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Sample records for zinc cadmium lead

  1. Production of high purity granular metals: cadmium, zinc, lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherban A. P.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium, zinc and lead are constituent components of many semiconductor compounds. The obtained high purity distillates and ingots are large-size elements, which is not always convenient to use, and thus require additional grinding, which does not always allow maintaining the purity of the original materials. For the growth of semiconductor and scintillation single crystals it is advisable to use "friable" granular high-purity distillates, which can be processed without the risk of contamination. For example, the European low-background experiment LUCIFER required more than 20 kg of high-purity granulated zinc, which was agreed to be supplied by NSC KIPT. This task was then extended to cadmium and lead. Motivated by these tasks, the authors of this paper propose complex processes of deep refining of cadmium, zinc and lead by vacuum distillation. A device producing granules has been developed. The process of granulation of high-purity metals is explored. The purity of produced granules for cadmium and zinc is >99,9999, and >99,9995% for lead granules. To prevent oxidation of metal granules during exposition to air, chemical methods of surface passivation were used. Organic solvent based on dimethylformamide used as a coolant improves the resistance of granules to atmospheric corrosion during the granulation of high purity Cd, Zn and Pb.

  2. Levels of lead, cadmium and zinc in vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, G.; Haegglund, J.; Jorhem, L.

    1976-01-01

    The concentrations of lead, cadmium and zinc have been determined in 455 samples of fresh fruit, vegetables and mushrooms by dry ashing and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The lead content in all samples was in the range < 0.001-0.288 mg/kg, the mean being 0.02 mg/kg. Leaf vegetables (lettuce and spinach) showed higher values, mean 0.04 mg/kg. The mean values of the cadmium content in fruit, green vegetables, potatoes and root vegetables were 0.003, 0.013, 0.016 and 0.038 mg/kg respectively. The zinc contents were in the ppm range. The ratio Zn/Cd was also determined in some samples. All values concern edible parts and are calculated on wet weight basis. The fruit and vegetables were estimated to constitute about 2 percent and 8 percent respectively of the provisional tolerable weekly intake of these metals recommended by an FAO/WHO Expert Committee.

  3. Surface passivation of high purity granular metals: zinc, cadmium, lead

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    Pirozhenko L. A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For the high purity metals (99.9999%, such as zinc, cadmium, and lead, which are widely used as initial components in growing semiconductor and scintillation crystals (CdTe, CdZnTe, ZnSe, (Cd, Zn, Pb WO4, (Cd, Zn, Pb MoO4 et al., it is very important to ensure reliable protection of the surface from oxidation and adsorption of impurities from the atmosphere. The specific features of surface passivation of high purity cadmium, lead and zinc are not sufficiently studied and require specific methodologies for further studies. The use of organic solutions in the schemes of chemical passivation of the investigated metals avoids hydrolysis of the obtained protective films. The use of organic solvents with pure cation and anion composition as the washing liquid prevents chemisorption of ions present in the conventionally used distilled water. This keeps the original purity of the granular metals. Novel compositions of etchants and etching scheme providing simultaneous polishing and passivation of high purity granular Zn, Cd and Pb are developed. Chemical passivation allows storing metals in the normal atmospheric conditions for more than half a year for Zn and Cd and up to 30 days for Pb without changing the state of the surface. The use of the glycerol-DMF solution in the processes for obtaining Pb granules provides self-passivation of metal surfaces and eliminates the additional chemical processing while maintaining the quality of corrosion protection.

  4. Enzymatic determination of cadmium, zinc, and lead in plant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muginova, S.V.; Veselova, I.A.; Parova, L.M.; Shekhovtseva, T.N.

    2008-01-01

    Prospects are outlined for using the following enzymes (native and immobilized on polyurethane foam) in the rapid and highly sensitive determination of cadmium, zinc, and lead ions in plant materials (wild grass, fresh pea, and grape): horseradish peroxidase and alkaline phosphatases isolated from chicken intestine and Greenland seal small intestine. The analytical ranges of the above metals are 1x10 -3 -25; 7x10 -3 -250, and 3x10 -2 -67 mg/kg dry matter, respectively. The enzymatic determination procedures developed are based on the inhibiting effect of metal ions on the catalytic activity of peroxidase in the oxidation of o-dianisidine with hydrogen peroxide and alkaline phosphatases in the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate. The rates of enzymatic reactions were monitored spectrophotometrically or visually. In the analysis of plant extracts, their high acidity was diminished by choosing optimum dilution factors and pH values for test samples and the nature and concentration of a buffer solution. The interference of iron(III) was removed by introducing a 0.1 M tartaric acid solution into the indicator reaction. The accuracy of the results of the enzymatic determination of cadmium, zinc, and lead in plant materials was supported by atomic absorption spectrometry and anodic stripping voltammetry [ru

  5. Effects of cadmium, zinc, lead, and mercury on respiration and fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafl, H J; Schwantes, H O

    1983-01-01

    Zinc and lead did not affect the rate of respiration and fermentation. Concentrations of cadmium higher than 10/sup -7/ M and concentrations of mercury higher than 5 x 10/sup -5/ M significantly reduced the O/sub 2/ consumption and the CO/sub 2/ production. 10/sup -2/ M cadmium and 10/sup -3/ M mercury completely inhibited respiration and fermentation. Low concentrations of mercury inhibited respiration irreversibly and fermentation reversibly. High concentrations of zinc reduced the toxicity of low concentrations of cadmium but they enhanced the effects of high concentrations of cadmium and mercury. No interactions between lead and the other tested heavy metals were observed.

  6. Sublethal effects of cadmium, manganese, lead, zinc and iron on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxicological evaluations of cadmium, iron, manganese, lead and zinc were carried out against albino mice model, Mus musculus. On the basis of 96 hrLC50 value, cadmium (0.47 mM) was found to be the most toxic followed by zinc (2.40 mM), lead (2.42 mM), iron (4.25 mM) and manganese (5.70 mM) was least toxic.

  7. Interaction of copper, magnesium, zinc, cadmium and lead formiates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyunner, Eh.A.; Mel'nichenko, L.M.; Yakhkind, N.D.; Vel'mozhnyj, I.S.; Katseva, G.N.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of the residual concentrations of the interacting ions and refraction index of liquid phases were useful in determining the precipitate composition in the system MA 2 -NaOH-H 2 O(A - -HCOO - ; M 2+ -Cu 2+ , Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ ). It is shown that in the system CdA 2 -NaOH-H 2 O containing as high as 40 mole% of NaOH the precipitate composition is approximately constant and corresponds to hydroxoformiate Cd(OH)A which is formed by the equation Cd 2+ +OH - +A - =Cd(OH)A. Further increase in the NaOH content leads to the formation of varying-composition precipitates and, at a NaOH content >=66.6 mole%, - to cadmium hydroxide

  8. UHF-plasma torch emission spectrometry for cadmium, lead and zinc by vaporization introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Ryozo

    1978-01-01

    As the introduction technique of aerosol into the plasma torch, vaporization introduction of metals was studied. An aliquot of metal nitrates was pipetted in a graphite crucible and dried with a vacuum pump. The dried sample was heated in a high-frequency induction furnace under inert gas carrier such as argon or nitrogen (reduction introduction). Chlorination introduction with hydrogen chloride was also studied. High-purity grade of argon, nitrogen and hydrogen chloride was used as carrier. Intensities were based on the peak area of intensity-time curves at 228.8 nm (cadmium), 405.8 nm (lead), and 213.9 nm (zinc). In the reduction introduction, the minimum temperatures to attain a constant peak area, which means a complete vaporization were 700 0 C (cadmium), 1500 0 C (lead), and 1100 0 C (zinc), respectively. In the chlorination, this temperature was 500 0 C (cadmium), 700 0 C (lead), and 300 0 C (zinc) respectively. For two introduction techniques, the latter was more sensitive than the former for cadmium and zinc, while the former was more sensitive for lead. The optimum temperature, detection limits, and the coefficients of variance calculated from the measurements of 1.0 μg of metals were as follows: Cadmium: chlorination at 850 0 C, D.L. 5ng, C.V. 10%. Lead: reduction at 1600 0 C, D.L. 10ng, C.V. 15%. Zinc: chlorination at 850 0 C, D.L. 5ng, C.V. 9%. Linear calibration lines having 45 0 slope at log-log plots, were obtained over the range from 0.05 to 6 μg for cadmium and zinc, 0.06 to 6 μg for lead on the conditions above. These techniques were also applied for analyses of biological materials for three metals without prior separations. Although the sensitivity of the chlorination introduction technique for lead was rather poor compared with that of reduction technique, the chlorination technique was applied to minimize the introduction of coexisting materials such as alkali and alkaline earth metals. The analytical results agreed reasonably with the

  9. Determination of Cadmium, Lead and Zinc in Vegetables in Jaipur (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Verma, P S

    2014-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectroscopic method was used for the determination of Lead, Cadmium and Zinc in vegetables grown in and around Jaipur food stuffs irrigated with industrial waste water. Vegetable samples were collected after maturity, and analyzed, such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea), ladyfinger (Abelmoschus esulentus), pepper mint (Menthe pipereta), brinjal (Solanum melongena), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), onion (Allium cepa), radish (Raphanus sativus), pointedgourd (Trichosanthes dioica), bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria), chilies (Capsicum annum), ribbedgourd (Luffa acutangula) and pumpkin (Curcurbites pepo). The concentration of Lead ranged between 1.40-71.06 ppm, Cadmium 0.61-34.48 ppm and Zinc 0.39-187.26 ppm in vegetable samples. The results reveal that urban consumers are at greater risk of purchasing fresh vegetables with high levels of heavy metal, beyond the permissible limits, as defined by the Indian Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and WHO.

  10. Contamination of Soil, Water, Plant and Dust by Zinc, Lead and Cadmium in Southwest Isfahan

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    Nastaran Esmaeilpourfard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Due to mining, considerable amounts of heavy metal bearing mineralsare scattered in the atmosphere in the form of dust and make the surrounding air, water and soils polluted.Runoff water movingfrom the mountainstowardsplains may also transport heavy metals from mines to the soils.One type ofpollutions is contamination withheavy metals.The purpose of the present research has been to investigate the effect of heavy metals of mine on soil, water, plant and dust pollution. Materials and Methods: Gushfil mine is located 3 kilometers southwest of Sepahanshahr, Isfahan. Soil profiles were dug 500 meters apart along three parallel transects, between east of Sepahanshahr and Gushfil mine. The profiles were described and samples were collected from their horizons. Ore, wells, plant and dust were sampled as well. Total concentrations of lead, zinc and cadmium were measured in the samples. To find the origin of polluted dust and soil, lead isotopes contents in the samples were measured and regressional relationships between the ratios of these contents were investigated. Results and Discussion Sepahanshahr soils are not contaminated by zinc, lead and cadmium, but within a distance of one to two kilometers from the Gushfil mine, the soils are polluted by zinc and lead. Cadmium contamination was not observed in the studied soils. In all of the soils, the heavy metals content varies downwards irregularly. The reason for this variation trend is that the studied soils are alluvial. In different periods of time, alluvium parent materials have been transported by runoff water from the lead and zinc mines towards the alluvial piedmont plain. The studied heavy metals have been distributed irregularly in different horizons of the soils that have been formed in these parent materials. Lead and cadmium concentrations of drinking water in the studied area are much higher than the maximum amount allowed by the World Health Organization. Cadmium content in

  11. Natural Attenuation of Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Zinc Using Hydrograph Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, J. E.; Peters, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    Strategies for remediating contaminated sites range from complete removal of the contaminated soil to in-situ monitored natural attenuation. The decision to let a property naturally attenuate is partially based on the estimated time it will take to return to ambient conditions. The Lehigh Gap Wildlife Refuge at Palmerton, PA was historically contaminated with arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc from a zinc smelting operation that ceased emissions twenty-nine years ago. This property provides an opportunity to assess whether the length of time required for the natural attenuation of metals in soil has been achieved using a watershed mass balance approach, focusing particularly on perturbations observed in the concentration-discharge relationships of contaminants compared to the conservative tracers sodium and chloride, and silicon as an indicator of rock-water interactions. Water samples were collected from 3 springs in the Wildlife Refuge for approximately 4 days following the onset of storm events and analyzed for cation and anion concentrations. Preliminary results show that while the concentrations of arsenic and lead were below detection limits, the fluxes of zinc and cadmium increase corresponding with the peak in the hydrograph relative to the fluxes of the tracers, indicating the solutes are being released from adsorption sites located in an unsaturated zone that is temporarily inundated during storm events. In comparison, the flux of the tracers remains constant, indicative of a steady-state leakage of the solutes from their respective reservoirs in the soil. Along with flux, the concentrations of zinc and cadmium also increase following the rise in discharge after storm events, further suggesting that these contaminants are being mobilized out of the soil profile.

  12. Evaluation of Cadmium, Lead and Zinc Content of Compost Produced in Babol Composting Plant

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    Fatemeh Asgharzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The most important parameter is heavy metal contents in compost production technology. These heavy metals residue from substances like soap, detergents, cosmetics, packaging, leather and butteries are existed in municipal solid waste. The heavy metals can produce toxin for animal, human and plant. The aim of this research was study of produced compost quality based on heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Zn in Babol compost plant in 2012. Materials and Methods: The present research is a descriptive- cross sectional study in which was performed in six months. Total sample numbers (5 samples were randomly provided from final compost of Babol plant and then after extraction and filtration, the concentration of heavy metals like cadmium, lead and zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer PG- 999. Results: In analyzed samples the maximum, minimum and average of cadmium in the final compost were 7.25, 0.47 and 1.9 mg/kg. The maximum, minimum and mean of lead were 239.2, 31.9 and 67.1 mg/kg; in zinc were 972.7, 483.5 and 603.7 mg/kg respectively. Conclusion: The concentration of heavy metals in Babol compost samples was under Iranian national and World Health Organization standards and could be used for different species of plants. However, the usability of compost depends on other parameters such as carbon to nitrogen and other components like glass, plastics and textiles.

  13. Removal of Cadmium, Zinc, Lead and Copper by Sorption on Leaching Residue from Nickel Production

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    Miroslava Václavíková

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A leaching resudue from the nickel production (LRNi, was used to study the removal of selected bivalent cations (Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn from model aqueous solutions. Batch-type experiments have been performed in solutions with initial concentrations of heavy metals in the range of 20-400 mg.L-1 and the adsorbent dosage 2 g.L-1. All adsorption experiments were carried out at ambient temperature (22+1°C in orbital shaker. The experimental data were modeled with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The relatively high uptake indicated that LRNi can adsorb considerable amounts of cadmium and zinc (maximum uptake capacity for cadmium: 25 mg/g at pH 7.2 and ca. 40 mg/g for zinc at pH 7. A significant uptake was also observed for copper and lead at pH 5.8 and 6 respectively, which was attributed to the precipitation of the respective insoluble hydroxides.

  14. Food chain transfer of cadmium and lead to cattle in a lead-zinc smelter in Guizhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Qiu; Long Meili; Zhu Ming; Zhou Qingzhen; Zhang Ling; Liu Jie

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) are environmental pollutants. Environmental samples and bovine tissues were collected from the areas around a lead-zinc smelter in Guizhou, China for Cd, Pb, zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) analysis. Cd in soil (10 mg/kg) and feed (6.6 mg/kg) from the polluted areas was 10 times higher than the Chinese Standards, resulting in higher Cd in bovine kidney (38 mg/kg) and liver (2.5 mg/kg). Pb in feed (132 mg/kg) from the polluted area was much higher than unpolluted areas, causing higher Pb levels in bovine tissues. Environmental Zn was elevated, but bovine tissue Zn was normal. Cu in bovine liver decreased with increased Cd and Pb. Metals in drinking water and in bovine muscle were within the Standard range. Thus, in the areas of this lead-zinc smelter, the environment has been contaminated with Cd and Pb, which has been transferred to cattle through the food chain. - Cd and Pb from lead-zinc smelters contaminate the environment and accumulate in bovine tissues.

  15. Simultaneous Measurement of Zinc, Copper, Lead and Cadmium in Baby Weaning Food and Powder Milk by DPASV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abdolazim; Behzad, Masoomeh; Norouzi, Narges; Oveisi, Morvarid; Jannat, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Apart from the breast milk, infant formula and baby weaning food have a special role in infant diet. Infants and young children are very susceptible to amount of trace elements. Copper and zinc are two elements that add in infant food. Lead and cadmium are heavy metals that enter to food chain unavoidably. DPASV is a benefit and applicable method for measurement of trace elements in food products. In this study, concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in four brands of baby food (rice and wheat based) and powder milk was analyzed with DPASV and polarograph set. Total Mean ± SE of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in baby foods (n = 240) were 11.86 ± 1.474 mg/100g, 508.197 ± 83.154 μg/100g, 0.445 ± 0.006, 0.050 ± 0.005 mg/Kg respectively. Also these amount in powder milk (n = 240) were 3.621± 0.529 mg/100g, 403.822 ± 133.953 μg/100g, 0.007 ± 0.003, 0.060 ± 0.040 mg/Kg respectively. Zinc level in baby food type I was higher than lablled value (P = 0.030), but in other brands was not difference. Concentration of copper in all of samples was in labeled range (P > 0.05). In each four products, level of lead and cadmium were lower than the standard limit (P < 0.05). Amount of zinc and lead in baby food I, had difference versus other products. Concentration of zinc, camium in baby food type I, was higher than type II (P = 0.043, 0.001 respectively). Concentration of lead and cadmium in baby food type II, was higher than infant formulas, but are in standard limit.

  16. Pyrolysis of Plants After Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soil with Lead, Cadmium and Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Aysun; Günkaya, Zerrin; Banar, Müfide

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to remediate lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) from contaminated soil and stabilize to pyrolysis solid product. To accomplish this, phytoremediation of soil contaminated with Pb, Cd and Zn by different plants (sunflower, corn and rape) was performed with and without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). According to phytoremediation results, rape was the most effective plant with 72 %, 76 % and 77 % removal efficiency for Pb, Cd and Zn, respectively. Also, EDTA addition had no significant effect on translocation of the metals from roots to stems. According to pyrolysis results, Pb, Cd and Zn in the contaminated plants were stabilized in the ash/char fraction. In addition, the solid product can be safely landfilled as inert waste since its toxicity leaching value is lower than the limit values given in the Turkish Regulation on Landfilling of Wastes.

  17. Enhancement of emulsifier production by Curvularia lunata in cadmium, zinc and lead presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Frycie, Aleksandra; Słaba, Mirosława; Długoński, Jerzy

    2007-10-01

    The influence of cadmium, zinc and lead on fungal emulsifier synthesis and on the growth of filamentous fungus Curvularia lunata has been studied. Tolerance to heavy metals established for C. lunata was additionally compared with the sensitivity exhibited by strains of Curvularia tuberculata and Paecilomyces marquandii-fungi which do not secrete compounds of emulsifying activity. Although C. lunata, as the only one out of all studied fungi, exhibited the lowest tolerance to heavy metals when grown on a solid medium (in conditions preventing emulsifier synthesis), it manifested the highest tolerance in liquid culture - in conditions allowing exopolymer production. Cadmium, zinc and lead presented in liquid medium up to a concentration of 15 mM had no negative effect on C. lunata growth and stimulated emulsifier synthesis. In the presence of 15 mM of heavy metals, both the emulsifier and 24-h-old growing mycelium exhibited maximum sorption capacities, which were determined as 18.2 +/- 2.67, 156.1 +/- 10.32 mg g(-1) for Cd2+, 22.2 +/- 3.40, 95.2 +/- 14.21 mg g(-1) for Zn2+ and 51.1 +/- 1.85, 230.0 +/- 28.47 mg g(-1) for Pb2+ respectively. The results obtained by us in this work indicate that the emulsifier acts as a protective compound increasing the ability of C. lunata to survive in heavy metal polluted environment. Enhancement of exopolymer synthesis in the presence of Cd2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+ may also suggest, at least to some extent, a metal-specific nature of emulsifier production in C. lunata. Due to accumulation capability and tolerance to heavy metals, C. lunata mycelium surrounded by the emulsifier could be applied for toxic metal removal.

  18. Magnetic properties of alluvial soils contaminated with lead, zinc and cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovský, E.; Kapička, A.; Jordanova, N.; Borůvka, L.

    2001-09-01

    Several proxy methods have been used recently to outline increased levels of pollution. One of them is based on measurements of the concentration of (ferri)magnetic minerals of anthropogenic origin. This method has been used recently in the mapping of both polluted and unpolluted areas. In order to validate this method, a more detailed study of links between magnetic parameters characterising the physical shape of magnetic minerals and concentrations of heavy metals is needed. In this study, we analysed the magnetic characteristics of alluvial soils, formed as a result of several breakdowns of wet deposit sink of ashes from a lead ore smelter. The soils were previously analysed for concentration of lead, zinc and cadmium. Our results show that in this case of a shared source of heavy metals and magnetic minerals, simple measurements of magnetic susceptibility discriminate well between polluted and clean areas. In addition, the concentration pattern agrees with the concentrations of the heavy metals studied in deeper soil layers that were not affected by post-depositional changes due to climate and remediation efforts.

  19. Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Tujebakhova, Z.K.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates of the composition MSal, where M-Zn or Cd, Sal - twice deprotonated residue of salicylic acid O-HOC 6 H 4 COOH (H 2 Sal), are singled out and characterized. When studying thermograms, thermogravigrams, IR absorption spectra, roentgenograms of cadmium salicylate compounds (Cd(OC 6 H 4 COO) and products of their thepmal transformations, the processes of thermal decomposition of the compounds have been characterized. The process of cadmium monosalicylate decomposition takes place in one stage. Complete loss of salicylate acido group occurs in the range of 320-460 deg. At this decomposition stage cadmium oxide is formed. A supposition is made that cadmium complex has tetrahedral configuration, at that, each salicylate group plays the role of tetradentate-bridge ligand. The compound evidently has a polymer structure

  20. Simultaneous determination of lead, cadmium and zinc in Metro Manila air particulates by anodic stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, Soledad S.

    1999-02-01

    Air particulate samples were collected from two monitoring stations in Metro Manila using a 'Gent' type dichotomous sampler for pollutant source apportionment studies. Samples were collected in two fractions: a fine fraction with aerodynamic diameter, d p p 3 : HCL: HF, 4: 1: 1) for at least 20 minutes with subsequent heating at lower power settings for a total of 20 minutes more, effectively decomposed the sample with complete recovery of the elements. The digests were evaporated to near dryness to eliminate the troublesome effect of HF and HNO 3 and to decrease acidity of the electrolytic solution to pH ≥ 2. At pH 2, the addition of at least 0.01 M KCl was needed to improve sensitivity. The formation of Zn-Cu intermetallic compounds which interfered in the accurate quantitation of zinc was eliminated by addition of gallium as a 'third' element. The amount of gallium needed varied from sample to sample and was affected by the pH of the solution. The DPASV parameters found to be optimum for the analysis of the air particulate samples are as follows: pulse amplitude, 50 mV; scan rate, 10 mV/sec; E dep , - 1.30 V; t dep , 2 min; and RDE rotation rate, 1500 rpm. Detection limits of 0.2 ppb for zinc, 0.6 ppb for lead, and 0.05 ppb for cadmium in the sample matrix were obtained. The standard addition method was found to be reliable for the quantitative determination of the analytes in the sample. All R 2 values obtained were > 0.9900 at 95% confidence level. Validation of the established analytical methodology by analyzing certified reference standards and performing parallel analysis by GF-AAS and flame AAS showed acceptable accuracy of the DPASV measurements. (Author)

  1. Lead, cadmium and zinc in mineral structure of deposits of the gallbladder in men and women

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    Jerzy Kwapuliński

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The former studies have shown the presence of As and Sb in deposits of the gallbladder. The aim of studies: The aim of the studies was to define the level of accumulation of Pb, Cd, Zn in deposits of the gallbladder as supplementary biological test for exposure assessment in a long run. Materials and methods: Pb, Cd and Zn content was investigated with inductive coupled plasmaatomic emission spectrometry were deposits of the gallbladder in men and women living in the Silesia Region. Results: The change of these elements content was analyzed in connection with behavioral factors ( diet, alcohol, coffee, obesity and tobacco addiction of the gender. Attention was drawn to the probability of interaction of Pb, Cd, Zn with other elements during their accumulation in deposits of the gallbladder. It appeared that deposits of the gall bladder can be used as an additional biological test in individual exposure assessment to Pb, Cd and Zn. It was noted that the level of content of Pb, Zn and Cd in deposits of the gallbladder is impacted by behavioral factors (diet, alcohol, coffee, obesity tobacco addiction. A characteristic impact of the tobacco addiction on the rise in the content of lead, cadmium and zinc was demonstrated as well as significant role of the presence of these elements in the total environmental pollution in relevant living areas.

