for this nervous system abnormality, not previously reported in vitamin B-6 deficiency, are discussed.

  9. Ascorbic acid deficiency stimulates hepatic expression of inflammatory chemokine, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1, in scurvy-prone ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Fumihiko; Kiyama, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, Misato; Kawai, Kaori; Tsuda, Takanori

    2006-02-01

    ODS rat has a hereditary defect in ascorbic acid biosynthesis and is a useful animal model for elucidating the physiological role of ascorbic acid. We previously demonstrated by using ODS rats that ascorbic acid deficiency changes the hepatic gene expression of acute phase proteins, as seen in acute inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effects of ascorbic acid deficiency on the production of inflammatory chemokine, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1), in ODS rats. Male ODS rats (6 wk of age) were fed a basal diet containing ascorbic acid (300 mg/kg diet) or a diet without ascorbic acid for 14 d. Obvious symptoms of scurvy were not observed in the ascorbic acid-deficient rats. Ascorbic acid deficiency significantly elevated the serum concentration of CINC-1 on d 14. The liver and spleen CINC-1 concentrations in the ascorbic acid-deficient rats were significantly elevated to 600% and 180% of the respective values in the control rats. However, the lung concentration of CINC-1 was not affected by ascorbic acid deficiency. Ascorbic acid deficiency significantly elevated the hepatic mRNA level of CINC-1 (to 480% of the value in the control rats), but not the lung mRNA level. These results demonstrate that ascorbic acid deficiency elevates the serum, liver and spleen concentrations of CINC-1 as seen in acute inflammation, and suggest that ascorbic acid deficiency stimulate the hepatic CINC-1 gene expression.

  10. Innovative uses for zinc in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yoon Soo; Hill, Nikki D; Bibi, Yuval; Dreiher, Jacob; Cohen, Arnon D

    2010-07-01

    Severe zinc deficiency states, such as acrodermatitis enteropathica, are associated with a variety of skin manifestations, such as perioral, acral, and perineal dermatitis. These syndromes can be reversed with systemic zinc repletion. In addition to skin pathologies that are clearly zinc-dependent, many dermatologic conditions (eg, dandruff, acne, and diaper rash) have been associated and treated with zinc. Success rates for treatment with zinc vary greatly depending on the disease, mode of administration, and precise zinc preparation used. With the exception of systemic zinc deficiency states, there is little evidence that convincingly demonstrates the efficacy of zinc as a reliable first-line treatment for most dermatologic conditions. However, zinc may be considered as an adjunctive treatment modality. Further research is needed to establish the indications for zinc treatment in dermatology, optimal mode of zinc delivery, and best type of zinc compound to be used. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-06-17

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.

  12. [Correction of isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury with magnesium salts in magnesium-deficient rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharitonova, M V; Zheltova, A A; Spasov, A A; Smirnov, A V; Pan'shin, N G; Iezhitsa, I N

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Mg L-asparaginate (Mg-L-Asp), Mg chloride (MgCl2) and Mg sulfate (MgSO4) on the severity of isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury in Mg-deficient rats has been evaluated. To induce Mg deficiency, twenty-eight rats were placed on a low Mg diet (Mg content water for 10 weeks. Twelve control rats were fed a basal control diet (Mg content = 500 mg/kg) and water (with Mg content 20 mg/l) for equal duration. On day 49 of low Mg diet, Mg-deficient rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1) group that continued to receive low Mg diet; 2) low Mg diet plus oral MgSO4; 3) low Mg diet plus oral Mg-L-Asp and 4) low Mg diet plus oral MgCl2 (50 mg of Mg per kg of body weight). Isoproterenol was injected subcutaneously (30 mg/kg BW, twice, at an interval of 24 hours) on the day 70 of the study, when plasma and erythrocyte Mg level in rats fed a low Mg diet were significantly decreased by 47% and 45% compared to intact animals. Twenty-four hours after second injection of isoproterenol, tests for activities of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were run and histopathological study was carried out. Administration of isoproterenol to rats resulted in significantly elevated plasma CK, LDH and AST, however analyses in Mg deficient group demonstrated more dramatically increased activity of CK and AST compared to control rats (3,06 and 4,67 fold in Mg-deficient group vs. 1,91 and 3,92 fold in intact group). Increased leakage of cardiac injury markers was concomitant to increased volume of fuchsinophilic cardiomyocytes (54.2 +/- 1.7% in Mg-deficient group and 38.9 +/- 1.9% in intact group, p < 0.05). However, pretreatment with of MgCl2, MgSO4 and Mg-L-Asp during 21 days favorably decreased sensitivity of myocardium to isoproterenol-induced ischemic injury. All evaluated salts significantly decreased myocyte marker enzymes as well as protected myocardium against isoproterenol-induced histopathological perturbations.

  13. Determination of Zinc Status in Humans: Which Indicator Should We Use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank T. Wieringa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc deficiency has serious wide-ranging health consequences and is thought to be one of the most prevalent micronutrient deficiencies in the world. However, reliable indicators or biomarkers to assess zinc status are not available at present. Indirect indicators such as the prevalence of stunting or anemia, iron deficiency, as well as more direct indicators such as plasma zinc concentrations are being used at present to estimate the prevalence of zinc deficiency in populations. However, as this paper shows by using data from a recent national micronutrient survey in Vietnam, the estimates of the prevalence of zinc deficiency using these different indicators can vary widely, leading to inconsistencies. In this paper, zinc deficiency among children is four times more prevalent than iron deficiency and 2.3 times more than stunting prevalence for example. This can lead not only to confusion concerning the real extent of the prevalence of zinc deficiency in populations, but also makes it hard to inform policy on whether action is needed or not. Moreover, evaluation of programs is hampered by the lack of a clear indicator. Efforts should be made to identify the most suitable indicator to evaluate the impact of programs aimed at improving zinc status and health of populations.

  14. Response of copper deficient rats to inhibitors of renal sodium reabsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noordewier, B.; Saari, J.T. (Northwestern College, Orange City, IA (United States) USDA/ARS, Grand Forks, ND (United States))

    1991-03-11

    This study examined the effects of furosemide (Furo), a Loop diuretic, and amiloride (Am), a potassium (K)-sparing diuretic, on the excretion of sodium (Na) and K in copper-adequate (CuAdeq) and copper-deficient (CuDef) rats. Weanling male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a CuDef or CuAdeq diet ad libitum and given deionized water to drink. After 5 weeks on the diets, rats were assigned to one of four treatment regimens: Furo, Am or Furo + Am. Rats were anesthetized and electrolyte excretion was measured in 2 {times} 15 min control periods followed by 3 {times} 15 min treatment periods. Furo increased Na excretion in a dose dependent manner in both the CuAdeq and the CuDef rats. The response of the CuAdeq rats was slightly greater than that of the CuDef rats in each of the 3 treatment groups in which Furo was given. K excretion following Furo increased to the same extent in the CuAdeq and CuDef rats. The natriuretic response to Am alone was slightly greater in the CuDef than the CuAdeq rats. The antikaliuretic response of the CuDef rats was similar to that of the CuAdeq rats whether Am was given alone or in combination with Furo. These data show that CuDef rats respond to Furo and Am in a manner which is similar to that of CuAdeq rats, this indicates that the sensitivity of the Na reabsorption mechanisms to inhibition by diuretics is not markedly affected by copper deficiency.

  15. Soil micronutrients and its uptake by rice plant. Part of a coordinated programme on isotope-aided micronutrient studies in rice production with special reference to zinc deficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.S.

    1980-02-01

    A series of field and greenhouse experiments with flooded rice was carried out on contrasting soil types of Korea to study the zinc status of soils, evaluate the chemical methods for extracting zinc from soils in terms of ability to identify zinc deficiency, perform 65 Zn-aided experiments including the residual effects of zinc fertilizers to evaluate the efficiency of zinc sources and methods of zinc application to rice, and associated studies on factors affecting zinc nutrition in rice such as effect of organic matter and chelates. The results show that i) 0.05 N HCl solution for extracting available zinc in soil was effective to separating the soils which require zinc fertilizer application. The proposed zinc value to identify is 2.4 ppm. Among rice soils surveyed, the red-yellow podsolic soil derived from basalt, the reddish-brown lateritic soil of calcareous material and newly reclaimed saline soils were shown to be below this limit; ii) 5 kg Zn/ha as zinc sulphate introduced the highest response in terms of % Zndff, total zinc yield in rice plant, and the fertilizer zinc use efficiency. Applying higher zinc amounts, in case of 20 kg Zn/ha, retarded nitrogen uptake by the plant and as a result the rice grain yield was decreased; iii) Significant yields increases due to the residual effects of zinc fertilizers were obtained on the second and third crops; iv) On the zinc-deficient calcareous soil the use of chelated zinc sources is recommended

  16. Strain differences among rats in response to Remington iodine-deficient diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, K.; Taurog, A.; Krulich, L.

    1981-01-01

    Male rats of five different strains (Simonsen albino, Wistar, Long-Evans, Holtzman Sprague-Dawley, and Charles River Sprague-Dawley) were tested for their response to the U.S. Biochemical Corp. Remington low iodine diet containing 15-18 microgram I/kg. Measurements made after the diet had been fed for 28-30 days indicated that Simonsen albino and Wistar strains consistently showed the greatest response, based on degree of thyroid enlargement, depletion of thyroidal iodine, reduction in serum T4, and elevation of serum TSH. Long-Evans and Holtzman Sprague-Dawley rats responded relatively poorly to the low iodine diet. One experiment included female rats, and the limited data suggested that within a given strain there was no significant sex difference. With more prolonged feeding (84 days), the difference between a rapidly responding strain (Simonsen albino) and a more slowly responding strain (Holtzman Sprague-Dawley) was not so marked. Our results indicate that given sufficient time and a diet sufficiently low in iodine, even a more slowly responding strain will ultimately develop signs of extreme iodine deficiency. However, it is inconvenient and expensive to maintain rats on a Remington low iodine diet for 3 months, and studies on the effect of severe iodine deficiency are much more rapidly performed using a rapidly responding strain such as the Simonsen albino. Our observation that rats of different strains differ markedly in their responses to an iodine-deficient diet suggests that hereditary factors play an important role in this response

  17. Effect of magnesium deficiency on renal magnesium and calcium transport in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Carney, S L; Wong, N L; Quamme, G A; Dirks, J H

    1980-01-01

    Recollection of micropuncture experiments were performed on acutely thyroparathyroidectomized rats rendered magnesium deficient by dietary deprivation. Urinary magnesium excretion fell from a control of 15 to 3% of the filtered load after magnesium restriction. The loop of Henle, presumably the thick ascending limb, was the major modulator for renal magnesium homeostasis. The transport capacity for magnesium, however, was less in deficient rats than control animals. Absolute magnesium reabsor...

  18. Bioavailability of zinc to aerobic rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:Arbuscular mycorrhiza, Exudation, Oryza sativa , Rhizosphere, Rice, Soil, ZincZinc deficiency is a wide-spread constraint for crop production and human health. This thesis should contribute to alleviation of Zn deficiency problems and aimed at identifying soil

  19. Erythrocyte metallothionein as an index of zinc status in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grider, A.; Bailey, L.B.; Cousins, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Metallothionein concentrations in erythrocyte lysates derived from human subjects were measured by an ELISA procedure. IgG obtained from serum of sheep injected with human metallothionein 1 was used in this competitive assay. Subjects were fed a semipurified zinc-deficient diet for an 8-day depletion period after 3 days of acclimation. Fasting plasma zinc concentrations were reduced ∼7%. Metallothionein in the erythrocyte lysates was significantly decreased to 59% of the initial level by the end of the depletion period. Supplementation of these depleted subjects with zinc did not increase erythrocyte metallothionein levels within 24 hr. Daily supplementation of control subjects with zinc increased erythrocyte metallothionein to a 7-fold maximum within 7 days. These levels were reduced by 61% within 14 days after zinc supplementation was terminated. Incubation of rat [ 35 S]metallothionein with human erythrocyte lysate showed a time-dependent increase in 35 S soluble in 20% trichloroacetic acid, indicating degradation of the labeled protein, presumably via protease activity in the lysate. It is proposed that zinc supplementation induces erythrocyte metallothionein during erythropoiesis and that low zinc intake decreases synthesis and/or accelerates degradation of the protein in reticulocytes/erythrocytes. Metallothionein levels in erythrocytes may provide a useful index upon which to assess zinc status in humans

  20. The immune system and the impact of zinc during aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haase Hajo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The trace element zinc is essential for the immune system, and zinc deficiency affects multiple aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. There are remarkable parallels in the immunological changes during aging and zinc deficiency, including a reduction in the activity of the thymus and thymic hormones, a shift of the T helper cell balance toward T helper type 2 cells, decreased response to vaccination, and impaired functions of innate immune cells. Many studies confirm a decline of zinc levels with age. Most of these studies do not classify the majority of elderly as zinc deficient, but even marginal zinc deprivation can affect immune function. Consequently, oral zinc supplementation demonstrates the potential to improve immunity and efficiently downregulates chronic inflammatory responses in the elderly. These data indicate that a wide prevalence of marginal zinc deficiency in elderly people may contribute to immunosenescence.

  1. Determination of Zinc Status in Humans: Which Indicator Should We Use?

    OpenAIRE

    Wieringa, Frank T.; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A.; Fiorentino, Marion; Laillou, Arnauld; Berger, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Zinc deficiency has serious wide-ranging health consequences and is thought to be one of the most prevalent micronutrient deficiencies in the world. However, reliable indicators or biomarkers to assess zinc status are not available at present. Indirect indicators such as the prevalence of stunting or anemia, iron deficiency, as well as more direct indicators such as plasma zinc concentrations are being used at present to estimate the prevalence of zinc deficiency in populations. However, as t...

  2. The effect of X-irradiation on vitamin E deficient rat liver mitochondrial ATPase and cytochrome c oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkut, S.

    1978-01-01

    Male albino rats were fed for 3 weeks on standard diets or on diets either deficient in or supplemented by vitamin E, whole-body X-irradiated and then immediately decapitated. Liver mitochondrial ATPase activity was stimulated and cytochrome c oxidase inhibited in the irradiated vitamin E deficient group. These activities were not influenced by irradiation in the rats fed on vitamin E supplemented and standard diets. The live mitochondrial vitamin E level was decreased in rats fed on the deficient diet. No differences in liver mitochondrial vitamin E levels were observed after X-irradiation of rats fed on any of the diets. The results suggest that the liver mitochondrial inner-membrane structure may be altered by a diet deficient in vitamin E. (U.K.)

  3. Rrol of Zinc Cystenine in the Regulation of Metallothionnein Induction in whole body gamma irradiation rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azab, Kh. Sh.; Zaharn, A.M.; Noaman, E.

    2004-01-01

    The antioxidant competence of metallothionein (MT) in cellular injury lunched by free radicals released in view of ionizing radiation has been proposed. The present work was conducted to elucidate the role of Zinc cysteine in the regulation of metallothionein induction in whole body gamma irradiated rats. cysteine was delivered to rats via intraperitoneal (i.p) injection at a concentration of 25-mg/kg body weight/day for two successive 2 days. The second injection was 30- min. pre irradiation. Whole body γ- irradiation at dose level 6.5 Gy induced significant increase in the levels of metallothionein in all investigated tissues (serum, liver and kidney) accompanied with significant increase in the levels of Zn in the liver. Cu concentrations increased in serum and kidney and decreased significantly in liver tissues. Data of lipid peroxidation demonstrated significant increase in TBARS as compared with control valuws in serum, liver and kidney. Iron was decreased significantly in serum and liver but a significant increase was recorded in kidney at 7 days after irradiation. Ca increased significantly in the liver only as compared with control rats. In addition, K concentration increased significantly in serum, liver and kidney while, P increased in serum and liver when compared with control values. The administration of zinc cysteine pre-irradiation induces significant increases in liver metallothionin from irradiated rat's value. It is only serum show significant decrease in level of MT from the irradiated rat's value on the 1st day post irradiation. However, the changes observed in the levels of Zn, Cu, Iron and Ca, K and P are less manifested when compared with values of irradiated animals. The reduction in the levels of TBARS was obvious comparing with irradiated rat's data. The amelioration occurred in the levels of Zn, Cu, Fe, Ca, P and K when, zinc cysteine administrated before irradiation postulate the positive role zinc cysteine in the adjustment of

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of F-bZIP transcription factors indicates conservation of the zinc deficiency response across land plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Pedro Humberto Araújo R F; Lilay, Grmay Hailu; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors control important developmental and physiological processes in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the three gene F-bZIP subfamily has been associated with zinc deficiency and salt stress response. Benefiting from the present abundance of plant genomic...... data, we performed an evolutionary and structural characterization of plant F-bZIPs. We observed divergence during seed plant evolution, into two groups and inferred different selective pressures for each. Group 1 contains AtbZIP19 and AtbZIP23 and appears more conserved, whereas Group 2, containing...... of AtZIP4. A survey of AtZIP4 orthologs promoters across different plant taxa revealed an enrichment of the Zinc Deficiency Response Element (ZDRE) to which both AtbZIP19/23 bind. Overall, our results indicate that while the AtbZIP24 function in the regulation of the salt stress response may...

  5. Influence of histidine on zinc transport into rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Suzuki, Mai; Okada, Shoji; Oku, Naoto [Shizuoka Univ. (Japan). School of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    2000-06-01

    The brain of rats injected intravenously with {sup 65}Zn-His or {sup 65}ZnCl{sub 2} was subjected to autoradiography to study the role of histidine on zinc transport into the brain. One hour after injection, the radioactivity from {sup 65}Zn-His was largely concentrated in the choroid plexus in the ventricles. Six days after injection, the radioactivity from {sup 65}Zn-His was relatively concentrated in the hippocampal CA3 and dentate gyrus and the amygdala. The relative distribution of {sup 65}Zn-His in the brain was similar to that of {sup 65}ZnCl{sub 2} group at both 1 h and 6 days, suggesting that histidine may participate in zinc uptake in the brain. On the other hand, the clearance of the {sup 65}Zn-His group from the blood was higher than that of the {sup 65}ZnCl{sub 2} group. Brain uptake of the former was lower than that of the latter both 1 h and 6 days after injection. These results suggest that zinc uptake in the brain is influenced by histidine levels in the bloodstream. (author)

  6. Exogenous recombinant human growth hormone effects during suboptimal energy and zinc intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duro Debora

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Energy and Zinc (Zn deficiencies have been associated with nutritional related growth retardation as well as growth hormone (GH resistance. In this study, the relationship between suboptimal energy and/or Zn intake and growth in rats and their response to immunoreactive exogenous recombinant human GH (GHi, was determined. Results Rats treated with GHi and fed ad-libitum energy and Zn (100/100 had increased IGFBP-3 (p Conclusion These results suggest that GHi enhances weight gain in rats with suboptimal energy and Zn intake but does not modify energy expenditure or physical activity index. Suboptimal Zn intake did not exacerbate the reduced growth or decrease in energy expenditure observed with energy restriction.

  7. Taurine zinc solid dispersions attenuate doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan; Lu, Wenping; Li, Binglong; Xu, Donghui

    2015-11-15

    The clinical efficacy of anthracycline anti-neoplastic agents is limited by cardiac and hepatic toxicities. The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effects of taurine zinc solid dispersions, which is a newly-synthesized taurine zinc compound, against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats intraperitoneally injected with doxorubicin hydrochloride (3mg/kg) three times a week (seven injections) over 28 days. Hemodynamic parameters, levels of liver toxicity markers and oxidative stress were assessed. Taurine zinc significantly attenuated the reductions in blood pressure, left ventricular pressure and ± dp/dtmax, increases in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and reductions in serum Zn(2+) and albumin levels (Ptaurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione concentration, and decreased malondialdehyde level (PTaurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver heme oxygenase-1 and UDP-glucuronyl transferase mRNA and protein expression (Ptaurine zinc inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation by upregulating dual-specificity phosphoprotein phosphatase-1. Additionally, taurine zinc inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis as there was decreased TUNEL/DAPI positivity and protein expression of caspase-3. These results indicate that taurine zinc solid dispersions prevent the side-effects of anthracycline-based anticancer therapy. The mechanisms might be associated with the enhancement of antioxidant defense system partly through activating transcription to synthesize endogenous phase II medicine enzymes and anti-apoptosis through inhibiting JNK phosphorylation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Zahi Gammoh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB, a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.

  9. Effect of resveratrol and zinc on intracellular zinc status in normal human prostate epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the influence of resveratrol on cellular zinc status, normal human prostate epithelial (NHPrE) cells were treated with 6 levels of resveratrol (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 microM) and 4 levels of zinc [0, 4, 16, and 32 microM for zinc-deficient (ZD), zinc-normal (ZN), zinc-adequate (ZA), an...

  10. Level of zinc in maize seeds and maize growing soils of central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia is one of the world countries with reported zinc deficiency or high probability of zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency is an important soil constraint to crop production, food quality and human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the zinc concentration of different cultivars of maize seeds and soil samples in central ...

  11. NUTRITIONAL INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ZINC AND BRANCHED CHAIN AMINO ACID (BCAA SUPPLEMENT IN RATS: A MULTICOMPARTMENT MODELING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIR RODRIGUES GARCIA-JÊNIOR

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The influence of supplementary-branched chain amino acids (BCAA on 65Zn metabolism in rats was investigated in this study. Nutritional indicators of Zn, as absorption, body retention and secretion, were estimated using a multicompartment model. Two groups of eight male rats were force-fed a zinc-adequate diet (control group and a zinc-adequate diet plus 0.52 9 BCAA/kg diet during 15 days. There was no significant difference for intake of Zn, absorption (34%, intestinal transit (tso and the leveI of Zn in the intravascular compartment (plasma. On the other hand the extravascular compartment (organs and specific concentration of Zn per 9 of tissue decreased after experimental period (p < 0.05 The rats supplememted with BCAA secreted Zn by urine twice faster than controls, but the secrotion of zinc by endogen feces were not decreased in this group. Thus, BCAA supplement changed the kinetic of Zn, increasing the urinary secretion and the loss of Zn from the body.

  12. The daidzein- and estradiol- induced anorectic action in CCK or leptin receptor deficiency rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitani, Mina; Mizushige, Takafumi; Bhattarai, Keshab; Iwahara, Asami; Aida, Ryojiro; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of daidzein feeding and estradiol treatment on food intake in cholecystokinin-1 receptor (CCK1R) deficiency, leptin receptor (ObRb) deficiency rats and their wild-type rats. These rats underwent an ovariectomy or a sham operation. For the 5 week experiment, each rat was divided in three groups: control, daidzein (150 mg/kg diet), and estradiol (4.2 μg/rat/day) groups. In both CCK1R+ and CCK1R- rats, daidzein feeding and estradiol treatment significantly decreased food intake. Daidzein feeding significantly reduced food intake in ovariectomized ObRb- rats, although not in ObRb+ rats. Estradiol treatment significantly lowered food intake in ovariectomized ObRb+ and ObRb- rats. In the ovariectomized rats, estradiol treatment significantly increases uterine weight, while daidzein feeding did not change it, suggesting that daidzein might have no or weak estrogenic effect in our experiment. These results suggest that CCK1R and ObRb signalings were not essential for the daidzein- and estradiol-induced anorectic action.

  13. "Changes in cartilage of rats after treatment with Quinolone and in Magnesium-deficient diet "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakibaei M

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructural changes in immature articular carilage were studied after treatment of 5-weeks-old rats with ofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, and in magnesium deficiency.We concluded that quinolone-induced arthropathy is probably due to chelation of functionally available magnesium in joint cartilage as magnesium deficiency in joint cartilage could impair chondrocyte-matrix- interaction which is mediated by cation-dependent integrin-receptors of the β1-subfamily. With immuno-histochemical methods using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies we showed that B1 integrins were expressed in rat joint cartilage. Joint cartilage lesions were detected in ofloxacin-treated and magnesium-deficient rats. Lesions were more pronounced in the quinolone-treated group. Expression of several integrins was reduced in the vicinity of lesions after oral treatment with 2×600 mg ofloxacin/kg body wt for one day. Gross-structural lesions (e.g. cleft formation, unmasked collagen fibres in magnesium deficient rats were very similar but changes in intergrin expression were less pronounced. Alterations observed on the ultrastructural level showed striking similarities in magnesium-deficient rats and in rats treated with single doses of 600 mg ofloxacin per kg body wt.Typical observation were: bundle shaped, electron-dense aggregates on the surface and in the cytoplasm of chondrocytes, detachement of the cell membrance from the matrix and necrotic chondrocytes, reduced synthesis and/or reduced of extracellular matrix and swelling of cell organelles such as mitochondria.The results of this study confirm our previously reported finding that quinolone-induced arthropathy probably is caued by a reduction of functionally available magnesium (ionized Mg2+ in cartilage. Furthermore, they provide a basis for aimed studies with human cartilage samples from quinolone-treated patients which might be available postmortal or after hip replacement surgery

  14. [Vitamin E and experimental caries in rats fed a cariogenic diet and zinc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, E; Longo, A

    1981-01-01

    A cariogenic diet with zinc and vitamin E administered to rats for 90 days led to a reduction in caries of 21.87% by comparison with animals fed with the cariogenic diet only, and 3.12% by comparison with those that received the diet plus zinc. Although the details of the mechanism of action of vitamin E are not fully known, it is felt that its demonstrated cariostatic effect depends on its antioxidant activity and its protection of the sulphydryl groups of some enzyme system, together with its direct intervention in cell respiration. Since both vitamin E and zinc activate NAD-dependent LDH, their simultaneous administration enhances their individual cariostatic effects by bringing about a lower accumulation of lactic acid in the bacterial plaque.

  15. Phytase supplementation increases bone mineral density, lean body mass and voluntary physical activity in rats fed a low-zinc diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimgeour, Angus G; Marchitelli, Louis J; Whicker, Jered S; Song, Yang; Ho, Emily; Young, Andrew J

    2010-07-01

    Phytic acid forms insoluble complexes with nutritionally essential minerals, including zinc (Zn). Animal studies show that addition of microbial phytase (P) to low-Zn diets improves Zn status and bone strength. The present study determined the effects of phytase supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD), body composition and voluntary running activity of male rats fed a high phytic acid, low-Zn diet. In a factorial design, rats were assigned to ZnLO (5 mg/kg diet), ZnLO+P (ZnLO diet with 1500 U phytase/kg) or ZnAD (30 mg/kg diet) groups and were divided into voluntary exercise (EX) or sedentary (SED) groups, for 9 weeks. SED rats were significantly heavier from the second week, and no catch-up growth occurred in EX rats. Feed intakes were not different between groups throughout the study. ZnLO animals had decreased food efficiency ratios compared to both phytase-supplemented (ZnLO+P) and Zn-adequate (ZnAD) animals (Pbone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA) and BMD than rats fed ZnLO diets; and in rats fed ZnAD diets these indices were the highest. The dietary effects on BMC, BA and BMD were independent of activity level. We conclude that consuming supplemental dietary phytase or dietary Zn additively enhances Zn status to increase BMD, LBM and voluntary physical activity in rats fed a low-Zn diet. While the findings confirm that bone health is vulnerable to disruption by moderate Zn deficiency in rats, this new data suggests that if dietary Zn is limiting, supplemental phytase may have beneficial effects on LBM and performance activity. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sonja; Skrovanek; Katherine; DiGuilio; Robert; Bailey; William; Huntington; Ryan; Urbas; Barani; Mayilvaganan; Giancarlo; Mercogliano; James; M; Mullin

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases.

  17. Effect of thiamine deficiency, pyrithiamine and oxythiamine on pyruvate metabolism in rat liver and brain in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meghal, S.K.; O'Neal, R.M.; Koeppe, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    Rats were fed either a thiamine-deficient diet or diets containing pyrithiamine or oxythiamine. When symptoms of thiamine deficiency appeared, the animals were injected intraperitoneally with [2- 14 C] pyruvate six to twelve minutes prior to sacrifice. Free glutamic and aspartic acids were isolated from liver and brain and degraded. The results indicate that, in thiamine-deficient or oxythiamine-treated rats, pyruvate metabolism in liver and brain is similar to that in normal animals. In contrast, pyrithinamine drastically decreases the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate by rat liver. (auth.)

  18. Zinc oxide nanoparticles decrease the expression and activity of plasma membrane calcium ATPase, disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dadong; Bi, Hongsheng; Wang, Daoguang; Wu, Qiuxin

    2013-08-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticle is one of the most important materials with diverse applications. However, it has been reported that zinc oxide nanoparticles are toxic to organisms, and that oxidative stress is often hypothesized to be an important factor in cytotoxicity mediated by zinc oxide nanoparticles. Nevertheless, the mechanism of toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles has not been completely understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles and the possible molecular mechanism involved in calcium homeostasis mediated by plasma membrane calcium ATPase in rat retinal ganglion cells. Real-time cell electronic sensing assay showed that zinc oxide nanoparticles could exert cytotoxic effect on rat retinal ganglion cells in a concentration-dependent manner; flow cytometric analysis indicated that zinc oxide nanoparticles could lead to cell damage by inducing the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, zinc oxide nanoparticles could also apparently decrease the expression level and their activity of plasma membrane calcium ATPase, which finally disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis and result in cell death. Taken together, zinc oxide nanoparticles could apparently decrease the plasma membrane calcium ATPase expression, inhibit their activity, cause the elevated intracellular calcium ion level and disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis. Further, the disrupted calcium homeostasis will trigger mitochondrial dysfunction, generate excessive reactive oxygen species, and finally initiate cell death. Thus, the disrupted calcium homeostasis is involved in the zinc oxide nanoparticle-induced rat retinal ganglion cell death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multimicronutrient supplementation in older persons decreased zinc deficiency but not serum TNF-á

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Herwana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the population of older persons needs to be accompanied by increased quality of healthcare in older persons, particularly a decrease in the incidence of infections. Impaired immune responses are common in older adults, and immune senescence likely contributes to the increased incidence of infectious diseases in the older persons. The aging process decreases the immune response and many studies have been conducted to explain the role of supplementation with various micronutrients, such as vitamin C, vitamin E, â-carotene and zinc, on the immune response. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of 6 months of multi-micronutrient (MMN supplementation on zinc and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-á levels in older persons. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 78 older persons, who were divided into two groups. The treatment group received MMN supplementation containing 40 mg elemental zinc, 120 mg ascorbic acid, 6 mg â-carotene, 15 mg á-tocopherol and 400 ìg folic acid and the control group 400 mg calcium carbonate. The study did not demonstrate that 6 months of MMN supplementation resulted in significant differences between both groups, with respect to total protein, albumin, globulin, and TNF-á levels. In contrast, MMN supplementation significantly decreased the proportion of older persons with zinc deficiency in the treatment group, in comparison with the control group. The present data suggest that in older persons with relatively good immune and protein status, improvement of the immune status by MMN supplementation may be difficult and at best limited.

  20. Effects of nanoparticle zinc oxide on emotional behavior and trace elements homeostasis in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Salem; Slama, Imen Ben; Omri, Karim; El Ghoul, Jaber; El Mir, Lassaad; Rhouma, Khemais Ben; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Sakly, Mohsen

    2015-12-01

    Over recent years, nanotoxicology and the potential effects on human body have grown in significance, the potential influences of nanosized materials on the central nervous system have received more attention. The aim of this study was to determine whether zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) exposure cause alterations in emotional behavior and trace elements homeostasis in rat brain. Rats were treated by intraperitoneal injection of ZnO NPs (20-30 nm) at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight. Sub -: acute ZnO NPs treatment induced no significant increase in the zinc content in the homogenate brain. Statistically significant decreases in iron and calcium concentrations were found in rat brain tissue compared to control. However, sodium and potassium contents remained unchanged. Also, there were no significant changes in the body weight and the coefficient of brain. In the present study, the anxiety-related behavior was evaluated using the plus-maze test. ZnO NPs treatment modulates slightly the exploratory behaviors of rats. However, no significant differences were observed in the anxious index between ZnO NP-treated rats and the control group (p > 0.05). Interestingly, our results demonstrated minimal effects of ZnO NPs on emotional behavior of animals, but there was a possible alteration in trace elements homeostasis in rat brain. © The Author(s) 2012.

  1. Identifikasi Leptin pada Kesembuhan Luka Tikus yang Diberi Pakan Lemak Tinggi dan Aplikasi Zinc Topikal (LEPTIN IDENTIFICATION ON WOUND HEALING OF RAT GIVEN HIGH FAT DIET AND TOPICAL ZINC APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devita Anggraeni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is a hormone produced by adipocytes and play an important role in wound healing. The objectiveof this research was to study the role of leptin in wound healing in mice experimentally given high fat dietsand its correlation to zinc. Thirty two male Sprague Dawley rats at three months of age were used in thisstudy. Rats were randomly allotted into four groups (A,B,C and D of 8. Rats in group A and B were fednormal diet, while rats in group C and D were fed high fat diet. After two months of treatment, skin incisionsurgery was performed at the back side of the rat. Incision wound was closed with single interruptedsuture. The wound of rats in group A and C were treated with vaseline, while in the group B and D weretreated with zinc 10%. One day after surgery, blood sample were collected frpm four rats from each groupand analysed for leptin (Rat leptin ELISA Int, Genway Biotech Inc. Wounded skin from all animals werealso taken for histopathological examination (Haematoxylin and Eosin. Three days after the surgery, thesame analysis were done for the remaining rats. Leptin level was analyzed statistically using ANOVA forfactorial experiment, while histopathologic analysis was done descriptively. The results showed that theleptin level was significantly affected by time (P<0.05, as leptin level in blood at three days after surgerywas significantly lower than the level at one day after surgery. Meanwhile, histopathological examinationshowed that the percentage of epidermal closure in animals in group A,B,C,and D were 75%, 100%, 25%and 75%, respectivelly. Therefore, it was concluded that topical application of zinc might have significanteffect on the wound healing of the rats fed normal diets as well as these that given a high fat diet.

  2. Protein expression in the nucleus accumbens of rats exposed to developmental vitamin D deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McGrath

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Developmental vitamin D (DVD deficiency is a candidate risk factor for schizophrenia. Animal models have confirmed that DVD deficiency is associated with a range of altered genomic, proteomic, structural and behavioural outcomes in the rat. Because the nucleus accumbens has been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, in the current study we examined protein expression in this region in adult rats exposed to DVD deficiency METHODS: Female Sprague Dawley rats were maintained on a vitamin D deficient diet for 6 weeks, mated and allowed to give birth, after which a diet containing vitamin D was reintroduced. Male adult offspring (n = 8 were compared to control male (n = 8. 2-D gel electrophoresis-based proteomics and mass spectroscopy were used to investigate differential protein expression. RESULTS: There were 35 spots, mapped to 33 unique proteins, which were significantly different between the two groups. Of these, 22 were down-regulated and 13 up-regulated. The fold changes were uniformly small, with the largest FC being -1.67. Within the significantly different spots, three calcium binding proteins (calbindin1, calbindin2 and hippocalcin were altered. Other proteins associated with DVD deficiency related to mitochondrial function, and the dynamin-like proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Developmental vitamin D deficiency was associated with subtle changes in protein expression in the nucleus accumbens. Disruptions in pathways related to calcium-binding proteins and mitochondrial function may underlie some of the behavioural features associated with animal models of developmental vitamin D deficiency.

  3. Copper and Zinc Deficiency in a Patient Receiving Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition During a Shortage of Parenteral Trace Element Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Eric; Dotson, Bryan

    2015-11-01

    Drug shortages in the United States, including parenteral nutrition (PN) components, have been common in recent years and can adversely affect patient care. Here we report a case of copper and zinc deficiency in a patient receiving PN during a shortage of parenteral trace element products. The management of the patient's deficiencies, including the use of an imported parenteral multi-trace element product, is described. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  4. Alterations in Somatostatin Cells and Biochemical Parameters Following Zinc Supplementation in Gastrointestinal Tissue of St reptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolkent, Sema; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Yanardag, Refiye; Mutlu, Ozgur; Yildirim, Sukriye

    2006-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes is a major causative factor of free radical generation which further leads to many secondary diabetic complications via the damage to cellular proteins, membrane lipids, and nucleic acids. Zinc is an essential trace element in all living systems and plays a structural role in many proteins and enzymes. Somatostatin is known to have inhibitory effects on various gastrointestinal functions. Therefore, we determined somatostatin protein production and secretion levels, and biochemical and light microscopical changes following zinc supplementation in the gastrointestinal tract of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. The animals were divided into four groups: Group I: control (untreated) animals; Group II: control animals given zinc sulfate; Group III: diabetic animals; and Group IV: diabetic animals given zinc sulfate. Zinc sulfate was given to the animals by gavage at a daily dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for 60 days. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ in a single dose of 65 mg/kg. For histological studies, stomach and duodenum tissues were fixed in Bouin solution and sections stained with Masson’s trichrome and Periodic-Acid-Schiff. Tissue homogenates were used for protein, lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione (GSH), and nonenzymatic glycosylation (NEG) analyses. Zinc supplementation to the STZ-diabetic rats revealed the protective effect of zinc on these parameters. Zinc supplementation may contribute to prevent at least some complications of diabetes mellitus

  5. Effect of different levels of dietary zinc supplementation on body weight and learning ability in rats%不同剂量补锌对大鼠体重和学习记忆的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱虹; 李积胜

    2004-01-01

    [Objective]:To investigate the effect of increasing dietary zinc supplementation on body weight and learning ability in rats.[Methods]Zinc supplemental diet contained 200, 400, 600, 800 or 1 600 mg/kg zinc,respectively.Y-labyrinth test was applied to exam the learning and memory function of rats.[Results]Significantly greater weight gain was observed in rats fed with 400 mg/kg zinc diet than in rats fed with 200 mg/kg zinc diet(P<0.05). During the early experiment, lower weight increments were notably observed in rats with 600, 800 or 1 600 mg/kg zinc supplementation than that in control group, respectively. But the influence on weight relief became weaker in pace with time on the whole. Learning and memory function for rats were strikingly improved at level of 200 mg/kg zinc diet compared with the control level(P<0.05), and were damaged in varying degrees at higher(except 1 600 mg/kg) zinc supplementation levels in feeds, among which,800 mg/kg zinc dosage had produced obviously lesion for learning ability in rats compared with normal, 200 or 1 600 mg/kg zinc levels(P<0.05, respectively).[Conclusion]These results suggest that different levels of zinc supplementation have some incompletely parallel effects on the growth, memory and capacity to learn in rats.

  6. Bioprotective effect of zinc in macro- and nanoaquachelate form on embryonal development of rats in conditions of lead intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beletskaya E.M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of studied influence of low doses of lead and zinc (nanozinc on embryonal development in a la¬boratory experiment on rats. Negative influence of lead on pregnancy of laboratory animals, manifested in violation of the physiological dynamics of the rectal temperature and decrease in body weight gain was revealed. Embryotoxic effect of low doses of lead results in increased fetal mortality by 2.16 times compared to the control group of animals, de¬terioration of the morphometric indices of fetuses, violation of placentogenesis. Simultaneous injections of zinc on back¬ground of lead intoxication causes a protective effect on the body of pregnant rats and embryonal development of the offspring, more pronounced for zinc citrate, received by using aquananotehnology, as compared to zinc chloride. Thus, by morphometry indices, male fetuses were more sensitive to prenatal lead exposure in comparison to female fetuses.

  7. Bile secretion of cadmium, silver, zinc and copper in the rat. Involvement of various transport systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, R; Vonk, RJ; Kuipers, F

    1996-01-01

    In the present study we compared, in vivo in rats, the hepatobiliary transport of monovalent (silver:Ag) and divalent metals (zinc:Zn; cadmium:Cd) with that of copper (Cu). Cu can have two oxidation states in vivo, i.e. Cu(I) and Cu(II). Studies were performed in normal Wistar (NW) rats and mutant

  8. The influence of magnesium deficiency on calcium metabolism in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larvor, P.; Labat, M.-L.

    1978-01-01

    Calcium metabolism was studied in magnesium-deficient rats with an isotopic technique. 45 Ca was injected intravenously and the blood calcium radioactivity curve was analyzed mathematically to compute the kinetics of calcium exchange in the whole body. No important change was noticed after a 10-day magnesium deficiency; there was a significant reduction of the ratio calcium pool/total calcium output from the pool (P/Vsub(T)). After a 20-day deficiency, a dramatic decrease in the two compartments of exchangeable calcium (-40%), and a less important decrease of Vsub(T)(-15%) was noted. Blood plasma urea level increased during magnesium deficiency, while urea urinary clearance remained

  9. Zinc and zinc transporters in macrophages and their roles in efferocytosis in COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys Hamon

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have shown that nutritional zinc restriction exacerbates airway inflammation accompanied by an increase in caspase-3 activation and an accumulation of apoptotic epithelial cells in the bronchioles of the mice. Normally, apoptotic cells are rapidly cleared by macrophage efferocytosis, limiting any secondary necrosis and inflammation. We therefore hypothesized that zinc deficiency is not only pro-apoptotic but also impairs macrophage efferocytosis. Impaired efferocytic clearance of apoptotic epithelial cells by alveolar macrophages occurs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cigarette-smoking and other lung inflammatory diseases. We now show that zinc is a factor in impaired macrophage efferocytosis in COPD. Concentrations of zinc were significantly reduced in the supernatant of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with COPD who were current smokers, compared to healthy controls, smokers or COPD patients not actively smoking. Lavage zinc was positively correlated with AM efferocytosis and there was decreased efferocytosis in macrophages depleted of Zn in vitro by treatment with the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN. Organ and cell Zn homeostasis are mediated by two families of membrane ZIP and ZnT proteins. Macrophages of mice null for ZIP1 had significantly lower intracellular zinc and efferocytosis capability, suggesting ZIP1 may play an important role. We investigated further using the human THP-1 derived macrophage cell line, with and without zinc chelation by TPEN to mimic zinc deficiency. There was no change in ZIP1 mRNA levels by TPEN but a significant 3-fold increase in expression of another influx transporter ZIP2, consistent with a role for ZIP2 in maintaining macrophage Zn levels. Both ZIP1 and ZIP2 proteins were localized to the plasma membrane and cytoplasm in normal human lung alveolar macrophages. We propose that zinc homeostasis in macrophages involves the coordinated action of ZIP1 and ZIP2

  10. Expression of zinc transporter genes in rice as influenced by zinc-solubilizing Enterobacter cloacae strain ZSB14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj eKrithika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in major food crops has been considered as an important factor affecting the crop production and subsequently the human health. Rice (Oryza sativa is sensitive to Zn deficiency and thereby causes malnutrition to most of the rice-eating Asian populations. Application of zinc solubilizing bacteria (ZSB could be a sustainable agronomic approach to increase the soil available Zn which can mitigate the yield loss and consequently the nutritional quality of rice. Understanding the molecular interactions between rice and unexplored ZSB is useful for overcoming Zn deficiency problems. In the present study, the role of zinc solubilizing bacterial strain Enterobacter cloacae strain ZSB14 on regulation of Zn-regulated transporters and iron (Fe-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP genes in rice under iron sufficient and deficient conditions was assessed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. The expression patterns of OsZIP1, OsZIP4 and OsZIP5 in root and shoot of rice were altered due to the Zn availability as dictated by Zn sources and ZSB inoculation. Fe sufficiency significantly reduced the root and shoot OsZIP1 expression, but not the OsZIP4 and OsZIP5 levels. Zinc oxide in the growth medium up-regulated all the assessed ZIP genes in root and shoot of rice seedlings. When ZSB was inoculated to rice seedlings grown with insoluble zinc oxide in the growth medium, the expression of root and shoot OsZIP1, OsZIP4 and OsZIP5 was reduced. In the absence of zinc oxide, ZSB inoculation up-regulated OsZIP1 and OsZIP5 expressions. Zinc nutrition provided to the rice seedling through ZSB-bound zinc oxide solubilization was comparable to the soluble zinc sulphate application which was evident through the ZIP genes’ expression and the Zn accumulation in root and shoot of rice seedlings. These results demonstrate that zinc solubilizing bacteria could play a crucial role in zinc fertilization and fortification of rice.

  11. Genomic instability related to zinc deficiency and excess in an in vitro model: is the upper estimate of the physiological requirements recommended for children safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Gisel; Ponzinibbio, María Virginia; Gambaro, Rocío Celeste; Seoane, Analía Isabel

    2017-08-01

    Micronutrients are important for the prevention of degenerative diseases due to their role in maintaining genomic stability. Therefore, there is international concern about the need to redefine the optimal mineral and vitamin requirements to prevent DNA damage. We analyzed the cytostatic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic effect of in vitro zinc supplementation to determine the effects of zinc deficiency and excess and whether the upper estimate of the physiological requirement recommended for children is safe. To achieve zinc deficiency, DMEM/Ham's F12 medium (HF12) was chelated (HF12Q). Lymphocytes were isolated from healthy female donors (age range, 5-10 yr) and cultured for 7 d as follows: negative control (HF12, 60 μg/dl ZnSO 4 ); deficient (HF12Q, 12 μg/dl ZnSO 4 ); lower level (HF12Q + 80 μg/dl ZnSO 4 ); average level (HF12Q + 180 μg/dl ZnSO 4 ); upper limit (HF12Q + 280 μg/dl ZnSO 4 ); and excess (HF12Q + 380 μg/dl ZnSO 4 ). The comet (quantitative analysis) and cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assays were used. Differences were evaluated with Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA (p < 0.05). Olive tail moment, tail length, micronuclei frequency, and apoptotic and necrotic percentages were significantly higher in the deficient, upper limit, and excess cultures compared with the negative control, lower, and average limit ones. In vitro zinc supplementation at the lower and average limit (80 and 180 μg/dl ZnSO 4 ) of the physiological requirement recommended for children proved to be the most beneficial in avoiding genomic instability, whereas the deficient, upper limit, and excess (12, 280, and 380 μg/dl) cultures increased DNA and chromosomal damage and apoptotic and necrotic frequencies.

  12. Importance of zinc for foetal and post-natal development in swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palludan, B.; Wegger, I.

    1976-01-01

    Maternal zinc deficiency during the third trimester led to redeced zinc concentration in foetal plasma, liver, pancreas and bone. Zinc deposition in foetuses was an exponential function of time, the relative rate being 5.8 and 3.0% daily in normal and deficient foetuses respectively. Distribution of orally administered 65 Zn between maternal and foetal organs was studied. The percentage of absorbed 65 Zn transferred to the foeto-placental unit tended to be highest in zinc-deficient gilts. The greater the liver zinc pool the more 65 Zn accumulated in liver and the less in most other organs in both gilts and foetuses. The gestation period was prolonged and parturition impaired in gilts depleted of zinc late in pregnancy. Persistent loss of umbilical blood was seen and viability of the offspring was poor. However, clinical symptoms and morphological malformations were few. Abnormal ossification occurred as a result of the zinc deficiency. The nature of the changes depended on the period of gestation during which the gilts were depleted of zinc. Absorption of 65 Zn in newborn pigs was unaffected by the zinc status, and the same pattern of distribution among organs as in foetuses was seen. Litter size and weight were not influenced by maternal zinc depletion, and growth of surviving piglets was normal. Zinc stores were low in the newborn, but even when zinc depletion of the mother was continued during lactation, clinical symptoms of zinc deficiency in the piglets were not seen until shortly before weaning. (author)

  13. The Influence of Iron and Zinc Supplementation on the Bioavailability of Provitamin A Carotenoids from Papaya Following Consumption of a Vitamin A-Deficient Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana-Sop, Marie Modestine; Gouado, Inocent; Achu, Mercy Bih; Van Camp, John; Amvam Zollo, Paul Henri; Schweigert, Florian J; Oberleas, Donald; Ekoe, Tetanye

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies are serious public health problems in Cameroon, as in many developing countries. Local vegetables which are sources of provitamin A carotenoids (PACs) can be used to improve vitamin A intakes. However, traditional meals are often unable to cover zinc and iron needs. The aim of this study was to determine the bioavailability of 3 PACs (α-carotene, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin) in young men, who were fed with a vitamin A-free diet and received iron and zinc supplementation. Twelve healthy participants were divided into three groups and were supplemented with elemental iron (20 mg of iron fumarate), 20 mg of zinc sulfate or iron+zinc (20 mg of iron in the morning and 20 mg of zinc in the evening) for 11 d. They were given a vitamin A- and PAC-free diet from the 6th to the 11th day, followed by a test meal containing 0.55 kg of freshly peeled papaya as a source of PACs. Blood samples were collected four times successively on the 11th day (the test meal day), at T0 (just after the test meal), after 2 h (T2), after 4 h (T4) and after 7 h (T7). Ultracentrifugation was used to isolate serum chylomicrons. Retinol appearance and PAC postprandial concentrations were determined. The supplementation with zinc, iron and iron+zinc influenced the chylomicron appearance of retinol and PACs differently as reflected by retention times and maximum absorption peaks. Iron led to highest retinol levels in the chylomicron. Zinc and iron+zinc supplements were best for optimal intact appearance of α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin respectively. Supplementation with iron led to the greatest bioavailability of PACs from papaya and its conversion to retinol.

  14. Thiamine absorption is not compromised in folate-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walzem, R.L.; Clifford, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Thiamine absorption and excretion were assessed in rats with severe folate deficiency (FD) by determining the fate of oral 3 H-labeled and intravenous 14 C-labeled thiamine over a 6-h test period. Thiamine status was evaluated in these same rats by measuring transketolase activity levels of blood before (TKA) and after (TPPE) addition of thiamine pyrophosphate to the incubation mixture of the assay procedure. Two additional experiments assessed active transport of thiamine and the effect of dietary succinylsulfathiazole (SST) on TKA and TPPE in rats with moderate FD. Intestinal absorption in general and thiamine absorption in particular and thiamine status were unaltered in rats with severe FD. Inanition associated with severe FD may impair thiamine status. Thiamine absorption by active transport was not compromised in FD, and dietary succinylsulfathiazole did not affect thiamine status

  15. Mitogen response of B cells, but not T cells, is impaired in adult vitamin A-deficient rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bennekum, A. M.; Wong Yen Kong, L. R.; Gijbels, M. J.; Tielen, F. J.; Roholl, P. J.; Brouwer, A.; Hendriks, H. F.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of vitamin A deficiency on the mitogen response of splenic B and T lymphocytes was determined in adult vitamin A-deficient rats. Female weanling Brown Norway/Billingham-Rijswijk (BN/BiRij) and Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semipurified, essentially vitamin A-free diet, which resulted in

  16. Brain Lateralization in Mice Is Associated with Zinc Signaling and Altered in Prenatal Zinc Deficient Mice That Display Features of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Grabrucker

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have reported changes in the hemispheric dominance in autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients on functional, biochemical, and morphological level. Since asymmetry of the brain is also found in many vertebrates, we analyzed whether prenatal zinc deficient (PZD mice, a mouse model with ASD like behavior, show alterations regarding brain lateralization on molecular and behavioral level. Our results show that hemisphere-specific expression of marker genes is abolished in PZD mice on mRNA and protein level. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we found an increased striatal volume in PZD mice with no change in total brain volume. Moreover, behavioral patterns associated with striatal lateralization are altered and the lateralized expression of dopamine receptor 1 (DR1 in the striatum of PZD mice was changed. We conclude that zinc signaling during brain development has a critical role in the establishment of brain lateralization in mice.

  17. [Effect of selenium deficiency on the F344 inbred line offspring rats' neuro-behavior, ability of learning and memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liang-Li; Tian, Dong-Ping; Su, Min; Shen, Xiu-Na; Gao, Yuxia

    2006-01-01

    To establish the selenium (Se) deficient animal model on F344 inbred line rats and observe the effects of a long-term Se-deficiency on the offspring's neuro-behavior, abilities of learning and memory. Feeding F344 inbred line rats on Se-deficient diet to establish Se-deficient animal model. For the offspring, the body weight, physiological indexes nervous reflections for growth and development were monitored during the early postnatal period. The Se-deficient diet contained less than 0.01 mg/kg and the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in blood of the Se-deficient group rats is lower than the Se-normal group after feeding on Se-deficient diet for 4 weeks. For the offspring, the birth weight and the body weight of Se-deficient group were obviously lower than the Se-normal group before weaning. Se-deficient offspring rats differed from Se-normal controls in lower scores in surface righting reflex (RR) test at postnatal 4th day after delivery, cliff avoidance test at postnatal 7th day and auditory acuity trial at postnatal 10th day respectively. But these differences disappear after a few days in the same tests. In addition, no significant differences between two groups in suspending test and walking ability test at postnatal 12th and 14th day. In open field test, Se-deficient male offspring stayed less time in the middle grid and moved less. In Morris water maze test, the Se-deficient offspring spent more time to find the hidden platform at the 6th and 9th training tests in the place navigation trial. Furthermore, the Se-deficient group spent less time in target quadrant when giving the spatial probe trial. A Se-deficient animal model have been established on F344 inbred line rats successfully. A long-term Se deficiency could retard the development of the offspring in uterus and after delivery. Se deficiency also decreased the offspring's abilities of spatial learning and memory in Morris water maze test and resulted in the male offspring's nervousness to new

  18. Zinc as a Gatekeeper of Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Wessels

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery of zinc deficiency in the 1960s, it soon became clear that zinc is essential for the function of the immune system. Zinc ions are involved in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate and adaptive immune cells. Zinc homeostasis is largely controlled via the expression and action of zinc “importers” (ZIP 1–14, zinc “exporters” (ZnT 1–10, and zinc-binding proteins. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of zinc have long been documented, however, underlying mechanisms are still not entirely clear. Here, we report molecular mechanisms underlying the development of a pro-inflammatory phenotype during zinc deficiency. Furthermore, we describe links between altered zinc homeostasis and disease development. Consequently, the benefits of zinc supplementation for a malfunctioning immune system become clear. This article will focus on underlying mechanisms responsible for the regulation of cellular signaling by alterations in zinc homeostasis. Effects of fast zinc flux, intermediate “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals will be discriminated. Description of zinc homeostasis-related effects on the activation of key signaling molecules, as well as on epigenetic modifications, are included to emphasize the role of zinc as a gatekeeper of immune function.

  19. Essential fatty acid supplemented diet increases renal excretion of prostaglandin E and water in essential fatty acid deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.

    1981-01-01

    Weanling male rats were fed an essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient diet for 25 weeks and then switched to an EFA-supplemented diet for 3 weeks. Control rats received the EFA-supplemented diet for 25 weeks and then the EFA-deficient diet for 3 weeks. Throughout the last 19 weeks, the rats were...

  20. The effect of insulin deficiency on the plasma clearance and exchange of high-density-lipoprotein phosphatidylcholine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, I J; Redgrave, T G

    1992-01-01

    Triolein/cholesteryl oleate/cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine emulsions designed to model the lipid composition of chylomicrons were injected intravenously into control and streptozotocin-treated insulin-deficient rats. As previously described for lymph chylomicrons, the emulsion triolein was hydrolysed and phosphatidylcholine was transferred to the plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL). This mechanism was used to introduce a phospholipid label into HDL in vivo. The subsequent clearance of phospholipid radioactivity from the plasma of insulin-deficient rats was significantly slower than in controls (P less than 0.025). Plasma clearance was similarly slower in insulin-deficient rats after injection of HDL that was previously labelled with radioactive phospholipids. After injection, the phospholipid label redistributed rapidly between the large-particle fraction of plasma lipoproteins (very-low- and low-density lipoproteins), and the lighter and heavier fractions of HDL. Compared with control rats, in insulin-deficient rats less of the phospholipid label was distributed to the lighter HDL fraction and more to the heavier HDL fraction, and this difference was not due to changes in activity of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase or in the apparent activity of phospholipid transfer protein. In insulin-deficient rats the changes in HDL phospholipid clearance and exchange appeared to be secondary to the associated hypertriglyceridaemia and the related changes in distribution of phospholipids between classes of plasma lipoproteins. PMID:1536661

  1. Zinc fingers, zinc clusters, and zinc twists in DNA-binding protein domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, B.L.; Auld, D.S.; Coleman, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors recognize three distinct motifs of DNA-binding zinc proteins: (i) zinc fingers, (ii) zinc clusters, and (iii) zinc twists. Until very recently, x-ray crystallographic or NMR three-dimensional structure analyses of DNA-binding zinc proteins have not been available to serve as standards of reference for the zinc binding sites of these families of proteins. Those of the DNA-binding domains of the fungal transcription factor GAL4 and the rat glucocorticoid receptor are the first to have been determined. Both proteins contain two zinc binding sites, and in both, cysteine residues are the sole zinc ligands. In GAL4, two zinc atoms are bound to six cysteine residues which form a zinc cluster akin to that of metallothionein; the distance between the two zinc atoms of GAL4 is ∼3.5 angstrom. In the glucocorticoid receptor, each zinc atom is bound to four cysteine residues; the interatomic zinc-zinc distance is ∼13 angstrom, and in this instance, a zinc twist is represented by a helical DNA recognition site located between the two zinc atoms. Zinc clusters and zinc twists are here recognized as two distinctive motifs in DNA-binding proteins containing multiple zinc atoms. For native zinc fingers, structural data do not exist as yet; consequently, the interatomic distances between zinc atoms are not known. As further structural data become available, the structural and functional significance of these different motifs in their binding to DNA and other proteins participating in the transmission of the genetic message will become apparent

  2. Isotope - aided studies of the bioavailability of iron and zinc from human diets consumed in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafalski, H.

    1992-01-01

    The main aims of the study were: 1) the evaluation of iron and zinc status in women of Lodz aged 18-45 years, 2) adaptation of the whole body counter to in vivo measurements absorption of iron given to the gastro-intestinal tract of volunteers and 3) in rat model estimation iron bioavailability from fortified wheat flour combined with products usually consumed in Poland. During five months investigations thirty seven women were examined each one twice in two months interval. Following variables were measured: iron and zinc in blood serum, in public and scalp hair and in food, taste acuity score, serum ferritin, hemoglobin, total iron binding capacity, red blood cells, mean corpuscular concentration and corpuscular volume. Prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficient anemia were assessed by two models in terms of the depression of serum ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations. 64 refs, 6 figs, 23 tabs

  3. Zinc Ameliorate Oxidative Stress and Hormonal Disturbance Induced by Methomyl, Abamectin, and Their Mixture in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameeh A. Mansour

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to mixtures of toxicants (e.g., pesticides is common in real life and a subject of current concern. The present investigation was undertaken to assess some toxicological effects in male rats following exposure to methomyl (MET, abamectin (ABM, and their combination (MET+ABM, and to evaluate the ameliorative effect of zinc co-administration. Three groups of rats were designated for MET, ABM, and the mixture treatments. Three other groups were designated for zinc in conjunction with the pesticides. Additionally, one group received water only (control, and the other represented a positive zinc treatment. The obtained results revealed that MET was acutely more toxic than ABM. The tested pesticides induced significant elevation in lipid peroxidation and catalase levels, while declined the levels of the other tested parameters e.g., Superoxide dismutase (SOD, Glutathione-S-transferase (GST, Glutathione peroxidase (GPx, Glutathione reductase (GR, Cytochrome P450 (CYP450, testosterone, and thyroxine. Biochemical alterations induced by the mixture were greater than those recorded for each of the individual insecticides. The joint action analysis, based on the obtained biochemical data, revealed the dominance of antagonistic action among MET and ABM. Zinc supplementation achieved noticeable ameliorative effects. It was concluded that zinc may act as a powerful antioxidant, especially in individuals who are occupationally exposed daily to low doses of such pesticides.

  4. Effect of zinc supplementation on neuronal precursor proliferation in the rat hippocampus after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Elise C; Morris, Deborah R; Gower-Winter, Shannon D; Brownstein, Naomi C; Levenson, Cathy W

    2016-05-01

    There is great deal of debate about the possible role of adult-born hippocampal cells in the prevention of depression and related mood disorders. We first showed that zinc supplementation prevents the development of the depression-like behavior anhedonia associated with an animal model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). This work then examined the effect of zinc supplementation on the proliferation of new cells in the hippocampus that have the potential to participate in neurogenesis. Rats were fed a zinc adequate (ZA, 30ppm) or zinc supplemented (ZS, 180ppm) diet for 4wk followed by TBI using controlled cortical impact. Stereological counts of EdU-positive cells showed that TBI doubled the density of proliferating cells 24h post-injury (pprecursor cells in the hippocampus was robust, use of targeted irradiation to eliminate these cells after zinc supplementation and TBI revealed that these cells are not the sole mechanism through which zinc acts to prevent depression associated with brain injury, and suggest that other zinc dependent mechanisms are needed for the anti-depressant effect of zinc in this model of TBI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of an induced adenosine deaminase deficiency on T-cell differentiation in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Inherited deficiency of the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) has been found in a significant proportion of patients with severe combined immunodeficiency disease and inherited defect generally characterized by a deficiency of both B and T cells. Two questions are central to understanding the pathophysiology of this disease: (1) at what stage or stages in lymphocyte development are the effects of the enzyme deficiency manifested; (2) what are the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the selective pathogenicity of the lymphoid system. We have examined the stage or stages of rat T-cell development in vivo which are affected by an induced adenosine deaminase deficiency using the ADA inhibitors, erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA) and 2'-deoxycoformycin (DCF). In normal rats given daily administration of an ADA inhibitor, cortical thymocytes were markedly depleted; peripheral lymphocytes and pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (CFU-S) all were relatively unaffected. Since a deficiency of ADA affects lymphocyte development, the regeneration of cortical and medullary thymocytes and their precursors after sublethal irradiation was used as a model of lymphoid development. By Day 5 after irradiation the thymus was reduced to 0.10-0.5% of its normal size; whereas at Days 9 and 14 the thymus was 20-40% and 60-80% regenerated, respectively. When irradiated rats were given daily parenteral injections of the ADA inhibitor plus adenosine or deoxyadenosine, thymus regeneration at Days 9 and 14 was markedly inhibited, whereas the regeneration of thymocyte precursors was essentially unaffected. Thymus regeneration was at least 40-fold lower than in rats given adenosine or deoxyadenosine alone. Virtually identical results were obtained with both ADA inhibitors, EHNA and DCF

  6. Increased concentration of vasopressin in plasma of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Warberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA-D) on the plasma concentration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and the urinary AVP excretion was investigated. Weanling rats were fed a fat-free diet (FF-rats). Control rats received the same diet in which 6% by wt. of sucrose was replaced by arachis...... oil. After 4-6 weeks of feeding, urine and plasma were analysed for AVP, osmolality, sodium and potassium. When compared to control rats FF-rats had decreased urine volume (6.0 ± 1.6 ml/24 hr versus 11.7 ± 3.2 ml/24 hr), increased urine osmolality (2409 ± 691 mOsm/kg versus 1260 ± 434 m...

  7. Zinc in Early Life: A Key Element in the Fetus and Preterm Neonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrin, Gianluca; Berni Canani, Roberto; Di Chiara, Maria; Pietravalle, Andrea; Aleandri, Vincenzo; Conte, Francesca; De Curtis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is a key element for growth and development. In this narrative review, we focus on the role of dietary zinc in early life (including embryo, fetus and preterm neonate), analyzing consequences of zinc deficiency and adequacy of current recommendations on dietary zinc. We performed a systematic search of articles on the role of zinc in early life. We selected and analyzed 81 studies. Results of this analysis showed that preservation of zinc balance is of critical importance for the avoidance of possible consequences of low zinc levels on pre- and post-natal life. Insufficient quantities of zinc during embryogenesis may influence the final phenotype of all organs. Maternal zinc restriction during pregnancy influences fetal growth, while adequate zinc supplementation during pregnancy may result in a reduction of the risk of preterm birth. Preterm neonates are at particular risk to develop zinc deficiency due to a combination of different factors: (i) low body stores due to reduced time for placental transfer of zinc; (ii) increased endogenous losses; and (iii) marginal intake. Early diagnosis of zinc deficiency, through the measurement of serum zinc concentrations, may be essential to avoid severe prenatal and postnatal consequences in these patients. Typical clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency are growth impairment and dermatitis. Increasing data suggest that moderate zinc deficiency may have significant subclinical effects, increasing the risk of several complications typical of preterm neonates (i.e., necrotizing enterocolitis, chronic lung disease, and retinopathy), and that current recommended intakes should be revised to meet zinc requirements of extremely preterm neonates. Future studies evaluating the adequacy of current recommendations are advocated. PMID:26690476

  8. Magnesium deficiency improves glucose homeostasis in the rat: studies in vivo and in isolated islets in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, M A; Latorraca, M Q; Carneiro, E M; Boschero, A C; Saad, M J; Velloso, L A; Reyes, F G

    2001-05-01

    The serum mineral levels, glucose disappearance rate (kg), total area under the glucose (DeltaG) and insulin (DeltaI) curves, and static insulin secretion were compared among rats fed a Mg-deficient diet for 6 (DF-6) or 11 (DF-11) weeks, and rats fed a control diet for the same periods (CO-6 and CO-11 groups). No change in glucose homeostasis was observed among DF-6, CO-6 and CO-11 rats. DF-11 rats showed an elevated kg and a reduced DeltaG and DeltaI. For evaluating the effect of supplementation, rats fed a control or Mg-deficient diet for 6 weeks were then fed a Mg- supplemented diet for 5 weeks (SCO and SDF groups respectively). The serum Mg levels in SDF rats were similar to those in CO-11 and SCO rats, but higher than in the DF-11 group. SDF rats showed similar kg, DeltaG and DeltaI compared with the CO-11 and SCO groups. However, a significantly lower kg and higher DeltaG and DeltaI were observed in SDF compared with DF-11 rats. Basal and 8.3 mmol glucose/l-stimulated insulin secretion by islets from DF-11 rats were higher than by islets from CO-11 rats. These results indicate that moderate Mg depletion for a long period may increase the secretion and sensitivity to insulin, while Mg supplementation in formerly Mg-deficient rats may prevent the increase in sensitivity and secretion of insulin.

  9. Binders of intravenously administered zinc 65 in rat liver cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stortenbeek, A.J.; Hamer, C.J.A. van den.

    1976-01-01

    The fate of intravenously injected trace amounts of 65 Zn 2+ in the rat was studied over a period of ten days after injection. Tissue distributions were determined and a special study was made of 65 Zn-binders in liver cytoplasm. A total of six 65 Zn-binding fractions was found and a tentative identification of the main 65 Zn-binders in these six fractions is given using the collected data regarding their apparent molecular weight, time dependent prominence and content of stable zinc

  10. Administration of Zinc plus Cyclo-(His-Pro Increases Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Rats during the Early Phase of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Young Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of zinc supplementation on hippocampal neurogenesis in diabetes mellitus have not been studied. Herein, we investigated the effects of zinc plus cyclo-(His-Pro (ZC on neurogenesis occurring in the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus after streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes. ZC (27 mg/kg was administered by gavage once daily for one or six weeks from the third day after the STZ injection, and histological evaluation was performed at 10 (early phase or 45 (late phase days after STZ injection. We found that the proliferation of progenitor cells in STZ-induced diabetic rats showed an increase in the early phase. Additionally, ZC treatment remarkably increased the number of neural progenitor cells (NPCs and immature neurons in the early phase of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, ZC treatment showed increased survival rate of newly generated cells but no difference in the level of neurogenesis in the late phase of STZ-induced diabetic rats. The present study demonstrates that zinc supplementation by ZC increases both NPCs proliferation and neuroblast production at the early phase of diabetes. Thus, this study suggests that zinc supplemented with a histidine/proline complex may have beneficial effects on neurogenesis in patients experiencing the early phase of Type 1 diabetes.