  2. Anodic stripping voltammetry of mercury, zinc, cadmium, and lead in a rice farm ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Mundo, F.R.; Vicente-Beckett, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Analytical procedures based on differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry were developed and applied to the analysis of some trace metals in a rice farm ecosystem. A gold wire served as working electrode for the analysis of mercury in 0.1M HNO 3 ; a hanging mercury drop electrode was used for the simultaneous analyses of zinc, cadmium, and lead in 0.1M sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.5). Mercury was pre-concentrated for five minutes at + 0.20 V vs SCE. The area of the anodic stripping peaks varied linearly over the concentration range 3x10 -10 -2x10 -8 M Hg(II); the limit of detection was 0.06 ppb or 3x10 -10 M Hg(II). The simultaneous analytical method involved pre-electrolysis at -1.2 V vs SCE for ten minutes. The heights of the individual anodic stripping peaks varied linearly with concentration in a mixture of the ions over the concentration range 0.020-0.10 ppm for each ion; the limits of detection were 0.004 ppm, 0.01 ppm, and 0.01 ppm for Cd, Pb, Zn, respectively. The developed procedures were used to determine the baseline levels of these metals in soil, water, and rice plant samples from a one-hectare traditional rice farm in San Pedro, Laguna. (auth.). 26 refs.; 4 tabs.; 6 figs

  3. Microdetermination of lead, cadmium, zinc and tin in biological and related materials by atomic absorption spectrometry after mineralisation and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteau, H.L.; Metayer, C.

    1978-01-01

    Two technics permitting to determine either lead, cadmium and zinc, or tin in any biological material (blood, urines, organs, alimentary products of animal or vegetable origin) are described. Every operation (mineralisation and extraction) is made in the same tube and technics, conceived in a way to simplify the manipulations and to reduce the more possible the contamination risks are suitable for determination in series. By working on trial samples near 250 mg, the lower determination limits are around 2 ppb for cadmium, 40 ppb for lead and tin and 2 ppm for zinc. The repeatability studies of different technical stages show that mineralisation and extraction only have a weak incidence on the acccuracy of the results [fr

  4. Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viets, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Interferences commonly encountered in the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc at crustal abundance levels are effectively eliminated using a rapid, sensitive, organic extraction technique. A potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid digestion solubilizes the metals not tightly bound in the silicate lattice of rocks, soils, and stream sediments. The six metals are selectively extracted into a 10% Aliquat 336-MIBK organic phase in the presence of ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. Metals in the organic extract are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to the 0.02-ppm level for silver, cadmium, copper, and zinc and to the 0.2-ppm level for bismuth and lead with a maximum relative standard deviation of 18.8% for known reference samples. An additional hydrofluoric acid digestion may be used to determine metals substituted in the silicate lattice.

  5. Zinc, lead, and cadmium levels in serum and milk of lactating women in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edem, Victory Fabian; Akintunde, Kikelomo; Adelaja, Yewande Adeola; Nwozo, Sarah O; Charles-Davies, Mabel

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is known to interact with lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) reversing their toxicity and reducing their concentrations. However, lactating women are at high risk of developing Zn deficiency, which may result in Pb and Cd intoxication or increased exposure of breast-fed infants to Pb and Cd from breast milk. The aim of this study was to determine Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations and examine their relationship in serum and breast milk of lactating women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ninety-two lactating women were recruited into this study. Anthropometric measurements were assessed by standard methods while serum and breast milk concentrations of Zn, Pb, and Cd were assessed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data analyzed statistically by Student's t test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and a multiple regression model were significant at p < 0.05. Zn deficiency was observed in 12 (17.1%) of lactating women. Breast milk levels of Zn, Pb, and Cd were significantly higher than their levels in serum, whereas the ratios Zn:Pb and Zn:Cd in milk were significantly less than serum ratios. Significant negative correlation was observed between milk Pb and serum Zn:Pb while milk Cd correlated positively with milk Zn. Significant positive correlations were observed between serum Zn and serum Zn:Pb, serum Zn and serum Zn:Cd, as well as serum Zn:Cd and serum Zn:Pb. Serum Cd and serum Zn were significantly negatively related. Significant negative correlations between serum Pb and serum Zn:Pb as well as milk Zn:Pb. Serum Cd and serum Zn:Pb as well as serum Zn:Cd correlated negatively. Milk Cd and Zn/Cd positively related with milk Pb while milk Zn was a negatively related with milk Pb in a multiple regression model ( R 2 = 0.333; p = 0.023). Breast milk may be contaminated by toxic metals. However, Zn supplementation in deficient mothers may protect maternal and infant health.

  6. Determination of cadmium, lead and zinc in a candidate reference materials using isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Luis; Gras, Nuri; Quejido, Alberto; Fernandez, Marta

    2001-01-01

    The growing demands placed on analytical laboratories to ensure the reliability of their results, due to the introduction of systems of quality and to the increasing use of metrology in chemical measurements has led most laboratories to validate their methodologies and to control them statistically. One of the techniques used most often for these purposes is based on the use of reference materials. The proper use of these materials means that laboratory results may be traced to the International System of Units, analytical methodologies can be validated, instruments calibrated and chemical measurements harmonized. One of the biggest challenges in developing reference materials is that of certifying their properties, a process that has been defined as assigning a concentration value that is as close as possible to the true value together with its uncertainty. Organizations that produce reference materials use several options for their certification process, and among these is the use of a primary method. Among the primary methods recognized by the International Office of Weights and Measures is the Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry technique. The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, through its Reference Materials Program, has prepared a reference material of clam tissue, which has been chemically defined by different analytical methodologies applied in different national and international laboratories. This work describes the methodology developed with the CIEMAT for determining the elements lead, cadmium and zinc in the clam tissue reference material using the primary technique of Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry. The calculation is described for obtaining the spike amounts to be added to the sample and the procedure is explained for carrying out the isotopic exchange. The isotopic relationships 204 Pb/ 205 Pb, 111 Cd/ 114 Cd and 66 Zn/ 67 Zn were determined in an atomic emission spectrometer with a plasma source with the following characteristics: plasma

  7. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Long-Lian; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang; Xu, Da-Yong; Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established

  8. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long-Lian, E-mail: Longlian57@163.com [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Lu, Ling [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Xu, Da-Yong [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  9. Cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safaya, N.M.; McLean, J.E.; Halverson, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cadmium and zinc are naturally occurring trace metals that are often considered together because of their close geochemical association and similarities in chemical reactivity. The loss of two electrons from an atom of Cd or Zn imparts to each an electron configuration with completely filled d orbitals; this results in a highly stable 2/sup +/ oxidation state. But Cd and Zn differ greatly in their significance to biological systems. Whereas Zn is an essential nutrient for plants, animals, and humans, Cd is best known for its toxicity to plants and as a causative agent of several disease syndromes in animals and humans

  10. Evaluation of Lead, Cadmium, Zinc and Copper Levels in Blood, Hair and Teeth of Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel -Latif, A.; EL- Bedewi, A.F.; Gad, A.; Mortada, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    There is a general agreement that children are a population that suffered increased risk of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) exposure with adverse health effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the environmental exposure to Pb and Cd in children living in Cairo since birth and their effects on other essential elements such as zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). The relationships between these indicators for exposure and children characteristics such as sex, weight, height, blood pressure and smoking habits of parents were also estimated. Forty children (23 males and 17 females) aged 5-7 years had been included in this study. Levels of elements in the samples were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The levels of Pb in blood (Pb-B), hair (Pb-H) and teeth (Pb-T) were 18.17 ± 5.35 fig/dl, 6.29 ± 2.07 fig/g and 8.07± 1.98 fig/g, respectively. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls as regards Pb-H (P<0.001)and Pb-T(P<0.05). The Cd levels were 0.603 ±0.08 μg/dl in blood (Cd-B), 0.933 ± 0.18 fig/g in hair (Cd-H) and 4.825± 0.57 μg/g in teeth (Cd-T). Boys showed higher significant increases in Cd-B than girls (P < 0.001). Concerning Zn, the levels were 57.43± 6.86 μg/dl,148.18± 11.76μg/g and 100.32± 20.28 μg/dl in blood (Zn-B), hair (Zn-H) and teeth(Zn-T),correspondingly Girls displayed significant higher levels of Zn-H than boys (P < 0.05). Regarding Cu in blood (Cu-B), in hair (Cu-H) and in teeth (Cu-T), they were 113.42± 9.89 μg/dl, 17.9±4.18 μg/g and 10.6± 3.04 μg/g, respectively. Girls showed significant higher levels of Cu-H than boys (P < 0.05). The passive smoking children exhibited significant increased levels of Pb, Cd and Cu in blood, hair and teeth when compared to the non-exposed children. On the other hand, passive smoking leads to decrease in Zn concentrations in the three studied samples. The proper mechanism of Zn affection was explained by interactions with Cd, Pb and Cu. Correlation between Pb and Cd with

  11. Development of a thermodynamic model for zinc, lead and cadmium in saline solutions; Entwicklung eines thermodynamischen Modells fuer Zink, Blei und Cadmium in salinaren Loesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, Sven

    2012-07-15

    Waters on aboveground and underground landfills often contain high concentrations of pollutants like zinc, lead and cadmium. Interactions between wastes and aqueous solutions could lead to a mobilisation of these elements. If their maximum solubilities are to be predicted by geochemical modelling a thermodynamic data base is needed. Due to the lack of experimental data such a data base could not be developed yet. In order to fill the gaps isopiestic as well as solubility measurements were made at 25 C. Furthermore the complex formation of zinc and cadmium was investigated and quantified by means of Raman spectrometry and evolving factor analysis. It could be proven that only complexes with two and four chlorine atoms achieve significant concentrations. On basis of these results and a critical evaluation of literature data a consistent thermodynamic data base for was developed for the calculation of activity coefficients and solubilities in the system Na, K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Cd, Cl, SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O at 298,15 K.

  12. CONTENT OF ZINC, LEAD AND CADMIUM IN SELECTED AGRICULTURAL SOILS IN THE AREA OF THE ŚLĄSKIE AND CIĘŻKOWICKIE FOOTHILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Józefowska; Anna Miechówka; Michał Gąsiorek; Paweł Zadrożny

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the state of contamination with zinc, lead, and cadmium in selected soils of the Śląskie and Ciężkowickie Foothills and to determine the impact of the type of agricultural use and selected physico-chemical properties of soils on heavy metal content. The test soils were characterized by natural content of zinc, lead, and cadmium in most cases. Only one type of soil located on Śląskie Foothills developed increased levels of Cd (1.1 mg · kg-1). The conte...

  13. Electrochemical stripping determination of traces of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc in zirconium metal and zirconium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stulik, K.; Beran, P.; Dolezal, J.; Opekar, F.

    1978-01-01

    Procedures have been developed for the determination of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc in zirconium metal and zirconium dioxide, at concentrations of 1ppm or less. Zirconium metal was dissolved in sulphuric acid, and zirconium dioxide decomposed under pressure with hydrofluoric acid. Sample solutions were prepared in dilute sulphuric acid. For the stripping determination, the sample solution was either mixed with a complexing tartrate base electrolyte or the pre-electrolysis was carried out in acid solution, with the acid solution being exchanged for a pure base electrolyte (e.g. an acetate buffer) for the stripping step. The stripping step was monitored by d.c., differential pulse and Kalousek commutator voltammetry and the three methods were compared. A stationary mercury-drop electrode can generally be used for all the methods, whereas a mercury-film electrode is suitable only for the d.c. voltammetric determination of copper, lead and cadmium, as pulse measurements with films are poorly reproducible and the electrodes are easily damaged. The relative standard deviation does not exceed 20%. Some samples contained relatively large amounts of copper, which is best separated by electrodeposition on a platinum electrode. (author)

  14. Determination of arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc in geological materials by atomic-absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viets, J.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Clark, Robert J.

    1984-01-01

    Arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc are very useful elements in geochemical exploration. In the proposed method, geological samples are fused with potassium pyrosulphate and the fusate is dissolved in a solution of hydrochloric acid, ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. When this solution is shaken with a 10% V/V Aliquat 336 - isobutyl methyl ketone organic phase, the nine elements of interest are selectively partitioned in the organic phase. All nine elements can then be determined in the organic phase using flame atomic-absorption spectrometry. The method is rapid and allows the determination of Ag and Cd at levels down to 0.1 p.p.m., Cu, Mo, and Zn down to 0.5 p.p.m., Pb, Bi and Sb down to 1 p.p.m. and As down to 5 p.p.m. in geological materials.

  15. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  16. Determination of Zinc, Cadmium and Lead Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils at the Single-Cell Level by a Combination of Whole-Cell Biosensors and Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Hurdebise

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc, lead and cadmium are metallic trace elements (MTEs that are widespread in the environment and tend to accumulate in soils because of their low mobility and non-degradability. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the applicability of biosensors as tools able to provide data about the bioavailability of such MTEs in contaminated soils. Here, we tested the genetically-engineered strain Escherichia coli pPZntAgfp as a biosensor applicable to the detection of zinc, lead and cadmium by the biosynthesis of green fluorescent protein (GFP accumulating inside the cells. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the fluorescence induced by the MTEs. A curvilinear response to zinc between 0 and 25 mg/L and another curvilinear response to cadmium between 0 and 1.5 mg/L were highlighted in liquid media, while lead did not produce exploitable results. The response relating to a Zn2+/Cd2+ ratio of 10 was further investigated. In these conditions, E. coli pPZntAgfp responded to cadmium only. Several contaminated soils with a Zn2+/Cd2+ ratio of 10 were analyzed with the biosensor, and the metallic concentrations were also measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Our results showed that E. coli pPZntAgfp could be used as a monitoring tool for contaminated soils being processed.

  17. CONTENT OF ZINC, LEAD AND CADMIUM IN SELECTED AGRICULTURAL SOILS IN THE AREA OF THE ŚLĄSKIE AND CIĘŻKOWICKIE FOOTHILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Józefowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the state of contamination with zinc, lead, and cadmium in selected soils of the Śląskie and Ciężkowickie Foothills and to determine the impact of the type of agricultural use and selected physico-chemical properties of soils on heavy metal content. The test soils were characterized by natural content of zinc, lead, and cadmium in most cases. Only one type of soil located on Śląskie Foothills developed increased levels of Cd (1.1 mg · kg-1. The content of zinc, lead, and cadmium in the surface layer (0-30 cm was higher in the soils of Śląskie Foothills than in soils of Ciężkowickie Foothills. The bedrocks from which the soils of these two mesoregions are formed differed significantly only in the content of zinc (it was higher in the soils of Śląskie Foothills. The content of Zn, Pb, and Cd in the surface layer of soil depends on its texture and organic carbon and total nitrogen content. There was also a positive correlation between the content of Pb and Cd and hydrolytic acidity and between the content of Zn and Ca and CEC. Different types of land uses did not influence the content of the metals.

  18. Contents of cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead in organs of Rhizophora mangle in Sevilla River mouth - Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranjo Sanchez, Yury A; Troncoso, Olivo Walberto

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the contents of cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead in leaves, stalks, and root of Rhizophora mangle, samples from three parcels located in the river Sevilla mouth - Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta, were taken in October 2003. Measures of metals concentrations were made through the Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry technique (ICP-AES). The results indicated that lead concentration in R. mangle organs was below method detection limit ≤38 g/g) except the absorbent root (16.3 g/g); and significant differences exist in the contents of cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead into R. mangle organs, following this concentration order: absorbent roots ≥ stalk ≥ young leaves ≥adult leaves ≥ aerial roots

  19. Health risk assessment of heavy metals (cadmium, nickel, lead and zinc in withdrawed parsley vegetable from some farms in Hamedan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cheraghi

    2014-11-01

    Results: Average concentration of cadmium, nickel, lead and zinc in parsley vegetable is in the order of 1/14, 2/56, 16/65 and 25/23 mg/kg and average concentration of this metals in soil is in the order of 0/23, 23/51, 20/85 and 57/5 mg/kg. Results of this study showed that average concentration of Cadmium and Leadin parsley is above WHO/FAO whereas average concentration of Nickel and Zink in parsleywas assessed less than WHO/FAO. Also the average concentration of every four metals in soil of farms was less than WHO/FAO levels.On the other hand the amount of risk and health index (HRI in parsley for lead metal was above 1 and for cadmium, nickel and zinc metals was less than 1. Conclusion: According to the studing results, cultivated parsley in this area was polluted to the heavy metalsCadmium and Lead, and the results indicates the very easy transferring of this metals from soil to parsley that was not healthy for human daily consumption and risk and health index (HRI that was above 1 for lead metal shows the hygienic potential risk of this metal in relation to the polluted parsley consumption in human daily alimentary diet.

  20. Relative tolerance of a range of Australian native plant species and lettuce to copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Dane T; Ming, Hui; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2010-10-01

    The tolerance of wild flora to heavy-metal exposure has received very little research. In this study, the tolerance of four native tree species, four native grass species, and lettuce to copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) was investigated in a root-elongation study using Petri dishes. The results of these studies show a diverse range of responses to Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb amongst the tested plant species. Toxicity among metals decreased in the following order: Cd ~ Cu > Pb > Zn. Metal concentrations resulting in a 50% reduction in growth (EC(50)) varied considerably, ranging from (microM) 30 (Dichanthium sericeum) to >2000 (Acacia spp.) for Cu; from 260 (Lactuca sativa) to 2000 (Acacia spp.) for Zn; from 27 (L. sativa) to 940 (Acacia holosericea) for Cd; and from 180 (L. sativa) to >1000 (Acacia spp.) for Pb. Sensitive native plant species identified included D. sericeum, Casuarina cunninghamiana, and Austrodanthonia caespitosa. However, L. sativa (lettuce) was also among the most sensitive to all four metals. Acacia species showed a high tolerance to metal exposure, suggesting that the Acacia genus shows potential for use in contaminated-site revegetation.

  1. Accumulation of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium by 12 wetland plant species thriving in metal-contaminated sites in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, H.; Ye, Z.H.; Wong, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium accumulated by 12 emergent-rooted wetland plant species including different populations of Leersia hexandra, Juncus effusus and Equisetum ramosisti were investigated in field conditions of China. The results showed that metal accumulation by wetland plants differed among species, populations and tissues. Populations grown in substrata with elevated metals contained significantly higher metals in plants. Metals accumulated by wetland plants were mostly distributed in root tissues, suggesting that an exclusion strategy for metal tolerance widely exists in them. That some species/populations could accumulate relatively high metal concentrations (far above the toxic concentration to plants) in their shoots indicates that internal detoxification metal tolerance mechanism(s) are also included. The factors affecting metal accumulation by wetland plants include metal concentrations, pH, and nutrient status in substrata. Mostly concentrations of Pb and Cu in both aboveground and underground tissues of the plants were significantly positively related to their total and/or DTPA-extractable fractions in substrata while negatively to soil N and P, respectively. The potential use of these wetland plants in phytoremediation is also discussed

  2. Developing acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios for lead, cadmium, and zinc using rainbow trout, a mayfly, and a midge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, C.A.; Hennessy, D.P.; Dillon, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to estimate acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios (ACRs) relevant to a coldwater stream community, we exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in 96-h acute and 60+ day early-life stage (ELS) exposures. We also tested the acute and sublethal responses of a mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus) and a midge (Chironomus dilutus, formerly C. tentans) with Pb. We examine the statistical interpretation of test endpoints and the acute-to-chronic ratio concept. Increasing the number of control replicates by 2 to 3x decreased the minimum detectable differences by almost half. Pb ACR estimates mostly increased with increasing acute resistance of the organisms (rainbow trout ACRs

  3. Accumulation of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium by 12 wetland plant species thriving in metal-contaminated sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, H.; Ye, Z.H.; Wong, M.H

    2004-11-01

    The concentrations of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium accumulated by 12 emergent-rooted wetland plant species including different populations of Leersia hexandra, Juncus effusus and Equisetum ramosisti were investigated in field conditions of China. The results showed that metal accumulation by wetland plants differed among species, populations and tissues. Populations grown in substrata with elevated metals contained significantly higher metals in plants. Metals accumulated by wetland plants were mostly distributed in root tissues, suggesting that an exclusion strategy for metal tolerance widely exists in them. That some species/populations could accumulate relatively high metal concentrations (far above the toxic concentration to plants) in their shoots indicates that internal detoxification metal tolerance mechanism(s) are also included. The factors affecting metal accumulation by wetland plants include metal concentrations, pH, and nutrient status in substrata. Mostly concentrations of Pb and Cu in both aboveground and underground tissues of the plants were significantly positively related to their total and/or DTPA-extractable fractions in substrata while negatively to soil N and P, respectively. The potential use of these wetland plants in phytoremediation is also discussed.

  4. Relationship between the level of zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium in hair of people with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayon F.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It has long been believed that some metals possess many adverse health effects. Recently, certain elements have been identified as essential trace elements that play an important role in the genesis and progression of several diseases. Some toxic metals have also been shown to be elevated in biological samples of diabetes mellitus patients. The status of trace elements in diabetes patients is also influenced by their diet, drugs administered and, to a large extent, by environmental factors. Pollutants due to the presence of toxic metals in environment not only enter the body by breading, water, and foodstuff accumulates in hair, but they could be adsorbed directly on the hair from environment. The aim of present study was to investigate the relationship between the level of zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium in hair samples of diabetic women from Tehran (Iran. The study population consisted of 100 women between 30 to 70 years of age from Tehran. The hair samples were washed with 1% (w/v (DDTC, 0.1M HCL and deionized water. Afterwards, the hair sample dried in oven at 70° C for 5 hours and then digested the next day. Dry ashing digestion procedure was carried out. The concentration of elements was measured by means of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The statistical analysis confirmed that mean concentrations of lead and nickel did not differ significantly from the control group. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Cr and Zn were significantly decreased in scalp hair samples of diabetic patients as compared to control subjects. Hair Cd level was significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients. Values of Pearson correlation coefficient showed positive correlation between these elements.

  5. zinc, chromium, cadmium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... Cadmium also causes destruction of the immune system, thus, predisposes the consumer to infectious diseases like tuberculosis (Khan et al., 2008). ... years, sputum specimens positive for acid-fast bacilli by microscopy and clinical and radiographic abnormalities consistent with pulmonary tuberculosis.