  11. Zinc and Regulation of Inflammatory Cytokines: Implications for Cardiometabolic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Meika; Samman, Samir

    2012-01-01

    In atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus, the concomitant presence of low-grade systemic inflammation and mild zinc deficiency highlights a role for zinc nutrition in the management of chronic disease. This review aims to evaluate the literature that reports on the interactions of zinc and cytokines. In humans, inflammatory cytokines have been shown both to up- and down-regulate the expression of specific cellular zinc transporters in response to an increased demand for zinc in inflammatory conditions. The acute phase response includes a rapid decline in the plasma zinc concentration as a result of the redistribution of zinc into cellular compartments. Zinc deficiency influences the generation of cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α, and in response to zinc supplementation plasma cytokines exhibit a dose-dependent response. The mechanism of action may reflect the ability of zinc to either induce or inhibit the activation of NF-κB. Confounders in understanding the zinc-cytokine relationship on the basis of in vitro experimentation include methodological issues such as the cell type and the means of activating cells in culture. Impaired zinc homeostasis and chronic inflammation feature prominently in a number of cardiometabolic diseases. Given the high prevalence of zinc deficiency and chronic disease globally, the interplay of zinc and inflammation warrants further examination. PMID:22852057

  12. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and ulcerogenic activity of a zinc-diclofenac complex in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H. Santos

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and ulcerogenic activity of a zinc-diclofenac complex (5.5 or 11 mg/kg in male Wistar rats (180-300 g, N = 6 and compared it to free diclofenac (5 or 10 mg/kg and to the combination of diclofenac (5 or 10 mg/kg and zinc acetate (1.68 or 3.5 mg/kg. The carrageenin-induced paw edema and the cotton pellet-induced granulomatous tissue formation models were used to assess the anti-inflammatory activity, and the Hargreaves model of thermal hyperalgesia was used to assess the antinociceptive activity. To investigate the effect of orally or intraperitoneally (ip administered drugs on cold-induced gastric lesions, single doses were administered before exposing the animals to a freezer (-18ºC for 45 min in individual cages. We also evaluated the gastric lesions induced by multiple doses of the drugs. Diclofenac plus zinc complex had the same anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects as diclofenac alone. Gastric lesions induced by a single dose administered per os and ip were reduced in the group treated with zinc-diclofenac when compared to the groups treated with free diclofenac or diclofenac plus zinc acetate. In the multiple dose treatment, the complex induced a lower number of the most severe lesions when compared to free diclofenac and diclofenac plus zinc acetate. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the zinc-diclofenac complex may represent an important therapeutic alternative for the treatment of rheumatic and inflammatory conditions, as its use may be associated with a reduced incidence of gastric lesions.

  13. Cobalamin Deficiency Results in Increased Production of Formate Secondary to Decreased Mitochondrial Oxidation of One-Carbon Units in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Luke; Tingley, Garrett; Young, Sara K; Clow, Kathy A; Randell, Edward W; Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2018-03-01

    Formate is produced in mitochondria via the catabolism of serine, glycine, dimethylglycine, and sarcosine. Formate produced by mitochondria may be incorporated into the cytosolic folate pool where it can be used for important biosynthetic reactions. Previous studies from our lab have shown that cobalamin deficiency results in increased plasma formate concentrations. Our goal was to determine the basis for elevated formate in vitamin B-12 deficiency. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to consume either a cobalamin-replete (50 μg cobalamin/kg diet) or -deficient (no added cobalamin) diet for 6 wk. Formate production was measured in vivo and in isolated liver mitochondria from a variety of one-carbon precursors. We also measured the oxidation of [3-14C]-l-serine to 14CO2 in isolated rat liver mitochondria and the expression of hepatic genes involved in one-carbon unit and formate metabolism. Cobalamin-deficient rats produce formate at a rate 55% higher than that of replete rats. Formate production from serine was increased by 60% and from dimethylglycine and sarcosine by ∼200% in liver mitochondria isolated from cobalamin-deficient rats compared with cobalamin-replete rats. There was a 26% decrease in the 14CO2 produced by mitochondria from cobalamin-deficient rats. Gene expression analysis showed that 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-cytosolic (Aldh1l1) and mitochondrial (Aldh1l2) expression were decreased by 40% and 60%, respectively, compared to control, while 10-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, mitochondrial, monofunctional (Mthfd1l) expression was unchanged. We propose that a bifurcation in mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism is a key control mechanism in determining the fate of one-carbon units, to formate or CO2. During cobalamin deficiency in rats the disposition of 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate carbon is shifted in favor of formate production. This may represent a mechanism to generate more one-carbon units for the replenishment of the S

  14. Micronutrient problems in Brazilian soils with special emphasis on zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.W.B.; Neptune, A.M.L.; Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba

    1975-01-01

    Brazil, with approximately 50% of the total land area in South America, has areas in which different micronutrient deficiencies (zinc, boron, copper, iron, manganese and molybdenum) have been noted in specific crops. This paper reviews the published research on such deficiencies and puts special emphasis on zinc which appears to be the most widespread deficiency. The need for an integrated approach to determining the extent of micronutrient deficiencies is discussed. (author)

  15. Association of Mood Disorders with Serum Zinc Concentrations in Adolescent Female Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Kobra; Amani, Reza; Nazari, Zahra; Ahmadi, Kambiz; Moazzen, Sara; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali

    2017-08-01

    Among various factors influencing mood disorders, the impact of micronutrient deficiencies has attracted a great attention. Zinc deficiency is considered to play a crucial role in the onset and progression of mood disorders in different stages of life. The main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between serum zinc levels and mood disorders in high school female students. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 100 representative high school female students. The participants completed 24-h food recall questionnaires to assess the daily zinc intakes. Serum zinc status was assessed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and zinc deficiency was defined accordingly. Mood disorders were estimated by calculating the sum of two test scores including Beck's depression inventory (BDI) and hospital anxiety depression scale (HADS) tests. General linear model (GLM) and Pearson's regression test were applied to show the correlation of serum zinc levels and mood disorder scores and the correlation between zinc serum levels and BDI scores, respectively. Dietary zinc intake was higher in subjects with normal zinc concentrations than that of zinc-deficient group (p = 0.001). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with BDI and HADS scores (p zinc levels led to 0.3 and 0.01 decrease in depression and anxiety scores, respectively (p zinc levels were inversely correlated with mood disorders including depression and anxiety in adolescent female students. Increasing serum levels of zinc in female students could improve their mood disorders.

  16. Prediction of Serum Zinc Levels in Mexican Children at 2 Years of Age Using a Food Frequency Questionnaire and Different Zinc Bioavailability Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoral, Alejandra; Téllez-Rojo, Martha; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Schnaas, Lourdes; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Peterson, Karen E; Ettinger, Adrienne S

    2015-06-01

    The 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey documented a prevalence of zinc deficiency of almost 30% in children under 2 years of age. We sought to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for quantifying dietary bioavailable zinc intake in 2-year-old Mexican children accounting for phytic acid intake and using serum zinc as a reference. This cross-sectional study was nested within a longitudinal birth cohort of 333 young children in Mexico City. Nonfasting serum zinc concentration was measured and dietary zinc intake was calculated on the basis of a semiquantitative FFQ administered to their mothers. The relationship between dietary zinc intake and serum zinc was assessed using linear regression, adjusting for phytic acid intake, and analyzed according to two distinct international criteria to estimate bioavailable zinc. Models were stratified by zinc deficiency status. Dietary zinc, adjusted for phytic acid intake, explained the greatest proportion of the variance of serum zinc. For each milligram of dietary zinc intake, serum zinc increased on average by 0.95 μg/dL (0.15 μmol/L) (p = .06). When stratified by zinc status, this increase was 0.74 μg/dL (p = .12) for each milligram of zinc consumed among children with adequate serum zinc (n = 276), whereas among those children with zinc deficiency (n = 57), serum zinc increased by only 0.11 μg/dL (p = .82). A semiquantitative FFQ can be used for predicting serum zinc in relation to dietary intake in young children, particularly among those who are zinc-replete, and when phytic acid or phytate intake is considered. Future studies should be conducted accounting for both zinc status and dietary zinc inhibitors to further elucidate and validate these findings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Iron and Vitamin C Co-Supplementation Increased Serum Vitamin C Without Adverse Effect on Zinc Level in Iron Deficient Female Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khoshfetrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron supplementation can decrease the absorption of zinc and influence other antioxidants levels such as vitamin C. This study aimed to investigate the effect of iron supplements alone and in combination with vitamin C on zinc and vitamin C status in iron deficient female students. Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trail, 60 iron deficient students were selected from 289 volunteers residing in dormitory. After matching, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: Group I (50 mg elemental iron supplements and Group II (50 mg elemental iron + 500 mg ascorbic acid. Serum ferritin, iron, serum zinc, and plasma vitamin C concentrations were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, spectrophotometer, atomic absorption spectrometer, and colorimeter, respectively after 6 and 12 weeks supplementation. Student′s t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance were applied to analyze the data using SPSS software. Results: Serum zinc levels had no significant differences between 2 groups at the baseline; however, its concentration decreased from 80.9 ± 4.2-68.9 ± 2.7 μg/dl to 81.2 ± 4.5-66.1 ± 2.9 μg/dl (P < 0.001 in Groups I and II, respectively after 6 weeks of supplementation. Continuous supplementation increased serum zinc concentration to baseline levels (79.0 ± 2.9 μg/dl; P < 0.01 in Group I and 70.5 ± 3.1 μg/dl in Group II following 12 weeks of supplementation. Plasma vitamin C increased from 3 ± 0/1-3.3 ± 0.2 mg/dl to 2.7 ± 0. 1-4.2 ± 0.2 mg/dl (P < 0.01 in Groups I and II, respectively. At the end of study, plasma vitamin C significantly increased from 3.3 ± 0.3-4.7 ± 0.3 (P < 0.01 to 4.2 ± 0.2-7.1 ± 0.2 (P < 0.001 in Groups I and II, respectively. Conclusions: Iron supplementation with and without vitamin C led to reduction in serum Zn in iron-deficient female students after 6 weeks. However, the decreasing trend stops after repletion of iron stores and Zn levels returned to the

  18. Prevalence of prenatal zinc deficiency and its association with socio-demographic, dietary and health care related factors in Rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremedhin Samson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies witnessed that prenatal zinc deficiency (ZD predisposes to diverse pregnancy complications. However, scientific evidences on the determinants of prenatal ZD are scanty and inconclusive. The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of prenatal ZD in Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in Sidama zone in January and February 2011. Randomly selected 700 pregnant women were included in the study. Data on potential determinants of ZD were gathered using a structured questionnaire. Serum zinc concentration was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Statistical analysis was done using logistic regression and linear regression. Results The mean serum zinc concentration was 52.4 (+/-9.9 μg/dl (95% CI: 51.6-53.1 μg/dl. About 53.0% (95% CI: 49.3-56.7% of the subjects were zinc deficient. The majority of the explained variability of serum zinc was due to dietary factors like household food insecurity level, dietary diversity and consumption of animal source foods. The risk of ZD was 1.65 (95% CI: 1.02-2.67 times higher among women from maize staple diet category compared to Enset staple diet category. Compared to pregnant women aged 15-24 years, those aged 25-34 and 35-49 years had 1.57 (95% CI: 1.04-2.34 and 2.18 (95% CI: 1.25-3.63 times higher risk of ZD, respectively. Women devoid of self income had 1.74 (95% CI: 1.11-2.74 time increased risk than their counterparts. Maternal education was positively associated to zinc status. Grand multiparas were 1.74 (95% CI: 1.09-3.23 times more likely to be zinc deficient than nulliparas. Frequency of coffee intake was negatively association to serum zinc level. Positive association was noted between serum zinc and hemoglobin concentrations. Altitude, history of iron supplementation, maternal workload, physical access to health service, antenatal care and nutrition education were

  19. Lung, aorta, and platelet metabolism of 14C-arachidonic acid in vitamin E deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentovic, M.A.; Gairola, C.; Lubawy, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    14 C-arachidonic acid metabolism was determined in aortas, platelets, and perfused lungs from rats pair fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 or 100 ppm vitamin E for 11 weeks. Spontaneous erythrocyte hemolysis tests showed 92% and 8% hemolysis for the 0 and 100 ppm vitamin E groups, respectively. Elevated lung homogenate levels of malonaldehyde in the 0 ppm group confirmed its deficient vitamin E status. Aortas from the vitamin E deficient group synthesized 54% less prostacyclin than aortas from the supplemented group (p less than 0.05). Although thromboxane generation by platelets from the vitamin E deficient group exhibited a 37% increase, this difference was not statistically significant compared to the supplemented animals. Greater amounts of PGE2, PGF2 alpha, TXB2, and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha were obtained in albumin buffer perfusates from lungs of vitamin E deficient rats than in those from supplemented rats. Significant differences (p less than 0.05) were noticed, however, only for PGE2 and PGF2 alpha. These studies indicate that vitamin E quantitatively alters arachidonic acid metabolism in aortic and lung tissue but its effect on thromboxane synthesis by platelets is less marked

  20. Efficacy of integrative medicine in deficiency of both qi and yin in the rat model of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: A rat model of T2DM with both qi and yin deficiency was successfully replicated. CHF appeared to be more efficacious than IM and PIO in the rat model of qi and yin deficiency pattern of T2DM, though IM and PIO were each found to have their merits and drawbacks in attenuating T2DM indicators in the rat model.

  1. [Learning and Memory Capacity and NMDA Receptor Expression in Shen Deficiency Constitution Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-ru; Sun, Yao-guang; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Xiao-di; Wang, Xing; Sun, Li-jun

    2016-05-01

    To explore material bases and neurobiological mechanisms of "Shen storing will" by observing learning and memory capacities and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor expressions in Shen deficiency constitution (SDC) rats. Totally 40 SD rats were randomly divided into the model group, the Zuogui Pill (ZP) group, the Yougui Pill (YP) group, the blank control group (consisting of normal pregnant rats), 10 in each group. SDC young rat model (inherent deficiency and postnatal malnutrition) was prepared by the classic way of "cat scaring rat". Medication started when they were scared by cat. Rats in the ZP group and the YP group were administered by gastrogavage with ZP suspension 0.1875 g/mL and YP suspension 0.0938 g/mL respectively. Equal volume of normal saline was administered to rats in the blank control group and the model group by gastrogavage. All medication was given once per day, 5 days in a week for 2 consecutive months. Learning and memory capacities were detected by Morris water maze test. Expressions of NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B in hippocamus were detected by immunohistochemical method. Compared with the blank control group, the latency period, total distance in Morris water maze test were longer in the model group (P learning and memory capacities and lowered NMDA receptor expressions. ZP and YP could up-regulate learning and memory capacities and NMDA receptor expressions, thereby improving deterioration of brain functions in SDC rats.

  2. A β Damages Learning and Memory in Alzheimer's Disease Rats with Kidney-Yang Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Dongmei; Qiao, Yongfa; Zhang, Xin; Yu, Huijuan; Cheng, Bin; Qiao, Haifa

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that Alzheimer's disease was considered as the consequence produced by deficiency of Kidney essence. However, the mechanism underlying the symptoms also remains elusive. Here we report that spatial learning and memory, escape, and swimming capacities were damaged significantly in Kidney-yang deficiency rats. Indeed, both hippocampal A β 40 and 42 increases in Kidney-yang deficiency contribute to the learning and memory impairments. Specifically, damage of synapti...

  3. Zinc might protect oxidative changes in the retina and pancreas at the early stage of diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, Sohair A.

    2004-01-01

    It is well documented that oxidative stress is a basic mechanism behind the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The current study was undertaken to elucidate the possible role of zinc as an antioxidant and a biological membrane stabilizer in the protection against (DR). Male Wistar rats weighing 250 ± 50 g were made diabetic by injection with a single ip dose of alloxan (100 mg/kg). Another group of rats was simultaneously treated with alloxan (100 mg/kg) and a single ip dose of zinc chloride (ZnCl 2 ) (5 mg/kg). Blood and tissue samples were collected at 24, 48, and 72 h post-treatment in both groups. Diabetic state was confirmed by the determination of plasma glucose levels (significantly elevated at any time of the experiment when compared with controls receiving vehicle). Plasma insulin was significantly increased 24 h after treatment in both alloxan and alloxan plus ZnCl 2 -treated groups, and then decreased markedly 48 and 72 h post treatment in both groups. Alloxan treatment depleted both retinal and liver glutathione contents. The decrease in retinal and liver GSH in alloxan-treated rats was accompanied with a sustained increase in their thiobarbituric acid (TBA) content. Simultaneous treatment of rats with alloxan and ZnCl 2 blunted the sustained increment in plasma glucose induced by alloxan. The combined administration of alloxan and zinc reversed the depleting effect on retinal and hepatic GSH in alloxan-treated rats and reduced the elevations in TBA content of both retinas and livers. At variance with many other antioxidants the current results clearly indicate the beneficial effects of Zn in both controlling hyperglycemia and the protection of the retina against oxidative stress in diabetes which may help set a new direction toward the development of effective treatments of DR

  4. Ameliorating Effects of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Zinc Supplementation on Physiological and Immunological Changes in Gamma-Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, O.; Soliman, M.; Mahmoud, N.; Abd Elnaby, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was carried out to determine the prophylactic impact of zinc sulphate administration to irradiated rats treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) as indicated by the hematological and immunologic response as well as oxidative stress. Material and methods: Rats were injected orally with zinc sulphate, 10 mg/kg body wt, daily for 2 weeks before whole body 5 Gy gamma irradiation and intravenous injection of bone marrow cells, one hour post irradiation. Results: The results revealed a significant decrease in red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), glutathione (GSH) and zinc superoxide dismutase (Zn/SOD), splenocyte count as well as bone marrow lymphocyte count and viability of irradiated rats. Regarding immunological data: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF– ) and interleukin 2 (IL–2) recorded a significant decrease while interleukin 6 (IL–6) and lipid peroxidation product (MDA) in the serum and spleen were conversely elevated. Zn supplementation before irradiation and BMT and showed significant decrease of serum and tissue MDA compared to the irradiated group. Lymphocytes, bone marrow viability percentage, splenocytes percentage, IL–2, IL–6 and GSH were significantly elevated compared to irradiated group. Conclusion: Protection with Zn, enforcing significant innate response, could trigger and augment adaptive immune response by BMT which suggests its use to protect against radiation hazards. (author)

  5. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  6. Interaction of Zinc Chloride with an Aromatase Inhibitor (Letrozole on Anxiety in Adult Male Rats

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    Sahar Charghan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Aromatase is an enzyme converts androstenedione and testosterone to estrone and estradiol, respectively. According to the role of testosterone and zinc in reducing anxiety and the relation between androgenic system function and zinc supplementations, in this research, the effect of zinc chloride injection was analysed in rats which aromatase enzyme was inhibited by aromatase inhibitor (letrozole. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (weighing 225±25 g were used. Animals were divided into 12 groups and based on their weight, aromatase inhibitor (letrozole was injected (subcutaneously, and 30 minutes later, ZnCl2 or its solvent (saline was injected intra-peritoneal. Control group was received both solvents (DMSO and saline respectively. Anxiety levels were tested in the elevated plus maze 30 minutes after the last injection, and thereafter, open field was used for measurement of the locomotors activity of animals. Results: The results showed a significant decrease in the percentage of time spent in open arms in letrozole (1.25 mg/kg treated group as compared to that of solvent group. The locomotors activity significantly decreased between letrozole (1.25 mg/kg with the control group. The combined groups received letrozole (2.5 mg/kg and different amounts of zinc chloride (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg, significantly reduced (p<0.05 the percentage of time spent in the open arm, comparing to the control group. Groups that received the combination of zinc chloride (2.5 mg/kg and different amounts of letrozole (1.25, 5, 10 mg/kg, showed no significant difference in the percentage of entry and time spent in the open arms. Conclusion: Totally, the present study suggests that letrozole alone increased anxiety and decreased locomotors activity and could interfere with anxiolytic effect of ZnCl2 as well.

  7. Prenatal zinc prevents communication impairments and BDNF disturbance in a rat model of autism induced by prenatal lipopolysaccharide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, Thiago B; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Bernardi, Maria M; Felicio, Luciano F

    2015-06-01

    Aims: Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS),which mimics infections by Gram-negative bacteria, induced autistic-like behavior. No effective treatment yet exists for autism. Therefore, we used our rat model to test a possible treatment for autism.We selected zinc as the prenatal treatment to prevent or ease the impairments induced by LPS because LPS induces hypozincaemia.Materials and methods:We evaluated the effects of LPS and zinc on female reproductive performance. Communication,which is impaired in autism,was tested in pups by ultrasonic vocalizations. Plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined because it has been considered an autism important biomarker.Key findings: Prenatal LPS exposure reduced offspring number and treatment with zinc prevented this reduction.Moreover, pups that were prenatally exposed to LPS spent longer periods without calling their mothers, and posttreatment with zinc prevented this impairment induced by LPS to the same levels as controls. Prenatal LPS also increased BDNF levels in adult offspring, and posttreatment with zinc reduced the elevation of BDNF to the same levels as controls.Significance: BDNF hyperactivity was also found in several studies of autistic patients. Together with our previous studies, our model of prenatal LPS induced autistic-like behavioral, brain, and immune disturbances. This suggests that it is a valid rat model of autism. Prenatal zinc prevented reproductive, communication, and BDNF impairments.The present study revealed a potential beneficial effect of prenatal zinc administration for the prevention of autism with regard to the BDNF pathway.

  8. Trace element deficiency and its diagnosis by biochemical criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgessner, M.; Grassmann, E.; Roth, H.P.; Spoerl, R.; Schnegg, A.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of trace element deficiency on growth of rats and dairy cows is demonstrated using zinc and nickel. The effect of copper deficiency on reproductive performance is shown to be associated with increased death rates of pregnant animals and their foetuses. For the diagnosis of suboptimum states of trace element supply, biochemical criteria are needed. The mere analysis of the trace element content of various body tissues may lead to falase diagnoses because of the often slow response to varying intake and because of interactions with other dietary ingredients affecting absorption and metabolic efficiency of utilization. Thus copper deficiency is associated with a decrease in the serum level of both copper and iron, despite adequate iron intake, and simultaneously with an accumulation of iron in the liver of the animal. Enzymes and hormones containing the essential trace element as an integral constituent may serve as biochemical criteria. A sensitive response to zinc intake is exhibited by the activity of the alkaline phosphatase of serum or bones, and by the activity of the pancreatic carboxypeptidase A, all of which show a significant reaction to deficient intake within two to four days, and perhaps by the biopotency of insulin. Ceruloplasmin responds to the supply of copper. Its biosynthesis in the liver is possible only from copper available for this purpose. Thus, the determination of ceruloplasmin may take account of at least part of the copper available to the body for metabolic functions. Among various criteria, the catalase activity in blood may provide additional information on the state of iron supply. Malate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase respond to nickel-deficient intake. Nickel deficiency also involves anaemia due to disorders in iron absorption

  9. Zinc status in HIV infected Ugandan children aged 1-5 years: a cross sectional baseline survey

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    Ndugwa Christopher M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low concentrations of serum zinc have been reported in HIV infected adults and are associated with disease progression and an increased risk of death. Few studies have been conducted in HIV infected children in Africa. We determined serum zinc levels and factors associated with zinc deficiency in HIV infected Ugandan children. Methods We measured the baseline zinc status of 247 children aged 1-5 years enrolled in a randomised trial for multiple micronutrient supplementation at paediatric HIV clinics in Uganda (http://ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00122941. Zinc status was determined using inductively coupled atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared among zinc deficient (zinc Results Of the 247 children, 134 (54.3% had low serum zinc ( Conclusion Almost two thirds of HAART naïve and a third of HAART treated HIV infected children were zinc deficient. Increased access to HAART among HIV infected children living in Uganda might reduce the prevalence of zinc deficiency.

  10. The effect of developmental vitamin D deficiency in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats on decision-making using a rodent gambling task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peak, J N; Turner, K M; Burne, T H J

    2015-01-01

    Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is a plausible risk factor for schizophrenia that has been associated with behavioural alterations including disruptions in latent inhibition and response inhibition. The rodent gambling task (rGT) assesses risk-based decision-making, which is a key cognitive deficit observed in schizophrenia patients. The primary aim of this study was to examine risk-based decision-making in DVD-deficient and control rats on the rGT. We also evaluated the performance of female Sprague-Dawley rats on the rGT for the first time. Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats from control and vitamin D deficient dams were trained to perform the rGT in standard operant chambers and their performance and choice-preferences were assessed. Female rats were significantly faster to reach rGT training criteria compared with male rats and DVD-deficient rats were faster to reach training criteria than control animals. After reaching stable performance on the rGT DVD-deficient and control rats showed a significant preference for the optimal choice-option in the rGT, but there were no significant effects of sex or diet on these responses. DVD deficiency did not alter the decision-making processes on the rGT because no significant changes in choice-preferences were evident. This is the first study to demonstrate that once established, the performance of females is comparable to male Sprague-Dawley rats on the rGT. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary Zinc Intake and Plasma Zinc Concentrations in Children with Short Stature and Failure to Thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazbeck, Nadine; Hanna-Wakim, Rima; El Rafei, Rym; Barhoumi, Abir; Farra, Chantal; Daher, Rose T; Majdalani, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    The burden of zinc deficiency on children includes an increased incidence of diarrhea, failure to thrive (FTT) and short stature. The aim of this study was to assess whether children with FTT and/or short stature have lower dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc concentrations compared to controls. A case-control study conducted at the American University of Beirut Medical Center included 161 subjects from 1 to 10 years of age. Cases had a statistically significant lower energy intake (960.9 vs. 1,135.2 kcal for controls, p = 0.010), lower level of fat (30.3 vs. 36.5 g/day, p = 0.0043) and iron intake (7.4 vs. 9.1 mg/day, p = 0.034). There was no difference in zinc, copper, carbohydrate and protein intake between the 2 groups. The plasma zinc concentration did not differ between the cases and controls (97.4 vs. 98.2 μg/dl, p = 0.882). More cases had mild-to-moderate zinc deficiency when compared to controls with 10.3 vs. 3.6%, p = 0.095. Our study did not show statistically significant difference in dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc concentrations between children with FTT and/or short stature compared to healthy controls. A prospective study is planned to assess the effect of zinc supplementation on growth parameters in FTT children. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Fortification of staple foods with zinc for improving zinc status and other health outcomes in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dheeraj; Sachdev, Harshpal S; Gera, Tarun; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2016-06-09

    Zinc deficiency is a global nutritional problem, particularly in children and women residing in settings where diets are cereal based and monotonous. It has several negative health consequences. Fortification of staple foods with zinc may be an effective strategy for preventing zinc deficiency and improving zinc-related health outcomes. To evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of fortification of staple foods with zinc on health-related outcomes and biomarkers of zinc status in the general population. We searched the following databases in April 2015: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 3 of 12, 2015, the Cochrane Library), MEDLINE & MEDLINE In Process (OVID) (1950 to 8 April 2015), EMBASE (OVID) (1974 to 8 April 2015), CINAHL (1982 to April 2015), Web of Science (1900 to 9 April 2015), BIOSIS (1969 to 9 April 2015), POPLINE (1970 to April 2015), AGRICOLA, OpenGrey, BiblioMap, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI), besides regional databases (April 2015) and theses. We also searched clinical trial registries (17 March 2015) and contacted relevant organisations (May 2014) in order to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. We included randomised controlled trials, randomised either at the level of the individual or cluster. We also included non-randomised trials at the level of the individual if there was a concurrent comparison group. We included non-randomised cluster trials and controlled before-after studies only if there were at least two intervention sites and two control sites. Interventions included fortification (central/industrial) of staple foods (cereal flours, edible fats, sugar, condiments, seasonings, milk and beverages) with zinc for a minimum period of two weeks. Participants were members of the general population who were over two years of age (including pregnant and lactating women) from any country. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion

  13. Nutritional zinc deficiency, immune capacity and malaria : a study on mediators of immunity to malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbugi, E.V.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis aimed at investigating the role of genetic and nutritional factors that affect the immune response to malaria in Tanzanian children. The introductory chapter (Chapter 1) reviews the importance of nutritional deficiencies, particularly of zinc, and presents the hypothesis that such

  14. Testing the hypothesis that vitamin C deficiency is a risk factor for clozapine-induced agranulocytosis using guinea pigs and ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Julia; Wilson, John X; Uetrecht, Jack P

    2008-04-01

    The use of clozapine is limited by a relatively high incidence of drug-induced agranulocytosis. Clozapine is oxidized by bone marrow cells to a reactive nitrenium ion. Although many idiosyncratic drug reactions are immune-mediated, the fact that patients with a history of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis do not immediately develop agranulocytosis on rechallenge suggests that some other factor may be responsible for the idiosyncratic nature of this reaction. The reactive nitrenium ion is very rapidly reduced back to clozapine by vitamin C, and many schizophrenic patients are vitamin C deficient. We set out to test the hypothesis that vitamin C deficiency is a major risk factor for clozapine-induced agranulocytosis using a vitamin C deficient guinea pig model. Although the vitamin C deficient guinea pigs did not develop agranulocytosis, the amount of clozapine covalent binding in these animals was less than we had previously observed in samples from rats and humans. Therefore, we studied ODS rats that also cannot synthesize vitamin C. Vitamin C deficient ODS rats also did not develop agranulocytosis, and furthermore, although covalent binding in the bone marrow was greater than that in the guinea pig, it was not increased in the vitamin C deficient ODS rats relative to ODS rats that had adequate vitamin C in their diet. Therefore, it is very unlikely that vitamin C deficiency is a major risk factor for clozapine-induced agranulocytosis.

  15. Zinc absorption in experimental osmotic diarrhea: effect of long-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S Y; Wapnir, R A

    1993-03-01

    The effect of free fatty acids on zinc absorption was studied in a rat model of chronic osmotic diarrhea induced with magnesium citrate and phenolphthalein. In vivo rates of zinc removal from the lumen and analysis of tissue for zinc uptake and metallothionein alterations were monitored. One mmol/L stearate enhanced zinc absorption in rats with or without diarrhea, from 207 +/- 22 and 353 +/- 13 pmol/min x cm to 676 +/- 34 and 610 +/- 26 pmol/min x cm, respectively. Palmitate was only effective in normal rats. Zinc absorption inversely correlated with mucosal zinc content in the perfused intestinal segments, in both type of rats. Hepatic metallothionein was enhanced by zinc and even more by oleate plus zinc in both groups; kidney metallothionein in animals with diarrhea was normalized by either oleate or zinc. The data support previous reports on the effect of long-chain fatty acids on the enhancement of zinc absorption: saturation and a longer chain appear to be positive factors. A membrane modification role of long-chain fatty acids could have nutritional implications in the formulation of special diets.

  16. Zinc Prevents the Development of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy in db/db Mice

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    Shudong Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM is highly prevalent in type 2 diabetes (T2DM patients. Zinc is an important essential trace metal, whose deficiency is associated with various chronic ailments, including vascular diseases. We assessed T2DM B6.BKS(D-Leprdb/J (db/db mice fed for six months on a normal diet containing three zinc levels (deficient, adequate, and supplemented, to explore the role of zinc in DCM development and progression. Cardiac function, reflected by ejection fraction, was significantly decreased, along with increased left ventricle mass and heart weight to tibial length ratio, in db/db mice. As a molecular cardiac hypertrophy marker, atrial natriuretic peptide levels were also significantly increased. Cardiac dysfunction and hypertrophy were accompanied by significantly increased fibrotic (elevated collagen accumulation as well as transforming growth factor β and connective tissue growth factor levels and inflammatory (enhanced expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, caspase recruitment domain family member 9, and B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10, and activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase responses in the heart. All these diabetic effects were exacerbated by zinc deficiency, and not affected by zinc supplementation, respectively. Mechanistically, oxidative stress and damage, mirrored by the accumulation of 3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, was significantly increased along with significantly decreased expression of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidants (NQO-1 and catalase. This was also exacerbated by zinc deficiency in the db/db mouse heart. These results suggested that zinc deficiency promotes the development and progression of DCM in T2DM db/db mice. The exacerbated effects by zinc deficiency on the heart of db/db mice may be related to further suppression of Nrf2 expression and function.

  17. Consequences of Mrp2 deficiency for diclofenac toxicity in the rat intestine ex vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Xiaoyu; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; van de Vegte, Dennis; Langelaar-Makkinje, Miriam; Sekine, Shuichi; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac (DCF) has a high prevalence of intestinal side effects in humans and rats. It has been reported that Mrp2 transporter deficient rats (Mrp2) are more resistant to DCF induced intestinal toxicity. This was explained in vivo by impaired Mrp2-dependent

  18. IRON, ZINC, AND FERRITIN ACCUMULATION IN COMMON BEANS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanski, Dorian Fabian; Sørensen, Kirsten; Jurkiewicz, Anna Malgorzata

    Iron and zinc malnutrition are major threats to human health and development around the world. The World Health Organization states that over two billion people are affected by iron deficiency. In particular children and pregnant women in developing countries are affected by iron deficiency...... in mature seeds, but the ferritin protein was suggested to be the major iron storing protein in legumes [1]. Both iron and zinc localization, as well as speciation, can have an impact on their nutritional availability. We will present detailed information about iron, zinc, and ferritin distribution...

  19. Zinc complexed chitosan/TPP nanoparticles: A promising micronutrient nanocarrier suited for foliar application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Paresh; Dapkekar, Ashwin; Oak, Manoj D; Paknikar, Kishore M; Rajwade, Jyutika M

    2017-06-01

    Cultivation of cereals in zinc deficient soils leads to declined nutritional quality of grain. Zinc deficiency in humans is a consequence of consumption of micronutrient deficient cereals as staple food. To achieve an increase in zinc density in grain, we evaluated zinc complexed chitosan nanoparticles (Zn-CNP) as a potential 'nanocarrier' suited for foliar fertilization. Zn-CNP were synthesized using tri-polyphosphate as a cross-linker. Spherical Zn-CNP (diameter 250-300nm) were positively charged (zeta potential, +42.34mV) and contained ∼20mg Zn/g (w/w). Plant growth in zinc deficient sand media, followed by foliar application of Zn-CNP (twice-a-week, for 5 weeks) after anthesis resulted in 27 and 42% increase in grain zinc content of MACS 3125 and UC1114 (durum wheat cultivars) respectively. Translocation of zinc ions from foliar applied Zn-CNP into the leaf and seed tissue was demonstrated using zinquin and dithizone stains, respectively. The study indicates the suitability of chitosan-based nanocarriers in agronomic biofortification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Urea utilization in protein deficient rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, N [Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo (Japan)

    1982-06-01

    Three experiments were performed to investigate the mechanism of urea utilization and the nutritional roles of intestinal flora on the utilization of urea by rats fed with a protein deficient diet. Ammonia content in the small intestine in LPD(low protein diet) group fed with a low protein diet for 2 or 5 weeks was about three of five times higher than that of control group fed with SPD(standard protein diet) after administration of urea (0.2gN/100gB.W.). The /sup 15/N incorporation into plasma protein of LPD group was significantly higher than that of the control group two hours after the administration of /sup 15/N-urea (10 mg/100gB.W.) and higher level of /sup 15/N concentration in plasma protein in LPD group was maintained thereafter. The /sup 15/N incorporation into the amino acids of plasma protein was higher in LPD group than in control group. The /sup 15/N incorporation into the amino acids in portal plasma seemed to be higher in LPD group than in control group one hour after the administration of /sup 15/N-urea (10mg/100gB.W.). However, the /sup 15/N incorporation into each free amino acids was suppressed considerably by the administration of antibiotic mixture. it follows that amino acids may be synthesized from urea in the intestine by intestinal-bacterial action and absorbed from portal vein. From these results, it may be concluded that the ammonia nitrogen converted from urea by the action of intestinal-bacterial urease in the intestine is utilized for the synthesis of essential and nonessential amino acids in protein deficient rats and transfered to the liver through portal vein and utilized for protein synthesis.

  1. Urea utilization in protein deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Noriko

    1982-01-01

    Three experiments were performed to investigate the mechanism of urea utilization and the nutritional roles of intestinal flora on the utilization of urea by rats fed with a protein deficient diet. Ammonia content in the small intestine in LPD(low protein diet) group fed with a low protein diet for 2 or 5 weeks was about three of five times higher than that of control group fed with SPD(standard protein diet) after administration of urea (0.2gN/100gB.W.). The 15 N incorporation into plasma protein of LPD group was significantly higher than that of the control group two hours after the administration of 15 N-urea (10 mg/100gB.W.) and higher level of 15 N concentration in plasma protein in LPD group was maintained thereafter. The 15 N incorporation into the amino acids of plasma protein was higher in LPD group than in control group. The 15 N incorporation into the amino acids in portal plasma seemed to be higher in LPD group than in control group one hour after the administration of 15 N-urea (10mg/100gB.W.). However, the 15 N incorporation into each free amino acids was suppressed considerably by the administration of antibiotic mixture. it follows that amino acids may be synthesized from urea in the intestine by intestinal-bacterial action and absorbed from portal vein. From these results, it may be concluded that the ammonia nitrogen converted from urea by the action of intestinal-bacterial urease in the intestine is utilized for the synthesis of essential and nonessential amino acids in protein deficient rats and transfered to the liver through portal vein and utilized for protein synthesis. (J.P.N.)

  2. Processes underlying the nutritional programming of embryonic development by iron deficiency in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Swali

    Full Text Available Poor iron status is a global health issue, affecting two thirds of the world population to some degree. It is a particular problem among pregnant women, in both developed and developing countries. Feeding pregnant rats a diet deficient in iron is associated with both hypertension and reduced nephron endowment in adult male offspring. However, the mechanistic pathway leading from iron deficiency to fetal kidney development remains elusive. This study aimed to establish the underlying processes associated with iron deficiency by assessing gene and protein expression changes in the rat embryo, focussing on the responses occurring at the time of the nutritional insult. Analysis of microarray data showed that iron deficiency in utero resulted in the significant up-regulation of 979 genes and down-regulation of 1545 genes in male rat embryos (d13. Affected processes associated with these genes included the initiation of mitosis, BAD-mediated apoptosis, the assembly of RNA polymerase II preinitiation complexes and WNT signalling. Proteomic analyses highlighted 7 proteins demonstrating significant up-regulation with iron deficiency and the down-regulation of 11 proteins. The main functions of these key proteins included cell proliferation, protein transport and folding, cytoskeletal remodelling and the proteasome complex. In line with our recent work, which identified the perturbation of the proteasome complex as a generalised response to in utero malnutrition, we propose that iron deficiency alone leads to a more specific failure in correct protein folding and transport. Such an imbalance in this delicate quality-control system can lead to cellular dysfunction and apoptosis. Therefore these findings offer an insight into the underlying mechanisms associated with the development of the embryo during conditions of poor iron status, and its health in adult life.

  3. Ascorbic acid deficiency increases endotoxin influx to portal blood and liver inflammatory gene expressions in ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Yuki; Miura, Natsuko; Kobayashi, Misato; Hoshinaga, Yukiko; Murai, Atsushi; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Ito, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tatsuya; Horio, Fumihiko

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether ascorbic acid (AsA) deficiency-induced endotoxin influx into portal blood from the gastrointestinal tract contributes to the inflammatory changes in the liver. The mechanisms by which AsA deficiency provokes inflammatory changes in the liver were investigated in Osteogenic Disorder Shionogi (ODS) rats (which are unable to synthesize AsA). Male ODS rats (6-wk-old) were fed a diet containing sufficient (300 mg/kg) AsA (control group) or a diet without AsA (AsA-deficient group) for 14 or 18 d. On day 14, the hepatic mRNA levels of acute-phase proteins and inflammation-related genes were significantly higher in the AsA-deficient group than the control group, and these elevations by AsA deficiency were exacerbated on day 18. The serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, which induce acute-phase proteins in the liver, were also significantly elevated on day 14 in the AsA-deficient group compared with the respective values in the control group. IL-1β mRNA levels in the liver, spleen, and lung were increased by AsA deficiency. Moreover, on both days 14 and 18, the portal blood endotoxin concentration was significantly higher in the AsA-deficient group than in the control group, and a significant correlation between serum IL-1β concentrations and portal endotoxin concentrations was found in AsA-deficient rats. In the histologic analysis of the ileum tissues, the number of goblet cells per villi was increased by AsA deficiency. These results suggest that AsA deficiency-induced endotoxin influx into portal blood from the gastrointestinal tract contributes to the inflammatory changes in the liver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. New perspectives on the regulation of iron absorption via cellular zinc concentrations in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Marija; Graham, Robin D; Welch, Ross M; Stangoulis, James C R

    2017-07-03

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency, affecting more than 30% of the total world's population. It is a major public health problem in many countries around the world. Over the years various methods have been used with an effort to try and control iron-deficiency anemia. However, there has only been a marginal reduction in the global prevalence of anemia. Why is this so? Iron and zinc are essential trace elements for humans. These metals influence the transport and absorption of one another across the enterocytes and hepatocytes, due to similar ionic properties. This paper describes the structure and roles of major iron and zinc transport proteins, clarifies iron-zinc interactions at these sites, and provides a model for the mechanism of these interactions both at the local and systemic level. This review provides evidence that much of the massive extent of iron deficiency anemia in the world may be due to an underlying deficiency of zinc. It explains the reasons for predominance of cellular zinc status in determination of iron/zinc interactions and for the first time thoroughly explains mechanisms by which zinc brings about these changes.

  5. Efficacy of highly bioavailable zinc from fortified water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetti, Valeria; Kujinga, Prosper; Mitchikpè, C.E.S.; Zeder, Christophe; Tay, Fabian; Tossou, Félicien; Hounhouigan, Joseph D.; Zimmermann, Michael B.; Moretti, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Background: Zinc deficiency and contaminated water are major contributors to diarrhea in developing countries. Food fortification with zinc has not shown clear benefits, possibly because of low zinc absorption from inhibitory food matrices. We used a novel pointof-use water ultrafiltration device

  6. The Relevance of the Colon to Zinc Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Lavaniya Gopalsamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, zinc deficiency is widespread, despite decades of research highlighting its negative effects on health, and in particular upon child health in low-income countries. Apart from inadequate dietary intake of bioavailable zinc, other significant contributors to zinc deficiency include the excessive intestinal loss of endogenously secreted zinc and impairment in small intestinal absorptive function. Such changes are likely to occur in children suffering from environmental (or tropical enteropathy (EE—an almost universal condition among inhabitants of developing countries characterized by morphologic and functional changes in the small intestine. Changes to the proximal gut in environmental enteropathy will likely influence the nature and amount of zinc delivered into the large intestine. Consequently, we reviewed the current literature to determine if colonic absorption of endogenous or exogenous (dietary zinc could contribute to overall zinc nutriture. Whilst we found evidence that significant zinc absorption occurs in the rodent colon, and is favoured when microbially-fermentable carbohydrates (specifically resistant starch are consumed, it is unclear whether this process occur in humans and/or to what degree. Constraints in study design in the few available studies may well have masked a possible colonic contribution to zinc nutrition. Furthermore these few available human studies have failed to include the actual target population that would benefit, namely infants affected by EE where zinc delivery to the colon may be increased and who are also at risk of zinc deficiency. In conducting this review we have not been able to confirm a colonic contribution to zinc absorption in humans. However, given the observations in rodents and that feeding resistant starch to children is feasible, definitive studies utilising the dual stable isotope method in children with EE should be undertaken.

  7. The triad of Iron deficiency anemia, hepatosplenomegaly and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A triad of iron deficiency anemia, hepatosplenomegaly and growth retardation occurring in tandem with zinc deficiency has been reported in the past as components of either Prasad's syndrome or hypopituitarism. There are no documented cases of such triad occurring in the presence of normal serum zinc levels. We report ...

  8. Prenatal iron deficiency causes sex-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in fetal rat kidneys and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Andrew G; Mah, Richard; Keddie, Danae; Noble, Ronan M N; Panahi, Sareh; Gragasin, Ferrante S; Lemieux, Hélène; Bourque, Stephane L

    2018-06-01

    Prenatal iron deficiency alters fetal developmental trajectories, which results in persistent changes in organ function. Here, we studied the effects of prenatal iron deficiency on fetal kidney and liver mitochondrial function. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed partially or fully iron-restricted diets to induce a state of moderate or severe iron deficiency alongside iron-replete control rats. We assessed mitochondrial function via high-resolution respirometry and reactive oxygen species generation via fluorescence microscopy on gestational d 21. Hemoglobin levels were reduced in dams in the moderate (-31%) and severe groups (-54%) compared with controls, which was accompanied by 55% reductions in fetal hemoglobin levels in both moderate and severe groups versus controls. Male iron-deficient kidneys exhibited globally reduced mitochondrial content and respiration, as well as increased cytosolic superoxide and decreased NO. Female iron-deficient kidneys exhibited complex II down-regulation and increased mitochondrial oxidative stress. Male iron-deficient livers exhibited reduced complex IV respiration and increased cytosolic superoxide, whereas female liver tissues exhibited no alteration in oxidant levels or mitochondrial function. These findings indicate that prenatal iron deficiency causes changes in mitochondrial content and function as well as oxidant status in a sex- and organ-dependent manner, which may be an important mechanism that underlies the programming of cardiovascular disease.-Woodman, A. G., Mah, R., Keddie, D., Noble, R. M. N., Panahi, S., Gragasin, F. S., Lemieux, H., Bourque, S. L. Prenatal iron deficiency causes sex-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in fetal rat kidneys and liver.

  9. Zinc and Selenium Co-supplementation Reduces Some Lipid Peroxidation and Angiogenesis Markers in a Rat Model of NAFLD-Fed High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda; Faghihi, Amirhosein; Motaghinejad, Majid; Shiasi, Maryam; Imanparast, Fatemeh; Amiri, Hamid Lorvand; Shidfar, Farzad

    2018-02-01

    Studies have shown that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients are more prone to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Zinc and selenium deficiency are common in NAFLD. But the effects of zinc and selenium co-supplementation before and/or after disease progression on CVD markers are not clear in NAFLD patients. This study aimed to compare the effects of zinc and selenium co-supplementation before and/or after disease progression on some of the CVD markers in an experimental model of NAFLD. Forty male Sprague Dawley rats (197 ± 4 g) were randomly assigned into four dietary groups: control group (C; received 9% of calorie as fat), model group (M; received 82% of calorie as fat), and supplementation before (BS) or after (AS) disease progression. Animals were fed diets for 20 weeks in all groups. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, HOMA-IR, ALT, AST, lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were measured as CVD indices. Serum ALT, AST, FPG, insulin, MDA, VEGF and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in the M than C group. Co-supplementation reduced serum ALT and AST levels in the BS and AS groups compared with the M group. FPG, insulin, HOMA-IR, VEGF, MDA, LDL/HDL-c and TC/HDL-c ratio were significantly reduced in the AS compared with the M group. TG/HDL-c ratio was significantly reduced in the BS and AS compared with the M group. Serum MDA, VEGF, Insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly lowered in the AS than BS group (p < 0.05). Zinc and selenium co-supplementation after NAFLD progression reduced CVD risk indices in an experimental model.

  10. Critical Role of Zinc as Either an Antioxidant or a Prooxidant in Cellular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ryul Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is recognized as an essential trace metal required for human health; its deficiency is strongly associated with neuronal and immune system defects. Although zinc is a redox-inert metal, it functions as an antioxidant through the catalytic action of copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase, stabilization of membrane structure, protection of the protein sulfhydryl groups, and upregulation of the expression of metallothionein, which possesses a metal-binding capacity and also exhibits antioxidant functions. In addition, zinc suppresses anti-inflammatory responses that would otherwise augment oxidative stress. The actions of zinc are not straightforward owing to its numerous roles in biological systems. It has been shown that zinc deficiency and zinc excess cause cellular oxidative stress. To gain insights into the dual action of zinc, as either an antioxidant or a prooxidant, and the conditions under which each role is performed, the oxidative stresses that occur in zinc deficiency and zinc overload in conjunction with the intracellular regulation of free zinc are summarized. Additionally, the regulatory role of zinc in mitochondrial homeostasis and its impact on oxidative stress are briefly addressed.

  11. [Interaction among the trace elements zinc, copper and iron after depletion and repletion of dairy cows with zinc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgessner, M; Schwarz, F J; Roth, H P; Schwarz, W A

    1978-12-01

    Imbalances in the supply with trace elements may be caused by the excessive administration of one or several elements or the insufficient administration in relation to other trace elements. This article deals with the interactions between the trace elements zinc and copper resp. zinc and iron under the conditions of the insufficient supply with Zn (6 mg per kg dry matter of the fodder) and the supply according to the demand with other trace elements (14 mg copper resp. 83 mg iron per dry matter of the fodder). For this purpose we investigated the copper, iron and zinc content of the milk and the serum of cows that were first depleted of zinc through a semi-synthetic zinc deficiency diet and then repleted with extra allowances of zinc. The closest connections exist between the copper and zinc content of the milk. Thus extreme Zn-deficiency feeding conditions the decreased Zn-content on the one hand and increased Cu-content on the other. In contrast to this, the cows' Zn-excretion in the milk increases after Zn-repletion whereas the Cu-content decreases. This shows a distinctly negative correlation. A loose connection could only be detected for the Cu- and Zn-content of the serum. Though the Zn-content changed considerably in dependence on the Zn-supply, the Cu-content remained largely uninfluenced. The Fe-content of both milk and serum shows no interaction with the nutritive Zn-supply. Only after 19 test weeks of extreme Zn-deficiency could a slight increase of the Fe-concentration be indicated.

  12. Factors influencing zinc status of apparently healthy indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agte, Vaishali V; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Tarwadi, Kirtan V

    2005-10-01

    To identify dietary, environmental and socio-economic factors associated with mild zinc deficiency, three zinc status indices; erythrocyte membrane zinc (RBCMZn), plasma zinc and super oxide dismutase (SOD) were assessed in free living and apparently healthy Indian population. Dietary patterns of 232 men and 223 women (20-65 yr) from rural, industrial and urban regions of Western India were evaluated by food frequency questionnaire. RBCMZn was estimated using atomic absorption spectrometry, hemoglobin and serum ceruloplasmin by spectrophotometer. On a sub sample (48 men and 51 women) plasma zinc and SOD were also assessed. Mean RBCMZn was 0.5 +/- 0.1 micromols/g protein with 46% individuals showing zinc deficiency. Mean plasma zinc was 0.98 +/- 0.12 microg/mL with 25% men and 2.5% women having values below normal range. Mean SOD was 0.97 +/- 0.1 (u/mL cells). A significant positive correlation was observed between intakes of green leafy vegetables, other vegetables and milk products with RBCMZn status (p plasma zinc (p > 0.2). Cereal and legume intakes were negatively correlated with RBCMZn (p plasma zinc (p 0.2). Fruit and other vegetable intake were positively correlated with SOD (p Plasma zinc indicated positive association with zinc, thiamin and riboflavin intakes (p plasma zinc and SOD. Prominent determinants of zinc status were intakes of beta-carotene and zinc along with environmental conditions and family size.

  13. Metallothionein metabolism in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.L.; Failla, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Earlier reports from their laboratory showed the induction of the insulin-deficient diabetic state in adult rats was associated with an accumulation of zinc, copper, and a metallothionein-like zinc and copper binding protein in the soluble fraction of liver and kidney. Based upon chromatographic and electrophoretic properties, -SH to metal ratio and amino acid composition, they now report that elevated concentrations of metallothioneins (MT)-I and -II are indeed present in diabetic rat liver and kidney cytosol. The relative rates of MT synthesis in tissues from diabetic and control rats were measured by comparing incorporation of 35 S-cysteine into MT vs. total cytoplasmic proteins at 5 h after injection of the precursor. The relative rates of MT synthesis in livers from rats diabetic for 10 d and fed either chow or purified diet containing 13 or 35 ppm copper were 1.4, 2.3 and 2.8 times greater, respectively, than control rats fed the same diets. Higher relative rates of MT synthesis were also observed in kidneys from diabetic rats fed purified diets compared to controls. Maximal relative rates of MT synthesis in diabetic liver and kidney were observed at 4 and 10 d, respectively, after onset of diabetes. The half-lives of cytoplasmic MT in liver and kidney from diabetic (10 d) rats were 1.3 and 2.6 days, respectively; half-lives of MT in control liver and kidney were 5.0 and 2.1 days, respectively

  14. Maternal Zinc Intakes and Homeostatic Adjustments during Pregnancy and Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Donangelo, Carmen Marino; King, Janet C.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc plays critical roles during embryogenesis, fetal growth, and milk secretion, which increase the zinc need for pregnancy and lactation. Increased needs can be met by increasing the dietary zinc intake, along with making homeostatic adjustments in zinc utilization. Potential homeostatic adjustments include changes in circulating zinc, increased zinc absorption, decreased zinc losses, and changes in whole body zinc kinetics. Although severe zinc deficiency during pregnancy has devastating e...

  15. Hair Zinc: an Index for Zinc Status in Under-Five Children from Low-Income Communities in Kanam Area of North-Central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaryum, Kiri H; Okoye, Zebulon Sunday C; Stoecker, Barbara

    2018-06-01

    Nutritional deficiencies of trace elements are among the top ten causes of death in Sub Saharan Africa. In Kanam Local Government Area of Nigeria, the problem is compounded by high levels of poverty and illiteracy. Abnormally low hair zinc levels are important, sensitive diagnostic biochemical indices of Zinc deficiency. The purpose of this study is to assess the zinc status of children less than 5 years in Kanam local government area, north-central Nigeria, by measuring the zinc level in hair samples collected from 44 under-5 children across the area. A household survey was made to assess the pattern and frequency of consumption of zinc-rich foods which was done by means of questionnaire. Hair samples were analysed for zinc content by the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrophotometry (ICP-MS). The data were analysed statistically using the Student's t test, z test, and Pearson correlation, while questionnaire-captured data were analysed by simple arithmetic. The results of the analyses showed that the average hair zinc level was 74.35 ± 48.05 μg/g. This was below the normal range of 130-140 μg/g, for children less than 5 years. Based on the results, 86.36% have hair zinc level below the lower limit of the normal range of 130 μg/g. Between the gender, boys have higher hair zinc content than girls. Data from the questionnaire showed that 53.45% of the population studied have poor/inadequate intake of zinc-rich foods of animal origin, a dietary behaviour reported to predispose to micronutrient deficiency, including zinc.

  16. Subtle abnormalities of gait detected early in vitamin B6 deficiency in aged and weanling rats with hind leg gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, M C; Cochary, E F; Sadowski, J A

    1990-04-01

    Motor abnormalities have been observed in every species made vitamin B6 deficient, and have been detected and quantified early in vitamin B6 deficiency in young adult female Long-Evans rats with hind leg gait analysis. Our objective was to determine if hind leg gait analysis could be used to detect vitamin B6 deficiency in weanling (3 weeks) and aged (23 months) Fischer 344 male rats. Rats (n = 10 per group) were fed: the control diet ad libitum (AL-CON); the control diet devoid of added pyridoxine hydrochloride (DEF); or the control diet pair-fed to DEF (PF-CON). At 10 weeks, plasma pyridoxal phosphate concentration confirmed deficiency in both age groups. Gait abnormalities were detected in the absence of gross motor disturbances in both aged and weanling DEF rats at 2-3 weeks. Width of step was significantly reduced (16%, p less than 0.003) in DEF aged rats compared to AL- and PF-CON. This pattern of response was similar to that reported previously in young adult rats. In weanling rats, pair feeding alone reduced mean width of step (+/- SEM) by 25% compared to ad libitum feeding (2.7 +/- 0.1 vs 3.6 +/- 0.1 cm for PF- vs AL-CON, respectively, p less than 0.05). In DEF weanling rats, width (3.0 +/- 0.1 cm) was increased compared to PF-CON (11%, p less than 0.05) but decreased compared to AL-CON (16%, p less than 0.05). Width of step was significantly altered early in B6 deficiency in rats of different ages and strains and in both sexes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Toxicokinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H E; Yu, J; Baek, M; Lee, J A; Choi, S J; Kim, M S; Kim, S H; Maeng, E H; Lee, J K; Jeong, J

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle have been extensively applied to diverse industrial fields because they possess UV light absorption, catalytic, semi-conducting, and magnetic characteristics as well as antimicrobial property. However, up to date, toxicological effects of ZnO nanoparticles in animal models have not been completely determined. Moreover, little information is available about kinetic behaviors of ZnO nanoparticles in vivo, which will be crucial to predict their potential chronic toxicity after long-term exposure. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics of ZnO nanoparticles after single-dose and repeated dose 90-day oral administration in male and female rats, respectively. The blood samples were collected following administration of three different doses (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) and ZnO concentration was assessed by measuring zinc level with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The result showed that the plasma ZnO concentration significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner, but decreased within 24 h after single-dose oral administration up to 500 mg/kg, without any significant difference between gender. However, when repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study was performed, the elevated plasma concentrations did not return to normal control levels in all the cases, indicating their toxicity potential. These findings suggest that repeated oral exposure to ZnO nanoparticles up to the dose of 125 mg/kg could accumulate in the systemic circulation, thereby implying that the NOAEL values could be less than 125 mg/kg via oral intake.

  18. 65Zinc and endogenous zinc content and distribution in islets in relationship to insulin content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figlewicz, D.P.; Forhan, S.E.; Hodgson, A.T.; Grodsky, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Uptake of 65 Zn and distribution of 65 Zn, total zinc, and insulin were measured in rat islets and islet granules under different conditions of islet culture. Specific activity of islet zinc ( 65 Zn/zinc) was less than 15% that of extracellular zinc even after 48 h. In contrast, once in the islet, 65 Zn approached 70% of equilibrium with granular zinc in 24 h and apparent equilibrium by 48 h. During a 24-h culture, at either high or low glucose, reduction of both islet zinc and insulin occurred. However, zinc depletion was greater than that predicted if zinc loss was proportional to insulin depletion and occurred only from the granular compartment, which represents only one third of the total islet zinc. Extension of culture to 48 h caused additional insulin depletion, but islet zinc was unchanged. Omission of calcium during the 48-h culture caused a predicted increase in insulin retention, presumably by inhibiting secretion; however, zinc retention was not increased proportionately. Pretreatment of rats with tolbutamide caused a massive depletion of insulin stored in isolated islets, with little change in total islet zinc; subsequent culture of these islets resulted in a greater loss of granular zinc than predicted from the small loss of granular insulin. None of the conditions tested affected the percentage of either 65 Zn or total zinc that was distributed in the islet granules. Results show that zinc exists in a metabolically labile islet compartment(s) as well as in secretory granules; and extra-granular zinc, although not directly associated with insulin storage, may act as a reservoir for granular zinc and may regulate insulin synthesis, storage, and secretion in ways as yet unknown

  19. Stage-specific and age-dependent profiles of zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium in rat seminiferous tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma-Takeda, S.; Nishimura, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Imaseki, H.; Yukawa, M.

    2004-01-01

    Stage-specific and age-dependent profiles of zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium in testis were examined in Wistar rats by both inductively coupled argon plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with a microdissection technique and in situ elemental imaging of micro-PIXE analysis. The young adult animals (10 weeks old) contained higher levels of zinc and manganese in the seminiferous tubules at stages VII-VIII than stages XI through VI and IX-X and the levels were higher than those of the immature and old animals. Copper and selenium levels at stages VII-VIII of the young adult animals were also higher than those of the immature and old animals. In stages VII and VIII, zinc was higher in the central area of the seminiferous epithelium, where spermatozoa were localized, demonstrating a cell-specific property. (author)

  20. Long-term Western diet fed apolipoprotein E-deficient rats exhibit only modest early atherosclerotic characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, Ida; Rolin, Bidda; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2018-01-01

    In the apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse, the gut microbiota has an impact on the development of atherosclerosis, but whether such correlations are also present in rats requires investigation. Therefore, we studied female SD-Apoe tm1sage (Apoe -/-) rats fed either a Western diet or a low-fat control...

  1. Teratogenic effect of calcium edetate (CaEDTA) in rats and the protective effect of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownie, C F; Brownie, C; Noden, D; Krook, L; Haluska, M; Aronson, A L

    1986-03-15

    The calcium chelate of EDTA (CaEDTA) currently is the drug of choice in the treatment of lead intoxication. This study investigated the teratogenic potential of CaEDTA, administered parenterally during periods of organogenesis and determined if incorporating zinc into EDTA would protect against teratogenic effects. Four doses (2, 4, 6, and 8 mmol/m2/day) of CaEDTA, two concentrations (8 and 20 mmol/m2/day) of ZnEDTA and ZnCaEDTA (molar ratio 0.5:0.5:1) were used, and a saline control (0.9% NaCl). Timed-pregnant Long-Evans rats were assigned at random to the treatment groups, 20 per dose for each chelate and 30 to the saline control. Rats were injected with the chelate or saline solution sc, twice daily during the 11th through 15th days of gestation. Pups removed by cesarean section on the 21st day were processed for osseous and visceral examination. Additional animals per treatment group were used for maternal plasma and liver and fetal zinc determinations. Results showed increases in several abnormalities (submucous cleft, cleft palate, adactyly-syndactyly, curly tail, abnormal rib and vertebrae) with increasing amounts of CaEDTA. No malformations were seen with ZnEDTA at either dose or with ZnCaEDTA at 8 mmol/m2/day. However, submucous cleft was seen in 6 of 20 litters from the dams receiving the higher dose of ZnCaEDTA. It was concluded that CaEDTA is teratogenic in rats at concentrations which, except for decreased weight gain, produce no discernible toxicity to the dam, and which are comparable to the recommended therapeutic dosage in humans (1500 mg/m2/day corresponding to 4 mmol/m2/day). Protection is afforded by incorporating zinc in the chelate.

  2. Effects of Biotin Deficiency on Biotinylated Proteins and Biotin-Related Genes in the Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahiro; Aoyama, Yuki; Shimada, Ryoko; Sawamura, Hiromi; Ebara, Shuhei; Negoro, Munetaka; Fukui, Toru; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that functions as a cofactor for biotin-dependent carboxylases. The biochemical and physiological roles of biotin in brain regions have not yet been investigated sufficiently in vivo. Thus, in order to clarify the function of biotin in the brain, we herein examined biotin contents, biotinylated protein expression (e.g. holocarboxylases), and biotin-related gene expression in the brain of biotin-deficient rats. Three-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into a control group, biotin-deficient group, and pair-fed group. Rats were fed experimental diets from 3 wk old for 8 wk, and the cortex, hippocampus, striatum, hypothalamus, and cerebellum were then collected. In the biotin-deficient group, the maintenance of total biotin and holocarboxylases, increases in the bound form of biotin and biotinidase activity, and the expression of an unknown biotinylated protein were observed in the cortex. In other regions, total and free biotin contents decreased, holocarboxylase expression was maintained, and bound biotin and biotinidase activity remained unchanged. Biotin-related gene (pyruvate carboxylase, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter, holocarboxylase synthetase, and biotinidase) expression in the cortex and hippocampus also remained unchanged among the dietary groups. These results suggest that biotin may be related to cortex functions by binding protein, and the effects of a biotin deficiency and the importance of biotin differ among the different brain regions.

  3. The Effects of Leucine, Zinc, and Chromium Supplements on Inflammatory Events of the Respiratory System in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Kolahian

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of serious micro- and macrovascular diseases that affect nearly every system in the body, including the respiratory system. Non-enzymatic protein glycation due to hyperglycaemic stress has fundamental implications due to the large capillary network and amount of connective tissue in the lung. The current study was designed to determine whether leucine, zinc, and chromium supplementations influence the function and histological structure of the respiratory tract in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Seventy-seven rats were divided into eleven groups, consisting of 7 animals each. One group served as negative control and insulin and glibenclamide were used as positive control drugs. Thus, eight groups received the nutritional supplements alone or in combination with each other. Nutritional supplements and glibenclamide were added to the drinking water and neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin was subcutaneously injected during the 4 weeks of treatment period. The induction of type 2 diabetes in the rats caused an infiltration of mononuclear cells and edema in the submucosa of the trachea and lung, severe fibrosis around the vessels and airways, and perivascular and peribronchial infiltration of inflammatory cells and fibrin. In the diabetic group, the total inflammation score and Reid index significantly increased. Diabetes induction significantly reduced the total antioxidant status and elevated the lipid peroxidation products in the serum, lung lavage and lung tissue of the diabetic animals. Treatment with nutritional supplements significantly decreased the histopathological changes and inflammatory indices in the diabetic animals. Supplementation of diabetic rats with leucine, zinc, and chromium, alone and in combination, significantly increased the total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation level in the diabetic animals. The nutritional supplements improved the enzymatic antioxidant activity of catalase

  4. The Effects of Leucine, Zinc, and Chromium Supplements on Inflammatory Events of the Respiratory System in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahian, Saeed; Sadri, Hassan; Shahbazfar, Amir Ali; Amani, Morvarid; Mazadeh, Anis; Mirani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of serious micro- and macrovascular diseases that affect nearly every system in the body, including the respiratory system. Non-enzymatic protein glycation due to hyperglycaemic stress has fundamental implications due to the large capillary network and amount of connective tissue in the lung. The current study was designed to determine whether leucine, zinc, and chromium supplementations influence the function and histological structure of the respiratory tract in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Seventy-seven rats were divided into eleven groups, consisting of 7 animals each. One group served as negative control and insulin and glibenclamide were used as positive control drugs. Thus, eight groups received the nutritional supplements alone or in combination with each other. Nutritional supplements and glibenclamide were added to the drinking water and neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin was subcutaneously injected during the 4 weeks of treatment period. The induction of type 2 diabetes in the rats caused an infiltration of mononuclear cells and edema in the submucosa of the trachea and lung, severe fibrosis around the vessels and airways, and perivascular and peribronchial infiltration of inflammatory cells and fibrin. In the diabetic group, the total inflammation score and Reid index significantly increased. Diabetes induction significantly reduced the total antioxidant status and elevated the lipid peroxidation products in the serum, lung lavage and lung tissue of the diabetic animals. Treatment with nutritional supplements significantly decreased the histopathological changes and inflammatory indices in the diabetic animals. Supplementation of diabetic rats with leucine, zinc, and chromium, alone and in combination, significantly increased the total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation level in the diabetic animals. The nutritional supplements improved the enzymatic antioxidant activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase

  5. Protective Effects of Long Term Administration of Zinc on Bone Metabolism Parameters in Male Wistar Rats Treated with Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Najafi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Violent poisoning by cadmium in human is created through drinks or meals which have packed in the metallic tins with cadmium plating. The symptoms of variation in the mineral metabolism of bones are observed and different conditions maybe appeared. The toxic (poisonous effect due to cadmium can be neutralized by intervening zinc. This study has been designed to investigate the protective effects of zinc for reducing the poisonous effects due to cadmium on the metabolism in the parameters related to the bone in rat. Methods In this experimental study, 48 male rats of wistar species were distributed in eight experimental groups and tested in the investigative lab of Falavarjan university. These groups were received 0.5 cc physiological serum, 0.5 mg/kg Zinc, 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg Cadmium respectively and some groups were included in those were taken all there cadmium and zinc concentrations synchronously. Blood samples were taken in a 60 days period and those factors related to the bone metabolism were measured. The data were analyzed by 2-ANOVA Ways, complementary tests through software SPSS 16. Results The results showed that 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg doses cadmium chloride caused to increase alkaline Phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and decrease albumin as compared with control group. Also, synchronous usage of all three cadmium chloride concentrations with zinc cause to decrease alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and increase albumin concentration. In a word, the other bone parameters have been significant in different cadmium and zinc doses (P < 0.05. Conclusions Findings showed that zinc can play a protective role on the metabolism parameters related to bone against to poisoning caused by cadmium.