  6. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  7. Redistribution of fractions of zinc, cadmium, nickel, copper, and lead in contaminated calcareous soils treated with EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Mohsen; Khanlari, Zahra V

    2007-11-01

    Effect of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the fractionation of zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in contaminated calcareous soils was investigated. Soil samples containing variable levels of contamination, from 105.9 to 5803 mg/kg Zn, from 2.2 to 1361 mg/kg Cd, from 31 to 64.0 mg/kg Ni, from 24 to 84 mg/kg Cu, and from 109 to 24,850 mg/kg Pb, were subjected to EDTA treatment at different dosages of 0, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg. Metals in the incubated soils were fractionated after 5 months by a sequential extraction procedure, in which the metal fractions were experimentally defined as exchangeable (EXCH), carbonate (CARB), Mn oxide (MNO), Fe oxide (FEO), organic matter (OM), and residual (RES) fractions. In contaminated soils without EDTA addition, Zn, Ni, Cu, and Pb were predominately present in the RES fraction, up to 60.0%, 32.3%, 41.1%, and 36.8%, respectively. In general, with the EDTA addition, the EXCH and CARB fractions of these metals increased dramatically while the OM fraction decreased. The Zn, Ni, Cu, and Pb were distributed mostly in RES, OM, FEO, and CARB fractions in contaminated soils, but Cd was found predominately in the CARB, MNO, and RES fractions. The OM fraction decreased with increasing amounts of EDTA. In the contaminated soils, EDTA removed some Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni from MNO, FEO, and OM fractions and redistributed them into CARB and EXCH fractions. Based on the relative percent in the EXCH and CARB fractions, the order of solubility was Cd > Pb > Ni > Cu > Zn for contaminated soils, before adding of EDTA, and after adding of EDTA, the order of solubility was Pb > Cd > Zn > Ni > Cu. The risk of groundwater contamination will increase after applying EDTA and it needed to be used very carefully.

  8. Clean hydrometallurgical route to recover zinc, silver, lead, copper, cadmium and iron from hazardous jarosite residues produced during zinc hydrometallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Shaohua; Zhang Yifei; Zhang Yi; Xue Peiyi; Wang Yihui

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The extraction fractions of various valuable metals during NH 4 Cl leaching are very high. The sintered residue was leached in 6 mol L -1 aqueous NH 4 Cl solution at 105 o C, followed by filtration. The leaching extraction of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd and Ag are more than 95%. → The process can detoxified the hazardous elements such as Pb, As, Cd thoroughly. Then the NH 4 Cl leaching residue were leached again in 30 wt% aqueous NaOH solution for 1 h at 160 o C, and about 94% of As and 73% of Si were removed from the residue. → The final residue contains about 55 wt% Fe, and have the potential to be used as iron concentrate. - Abstract: A hydrometallurgical process for treating the hazardous jarosite residue from zinc hydrometallurgy was proposed, for not only detoxifying the residue, but also recovering the contained valuable metal components. The jarosite was initially activated and decomposed by sintering at 650 o C for 1 h. The sintered residue was leached in 6 mol L -1 aqueous NH 4 Cl solution at 105 o C, followed by filtration. The leaching extraction of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd and Ag are more than 95%. During reduction with Zn powder, more than 93% of Pb, Cu, Ag and Cd can be simultaneously recovered. Then the NH 4 Cl leaching residue were leached again in 30 wt% aqueous NaOH solution for 1 h at 160 o C, and about 94% of As and 73% of Si were removed from the residue. The final residue was almost completely detoxified, and contains about 55 wt% Fe, which can be used as an iron concentration.

  9. Associations of cadmium, zinc, and lead in soils from a lead and zinc mining area as studied by single and sequential extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anju, M; Banerjee, D K

    2011-05-01

    An exploratory study of the area surrounding a historical Pb-Zn mining and smelting area in Zawar, India, detected significant contamination of the terrestrial environment by heavy metals. Soils (n=87) were analyzed for pH, EC, total organic matter (TOM), Pb, Zn, Mn, and Cd levels. The statistical analysis indicated that the frequency distribution of the analyzed parameters for these soils was not normal. The median concentrations of metals in surface soils were: Pb 420.21 μ g/g, Zn 870.25 μ g/g, Mn 696.70 μ g/g, and Cd 2.09 μ g/g. Zn concentrations were significantly correlated with Cd (r=0.867), indicating that levels of Cd are dependent on Zn. However, pH, electrical conductivity and total organic matter were not correlated significantly with Cd, Pb, Zn, and Mn. To assess the potential mobility of Cd, Pb, and Zn in soils, single (EDTA) as well as sequential extraction scheme (modified BCR) were applied to representative (n=23) soil samples. The amount of Cd, Pb, and Zn extracted by EDTA and their total concentrations showed linear positive correlation, which are statistically significant (r values for Cd, Pb, and Zn being 0.901, 0.971, and 0.795, respectively, and P values being soils from all the locations. As indicated by single extraction, the apparent mobility and potential bioavailability of metals in soils followed the order: Cd ≥ Pb > > Zn. Soil samples were sequentially extracted (modified BCR) so that solid pools of Cd, Zn, and Pb could be partitioned into four operationally defined fractions viz. acid-soluble, reducible, oxidizable, and residual. Cadmium was present appreciably (39.41%) in the acid-soluble fraction and zinc was predominantly associated (32.42%) with residual fraction. Pb (66.86%) and Zn (30.44%) were present mainly in the reducible fraction. Assuming that the mobility and bioavailability are related to solubility of geochemical forms of metals and decrease in the order of extraction, the apparent mobility and potential metal

  10. Removal of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc from simulated industrial effluents using silica powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, T.; Awan, A.; Arshad, M.; Khan, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid industrial development have led to the recognition and increasing understanding of interrelationship between pollution, public health and environment. Industrial development results in the generation of industrial effluents, and if untreated results in water, sediment and soil pollution. In Pakistan most of the industrial effluents are discharged into surrounding ecosystems without any treatment. Industrial wastes and emission contain toxic and hazardous substances, most of which are detrimental to human health. Extensive efforts are being made around the world for the removal of heavy metal from industrial effluents. A laboratory scale study was designed for removal of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn from simulated solutions at various weight of silica (0.5gm, 1gm, 2 gm, 3gm and 4 gm), Voltammeter was used to quantify the metals. Maximum removal of all metals was achieved with 4 gm of silica. Absorption of lead onto silic a was higher than other metals. (author)

  11. Separation of cadmium from solutions containing high concentration of zinc ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, K.D.; Bhutani, A.K.; Parvathisem, P.

    1984-01-01

    In hydrometallurgical process of extracting cadmium as a byproduct, zinc dust is added for separation of cadmium as cadimum sponge. High amounts of zinc are quite often noticed in the cadmium electrolyte subjected for electrowinning of the metal. This leads to poor quality of cadmium deposit and lower current efficiencies. Study of cadmium sponge cementation process revealed that zinc dust may be added to an acidic cadmium solution for precipitation of cadmium sponge without neutralization of the free acidity present in the system. This fact is utilized for obtaining a high cadmium sponge with 75-80 per cent cadmium and 5-10 per cent zinc with 98 per cent recovery of cadmium from the solution as sponge. The suggested process is confirmed in a cadmium production plant producing 11.0 MT of cadmium per month. (author)

  12. Factors affecting the simultaneous determination of copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in human head hair using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandiga, S.O.; Jumba, I.O.

    1982-01-01

    Conditions of analysis of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc content in human hair using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) and hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) have been established. Sample digestion using using the mixture HCI; H 2 O 2 ;HNO 3 in the ratio 2:1:40 by volume gave the best wet-ashing procedure. The peak currents and peak potentials of zinc, cadmium and lead, copper were maximum at pH 6-7 and 1-3 respectively, when excess H 2 O 2 was eliminated with subsequent addition of hydroxyamine hydrochloride. Matrix concentration effects were minimized by digesting weights not exceeding 50 mg per sample. The effect of selenium (IV) was negligible and was ignored. The detection limit of 0.0036 ng/cm 3 for Cd + 2 was obtained while the values for zinc, lead and copper were 0.0230, 0.0287 and 0.0269 ng/cm 3 respectively at the 95% confidence limit. The observed DPASV condition of analysis of these metals are useful for routine determination of the metals in human hair and should complement the conventional flame absorption spectrophotometry method. (author)

  13. Annual trace-metal load estimates and flow-weighted concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the Spokane River basin, Idaho and Washington, 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Mary M.

    2006-01-01

    Streamflow and trace-metal concentration data collected at 10 locations in the Spokane River basin of northern Idaho and eastern Washington during 1999-2004 were used as input for the U.S. Geological Survey software, LOADEST, to estimate annual loads and mean flow-weighted concentrations of total and dissolved cadmium, lead, and zinc. Cadmium composed less than 1 percent of the total metal load at all stations; lead constituted from 6 to 42 percent of the total load at stations upstream from Coeur d'Alene Lake and from 2 to 4 percent at stations downstream of the lake. Zinc composed more than 90 percent of the total metal load at 6 of the 10 stations examined in this study. Trace-metal loads were lowest at the station on Pine Creek below Amy Gulch, where the mean annual total cadmium load for 1999-2004 was 39 kilograms per year (kg/yr), the mean estimated total lead load was about 1,700 kg/yr, and the mean annual total zinc load was 14,000 kg/yr. The trace-metal loads at stations on North Fork Coeur d'Alene River at Enaville, Ninemile Creek, and Canyon Creek also were relatively low. Trace-metal loads were highest at the station at Coeur d'Alene River near Harrison. The mean annual total cadmium load was 3,400 kg/yr, the mean total lead load was 240,000 kg/yr, and the mean total zinc load was 510,000 kg/yr for 1999-2004. Trace-metal loads at the station at South Fork Coeur d'Alene River near Pinehurst and the three stations on the Spokane River downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake also were relatively high. Differences in metal loads, particularly lead, between stations upstream and downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake likely are due to trapping and retention of metals in lakebed sediments. LOADEST software was used to estimate loads for water years 1999-2001 for many of the same sites discussed in this report. Overall, results from this study and those from a previous study are in good agreement. Observed differences between the two studies are attributable to streamflow

  14. Assessment of lead, cadmium, and zinc contamination of roadside soils, surface films, and vegetables in Kampala City, Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabulo, Grace; Oryem-Origa, Hannington; Diamond, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between traffic density and trace metal concentrations in roadside soils, surface films, and a selected vegetable weed, Amaranthus dubius Mart. Ex Thell., was determined in 11 farming sites along major highways around Kampala City in Uganda. Surface soil, atmospherically deposited surface films on windows, and leaves of Amaranthus dubius were sampled at known distances from the roads and analyzed for lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Atmospherically deposited trace metal particulates were sampled using window glass as an inert, passive collector. Total trace metal concentrations in soils ranged from 30.0±2.3 to 64.6±11.7 mg/kg Pb, 78.4±18.4 to 265.6±63.2 mg/kg Zn, and 0.8±0.13 to 1.40±0.16 mg/kg Cd. Total trace metal levels in soil decreased rapidly with distance from the road. Total Pb decreased with distance up to 30 m from the road, where it reached a background soil concentration of 28 mg/kg dry weight. The study found background values of 50 and 1.4 mg/kg for Zn and Cd in roadside soils, respectively. Similarly, Pb concentration in Amaranthus dubius leaves decreased with increasing distance from the road edge. The dominant pathway for Pb contamination was from atmospheric deposition, which was consistent with Pb concentrations in surface films. The mean Pb concentrations in leaves of roadside crops were higher than those in their respective roots, with the highest leaf-to-root ratio observed in the Brassica oleraceae acephala group. The lowest Pb and Zn concentrations were found in the fruit compared to the leaves of the same crops. Leaves of roadside vegetables were therefore considered a potential source of heavy metal contamination to farmers and consumers in urban areas. It is recommended that leafy vegetables should be grown 30 m from roads in high-traffic, urban areas

  15. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc, and copper. Comprehensive progress report, October 1, 1975--December 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, R.H.

    1978-10-01

    Investigations were undertaken to elucidate the mode of transepithelial transport of potentially toxic metal ions across the gastrointestinal tract, with primary attention given to cadmium, zinc, and arsenic. In addition, the toxic effects of cadmium on the metabolism of vitamin D and calcium have been investigated in some detail. Several approaches have been taken, including studies on the localization of heavy metals in the intestinal mucosa, the effects of cadmium on various parameters of calcium metabolism, the modes of intestinal absorption of cadmium, arsenate, and zinc, and the interactions of heavy metals with each other and with calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. Details of these experiments are attached in the Comprehensive Progress Report

  16. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc, and copper. Comprehensive progress report, October 1, 1975--December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, R. H.

    1978-10-01

    Investigations were undertaken to elucidate the mode of transepithelial transport of potentially toxic metal ions across the gastrointestinal tract, with primary attention given to cadmium, zinc, and arsenic. In addition, the toxic effects of cadmium on the metabolism of vitamin D and calcium have been investigated in some detail. Several approaches have been taken, including studies on the localization of heavy metals in the intestinal mucosa, the effects of cadmium on various parameters of calcium metabolism, the modes of intestinal absorption of cadmium, arsenate, and zinc, and the interactions of heavy metals with each other and with calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. Details of these experiments are attached in the Comprehensive Progress Report.

  17. The concentration of heavy metals: zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandiga, S.O.; Jumba, I.O.

    1982-01-01

    An intercomparative analysis of the concentration of heavy metals:zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people using the techniques of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPAS) has been undertaken. The percent relative standard deviation for each sample analysed using either of the techniques show good sensitivity and correlation between the techniques. The DPAS was found to be slightly sensitive than the AAs instrument used. The recalculated body burden rations of Cd to Zn, Pb to Fe reveal no unusual health impairement symptoms and suggest a relatively clean environment in Kenya.(author)

  18. Lead, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in plaster and mortar from structures in Jasper and Newton Counties, Missouri (Tri-State Mining District)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Phyllis M [Chemistry Department, Southwest Missouri State University, 901 S. National Avenue, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States); Pavlik, Jeffrey W [Chemistry Department, Southwest Missouri State University, 901 S. National Avenue, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States); Sheets, Ralph W [Chemistry Department, Southwest Missouri State University, 901 S. National Avenue, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States); Biagioni, Richard N [Chemistry Department, Southwest Missouri State University, 901 S. National Avenue, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States)

    2005-01-05

    The primary goal of this study was to evaluate anecdotal evidence that within Jasper and Newton Counties, Missouri, two counties within the Tri-State Mining District, granular mine tailings were commonly used in place of river sands in wall plasters and mortar. Interior wall plaster and mortar samples from structures in this mining district were analyzed for lead, cadmium, and zinc, and compared to samples from Springfield, MO (comparison site). The Jasper and Newton County samples showed elevated concentrations of the three elements, consistent with the inclusion of mine tailings, with a number of samples containing lead and cadmium at concentrations greater than EPA remediation targets for yard soil. X-ray diffraction studies showed the presence of the zinc ore minerals, sphalerite and hemimorphite, in high level samples. Thin section optical studies identified the major component of the aggregate as chert, a mineral abundant within the tailing piles. Because dust from crumbling plaster and mortar could represent an avenue for significant heavy metal exposure to building occupants, we suggest that there may be associated health consequences that should be further evaluated.

  19. Lead, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in plaster and mortar from structures in Jasper and Newton Counties, Missouri (Tri-State Mining District)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, Phyllis M.; Pavlik, Jeffrey W.; Sheets, Ralph W.; Biagioni, Richard N.

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to evaluate anecdotal evidence that within Jasper and Newton Counties, Missouri, two counties within the Tri-State Mining District, granular mine tailings were commonly used in place of river sands in wall plasters and mortar. Interior wall plaster and mortar samples from structures in this mining district were analyzed for lead, cadmium, and zinc, and compared to samples from Springfield, MO (comparison site). The Jasper and Newton County samples showed elevated concentrations of the three elements, consistent with the inclusion of mine tailings, with a number of samples containing lead and cadmium at concentrations greater than EPA remediation targets for yard soil. X-ray diffraction studies showed the presence of the zinc ore minerals, sphalerite and hemimorphite, in high level samples. Thin section optical studies identified the major component of the aggregate as chert, a mineral abundant within the tailing piles. Because dust from crumbling plaster and mortar could represent an avenue for significant heavy metal exposure to building occupants, we suggest that there may be associated health consequences that should be further evaluated

  20. Determination of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Copper and Silver Using a Carbon Paste Electrode and a Screen Printed Electrode Modified with Chromium(III Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Koudelkova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the preparation and electrochemical application of a chromium(III oxide modified carbon paste electrode (Cr-CPE and a screen printed electrode (SPE, made from the same material and optimized for the simple, cheap and sensitive simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper and the detection of silver ions, is described. The limits of detection and quantification were 25 and 80 µg·L−1 for Zn(II, 3 and 10 µg·L−1 for Cd(II, 3 and 10 µg·L−1 for Pb(II, 3 and 10 µg·L−1 for Cu(II, and 3 and 10 µg·L−1 for Ag(I, respectively. Furthermore, this promising modification was transferred to the screen-printed electrode. The limits of detection for the simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, copper and lead on the screen printed electrodes were found to be 350 µg·L−1 for Zn(II, 25 µg·L−1 for Cd(II, 3 µg·L−1 for Pb(II and 3 µg·L−1 for Cu(II. Practical usability for the simultaneous detection of these heavy metal ions by the Cr-CPE was also demonstrated in the analyses of wastewaters.

  1. Determination of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Copper and Silver Using a Carbon Paste Electrode and a Screen Printed Electrode Modified with Chromium(III) Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelkova, Zuzana; Syrovy, Tomas; Ambrozova, Pavlina; Moravec, Zdenek; Kubac, Lubomir; Hynek, David; Richtera, Lukas; Adam, Vojtech

    2017-08-09

    In this study, the preparation and electrochemical application of a chromium(III) oxide modified carbon paste electrode (Cr-CPE) and a screen printed electrode (SPE), made from the same material and optimized for the simple, cheap and sensitive simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper and the detection of silver ions, is described. The limits of detection and quantification were 25 and 80 µg·L -1 for Zn(II), 3 and 10 µg·L -1 for Cd(II), 3 and 10 µg·L -1 for Pb(II), 3 and 10 µg·L -1 for Cu(II), and 3 and 10 µg·L -1 for Ag(I), respectively. Furthermore, this promising modification was transferred to the screen-printed electrode. The limits of detection for the simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, copper and lead on the screen printed electrodes were found to be 350 µg·L -1 for Zn(II), 25 µg·L -1 for Cd(II), 3 µg·L -1 for Pb(II) and 3 µg·L -1 for Cu(II). Practical usability for the simultaneous detection of these heavy metal ions by the Cr-CPE was also demonstrated in the analyses of wastewaters.

  2. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  3. Cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Together with zinc and mercury, cadmium belongs to group IIb of the periodic table. It can be found in rocks, soil, water, coal, zinc ore, lead ore, and copper ore. In the environment, cadmium is present predominantly as the oxide or as the chloride, sulfide, or sulfate salt. It has no recognizable

  4. Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc determination in precipitation: A comparison of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomization atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M.M.; Benefiel, M.A.; Claassen, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Selected trace element analysis for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in precipitation samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission Spectrometry (ICP) and by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization (AAGF) have been evaluated. This task was conducted in conjunction with a longterm study of precipitation chemistry at high altitude sites located in remote areas of the southwestern United States. Coefficients of variation and recovery values were determined for a standard reference water sample for all metals examined for both techniques. At concentration levels less than 10 micrograms per liter AAGF analyses exhibited better precision and accuracy than ICP. Both methods appear to offer the potential for cost-effective analysis of trace metal ions in precipitation. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Preconcentration and atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc in water samples using 6-methyl-2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuhawar, M.Y.; Das, P.; Dewani, V.K.

    2005-01-01

    The reagent 6-methyl-2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (MPAPT) has been examined for the pre-concentration of metal ions and determination using air acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrometer. The method is based on the complexation and extraction of cadmium (II), cobalt(III), copper(II), lead(II), nickel(II), iron(II), iron(II), manganese(II) and zinc(II) in chloroform. The metal iron are back extracted in nitric acid (1:1) or after evaporation of solvent the residue is digested in nitric acid. After necessary adjustment of volume the metal ions were determined in aqueous solution. Pre-concentration is obtained 10-25 times. Metal ions recovery was 95.4-100.8% with coefficient of variation 0.2-7.5%. The method used for the determination of metals in canal and sewerage waters, within 2-6433 mu g/L with C. V 0.-5.2%. (author)

  6. Survey of heavy metal pollution (copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron and manganese in drinking water resources of Nurabad city, Lorestan, Iran 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHodratolah Shams Khorramabadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy water passes through the pipelines from supply resources to consuming places in which passing from these stages may cause some cases of contamination like heavy metal contamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination of heavy metals (copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron, and manganese in water resources of Nurabad city of Lorestan in 2013. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, samples were collected from 7 wells of drinking water and 2 water storage tanks during 6 months in Nurabad. So that, heavy metal parameters such as copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron, and manganese were measured using an atomic absorption device and also electrical conductivity, sulfate, chloride and total dissolved solids were also measured in accordance with standard methods. Results: Results indicated that the concentration of studied metals in water sources was lower than the national standards and World Health Organization standard, and in the water supply system the concentration of some metals was more than standard level. Moreover, the results showed that the concentration of studied heavy metals were more in winter than in autumn. Conclusion: Generally, in the water resources of Nurabad city the concentration of studied heavy metals was lower than the national standards and World Health Organization standard and there are not problems for water consumers. However, due to public health and the presence of a high concentration of these metals in the distribution supply, the heavy metal concentration in drinking water of this region should be monitored regularly by responsible organizations.

  7. Cadmium, lead, and zinc mobility and plant uptake in a mine soil amended with sugarcane straw biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, A P; Abreu, C A; Melo, L C A; Paz-Ferreiro, J; Beesley, L

    2015-11-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in unconsolidated soils can prove toxic to proximal environments, if measures are not taken to stabilize soils. One way to minimize the toxicity of metals in soils is the use of materials capable of immobilizing these contaminants by sorption. Biochar (BC) can retain large amounts of heavy metals due to, among other characteristics, its large surface area. In the current experiment, sugarcane-straw-derived biochar, produced at 700 °C, was applied to a heavy-metal-contaminated mine soil at 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0% (w/w). Jack bean and Mucuna aterrima were grown in pots containing a mine contaminated soil and soil mixed with BC. Pore water was sampled to assess the effects of biochar on zinc solubility, while soils were analyzed by DTPA extraction to confirm available metal concentrations. The application of BC decreased the available concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn in the mine contaminated soil leading to a consistent reduction in the concentration of Zn in the pore water. Amendment with BC reduced plant uptake of Cd, Pb, and Zn with the jack bean uptaking higher amounts of Cd and Pb than M. aterrima. This study indicates that biochar application during mine soil remediation could reduce plant concentrations of heavy metals. Coupled with this, symptoms of heavy metal toxicity were absent only in plants growing in pots amended with biochar. The reduction in metal bioavailability and other modifications to the substrate induced by the application of biochar may be beneficial to the establishment of a green cover on top of mine soil to aid remediation and reduce risks.

  8. Evaluation of the Content of Lead, Cadmium, Mercury, Arsenic, Tin, Copper and Zinc during the Production Process Flow of Tomato Broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Andrei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are among the largest contaminants of food products. Once metals are present in vegetables, their concentrations are rarely modified by industrial processing techniques, although in some cases washing may decrease the metal content. The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of industrial processing on the content of lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, tin, copper and zinc in tomatoes and products resulting on flow technology of tomato broth. For the determination of essential elements and/or potentially toxic was use atomic absorption spectrometry. The analytical results for quantitative evaluation the concentrations of the investigated elements on the samples of tomatoes taken from the technological process of the production of tomato broth indicated the presence of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn but with a level of concentration that significantly decreased in the finished product and the absence of metals Hg and As in all investigated samples. Effect of industrial processing on the content of tin in tomato samples analyzed was characterized by fluctuations in the residual content that led to a significant increase in concentration of 0.100 ± 0.041 mg kg-1 (tomatoes - unprocessed to 0.200 ± 0.041 mg kg-1 (tomato broth.