  6. The effects of acute and chronic estrogen deficiency on glucose and lipid profile in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rabie P; Namjoo AR

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Ovariectomy is a standard experimental model of menopause in rodent to investigate postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects acute and chronic estrogen deficiency on lipid profile and glucose serum in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Methods: In this experimental study, Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight rats. The first group: sham-control, Second group: ovariectomized rats (for five weeks), Third group: Ova...

  7. Galvanizing action: conclusions and next steps for mainstreaming zinc interventions in public health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kenneth H; Baker, Shawn K

    2009-03-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the foregoing reviews of the impact of different intervention strategies designed to enhance zinc nutrition, including supplementation, fortification, and dietary diversification or modification. Current evidence indicates a beneficial impact of such interventions on zinc status and zinc-related functional outcomes. Preventive zinc supplementation reduces the incidence of diarrhea and acute lower respiratory tract infection among young children, decreases mortality of children over 12 months of age, and increases growth velocity. Therapeutic zinc supplementation during episodes of diarrhea reduces the duration and severity of illness. Zinc fortification increases zinc intake and total absorbed zinc, and recent studies are beginning to confirm a positive impact of zinc fortification on indicators of population zinc status. To assist with the development of zinc intervention programs, more information is needed on the prevalence of zinc deficiency in different countries, and rigorous evaluations of the effectiveness of large-scale zinc intervention programs should be planned. Recommended steps for scaling up zinc intervention programs, with or without other micronutrients, are described. In summary, there is now clear evidence of the benefit of selected interventions to reduce the risk of zinc deficiency, and a global commitment is urgently needed to conduct systematic assessments of population zinc status and to develop interventions to control zinc deficiency in the context of existing public health and nutrition programs.

  8. Zinc in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Effects Symptoms of zinc deficiency include: Frequent infections Hypogonadism in males Loss of hair Poor appetite Problems with the ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  9. Transcriptomic profiling of Arabidopsis gene expression in response to varying micronutrient zinc supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azevedo, Herlânder; Azinheiro, Sarah Gaspar; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of the micronutrient zinc is a widespread condition in agricultural soils, causing a negative impact on crop quality and yield. Nevertheless, there is an insufficient knowledge on the regulatory and molecular mechanisms underlying the plant response to inadequate zinc nutrition [1......]. This information should contribute to the development of plant-based solutions with improved nutrient-use-efficiency traits in crops. Previously, the transcription factors bZIP19 and bZIP23 were identified as essential regulators of the response to zinc deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana [2]. A microarray...... experiment comparing gene expression between roots of wild-type and the mutant bzip19 bzip23, exposed to zinc deficiency, led to the identification of differentially expressed genes related with zinc homeostasis, namely its transport and plant internal translocation [2]. Here, we provide the detailed...

  10. The effect of ingested sulfite on visual evoked potentials, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant status of brain in normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsoy, Ozlem; Aras, Sinem; Ozkan, Ayse; Parlak, Hande; Aslan, Mutay; Yargicoglu, Piraye; Agar, Aysel

    2016-07-01

    Sulfite, commonly used as a preservative in foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals, is a very reactive and potentially toxic molecule which is detoxified by sulfite oxidase (SOX). Changes induced by aging may be exacerbated by exogenous chemicals like sulfite. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ingested sulfite on visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and brain antioxidant statuses by measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Brain lipid oxidation status was also determined via thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in normal- and SOX-deficient aged rats. Rats do not mimic the sulfite responses seen in humans because of their relatively high SOX activity level. Therefore this study used SOX-deficient rats since they are more appropriate models for studying sulfite toxicity. Forty male Wistar rats aged 24 months were randomly assigned to four groups: control (C), sulfite (S), SOX-deficient (D) and SOX-deficient + sulfite (DS). SOX deficiency was established by feeding rats with low molybdenum (Mo) diet and adding 200 ppm tungsten (W) to their drinking water. Sulfite in the form of sodium metabisulfite (25 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) was given by gavage. Treatment continued for 6 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, flash VEPs were recorded. Hepatic SOX activity was measured to confirm SOX deficiency. SOX-deficient rats had an approximately 10-fold decrease in hepatic SOX activity compared with the normal rats. The activity of SOX in deficient rats was thus in the range of humans. There was no significant difference between control and treated groups in either latence or amplitude of VEP components. Brain SOD, CAT, and GPx activities and brain TBARS levels were similar in all experimental groups compared with the control group. Our results indicate that exogenous administration of sulfite does not affect VEP components and the antioxidant/oxidant status of aged rat brains. © The Author

  11. [Effect of protein intervention on amino acid metabolism spectrum of Qi and Yin deficiency type 2 diabetic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Na; Mao, Xin-Min; Ma, Xiao-Li; Li, Lin-Lin; Wang, Ye; Tao, Yi-Cun; Wang, Jing-Wei; Guo, Jia-Jia; Lan, Yi

    2016-11-01

    To study the effect of plant protein and animal protein on amino acid metabolism spectrum of Qi and Yin deficiency type 2 diabetic rats. 110 male SD rats were randomly divided into blank group (n=10), diabetic model group (n=20), disease-symptoms group (n=80). The rats of blank group received ordinary feeding, while other groups were fed with high sugar and fat diets. During the whole process of feeding, rats of disease-symptoms group were given with Qingpi-Fuzi (15.75 g•kg⁻¹) once a day through oral administration. Five weeks later, the rats were given with a low dose of STZ (40 mg•kg⁻¹) by intraperitoneal injection to establish experimental diabetic models. Then the models were randomly divided into disease-symptoms group 1 (Qi and Yin deficiency diabetic group, 15.75 g•kg⁻¹), disease-symptoms group 2 (plant protein group, 0.5 g•kg⁻¹), disease-symptoms group 3 (animal protein group, 0.5 g•kg⁻¹), disease-symptoms group 4 (berberine group, 0.1 g•kg⁻¹). The drugs were given for 4 weeks by gavage administration. After 4 weeks of protein intervention, the abdominal aortic blood was collected and serum was isolated to analyze its free amino acid by using AQC pre-column derivatization HPLC and fluorescence detector. Four weeks after the protein intervention, plant protein, animal protein and berberine had no obvious effect on body weight and blood sugar in type 2 diabetic rats. As compared with animal protein group, histidine and proline(PYin deficiency type 2 diabetic SD rats. Symbolic differential compounds could be found through metabonomics technology, providing experimental basis for early warning of type 2 diabetes and diagnosis of Qi and Yin deficiency syndrome. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. The zinc-myoglobin relationships in porcine muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogd Joergensen, P.; Wegger, I.

    1976-01-01

    Zinc and myoglobin content in muscles from pigs were studied under various conditions. Zinc concentration was considerably higher in red than in white muscles. In muscles, where the metabolic pattern changes from glycolytic to oxidative during the period from birth to weaning, a simultaneous increase in zinc content was seen. A significant positive correlation exists between myoglobin and zinc content under normal conditions. However, while myoglobin concentration decreases due to iron deficiency anaemia no changes occur in zinc content. It is concluded that no functional link seems to exist between zinc metabolism and myoglobin synthesis in porcine muscles. (author)

  13. Recent advances in knowledge of zinc nutrition and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Sonja Y; Lönnerdal, Bo; Hotz, Christine; Rivera, Juan A; Brown, Kenneth H

    2009-03-01

    Zinc deficiency increases the risk and severity of a variety of infections, restricts physical growth, and affects specific outcomes of pregnancy. Global recognition of the importance of zinc nutrition in public health has expanded dramatically in recent years, and more experience has accumulated on the design and implementation of zinc intervention programs. Therefore, the Steering Committee of the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG) completed a second IZiNCG technical document that reexamines the latest information on the intervention strategies that have been developed to enhance zinc nutrition and control zinc deficiency. In particular, the document reviews the current evidence regarding preventive zinc supplementation and the role of zinc as adjunctive therapy for selected infections, zinc fortification, and dietary diversification or modification strategies, including the promotion and protection of breastfeeding and biofortification. The purposes of this introductory paper are to summarize new guidelines on the assessment of population zinc status, as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and IZiNCG, and to provide an overview on several new advances in zinc metabolism. The following papers will then review the intervention strategies individually.

  14. Regulation of the adaptation to zinc deficiency in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assuncao, A.G.L.; Schat, H.; Aarts, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which plants sense their micronutrient status, and adapt to their environment in order to ensure a sufficient micronutrient supply, are poorly understood. Zinc is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms. When facing a shortage in zinc supply, plants adapt by

  15. Failure of zinc to prevent dysmorphogenesis of cultured rat conceptuses by anti-yolk sac antiserum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlow, R.; Freeman, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Day 10 rat conceptuses were cultured for 48h in the presence of either cadmium or anti-vesceral yolk sac antiserum (AVYS). Cadmium was embryotoxic at concentrations exceeding 0.25 ug/ml while AVYS caused embryonic dysmorphogenesis, particularly affecting the optic vesicles, at concentrations of 2 ul/ml and above. The effect of pretreatment with zinc on embryotoxicity caused by cadmium or AVYS was studied. Zinc ameliorated the effects of cadmium but had no effect on AVYS-induced embryonic abnormalities. In a second set of experiments inhibition of 125 I-labelled PVP uptake by the yolk sac of cultured whole conceptuses was studied. Cadmium and AVYS both inhibited uptake compared to control cultures. Zinc again ameliorated the effect of cadmium but had no action against AVYS-induced inhibition. These results are in contrast to their previous findings using isolated cultured yolk sacs in which zinc ameliorated the inhibitory effects on 125 I-labelled PVP uptake of both cadmium and AVYS. These data show that in experiments using the isolated cultured yolk sac and the intact cultured conceptus, a qualitatively different response in yolk sac behavior is observed under similar experimental conditions

  16. 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activity in vitro in lung and kidney of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Toft, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    Weanling rats were fed for 6 months on a diet deficient in essential fatty acids: either fat-free, or with 28% (w/w) partially hydrogenated fish oil. Control rats were fed a diet with 28% (w/w) arachis oil for 6 months. 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activity was determined as initial rates...... of the two groups on diets deficient in essential fatty acids as compared to the control group. No difference was observed in dehydrogenase activity in the kidneys. The dehydrogenase may be of importance for the regulation of the level of endogenous prostaglandins and, thus, a decrease in activity could...

  17. Effects of multi-deficiencies-diet on bone parameters of peripheral bone in ovariectomized mature rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaqif El Khassawna

    Full Text Available Many postmenopausal women have vitamin D and calcium deficiency. Therefore, vitamin D and calcium supplementation is recommended for all patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis. We used an experimental rat model to test the hypothesis that induction of osteoporosis is more efficiently achieved in peripheral bone through combining ovariectomy with a unique multi-deficiencies diet (vitamin D depletion and deficient calcium, vitamin K and phosphorus. 14-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats served as controls to examine the initial bone status. 11 rats were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX and fed with multi-deficiencies diet. Three months later the treated group and the Sham group (n = 8 were euthanized. Bone biomechanical competence of the diaphyseal bone was examined on both, tibia and femur. Image analysis was performed on tibia via µCT, and on femur via histological analysis. Lower torsional stiffness indicated inferior mechanical competence of the tibia in 3 month OVX+Diet. Proximal metaphyseal region of the tibia showed a diminished bone tissue portion to total tissue in the µCT despite the increased total area as evaluated in both µCT and histology. Cortical bone showed higher porosity and smaller cross sectional thickness of the tibial diaphysis in the OVX+Diet rats. A lower ALP positive area and elevated serum level of RANKL exhibited the unbalanced cellular interaction in bone remodeling in the OVX+Diet rat after 3 month of treatment. Interestingly, more adipose tissue area in bone marrow indicated an effect of bone loss similar to that observed in osteoporotic patients. Nonetheless, the presence of osteoid and elevated serum level of PTH, BGP and Opn suggest the development of osteomalacia rather than an osteoporosis. As the treatment and fracture management of both osteoporotic and osteomalacia patients are clinically overlapping, this study provides a preclinical animal model to be utilized in local supplementation of minerals, drugs

  18. Effects of multi-deficiencies-diet on bone parameters of peripheral bone in ovariectomized mature rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khassawna, Thaqif; Böcker, Wolfgang; Govindarajan, Parameswari; Schliefke, Nathalie; Hürter, Britta; Kampschulte, Marian; Schlewitz, Gudrun; Alt, Volker; Lips, Katrin Susanne; Faulenbach, Miriam; Möllmann, Henriette; Zahner, Daniel; Dürselen, Lutz; Ignatius, Anita; Bauer, Natali; Wenisch, Sabine; Langheinrich, Alexander Claus; Schnettler, Reinhard; Heiss, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Many postmenopausal women have vitamin D and calcium deficiency. Therefore, vitamin D and calcium supplementation is recommended for all patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis. We used an experimental rat model to test the hypothesis that induction of osteoporosis is more efficiently achieved in peripheral bone through combining ovariectomy with a unique multi-deficiencies diet (vitamin D depletion and deficient calcium, vitamin K and phosphorus). 14-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats served as controls to examine the initial bone status. 11 rats were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) and fed with multi-deficiencies diet. Three months later the treated group and the Sham group (n = 8) were euthanized. Bone biomechanical competence of the diaphyseal bone was examined on both, tibia and femur. Image analysis was performed on tibia via µCT, and on femur via histological analysis. Lower torsional stiffness indicated inferior mechanical competence of the tibia in 3 month OVX+Diet. Proximal metaphyseal region of the tibia showed a diminished bone tissue portion to total tissue in the µCT despite the increased total area as evaluated in both µCT and histology. Cortical bone showed higher porosity and smaller cross sectional thickness of the tibial diaphysis in the OVX+Diet rats. A lower ALP positive area and elevated serum level of RANKL exhibited the unbalanced cellular interaction in bone remodeling in the OVX+Diet rat after 3 month of treatment. Interestingly, more adipose tissue area in bone marrow indicated an effect of bone loss similar to that observed in osteoporotic patients. Nonetheless, the presence of osteoid and elevated serum level of PTH, BGP and Opn suggest the development of osteomalacia rather than an osteoporosis. As the treatment and fracture management of both osteoporotic and osteomalacia patients are clinically overlapping, this study provides a preclinical animal model to be utilized in local supplementation of minerals, drugs and growth factors

  19. Role of zinc in human body and approaches for improvement with reference to status in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yameen, A.; Bilal, R.

    2001-01-01

    Importance of micronutrients for human health has been recognized and efforts are being made to eradicate their deficiency. Micronutrient deficiency is also termed as hidden hunger. Zinc is an important micronutrient and its deficiency cause serious effects on human health. This paper intends to describe the importance of zinc and methods of its assessment, highlighting the consequences of its deficiency in human body in order to create awareness. Some information on deficiency data in Pakistan, status of current national nutrition survey for future policies and possible measures to improve the zinc status of population is also mentioned. (author)

  20. The beneficial effect of combined administration of vitamins C and E ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine the progression of kidney damage induced by zinc deficiency in diabetic rats and to evaluate the effect of combined treatment of vitamin E and vitamin C in renal injury by providing protection against deleterious action of zinc deficiency. Female diabetic albino Wistar rats were randomly ...

  1. Induction of ceruloplasmin synthesis by interleukin-1 in copper deficient and copper sufficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, E.F.; Cousins, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is a copper-containing plasma protein important in the body's acute phase defense system. In copper sufficient rats given two injections of interleukin-1 (IL-1) at 0 and 8 h, ceruloplasmin activity began to significantly increase within 6 h, but did not peak until at least 24 h. The 24 h stimulated activity was 84 +/- 2 umole p-phenylene diamine (pPD) oxidized x min -1 x L -1 compared to a control of 43 +/- 5. These rats were injected with 100uCi 3 H-leucine (ip) 2 h before sacrifice to label newly synthesized proteins. When the 3 H immunoprecipitated by rabbit anti-rat Cp serum is expressed as a percent of the 3 H precipitated by trichloroacetic acid (TCA), the basal Cp synthesis rate was 3% of the total serum protein synthesis. The rate of Cp synthesis peaked 12 h after IL-1 injection at 7% of total serum protein synthesis and by 24 h was back to the basal rate. In copper deficient rats, IL-1 given with copper induced pPD oxidase activity, while IL-1 given alone did not stimulate activity. The basal Cp synthesis rate in these rats was 3%, the same as in the copper sufficient rats. In copper deficient rats, the Cp synthesis rate was induced by IL-1 with or without an injection of copper. Therefore, if dietary copper is in short supply, then although Cp synthesis is induced by this mediator of host defense mechanisms, Cp cannot carry out its functions

  2. Zinc-induced cardiomyocyte relaxation in a rat model of hyperglycemia is independent of myosin isoform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ting

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been reported previously that diabetic cardiomyopathy can be inhibited or reverted with chronic zinc supplementation. In the current study, we hypothesized that total cardiac calcium and zinc content is altered in early onset diabetes mellitus characterized in part as hyperglycemia (HG and that exposure of zinc ion (Zn2+ to isolated cardiomyocytes would enhance contraction-relaxation function in HG more so than in nonHG controls. To better control for differential cardiac myosin isoform expression as occurs in rodents after β-islet cell necrosis, hypothyroidism was induced in 16 rats resulting in 100% β-myosin heavy chain expression in the heart. β-Islet cell necrosis was induced in half of the rats by streptozocin administration. After 6 wks of HG, both HG and nonHG controls rats demonstrated similar myofilament performance measured as thin filament calcium sensitivity, native thin filament velocity in the myosin motility assay and contractile velocity and power. Extracellular Zn2+ reduced cardiomyocyte contractile function in both groups, but enhanced relaxation function significantly in the HG group compared to controls. Most notably, a reduction in diastolic sarcomere length with increasing pacing frequencies, i.e., incomplete relaxation, was more pronounced in the HG compared to controls, but was normalized with extracellular Zn2+ application. This is a novel finding implicating that the detrimental effect of HG on cardiomyocyte Ca2+ regulation can be amelioration by Zn2+. Among the many post-translational modifications examined, only phosphorylation of ryanodine receptor (RyR at S-2808 was significantly higher in HG compared to nonHG. We did not find in our hypothyroid rats any differentiating effects of HG on myofibrillar protein phosphorylation, lysine acetylation, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine and advanced glycated end-products, which are often implicated as complicating factors in cardiac performance due to HG. Our

  3. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  4. Comparative tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active components in normal and blood deficiency rats after oral administration of Danggui Buxue Decoction by UPLC-TQ/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuqin; Tang, Yuping; Zhu, Huaxu; Li, Weixia; Li, Zhenhao; Li, Wei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2014-01-01

    Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) were frequently combined and used in China as herbal pair called as Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBD) for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome, such as women's ailments. This study is to investigate the tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active constituents (ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV) in DBD after oral administration of DBD in blood deficiency rats, and to compare the difference between normal and blood deficiency rats. The blood deficiency rats were induced by bleeding from orbit at the dosages of 5.0mLkg(-1) every day, and the experimental period was 12 days. At the finally day of experimental period, both normal and blood deficiency rats were orally administrated with DBD, and then the tissues samples were collected at different time points. Ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV in different tissues were detected simultaneously by UPLC-TQ/MS, and the histograms were drawn. The results showed that the overall trend was CLiver>CKidney>CHeart>CSpleen>CLung, CC-30min>CM-30min>CM-60min>CC-5min>CM-5min>CC-60min>CM-240min>CC-240min. The contents of the detected compounds in liver were more than that in other tissues no matter in normal or blood deficiency rats. Compared to normal rats, partial contents of the compounds in blood deficiency rats' tissues at different time points had significant difference (Pdistribution investigation in blood deficiency animals which is conducted by bleeding. And the results demonstrated that the five DBD components in normal and blood deficiency rats had obvious differences in some organs and time points, suggesting that the blood flow and perfusion rate of the organ were altered in blood deficiency animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Growth hormone and IGF-1 deficiency exacerbate high-fat diet-induced endothelial impairment in obese Lewis dwarf rats: implications for vascular aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey-Downs, Lora C; Sosnowska, Danuta; Toth, Peter; Mitschelen, Matthew; Gautam, Tripti; Henthorn, Jim C; Ballabh, Praveen; Koller, Akos; Farley, Julie A; Sonntag, William E; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that the age-related decline in circulating growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels significantly contribute to vascular dysfunction in aging by impairing cellular oxidative stress resistance pathways. Obesity in elderly individuals is increasing at alarming rates, and there is evidence suggesting that elderly individuals are more vulnerable to the deleterious cardiovascular effects of obesity than younger individuals. However, the specific mechanisms through which aging, GH/IGF-1 deficiency, and obesity interact to promote the development of cardiovascular disease remain unclear. To test the hypothesis that low circulating GH/IGF-1 levels exacerbate the pro-oxidant and proinflammatory vascular effects of obesity, GH/IGF-1-deficient Lewis dwarf rats and heterozygous control rats were fed either a standard diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 7 months. Feeding an HFD resulted in similar relative weight gains and increases in body fat content in Lewis dwarf rats and control rats. HFD-fed Lewis dwarf rats exhibited a relative increase in blood glucose levels, lower insulin, and impaired glucose tolerance as compared with HFD-fed control rats. Analysis of serum cytokine expression signatures indicated that chronic GH/IGF-1 deficiency exacerbates HFD-induced inflammation. GH/IGF-1 deficiency also exacerbated HFD-induced endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and expression of inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α, ICAM-1) in aortas of Lewis dwarf rats. Overall, our results are consistent with the available clinical and experimental evidence suggesting that GH/IGF-1 deficiency renders the cardiovascular system more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of obesity.

  6. Leptin and zinc relation : In regulation of food intake and immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkerim Kasim Baltaci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is synthesized and released by the adipose tissue. Leptin, which carries the information about energy reserves of the body to the brain, controls food intake by acting on neuropeptide Y (NPY, which exercises a food-intake-increasing effect through relevant receptors in the hypothalamus. Zinc deficiency is claimed to result in anorexia, weight loss, poor food efficiency, and growth impairment. The fact that obese individuals have low zinc and high leptin levels suggests that there is a relation between zinc and nutrition, and consequently also between zinc and leptin. Leptin deficiency increases the predisposition to infections and this increase is associated with the impairments in the production of cytokines. Zinc has a key role in the sustenance of immune resistance against infections. Dietary zinc deficiency negatively affects CD +4 cells, Th functions, and consequently, cell-mediated immunity by causing a decrease in the production of IL-2, IF-γ, and TNF-α, which are Th1 products. The relation between zinc and the concerned cytokines in particular, and the fact that leptin has a part in the immune responses mediated by these cytokines demonstrate that an interaction among cellular immunity, leptin and zinc is inevitable. An overall evaluation of the information presented above suggests that there are complex relations among food intake, leptin and zinc on one hand and among cellular immunity, leptin and zinc on the other. The aim of the present review was to draw attention to the possible relation between zinc and leptin in dietary regulation and cellular immunity.

  7. [Correction of the combined vitamin deficiency in growing rats fed fiber enriched diets with different doses of vitamins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketova, N A; Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Sokol'nikov, A A; Aksenov, I V

    2014-01-01

    The effect of 5% dietary wheat bran (WB) on the correction of combined vitamin deficiency by two doses of vitamins (physiological and enhanced) has been analyzed using a rat model (8 groups, n = 8/group). Vitamin deficiency in male weanling Wistar rats (58.1 ± 0.5 g) was induced by 5-fold reduction of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and complete vitamin E, B1 and B2 exclusion from the mixture for 30 days, then deficit was corrected within 5 days. Rats from control group were fed a complete semisynthetic diet containing microcrystalline cellulose 2%. Vitamin deficient diet for 35 days resulted in reduced (p vitamin A in the liver by 25 fold, vitamin E and B1--2.0-2.3 fold, vitamin B2--by 40%, 25(OH)D blood plasma concentration--by 21% compared with the control. Feed consumption of the animals treated with vitamin deficient diet and WB was higher by 43% than in rats with vitamin deficit. Their rate of weight occupied the intermediate position between the rates of weight in deficit and in control animals, and they could not serve a full control to evaluate the WB impact on vitamin sufficiency. After filling the vitamin diet content to an adequate level vitamin E liver content was fully restored. To restore vitamins B1 and B2 liver level higher doses of vitamins (120-160% of adequate content) were required, and to restore the reduced levels of vitamin A in rat liver even 2-fold increased dose of vitamin A was insufficient. The diet enrichment with WB had no effect on vitamin B1 and B2 liver content, regardless of the amount of vitamins in the diet. Adding fiber to the diet of animals adequately provided with vitamins resulted in significantly 1,3-fold increase of 25(OH)D blood plasma concentration and a slight but significant decrease of α-tocopherol liver level by 16% as compared to rats not receiving WB. The enrichment of rat diet with dietary fibers worsened restoration of the reduced vitamin E status not only by filling vitamin content in the diet to an

  8. Cysteine-rich intestinal protein binds zinc during transmucosal zinc transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempe, J.M.; Cousins, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of zinc absorption has not been delineated, but kinetic studies show that both passive and carrier-mediated processes are involved. The authors have identified a low molecular mass zinc-binding protein in the soluble fraction of rat intestinal mucosa that could function as an intracellular zinc carrier. The protein was not detected in liver or pancreas, suggesting a role specific to the intestine. The protein binds zinc during transmucosal zinc transport and shows signs of saturation at higher luminal zinc concentrations, characteristics consistent with a role in carrier-mediated zinc absorption. Microsequence analysis of the protein purified by gel-filtration HPCL and SDS/PAGE showed complete identity within the first 41 N-terminal amino acids with the deduced protein sequence of cysteine-rich intestinal protein. These investigators showed that the gene for this protein is developmentally regulated in neonates during the suckling period, conserved in many vertebrate species, and predominantly expressed in the small intestine. Cysteine-rich intestinal protein contains a recently identified conserved sequence of histidine and cysteine residues, the LIM motif, which our results suggest confers metal-binding properties that are important for zinc transport and/or functions of this micronutrient

  9. Deficiencia de zinc y sus implicaciones funcionales Zinc deficiency and its functional implications

    OpenAIRE

    JORGE L ROSADO

    1998-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene por objeto revisar los aspectos teóricos y los estudios realizados en México que sugieren la existencia de la deficiencia moderada de zinc en niños de población rural, así como algunas de las consecuencias de dicha deficiencia en la salud. El zinc es un nutrimento indispensable para el organismo de los humanos y juega un papel importante en una serie de procesos metabólicos: participa en el sitio catalítico de varios sistemas enzimáticos; participa como ion estructur...

  10. Effect of zinc supplementation on body mass index and serum levels of zinc and leptin in pediatric hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shazly AN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Nabih El-Shazly,1 Soha Abd El-Hady Ibrahim,1 Ghada Mohamed El-Mashad,2 Jehan H Sabry,3 Nashwa Said Sherbini11Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Banha, 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shibin Al Kawm, 3Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Banha, Egypt Introduction: Zinc is an essential trace element for human nutrition, and its deficiency is associated with anorexia, poor food efficiency, growth retardation, and impaired neurological and immune systems. The zinc-deficiency rate is particularly high in many disease states, such as with end-stage renal disease patients undertaking hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on body mass index (BMI and serum levels of zinc and leptin in pediatric hemodialysis patients. Patients and methods: This was a prospective clinical trial study in which 60 hemodialysis patients were randomly divided into two groups: group I received 50–100 mg zinc sulfate (equivalent to 11–22 mg elemental zinc according to age, sex, and nutritional status of the child; and group II received placebo (cornstarch twice daily for 90 days. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and serum zinc and leptin levels were determined by colorimetric test with 5-Br-3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, at days 0 and 90 of the study. Results: Zinc supplementation resulted in a significant increase in mean serum zinc level and BMI. Serum leptin decreased significantly after supplementation in children under hemodialysis. A significant negative correlation was observed between serum zinc and leptin levels as a result of zinc supplementation. Conclusion: There was an increase in serum zinc level and BMI and decreased serum leptin after zinc supplementation in children under hemodialysis. Keywords: serum zinc, serum leptin

  11. Common micronutrient deficiencies among food aid beneficiaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Vitamin A and iron deficiencies were the most prevalent micronutrient deficiencies among food aid beneficiaries. Other probable deficiencies prevailing were zinc, vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, niacin folate, cyano-cobalamine, ascorbic acid vitamin D and calcium because of the low intake of dairy products and meat.

  12. Alterations in the molecular species of rat liver lecithin by corn-oil feeding to essential fatty acid-deficient rats as a function of time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golde, L.M.G. van; Pieterson, W.A.; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1968-01-01

    The present paper describes, as a function of time, the qualitative and quantitative alterations in the molecular species pattern of rat liver lecithin which are observed when corn oil is fed to essential fatty acid-deficient rats. One of the most important changes observed was a very rapid

  13. Erythrocyte zinc levels in children with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik Yilmaz, E; Ozmen, S; Bostanci, I; Misirlioglu, E Dibek; Ertan, U

    2011-12-01

    Zinc deficiency may be suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis, control, and severity of asthma because of its antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects. We aimed to investigate whether there was any relationship between erythrocyte zinc levels and childhood asthma. The erythrocyte zinc levels of 67 asthmatic and 45 healthy children were analyzed in this case-control study. The mean concentrations of erythrocyte zinc were 1215.8 ± 145.1 µg/dl in asthma patients and 1206.9 ± 119.5 µg/dl in controls with no significant difference (P = 0.472). The erythrocyte zinc level was below 1,000 µg/dl in 6 asthmatic patients (8.9%) and 2 control group patients (4.4%). There was no relationship between erythrocyte zinc levels and duration of follow-up, severity, and control of the asthma (P > 0.05). On the other hand, patients hospitalized for an asthma attack had significantly lower erythrocyte zinc levels compared with nonhospitalized patients and the control group (P = 0.000 and P = 0.004 respectively). This study's findings indicate that asthmatic children are not a risk group for zinc deficiency. We emphasize that checking zinc levels in children who are hospitalized for an asthma attack may be useful. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effect of selenium and vitamin E deficiencies on the fate of arachidonic acid in rat isolated lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uotila, P.; Puustinen, T.

    1985-01-01

    The fate of exogenous 14 C-arachidonic acid ( 14 C-AA) was investigated in the isolated lungs of rats fed selenium and vitamin E deficient diet or diets supplemented with selenium and/or vitamin E. When 80 nmol of 14 C-AA was infused into the pulmonary circulation most of the infused 14 C-AA was found in different phospholipid and neutral lipid fractions of the perfused lungs. Only less than ten percent of the infused radioactivity was recovered in the perfusion effluent. The amount of arachidonate metabolites in the perfusion effluent was negligible, and most of the radioactivity in the perfusion effluent consisted of unmetabolized arachidonate. Selenium deficiency had no significant effect on the distribution of 14 C-AA in different lung lipid fractions. However, in the lungs of vitamin E deficient rats the amount of radioactivity was slightly increased in the neutral lipid fraction, which was due to the increased amount of 14 C-AA in the diacylglycerols. The amount of radioactivity was increased especially in the 1,3-diacylglycerols. The amount of radioactivity was increased especially in the 1,3-diacylglycerols. The amount of 14 C-AA in the triacylglycerols and in different phospholipids was not significantly changed. The present study might indicate that selenium deficiency has no significant effect on the fate of exogenous arachidonic acid in isolated rat lungs, and that vitamin E deficiency would slightly increase the amount of arachidonic acid in the diacylglycerols

  15. Effect of 6-mercaptopurine on 65Zn distribution in the pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, K.; Hurley, L.S.; Keen, C.L.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) on the distribution of gavaged 65 Zn in maternal and embryonic tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats was examined 24 hr after injection of the drug on day 13 of pregnancy. 6-MP injection resulted in a significantly higher retention of counts of 65 Zn in maternal liver and lower counts in maternal plasma, uterus, placenta, and embryo than in controls. Compared to controls, gel chromatography of maternal liver from 6-MP injected dams showed higher counts associated with a protein peak of molecular weight 6,000-8,000, the approximate molecular weight of the zinc-binding protein metallothionein. These results support the idea that the zinc deficiency, which is observed in day 21 fetuses from dams injected with 6-MP during midgestation, may be the result of a drug-induced sequestering of zinc into maternal liver followed by a decrease in maternal plasma zinc and subsequent reduction in fetal zinc uptake. We suggest that this 6-MP-associated redistribution of zinc into maternal liver may be due to induction of maternal metallothionein synthesis by the drug

  16. Zinc in soybeans. Chemical nature and bioavilability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.

    1987-01-01

    Soybeans were grown hydroponically and intrinsically labeled with 65 Zn through root absorption, stem injection and foliar application. Stem injection resulted in the greatest accumulation of 65 Zn. Regardless of the labeling technique, approximately 40-45% of the seed 65 Zn was associated with the subcellular organelles. The pattern of 65 Zn incorporation into soybeans did not change appreciably as a result of the labelling technique. The major portion of the soluble 65 Zn was either free or associated with very low molecular weight proteins, peptides, or their complexes with phytic acid rather than the major proteins of soybeans. Zinc in soybeans is ionically bound to proteins, peptides and phytic acid. Autoclaving did not affect the chemical association of zinc with soy proteins. Solubility of protein, zinc and phytic acid was studied over the pH range of 3.5-12.0. Bioavailability of zinc to rats from soybeans was lower than from casein and rats adapted to a casein basal diet absorbed more 65 Zn from both casein and soy than rats adapted to a soy basal diet

  17. Impact of Single or Repeated Dose Intranasal Zinc-free Insulin in Young and Aged F344 Rats on Cognition, Signaling, and Brain Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Katie L; Frazier, Hilaree N; Maimaiti, Shaniya; Bakshi, Vikas V; Majeed, Zana R; Brewer, Lawrence D; Porter, Nada M; Lin, Ai-Ling; Thibault, Olivier

    2017-02-01

    Novel therapies have turned to delivering compounds to the brain using nasal sprays, bypassing the blood brain barrier, and enriching treatment options for brain aging and/or Alzheimer's disease. We conducted a series of in vivo experiments to test the impact of intranasal Apidra, a zinc-free insulin formulation, on the brain of young and aged F344 rats. Both single acute and repeated daily doses were compared to test the hypothesis that insulin could improve memory recall in aged memory-deficient animals. We quantified insulin signaling in different brain regions and at different times following delivery. We measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) using MRI and also characterized several brain metabolite levels using MR spectroscopy. We show that neither acute nor chronic Apidra improved memory or recall in young or aged animals. Within 2 hours of a single dose, increased insulin signaling was seen in ventral areas of the aged brains only. Although chronic Apidra was able to offset reduced CBF with aging, it also caused significant reductions in markers of neuronal integrity. Our data suggest that this zinc-free insulin formulation may actually hasten cognitive decline with age when used chronically. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Zinc and immunity: An essential interrelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maares, Maria; Haase, Hajo

    2016-12-01

    The significance of the essential trace element zinc for immune function has been known for several decades. Zinc deficiency affects immune cells, resulting in altered host defense, increased risk of inflammation, and even death. The micronutrient zinc is important for maintenance and development of immune cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system. A disrupted zinc homeostasis affects these cells, leading to impaired formation, activation, and maturation of lymphocytes, disturbed intercellular communication via cytokines, and weakened innate host defense via phagocytosis and oxidative burst. This review outlines the connection between zinc and immunity by giving a survey on the major roles of zinc in immune cell function, and their potential consequences in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nippostronglylus brasiliensis infection in the rat: effect of iron and protein deficiency and dexamethasone on the efficacy of benzimidazole anthelmintics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, V M; Bolin, T D; Davis, A E; Kelly, J D

    1977-01-01

    Malnutrition, anaemia, and gut parasites are commonly interrelated. Using the Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-rat model, the effect of iron and protein deficiency on the efficacy of benzimidazole anthelmintics was studied. It was demonstrated that the anthelmintics mebendazole and fenbendazole were significantly less effective in eradicating parasites when animals were deficient in iron and protein. This decreased efficacy of anthelmintics in iron and protein deficiency could not be overcome by intraperitoneal administration of the drug. Since nutritional deficiencies may act via impairment of the immune response, anthelmintic efficacy was determined in adequately nourished rats treated with the immunosuppressive drug dexamethasone. A similar decrease in efficacy of mebendazole was shown when these animals were treated with dexamethasone. Thus it is possible that lowered anthelmintic efficacy in iron and protein deficient animals is mediated by immune deficiency. These findings may be relevant to anthelmintic programmes in malnourished communities. PMID:590849

  20. Absorbed zinc and exchangeable zinc pool size are significantly greater in Pakistani infants receiving traditional complementary foods with zinc fortified micronutrient powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariff, Shabina; Soofi, Sajid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Krebs, Nancy; Westcott, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Adequacy of zinc intake from breast milk alone becomes marginal in relation to infant requirements by around six months of age. Simple and cost effective strategies are needed at population level to ensure adequate intakes of zinc in infants and toddlers in populations at risk of zinc deficiency. We determined the amount of absorbed zinc (AZ) from a micronutrient powder (MNP) without and with 10 mg of zinc (MNP, MNP+Zn, respectively) added to local complementary foods used in Pakistan, and the impact on the exchangeable zinc pool (EZP) size. As a nested study within a large prospective cluster randomized trial, 6 month old infants were randomized to receive MNP or MNP+Zn. Stable isotope methodology was applied after ~ 3 and 9 months of use to measure AZ from MNP-fortified test meals of rice-lentils (khitchri) and EZP. Nineteen infants per group completed the first metabolic studies; 14 and 17 infants in MNP and MNP+Zn groups, completed the follow-up studies. Mean (±SD) AZs were 0.1± 0.1 and 1.2±0.5 mg at the first point for the MNP and MNP+Zn groups, respectively (p <0.001); results were nearly identical at the follow-up measurement. EZP did not differ between groups at the first measurement but was less in the MNP group (3.7±0.6 mg/kg) than in the MNP+Zn group (4.5±1.0 mg/kg) at the second measurement (P = 0.01). These data confirm that the MNP+Zn in khitchri were well absorbed, and after a year of home fortification, zinc status assessed by EZP was significantly better for the MNP+Zn group. Additional field studies may be necessary to ascertain the adequacy of this dose for infants at high risk of deficiency. (author)

  1. Morphological assessment of bone mineralization in tibial metaphyses of ascorbic acid-deficient ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tomoka; Li, Minqi; Hara, Kuniko; Sasaki, Muneteru; Tabata, Chihiro; de Freitas, Paulo Henrique Luiz; Hongo, Hiromi; Suzuki, Reiko; Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Inoue, Kiichiro; Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki; Oohata, Noboru; Oda, Kimimitsu; Akiyama, Yasuhiro; Amizuka, Norio

    2011-08-01

    Osteogenic disorder shionogi (ODS) rats carry a hereditary defect in ascorbic acid synthesis, mimicking human scurvy when fed with an ascorbic acid-deficient (aa-def) diet. As aa-def ODS rats were shown to feature disordered bone formation, we have examined the bone mineralization in this rat model. A fibrous tissue layer surrounding the trabeculae of tibial metaphyses was found in aa-def ODS rats, and this layer showed intense alkaline phosphatase activity and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-immunopositivity. Many osteoblasts detached from the bone surfaces and were characterized by round-shaped rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), suggesting accumulation of malformed collagen inside the rER. Accordingly, fine, fragile fibrillar collagenous structures without evident striation were found in aa-def bones, which may result from misassembling of the triple helices of collagenous α-chains. Despite a marked reduction in bone formation, ascorbic acid deprivation seemed to have no effect on mineralization: while reduced in number, normal matrix vesicles and mineralized nodules could be seen in aa-def bones. Fine needle-like mineral crystals extended from these mineralized nodules, and were apparently bound to collagenous fibrillar structures. In summary, collagen mineralization seems unaffected by ascorbic acid deficiency in spite of the fine, fragile collagenous fibrils identified in the bones of our animal model.

  2. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis of zinc and calcium in organelles of insulin-producing cells of the mouse, rat, and a fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkmer, S; Odselius, R [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Blondel, B; Prentki, M; Wollheim, C B [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland)

    1985-01-01

    By means of energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis in the scanning-transmission electron microscope, spectra were obtained from quick-frozen, cryo-ultramicrotome-cut, freeze-dried sections of insulin cells from a fish and a mouse. It was shown that both zinc and calcium are present in significant quantities in native islet cell ..beta.. granules. In the ..beta.. granules of the rat RINm5F insuloma cells calcium, but not zinc, seemed to accumulate; the zinc contents in the secretion granules of these neoplastic ..beta.. cells were probably below the detection limit.

  3. Impaired exercise performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in rats with secondary carnitine deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal BOUITBIR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The effects of carnitine depletion upon exercise performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function remain largely unexplored. We therefore investigated the effect of N-trimethyl-hydrazine-3-propionate (THP, a carnitine analogue inhibiting carnitine biosynthesis and renal carnitine reabsorption, on physical performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in rats.Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated daily with water (control rats; n=12 or with 20 mg/100 g body weight THP (n=12 via oral gavage for 3 weeks. Following treatment, half of the animals of each group performed an exercise test until exhaustion.Results: Distance covered and exercise performance were lower in THP-treated compared to control rats. In the oxidative soleus muscle, carnitine depletion caused atrophy (-24% and impaired function of complex II and IV of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The free radical leak (ROS production relative to oxygen consumption was increased and the cellular glutathione pool decreased. Moreover, mRNA expression of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial DNA were decreased in THP-treated compared to control rats. In comparison, in the glycolytic gastrocnemius muscle, carnitine depletion was associated with impaired function of complex IV and increased free radical leak, whilst muscle weight and cellular glutathione pool were maintained. Markers of mitochondrial proliferation and mitochondrial DNA were unaffected.Conclusions: Carnitine deficiency is associated with impaired exercise capacity in rats treated with THP. THP-induced carnitine deficiency is associated with impaired function of the electron transport chain in oxidative and glycolytic muscle as well as with atrophy and decreased mitochondrial DNA in oxidative muscle.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF PLASMA ZINC STATUS OF SENILE CATARACT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... AND NON-CATARACT ELDERLY PATIENTS IN MID-WESTERN NIGERIA- A CASE ... which may occur in zinc deficiency even with normal vitamin A status. ... La présente étude a pour objet d\\'évaluer le niveau de zinc chez les malades ...

  5. Effect of high dietary zinc on plasma ceruloplasmin and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities in copper-depleted and repleted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panemangalore, M; Bebe, F N

    1996-01-01

    The effect of moderately high dietary zinc (Zn) on the activities of plasma (PL) ceruloplasmin (CP), and PL and erythrocyte (RBC) copper (Cu), Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) was determined in weanling rats fed Cu-deficient (DEF; CON; 5 mg Cu/kg) copper diets containing normal or high Zn (HZn; 60 mg/kg) for 4 wk and supplemented with oral Cu (CuS; 5 mg/L) in drinking water for 0, 1, 3, or 7 d. PL Cu decreased (67% compared to CON; p DEF and increased to control level after 3 d of CuS; increased in the MAR group after 1 d of CuS. HZn reduced overall PL Cu by 27% in all groups, but did not alter the linear increase in PL Cu between 0 and 3 d of Cu S. PL CP activity altered concomitantly with PL Cu levels: The time course of increase in CP activity after 0-3 d of CuS was not influenced by HZn in the diet and CP declined in the DEF group by 92%. There was no correlation between dietary Cu level and PL CP. PL SOD activity decreased by 46% (p DEF group, increased to control activity after 1 d of CuS and declined slightly after 7 d; MAR diet did not alter PL SOD. HZn diet increased PL SOD activity in all groups by 150%, reduced activity in the DEF and MAR groups by 65 and 37% and delayed the recovery of PL SOD after CuS. RBC SOD declined in the DEF and MAR groups by 56 and 33% (p < or = 0.05) and did not respond to CuS; HZn diet did not influence RBC SOD activity. These data indicate that moderately high Zn in the diet reduces PL Cu, but not PL CP activity or the recovery of PL Cu or CP activity after oral CuS of Cu-deficient rats, modifies the response of PL SOD to dietary Cu, but does not influence RBC SOD activity.

  6. Resistance of essential fatty acid-deficient rats to endotoxin-induced increases in vascular permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, E.J.; Cook, J.A.; Spicer, K.M.; Wise, W.C.; Rokach, J.; Halushka, P.V.

    1990-01-01

    Resistance to endotoxin in essential fatty acid-deficient (EFAD) rats is associated with reduced synthesis of certain arachidonic acid metabolites. It was hypothesized that EFAD rats would manifest decreased vascular permeability changes during endotoxemia as a consequence of reduced arachidonic acid metabolism. To test this hypothesis, changes in hematocrit (HCT) and mesenteric localization rate of technetium-labeled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) and red blood cells (99mTc-RBC) were assessed in EFAD and normal rats using gamma-camera imaging. Thirty minutes after Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin, EFAD rats exhibited less hemoconcentration as determined by % HCT than normal rats. Endotoxin caused a less severe change in permeability index in the splanchnic region in EFAD rats than in normal rats (1.2 +/- 0.6 x 10(-3)min-1 vs. 4.9 +/- 1.7 x 10(-3)min-1 respectively, P less than 0.05). In contrast to 99mTc-HSA, mesenteric localization of 99mTc-RBC was not changed by endotoxin in control or EFAD rats. Supplementation with ethyl-arachidonic acid did not enhance susceptibility of EFAD rats to endotoxin-induced splanchnic permeability to 99mTc-HSA. Leukotrienes have been implicated as mediators of increased vascular permeability in endotoxin shock. Since LTC3 formation has been reported to be increased in EFA deficiency, we hypothesized that LTC3 may be less potent than LTC4. Thus the effect of LTC3 on mean arterial pressure and permeability was compared to LTC4 in normal rats. LTC3-induced increases in peak mean arterial pressure were less than LTC4 at 10 micrograms/kg (39 +/- 5 mm Hg vs. 58 +/- 4 mm Hg respectively, P less than 0.05) and at 20 micrograms/kg (56 +/- 4 mm Hg vs. 75 +/- 2 mm Hg respectively, P less than 0.05). LY171883 (30 mg/kg), an LTD4/E4 receptor antagonist, attenuated the pressor effect of LTC4, LTD4, and LTC3

  7. Maternal micronutrient deficiency leads to alteration in the kidney proteome in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shadab; Basak, Trayambak; Anand Kumar, K; Bhardwaj, Gourav; Lalitha, A; Yadav, Dilip K; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Raghunath, Manchala; Sengupta, Shantanu

    2015-09-08

    Maternal nutritional deficiency significantly perturbs the offspring's physiology predisposing them to metabolic diseases during adulthood. Vitamin B12 and folate are two such micronutrients, whose deficiency leads to elevated homocysteine levels. We earlier generated B12 and/or folate deficient rat models and using high-throughput proteomic approach, showed that maternal vitamin B12 deficiency modulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the liver of pups through regulation of PPAR signaling pathway. In this study, using similar approach, we identified 26 differentially expressed proteins in the kidney of pups born to mothers fed with vitamin B12 deficient diet while only four proteins were identified in the folate deficient group. Importantly, proteins like calreticulin, cofilin 1 and nucleoside diphosphate kinase B that are involved in the functioning of the kidney were upregulated in B12 deficient group. Our results hint towards a larger effect of vitamin B12 deficiency compared to that of folate presumably due to greater elevation of homocysteine in vitamin B12 deficient group. In view of widespread vitamin B12 and folate deficiency and its association with several diseases like anemia, cardiovascular and renal diseases, our results may have large implications for kidney diseases in populations deficient in vitamin B12 especially in vegetarians and the elderly people.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Zinc in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiilerich, S.

    1987-01-01

    The zinc ion is essential for the living organism. Many pathological conditions have been described as a consequence of zinc deficiency. As zinc constitutes less than 0.01 per cent of the body weight, it conventionally belongs to the group of trace elements. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry is used to measure the concentration of zinc in serum and urine from healthy persons. The assumptions of the method is discussed. The importance of proteinbinding, diet and the diurnal variation of serum zinc concentration is presented. Serum versus plasma zinc concentration is discussed. Reference serum zinc values from 104 normal subjects are given. Zinc in serum is almost entirely bound to proteins. A preliminary model for the estimation of the distribution of zinc between serum albumin and α 2 -macroglobulin is set up. This estimate has been examined by an ultracentrufugation method. The binding of zinc to a α 2 -macroglobulin in normal persons is appoximately 7 per cent, in patients with cirrhosis of the liver of alcoholic origin approximately 6 per cent, in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus approximately 5 per cent, and in patients with chronic renal failure approximately 2 per cent. It is concluded, therefore, that for clinical purposes it is sufficient to use the concentration of total serum zinc corrected for the concentration of serum albumin. (author)

  9. Transcriptomic profiling of Arabidopsis gene expression in response to varying micronutrient zinc supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlânder Azevedo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of the micronutrient zinc is a widespread condition in agricultural soils, causing a negative impact on crop quality and yield. Nevertheless, there is an insufficient knowledge on the regulatory and molecular mechanisms underlying the plant response to inadequate zinc nutrition [1]. This information should contribute to the development of plant-based solutions with improved nutrient-use-efficiency traits in crops. Previously, the transcription factors bZIP19 and bZIP23 were identified as essential regulators of the response to zinc deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana [2]. A microarray experiment comparing gene expression between roots of wild-type and the mutant bzip19 bzip23, exposed to zinc deficiency, led to the identification of differentially expressed genes related with zinc homeostasis, namely its transport and plant internal translocation [2]. Here, we provide the detailed methodology, bioinformatics analysis and quality controls related to the microarray gene expression profiling published by Assunção and co-workers [2]. Most significantly, the present dataset comprises new experimental variables, including analysis of shoot tissue, and zinc sufficiency and excess supply. Thus, it expands from 8 to 42 microarrays hybridizations, which have been deposited at the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO under the accession number GSE77286. Overall, it provides a resource for research on the molecular basis and regulatory events of the plant response to zinc supply, emphasizing the importance of Arabidopsis bZIP19 and bZIP23 transcription factors. Keywords: Microarray, Micronutrient, Zinc deficiency, Arabidopsis, bZIP

  10. DIETARY AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF THE NIACIN DEFICIENCY IM YOUNG RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ROBERTO VICTORIA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: Using a defined laboratory diet composed by gelatin (6% and casein (10% as protein sources, without tryptophan and nicotinic acid supplementation, it should be possible to reproduce, in young rats, after 28 dais feeding with this deficient diet, a clinical and laboratory model of niacin deficiency. The deficient group, when compared against control, showed poor growth (63.3 g x 163.3 g; p<0.05, lower urinary excretion of N’-methylnicotinamide (0.005 mg/24 h x 0.259 mg/24 h; p<0.05, lower plasma free-tryptophan (2.1 uM/dl x 5.4 uM/dl; p<0.05, lower plasma albumin level (1.8 g/dl; p<0.05, smaller erythrocytes (48.9 u3 x 54.8 u3; p<0.05 and lower corpuscular hemoglobin (23.2 pg x 26.6 pg; p<0.05. All these changes were normalized by niacin replacement. We conclude that this dietetics model is easy and practical to be used for niacin deficiency purposes. KEYWORDS: Niacin; nicotinicacid; tryptophan; N’-methylnicotinamide; Pellagra.

  11. HUBUNGAN ANTARA ZINC SERUM DENGAN STATUS GIZI LANSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitrah Emawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ZINC SERUM AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF ELDERLY PEOPLE.Background: The findings of study that 30% in Bogor and 27% in Jakarta of elderly people were undernourished. Malnutrition may occur due to infection and low food intake. Among elderly people, one of the factors that causes low food intake is affected by impairment of taste sensory and teeth function. The impairment of taste sensory is influenced by zinc status in the body.Objective: To collect food consumption pattem data of zinc rich foods, zinc concentration in serum and to analyze association of zinc concentration and nutritional status.Methods: Research design was cross sectional, and conducted in two sub districts in Bogor city. The respondents were women in 60-75 years of age, no suffering from illnesses and chronically disease. The total respondent was 90 people, and divided into three groups of 30 peoples. Data gathered included respondent identity, physical examination, anthropometry, blood biochemical and zinc dietary consumption.Results: Zinc dietary consumption adequacy of underweight group was only 30% of recommended dietary allowance, while for normal and overweight groups were 40% of dietary allowance. Zinc serum concentration of underweight group (82 ug/dl was not significantly different with normal group (85 ug/dl, however differed significantly (p<0.05 with overweight group (95 ug/dl. Underweight group suffered 40% zinc deficiency, 27% for normal and only 7% for overweight group.Conclusions: Zinc deficiency was more prevalent in underweight group than that of normal and overweight group. [Panel Gizi Makan 2002,25: 26-33.Keywords: zinc serum concentration, zinc dietary consumption, underweight

  12. Effects of protein-deficient nutrition during rat pregnancy and development on developmental hindlimb crossing due to methylmercury intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, S.K.; Bai, Chengjiang [Montreal Univ., Quebec (Canada). Dept. de Medecine du Travail et Hygiene du Milieu

    2000-07-01

    Pregnant rats were fed either a control (20% protein) or low (3.5%) protein diet during gestation and lactation. The pups were separated from their mothers on postnatal day 21, and were given the same dient as their corresponding mothers. The groups of pups from each diet group were treated on either postnatal day 21 or postnatal day 60 with 7.5 mg methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) per kg b.w. once daily by gavage for 10 consecutive days, and the development of ataxia (hind-limb corossing) was monitored. The offspring from mothers on the protein-deficient diet were found to be more sensitive to MeHg-induced ataxia than those on the protein-sufficient diet. The former accumulated more mercury in different brain regions than the latter. The rates of protein synthesis in different brain regions of the offspring fed the protein-deficient diet were significantly reduced compared with the rates in those fed the protein-sufficient diet. However, MeHg treatment did not significantly modify the rates of such protein synthesis further in protein-deficient rats. Thus, a significantly much higher inhibition of the intrinsic rates of protein synthesis in different brain regions due to severe protein deficiency, as observed in this study, may be partly responsible for the increased susceptibility of developing rats fed a protein-deficient diet to MeHg-induced ataxia, or hindlimb crossing, although other factor(s) might also be involved. (orig.)

  13. Lipoprotein receptors in copper-deficient rats: in vitro binding of high-density lipoprotein subfractions to liver membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassel, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to determine whether the elevated plasma and HDL cholesterol levels observed in copper-deficient rats could be explained by the interaction of 125 I-HDL subfractions with liver membrane preparations in vitro. Rats from all studies were randomly divided into two dietary treatments, copper-deficient and adequate (0.7 mg and 8.0 mg Cukg diet, respectively). Total binding data and computer derived estimates (K/sub d/ and B/sub max/) were used to compare differences between treatments. Binding data from all experiments conformed to a one-site model. In all cases, binding was saturable and EDTA and pronase insensitive. Treatment differences were observed in Study I ( 125 I-apo E-free HDL binding to crude liver membranes). Significantly lower total binding and B/sub max/ were observed when lipoproteins and membranes from copper-deficient animals were used in the assay. Competition experiments from Studies II and III demonstrate that the different HDL subfractions competed effectively with one another for binding sites, indicating that apo E is not a determinant in binding of rat 125 I-HDL subfractions to purified liver plasma membranes

  14. Effect of cholecalciferol and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on the intestinal absorption of zinc in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, S.I.; Fullmer, C.S.; Wasserman, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of cholecalciferol on the intestinal absorption of 65 Zn was assessed in zinc-deficient and zinc-replete rachitic chicks, using the in situ ligated loop techniques. Cholecalciferol did not significantly affect 65 Zn absorption in either group, although the synthesis of the intestinal calcium-binding protein (CaBP) in both groups was similar. In an analogous study, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol increased 47 Ca absorption and induced the synthesis of CaBP but exerted no effect on 65 Zn absorption in zinc-deficient rachitic chicks. When fed a diet adequate in cholecalciferol, more CaBP was present in the intestine of the zinc-adequate group than in the zinc-deficient group, possibly due to the greater rate of growth and therefore the greater need for calcium by the former group. These results suggest that cholecalciferol and its most active metabolite do not directly affect zinc absorption and, by inference, that the vitamin D-dependent transport mechanism is not involved in zinc homeostasis, or in the interaction between calcium and zinc

  15. US Army Institute of Surgical Research Annual Research Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    systemic hypo - tension following oleic acid infusion. Oxygen toxicity must be considered in any experiment using 100 percent oxygen. In preliminary studies...to maintain zinc nutriture in rats fed a zinc-deficient diet . This determination was based on comparison of body weight maintenance, tissue zinc...concentration, and voluntary caloric intake between zinc-injected and zinc-fed rats. Further studies await the receipt of stainless steel metabolic cages

  16. Dietary Deficiency of Essential Amino Acids Rapidly Induces Cessation of the Rat Estrous Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, Makoto; Ichimaru, Toru; Nakano, Sayako; Murata, Takuya; Higuchi, Takashi; Takahashi, Michio

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive functions are regulated by the sophisticated coordination between the neuronal and endocrine systems and are sustained by a proper nutritional environment. Female reproductive function is vulnerable to effects from dietary restrictions, suggesting a transient adaptation that prioritizes individual survival over reproduction until a possible future opportunity for satiation. This adaptation could also partially explain the existence of amenorrhea in women with anorexia nervosa. Because amino acid nutritional conditions other than caloric restriction uniquely alters amino acid metabolism and affect the hormonal levels of organisms, we hypothesized that the supply of essential amino acids in the diet plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of the female reproductive system. To test this hypothesis, we examined ovulatory cyclicity in female rats under diets that were deficient in threonine, lysine, tryptophan, methionine or valine. Ovulatory cyclicity was monitored by daily cytological evaluations of vaginal smears. After continuous feeding of the deficient diet, a persistent diestrus or anovulatory state was induced most quickly by the valine-deficient diet and most slowly by the lysine-deficient diet. A decline in the systemic insulin-like growth factor 1 level was associated with a dietary amino acid deficiency. Furthermore, a paired group of rats that were fed an isocaloric diet with balanced amino acids maintained normal estrous cyclicity. These disturbances of the estrous cycle by amino acid deficiency were quickly reversed by the consumption of a normal diet. The continuous anovulatory state in this study is not attributable to a decrease in caloric intake but to an imbalance in the dietary amino acid composition. With a shortage of well-balanced amino acid sources, reproduction becomes risky for both the mother and the fetus. It could be viewed as an adaptation to the diet, diverting resources away from reproduction and reallocating them to

  17. Effect of sulfite treatment on total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide, and total free sulfydryl groups contents in normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herken, Emine Nur; Kocamaz, Erdogan; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Kucukatay, Vural

    2009-08-01

    Sulfites, which are commonly used as preservatives, are continuously formed in the body during the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sulfite oxidase (SOX) is an essential enzyme in the pathway of the oxidative degradation of sulfite to sulfate protecting cells from sulfite toxicity. This article investigated the effect of sulfite on total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and total free sulfydryl groups (-SH) levels in normal and SOX-deficient male albino rat plasma. For this purpose, rats were divided into four groups: control, sulfite-treated, SOX-deficient, and sulfite-treated SOX-deficient groups. SOX deficiency was established by feeding rats a low molybdenum diet and adding to their drinking water 200 ppm tungsten. Sulfite (70 mg/kg) was administered to the animals via their drinking water. SOX deficiency together with sulfite treatment caused a significant increase in the plasma LOOH and total oxidant status levels. -SH content of rat plasma significantly decreased by both sulfite treatment and SOX deficiency compared to the control. There was also a significant decrease in plasma TAC level by sulfite treatment. In conclusion, sulfite treatment affects the antioxidant/oxidant balance of the plasma cells of the rats toward oxidants in SOX-deficient groups.

  18. Zinc supplementation and stunted infants in Ethiopia : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeta, M.; West, C.E.; Haider, J.; Deurenberg, P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Background Stunting is highly prevalent in Ethiopia and many other developing countries but the reason for it is poorly understood. Zinc is essential for growth but diets in such countries often do not contain zinc in sufficient quantity or of sufficient bioavailability. Thus zinc deficiency may

  19. A diet containing the soy phytoestrogen genistein causes infertility in female rats partially deficient in UDP glucuronyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppen, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Soy beans contain genistein, a natural compound that has estrogenic effects because it binds the estrogen receptor with relatively high affinity. Genistein is therefore the most important environmental estrogen in the human diet. Detoxification of genistein is mediated through conjugation by UDP-glucuronyltransferase 1 and 2 (UGT1 and UGT2) isoenzymes. Gunn rats have a genetic deficiency in UGT1 activity, UGT2 activities are not affected. Because our Gunn rats stopped breeding after the animal chow was changed to a type with much higher soy content, we examined the mechanism behind this soy diet induced infertility. Gunn and control rats were fed diets with and without genistein. In these rats, plasma levels of genistein and metabolites, fertility and reproductive parameters were determined. Enzyme assays showed reduced genistein UGT activity in Gunn rats, as compared to wild type rats. Female Gunn rats were completely infertile on a genistein diet, wild type rats were fertile. Genistein diet caused a persistent estrus, lowered serum progesterone and inhibited development of corpora lutea in Gunn rats. Concentrations of total genistein in Gunn and control rat plasma were identical and within the range observed in humans after soy consumption. However, Gunn rat plasma contained 25% unconjugated genistein, compared to 3.6% in control rats. This study shows that, under conditions of reduced glucuronidation, dietary genistein exhibits a strongly increased estrogenic effect. Because polymorphisms that reduce UGT1 expression are prevalent in the human population, these results suggest a cautionary attitude towards the consumption of large amounts of soy or soy supplements. -- Highlights: ► Gunn rats are partially deficient in detoxification by UDP glucuronyltransferases. ► Female Gunn rats are infertile on a soy containing diet. ► Soy contains genistein, a potent phytoestrogen. ► Inefficient glucuronidation of genistein causes female infertility.

  20. A diet containing the soy phytoestrogen genistein causes infertility in female rats partially deficient in UDP glucuronyltransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppen, Jurgen, E-mail: j.seppen@amc.uva.nl

    2012-11-01

    Soy beans contain genistein, a natural compound that has estrogenic effects because it binds the estrogen receptor with relatively high affinity. Genistein is therefore the most important environmental estrogen in the human diet. Detoxification of genistein is mediated through conjugation by UDP-glucuronyltransferase 1 and 2 (UGT1 and UGT2) isoenzymes. Gunn rats have a genetic deficiency in UGT1 activity, UGT2 activities are not affected. Because our Gunn rats stopped breeding after the animal chow was changed to a type with much higher soy content, we examined the mechanism behind this soy diet induced infertility. Gunn and control rats were fed diets with and without genistein. In these rats, plasma levels of genistein and metabolites, fertility and reproductive parameters were determined. Enzyme assays showed reduced genistein UGT activity in Gunn rats, as compared to wild type rats. Female Gunn rats were completely infertile on a genistein diet, wild type rats were fertile. Genistein diet caused a persistent estrus, lowered serum progesterone and inhibited development of corpora lutea in Gunn rats. Concentrations of total genistein in Gunn and control rat plasma were identical and within the range observed in humans after soy consumption. However, Gunn rat plasma contained 25% unconjugated genistein, compared to 3.6% in control rats. This study shows that, under conditions of reduced glucuronidation, dietary genistein exhibits a strongly increased estrogenic effect. Because polymorphisms that reduce UGT1 expression are prevalent in the human population, these results suggest a cautionary attitude towards the consumption of large amounts of soy or soy supplements. -- Highlights: ► Gunn rats are partially deficient in detoxification by UDP glucuronyltransferases. ► Female Gunn rats are infertile on a soy containing diet. ► Soy contains genistein, a potent phytoestrogen. ► Inefficient glucuronidation of genistein causes female infertility.

  1. Metallochaperone for Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (CCS) protein but not mRNA is higher in organs from copper-deficient mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohaska, Joseph R; Broderius, Margaret; Brokate, Bruce

    2003-09-15

    Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is an abundant metalloenzyme important in scavenging superoxide ions. Cu-deficient rats and mice have lower SOD1 activity and protein, possibly because apo-SOD1 is degraded faster than holo-SOD1. SOD1 interacts with and requires its metallochaperone CCS for donating copper. We produced dietary Cu deficiency in rodents to determine if the reduction in SOD1 was related to the level of its specific metallochaperone CCS. CCS levels determined by immunoblot were 2- to 3-fold higher in liver, heart, kidney, and brain from male Cu-deficient rats and mice under a variety of conditions. CCS was also higher in livers of Cu-deficient dams. Interestingly, CCS levels in brain of Cu-deficient mice were also higher even though SOD1 activity and protein were not altered, suggesting that the rise in CCS is correlated with altered Cu status rather than a direct result of lower SOD1. A DNA probe specific for rat CCS detected a single transcript by Northern blot hybridization with liver RNA. CCS mRNA levels in mouse and rat liver were not altered by dietary treatment. These results suggest a posttranscriptional mechanism for higher CCS protein when Cu is limiting in the cell, perhaps due to slower protein turnover. Elevation in CCS level is one of the most dramatic alterations in Cu binding proteins accompanying Cu deficiency and may be useful to assess Cu status.