  9. Separation and Pre-concentration of Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Nickel and Zinc by Solid-Liquid Extraction of their Cocrystallized Naphthalene Dithizone Chelate in Saline Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Antônio C. Spínola

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for separation and pre-concentration of trace amounts of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in brine samples has been proposed. It is based on the adsorption of metal ions onto dithizone co-crystallized with microcrystalline naphthalene, in the pH range 8.5-9.1. Nitric acid is used to back-extract the cations from the solid phase, which are measured by ICP-OES. Various parameters, such as the effect of pH, stirring time, and amounts of solid phase, have been studied in detail, to optimize the conditions for the determination of trace amounts of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn in synthetic brine samples. The limits of detection values expressed in mug L-1 are 44 (Zn, 11 (Ni, 30 (Cd, 47 (Pb and 11 (Cu. The precision of the procedure was determined by running 10 replicate samples, each one containing 250 mug L-1 of each element and the relative standard deviations were 2.71 % (Cd, 2.15 % (Cu, 1.53 % (Pb, 2.47 % (Ni, and 2.78 % (Zn. The accuracy of the procedure was confirmed by applying the analyte additions method and the results indicated that quantitative recoveries (superscript three 95 % were obtained.

  10. Bioaccumulation of mercury, cadmium, zinc, chromium, and lead in muscle, liver, and spleen tissues of a large commercially valuable catfish species from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio P. Arantes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amounts of heavy metals entering aquatic environments can result in high accumulation levels of these contaminants in fish and their consumers, which pose a serious risk to ecosystems and human health. We investigated the concentrations of mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn, chromium (Cr, and lead (Pb in muscle, liver, and spleen tissues of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans specimens collected from two sites on the Paraopeba River, Brazil. The level of heavy metals concentrations in the tissues was often higher in viscera (i.e. liver and spleen than in muscle, and thus, the viscera should not be considered for human consumption. Correlations between metal concentrations and fish size were not significant. Although the levels of muscle bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd, Zn, Cr, and Pb, generally do not exceed the safe levels for human consumption, the constant presence of heavy metals in concentrations near those limits considered safe for human consumption, is a reason for concern, and populations who constantly consume fish from polluted rivers should be warned. Our findings also indicate that in a river network where certain areas are connected to other areas with high rates of environmental pollutants, people should be cautious about the regular consumption of fish, even when the fish consumed are caught in stretches of the basin where contamination levels are considered low, since many of the freshwater fish with high commercial value, such as the catfish surubim, are migratory.

  11. Selective sorption of lead, cadmium and zinc ions by a polymeric cation exchanger containing nano-Zr(HPO3S)2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingrui; Pan, Bingcai; Pan, Bingjun; Zhang, Weiming; Jia, Kun; Zhang, Quanxing

    2008-06-01

    A novel polymeric hybrid sorbent, namely ZrPS-001, was fabricated for enhanced sorption of heavy metal ions by impregnating Zr(HPO3S)2 (i.e., ZrPS) nanoparticles within a porous polymeric cation exchanger D-001. The immobilized negatively charged groups bound to the polymeric matrix D-001 would result in preconcentration and permeation enhancement of target metal ions prior to sequestration, and ZrPS nanoparticles are expected to sequester heavy metals selectively through an ion-exchange process. Highly effective sequestration of lead, cadmium, and zinc ions from aqueous solution can be achieved by ZrPS-001 even in the presence of competing calcium ion at concentration several orders of magnitude greater than the target species. The exhausted ZrPS-001 beads are amenable to regeneration with 6 M HCI solution for repeated use without any significant capacity loss. Fixed-bed column treatment of simulated waters containing heavy metals at high or trace levels was also performed. The content of heavy metals in treated effluent approached or met the WHO drinking water standard.

  12. Applying carbon dioxide, plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium and EDTA can enhance the phytoremediation efficiency of ryegrass in a soil polluted with zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junkang; Feng, Renwei; Ding, Yongzhen; Wang, Ruigang

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the use of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Burkholderia sp. D54 (PGPR) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to enhance the phytoextraction efficiency of ryegrass in response to multiple heavy metal (or metalloid)-polluted soil containing zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). All of the single or combined CO2, PGPR and EDTA treatments promoted ryegrass growth. The stimulation of ryegrass growth by CO2 and PGPR could primarily be attributed to the regulation of photosynthesis rather than decreased levels of Zn, As and Cd in the shoots. Most treatments seemed to reduce the Zn, As and Cd contents in the shoots, which might be associated with enhanced shoot biomass, thus causing a "dilution effect" regarding their levels. The combined treatments seemed to perform better than single treatments in removing Zn, As, Cd and Pb from soil, judging from the larger biomass and relatively higher total amounts (TAs) of Zn, As, Cd and Pb in both the shoots and roots. Therefore, we suggest that the CO2 plus PGPR treatment will be suitable for removing Zn, As, Cd and Pb from heavy metal (or metalloid)-polluted soils using ryegrass as a phytoremediation material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Uptake of Cadmium, Copper, Lead, and Zinc from Sediments by an Aquatic Macrophyte and by Terrestrial Arthropods in a Freshwater Wetland Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heung-Tae; Kim, Jae Geun

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate trace-metal [cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn)] biotransference and biomagnification in terrestrial biota at different trophic levels (primary producer-top predator) of a wetland ecosystem. We investigated whether metal concentrations in the sediment are reflected in terrestrial arthropods and aquatic plants. We sampled the floating-leaved plant Trapa japonica; its species-specific primary consumer, the leaf beetle Galerucella nipponensis; and two predatory arthropods (the water strider Gerris sp. and the wolf spider Arctosa sp.) from three wetlands with different sedimentary metal concentrations. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N signatures in the trophic link between the plants and the leaf beetles supported the specificity of their feeding relationship. The stable isotope signatures indicate that the leaf beetle could be an important link in the trophic transfer of the metals. Transference factors (TFs) were 1 for all biota, and the concentrations were positively correlated with the trophic levels. Thus, there may be Cu and Zn biomagnification in the arthropods. We noted TF 1 among the arthropods. Therefore, Cd is probably not biomagnified between T. japonica and G. nipponensis, but it might be biomagnified in the arthropods. The metal burden in terrestrial arthropods may also be influenced by uptake from the sediment by aquatic plants.

  14. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation of Elsholtzia argyi origining from a zinc/lead mining site - a hydroponics experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siliang; Wang, Fengping; Ru, Mei; Ni, Wuzhong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a hydroponics experiment was conducted to investigate the characteristics of Cd tolerance and accumulation of Elsholtzia argyi natively growing on the soil with high levels of heavy metals in a Zn/Pb mining site. Seedlings of E. argyi grown for 4 weeks and then were treated with 0(CK), 5,10,15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50,100 umM Cd for 21 days. Each treatment had three replications. No visual toxic symptoms on shoots of E. argyi were observed at Cd level < or = 50 muM. The results indicated that the dry biomass of each tissue and the whole plants of the treatments with < or =40 umM cadmium were similar to that of the control, implying that E. argyi was a cadmium tolerant plant. The results also showed that the shoot Cd concentration significantly (P < 0.05) increased with the increase in the Cd level in nutrient solution. The shoot Cd concentration of the treatment with 40 umM Cd was as high as 237.9 mg kg(-1), which was higher than 100 mg kg(-1), normally used as the threshold concentration for identifying the Cd hyperaccumulating plant. It could be concluded that E. argyi was a Cd tolerant and accumulating plant species.

  15. CADMIUM, COPPER, LEAD AND ZINC CONCENTRATIONS IN LOW QUALITY WINES AND ALCOHOL CONTAINING DRINKS FROM ITALY, BULGARIA AND POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Muchacka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in low quality wines produced in Bulgaria and Italy and in alcohol containing multi-fruit drinks produced in Poland. All the metals were present in tested products. Cadmium was not detected in Italian and Polish products. In one of the Bulgarian wines cadmium was detected in concentration of 0.004 mg•l-1. Italian wines were not contaminated with Pb. Its concentration was the highest in Polish drinks (0.88±0.52 mg•l-1. The largest and statistically significant differences occurred between Cu and Zn contents. Both metals had the highest concetrations in Italian wines (Cu - 0.13±0.05 mg•l-1; Zn - 0.83±0.56 mg•l-1, and the lowest in Polish products (Cu - 0.04±0.001 mg•l-1; Zn -0.18±0.16 mg•l-1.

  16. Concentrations of cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Blood and Fillets of Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-Zinc mining: Implications for monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained Fillet Pb and calcium concentrations were correlated (r = 0.83), but only in the 12 fish from the most contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet-to-blood relation explained an

  17. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  18. Synchrotron-based X-Ray Spectroscopy Studies for Redox-based Remediation of Lead, Zinc, and Cadmium in Mine Waste Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karna, Ranju R; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Newville, Matthew; Sun, ChengJun; Ma, Qing

    2016-11-01

    Several studies have examined the effect of submergence on the mobility of metals present in mine waste materials. This study examines the effect of organic carbon (OC) and sulfur (S) additions and submergence time on redox-induced biogeochemical transformations of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) present in mine waste materials collected from the Tri-State mining district located in southeastern Kansas, southwestern Missouri, and northeastern Oklahoma. A completely randomized design, with a two-way treatment structure, was used for conducting a series of column experiments. Two replicates were used for each treatment combination. Effluent samples were collected at several time points, and soil samples were collected at the end of each column experiment. Because these samples are highly heterogeneous, we used a variety of synchrotron-based techniques to identify Pb, Zn, and Cd speciation at both micro- and bulk-scale. Spectroscopic analysis results from the study revealed that the addition of OC, with and without S, promoted metal-sulfide formation, whereas metal carbonates dominated in the nonamended flooded materials and in mine waste materials only amended with S. Therefore, the synergistic effect of OC and S may be more promising for managing mine waste materials disposed of in flooded subsidence mine pits instead of individual S or OC treatments. The mechanistic understanding gained in this study is also relevant for remediation of waste materials using natural or constructed wetland systems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Bioavailability of cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, and zinc in subtropical coastal lagoons from the southeast Gulf of California using mangrove oysters (Crassostrea corteziensis and Crassostrea palmula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez-Osuna, Federico; Osuna-Martínez, Carmen C

    2015-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were assessed in the edible tissues of Crassrotrea corteziensis oysters collected during the rainy and dry seasons in 27 sites from 8 coastal lagoons of the southeast Gulf of California. In addition, C. palmula oysters were sampled at 9 sites from the same mangrove roots where C. corteziensis oysters were collected. Metal analyses were performed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Cd, Cu, and Zn), graphite furnace (Pb), and cold vapor detection (Hg). The obtained mean levels were (µg g(-1) dry weight) as follows: Cd 6.05 ± 2.77, Cu 60.0 ± 33.4, Hg 0.38 ± 0.17, Pb 1.11 ± 0.63, and Zn 777 ± 528 µg g(-1). For all metals except Hg, the concentrations were greater during dry season than during rainy seasons. The high levels, particularly that for Cd, were related to upwelling along the eastern Gulf of California. High Hg levels in the rainy season were associated with the transport of materials from the watershed to the lagoon. Shrimp farming, agriculture, and other sources were considered as potential sources to explain the differences in metal bioavailability in the 8 lagoons. The mean concentrations of Cd (Santa María-La Reforma lagoon), Cu [San Ignacio-Navachiste-El Macapule (SINM), Urías (URI), and Altata-Ensenada del Pabellón lagoons], and zinc (Zn) (URI, Santa María-Ohuira-Topolobampo, El Colorado, and SINM lagoons) during the dry season were greater than the maximum permissible limits. C. palmula collected in 8 sites where they were present simultaneously with C. corteziensis had consistently greater metal levels than C. corteziensis, but correlation analyses showed a high and significant (P < 0.05) correlation between metal concentrations in both species. The correlation equations obtained are useful where the same species is not distributed and is necessary to compare results from distinct regions.

  20. Leaching of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc from two slag dumps with different environmental exposure periods under dynamic acidic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhisheng; Liu, Taoze; Yang, Yuangen; Jackson, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few decades, zinc smelting activities in Guizhou, China have produced numerous slag dumps, which are often dispersed on roadsides and hill slopes throughout the region. During periods of acid rain, these exposed slags release heavy metals into surface water bodies. A column leaching study was designed to test the potential release of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) under simulated acid rain events. Two slags with varying environmental exposure periods were packed in columns and subjected to leaching solutions of pH 3.5, 5.5, or DI H2O at intervals of 1, 7, 14, 28, 56d. Pulse concentrations of Cd in leachate were found above 5μg/L, Cr, Pb, and Zn >10μg/L, whereas, Cu reached 10μg/L. After five leaching events, the leachability (percentage of cumulative heavy metal leached after five leaching events as in its respective total concentration in slags) of Cd was 0.05 percent and 0.035 percent from the old and young slag, respectively. Cr (0.035 percent and 0.05 percent) was greater than Cu (0.002 percent and 0.005 percent) and Zn (0.006 percent and 0.003 percent), while the lowest leachability was observed for Pb (0.0005 percent and 0.0002 percent) from the old and young slags, respectively. Reaction rates (release amount of heavy metals in certain period of leaching) of heavy metals in the leachates demonstrated the sequence of Zn>Cr>Cd, Cu>Pb. Leaching release of heavy metals was jointly affected by the pH of leaching solution and mineral composition of slags (including chemical forms of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). Environmental exposure period of slags, resulting in the alteration of minerals, could affect the release process of heavy metals in leaching as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lead and cadmium in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliesmann, S.; Kruse, H.; Kriews, M.; Mangels, H.

    1992-08-01

    The amounts of lead and cadmium produced and processed in these days are considerable. As a result, our environment is increasingly polluted by heavy metals and industrial installations, motor vehicles or incinerating plants appear to be among the main culprits here. Air and water are the media permitting the entry of heavy metals into our natural environment where they accumulate in the soil and then gradually migrate into the plants. Their further transport in the food constitutes the third step in the environmental spread of heavy metals. The consumption of muscle and organ meats, of vegetables, fruits, canned food and drinking water is unavoidably associated with some ingestion of lead and cadmium. The degree to which they are taken up and stored in different tissues is determined by absorption properties and the nutritional state of the organism. Cadmium tends to accumulate in the kidneys, lead is mainly stored in the bones. A continuously increasing uptake finally results in health injuries that range from unspecific complaints to damaged kidneys or bones and disorders of liver function. Children and elderly people are at a particular risk here. The level of food contamination is such that screening for heavy metals must be rigorously carried out once appropriate legal thresholds have been set, which ought to be based on proven detrimental effects of lead and cadmium on our health and also take account of infants and children or any other risk groups, where particular caution must be exercised. It should be pointed out that such thresholds have so far not been determined. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Environmental hazard of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in metal-contaminated soils remediated by sulfosuccinamate formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Carmen Hernández-Soriano, Maria; Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, M Dolores

    2011-10-01

    Accumulation of metals in soil at elevated concentrations causes risks to the environmental quality and human health for more than one hundred million people globally. The rate of metal release and the alteration of metal distribution in soil phases after soil washing with a sulfosuccinamate surfactant solution (Aerosol 22) were evaluated for four contaminated soils. Furthermore, a sequential extraction scheme was carried out using selective extractants (HAcO, NH(2)OH·HCl, H(2)O(2) + NH(4)AcO) to evaluate which metal species are extracted by A22 and the alteration in metal distribution upon surfactant-washing. Efficiency of A22 to remove metals varied among soils. The washing treatment released up to 50% of Cd, 40% of Cu, 20% of Pb and 12% of Zn, mainly from the soluble and reducible soil fractions, therefore, greatly reducing the fraction of metals readily available in soil. Metal speciation analysis for the solutions collected upon soil washing with Aerosol 22 further confirmed these results. Copper and lead in solution were mostly present as soluble complexes, while Cd and Zn were present as free ions. Besides, redistribution of metals in soil was observed upon washing. The ratios of Zn strongly retained in the soil matrix and Cd complexed with organic ligands increased. Lead was mobilized to more weakly retained forms, which indicates a high bioavailability of the remaining Pb in soil after washing. Comprehensive knowledge on chemical forms of metals present in soil allows a feasible assessment of the environmental impact of metals for a given scenario, as well as possible alteration of environmental conditions, and a valuable prediction for potential leaching and groundwater contamination.

  3. Biochar application to a contaminated soil reduces the availability and plant uptake of zinc, lead and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, A P; Abreu, C A; Melo, L C A; Beesley, L

    2015-08-15

    Heavy metals in soil are naturally occurring but may be enhanced by anthropogenic activities such as mining. Bio-accumulation of heavy metals in the food chain, following their uptake to plants can increase the ecotoxicological risks associated with remediation of contaminated soils using plants. In the current experiment sugar cane straw-derived biochar (BC), produced at 700 °C, was applied to a heavy metal contaminated mine soil at 1.5%, 3.0% and 5.0% (w/w). Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and Mucuna aterrima were grown in pots containing soil and biochar mixtures, and control pots without biochar. Pore water was sampled from each pot to confirm the effects of biochar on metal solubility, whilst soils were analyzed by DTPA extraction to confirm available metal concentrations. Leaves were sampled for SEM analysis to detect possible morphological and anatomical changes. The application of BC decreased the available concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in 56, 50 and 54% respectively, in the mine contaminated soil leading to a consistent reduction in the concentration of Zn in the pore water (1st collect: 99 to 39 μg L(-1), 2nd: 97 to 57 μg L(-1) and 3rd: 71 to 12 μg L(-1)). The application of BC reduced the uptake of Cd, Pb and Zn by plants with the jack bean translocating high proportions of metals (especially Cd) to shoots. Metals were also taken up by Mucuna aterrima but translocation to shoot was more limited than for jack bean. There were no differences in the internal structures of leaves observed by scanning electron microscopy. This study indicates that biochar application during mine soil remediation reduce plant concentrations of potential toxic metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship between maternal blood cadmium, zinc levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The delivery of babies with low birth weight is a prognosis of neonatal mortality, morbidity and poor health outcomes later in life. This study evaluates the levels of cadmium, zinc and calculated cadmium/zinc ratio in non-occupationally exposed pregnant women at delivery and their relationship with birth weight of babies.

  5. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R. Steven

    2017-01-01

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs. PMID:28961214

  6. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R Steven

    2017-09-29

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  7. Electrochemical sensors for the simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium and lead using a Nafion/ionic liquid/graphene composite modified screen-printed carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiyo, Sudkate; Mehmeti, Eda; Žagar, Kristina; Siangproh, Weena; Chailapakul, Orawon; Kalcher, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    A simple, low cost, and highly sensitive electrochemical sensor, based on a Nafion/ionic liquid/graphene composite modified screen-printed carbon electrode (N/IL/G/SPCE) was developed to determine zinc (Zn(II)), cadmium (Cd(II)), and lead (Pb(II)) simultaneously. This disposable electrode shows excellent conductivity and fast electron transfer kinetics. By in situ plating with a bismuth film (BiF), the developed electrode exhibited well-defined and separate peaks for Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). Analytical characteristics of the BiF/N/IL/G/SPCE were explored with calibration curves which were found to be linear for Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) concentrations over the range from 0.1 to 100.0 ng L"−"1. With an accumulation period of 120 s detection limits of 0.09 ng mL"−"1, 0.06 ng L"−"1 and 0.08 ng L"−"1 were obtained for Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively using the BiF/N/IL/G/SPCE sensor, calculated as 3σ value of the blank. In addition, the developed electrode displayed a good repeatability and reproducibility. The interference from other common ions associated with Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) detection could be effectively avoided. Finally, the proposed analytical procedure was applied to detect the trace metal ions in drinking water samples with satisfactory results which demonstrates the suitability of the BiF/N/IL/G/SPCE to detect heavy metals in water samples and the results agreed well with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. - Highlights: • Nafion/ionic liquid/graphene composite modified electrode was fabricated. • Simultaneous determination of Zn, Cd and Pb in real samples was studied. • Zn, Cd and Pb could be sensitively measured as low as 90, 60 and 80 pg mL"−"1.

  8. Biochemical effects of lead, zinc, and cadmium from mining on fish in the Tri-States district of northeastern Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Whyte, Jeffrey J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the exposure of fish from the Spring and Neosho Rivers in northeast Oklahoma, USA, to lead, zinc, and cadmium from historical mining in the Tri-States Mining District (TSMD). Fish (n = 74) representing six species were collected in October 2001 from six sites on the Spring and Neosho Rivers influenced to differing degrees by mining. Additional samples were obtained from the Big River, a heavily contaminated stream in eastern Missouri, USA, and from reference sites. Blood from each fish was analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cd, Fe, and hemoglobin (Hb). Blood also was analyzed for ??-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity. The activity of ALA-D, an enzyme involved in heme synthesis, is inhibited by Pb. Concentrations of Fe and Hb were highly correlated (r = 0.89, p < 0.01) across all species and locations and typically were greater in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) than in other taxa. Concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd typically were greatest in fish from sites most heavily affected by mining and lowest in reference samples. The activity of ALA-D, but not concentrations of Hb or Fe, also differed significantly (p < 0.01) among sites and species. Enzyme activity was lowest in fish from mining-contaminated sites and greatest in reference fish, and was correlated negatively with Pb in most species. Statistically significant (p < 0.01) linear regression models that included negative terms for blood Pb explained as much as 68% of the total variation in ALA-D activity, but differences among taxa were highly evident. Positive correlations with Zn were documented in the combined data for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris), as has been reported for other taxa, but not in bass (Micropterus spp.) or carp. In channel catfish, ALA-D activity appeared to be more sensitive to blood Pb than in the other species investigated (i.e., threshold concentrations for inhibition were lower). Such among-species differences are consistent

  9. Canadian House Dust Study: Population-based concentrations, loads and loading rates of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc inside urban homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Pat E. [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Levesque, Christine [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Chénier, Marc; Gardner, H. David [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Jones-Otazo, Heather [Regions and Programs Branch, Health Canada, 180 Queen Street West, Toronto, ON, Canada M5V 3L7 (Canada); Petrovic, Sanya [Contaminated Sites Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Ave West, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    The Canadian House Dust Study was designed to obtain nationally representative urban house dust metal concentrations (μg g{sup −1}) and metal loadings (μg m{sup −2}) for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Consistent sampling of active dust of known age and provenance (area sampled) also permitted the calculation of indoor loading rates (mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1} for dust and μg m{sup −2} day{sup −1} for metals) for the winter season (from 2007 to 2010) when houses are most tightly sealed. Geomean/median indoor dust loading rates in homes located more than 2 km away from industry of any kind (9.6/9.1 mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1}; n = 580) were significantly lower (p < .001) than geomean (median) dust loading rates in homes located within 2 km of industry (13.5/13.4 mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1}; n = 421). Proximity to industry was characterized by higher indoor metal loading rates (p < .003), but no difference in dust metal concentrations (.29 ≥ p ≤ .97). Comparisons of non-smokers' and smokers' homes in non-industrial zones showed higher metal loading rates (.005 ≥ p ≤ .038) in smokers' homes, but no difference in dust metal concentrations (.15 ≥ p ≤ .97). Relationships between house age and dust metal concentrations were significant for Pb, Cd and Zn (p < .001) but not for the other four metals (.14 ≥ p ≤ .87). All seven metals, however, displayed a significant increase in metal loading rates with house age (p < .001) due to the influence of higher dust loading rates in older homes (p < .001). Relationships between three measures of metals in house dust – concentration, load, and loading rate – in the context of house age, smoking behavior and urban setting consistently show that concentration data is a useful indicator of the presence of metal sources in the home, whereas dust mass is the overriding influence on metal loadings and loading rates

  10. Transport of trace metals in the Magela Creek system, Northern Territory. I. Concentrations and loads of iron, manganese, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc during flood periods in the 1978-1979 wet season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, B.T.; Davies, S.H.R.; Thomas, P.A.