  2. Biofortification: High zinc wheat programme – The potential agricultural options for alleviating malnutrition in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadir Bux Baloch

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The deficiency of micronutrients (zinc, iron, iodine and vitamin A is persistently afflicting millions of people living across Africa, Southern Americas, Asia and Pakistan. Among these, the zinc deficiency syndrome is occurring by 47.6, 41.3, and 39.2% in pregnant, non-pregnant and children under 5 years, respectively in Pakistan. The reason being that majority of the people subsists on cereal-based diets, i.e., wheat. The commercially grown wheat varieties contain zinc about 25 mg/g, whereas about 40 mg/g zinc is required in daily diet.The potential risk of zinc deficiency could be mitigated through certain interventions i.e., mineral drugs, food supplements, diversity in diets, production of fortified foods, and genetic biofortification of staple food crops. Among these, quantum increase in zinc content in wheat grains through genetic manipulation would be basics to alleviate zinc deficiency in the malnourished communities. The objective of the programme is to enhance the concentration of zinc nutrient from 25 to 40 mg/g in wheat grains through conventional plant breeding techniques.Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad in collaboration with Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR and International Maize & Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT and HarvestPlus, Pakistan started R&D works to develop biofortified high zinc wheat varieties containing around 40 mg/g in the year 2009. The biofortified wheat crop is developed through conventional plant breeding techniques. The germplasm inherited with high zinc nutrient are crossed with high yielding and adopted to ecological conditions. The varieties are high yielding, and inheriting zinc around 40 mg/g in the grains under both irrigated and rainfed production environments. The Government of Punjab has also given high priority to develop and consume biofortified high zinc wheat in its multi-sectoral Nutrition Strategy Plan 2015, as potential agricultural option to

  3. The role of zinc supplementation in the inhibition of tissue damage caused by exposure to electromagnetic field in rat lung and liver tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, A K; Mogulkoc, R; Salbacak, A; Celik, I; Sivrikaya, A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of zinc supplementation on the oxidant damage in lung and liver tissues in rats exposed to a 50-Hz frequency magnetic field for 5 minutes every other day over a period of 6 months. The study included 24 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were divided into the three groups in equal numbers: Group 1, the control group (G1); Group 2, the group exposed to an electromagnetic field (G2); and Group 3, the group, which was exposed to an EMF and supplemented with zinc (G3). At the end of the 6-month procedures, the animals were decapitated to collect lung and liver tissue samples, in which MDA was analyzed using the "TBARS method (nmol/g/protein)", GSH by the "biuret method (mg/g/protein)" and zinc levels by atomic emission (µg/dl). MDA levels in lung and liver tissues in G2 were higher than those in G1 and G3, and the levels in G3 were higher than those in G1 (pelectromagnetic field caused cellular damage in lung and liver tissues and zinc supplementation inhibited the inflicted cellular damage. Another important result of this study that needs emphasis was that exposure to an electromagnetic field led to a significant decrease in zinc levels in lung and liver tissues (Tab. 3, Ref. 23).

  4. Effect of zinc treatment on intestinal motility in experimentally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of zinc treatment on intestinal motility in experimentally induced diarrhea in rats. ... Zinc supplementation is a critical new intervention for treating diarrheal episodes in children. Recent studies suggest that administration of zinc along with new low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions / salts (ORS) can reduce the ...

  5. Curcumin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity Induced by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layasadat Khorsandi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (NZnO are increasingly used in modern life. Most metal nanoparticles have adverse effects on the liver. Aims: To explore the protective action of curcumin (Cur against hepatotoxicity induced by NZnO in rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Control group animals received normal saline, while the Cur group animals were treated with 200 mg/kg of Cur orally for 21 days. NZnO-intoxicated rats received 50 mg/kg of NZnO for 14 days by gavage method. In the NZnO+Cur group, rats were pretreated with Cur for 7 days before NZnO administration. Plasma activities of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were measured as biomarkers of hepatotoxicity. Hepatic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities were measured for detection of oxidative stress in liver tissue. Histological changes and apoptosis in liver tissue were studied by using Hematoxylin-eosin staining and the transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL method. Results: NZnO induced a significant increase in plasma AST (2.8-fold, ALT (2.7-fold and ALP (1.97-fold activity in comparison to the control group (p<0.01. NZnO increased MDA content and reduced SOD and GPx activities. NZnO caused liver damage including centrilobular necrosis and microvesicular steatosis. The percentage of apoptosis in hepatocytes was increased in NZnO-treated rats (p<0.01. Pre-treatment of Cur significantly reduced lipid peroxidation (39%, increased SOD (156% and GPx (26% activities, and attenuated ALT (47%, AST (41% and ALP (30% activities. Pre-treatment with Cur also decreased the histology changes and apoptotic index of hepatocytes (p<0.05. Conclusion: These findings indicate that Cur effectively protects against NZnO-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. However, future studies are required to propose Cur as a potential protective agent against hepatotoxicity

  6. [Changes in serum lipids in rats treated with oral cooper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Corredor, O M; Carnevalí de Tatá, E; Reinosa-Füller, J; Contreras, Y; Ramírez de Fernández, M; Yánez-Domínguez, C

    2000-09-01

    Disturbances in lipid metabolism during copper deficiency in rats are well recognized. Copper deficiency is associated with the spontaneous retention of hepatic iron. Previous studies have reported that hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia are associated with elevated hepatic iron concentrations in copper deficient rats. There was a direct relationship between the magnitude of blood lipids and the concentration of hepatic iron. Based on these data, it has been hypothesized that iron was responsible for the development of lipemia of copper deficiency. In this study was determined the effect of increasing doses of Cu(10, 20 and 50 ppm) in the diet, on the serum total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides (triacylglicerols), phospholipids, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and liver iron and zinc concentrations in normal rats. The results were compared with normal rats that received a balanced diet containing 0.6 and 6 ppm of Cu, respectively. The results show that Cu-supplement diminished the cholesterol and triglyceride serum levels, increased the level of phospholipids, NEFA and concomitantly decreased the hepatic concentrations of Fe and Zn. There was a statistically significant (p Cu (r = -0.612), liver Fe and liver Zn (r = 0.837), liver Cu and liver Zn (r = -0.612), and serum triglycerides and liver Zn (r = 0.967). The mechanism(s) by which Fe and Zn determine these changes is not known; none of the enzymes that act in cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism and biosynthesis require Fe and/or Zn. The increase of NEFA is due to changes in the process of lipolysis and re-esterification of the fatty acids in blood. However, additional studies are needed for the precise mechanisms of this interrelationships to be clarified.

  7. Effect of sibutramine on 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid levels and selected oxidative biomarkers on brain regions of female rats in the presence of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, David C; García, Ernestina H; Mejía, Gerardo B; Olguín, Hugo J; Jiménez, Francisca T; Soto, Erick B; Del Angel, Daniel S; Aparicio, Liliana C

    2012-05-01

    A number of drugs, like sibutramine, which are used clinically in weight control, act on serotonergic metabolism. However, their relation with zinc and free radical (FR) production in central nervous system remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sibutramine and zinc on FR production. Female Wistar rats (about 250 g) were used in this study. The animals received 400 μg/kg of zinc and 10 mg/kg of sibutramine intraperitoneally every 36 hr for 15 days. At the end of the study, the rats were killed and their brains used for the measurement of lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), hydrogen peroxide (H(2) O(2) ), calcium and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) levels, all by means of validated methods. Corporal weight and food consumption were found to be decreased in the zinc/sibutramine group. TBARS decreased in cortex, hemispheres and medulla oblongata. GSH decreased in cortex, hemispheres and cerebellum in the sibutramine group. Zinc given alone and in combination with sibutramine decreased H(2) O(2) concentration in cortex, hemispheres and cerebellum but increased calcium and 5-HIAA concentration in all brain regions. Our results suggest that sibutramine and zinc are associated with weight loss, an effect that was more pronounced in the group treated with both drugs. Reduction in oxidative stress may be involved in these effects. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  8. Studies on absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolism of 3H-1α-hydroxycholecalciferol in vitamin D deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohira, Yasuo; Hinohara, Yoshikazu; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Machiko; Nakano, Hideki

    1978-01-01

    The absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolism of 2- 3 H-1α-OH-D 3 (4.2 Ci/mmol) were studied in vitamin D deficient rats in comparison with the normal rats after oral or intravenous dosing. (1) Maximum blood level of administered radioactivity was observed at 8 hours after oral administration with apparent half life of 3.8 days. This blood level was higher than that in normal rat. (2) As in the normal rat, administered radioactivity was distributed relatively high in the liver, while any other specific distribution or accumulation was not observed in the another tissues, which was consistent to the finding in the normal rat. The tissue levels of the radioactivity were higher than these in the normal rat. (3) Urinary excretion of administered radioactivity was significantly higher, fecal and biliary excretion was significantly lower than that in the normal rat after intravenous dosing. (4) Relative percentage of 3 H-1α, 25-(OH) 2 -D 3 content to 3 H-1α-OH-D 3 content in tissues and blood was higher than that in the normal one. Above results suggest that in the vitamin D deficient state, the tissue accumulation of 1α-OH-D 3 was significantly augmented than in the normal rat, thus resulting increased bioavailability of its active metabolite, 1α, 25-(OH) 2 -D 3 . (author)

  9. Bioavailability of iron and zinc from human diets: Nutrient delivery technology salt fortification in human nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghuramulu, N.

    1992-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), iron deficiency anaemia(IDA) and zinc deficiency are common problems in India. The discussions in this paper centers on the selection of the vehicles which could be used to successfully deliver essential nutrients into the daily diet of the general population of india and the identification of compounds which inhibit the intestinal absorption of zinc. 40 refs, 11 tabs

  10. Effects of intratesticular injection of zinc-based solution in rats in combination with anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs during chemical sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Regina Barros de Macedo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Chemical sterilization is a non-surgical method of contraception based on compounds injected into the testis to induce infertility. However, these injections can cause discomfort and pain able to impair the recovery of animals after this treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate if anti-inflammatories or pain relievers inhibited the sterilizing effect of zinc gluconate-based solution on the testis. Materials and Methods: Adult rats were treated in groups: G1 (control, G2 (dimethyl sulfoxide + dipyrone; G3 (dipyrone/ zinc; G4 (dipyrone + celecoxib/zinc; G5 (dipyrone + meloxicam/zinc, and G6 (dipyrone + dexamethasone/zinc in a single dose per day during 7 days. Animals were analyzed at 7, 15, and 30 days after treatments. Results: The zinc-induced a widespread testicular degeneration and decreased testosterone levels even in combination with anti-inflammatories or pain relievers. Testis, epididymis, prostate, and seminal vesicle had a weight reduction. The anti-inflammatory effect of dexamethasone interfered in the desired action of zinc gluconate in the 1st 15 days and celecoxib up to 7 days. Conclusion: Meloxicam plus dipyrone did not impair the chemical sterilization based on zinc gluconate, and it can be used to reduce nociceptive effects in animals after chemical sterilization.

  11. Behavioral responses and fluid regulation in male rats after combined dietary sodium deficiency and water deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Kimberly J; Curtis, Kathleen S

    2018-02-01

    Most investigators use a single treatment such as water deprivation or dietary sodium deficiency to evaluate thirst or sodium appetite, which underlie behavioral responses to body fluid challenges. The goal of the present experiments was to assess the effects of combined treatments in driving behaviors. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of combined overnight water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency on water intake and salt intake by adult male rats in 2-bottle (0.5M NaCl and water) tests. Overnight water deprivation alone increased water intake, and 10days of dietary sodium deficiency increased 0.5M NaCl intake, with a secondary increase in water intake. During combined water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency, water intake was enhanced and 0.5M NaCl was reduced, but not eliminated, suggesting that physiologically relevant behavioral responses persist. Nonetheless, the pattern of fluid intake was altered by the combined treatments. We also assessed the effect of these behaviors on induced deficits in body sodium and fluid volume during combined treatments and found that, regardless of treatment, fluid ingestion partially repleted the induced deficits. Finally, we examined urine volume and sodium excretion during dietary sodium deficiency with or without overnight water deprivation and found that, whether or not rats were water deprived, and regardless of water consumption, sodium excretion was minimal. Thus, the combination of water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency appears to arouse drives that stimulate compensatory behavioral responses. These behaviors, in conjunction with physiological adaptations to the treatments, underlie body sodium and volume repletion in the face of combined water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of selenium and zinc in rat plasma by instrumental neutron activation analysis; Determinacion de selenio y zinc en plasma mediante analisis por activacion neutronica instrumental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz A, Luis

    1998-12-31

    To evaluate the effects on the thyroid function when simple or multiple zinc, selenium and iodine deficiency are induced, research was carried out in laboratory animals. For simultaneously determining the Zn and Se concentration in rat plasma, an instrumental neutron activation analysis technique was applied. A clean laboratory, was used for the preparation of samples. High purity materials were used for sample collection and storage. Irradiation, decay and counting parameters were optimized to obtain the best sensitivity, accuracy and precision analysis. The Zn and Se concentrations were determined from the peak area of gamma-rays of 1115 and 265 KeV respectively. The analytical methodology used was validated with standard reference materials. The procedure used for the analysis, including the phases of collection, treatment of the samples and analytical determination was considered suitable for the study of trace elements in biological samples, especially plasma. (author). Dissertation to obtain the title of Bachelor in Chemistry; 46 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs. [Espanol] Con el proposito de evaluar los efectos que se producen sobre la funcion tiroidea cuando se induce un deficiencia simple o multiple de zinc, selenio y yodo, se llevo a cabo una investigacion en animales de experimentacion. Se aplico la tecnica de analises por activacion neutronica instrumental para la determinacion de Se y Zn en plasma de ratas. Se utilizo un laboratorio limpio clase 100 para la preparacion de las muestras y se emplearon materiales de alta pureza para su recoleccion y almacenamiento. Se optimizaron los parametros de irradiacion, decaimiento y conteo de las muestras con el proposito de alcanzar la mejor sensibilidad, exactitud y precision analitica. Las concentracion de Se y Zn fueron determinadas evaluando las areas de los fotopicos de 265 y 1115 KeV respectivamente. El metodo analitico fue validado utilizando materiales de referencia. El procedimiento utilizado para el analisis

  13. [Long-term effect of iodine deficiency on growth and food utilization rate in second filial generation rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyeseer, Ainiwaer; Zhang, G X; Wang, J; Liu, Y; Meng, X H; Liu, Q

    2017-02-06

    Objective: To study the effect of iodine deficiency on body weight, food consumption, and food utilization rate of second filial generation Wistar rats. Methods: According to the food pattern of a high-iodine deficient population, two types of low-iodine food have been produced using the main crops grown in this area (iodine levels of 50 and 20 μg/kg, respectively). Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, normal iodine group (NI group), low-iodine group one (LI group) and low-iodine group two (LII group), using the random number table method and fed diets containing 300, 50, and 20 μg/kg of iodine, respectively. Parental generation rats were fed until they reached reproductive age; first filial generation rats were allocated to the same diet as their mothers. After 3 months of feeding, first filial generation rats gave birth to second filial generation rats; second filial generation rats were allocated to the same diet as their mothers. After feeding for 90, 180, and 270 days, rats were sacrificed. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze body weight, food intake, and food utilization rate data collected during the time of feeding and blood iodine hormone level, which was determined after sacrifice. Results: The LI and LII groups generally demonstrated decreased activity, slow reaction, and growth retardation compared with the NI group. After 270 days, the urine iodine levels of the LI and LII groups were 1.7 and 0.2 μg/L, respectively, which were significantly lower than the NI group (255.2 μg/L) ( Pfood intake of female and male rats after 270 days were (465.0±27.7), (658.4±28.6) and (423.0±13.2), (548.0±18.8) g, respectively, which were significantly lower than that of the NI group ((499.5±21.8), (760.8±33.0) g) ( Pfood utilization rate of female rats in the LI and LII groups was (8.7±0.4)% and (6.0±0.58)%, which was lower than that of the NI group ((11.7±3.5)%) ( Pfood intake, and food utilization rate among second filial

  14. Avaliação vestibular por videonistagmografia de portadores de deficiência crônica de zinco por síndrome do intestino curto Vestibular evaluation using videonystagmography of chronic zinc deficient patients due to short bowell syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Duarte Paiva Ferreira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A presença do elemento químico zinco na via auditiva e a sua provável participação na gênese de alguns tipos de disacusia estão bem documentadas, porém não há estudos funcionais que mostrem os impacto da deficiência sistêmica de zinco no sistema vestibular, nem estudos anatômicos descritivos comprovando a existência do íon nas estruturas da via vestibular. OBJETIVO: Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de relacionar a alteração na homeostase do zinco com anormalidades do funcionamento da via vestibular. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo de casos, retrospectivo, clínico, onde nove indivíduos portadores de deficiência crônica de zinco, entre outros distúrbios nutricionais, consequentes à síndrome de má absorção, foram submetidos à avaliação vestibular. Os resultados deste grupo foram comparados com os resultados de um grupo considerado normal do ponto de vista nutricional (grupo controle. RESULTADOS: Todos os parâmetros da análise vestibular do grupo experimental mostraram-se alterados em comparação com o grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: A comparação entre os grupos mostrou diferenças significativas em diversos parâmetros da análise vestibular e chamou a atenção para uma possível participação das alterações disabsortivas na origem das desordens vestibulares.The presence of zinc in the auditory pathways and its probable participation in tinnitus and hearing loss are known facts, although there are no clinical trials and experimental studies showing the impact of hypozincemia in the vestibular system and zinc existence in the vestibular pathway, respectively. AIM: This study is an attempt to correlate hypozincemia and abnormal vestibular function. METHODS: This is a clinical retrospective case study where nine patients suffering of chronic zinc deficiency had their serum zinc determined and were submitted to videonystagmography. Results were compared to a normal (control group. RESULTS: All

  15. Tolerance to zinc deficiency in rice correlates with zinc uptake and translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Zou, C.Q.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Hoffland, E.

    2005-01-01

    To study variation in zinc efficiency (ZE) among current Chinese rice genotypes, a pot experiment was conducted with 15 aerobic and 8 lowland rice genotypes. Aerobic rice is currently bred by crossing lowland with upland rice genotypes, for growth in an aerobic cultivation system, which is saving

  16. Adipokine zinc-α2-glycoprotein regulated by growth hormone and linked to insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaz, Miroslav; Ukropcova, Barbara; Kurdiova, Timea; Gajdosechova, Lucia; Vlcek, Miroslav; Janakova, Zuzana; Fedeles, Jozef; Pura, Mikulas; Gasperikova, Daniela; Smith, Steven R; Tkacova, Ruzena; Klimes, Iwar; Payer, Juraj; Wolfrum, Christian; Ukropec, Jozef

    2015-02-01

    Hypertrophic obesity is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity and lipid-mobilizing activity of zinc-α2-glycoprotein. Adipose tissue (AT) of growth hormone (GH) -deficient patients is characterized by extreme adipocyte hypertrophy due to defects in AT lipid metabolism. It was hypothesized that zinc-α2-glycoprotein is regulated by GH and mediates some of its beneficial effects in AT. AT from patients with GH deficiency and individuals with obesity-related GH deficit was obtained before and after 5-year and 24-month GH supplementation therapy. GH action was tested in primary human adipocytes. Relationships of GH and zinc-α2-glycoprotein with adipocyte size and insulin sensitivity were evaluated in nondiabetic patients with noncancerous cachexia and hypertrophic obesity. AT in GH-deficient adults displayed a substantial reduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein. GH therapy normalized AT zinc-α2-glycoprotein. Obesity-related relative GH deficit was associated with almost 80% reduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA in AT. GH increased zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA in both AT of obese men and primary human adipocytes. Interdependence of GH and zinc-α2-glycoprotein in regulating AT morphology and metabolic phenotype was evident from their relationship with adipocyte size and AT-specific and whole-body insulin sensitivity. The results demonstrate that GH is involved in regulation of AT zinc-α2-glycoprotein; however, the molecular mechanism linking GH and zinc-α2-glycoprotein in AT is yet unknown. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  17. Relationship between zinc and the growth and development of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, S; Tu, D N; Li, H; Cao, X; Jiang, J X; Shi, Y; Zhou, X Q; You, J B

    2015-08-19

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between zinc and the growth and development of young children. The parents of 8102 young children were surveyed in person by a trained surveyor using structured questionnaires. The hair zinc concentration of the children was determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The height, weight, sitting height, and head circumference of the children were measured at follow-up visits. There was a positive correlation between hair zinc concentration and adaptive developmental quotient (ADQ; r = 0.3164, P = 0.0272) while no correlation was found between hair zinc concentration and body measurement Z scores or intelligence quotient (IQ). There was a strong positive correlation between hair zinc concentration and weight-for-age Z scores (r = 0.3618, P = 0.0416) and ADQ (r = 0.2761, P = 0.0387) in boys; there was no correlation between hair zinc concentration and body measurement Z scores, IQ, and ADQ in girls. In boys with normal hair zinc levels, ADQ was 9.58 (P = 0.0392), higher than in boys who had zinc-deficient hair. In girls with normal hair zinc levels, ADQ was 2.52 (P = 0.0296), lower than in girls with zinc-deficient hair. In conclusion, there is no significant correlation between hair zinc levels and IQ or Z scores for all body measurements in young children.

  18. Hair Zinc Level Analysis and Correlative Micronutrients in Children Presenting with Malnutrition and Poor Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Tae Hwan; Lee, Jin; Kim, Yong Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Zinc deficiency can induce serious clinical problems in the gastrointestinal (GI) system and immune system and can affect growth and development. It is more severe in younger patients. Chronic zinc deficiency is reflected more precisely in hair than in serum. We studied hair zinc levels and other hair and serum micronutrients in chronic malnourished children to identify which micronutrients are affected or correlated with the other ones. Methods Hair mineral analyses were performed in...

  19. Dietary zinc deficiency reduced growth performance, intestinal immune and physical barrier functions related to NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2, JNK and MLCK signaling pathway of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zheng-Xing; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Feng, Lin

    2017-07-01

    Our study investigated the effects of dietary zinc (Zn) deficiency on growth performance, intestinal immune and physical barrier functions of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 630 grass carp (244.14 ± 0.40 g) were fed graded levels of zinc lactate (10.71, 30.21, 49.84, 72.31, 92.56, 110.78 mg Zn/kg diet) and one zinc sulfate group (56.9 mg Zn/kg diet) for 60 days. At the end of the feeding trial, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 days. These results indicated that compared with optimal dietary Zn level, dietary Zn deficiency (10.71 mg/kg diet) decreased the production of antibacterial compounds, up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines related to nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and down-regulated anti-inflammatory cytokines related to target of rapamycin (TOR) in three intestinal segments of young grass carp (P zinc lactate as Zn source) based on percent weight gain (PWG), against enteritis morbidity, acid phosphatase (ACP) activity in the proximal intestine (PI) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the PI of young grass carp was estimated to be 61.2, 61.4, 69.2 and 69.5 mg/kg diet, respectively. Finally, based on specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency (FE) and against enteritis morbidity of young grass carp, the efficacy of zinc lactate relative to zinc sulfate were 132.59%, 135.27% and 154.04%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physiology and modelling of zinc allocation in aerobic rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, W.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Zinc, rice, Oryza sativa, grain, Zn mass concentration, biofortification

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency in humans is widespread in many regions of the world, especially in the developing world. Rice, the staple food of more than half of the world’s population, is potentially an important

  1. Mast cell deficiency attenuates acupuncture analgesia for mechanical pain using c-kit gene mutant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiang; Liu, Kun; Xu, Dandan; Zhang, Youyou; He, Xun; Liu, Hao; Gao, Xinyan; Zhu, Bing

    2018-01-01

    Acupuncture therapy plays a pivotal role in pain relief, and increasing evidence demonstrates that mast cells (MCs) may mediate acupuncture analgesia. The present study aims to investigate the role of MCs in acupuncture analgesia using c-kit gene mutant-induced MC-deficient rats. WsRC-Ws/Ws rats and their wild-type (WT) littermates (WsRC-+/+) were used. The number of MCs in skin of ST36 area was compared in two rats after immunofluorescence labeling. Mechanical withdrawal latency (MWL), mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT), and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) were measured on bilateral plantar for pain threshold evaluation before and after each stimulus. Acupuncture- and moxibustion-like stimuli (43°C, 46°C heat, 1 mA electroacupuncture [EA], 3 mA EA, and manual acupuncture [MA]) were applied randomly on different days. Fewer MCs were observed in the skin of ST36 in mutant rats compared to WT rats ( P 0.05). Bilateral MWL and MWT in WsRC-+/+ rats increased significantly after each stimulus compared to baseline ( P <0.01, P <0.001). In WsRC-Ws/Ws rats, only noxious stimuli could produce anti-nociceptive effects for mechanical pain (46°C, 3 mA EA, MA) ( P <0.01, P <0.001). Additionally, the net increases in MWL and MWT induced by most stimuli were greater in WT than in mutant rats ( P <0.05). For thermal nociception, either high- or low-intensity stimuli could significantly augment TWL in two rats ( P <0.001), and the net increases of TWL evoked by most stimuli were to the same extent in two genetic variants. MCs influence the basic mechanical but not thermal pain threshold. MCs participate in acupuncture analgesia in mechanical but not in thermal nociception, in that MC deficiency may attenuate the mechanical analgesia evoked by high-intensity stimuli and eliminate analgesia provoked by low-intensity stimuli.

  2. CD48-deficient T-lymphocytes from DMBA-treated rats have de novo mutations in the endogenous Pig-a gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; Revollo, Javier; Pearce, Mason G; Pacheco-Martinez, M Monserrat; Lin, Haixia

    2015-10-01

    A major question concerning the scientific and regulatory acceptance of the rodent red blood cell-based Pig-a gene mutation assay is the extent to which mutants identified by their phenotype in the assay are caused by mutations in the Pig-a gene. In this study, we identified T-lymphocytes deficient for the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored surface marker, CD48, in control and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-treated rats using a flow cytometric assay and determined the spectra of mutations in the endogenous Pig-a gene in these cells. CD48-deficient T-cells were seeded by sorting at one cell per well into 96-well plates, expanded into clones, and exons of their genomic Pig-a were sequenced. The majority (78%) of CD48-deficient T-cell clones from DMBA-treated rats had mutations in the Pig-a gene. The spectrum of DMBA-induced Pig-a mutations was dominated by mutations at A:T, with the mutated A being on the nontranscribed strand and A → T transversion being the most frequent change. The spectrum of Pig-a mutations in DMBA-treated rats was different from the spectrum of Pig-a mutations in N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-treated rats, but similar to the spectrum of DMBA mutations for another endogenous X-linked gene, Hprt. Only 15% of CD48-deficient mutants from control animals contained Pig-a mutations; T-cell biology may be responsible for a relatively large fraction of false Pig-a mutant lymphocytes in control animals. Among the verified mutants from control rats, the most common were frameshifts and deletions. The differences in the spectra of spontaneous, DMBA-, and ENU-induced Pig-a mutations suggest that the flow cytometric Pig-a assay detects de novo mutation in the endogenous Pig-a gene. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Effects of Sinapic Acid on the Development of Metabolic Disorders Induced by Estrogen Deficiency in Rats

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    Maria Zych

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinapic acid is a natural phenolic acid found in fruits, vegetables, and cereals, exerting numerous pharmacological effects. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of sinapic acid on biochemical parameters related to glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as markers of antioxidant abilities and parameters of oxidative damage in the blood serum in estrogen-deficient rats. The study was performed on 3-month-old female Wistar rats, divided into 5 groups, including sham-operated control rats, ovariectomized control rats, and ovariectomized rats administered orally with estradiol (0.2 mg/kg or sinapic acid (5 and 25 mg/kg for 28 days. The levels of estradiol, progesterone, interleukin 18, insulin, glucose, fructosamine, lipids, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione; total antioxidant capacity; and oxidative damage parameters (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, protein carbonyl groups, and advanced oxidation protein products were determined in the serum. Estradiol counteracted the carbohydrate and cholesterol metabolism disorders induced by estrogen deficiency. Sinapic acid increased the serum estradiol concentration; decreased insulin resistance and the triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations; and favorably affected the parameters of antioxidant abilities (reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and oxidative damage (advanced oxidation protein products.

  4. Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters MK 801-induced hyperlocomotion in the adult rat: An animal model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P; Burne, Thomas H J; McGrath, John J; Eyles, Darryl W

    2006-09-15

    Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency has been proposed as a risk factor for schizophrenia. The behavioral phenotype of adult rats subjected to transient low prenatal vitamin D is characterized by spontaneous hyperlocomotion but normal prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (PPI). The aim of this study was to examine the impact of selected psychotropic agents and one well-known antipsychotic agent on the behavioral phenotype of DVD deplete rats. Control versus DVD deplete adult rats were assessed on holeboard, open field and PPI. In the open field, animals were given MK-801 and/or haloperidol. For PPI, the animals were given apomorphine or MK-801. DVD deplete rats had increased baseline locomotion on the holeboard task and increased locomotion in response to MK-801 compared to control rats. At low doses, haloperidol antagonized the MK-801 hyperactivity of DVD deplete rats preferentially and, at a high dose, resulted in a more pronounced reduction in spontaneous locomotion in DVD deplete rats. DVD depletion did not affect either baseline or drug-mediated PPI response. These results suggest that DVD deficiency is associated with a persistent alteration in neuronal systems associated with motor function but not those associated with sensory motor gating. In light of the putative association between low prenatal vitamin D and schizophrenia, the discrete behavioral differences associated with the DVD model may help elucidate the neurobiological correlates of schizophrenia.

  5. STUDY OF CLINICO- EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS ADMITTED WITH INFANTILE TREMOR SYNDROME (ITS AND STATUS OF TRACE ELEMENTS (ZINC, COPPER DEFICIENCY IN THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Makwana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Under nutrition is one of the major problems in the field of Paediatrics. The greatest risk of malnutrition is in the first two years of life. The effects of this early damage on health, brain development, intelligence, educability and productivity are potentially reversible. The current study was an attempt to find out the clinico epidemiological profile, evaluate them for trace elements deficiency and most appropriate management options in those who are admitted with infantile tremor syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS The current study was a hospital based cross sectional study that was conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, Dr. S. N. Medical College Jodhpur. Duration of study was One Year. Any child up to the age of three years of age admitted in the paediatric wards with typical features of infantile tremor syndrome. RESULTS Maximum numbers of patients were found between 6 months to 12 months of age, there was slight male predominance. The majority of infants in our study (85% were exclusively breast fed, 66% of cases were having low serum Copper level. 9% of cases were having low serum zinc level. 8% of cases were having low serum copper level with tremors. CONCLUSION In our study the fact that NTS is mainly seen in children who are exclusively breast feed for a longer period with delayed introduction of weaning foods. The main presenting features remain developmental delay, hyper pigmentation and anemia. Among nutritional factors, deficiency of copper and zinc in children plays a big role in development of disease. Thus to prevent the development of nutritional tremor syndrome stress should be on early timely introduction of weaning foods, especially rich in copper and zinc. What is already known about this Study- low levels of trace elements like copper and zinc may be responsible for typical clinical manifestations in patients of infantile tremor syndrome. Pronged and Exclusive breast feeding further aggravate these features

  6. The primary structure of L37--a rat ribosomal protein with a zinc finger-like motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y L; Paz, V; Olvera, J; Wool, I G

    1993-04-30

    The amino acid sequence of the rat 60S ribosomal subunit protein L37 was deduced from the sequence of nucleotides in a recombinant cDNA. Ribosomal protein L37 has 96 amino acids, the NH2-terminal methionine is removed after translation of the mRNA, and has a molecular weight of 10,939. Ribosomal protein L37 has a single zinc finger-like motif of the C2-C2 type. Hybridization of the cDNA to digests of nuclear DNA suggests that there are 13 or 14 copies of the L37 gene. The mRNA for the protein is about 500 nucleotides in length. Rat L37 is related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein YL35 and to Caenorhabditis elegans L37. We have identified in the data base a DNA sequence that encodes the chicken homolog of rat L37.

  7. Distribution and reuse of 76Se-selenosugar in selenium-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuo T.; Somekawa, Layla; Suzuki, Noriyuki

    2006-01-01

    Nutritional selenium compounds are transformed to the common intermediate selenide and then utilized for selenoprotein synthesis or excreted in urine mostly as 1β-methylseleno-N-acetyl-DD-galactosamine (selenosugar). Since the biological significance of selenosugar formation is unknown, we investigated their role in the formation of selenoenzymes in selenium deficiency. Rats were depleted of endogenous natural abundance selenium with a single stable isotope ( 82 Se) and then made Se-deficient. 76 Se-Selenosugar was administered intravenously to the rats and their urine, serum, liver, kidneys and testes were subjected to speciation analysis with HPLC inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry. Most 76 Se was recovered in its intact form (approximately 80% of dose) in urine within 1 h. Speciation analysis revealed that residual endogenous natural abundance selenium estimated by 77 Se and 78 Se was negligible and distinct distributions of the labeled 76 Se were detected in the body fluids and organs without interference from the endogenous natural abundance stable isotope. Namely, intact 76 Se-selenosugar was distributed to organs after the injection, and 76 Se was used for selenoprotein synthesis. Oxidation to methylseleninic acid and/or hydrolysis of the selenoacetal group to methylselenol were proposed to the transformation of selenosugar for the reuse. Effective use of an enriched stable isotope as an absolute label in hosts depleted of natural abundance isotopes was discussed for application in tracer experiments

  8. Isotope aided micronutrient studies in rice production with special reference to zinc deficiency pt.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.S.; Kim, J.S.; Kim, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    A field experiment has been carried out to evaluate the residual effect of zinc fertilizers by rice plant grown under flooded conditions in the field. The results obtained are summarized as follows: Residual effect of zinc fertilizers on yields of rough and hulled grains showed slight increases. Effect of zinc application methods on yields of the grains were shown that zinc mixed treatment could be more effectively utilized than treatment of zinc on the soil surface. In case of levels of zinc application, 5kg zinc per hectare represented high yields of the grains than those obtained from 10 kg and 20 kg zinc placement per hectare respectively. Regarding the form of zinc fertilizers, the urea-zinc complex showed less effective on yields of the grains than did the zinc sulfate. This phenomenon was consistent with the previous result. Yields of total zinc in rice plant grown on the rice straw added soils (Treatment No. 2 and 8) and the urea-zinc complex treated soil were increased markedly as compared to those data obtained from the previous year. The percentage of zinc derived from fertilizer decreased largely as compared to that of the first year crop. The yield of fertilizer zinc in rice plant decreased slightly in the most zinc treatments but in the case of treatments of zinc mixed with the straw added soil and the urea-zinc complex increased reversely as compared to the previous results. The mixed application of zinc with soil showed higher yield of fertilizer zinc than the soil surface placement. Approximately from 4.6 to 24.3 per cent of zinc taken up by rice plants were derived from the fertilizer zinc. Zinc fertilizer use efficiency ranged from 0.213 to 0.584 per cent when 5 kg zinc per hectare applied. (author)

  9. Zinc and glutamate dehydrogenase in putative glutamatergic brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, G; Schmidt, W

    1983-01-01

    A certain topographic parallelism between the distribution of histochemically (TIMM staining) identified zinc and putative glutamatergic structures in the rat brain was demonstrated. Glutamate dehydrogenase as a zinc containing protein is in consideration to be an enzyme synthesizing transmitter glutamate. In a low concentration range externally added zinc ions (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) induced an increase in the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) originating from rat hippocampal formation, neocortex, and cerebellum up to 142.4%. With rising molarity of Zn(II) in the incubation medium, the enzyme of hippocampal formation and cerebellum showed a biphasic course of activation. Zinc ions of a concentration higher than 10(-6) M caused a strong inhibition of GDH. The effect of Zn(II) on GDH originating from spinal ganglia and liver led only to a decrease of enzyme activity. These results are discussed in connection with a functional correlation between zinc and putatively glutamatergic system.