    1981-12-01

    In order that realistic effluent standards may be established for the Ranger uranium operations at Jabiru, Northern Territory, it is necessary that there be a clear and detailed knowledge of the pre-mining levels of trace metals and their behaviour within the Magela Creek system. During the wet season, floodwaters were sampled for conductivity, suspended solids and the trace metals, iron, manganese, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc. All concentrations were found to be very low, as were the denudation rates for the trace metals and suspended materials

  11. THE CONTENT OF ZINC, LEAD AND CADMIUM IN BAY BOLETE (XEROCOMUS BADIUS (FR. E. COLLECTED FROM A STRONGLY POLLUTED FOREST COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Pająk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out in the Świerklaniec Forest District, the Brynica sub-district, which is located in the immediate vicinity of a metallurgical plant, a zinc mine named Huta Cynku "Miasteczko Śląskie" (HCMŚ. In autumn 2008, in the area in question, 31 permanent trial plots were established, aligned within a regular net of squares, with dimensions of 1500×1500 m. The trial plots were located to the north-east and to the east of the emitter (the HCMŚ zinc mine, accordingly with the direction of prevailing winds. In September 2013, and September and October 2014, sporocarps of bay bolete (Xerocomus badius (Fr. E. were collected from the trial plots. The analyses performed for the material gathered covered a determination of heavy metal content in mushrooms (Zn, Pb and Cd, using a method of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy ICP-AES. This paper aimed to establish the accumulation levels of selected heavy metals (Zn, Pb and Cd in bay bolete growing in forests of the Brynica sub-district, in the Świerklaniec Forest District, and the correlation between their content in soil and in the mushrooms under scrutiny. The analyses revealed that the contamination degree in the investigated species was extremely high. The content of toxic elements in bay bolete significantly exceeded the acceptable standards referring to the maximum content of heavy metals in mushrooms, which was particularly true for cadmium.

  12. An experimental study of the retention of zinc, zinc-cadmium mixture and zinc-65 in the presence of cadmium in Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pally, Monique; Foulquier, Luc

    1976-07-01

    Zinc uptake was studied in eels in fresh water, using stable zinc, a zinc-cadmium mixture, and zinc 65 in the presence of small amounts of cadmium. The zinc content in the eel began to increase after 45 days only, and reached approximately 85 ppm after 76 days in water initially containing 5ppm of zinc. At the conclusion of the experiment (76 days), the body organs could be classified in decreasing order in zinc content (in ppm): kidneys (152), skeleton (133), skin (129), muscles (89), head (80), gills (78), digestive tract (77), liver (63) spleen-heart-air bladder (32), and mucus (15). A comparison of experimental results obtained with the zinc-cadmium mixture and cadmium alone showed that zinc decreased the cadmium content of all organs except the gills. The presence of cadmium in water did not inhibit zinc uptake. As cadmium content in water increased, then zinc content in the digestive tract and the kidneys decreased and in all cases remained lower than when zinc alone was present. In the presence of cadmium the percentage of zinc in the kidneys was always lower than the value obtained for zinc alone, and that of the digestive tract did not increase. Contamination of eels treated with 18 and 50ppb of cadmium for 29 days, then contaminated by zinc-65 (5μCi/l) while maintaining the same low cadmium content, showed no significant difference in zinc 65 uptake in the two groups. The same applied to the body organs, and particularly the digestive tract and kidneys, where the highest activity levels were observed. By weight, muscles represented approximately 30% of the total contamination after 45 days [fr

  13. Long-term (1992-2004) record of lead, cadmium, and zinc air contamination in Warsaw, Poland: determination by chemical analysis of moss bags and leaves of Crimean linden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmuchowski, Wojciech; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej

    2009-12-01

    Between 1992 and 2004, air contamination with lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in Warsaw, Poland, was monitored annually with moss (Sphagnum fallax) bags on a network of 230 sites covering the entire city. During the study the highest contamination was near the Warszawa Steel Mill, northwestern Warsaw. Lead concentrations in moss bags decreased in time, while those of Cd and Zn did not show clear trends. Between 1994 and 2004, Pb, Cd, and Zn were also monitored in the Crimean linden (Tilia Euchlora) foliage along the main city avenue and in a northwestern warsaw park. Lead concentrations decreased more near the avenue than in the park, indicating that the phasing-out of leaded gasoline had a major effect on reduced Pb contamination in Warsaw. At the same time, foliar concentrations of Cd and Zn in both areas decreased much less.

  14. Lead and cadmium content of spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielig, H J; Dreyer, H; Askar, A

    1977-02-02

    The lead and cadmium content of various spices was determined by flameless atomic absorption (AAS). With the exception of one sample, the lead content was lower than 5 ppm, averaging a value of 2,2 ppm Pb. Thus, the maximum permissible level of 5 ppm Pb as recommended by different DIN standards, is not exceeded. The cadmium content was - except for one sample - lower than 0,5 ppm averaging a value of 0,23 ppm Cd. It can be assumed, that by spicing our dishes, the ingestion of lead and cadmium stays at a low level.

  15. Reactions of organic zinc- and cadmium elementoxides with ethylene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonov, V.A.; Krasnov, Yu.N.

    1980-01-01

    Studied are reactions of triphenylmethoxy, -triphenylsiloxyethylzinc and -cadmium with ethylene oxide in ratio of 1:1. Reactions have been carried out in tolyene solutions in ampules sealed in argon atmosphere. It is found that interaction of triphenylsiloxy-, triphenylmethoxyethylcadmium and triphenylsiloxyethylzinc with ethylene oxide occurs at the metal-carbon bond with formation of implantation products. Triphenylmethoxyethylzinc reacts with ethylene oxide both at the metal-carbon and metal-oxygen bonds. Alkoxytriphenylsiloxyderivatives of zinc and cadmium are thermally instable and decompose under the conditions of reaction (130 deg C) with migration of phenyl group from silicon to zinc or cadmium, giving alkoxyphenylderivative and with bensene splitting out

  16. [A comparative study of cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, selenium, manganese, copper and zinc in brown rice and fish by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Harumi; Ueno, Eiji; Saito, Isao; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of ICP-MS techniques for determination of metals in brown rice and fish. Cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, selenium, manganese, copper and zinc were determined by this method. An open digestion with nitric acid (Method A) and a rapid open digestion with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid (Method B) were used to solubilize analytes in samples, and these procedures were followed by ICP-MS analysis. Recovery of certified elements from standard reference materials by Method A and Method B ranged from 92 to 110% except for mercury (70 to 100%). Analytical results of brown rice and fish samples obtained by this ICP-MS agreed with those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results of this study demonstrate that quadrupole ICP-MS provides precise and accurate measurements of the elements tested in brown rice and fish samples.

  17. Copper, lead and zinc production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, J.; Ternan, S.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter provides information on the by-products and residues generated during the production of copper, lead and zinc. The purpose of this chapter is to describe by-products and residues which are generated, how these may be avoided or minimised, and available options for the utilization and management of residues. (author)

  18. Teor de zinco, cádmio e chumbo em plantas de arroz em solos incubados com resíduo siderúrgico Contents of zinc, cadmium and lead in rice plants in soils incubated with slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André F. M. de Andrade

    2010-10-01

    grown in Fluvic Entisol had the highest dry matter production and higher zinc accumulation, but smaller accumulation of cadmium, while the ones in the Typic soil showed the lowest dry matter production, lower accumulation of zinc, but higher lead and cadmium accumulation. The DTPA extractor was subjected to high and significant correlations with the concentrations of lead, cadmium and zinc in roots and shoots and, with the total amount accumulated in plants, showed as a good indicator of the bioavailability of these three metals. According to the characteristics presented in the soils studied and the phytotoxic concentrations of lead and cadmium found in plants grown in PVA, the use of this residue as a source of zinc for rice cultivation is not recommended.

  19. Solid phase extraction of lead, cadmium and zinc on biodegradable polyhydroxybutyrate diethanol amine (PHB-DEA) polymer and their determination in water and food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Sahiner, Samet; Hazer, Baki

    2016-11-01

    A new biodegradable polyhydroxybutyrate diethanol amine (PHB-DEA) polymer was used as adsorbent for the sensitive and selective separation, preconcentration and determination of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Diethyl dithiocarbamate was used as chelating reagent. Analytical parameters such as pH, eluent type and its volume, flow rates of sample solution, ligand amount, sample volume were optimized. Effects of some cations, anions and transition metal ions were also investigated. Enrichment factor and relative standard deviation were found to be 100 and 3%, respectively. The limits of detection based on three times standard deviation of blanks (N=21) were found 1.05μgL(-1) for Pb(II), 0.42μgL(-1) for Cd(II) and 0.13μgL(-1) for Zn(II). Limits of quantification (10s, N=21) were found 3.47μgL(-1) for Pb(II), 1.39μgL(-1) for Cd(II) and 0.43μgL(-1) for Zn(II). Accuracy evaluation of the method was confirmed with analyses of certified reference materials (NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves, IAEA 336 Lichen, GBW 07605 Tea). Optimized method was applied to tap water and food samples after microwave digestion method. Cadmium and lead values in some samples were found higher than legal limits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term (1992-2004) record of lead, cadmium, and zinc air contamination in Warsaw, Poland: Determination by chemical analysis of moss bags and leaves of Crimean linden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmuchowski, Wojciech, E-mail: dmuchowski@ob.neostrada.p [Botanical Garden-Center for Conservation of Biological Diversity, Polish Academy of Sciences, 2 Prawdziwka St., 02-973 Warszawa (Poland); Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Faculty of Agriculture and Biology, 159 Nowoursynowska St., 02-776 Warszawa (Poland); Bytnerowicz, Andrzej [US Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Between 1992 and 2004, air contamination with lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in Warsaw, Poland, was monitored annually with moss (Sphagnum fallax) bags on a network of 230 sites covering the entire city. During the study the highest contamination was near the Warszawa Steel Mill, northwestern Warsaw. Lead concentrations in moss bags decreased in time, while those of Cd and Zn did not show clear trends. Between 1994 and 2004, Pb, Cd, and Zn were also monitored in the Crimean linden (Tilia Euchlora) foliage along the main city avenue and in a northwestern warsaw park. Lead concentrations decreased more near the avenue than in the park, indicating that the phasing-out of leaded gasoline had a major effect on reduced Pb contamination in Warsaw. At the same time, foliar concentrations of Cd and Zn in both areas decreased much less. - Between 1992 and 2004, concentrations of Pb decreased, while those of Cd and Zn remained little changed in moss bags and linden foliage exposed to ambient air in Warsaw, Poland.

  1. Long-term (1992-2004) record of lead, cadmium, and zinc air contamination in Warsaw, Poland: Determination by chemical analysis of moss bags and leaves of Crimean linden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmuchowski, Wojciech; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Between 1992 and 2004, air contamination with lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in Warsaw, Poland, was monitored annually with moss (Sphagnum fallax) bags on a network of 230 sites covering the entire city. During the study the highest contamination was near the Warszawa Steel Mill, northwestern Warsaw. Lead concentrations in moss bags decreased in time, while those of Cd and Zn did not show clear trends. Between 1994 and 2004, Pb, Cd, and Zn were also monitored in the Crimean linden (Tilia Euchlora) foliage along the main city avenue and in a northwestern warsaw park. Lead concentrations decreased more near the avenue than in the park, indicating that the phasing-out of leaded gasoline had a major effect on reduced Pb contamination in Warsaw. At the same time, foliar concentrations of Cd and Zn in both areas decreased much less. - Between 1992 and 2004, concentrations of Pb decreased, while those of Cd and Zn remained little changed in moss bags and linden foliage exposed to ambient air in Warsaw, Poland.

  2. Suitability of three cultivars of coral bells (heuchera cvs. to bioremediation of cadmium (cd, lead (pb and zinc (zn from post-mining area in zagłębie dąbrowskie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Sąkol

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term shallow exploitation of pitcoal in Będzin area (in mining district Zagłębie Dąbrowskie has degraded the environment. Profiles of soil were dislocated and contaminated with heavy metals above permissible standards. Due to the fact that Zagłę- bie Dąbrowskie is densely populated, risk of harmful exposure to heavy metals affects high number of people. Decontamination of post-mining grounds is possible with planting plants which not only tolerate elevated heavy metals quantities but can also accumulate them in plant tissues. Materials and methods: The cultivars ‘Chatterbox’ and ‘Strawberry Swirl’ and ‘Palace Purple’ of coral bells (Heuchera cvs. were chosen to do the research. Cadmium, lead and zinc uptake in plants growing in contaminated and control fields was evaluated. Amount of heavy metals was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. Results: Content of metals detected in plants in postmining soil was respectively: Cd 1,92 mgükg11, Pb 56,3 mgükg11, Zn 153,7 mgükg11. Those metals value is from 2 to 4 times higher than natural content in neutral soil of pH 6,5 – a typical pH in this region. The examined cultivars of coral bells accumulated significant amount of Cd, Pb, Zn even if concentration of those metals was low, what is characteristic for clean regions of Poland. Conclusions: The plants cultivated on contaminated soil of post-mining region didn`t show toxic response (damaged leaves even though they accumulated cadmium, lead and zinc in their roots and leaves. Cultivars differences of coral bells found on significance level (p¤0,05. The cultivar ‘Palace Purple’ has transported the highest amount of lead from roots to leaves. Other cultivars ‘Chatterbox’ and ‘Strawberry Swirl’ have accumulated higher amounts of metals in their roots in a sequence Cd¤Zn¤Pb.

  3. Thermoelectric material comprising scandium doped zinc cadmium oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    There is presented a composition of scandium doped Zinc Cadmium Oxide with the general formula ZnzCdxScyO which the inventors have prepared, and for which material the inventors have made the insight that it is particularly advantageous as an n-type oxide material, such as particularly advantageous...

  4. Evaluation of some trace elements (zinc, chromium, cadmium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Throughout the world, tuberculosis (TB) infection is on the increase and it has remained one of the most important causes of death among adults in developing countries. This study evaluated the serum concentrations of some trace elements -Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn), Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd), in 100 blood ...

  5. Problem of cadmium, arsenic and zinc determination in enviroment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyugin, M.S.; Luzhnova, M.A.; Lontsikh, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    Using the emission spectroscopy technique new information has been obtained on cadmium-, arsenic and zinc content in some reference samples (RS) of rocks and soils not previously certified as to the content of the elements, as well as in nealy issued RS of soils. Metrologic estimation of the results obtained is carried out. A comparison with the atomic-absorption analysis data as well as with those of the neutron-activation-, colorimetric and other methods of the analysis permits to refer to the advantages of using the spectrographic determination technique based on fractionated evaporation, in case of determining cadmium and arsenic in rocks and soils. Consideration of the results of cadmium, arsenic and zinc spectrography contributed greatly to the certification of reference samples of soils

  6. Concentrations and loads of cadmium, lead, and zinc measured near the peak of the 1999 snowmelt-runoff hydrographs for 42 water-quality stations, Coeur d'Alene River basin, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Paul F.

    2000-01-01

    The Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency within the Spokane River Basin of northern Idaho and eastern Washington included extensive data-collection activities to determine the nature and extent of trace-element contamination within the basin. The U.S. Geological Survey designed and implemented synoptic sampling of the 1999 snowmelt-runoff event at 42 water- quality stations during the 1999 water year. The distribution of the 42 stations was as follows: North Fork Coeur d’Alene River and tributaries, 4 stations; South Fork Coeur d’Alene River, 13 stations; Canyon, Ninemile, and Pine Creeks, 4 stations each; other tributaries to South Fork Coeur d’Alene River, 10 stations; and main stem Coeur d’Alene River, 3 stations. The objective was to synoptically collect discharge and water-quality data in order to significantly improve the estimation of trace-element loads from multiple contributing source areas during the snowmelt-runoff event. Discharge and water-quality data were collected near the peak discharge during late May 1999. Each station was sampled for whole-water recoverable and dissolved concentrations and loads of cadmium, lead, and zinc.

  7. [Comparative characteristics of lead and cadmium intoxication in the Khanty-Mansi autonomous district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchina, T Ia; Korchin, V I

    2011-01-01

    The Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District (KMAD) occupies a prominent place in the economy of Russia in oil and gas production and energy generation. The development of hydrocarbon raw material extraction in the district does great damage to the environment and nature. This results in the accumulation of toxic chemical elements in man. The levels of lead, cadmium, calcium, and zinc were measured in the hair of indigenous and non-indigenous populations of the district. High lead and cadmium and low calcium and zinc concentration were found in indigenous adults and children in the KMAD.

  8. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Paitip Thiravetyan; Vibol Sao; Woranan Nakbanpote

    2007-01-01

    This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass) and Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv (Carpetgrass) for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with...

  9. The influence of EDTA application on the interactions of cadmium, zinc, and lead and their uptake of rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, H.-Y.; Chen, Z.-S.

    2006-01-01

    Soil used in this study was artificially contaminated with Cd, Zn, Pb, or applied in combinations (Cd-Zn, Cd-Pb, Zn-Pb, or Cd-Zn-Pb) to study the interactions of metals in soil contaminated with multiple metals. After planting rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis) in these soils for 21 days, three different concentrations of ethylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions were added to study the effect of applying EDTA on the interactions among these metals. The concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Pb in the soil solutions of different metals-treated soils increased significantly after applying 5 mmol EDTA kg -1 soil (p -1 soil. Cadmium inhibited the concentration of Zn without applying EDTA. However, whether the application of EDTA or not and the applied EDTA concentration had the greatest effect on the uptake of Pb when compared to Cd and Zn. After applying 5 mmol EDTA kg -1 soil, Cd or Zn in the Pb-contaminated soil inhibited the uptake of Pb in rainbow pink, but there were no effect in other treatments

  10. The influence of EDTA application on the interactions of cadmium, zinc, and lead and their uptake of rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2006-10-11

    Soil used in this study was artificially contaminated with Cd, Zn, Pb, or applied in combinations (Cd-Zn, Cd-Pb, Zn-Pb, or Cd-Zn-Pb) to study the interactions of metals in soil contaminated with multiple metals. After planting rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis) in these soils for 21 days, three different concentrations of ethylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions were added to study the effect of applying EDTA on the interactions among these metals. The concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Pb in the soil solutions of different metals-treated soils increased significantly after applying 5 mmol EDTA kg(-1) soil (p<0.05). The potential of groundwater contamination will increase after applying EDTA and it is not recommended to be in situ used or have to use very carefully. The existence of Pb in the Cd-contaminated soil enhanced the uptake of Cd in rainbow pink in the treatments of control and 2 mmol EDTA kg(-1) soil. Cadmium inhibited the concentration of Zn without applying EDTA. However, whether the application of EDTA or not and the applied EDTA concentration had the greatest effect on the uptake of Pb when compared to Cd and Zn. After applying 5 mmol EDTA kg(-1) soil, Cd or Zn in the Pb-contaminated soil inhibited the uptake of Pb in rainbow pink, but there were no effect in other treatments.

  11. Simultaneous Automatic Electrochemical Detection of Zinc, Cadmium, Copper and Lead Ions in Environmental Samples Using a Thin-Film Mercury Electrode and an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Kudr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study a device for automatic electrochemical analysis was designed. A three electrodes detection system was attached to a positioning device, which enabled us to move the electrode system from one well to another of a microtitre plate. Disposable carbon tip electrodes were used for Cd(II, Cu(II and Pb(II ion quantification, while Zn(II did not give signal in this electrode configuration. In order to detect all mentioned heavy metals simultaneously, thin-film mercury electrodes (TFME were fabricated by electrodeposition of mercury on the surface of carbon tips. In comparison with bare electrodes the TMFEs had lower detection limits and better sensitivity. In addition to pure aqueous heavy metal solutions, the assay was also performed on mineralized rock samples, artificial blood plasma samples and samples of chicken embryo organs treated with cadmium. An artificial neural network was created to evaluate the concentrations of the mentioned heavy metals correctly in mixture samples and an excellent fit was observed (R2 = 0.9933.

  12. Cadmium and zinc accumulation in soybean: A threat to food safety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shute, Tracy; Macfie, Sheila M.

    2006-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to quantify cadmium and zinc accumulated by soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) when the metals were supplied separately and together. The highest dose of cadmium (100 mg/kg) reduced plant height and dry weight (down to 40% and 34% of control, respectively); the highest dose of zinc (2000 mg/kg) reduced plant height to 55% of control and dry weight to 70% of control. With both metals present, the plants were approximately the same size as those treated with cadmium only. The concentration of cadmium in the roots was unaffected by zinc. In other tissues, the effect of zinc on the accumulation of cadmium depended on the doses provided. At low doses, the addition of zinc reduced the concentration of cadmium in aboveground tissues to 40-50% of that found in plants exposed to cadmium only. However, when applied in high doses, the presence of zinc in cadmium-contaminated soils increased the uptake and accumulation of cadmium in aboveground tissues by up to 42%. In contrast, at high doses, the presence of cadmium in zinc-contaminated soil resulted in approximately 35% lower concentrations of zinc in all tissues. At a lower dose, cadmium had no effect on concentration of zinc in the plant tissues. The effects of high doses of one metal on the uptake of the other metal can be partially explained by the effects of one metal on the bioavailability of the other metal. In soils to which only one metal was added, bioavailable cadmium was 70-80% of the total cadmium, and bioavailable zinc was 50-70% of the total zinc. When both metals were added to the soil, 80-100% of the cadmium and 46-60% of the zinc were bioavailable. Concentrations of both metals were highest in root tissues (10-fold higher for cadmium, and up to 2-fold higher for zinc). Although relatively little cadmium was translocated to pods and seeds, the seeds of all plants (including those from control and zinc-treated plants) had concentrations of cadmium 3-4 times above the limit of 0

  13. Gamma-ray peak shapes from cadmium zinc telluride detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namboodiri, M.N.; Lavietes, A.D.; McQuaid, J.H.

    1996-09-01

    We report the results of a study of the peak shapes in the gamma spectra measured using several 5 x 5 x 5 mm{sup 3} cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors. A simple parameterization involving a Gaussian and an exponential low energy tail describes the peak shapes sell. We present the variation of the parameters with gamma energy. This type of information is very useful in the analysis of complex gamma spectra consisting of many peaks.