  10. Biliary excretion of essential trace elements in rats under oxidative stress caused by selenium deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Kosuke; Tsukada, Masamichi [Meiji University, School of Agriculture, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Sakuma, Yasunobu; Sasaki, Junya; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Honda, Chikako; Endo, Kazutoyo [Showa Pharmaceutical University, Department of Physical Chemistry, Machida, Tokyo (Japan); Matsumoto, Ken-ichiro; Anzai, Kazunori [National Institute of Radiological Science, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan); Enomoto, Shuichi [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Radioisotope Technology Division, Cyclotron Center, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Okayama University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Okayama (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    The excretion of essential trace elements, namely, Se, Sr, As, Mn, Co, V, Fe, and Zn into the bile of Se-deficient (SeD) Wistar male rats was studied using the multitracer (MT) technique, and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Normal and Se-control (SeC) rat groups were used as reference groups to compare the effects of Se levels on the behaviors of the essential trace elements. The excretion (% dose) of Se, Sr, As, Mn, Co, and V increased with Se levels in the liver. The biliary excretion of Mn and As dramatically enhanced for SeC rats compared with SeD rats, while that of V accelerated a little for SeC rats. The radioactivity levels of {sup 59}Fe and {sup 65}Zn in the MT tracer solution were insufficient to measure their excretion into bile. The role of glutathione and bilirubin for biliary excretion of the metals was discussed in relation to Se levels in rat liver. (orig.)

  11. Effects of Qiangji Jianli Yin on the hypothalamus CRH contents and plasma ACTH, cortisol levels in rat models of kidney-yang deficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hui; Chen Zhixi; Chen Jinyan; Li Zhiqiang; He Zanhou

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of qiangji jianli yin on hypothalamus CRH contents and plasma ACTH, Cortisol levels in rat models with kidney-yang deficiency syndrome. Methods: Rat models of kidney-yang deficiency syndrome were prepared with intramuscular injuection of hydroeortisone and divided into 5 groups: (1) no further treatment, n=13 (2) treated with high dosage d qiangji jiandi yin, n=12 (3) treated with medium dosage of qiangji jianli yin, n=12 (4) treated with low dosage of qiangji jianli yin n=12, (5) treated with yougui wan, n=12. Ten rats injuected with intramuscular distilled water only served as controls. The animals were sacrificied 14 days later and the hypothalamus CRH contents as well as plasma AOM and cortisol levels were measured with RIA. The thymus gland weight index and the adrenal gland index were calculated. Results: (1) The hypothalamus CRH contents and plasma ACTH, cortisol levels were significantly lower (P<0.01) in the rat models of kidney-yang deficiency syndrome without any treatment thas those in controls rats; the thymus and adrenal gland weight index were significantly decreased too (P <0.01). The CRH conteats and ACTH, cortisol levels in all the three group of rat model treated with different dosage of qiangji jianli yin were significantly higher than those in the models without any treatment (P<0.05-0.01). Conclusion: In rat models of kidney-yang deficiency syndrome, dysfunction of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) led to decreased secretion of related hormones. The HPAA function might be partially restored with administation of qiangji jianli yin. (authors)

  12. Is zinc deficiency a risk factor for atherosclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, John H; Kwun, In-Sook

    2004-02-01

    The development of atherosclerosis is influenced by genetic, lifestyle and nutritional risk factors. Zn and metallothionein deficiency can enhance oxidative-stress-related signalling processes in endothelial cells, and since changes in available plasma Zn may affect the Zn status of the endothelium, Zn deficiency could be a risk factor for IHD. Although the association of Zn with many proteins is essential for their function, three key signalling processes are highlighted as being principal targets for the effect of Zn deficiency: the activation of NF-kappaB, the activation of caspase enzymes and the signalling of NO. The need to develop a reliable indicator of Zn status is critical to any epidemiological approach for studying the relationship between Zn status and disease incidence. Studies using appropriate animal models and investigating how the plasma Zn pool influences endothelial intracellular labile Zn would be helpful in appreciating the importance of Zn deficiency in atherogenesis.

  13. Release of Zn from maternal tissues in pregnant rats deficient in Zn or Zn and Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, L.S.; Masters, D.G.; Lonnerdal, B.; Keen, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that diets that increase tissue catabolism reduce the teratogenic effects of Zn deficiency. The hypothesis that Zn may be released from body tissues when the metabolic state is altered was further tested. Nonpregnant Sprague Dawley females were injected with Zn-65; after equilibration, the two major pools of Zn, bone and muscle, had different specific activities (SA), muscle being much higher. Females were mated and fed diets adequate in Zn and Ca (C) or deficient in Zn (ZnD) or deficient in both Zn and Ca (ZnCaD). Calculations using weight loss in ZnD and ZnCaD rats, Zn content of maternal bone and muscle, and total fetal Zn at term indicated that in ZnCaD rats a relatively small amount of Zn from bone early in pregnancy was sufficient to prevent abnormal organogenesis, but most fetal Zn came from breakdown of maternal muscle in the last 3 days of pregnancy. Isotope data supported this conclusion. SA of Zn in ZnD fetuses was equal and high, indicating that most Zn came from the same maternal tissue. High muscle SA prior to mating, and increased SA in tibia and liver during pregnancy suggest that muscle provided Zn for other maternal tissues as well as fetuses. In contrast, SA in C fetuses was less than 30% of that of the D groups, consistent with the earlier hypothesis that most fetal Zn in C rats is accrued directly from the diet

  14. Endothelin-1-induced focal cerebral ischemia in the growth hormone/IGF-1 deficient Lewis Dwarf rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Mitschelen, Matthew; Toth, Peter; Ashpole, Nicole M; Farley, Julie A; Hodges, Erik L; Warrington, Junie P; Han, Song; Fung, Kar-Ming; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan; Sonntag, William E

    2014-11-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. Growth hormone (GH) and its anabolic mediator, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, decrease with advancing age and this decline has been shown to promote vascular dysfunction. In addition, lower GH/IGF-1 levels are associated with higher stroke mortality in humans. These results suggest that decreased GH/IGF-1 level is an important factor in increased risk of cerebrovascular diseases. This study was designed to assess whether GH/IGF-1-deficiency influences the outcome of cerebral ischemia. We found that endothelin-1-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion resulted in a modest but nonsignificant decrease in cerebral infarct size in GH/IGF-1 deficient dw/dw rats compared with control heterozygous littermates and dw/dw rats with early-life GH treatment. Expression of endothelin receptors and endothelin-1-induced constriction of the middle cerebral arteries were similar in the three experimental groups. Interestingly, dw/dw rats exhibited reduced brain edema and less astrocytic infiltration compared with their heterozygous littermates and this effect was reversed by GH-treatment. Because reactive astrocytes are critical for the regulation of poststroke inflammatory processes, maintenance of the blood-brain barrier and neural repair, further studies are warranted to determine the long-term functional consequences of decreased astrocytic activation in GH/IGF-1 deficient animals after cerebral ischemia. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2014.

  15. DEFISIENSI VITAMIN A DAN ZINC SEBAGAIFAKTOR RISIKO TERJADINYA STUNTING PADA BALITA DI NUSA TENGGARA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrahman Taufiqurrahman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Children of 1 - 5 years old often face nutrition problems such as undernourishment, vitamin A and zinc deficiency, anemia, stunting and low mental development index (MDI. Vitamin A deficiency can cause growth disorder and declining zinc transport and mobilization in the heart meanwhile zinc is needed in retinol binding protein synthesis. If the deficiency lasts for long it can cause growth disorder as manifested in stunting incidence. To study vitamin A and zinc deficiency as risk factors for the incidence of stunting among underfives at Nusa Tenggara Barat. The study was analytic observational with cross sectional design. Subject of the study were 327 underfives of 6 - 59 months at the Province of Nusa Tenggara Barat. Nutrition status was assessed through measurement of anthopometry, retinol serum level using HPLC, zinc serum level using AAS and hemoglobin using hemoCue. Data of individual characteristics and rearing pattern were obtained through interview and nutrient intake were measured using recall 2 x 24 hours. Data analysis used bivariate technique for variable related to stunting, chi square test for category data, independent t-test for ratio and logistic regression test to measure risk of some variables simultaneously related to incidence of stunting. The result of bivariate analysis showed that was difference in age between stunted and normal underfives (p<0.05 . In the group of underfives that were no longer breastfed there was difference in intake of zinc between stunted and normal underfives (p<0.05. The result of multivariate analysis showed that underfives that were no longer breastfed had risk 2 times greater for being stunted after the control of age, status of vitamin A and zinc. The effect is modified by age and breast-feeding. There was no evidence that showed that vitamin A and zinc deficiency among underfives were risk factors for the incidence of stunting. Variable that was individually as well as simultaneously

  16. The bisphosphonate zoledronate prevents vertebral bone loss in mature estrogen-deficient rats as assessed by micro-computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glatt M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of long-term treatment with the bisphosphonate zoledronate on vertebral bone architecture was investigated in estrogen-deficient mature rats. 4-month-old rats were ovariectomized and development of cancellous osteopenia was assessed after 1 year. The change of bone architectural parameters was determined with a microtomographic instrument of high resolution. After 1 year of estrogen-deficiency, animals lost 55% of vertebral trabecular bone in comparison to sham operated control animals. Trabecular number (Tb.N and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th were significantly reduced in ovariectomized animals, whereas trabecular separation (Tb.Sp, bone surface to volume fraction (BS/BV and trabecular bone pattern factor (TBPf were significantly increased, indicating a loss of architectural integrity throughout the vertebral body. 3 groups of animals were treated subcutaneously with zoledronate for 1 year with 0.3, 1.5 and 7.5 microgram/kg/week to inhibit osteoclastic bone degradation. Administration started immediately after ovariectomy and treatment dose-dependently prevented the architectural bone deterioration and completely suppressed the effects of estrogen deficiency at the higher doses. The results show that microtomographic determination of static morphometric parameters can be used to quantitate the effects of drugs on vertebral bone architecture in small laboratory animals and that zoledronate is highly effective in this rat model.

  17. The effects of ionizing radiation in the rat's mandibular bone freeding the hypernomic calcium-deficient diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Gen; Kurita, Akihiko; Nasu, Masanori; Furumoto, Keiichi

    1994-01-01

    The mandibles of rats in a group maintained on the Ca-deficient diet for a long period were irradiated with 30 Gy. To study the effects of radiation, serum Ca and inorganic phosphorus levels were determined for 3 weeks, and the data were compared with findings obtained from rats maintained on a standard diet by autoradiography using 45 Ca and microradiography. The serum Ca level tended to decrease with time after irradiation in the irradiated group maintained on the Ca-deficient diet, but there was no significant difference between the group maintained on the Ca-deficient diet and the group maintained on the standard diet. The serum inorganic phosphorus levels were almost constant throughout the observation period in both the non-irradiated and radiated groups regardless of diet. Uptake of 45 Ca was examined by autoradiography. Both the non-irradiated and irradiated groups maintained on the Ca-deficient diet showed intense 45 Ca uptake, there was almost no difference between these groups in photographic density or in weekly changes after irradiation. The microradiographic study of bone trabeculae revealed only slight changes in the bone cortex after irradiation in the group maintained on the standard diet. On day 3 after irradiation both thinning and roughness of the trabeculae were observed in the interradicular septa and incisal inferior margin and on day 7 in cancellous bone. In the groups maintained on the Ca-deficient diet, marked thinning and roughness of the trabeculae were observed mainly in the cancellous bone. (author)

  18. Comprehensive analyses of DNA methylation profile, regulation on flowering, and seed mineral accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to zinc deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Xiaochao

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and development, which plays important roles in DNA binding, metabolic, catalytic and transcriptional regulator activities. However, Zn deficiency is a worldwide problem due to its limited bioavailability in soils in many agricultural areas, often as a result of high CaCO3 content and high pH. In addition, phytic acid is able to strongly chelate cations, such as Zn2+, Fe2+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ to form the phytate salts. Phytate cannot be dige...

  19. The Effects of Irradiation and Calcium-deficient Diet on the Expression of Interleukin-1 during Tooth Formation of Rat Molar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Il Joong; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2000-01-01

    To elucidate the effects of the irradiation and calcium-deficient diet on expression of interleukin (IL)-1 during tooth formation of rat molar. The pregnant three-week-old Spague-Dawley rats were used for the study. The control group was non-irradiation/normal diet group, and the experimental groups were irradiation/normal diet group and irradiation/calcium-diet group. The abdomen of the rats on the 9th day of pregnancy were irradiated with single dose of 350 cGy. The rat pups were sacrificed on the 14th day after delivery and the maxillae tooth germs were taken. The specimen were prepared to make sections for light microscopy, and some of tissue sections were stained immunohistochemically with anti-IL-1 antibody. In the irradiation/normal diet group, dental follicle showed fewer blood vessels, mononuclear cells, and fusions of mononuclear cells than in non-irradiation/normal diet group. Alveolar bone showed a few osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Periodontal ligament showed collagen fibers and fibroblasts with irregularity. Weak immunoreactivity for IL-1 was shown in dental follicle, alveolar bone, and periodontal ligament. In the irradiation/calcium-deficient diet group, dental follicle showed sparse cellularity. Alveolar bone showed diminished number of osteoblasts. Periodontal ligament showed irregular collagen fibers and atrophy of cementoblasts and fibroblasts. No immunoreactivity for IL-1 was shown in dental follicle, alveolar bone, and periodontal ligament. Irradiation and calcium-deficient diet seems to cause disturbance of the expression of interleukin-1 during tooth formation of rat molar.

  20. The Effects of Irradiation and Calcium-deficient Diet on the Expression of Interleukin-1 during Tooth Formation of Rat Molar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il Joong; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-15

    To elucidate the effects of the irradiation and calcium-deficient diet on expression of interleukin (IL)-1 during tooth formation of rat molar. The pregnant three-week-old Spague-Dawley rats were used for the study. The control group was non-irradiation/normal diet group, and the experimental groups were irradiation/normal diet group and irradiation/calcium-diet group. The abdomen of the rats on the 9th day of pregnancy were irradiated with single dose of 350 cGy. The rat pups were sacrificed on the 14th day after delivery and the maxillae tooth germs were taken. The specimen were prepared to make sections for light microscopy, and some of tissue sections were stained immunohistochemically with anti-IL-1 antibody. In the irradiation/normal diet group, dental follicle showed fewer blood vessels, mononuclear cells, and fusions of mononuclear cells than in non-irradiation/normal diet group. Alveolar bone showed a few osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Periodontal ligament showed collagen fibers and fibroblasts with irregularity. Weak immunoreactivity for IL-1 was shown in dental follicle, alveolar bone, and periodontal ligament. In the irradiation/calcium-deficient diet group, dental follicle showed sparse cellularity. Alveolar bone showed diminished number of osteoblasts. Periodontal ligament showed irregular collagen fibers and atrophy of cementoblasts and fibroblasts. No immunoreactivity for IL-1 was shown in dental follicle, alveolar bone, and periodontal ligament. Irradiation and calcium-deficient diet seems to cause disturbance of the expression of interleukin-1 during tooth formation of rat molar.

  1. The Alterations in the Expression and Function of P-Glycoprotein in Vitamin A-Deficient Rats as well as the Effect of Drug Disposition in Vivo

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    Yubang Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate whether vitamin A deficiency could alter P-GP expression and function in tissues of rats and whether such effects affected the drug distribution in vivo of vitamin A-deficient rats. We induced vitamin A-deficient rats by giving them a vitamin A-free diet for 12 weeks. Then, Abcb1/P-GP expression was evaluated by qRT-PCR and Western blot. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that Abcb1a mRNA levels were increased in hippocampus and liver. In kidney, it only showed an upward trend. Abcb1b mRNA levels were increased in hippocampus, but decreased in cerebral cortex, liver and kidney. Western blot results were in good accordance with the alterations of Abcb1b mRNA levels. P-GP function was investigated through tissue distribution and body fluid excretion of rhodamine 123 (Rho123, and the results proclaimed that P-GP activities were also in good accordance with P-GP expression in cerebral cortex, liver and kidney. The change of drug distribution was also investigated through the tissue distribution of vincristine, and the results showed a significantly upward trend in all indicated tissues of vitamin A-deficient rats. In conclusion, vitamin A deficiency may alter Abcb1/P-GP expression and function in rat tissues, and the alterations may increase drug activity/toxicity through the increase of tissue accumulation.

  2. Effects of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation on lipid peroxidation and the lipid content in the liver and serum of magnesium-deficient rats.

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    Akiyama, Satoko; Uehara, Mariko; Katsumata, Shin-ichi; Ihara, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Naotaka; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the effects of ascorbic acid (AsA) supplementation on lipid peroxidation and the lipid content in the liver and serum of magnesium (Mg)-deficient rats. Eighteen 3-week-old male Sprague-Dawley strain rats were divided into 3 groups and maintained on a control diet (C group), a low-Mg diet (D group), or a low-Mg diet supplemented with AsA (DA group) for 42 d. At the end of this period, the final body weight, weight gain, and serum Mg concentrations were significantly decreased in the Mg-deficient rats. Further, dietary AsA supplementation had no effect on the growth, serum Mg concentration, Mg absorption, and Mg retention. The serum concentration of AsA was significantly lower in the D group than in the C group but was unaltered in the DA group. The levels of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) in the serum and of triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol (TC) in the serum and liver were significantly higher in the D group than in the C group. The serum PCOOH, liver TG, and liver TC levels were decreased in the DA group. These results indicate that Mg deficiency increases the AsA requirement of the body and that AsA supplementation normalizes the serum levels of PCOOH and the liver lipid content in Mg-deficient rats, without altering the Mg status.

  3. Repletion of Zinc and Iron Deficiencies Improve Cognition of Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Altshuler H. Neonatal and maternal hair zinc levels in a nonhuman primate model of the fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcoholism: Clinical and Research...Coupled Plasma-Mass bpectroscopy ( rCP -MS). Before ICP-MS analysis A sets of plasma were digested with hydrogen peroxide and the zinc extracted, and 10

  4. Maternal Zinc Intakes and Homeostatic Adjustments during Pregnancy and Lactation

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    Donangelo, Carmen Marino; King, Janet C.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc plays critical roles during embryogenesis, fetal growth, and milk secretion, which increase the zinc need for pregnancy and lactation. Increased needs can be met by increasing the dietary zinc intake, along with making homeostatic adjustments in zinc utilization. Potential homeostatic adjustments include changes in circulating zinc, increased zinc absorption, decreased zinc losses, and changes in whole body zinc kinetics. Although severe zinc deficiency during pregnancy has devastating effects, systematic reviews and meta-analysis of the effect of maternal zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcomes have consistently shown a limited benefit. We hypothesize, therefore, that zinc homeostatic adjustments during pregnancy and lactation improve zinc utilization sufficiently to provide the increased zinc needs in these stages and, therefore, mitigate immediate detrimental effects due to a low zinc intake. The specific questions addressed are the following: How is zinc utilization altered during pregnancy and lactation? Are those homeostatic adjustments influenced by maternal zinc status, dietary zinc, or zinc supplementation? These questions are addressed by critically reviewing results from published human studies on zinc homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation carried out in different populations worldwide. PMID:22852063

  5. Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters MK-801-induced behaviours in adult offspring.

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    Kesby, James P; O'Loan, Jonathan C; Alexander, Suzanne; Deng, Chao; Huang, Xu-Feng; McGrath, John J; Eyles, Darryl W; Burne, Thomas H J

    2012-04-01

    Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is a candidate risk factor for developing schizophrenia in humans. In rodents DVD deficiency induces subtle changes in the way the brain develops. This early developmental insult leads to select behavioural changes in the adult, such as an enhanced response to amphetamine-induced locomotion in female DVD-deficient rats but not in male DVD-deficient rats and an enhanced locomotor response to the N-methyl-D: -aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK-801, in male DVD-deficient rats. However, the response to MK-801-induced locomotion in female DVD-deficient rats is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to further examine this behavioural finding in male and female rats and assess NMDA receptor density. DVD-deficient Sprague Dawley rats were assessed for locomotion, ataxia, acoustic startle response (ASR) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the ASR to multiple doses of MK-801. The NMDA receptor density in relevant brain regions was assessed in a drug-naive cohort. DVD deficiency increased locomotion in response to MK-801 in both sexes. DVD-deficient rats also showed an enhanced ASR compared with control rats, but PPI was normal. Moreover, DVD deficiency decreased NMDA receptor density in the caudate putamen of both sexes. These results suggest that a transient prenatal vitamin D deficiency has a long-lasting effect on NMDA-mediated signalling in the rodent brain and may be a plausible candidate risk factor for schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  6. Prophylactic Subacute Administration of Zinc Increases CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 Expression and Prevents the Long-Term Memory Loss in a Rat Model of Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia

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    Victor Manuel Blanco-Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic subacute administration of zinc decreases lipoperoxidation and cell death following a transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, thus suggesting neuroprotective and preconditioning effects. Chemokines and growth factors are also involved in the neuroprotective effect in hypoxia-ischemia. We explored whether zinc prevents the cerebral cortex-hippocampus injury through regulation of CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 expression following a 10 min of common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO. Male rats were grouped as follows: (1 Zn96h, rats injected with ZnCl2 (one dose every 24 h during four days; (2 Zn96h + CCAO, rats treated with ZnCl2 before CCAO; (3 CCAO, rats with CCAO only; (4 Sham group, rats with mock CCAO; and (5 untreated rats. The cerebral cortex-hippocampus was dissected at different times before and after CCAO. CCL2/CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 expression was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Learning in Morris Water Maze was achieved by daily training during 5 days. Long-term memory was evaluated on day 7 after learning. Subacute administration of zinc increased expression of CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 in the early and late phases of postreperfusion and prevented the CCAO-induced memory loss in the rat. These results might be explained by the induction of neural plasticity because of the expression of CCL2 and growth factors.

  7. Laminar-specific distribution of zinc: evidence for presence of layer IV in forelimb motor cortex in the rat.

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    Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Hackett, Mark J; Pickering, Ingrid J; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2014-12-01

    The rat is the most widely studied pre-clinical model system of various neurological and neurodegenerative disorders affecting hand function. Although brain injury to the forelimb region of the motor cortex in rats mostly induces behavioral abnormalities in motor control of hand movements, behavioral deficits in the sensory-motor domain are also observed. This questions the prevailing view that cortical layer IV, a recipient of sensory information from the thalamus, is absent in rat motor cortex. Because zinc-containing neurons are generally not found in pathways that run from the thalamus, an absence of zinc (Zn) in a cortical layer would be suggestive of sensory input from the thalamus. To test this hypothesis, we used synchrotron micro X-ray fluorescence imaging to measure Zn distribution across cortical layers. Zn maps revealed a heterogeneous layered Zn distribution in primary and secondary motor cortices of the forelimb region in the adult rat. Two wider bands with elevated Zn content were separated by a narrow band having reduced Zn content, and this was evident in two rat strains. The Zn distribution pattern was comparable to that in sensorimotor cortex, which is known to contain a well demarcated layer IV. Juxtaposition of Zn maps and the images of brain stained for Nissl bodies revealed a "Zn valley" in primary motor cortex, apparently starting at the ventral border of pyramidal layer III and ending at the close vicinity of layer V. This finding indicates the presence of a conspicuous cortical layer between layers III and V, i.e. layer IV, the presence of which previously has been disputed. The results have implications for the use of rat models to investigate human brain function and neuropathology, such as after stroke. The presence of layer IV in the forelimb region of the motor cortex suggests that therapeutic interventions used in rat models of motor cortex injury should target functional abnormalities in both motor and sensory domains. The finding

  8. The role of subcutaneous adipose tissue in supporting the copper balance in rats with a chronic deficiency in holo-ceruloplasmin.

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    Ekaterina Y Ilyechova

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that (1 an acute deficiency in blood serum holo-ceruloplasmin (Cp developed in rats that were fed fodder containing silver ions (Ag-fodder for one month and (2 the deficiency in holo-Cp was compensated by non-hepatic holo-Cp synthesis in rats that were chronically fed Ag-fodder for 6 months (Ag-rats. The purpose of the present study is to identify the organ(s that compensate for the hepatic holo-Cp deficiency in the circulation. This study was performed on rats that were fed Ag-fodder (40 mg Ag·kg-1 body mass daily for 6 months. The relative expression levels of the genes responsible for copper status were measured by RT-PCR. The in vitro synthesis and secretion of [14C]Cp were analyzed using a metabolic labeling approach. Oxidase activity was determined using a gel assay with o-dianisidine. Copper status and some hematological indexes were measured. Differential centrifugation, immunoblotting, immunoelectrophoresis, and atomic absorption spectrometry were included in the investigation. In the Ag-rats, silver accumulation was tissue-specific. Skeletal muscles and internal (IAT and subcutaneous (SAT adipose tissues did not accumulate silver significantly. In SAT, the mRNAs for the soluble and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ceruloplasmin isoforms were expressed, and their relative levels were increased two-fold in the Ag-rats. In parallel, the levels of the genes responsible for Cp metallation (Ctr1 and Atp7a/b increased correspondingly. In the SAT of the Ag-rats, Cp oxidase activity was observed in the Golgi complex and plasma membrane. Moreover, full-length [14C]Cp polypeptides were released into the medium by slices of SAT. The possibilities that SAT is part of a system that controls the copper balance in mammals, and it plays a significant role in supporting copper homeostasis throughout the body are discussed.

  9. Delayed erythropoiesis in irradiated rats grafted with syngeneic marrow: effects of cytotoxic drugs and iron-deficiency anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodday, P.; Bennett, M.; Vitalle, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    Erythropoiesis in spleens of lethally irradiated Lewis rats grafted with 4-35 x 10 6 syngeneic marrow cells was inhibited or delayed during the test period of 5 days; this was in marked contrast to observations in irradiated mice. The mechanism of this inhibition was the subject of this study. Pretreatment of recipients 9 days prior to irradiation with the cytotoxic drugs cyclophosphamide (CY), busulfan (BUS), or dimethylmyleran (DMM), or the induction of iron deficiency with anemia in recipients reversed this delayed erythropoiesis. However, neither iron-deficiency anemia nor pretreatment with BUS or DMM affected the ability of irradiated recipients to reject 20 to 50 x 10 6 allogeneic marrow cells. The administration of commercial preparations of erythropoietin to hosts stimulated erythropoiesis moderately. However, proliferation of syngeneic marrow cells was not enhanced when infused into lethally irradiated spontaneous hypertensive (SH) inbred-strain rats which have high levels of endogenous erythropoietin. Finally, plasma from irradiated rats treated with phenylhydrazine to produce severe anemia was rich in erythropoietin but failed to stimulate erythropoiesis in the cell transfer system. Two hypotheses are considered

  10. Low concentrations of zinc in gastric mucosa are associated with increased severity of Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempértegui, Fernando; Díaz, Myriam; Mejía, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Mora, Oswaldo G; Rentería, Edgar; Guarderas, Carlos; Estrella, Bertha; Recalde, Ramiro; Hamer, Davidson H; Reeves, Philip G

    2007-02-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is the most common cause of gastric cancer. H. pylori induces oxidative stress while zinc deficiency results in increased sensitivity to it. In Ecuador, the prevalence of gastric cancer and zinc deficiency are high. We hypothesized that zinc deficiency in Ecuadorian people would cause increased H. pylori-induced inflammation in the gastric mucosa associated with lower tissue zinc concentrations. Three hundred and fifty-two patients with dyspepsia underwent endoscopy to obtain gastric mucosa biopsies. Diagnosis of H. pylori infection and its severity, histopathology, mucosal zinc concentration, and inflammation intensity were determined. H. pylori-infected patients with non-atrophic chronic gastritis had lower concentrations of zinc in gastric mucosa than uninfected patients with the same type of gastritis (251.3 +/- 225.3 vs. 426.2 +/- 279.9 ng/mg of protein; p = .016). Considering all patients, the more severe the H. pylori infection, the higher the percentage of subjects with infiltration by polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells (p = .0001). Patients with high PMN infiltration had lower mucosal zinc concentrations than patients with low PMN infiltration (35.2 +/- 20.7 vs. 242.9 +/- 191.8 ng/mg of protein; p = .021). The degree of inflammation in H. pylori-induced gastritis appears to be modulated by gastric tissue zinc concentrations.

  11. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

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    Ergaz, Zivanit, E-mail: zivanit@hadassah.org.il [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Shoshani-Dror, Dana [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Guillemin, Claire [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Weksler-Zangen, Sarah [Diabetes Research Unit, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School and Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester, Rochester, MN (United States); Ornoy, Asher [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2012-12-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  12. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergaz, Zivanit; Shoshani-Dror, Dana; Guillemin, Claire; Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza; Weksler-Zangen, Sarah; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K.; Ornoy, Asher

    2012-01-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  13. Changes in skeletal muscle and tendon structure and function following genetic inactivation of myostatin in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendias, Christopher L; Lynch, Evan B; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Flood, Michael D; Rittman, Danielle S; Van Pelt, Douglas W; Roche, Stuart M; Davis, Carol S

    2015-01-01

    Myostatin is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle and tendon mass. Myostatin deficiency has been well studied in mice, but limited data are available on how myostatin regulates the structure and function of muscles and tendons of larger animals. We hypothesized that, in comparison to wild-type (MSTN+/+) rats, rats in which zinc finger nucleases were used to genetically inactivate myostatin (MSTNΔ/Δ) would exhibit an increase in muscle mass and total force production, a reduction in specific force, an accumulation of type II fibres and a decrease and stiffening of connective tissue. Overall, the muscle and tendon phenotype of myostatin-deficient rats was markedly different from that of myostatin-deficient mice, which have impaired contractility and pathological changes to fibres and their extracellular matrix. Extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles of MSTNΔ/Δ rats demonstrated 20–33% increases in mass, 35–45% increases in fibre number, 20–57% increases in isometric force and no differences in specific force. The insulin-like growth factor-1 pathway was activated to a greater extent in MSTNΔ/Δ muscles, but no substantial differences in atrophy-related genes were observed. Tendons of MSTNΔ/Δ rats had a 20% reduction in peak strain, with no differences in mass, peak stress or stiffness. The general morphology and gene expression patterns were similar between tendons of both genotypes. This large rodent model of myostatin deficiency did not have the negative consequences to muscle fibres and extracellular matrix observed in mouse models, and suggests that the greatest impact of myostatin in the regulation of muscle mass may not be to induce atrophy directly, but rather to block hypertrophy signalling. PMID:25640143

  14. Induction of passive Heymann nephritis in complement component 6-deficient PVG rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, S Timothy; Tran, Giang T; Killingsworth, Murray C; Carter, Nicole; Power, David A; Paizis, Kathy; Boyd, Rochelle; Hodgkinson, Suzanne J; Hall, Bruce M

    2007-07-01

    Passive Heymann nephritis (PHN), a model of human membranous nephritis, is induced in susceptible rat strains by injection of heterologous antisera to rat renal tubular Ag extract. PHN is currently considered the archetypal complement-dependent form of nephritis, with the proteinuria resulting from sublytic glomerular epithelial cell injury induced by the complement membrane attack complex (MAC) of C5b-9. This study examined whether C6 and MAC are essential to the development of proteinuria in PHN by comparing the effect of injection of anti-Fx1A antisera into PVG rats deficient in C6 (PVG/C6(-)) and normal PVG rats (PVG/c). PVG/c and PVG/C6(-) rats developed similar levels of proteinuria at 3, 7, 14, and 28 days following injection of antisera. Isolated whole glomeruli showed similar deposition of rat Ig and C3 staining in PVG/c and PVG/C6(-) rats. C9 deposition was abundant in PVG/c but was not detected in PVG/C6(-) glomeruli, indicating C5b-9/MAC had not formed in PVG/C6(-) rats. There was also no difference in the glomerular cellular infiltrate of T cells and macrophages nor the size of glomerular basement membrane deposits measured on electron micrographs. To examine whether T cells effect injury, rats were depleted of CD8+ T cells which did not affect proteinuria in the early heterologous phase but prevented the increase in proteinuria associated with the later autologous phase. These studies showed proteinuria in PHN occurs without MAC and that other mechanisms, such as immune complex size, early complement components, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, disrupt glomerular integrity and lead to proteinuria.

  15. Dietary Selenium Deficiency or Excess Reduces Sperm Quality and Testicular mRNA Abundance of Nuclear Glutathione Peroxidase 4 in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji-Chang; Zheng, Shijie; Mo, Junluan; Liang, Xiongshun; Xu, Yuanfei; Zhang, Huimin; Gong, Chunmei; Liu, Xiao-Li; Lei, Xin Gen

    2017-10-01

    Background: Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) 4 and selenoprotein P (SELENOP) are abundant, and several variants are expressed in the testis. Objective: We determined the effects of dietary selenium deficiency or excess on sperm quality and expressions of GPX4 and SELENOP variants in rat</