  14. Regulating the electrodeposition of zinc and cadmium coatings with mixtures of o-oxyazomethyne derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, V.P.; Shpan'ko, S.P.; Dymnikova, O.V.; Popov, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    The results of electrodeposition of zinc and cadmium metals from the sulfate electrolyte in presence of the organic compounds of the oxyazomethine reaction series are described. It is shown that the current dependences retardation coefficient and cathode polarization of electrodeposited zinc and cadmium are described by equations, following from the principle of the reaction and activation free energy linearity. The character of these dependence for the negatively charged zinc and positively charged cadmium cathodes is similar [ru

  15. Reduction kinetics of zinc and cadmium sulfides with hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turgenev, I.S.; Kabisov, I.Kh.; Zviadadze, G.N.; Vasil'eva, O.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    Kinetics of reduction processes of zinc sulfide in the temperature range 800-1100 deg C and of cadmium sulfide 600-900 deg C has been stodied. Activation energies and reaction order in terms of hydrogen are calculated. Thermodynamic processes of reduction depend on aggregate state of the metal formed. For vaporous zinc in the temperature range 1050-950 deq C activation energy constitutes 174 kJ/mol, for liquid in the range 900-850 deg - 151 kJ/mol and reaction order in terms of hydrogen is 1.0. For vaporous cadmium in the temperature range 900-700 deg C activation energy constitutes 144 kJ/mol and reaction order in terms of hydrogen is 0.86, for liquid in the range 675-600 deg C 127 kJ/mol and 0.8 respectively. The processes of zinc and cadmium sulfide reduction proceed in kinetic regime and are limited by the rate of chemical reaction

  16. Zinc-Nickel Codeposition in Sulfate Solution Combined Effect of Cadmium and Boric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Addi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cadmium and boric acid on the electrodeposition of zinc-nickel from a sulfate has been investigated. The presence of cadmium ion decreases zinc in the deposit. In solution, cadmium inhibits the zinc ion deposition and suppresses it when deposition potential value is more negative than −1.2 V. Low concentration of CdSO4 reduces the anomalous nature of Zn-Ni deposit. Boric acid decreases current density and shifts potential discharge of nickel and hydrogen to more negative potential. The combination of boric acid and cadmium increases the percentage of nickel in the deposit. Boric acid and cadmium.

  17. Effects of Nano-zinc on Biochemical Parameters in Cadmium-Exposed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazy, Marzie; Koohi, Mohammad Kazem

    2017-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic environmental and occupational pollutant with reported toxic effects on the kidneys, liver, lungs, bones, and the immunity system. Based on its physicochemical similarity to cadmium, zinc (Zn) shows protective effects against cadmium toxicity and cadmium accumulation in the body. Nano-zinc and nano-zinc oxide (ZnO), recently used in foods and pharmaceutical products, can release a great amount of Zn 2+ in their environment. This research was carried out to investigate the more potent properties of the metal zinc among sub-acute cadmium intoxicated rats. Seventy-five male Wistar rats were caged in 15 groups. Cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) was used in drinking water to induce cadmium toxicity. Different sizes (15, 20, and 30 nm) and doses of nano-zinc particles (3, 10, 100 mg/kg body weight [bw]) were administered solely and simultaneously with CdCl 2 (2-5 mg/kg bw) for 28 days. The experimental animals were decapitated, and the biochemical biomarkers (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) were determined in their serum after oral exposure to nano-zinc and cadmium. Statistical analysis was carried out with a one-way ANOVA and t test. P zinc-treated rats. AST, ALT, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, and free fatty acids increased significantly in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls. However, albumin, total protein, and HDLc significantly decreased in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls (P zinc, the smaller sizes with low doses and the larger sizes with high doses are more toxic than metallic zinc. In a few cases, an inverse dose-dependent relationship was seen as well. This research showed that in spite of larger sizes of zinc, smaller sizes of nano-zinc particles are not suitable for protection against cadmium intoxication.

  18. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc, and copper. Progress report, January 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanism of lead transport is presented, and especially the particular similarities or dissimilarities between lead and calcium in this process. The absorption of these metals was determined cockerels, raised on a commercial diet or on a specified diet, using in vivo ligated loop procedure. The dose administered into the loop contained 0.5 μCi 203 Pb (and/or 0.1 μCi 47 Ca), and 0.01 mM lead acetate (and/or mM CaCl 2 ) in 0.5 ml 0.15 M NaCl,pH 6.5. It was shown that lead is rapidly taken up by the mucosal tissue, and slowly transferred into the body, whereas less calcium is retained by the tissue and the transfer of calcium is many times as effective as that for lead. They appear to respond in a similar manner to a low calcium intake and vitamin D treatment. Increasing luminal stable lead concentration significantly reduced the percentage of radiolead significantly reduced the percentage of radiolead absorbed, but did not affect the absorption of calcium. Also, vitamin D enhanced the transfer of plasma 47 Ca into the lumen but did not affect the transfer of plasma 203 Pb. Intravenous administration of 1,25(OH) 2 CC to rachitic chicks enhanced calcium and lead absorption, but the maximal absorption of these metals occurred at slightly different times after administering this metabolite, indicating that two different transport systems may be involved. It was concluded that lead is transported across the epithelial wall by a passive diffusion and this process is affected by vitamin D in a similar manner as this vitamin affects the diffusional component of calcium transport

  19. Acidic leaching of potentially toxic metals cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc from two Zn smelting slag materials incubated in an acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taoze; Li, Feili; Jin, Zhisheng; Yang, Yuangen

    2018-07-01

    A column leaching study, coupled with acid deposition simulation, was conducted to investigate the leaching of potentially toxic metals (PTM) from zinc smelting slag materials (SSM) after being incubated in an acid Alfisol for 120 days at room temperature. Two SSMs (SSM-A: acidic, 10 yrs exposure with moderate high PTM concentrations versus SSM-B: alkaline, 2 yrs exposure with extremely high PTM concentrations), were used for the incubation at 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 wt% amendment ratios in triplicate. Five leaching events were conducted at day 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28, and the leaching of PTMs mainly occurred in the first three leaching events, with the highest PTM concentrations in leachate measured from 5 wt% SSM amendments. After leaching, 2.5, 12, 5.5, 14, 11, and 9 wt% of M3 extractable Pb, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, and Ni could be released from 5 wt% SSM-A amended soils, being respectively 25, 12, 4, 2, 2, and 2 times more than those from 5 wt% SSM-B amended soils. In the leachates, the concentrations of PTMs were mostly affected by leachant pH and were closely correlated to the concentrations of Fe, Al, Ca, Mg and P with Cd, Pb, and Zn showing the most environmental concern. Visual MINTEQ 3.1 modeling suggested metallic ions and sulfate forms as the common chemical species of PTMs in the leachates; whereas, organic bound species showed importance for Cd, Pb, Cu, and Ni, and CdCl + was observed for Cd. Aluminum hydroxy, phosphate, and sulfate minerals prevailed as the saturated minerals, followed by chloropyromorphite (Pb 5 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl) and plumbogummite (PbAl 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (OH) 5 ·H 2 O) in the leachates. This study suggested that incubation of SSMs in acidic soil for a long term can enhance the release of PTMs as the forms of metallic ions and sulfate when subjected to acid deposition leaching. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of iron and zinc status on cadmium accumulation in Bangladeshi women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippler, Maria; Ekstroem, Eva-Charlotte; Loennerdal, Bo; Goessler, Walter; Akesson, Agneta; El Arifeen, Shams; Persson, Lars-Ake; Vahter, Marie

    2007-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental contaminant present in food. The absorption in the intestine increases in individuals with low iron stores, but the effect of zinc deficiency is not clear. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of iron and zinc status on cadmium accumulation in pregnant Bangladeshi women. We measured cadmium in urine from 890 women using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Further, we also measured ferritin and zinc in plasma. The median cadmium concentration in urine was 0.59 μg/L (adjusted to mean specific gravity of 1.012 g/mL). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that urinary cadmium was associated with plasma ferritin and plasma zinc via a significant interaction between dichotomized plasma ferritin and plasma zinc. The analysis was adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women with low iron stores and adequate zinc status had significantly higher urinary cadmium compared to women with both adequate iron stores and zinc status. There was no difference in urinary cadmium between women with both low iron stores and zinc status compared to those with both adequate iron stores and zinc status. In conclusion, low iron stores were associated with increased cadmium accumulation, but only at adequate zinc status

  1. Lead, zinc and cadmium accumulation from two metalliferous soils with contrasting calcium contents in hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating metallophytes: a comparative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohtadi, A.; Ghaderian, S.M.; Schat, H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims and background: We previously compared metallicolous (M) and non-metallicolous (NM) populations of Noccaea (=Thlaspi) caerulescens, Silene vulgaris, and Matthiola flavida for their abilities to tolerate and (hyper)-accumulate lead (Pb) in hydroponics. In the present study we aimed 1) to check

  2. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.M. [ARS USDA, Germplasm and Gamete Physiology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States); Anderson, M.B. [Dept. of Anatomy, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sikka, S.C. [Dept. of Urology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); George, W.J. [Dept. of Pharmacology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2}). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 {mu}mol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2} administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  3. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc and copper. Progress report, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Investigations were continued to elucidate the mode of transepithelial transport of toxic metal ions across the gastrointestinal tract, as well as their interactions with biological processes and other metal ions. All experimental details that are either published, submitted for publication or in press during this report period are included in the Appendix. Primary attention for this report has been given to the intestinal absorption of lead and its interaction with other biological moieties

  4. Incubation of air-pollution-control residues from secondary Pb smelter in deciduous and coniferous organic soil horizons: leachability of lead, cadmium and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrastný, Vladislav; Vaněk, Aleš; Komárek, Michael; Farkaš, Juraj; Drábek, Ondřej; Vokurková, Petra; Němcová, Jana

    2012-03-30

    The leachability of air-pollution-control (APC) residues from a secondary lead smelter in organic soil horizons (F and H) from a deciduous and a coniferous forest during incubation periods of 0, 3 and 6 months were compared in this work. While the concentration of Pb, Zn and Cd associated with the exchangeable/acid extractable fraction in the horizon F from the coniferous forest was higher compared to the deciduous, significantly lower concentrations in the humified horizon H was found. It is suggested that lower pH and a higher share of fulvic acids fraction (FAs) of solid phase soil organic matter (SOM) in the humified soil horizon H from the coniferous compared to the deciduous forest is responsible for a higher metal association with solid phase SOM and therefore a lower metal leaching in a soil system. From this point of view, the humified soil horizon H from the deciduous forest represents a soil system more vulnerable to Pb, Zn and Cd leaching from APC residues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Incubation of air-pollution-control residues from secondary Pb smelter in deciduous and coniferous organic soil horizons: Leachability of lead, cadmium and zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrastny, Vladislav, E-mail: vladislavchrastny@seznam.cz [University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Science, Studentska 13, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vanek, Ales [Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Komarek, Michael [Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Farkas, Juraj [Czech Geological Survey, Geologicka 6, 152 00 Praha 5 (Czech Republic); Drabek, Ondrej; Vokurkova, Petra [Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Nemcova, Jana [University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Agriculture, Studentska 13, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb smelter fly ash was incubated in forest soil horizons to assess metal mobility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The metal mobilization depends on pH and the ratio of humic/fulvic acids to SOM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lowest mobilization of Pb, Zn and Cd took place in horizon H (coniferous forest). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A huge amount of Cd was found to have leached in the horizon F (deciduous forest). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More vulnerable to metal leaching from APC residues is soil from deciduous forest. - Abstract: The leachability of air-pollution-control (APC) residues from a secondary lead smelter in organic soil horizons (F and H) from a deciduous and a coniferous forest during incubation periods of 0, 3 and 6 months were compared in this work. While the concentration of Pb, Zn and Cd associated with the exchangeable/acid extractable fraction in the horizon F from the coniferous forest was higher compared to the deciduous, significantly lower concentrations in the humified horizon H was found. It is suggested that lower pH and a higher share of fulvic acids fraction (FAs) of solid phase soil organic matter (SOM) in the humified soil horizon H from the coniferous compared to the deciduous forest is responsible for a higher metal association with solid phase SOM and therefore a lower metal leaching in a soil system. From this point of view, the humified soil horizon H from the deciduous forest represents a soil system more vulnerable to Pb, Zn and Cd leaching from APC residues.

  6. Recent trends and current practices for secondary processing of zinc and lead. Part II: zinc recovery from secondary sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Kamala Kanta; Agrawal, Archana; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2004-08-01

    Almost all metallurgical processes are associated with the generation of wastes and residues that may be hazardous or non-hazardous in nature depending upon the criteria specified by institutions such as the US Environment Protection Agency, etc. Wastes containing heavy and toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, copper, mercury, zinc, etc., that are present beyond permissible limits deemed to be treated or disposed of, and non-hazardous wastes can be utilized for metal recovery or safe disposal. Zinc is in growing demand all over the world. In India, a major amount of zinc is imported and therefore processing of zinc secondaries will assist in satisfying the gap between demand and supply to some extent. This report mainly focuses on the current practices and recent trends on the secondary processing of zinc. Attempts made by various laboratories to develop ecofriendly processes for the recovery of zinc from secondary raw materials are also described and discussed.

  7. Determination of small amounts of zinc in cadmium with iodonitrotetrazolium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Kamburova, M.

    1976-01-01

    An extraction photometric method for determining small amounts of zinc in metallic cadmium with iodonitrotetrazolium chloride was suggested. This method is specific under the stipulated conditions. The mean standard deviation is 1.43%x0.01% zinc can be determined in cadmium. (author)

  8. Cadmium ban spurs interest in zinc-nickel coating for corrosive aerospace environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J. (Pure Coatings Inc., West Palm Beach, FL (United States))

    1994-02-01

    OSHA recently reduced the permissible exposure level for cadmium. The new standard virtually outlaws cadmium production and use, except in the most cost-insensitive applications. Aerospace manufacturers, which use cadmium extensively in coatings applications because of the material's corrosion resistance, are searching for substitutes. The most promising alternative found to date is a zinc-nickel alloy. Tests show that the alloy outperforms cadmium without generating associated toxicity issues. As a result, several major manufacturing and standards organizations have adopted the zinc-nickel compound as a standard cadmium replacement. The basis for revising the cadmium PEL -- which applies to occupational exposure in industrial, agricultural and maritime occupations -- is an official OSHA determination that employees exposed to cadmium under the existing PEL face significant health risks from lung cancer and kidney damage. In one of its principal uses, cadmium is electroplated to steel, where it acts as an anticorrosive agent.

  9. Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat of canned light tuna ( Katsuwonus pelamis and Thunnus albacares ) and fresh little tunny ( Euthynnus alletteratus ) in Libya. ... Surveillance for mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination in tuna products is crucial for consumer food safety.

  10. Inclusion free cadmium zinc tellurium and cadmium tellurium crystals and associated growth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleskey E [South Setauket, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2010-07-20

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for crystal growth of cadmium zinc tellurium (CZT) and cadmium tellurium (CdTe) crystals with an inverted growth reactor chamber. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables growth of single, large, high purity CZT and CdTe crystals that can be used, for example, in X-ray and gamma detection, substrates for infrared detectors, or the like. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables reductions in the presence of Te inclusions, which are recognized as an important limiting factor in using CZT or CdTe as radiation detectors. The inverted growth reactor chamber can be utilized with existing crystal growth techniques such as the Bridgman crystal growth mechanism and the like. In an exemplary embodiment, the inverted growth reactor chamber is a U-shaped ampoule.

  11. On the electrolytic crystallization of cadmium and zinc from acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedrich, H.D.; Raub, E.

    1975-01-01

    Zinc and cadmium can be precipitated from acidic sulphate electrolytes without addition of an inhibitor in compact form but only as coarse and rough crystals. Both metals exhibit a very different behaviour with electrolysis which is due to the greater tendency of the zinc sulphate to hydrolyze and the amphoteric character of the zinc hydroxide. The anodic dissociation, however especially the cathodic precipitation of the zinc are not inhibited by zinc hydroxide. Rathermore, a distinct depolarization can be seen. Anodic dissociation and cathodic precipitation of cadmium are inhibited by the presence of cadmium hydroxide arising from hydrolysis at corresponding pH-number: the polarization increases. The electrocrystallization of both hexagonally most densly packed crystallized metals takes place at the same electrolysis conditions with the occurence of different textures. The determining step for the discharge for the zinc precipitation obviously surpasses the zinc hydroxide at a sufficiently high pH. (GSC/LH) [de

  12. A zinc-resistant human epithelial cell line is impaired in cadmium and manganese import

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousselet, Estelle; Richaud, Pierre; Douki, Thierry; Chantegrel, Jocelyne Garcia; Favier, Alain; Bouron, Alexandre; Moulis, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    A human epithelial cell line (HZR) growing with high zinc concentrations has been analyzed for its ability to sustain high cadmium concentrations. Exposure to up to 200 μM of cadmium acetate for 24 h hardly impacted viability, whereas most of parental HeLa cells were killed by less than 10 μM of cadmium. Upon challenge by 35 fold higher cadmium concentrations than HeLa cells, HZR cells did not display increased DNA damage, increased protein oxidation, or changed intracellular cadmium localization. Rather, the main cause of resistance against cadmium was by avoiding cadmium entry into cells, which differs from that against zinc as the latter accumulates inside cells. The zinc-resistant phenotype of these cells was shown to also impair extracellular manganese uptake. Manganese and cadmium competed for entry into HeLa cells. Probing formerly identified cadmium or manganese transport systems in different animal cells did not evidence any significant change between HeLa and HZR cells. These results reveal zinc adaptation influences manganese and cadmium cellular traffic and they highlight previously unknown connections among homeostasis of divalent metals

  13. Toxicological studies of cadmium and zinc on the crayfish Orconectes virilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirenda, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The acute toxicities of cadmium and of zinc to the crayfish Oronectes virilis were determined. Adult, intermolt crayfish were exposed to a series of concentrations of either cadmium or zinc for a two week period. Cadmium was found to be a cumulative poison to the crayfish; LC50 values decreased from 6.1 mg Cd/I for 96 hours to 0.7 mg Cd/I for two weeks. An incipient LC50 was also estimated to be 0.0604 mg Cd/I. Zinc was found to have a relatively low toxicity to O. virilis under the present exposure conditions. Whole animal and tissue analyses for cadmium or zinc were performed on the crayfish used in the acute toxicity tests. Whole animals concentrations both for cadmium and for zinc exhibited a linear relationship to exposure concentrations (r = 0.85 and 0.87, respectively). The gills had the highest concentrations (r = 0.85 and 0.87, respectively). The gills had the highest concentrations of cadmium and zinc, and displayed a linear relationship to exposure concentrations (r = 0.82 and 0.87 respectively). The hepatopancreas displayed a plateau in metal concentrations and is probably the main storage site for both metals in the crayfish. The relationship of cadmium concentration to exposure concentration in the antennal glands also showed linearity (r = 0.65), while zinc levels reached a steady state level. All the remaining tissues analyzed exhibited a plateau in metal concentration

  14. The leaching kinetics of cadmium from hazardous Cu-Cd zinc plant residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Zheng, Shili; Liu, Biao; Du, Hao; Dreisinger, David Bruce; Tafaghodi, Leili; Zhang, Yi

    2017-07-01

    A large amount of Cu-Cd zinc plant residues (CZPR) are produced from the hydrometallurgical zinc plant operations. Since these residues contain substantial amount of heavy metals including Cd, Zn and Cu, therefore, they are considered as hazardous wastes. In order to realize decontamination treatment and efficient extraction of the valuable metals from the CZPR, a comprehensive recovery process using sulfuric acid as the leaching reagent and air as the oxidizing reagent has been proposed. The effect of temperature, sulfuric acid concentration, particle size, solid/liquid ratio and stirring speed on the cadmium extraction efficiency was investigated. The leaching kinetics of cadmium was also studied. It was concluded that the cadmium leaching process was controlled by the solid film diffusion process. Moreover, the order of the reaction rate constant versus H 2 SO 4 concentration, particle size, solid/liquid ratio and stirring speed was calculated. The XRD and SEM-EDS analysis results showed that the main phases of the secondary sulfuric acid leaching residues were lead sulfate and calcium sulfate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Zinco, chumbo e cádmio em plantas de arroz (Oryza Sativa L. cultivadas em solo após adição de resíduo siderúrgico Zinc, lead and cadmium influence in rice plants (Oryza Sativa L. cultivated in soil with addition of siderurgical residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Fernão Martins de Andrade

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da aplicação de resíduo siderúrgico, proveniente da concentração de zinco em lama de altos-fornos siderúrgicos, como fonte de zinco para plantas de arroz (Oryza Sativa L. BRS Curinga e a toxicidade devida ao cádmio e ao chumbo no resíduo, foram estudados em experimento de casa de vegetação. O material de solo usado foi proveniente do horizonte A e B de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo e do horizonte A de um Neossolo Flúvico, coletados no município de Pinheiral, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram aplicadas quatro doses de resíduo (94; 281; 844 e 2531kg ha-1. Foi determinado o teor de zinco, cádmio e chumbo na raiz e na parte aérea das plantas de arroz. As plantas crescidas no horizonte A do Neossolo Flúvico apresentaram a maior produção de matéria seca e a maior acumulação de zinco e a menor de cádmio. As plantas de arroz desenvolvidas no horizonte B do Latossolo apresentaram a menor produção de matéria seca, menor acumulação de zinco e a maior de chumbo, enquanto que as cultivadas no horizonte A do Latossolo apresentaram a mais elevada produção de matéria seca dos três substratos utilizados. O zinco e o chumbo concentraram-se, principalmente, nas raízes das plantas, e o cádmio se concentrou na parte aérea. Pelas características apresentadas nos solos estudados e pelas concentrações fitotóxicas do chumbo e do cádmio encontradas nas plantas desenvolvidas sobre o horizonte B do Latossolo, não é recomendável a utilização desse resíduo como fonte de zinco para a cultura do arroz.The effects of application of siderurgical residue, originated from the zinc concentration in siderurgical high-ovens mud, as supply of zinc for rice plants (Oryza Sativa L. and the toxicity due to cadmium and lead from the residue, were studied in a greenhouse experiment.The period of the experiment was from April of 2005 to March of 2006. The soil materials were from the A and B horizons of a Yellow - Red Oxisol, and the A

  16. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paitip Thiravetyan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass and Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv (Carpetgrass for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with Cd-contaminated zinc silicate residue (65% Si, 19% Ca, 2% Zn, 1% Mg and 0.03% Cd at the ratio of 50:50 (w/wfor 30 days showed that C. rotundas Linn accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 2,178 and 1,144 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 1,965and 669 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Scanning electron microscope connected to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggested that the mechanism of cadmium accumulation by both grasses involved thecadmium precipitation in the stable form of cadmium silicate, which indicated that C. rotundas Linn and A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv could be grown to prevent soil erosion and to remediate cadmium-contaminatedsoil.

  17. Lead and zinc intoxication in companion birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

    2009-01-01

    Although the toxicity of lead and zinc to birds is widely recognized by veterinarians and bird owners, these metals are frequently found in the environments of pet and aviary birds, and intoxications are common. Clinical signs exhibited by intoxicated birds are often nonspecific, which makes early diagnosis difficult. Fortunately, lead and zinc analyses of whole blood and serum or plasma, respectively, are readily available and inexpensive; elevated concentrations can confirm intoxication. Once diagnosed, intoxication can be effectively treated by (1) preventing further exposure, (2) administering chelating drugs, and (3) providing symptomatic and supportive care.

  18. Quaternary oxide halides of group 15 with zinc and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueck, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    The present thesis ''Quaternary oxide halides of group 15 with zinc and cadmium'' deals with the chemical class of oxide halides, which contain d-block element cations and pnicogens. Over the past few years compounds containing pnicogene cations are intensively investigated. The reason for this is the free electron pair of the Pn"3"+ cation, which is responsible for some interesting properties. Free electron pairs do not only impact the spatial structure of molecules but also the properties of materials. The object of this work was the synthesis and characterization of compounds containing Pn"3"+ cations with free electron pairs. Due to the structure-determining effect of these free electron pairs and in combination with halides it is possible to synthesize compounds with low-dimensional structures like chains and layers. In these compounds the structure is separated into halophilic and chalcophilic sub-structures, which are held together only by weak Van der Waals forces.

  19. Study on thermal annealing of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, G.; Bolotnikov, A.E.; Fochuk, P.M.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Kim, K.; Horace, J.; McCall, B.; Gul, R.; Xu, L.; Kopach, O.V.; James, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) has attracted increasing interest with its promising potential as a room-temperature nuclear-radiation-detector material. However, different defects in CZT crystals, especially Te inclusions and dislocations, can degrade the performance of CZT detectors. Post-growth annealing is a good approach potentially to eliminate the deleterious influence of these defects. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), we built up different facilities for investigating post-growth annealing of CZT. Here, we report our latest experimental results. Cd-vapor annealing reduces the density of Te inclusions, while large temperature gradient promotes the migration of small-size Te inclusions. Simultaneously, the annealing lowers the density of dislocations. However, only-Cd-vapor annealing decreases the resistivity, possibly reflecting the introduction of extra Cd in the lattice. Subsequent Te-vapor annealing is needed to ensure the recovery of the resistivity after removing the Te inclusions.

  20. [Effect of cigarette smoking on coexistence of cadmium and zinc in retained wisdom teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malara, Piotr; Kwapuliński, Jerzy; Drugacz, Jan; Malara, Beata

    2005-01-01

    The change in coexistence pattern of elements (antagonism-synergism) in conditions of excessive level of toxic element is observed in many biological samples. The aim of this study was to establish the cadmium and zinc content in hard tissues of retained wisdom teeth of smokers and non-smokers and to find out if active exposure to cigarette smoke has an influence on coexistence of both metals in these tissues. Material consisted of 127 retained wisdom teeth (65 from smokers and 62 from non-smokers). Cadmium and zinc contents were determined by means of atomic absorption spectrometry. We found out that retained wisdom tooth from smokers exhibited higher cadmium and zinc contents compared to non-smokers' teeth. Moreover, coexistence pattern of cadmium and zinc in teeth depends on exposure to heavy metals and exhibits strong synergism in smokers.

  1. In situ immobilization of cadmium and zinc in contaminated soils : fiction or fixation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osté, L.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: beringite, cadmium, DOC, DOM, earthworms, immobilization, leaching, lime, manganese oxides, metal binding, metal uptake, organic matter partitioning, pH, soil contamination, remediation, sorption, Swiss chard, zeolites, zinc.

    It is generally

  2. Langmuir Isotherm application to the competitive adsorption of Cadmium, Nickel and Zinc on a Bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Giraldo, German Dario; Pinzon Bello, Jorge Alejo

    1999-01-01

    In the present work, it was studied the simultaneous adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures of cadmium, nickel and zinc ions in aqueous solution at 25oC over a bentonite from the Cauca Valley, in its native state as well as in its sodium homo ionic form. The Langmuir isotherm, initially introduced by Murali and Aylmore for the competitive adsorption of various adsorbents, adequately describes the simultaneous adsorption of the three ions over the studied bentonite. The lineal correlation coefficient is greater than 0.900 in the major part of the systems. The competitive effect was interpreted by means of the thermodynamic distribution coefficient, Kdm. The degree of adsorption in the binary mixtures is nickel > zinc, cadmium over the natural bentonite, and nickel > cadmium > zinc over the sodium homo ionic form, whereas in the ternary mixture the order Nickel > Cadmium > Zinc is found over both adsorbents

  3. Thermochemical investigation into coordination ability of zinc and cadmium alkyl compounds in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, Yu.A.; Fedostseva, G.A.; Tsvetkov, V.G.; Lebedev, S.A.; Kozyrkin, B.I.

    1983-01-01

    Enthalpies of zinc alkyl compounds mixing, as well as those of dimethyl cadmium mixing with hexane, previously used as a solvent during the study of liquid-phase autooxidation of Me 2 Cd and Me 2 Zn, and with a series of organic bases at 298 K and at components ratio 1:1 or 1:2, are determined. Using calorimetric method dimethyl cadmium association in liquid state has been evaluated. Coordination ability of zinc alkyl compounds is higher than for the corresponding cadmium compounds. With the increase of alkyl radical length the electron seeking ability of zinc compounds decreases. On the basis of thermochemical data relative stability of coordination compounds of zinc and cadmium alkyl compounds with certain alkyl compounds of group 6 elements is evaluated: it has the maximum value for sulfur compounds

  4. Sorption Kinetics for the Removal of Cadmium and Zinc onto Palm Kernel Shell Based Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Muhammad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics and mechanism of cadmium and zinc adsorption on palm kernel shell based activated carbons (PKSAC have been studied. A series of batch laboratory studies were conducted in order to investigate the suitability of palm kernel shell based activated carbon (PKSAC for the removal of cadmium (cadmium ions and zinc (zinc ions from their aqueous solutions. All batch experiments were carried out at pH 7.0 and a constant temperature of 30+-1°C using an incubator shaker that operated at 150 rpm. The kinetics investigated includes the pseudo first order, the pseudo-second order and the intraparticle diffusion models. The pseudo-second order model correlate excellently the experimental data, suggesting that chemisorption processes could be the rate-limiting step. Keywords: adsorption, cadmium, kinetics, palm kernel shell, zinc

  5. Maternal Cadmium, Iron and Zinc Levels, DNA Methylation and Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND:Cadmium (Cd) is a ubiquitous and environmentally persistent toxic metal that has been implicated in neurotoxicity, carcinogenesis and obesity and essential metals including zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) may alter these outcomes. However mechanisms underlying these relationsh...

  6. Lead, mercury, and cadmium in breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals are the major source of environmental pollution in this new millennium. Lead, mercury, and cadmium are the most common toxic heavy metals in the environment. There is no known function of these toxic heavy metals in the human body. In females, toxic heavy metals can be accumulated in maternal body before pregnancy and may be transferred to fetus through placenta and later, via breast milk. Lead previously accumulated in maternal bones can be mobilized along with calcium in order to meet increased calcium needs of the fetus in pregnant women and for the calcium needs in human milk during lactation. Human fetus and infants are susceptible to heavy metal toxicity passing through placenta and breastmilk due to rapid growth and development of organs and tissues, especially central nervous system. However most of the damage is already done by the time the infant is born. Intrauterine lead exposure can cause growth retardation, cognitive dysfunction, low IQ scores on ability tests, and low performance in school. Biological samples, such as umbilical cord blood and breast milk, and less commonly infant hair, are used for biomonitoring of intra-uterine exposure to these toxic chemicals. Although toxic metals and other pollutants may be excreted into breast milk, their effects are unknown and this topic is subject of a growing body of research. Despite the possibility of harm from environmental contaminants in breast milk, breastfeeding is still recommended as the best infant feeding method. In fact, the species-specific components present in breast milk protect infants against infections; promote immune and neurologic system development; and may decrease the risk of disease, including allergies, obesity, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, and sudden infant death syndrome. Breastfeeding also facilitates maternal-infant attachment. The potential risk of environmental contaminants that can be transferred from

  7. Adsorption kinetics of cadmium and lead by chitosan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-26

    Apr 26, 2010 ... The lead and cadmium adsorption kinetic behavior could not be described using the Langmuir ... by chemical or by physical adsorption (Dean and Dixon,. 1992 ... phate fertilizer burning fuels, cement production, mining.

  8. Assessment of Copper, Cadmium and Lead in Organical Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Ariel

    2000-08-01

    In this report the electrochemical method of differential pulse anode voltametry redisolution voltametry is used to quantitative assessment of copper, cadmium and lead in solution. The methodology is described in the preparation of samples for measurement

  9. Low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu-Sheng, E-mail: Lin.Yu-Sheng@epa.gov [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Ho, Wen-Chao [Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Caffrey, James L. [Integrative Physiology and Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX (United States); Sonawane, Babasaheb [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Background: Despite animal evidence suggests that zinc modulates cadmium nephrotoxicity, limited human data are available. Objective: To test the hypothesis that low serum zinc concentrations may increase the risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction in humans. Methods: Data from 1545 subjects aged 20 or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011–2012 were analyzed. Renal function was defined as impaired when estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) fell below 60 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} and/or the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio surpassed 2.5 in men and 3.5 mg/mmol in women. Results: Within the study cohort, 117 subjects had reduced eGFR and 214 had elevated urinary albumin. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects with elevated blood cadmium (>0.53 μg/L) were more likely to have a reduced eGFR (odds ratio [OR]=2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–4.50) and a higher urinary albumin (OR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.13–3.69) than their low cadmium (<0.18 μg/L) peers. In addition, for any given cadmium exposure, low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of reduced eGFR (OR=3.38, 95% CI: 1.39–8.28). A similar increase in the odds ratio was observed between declining serum zinc and albuminuria but failed to reach statistical significance. Those with lower serum zinc/blood cadmium ratios were likewise at a greater risk of renal dysfunction (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study results suggest that low serum zinc concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity. Elevated cadmium exposure is global public health issue and the assessment of zinc nutritional status may be an important covariate in determining its effective renal toxicity. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium was associated with increased risk of nephrotoxicity. • Low serum zinc may exacerbate risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction. • Both zinc deficiency and elevated cadmium exposure are global public health issues.

  10. Lead and cadmium content of some canned fruit and vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, B; Roughan, J A; Watters, E D

    1973-01-01

    The levels of lead and cadmium have been determined in samples of canned tomatoes, blackcurrants, grapefruit, pineapples, apricots, oranges, peaches, rhubarb, apples, prunes, damsons, plums, spinach and baked beans. The lead content of the 76 samples was in the range 0.10 to 3.90 parts/million, the mean being 0.56 parts/million; the range and mean of the cadmium content were 0.01 to 0.18 and 0.02 parts/million, respectively.

  11. Potentiometric stripping analysis of Cadmium and Lead in superficial waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Juan Miguel; Marciales Castiblanco, Clara

    2003-01-01

    This paper contains the implementation and validation of an analytical method for determining cadmium and lead in surface waters. This is a valuable tool for the description of actual conditions and qualitative and quantitative control of dangerous heavy metals discharge in water bodies. Test were run for selecting stripping potentiometry conditions that as indicated by results were: sample oxidant concentration 36.4 μg/L Hg 2+ stirring frequency 2400 rpm, electrolysis time 80 s., electrolysis potential -950 mV and pH of 2.0. Interference of Cu 2+ and Fe 2+ showed that copper concentrations larger than 150 μg/L and 500 μg/L negatively influence the analytical response for Cadmium and lead respectively; [Fe 3+ ] larger than 60 μg/L and 400 μg/L cause variations in cadmium and lead read content respectively. Linear concentration range for cadmium lies between 5 and 250 μg/L; for lead range goes from 10 to 250 μg/L. Precision expressed as repeatability for both system and method, exhibit good reproducibility with variation coefficients below 6%. Accuracy, assessed from recuperation, is strongly influenced by concentration level therefore standard addition is recommended for lead and cadmium quantification. Analysis performed on surface waters from Colombian Magdalena and Cauca rivers pointed lead and cadmium contents below detection limits

  12. Trace elements cadmium and zinc in the pathogenesis of experimental hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockett, C.J.R.

    1980-01-01

    In human kidneys cadmium is bound by a protein, metallothionein, which also contains zinc, and because cadmium apparently competes with zinc on the same binding sites, the cadmium-zinc ratio is particularly important. An increase in this ratio would mean a relative deficiency in zinc which might result in some forms of hypertension in man and animals. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of small amounts of supplementary dietary cadmium on weanling and adult albino rats. Two colonies of rats were examined. The object of this study was to determine if hypertension could be induced and to investigate its effects on renal function and renin levels in these animals. Sodium and potassium levels and balances, renin, angiotensin II, and urea output were therefore estimated in these animals. In order to assess the effect of length of exposure to cadmium in relation to growth and maturation upon blood pressure, experiments were done on a second colony of male weanling rats. Tissue levels of cadmium and zinc, and serum levels of sodium, potassium, chloride, carbon dioxide, urea and urate were measured. All supplemented diets caused hypertension and a significant drop in urinary urea excretion levels. Plasma angiotensin in males, and renal cadmium-zinc ratios were higher than in controls. The results of the studies in adult rats showed slight sodium and water retention. Weanlings showed a more rapid uptake of cadmium and reached higher blood pressure levels. In conclusion, cadmium does seem to be a factor in selected animal hypertension. A possible mechanism is via interference with renal function, and our data regarding urea output support the idea of renal function impairment. The initiation of a renin-angiotensin hypertension is suggested by the raised angiotensin levels which were detected

  13. Lead and cadmium in indoor air and the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarnicki, Guenter J.K.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was conducted to find potential terrestrial biomonitors for heavy metals in indoor air in an urban environment. TSP, PM 10 , and PM 2.5 were collected in three retirement facilities in the urban area of Vienna. In addition, particulate matter and soil, vegetation, and isopods (Porcellio scaber L.) were collected in the adjacent garden areas. Aerosols were sampled with a low-volume air sampler. The sampled materials were wet ashed and total lead and cadmium contents were determined. Water-soluble heavy metal concentrations were measured in aqueous extracts from air exposed filters, soil, and vegetation. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by graphite furnace AAS. Lead contents in the vegetation were inferred from water-soluble lead in soils. Lead in isopods generally reflected the contents in vegetation. Cadmium in plants probably derived from soil solutions as well as from atmospheric input. Isopods reflected the total cadmium contents in soils. Particulate matter was dominated by PM 2.5 , both with respect to mass concentrations and to heavy metal contents. The indoor aerosol was found to be influenced by human activity, indoor sources, and outdoor particles. Relationships between indoor airborne heavy metals and the contents in vegetation (lead and cadmium: positive) and isopods (lead: negative) were identified to have the potential for biomonitoring indoor air quality. - Urban vegetation and isopods are potential indicators for indoor aerial heavy metals

  14. A cadmium-zinc-telluride crystal array spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, H. R.; Quam, W.; DeVore, T.; Vogle, R.; Weslowski, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a gamma detector employing an array of eight cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) crystals configured as a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer. This detector is part of a more complex instrument that identifies the isotope,displays this information, and records the gamma spectrum. Various alarms and other operator features are incorporated in this battery operated rugged instrument. The CZT detector is the key component of this instrument and will be described in detail in this paper. We have made extensive spectral measurements of the usual laboratory gamma sources, common medical isotopes, and various Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) with this detector. Some of these data will be presented as spectra. We will also present energy resolution and detection efficiency for the basic 8-crystal array. Additional data will also be presented for a 32-crystal array. The basic 8-crystal array development was completed two years ago, and the system electronic design has been imp roved recently. This has resulted in significantly improved noise performance. We expect to have a much smaller detector package, using 8 crystals, in a few months. This package will use flip-chip packaging to reduce the electronics physical size by a factor of 5

  15. Preliminary uranium enrichment analysis results using cadmium zinc telluride detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavietes, A.D.; McQuaid, J.H.; Paulus, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and EG ampersand G ORTEC have jointly developed a portable ambient-temperature detection system that can be used in a number of application scenarios. The detection system uses a planar cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector with custom-designed detector support electronics developed at LLNL and is based on the recently released MicroNOMAD multichannel analyzer (MCA) produced by ORTEC. Spectral analysis is performed using software developed at LLNL that was originally designed for use with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector systems. In one application, the CZT detection system determines uranium enrichments ranging from less than 3% to over 75% to within accuracies of 20%. The analysis was performed using sample sizes of 200 g or larger and acquisition times of 30 min. The authors have demonstrated the capabilities of this system by analyzing the spectra gathered by the CZT detection system from uranium sources of several enrichments. These experiments demonstrate that current CZT detectors can, in some cases, approach performance criteria that were previously the exclusive domain of larger HPGe detector systems

  16. Cadmium zinc telluride as a mid-infrared variable retarder

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, William; Taherion, Saeid; Kumar, F. Joseph; Giles, David; Hore, Dennis

    2018-04-01

    The electro-optic behavior of cadmium zinc telluride is examined in the mid-infrared region between 3 and 11 μm, for applied DC field strengths of up to 106 V/m. The measurements performed here include full characterization of the polarization state of the transmitted light by means of the Stokes vector. We demonstrate the suitability of this material for DC variable retarder applications such as those achieved by quarter- or half-wave retardation. A comparison of two different metallic coatings for electrodes, gold and indium, reveals important differences in performance that are attributed to the homogeneity of the field through the bulk of the crystal. We illustrate that, in the case of both metals, the same electro-optic coefficients are measured, but regions of higher and lower retardation result in significant depolarization in the case of gold. Such depolarization may adversely affect the contrast ratio in a light valve, or increase the voltage necessary for the operation of an arbitrary polarization state generator.

  17. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the accumulation of cadmium and metallothionein in selected tissues of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of continuous dietary zinc deficiency on the metabolism of the toxic heavy metal cadmium has not been widely studied. This investigation was designed to assess the effects of subadequate dietary zinc intake on the accumulation of dietary cadmium and on metallothionein (MT) and zinc concentrations in target organs of cadmium toxicity. Adult male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were allowed, ad libitum, diets either adequate (60 ppm) or deficient (7 ppm) in zinc for a total of 9 wk. The zinc-deficient diet resulted in an approximately 40% reduction in plasma zinc (assessed at 3, 6, and 9 wk) in the absence of overt signs of zinc deficiency (i.e., reduced weight gain, alopecia, etc.). Separate groups of rats were also maintained on zinc-defined diets for a total of 9 wk, but cadmium was added to the diet (0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 ppm) a the end of wk 3 and maintained at that level throughout the remaining 6 wk of the study, when the rats were killed. The feeding of the zinc-deficient diet markedly enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the liver, kidney, and testes. Hepatic, renal, and testicular zinc concentrations were not affected by suboptimal zinc intake alone. However, marked reductions in renal and testicular zinc concentrations were caused by zinc deficiency in concert with cadmium exposure. MT levels, when related to tissue cadmium concentrations, were elevated to a significantly lesser extent in the kidneys of zinc-deficient animals. These results indicate that marginal zinc deficiency markedly increases cadmium accumulation in various organs and reduces zinc content and MT induction in some organs.

  18. CADMIUM AND ZINC CONCENTRATIONS IN THE HAIR AFTER OF ADULTS MAGNESIUM SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sałacka

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium is a biological zinc antagonist and may interfere with metabolic zinc-regulated or zincdependent processes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between cadmium and zinc concentrations in the hair of adults after oral supplementation with magnesium. Material and methods: The levels of elements in the hair were determined by the inverse voltammetry. The analysis was performed on the hair of 32 people from the study group and 10 from the control group. Supplementation was performed using Slow-Mag B6. Results: Cadmium concentration in the study group before supplementation ranged from indeterminable levels, to 1,92 µg per gram of dry matter. The range of cadmium concentration after supplementation was between the indeterminable level, and 0,45 µg per gram of dry matter. Based on the statistical analysis, we found that cadmium concentration was significantly lower after magnesium supplementation with a significance level of p*0,02. Zinc level before supplementation was between 11,66 and 250,48 µg per gram of dry matter, and after supplementation between 68,31 and 185,24 µg per gram of dry matter. Conclusion: The results obtained suggest that supplementation with magnesium contributed to the lowering of cadmium concentration in the hair of the people examined.

  19. Study on damage of DNA in mice induced by mercury cadmium and/or lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiaopan; Zhou Jianhua; Shi Xijing; Yan Liping

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the joint injury actions of mercury, cadmium and/or lead on DNA in peripheral blood lymphocytes of mice. Methods: The blood specimens were obtained from mice at the 2 day after the peritoneal injections. DNA damages were determined by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and 3 H-TdR incorporation. Results: Acquired by SCGE technique, tail movement of DNA in mercury-cadmium-lead group was significantly greater than that in the single exposure group, the difference was significant too between mercury-cadmium group and cadmium group, cadmium-lead group and cadmium group. The results of 3 H-TdR incorporation showed: the values of DPM in mercury-cadmium group and cadmium-lead group were lower than that in the single exposure group and the value of DPM lowered more significantly after exposure to mercury-cadmium-lead. Conclusion: The combined effects of mercury, cadmium, lead on DNA damage are more significant. (author)

  20. Interactions of cadmium with copper, zinc, and iron in different organs and tissues of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julshamn, K.; Utne, F.; Brackkan, O.R.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of cadmium on tissue concentrations of iron, zinc and copper was studied in male rats. Two littermate groups were fed a stock diet with or without a supplement of 100 ..mu..g cadmium per g. Every three weeks ten animals from each group were sampled and the liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, spleen, testes, muscle, fur, feces and urine were individually analyzed. Except for the fur, all the other organs showed highly significantly increased levels of cadmium when compared with the control group. The iron levels were significantly depressed in all organs. As the content in the feces remained unchanged and the urinary excretion showed an increase, it could be concluded that the cadmium supplementation resulted in a depletion of the body stores of iron. The zinc levels showed a significant increase in the liver and testes and a correspondingly significant decrease in the spleen. The levels of copper generally showed no significant changes.

  1. Mutual effect of zinc (2) and cadmium (2) during extraction with tributil phosphate from lithium chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokuev, V.A.; Belousov, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Mutual effect of zinc and cadmium chlorides during extraction with tributyl phosphate at 5, 25 and 45 deg C from LiCl solutions is studied. The conclusion about the suppression of zinc and cadmium extraction by extracting macroelement (cadmium and zinc correspondingly) as the result of manifestation of general ion effect (lithium ion) in the extraction systems is made. It is established that the suppression of zink and cadmium extraction increases with the temperature decrease. On the base of the obtained experimental data the different type of extraction element distribution curves at the extraction from the muriatic solutions and lithium chloride solutions with tributyl phosphate is discussed

  2. Biomarker of chronic cadmium exposure in a population residing in the vicinity of a zinc producing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratveit, Magne; Mageroy, Nils; Gundersen, Hilde; Vahter, Marie; Moen, Bente E.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of cadmium (Cd) in air, soil and moss have shown elevated concentrations in residential areas close to a zinc smelter in Norway. This study aimed to evaluate whether men and women residing in the area with elevated Cd concentrations in air and soil had increased levels of Cd and microproteins in urine. An invitation to participate was mailed to 200 persons residing close to the zinc smelter and to 200 controls from an area more than 4 km away from the smelter. They were asked to complete a questionnaire, and to deliver a urine sample for analysis of cadmium (CdU), mercury (HgU), lead (PbU) and α1-microglobulin (ProteinHC). Two hundred and six participants (response rate 52%), between 19 and 88 years of age, were included. Results were analysed by multiple-adjusted linear and logistic regression. CdU was not significantly different between individuals in the two residence areas. Only ten individuals had CdU concentrations exceeding European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) critical value of 1 μg/g creatinine, whereas 35 persons (22% of the women vs. 11% of the men) had CdU concentrations higher than 0.66 μg/g creatinine, which EU suggested to be sufficiently protective for the general population. Smoking was the predominant contributing factor to values of elevated CdU. There was a tendency of higher CdU, although not statistically significant, amongst people regularly consuming fruit, berries and vegetables grown in their own garden near the smelter area. Home address in the polluted area was not a significant determinant. There was a positive correlation between CdU and ProteinHC in urine, but no significant difference was found for ProteinHC between residents from polluted area and controls. In spite of demonstrated industrial emissions of cadmium, the results do not indicate elevated cadmium exposure or kidney damage in the polluted area compared to the control area. - Highlights: → Cadmium in air and soil is elevated in the residential area close

  3. Lead and Zinc pollution of soils in the Kabwe lead-zinc mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musonda, B.M.; Tembo, F

    2004-01-01

    Lead and Zinc pollution of soils related to mining activities in Kabwe district is one of the major environmental problems in Zambia today. In this study, we investigated the distribution of lead and zinc in topsoil and subsoil. Samples were collected from topsoil(0-20cm) and subsoil(20-50cm)at predetermined sites using a 5km x 5km regional grid and a 500m x 500m local grid. After preparation 260 local and 200 regional samples were analysed for heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The background levels of cold HNO3 extractable lead and zinc are 50mg/kg and 70mg/kg respectively. The degree of Pb and Zn contamination of the soils varies with proximity of the soils to Kabwe mining centre. The content of Pb and Zn in topsoil that is very close to the mine is up to 1.6% and 3.9% respectively while soils that are very far from the mine generally contain less than 10mg/kg Pb and 20mg/kg Zn. The heavy metal contamination patterns in soils adjacent to the mine have been formed by wind dispersion of particulate matter and dry deposition. The risk of exposure of humans to lead and zinc is very high in areas that are adjacent to the mining centre. (author)

  4. Measured soil water concentrations of cadmium and zinc in plant pots and estimated leaching outflows from contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, P.E.; Christensen, T.H.

    1998-01-01

    Soil water concentrations of cadmium and zinc were measured in plant pots with 15 contaminated soils which differed in origin, texture, pH (5.1-7.8) and concentrations of cadmium (0.2-17 mg Cd kg(-1)) and zinc (36-1300 mg Zn kg(-1)). The soil waters contained total concentrations of 0.5 to 17 mu g...... to 0.1% per year of the total soil content of cadmium and zinc. The measured soil water concentrations of cadmium and zinc did not correlate linearly with the corresponding soil concentrations but correlated fairly well with concentrations measured in Ca(NO(3))(2) extracts of the soils and with soil...... water concentrations estimated from soil concentrations and pH. Such concentration estimates may be useful for estimating amounts of cadmium and zinc being leached from soils....

  5. Studying the state of the surface and internal mass of powder-like zinc and cadmium sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundel', A.A.; Khozhainov, Yu.M.

    1979-01-01

    The investigation on the chemical and the phase composition of the surface and the bulk of powder zinc and cadmium sulphides as a function of the conditions of ignition and physico-chemical processing carried out using electron diffraction, X-ray phase and chemical analyses. The electron diffraction analysis has shown that ignition gives rise to zinc oxide on the surface of zinc sulphide particles and in the case of cadmium sulphide, to metallic cadmium. To obtain a pure zinc sulphide, free from its oxide both on the surface and in bulk, use should be made of a deoxidized preparation and all contact with oxidizing medium in subsequent ignition should be eliminated

  6. Cadmium, mercury, zinc and selenium in ringed seals (Phoca hispida from Greenland and Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Run Dietz

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscle, liver, and kidney tissue from 456 ringed seals (Phoca hispida from eight areas in Greenland were analysed for cadmium, mercury, zinc and selenium. In general, cadmium concentrations were high in liver and kidney tissue, with geometric means of 7.79 and 33.5 μg/g (all data on wet weight basis, respectively. Muscle levels were considerably lower, at 0.067 μg/g. The concentration of mercury was relatively high in liver tissue with a geometric mean of 2.59 μg/g. Muscle and kidney mercury levels were somewhat lower, with geometric means of 0.210 and 0.956 μg/g, respectively. Cadmium and mercury levels were strongly dependent upon age and sampling area, as well as the interaction combinations, indicating that the accumulation of cadmium and mercury varies with age and area. Mercury accumulated in all three tissues throughout life, whereas cadmium in liver and kidneys peaked in the age group 5-10 years old where after it dropped significantly. Cadmium levels showed a tendency towards higher concentrations in the northern municipalities, which may be due to the higher cadmium levels in certain prey items in the northern areas. Mercury levels were higher in seals from East Greenland compared to West Greenland. Variations in feeding habits probably explain some of the differences in levels of cadmium and mercury in ringed seals from different geographical areas. Cadmium concentrations were correlated (both pairwise and partial in the three organs. This was true for mercury as well, whereas only half of the combinations were significant for zinc and selenium. Cadmium was strongly correlated to mercury in all three tissues and zinc only in liver and kidneys. Mercury was only correlated to selenium in liver and not to zinc. High concentrations of cadmium were found in the bile from 58 ringed seals, and were about 10-fold higher than in muscle. The concentration of mercury in bile was relatively low, being only one third of the

  7. Copper changes the yield and cadmium/zinc accumulation and cellular distribution in the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhu [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Longhua, E-mail: lhwu@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Hu, Pengjie [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Luo, Yongming [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Yantai 264003 (China); Christie, Peter [Agri-Environment Branch, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Low Cu has no significant effect on Sedum plumbizincicola plant growth and Cd and Zn uptake. • Plant held Cu in unactive areas and insoluble forms as de-toxification mechanisms. • Influence of Cu on Zn and Cd uptake and translocation were different. • Cu accumulation in leaf veins may restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves -- Abstract: Non-accumulated metals in mixed metal contaminated soils may affect hyperaccumulator growth and metal accumulation and thus remediation efficiency. Two hydroponics experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of copper (Cu) on cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) accumulation by the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola, Cu toxicity and plant detoxification using chemical sequential extraction of metals, sub-cellular separation, micro synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. Compared with the control (0.31 μM Cu), 5–50 μM Cu had no significant effect on Cd/Zn accumulation, but Cu at 200 μM induced root cell plasmolysis and disordered chloroplast structure. The plants held Cu in the roots and cell walls and complexed Cu in insoluble forms as their main detoxification mechanisms. Exposure to 200 μM Cu for 4 days inhibited plant Cd uptake and translocation but did not affect Zn concentrations in roots and stems. Moreover, unloading of Cd and Zn from stem to leaf was restrained compared to control plants, perhaps due to Cu accumulation in leaf veins. Copper may thus interfere with root Cd uptake and restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves. Further investigation of how Cu affects plant metal uptake may help elucidate the Cd/Zn hyper-accumulating mechanisms of S. plumbizincicola.

  8. Copper changes the yield and cadmium/zinc accumulation and cellular distribution in the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhu; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Low Cu has no significant effect on Sedum plumbizincicola plant growth and Cd and Zn uptake. • Plant held Cu in unactive areas and insoluble forms as de-toxification mechanisms. • Influence of Cu on Zn and Cd uptake and translocation were different. • Cu accumulation in leaf veins may restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves -- Abstract: Non-accumulated metals in mixed metal contaminated soils may affect hyperaccumulator growth and metal accumulation and thus remediation efficiency. Two hydroponics experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of copper (Cu) on cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) accumulation by the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola, Cu toxicity and plant detoxification using chemical sequential extraction of metals, sub-cellular separation, micro synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. Compared with the control (0.31 μM Cu), 5–50 μM Cu had no significant effect on Cd/Zn accumulation, but Cu at 200 μM induced root cell plasmolysis and disordered chloroplast structure. The plants held Cu in the roots and cell walls and complexed Cu in insoluble forms as their main detoxification mechanisms. Exposure to 200 μM Cu for 4 days inhibited plant Cd uptake and translocation but did not affect Zn concentrations in roots and stems. Moreover, unloading of Cd and Zn from stem to leaf was restrained compared to control plants, perhaps due to Cu accumulation in leaf veins. Copper may thus interfere with root Cd uptake and restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves. Further investigation of how Cu affects plant metal uptake may help elucidate the Cd/Zn hyper-accumulating mechanisms of S. plumbizincicola

  9. Altered Levels of Serum Zinc and Cadmium in Patients with Chronic Vesiculobullous Hand and Feet Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swastika Suvirya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients serve many important functions in our body and altered levels of heavy and trace metals are associated with cutaneous and systemic disorders. Vesicular palmoplantar eczema is an entity whose etiopathogenesis is a mystery. In this prospective case-noncase study blood levels of Zinc and Cadmium in 37 patients of chronic vesiculobullous hand dermatitis were estimated and compared with 40 noncases with similar age and gender distributions. Low serum Zinc levels were found in patients as compared to noncases. The mean difference of serum Zinc between the case and noncase groups was 27.26; the mean value of serum Zinc between the two groups was statistically significant (p<0.0001. However, elevated Cadmium levels were detected in only 5 patients and in none of the noncases. The mean concentration of serum Cadmium was 2.32±0.38 μg/dL, with a range of 1.90–2.80 μg/dL for the five cases in whom Cadmium was detected. Various toxic and trace metals can interact by influencing each other’s absorption, retention, distribution, and bioavailability in the body. The clinical significance of this finding lies in the possible beneficial role of Zinc supplementation in the therapy of chronic vesiculobullous hand dermatitis.

  10. Effect of Pyrolysis Temperature on Cadmium and Lead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumption of tobacco as cigarette or otherwise has been demonstrated to contribute to air pollution via smoke generation resulting in adverse health effect. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the concentration, distribution of cadmium and lead between ash residue and smoke in some ...

  11. Phytoextraction trials of cadmium and lead contaminated soil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on the phytoextraction of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) artificially contaminated soil using 3 weed species (Ageratum conyzoides, Syndrella nodiflora and Cleome rutidosperma) was carried out at the Centre for Ecological Studies, University of Port Harcourt. A Randomized Complete Block Design consisting of 2 sets of ...

  12. Lead and cadmium in wild birds in southeastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fernandez, A.J.; Sanchez-Garcia, J.A.; Luna, A. [Univ. of Murcia (Spain); Jimenez-Montalban, P. [Regional Environmental Agency, Murcia (Spain). Centro de Recuperacion de Fauna Silvestre El Valle

    1995-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to monitor exposure to lead and cadmium in wild birds in Murcia, a southeastern region of Spain on the Mediterranean coast. This region lies on one of the African-European flyways. Samples of liver, kidney, brain, bone, and whole blood from several species of wild birds were obtained during 1993. The authors found a clear relationship between cadmium and lead concentrations in birds and their feedings habits. Vultures (Gyps fulvus) had the highest concentrations of lead (mean 40 {micro}g/dl in blood), and seagulls (Larus argentatus and Larus ridibundus) the highest concentrations of cadmium (mean 4.43 {micro}g/g in kidney). Insectivores had high concentrations of both metals, and diurnal and nocturnal raptors showed the lowest tissue concentrations. The findings that tissue and blood concentrations were generally not elevated suggests environmental (rather than acute) exposure. Birds from more industrialized areas of the region studied here had higher concentrations of both lead and cadmium.

  13. Differents remediation methodos for lead, chromium and cadmium contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trelles, G; Pochintesta, L; Ehrlich, S.

    2008-01-01

    The usage of phosphates in the remediation of plots contaminated with heavy metals appears to be a good strategy to lessen the danger of these metals. This study analyses the effect of the mobilization of: Lead, chromium and cadmium by utilizing diverse forms of phosphates in contaminated soils of three different origins with ph modification and without it

  14. The biosorption of cadmium and lead ions from aqueous Solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosorption potentiality of Musa paradisiaca stalk at removing cadmium and lead ions from aqueous solution was investigated. The biosorption experiment was carried out as a function of contact time, initial pH, initial metal ion concentration and biosorbent dose. Adsorption equilibria were obtained from batch ...

  15. Determination of lead and cadmium in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeppler, M.; Backhaus, F.; Dahl, R.; Hagedorn-Goetz, H.; Hilpert, K.; Klahre, P.; Rutzel, H.; Valenta, P.; Nuernberg, H.W.; Dumont, M.

    1975-01-01

    Sampling techniques and experience, and decomposition methods are presented. The processes used in flameless atomic absorption spectrometry (including the method using automatic insertion of samples), pulse polarography and isotope dilution mass spectrometry are described. Finally, the results of lead and cadmium measurements in bovine liver, blood, urine and hair samples are reported and discussed with a comparison of methods in some cases

  16. Cadmium and zinc in soil solution extracts following the application of phosphate fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Raphaël; Grant, Cynthia; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated the solubility of cadmium and zinc in soils after the application of phosphate fertilizers containing those two metals. The solubility of cadmium and zinc was assessed by measuring their concentration in soil water extracts. Three monoammonium phosphate fertilizers containing various amounts of metals were applied on cultivated fields for 3 years at three different rates. In order to investigate the effects of long-term applications of fertilizers on the solubility of Cd and Zn, a similar design was used to apply contaminated fertilizers to soils in a laboratory experiment using a single fertilizer addition equivalent to 15 years of application. Phosphate fertilizers increased the concentration of Cd in soil extracts compared to control in 87% and 80% of the treatments in field and laboratory experiments respectively. Both increasing the rate of application and using fertilizer containing more Cd lead to higher Cd concentrations in extracts for the field and the laboratory experiments. The addition of the equivalent of 15 years of fertilizer application in the laboratory results in higher Cd concentration in extracts compared to the field experiment. For Zn, the fertilizer treatments enhanced the metal solution concentration in 83% of field treatments, but no significant correlations could be found between Zn inputs and its concentration in solution. In the laboratory, fertilizer additions increase the Zn concentrations in 53% of the treatments and decrease it in most of the other treatments. The decrease in Zn concentrations in the laboratory trial is attributed to the higher phosphate concentrations in the soil solution; which is presumed to have contributed to the precipitation of Zn-phosphates. For both trials, the metal concentrations in soil extracts cannot be related to the Zn concentration in the fertilizer or the rate of application. The high Zn to Cd ratio is presumably responsible for the Cd increase in the soil extracts due to

  17. [Bioaccumulation of cadmium and zinc in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbartai, Hana; Djebar, Med Reda; Sbartai, Ibtissem; Berrabbah, Houria

    2012-09-01

    This work aims at evaluating the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) (trace elements) in the organs of young tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L. var. Rio Grande) and their effects on the rate of chlorophyll and enzyme activities involved in the antioxidant system: catalase (CAT), glutathion-S-transferase (GST) and peroxysase ascorbate (APX). Plants previously grown on a basic nutrient solution were undergoing treatment for 7 days, either by increasing concentrations of CdCl(2) or ZnSO(4) (0, 50, 100, 250, 500 μM) or by the combined concentrations of Cd and Zn (100/50, 100/100, 100/250, 100/500 μM). The results concerning the determination of metals in the various compartments of tomato plants as a function of increasing concentrations of Cd or Zn, suggest a greater accumulation of Cd and Zn in the roots compared to leaves. The combined treatment (Cd/Zn) interferes with the absorption of the two elements according to their concentrations in the culture medium. The presence of Zn at low concentrations (50 μM of Zn/100 μM Cd) has little influence on the accumulation of Cd in the roots and leaves, while the absorption of these two elements in the leaves increases and decreases in roots when their concentrations are equivalent (100/100 μM) compared to treatment alone. When the concentration of Zn is higher than that of Cd (500 μM of Zn/100 μM Cd) absorption of the latter is inhibited in the roots while increasing their translocation to the leaves. Meanwhile, the dosage of chlorophylls shows that they tend to decrease in a dose-dependent for both treatments (Cd or Cd/Zn), however, treatment with low concentrations of Zn (50 and 100 μM) stimulates chlorophyll synthesis. However, treatment with different concentrations of Cd seems to induce the activity of the enzymes studied (CAT, APX, GST). It is the same for treatment with different concentrations of Zn and this particularly for the highest concentrations. Finally, the combined treatment (Zn

  18. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamani Abbas Ali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP. Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs. Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area.

  19. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Abbas Ali; Yaftian, Mohammad Reza; Parizanganeh, Abdolhossein

    2012-12-17

    The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran) for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP). Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area.

  20. Bile secretion of cadmium, silver, zinc and copper in the rat. Involvement of various transport systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, R; Vonk, RJ; Kuipers, F

    1996-01-01

    In the present study we compared, in vivo in rats, the hepatobiliary transport of monovalent (silver:Ag) and divalent metals (zinc:Zn; cadmium:Cd) with that of copper (Cu). Cu can have two oxidation states in vivo, i.e. Cu(I) and Cu(II). Studies were performed in normal Wistar (NW) rats and mutant

  1. Evaluations of Effective Factors on Efficiency Zinc Oxides Nanoparticles in Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Ehrampoush

    2014-09-01

    Results: The results indicated that the adsorption process is affected by different parameters such as initial pollutant concentrations, adsorbent dose, pH, and contact time and Cadmiumremoval efficiency increases with increasing adsorbent dose and reaction time and decreases with increasing initial concentration of Cadmium. Therefore, it is observed that by raising the initial Cadmium concentration, the adsorption rate increases. The maximum efficiency of adsorptionin pH=7amounted to 89.6%. Conclusion: It is concluded that Zinc Oxide nanoparticles have proper efficiency in removal of Cadmium from aqueous solutions and can be used in the treatment of wastewater that contains ion Cadmium. However, its efficiency is deeply dependent on ion strength and the interaction of other metals in wastewater.

  2. Study of Sage (Salvia officinalis L. Cultivation in Condition of Using Irrigated Water Polluted By Cadmium and Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Amirmoradi

    2017-01-01

    concentrations caused to antagonistic effects of cadmium and lead absorption into shoots of sage. In this experiment cadmium and lead concentrations of all treatments were too below to detect by atomic absorption apparatus. In this study cadmium and lead could not enter to essential oil. Researchers stated that high doses of cadmium, lead, zinc and copper concentrations could not enter into essential oil in sage. Some researchers showed that cadmium, lead and copper were not transferred to essential oil of peppermint, dill and basil during the essential oil distillation process. This finding confirmed that selection of medicinal plants as alternative plants with crops in cadmium and lead contaminated soils. Conclusion: Fresh and dry weight of Sage in the condition of contaminated soil by 100 mg/kg cadmium and 600 mg/kg lead were declined 4.61 and 5.16 % as compare as control, respectively. At the highest doses of cadmium and lead the essential oil of sage were dropped but, these heavy metals were not detected in essential oil. So, it is seems that this medicinal plant may be applied in the contaminated soil or in the condition of using of contaminated irrigated water by cadmium and lead.

  3. Remediation of lead and cadmium-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Ahmed K; Osman, Khaled A; Gouda, Neama Abdel-Razeek

    2016-01-01

    The research was designated to study the ability of plants to bio-accumulate, translocate and remove the heavy metals, lead and cadmium from contaminated soil. The herbal plant ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum was investigated as a bio-accumulator plant for these metals. The translocation of these heavy metals in the herbal plant was compared considering root to shoot transport and redistribution of metals in the root and shoot system. The trace metal contents from root and shoot parts were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The results showed that the percent of lead and cadmium transferred to ryegrass plant were averaged as 51.39, and 74.57%, respectively, while those remained in the soil were averaged as 48.61 and 25.43% following 60 days of treatment. The soil-plant transfer index in root and shoot system of ryegrass was found to be 0.32 and 0.20 for lead, and 0.50 and 0.25 for cadmium. These findings indicated that the herbal plant ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum is a good accumulator for cadmium than lead. The soil-plant transfer factor (the conc. of heavy metal in plant to the conc. in soil) indicated that the mechanism of soil remedy using the investigated plant is phytoextraction where the amounts of heavy metals transferred by plant roots into the above ground portions were higher than that remained in the soil. The method offers green technology solution for the contamination problem since it is effective technology with minimal impact on the environment and can be easily used for soil remedy.

  4. Mass spectrometry of submicrogram quantities of lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Noemia M.P. de; Kakazu, M.H.; Iyer, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    Isotope analyses of submicrogram quantities of lead and cadmium are carried out by single filament solid source mass spectrometry. Thermionic emission of Pb and Cd is enhanced using silica gel as an emitter. Details of the chemical and mass spectrometric techniques are described. The low blank levels are maintained by extra purification of the reagents. The applications of isotope ratios of Pb and Cd in environmental sciences and geochemistry are discussed. (Author) [pt

  5. Phyto extraction Of Cadmium And Zinc From Contaminated Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfy, S.M.; Mostafa, A.Z.; Abdel Sabour, M. F.

    2012-01-01

    A trial was made to study the use of different plant species to extract heavy metals out of contaminated soils. Four Kg of each air-dried surface soil sample (0-20 cm) were packed in plastic containers in three replicates. Five plant species tested in this study namely, Panikum (Panicum antidotal) and napier grass (Bennisetum purpureum), squash (Cucurbita pepo), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), sunflower (Helianthus annuus); were grown on two different polluted soil types (Mostorud Clayey soil, irrigated with contaminated water for more than 30 years and El-Gabal EL-Asfar sandyloam soil, subjected to sewage effluent irrigation for more than 50 years) in a complete randomized block experimental design to study the mobility and fate of selected heavy metals and evaluate the efficiency of the tested plant species to extract Cadmium and Zinc out of polluted soils. Data indicated that sunflower and cotton shoots accumulated the highest Cd content among the five tested plant species, Shoot concentrations of Cd were as high as 9.6 mg/kg dry matter of sunflower, followed by panikum and napier grass, cotton then squash with a range of Cd between 9.6 to 1.6 mg/kg dry matter in case of the alluvium soil. However in the sandy soil, sunflower Cd -shoots were > penakium> napier grass > cotton> Squash with a lower order of magnitude which could be explained by the lower Cd -content in sandy soil compared to the alluvial soil .Calculation of recovery percentage based on Cd and Zn removed from the soil after cultivation ranged between 5.9 to 27.4 % and 16.1 to 49.1% of total initial Cd and Zn, Respectively. However, The percentage of Cd and Zn -removed by plant shoots from the initial total varied between 27.6 to 37.5% and 25.3 and 36.8 % of the removed Cd and Zn, Respectively, whereas the lowest values were observed in case of squash for Cd and Zn. As expected plant roots exhibited higher Cd and Zn accumulation than in shoots by 2-3 folds. Sunflower roots showed the highest Cd

  6. Protective Effects of Long Term Administration of Zinc on Bone Metabolism Parameters in Male Wistar Rats Treated with Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Najafi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Violent poisoning by cadmium in human is created through drinks or meals which have packed in the metallic tins with cadmium plating. The symptoms of variation in the mineral metabolism of bones are observed and different conditions maybe appeared. The toxic (poisonous effect due to cadmium can be neutralized by intervening zinc. This study has been designed to investigate the protective effects of zinc for reducing the poisonous effects due to cadmium on the metabolism in the parameters related to the bone in rat. Methods In this experimental study, 48 male rats of wistar species were distributed in eight experimental groups and tested in the investigative lab of Falavarjan university. These groups were received 0.5 cc physiological serum, 0.5 mg/kg Zinc, 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg Cadmium respectively and some groups were included in those were taken all there cadmium and zinc concentrations synchronously. Blood samples were taken in a 60 days period and those factors related to the bone metabolism were measured. The data were analyzed by 2-ANOVA Ways, complementary tests through software SPSS 16. Results The results showed that 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg doses cadmium chloride caused to increase alkaline Phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and decrease albumin as compared with control group. Also, synchronous usage of all three cadmium chloride concentrations with zinc cause to decrease alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and increase albumin concentration. In a word, the other bone parameters have been significant in different cadmium and zinc doses (P < 0.05. Conclusions Findings showed that zinc can play a protective role on the metabolism parameters related to bone against to poisoning caused by cadmium.

  7. Cadmium, zinc and the uptake of calcium by two crabs, Carcinus maenas and Eriocheir sinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbow, P.S.; Black, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    The uptake of dissolved cadmium and zinc by crustaceans can usually be explained by the passive process of facilitated diffusion involving a transport protein in the membranes of permeable surfaces. Cadmium ions will also enter via uptake routes for calcium, given the similar size of the two free ions. This study has investigated the interaction of cadmium (and comparatively zinc) and calcium uptake in two crabs that show different permeability responses to changes in salinity, with consequently different effects on the uptake of cadmium and zinc with salinity change. Ca uptake rates in Carcinus maenas decreased in reduced salinity (33-15) with the decreased Ca concentration of the medium and increased if the Ca concentration was increased at salinity 20. It is concluded that Ca uptake over the salinity range 33-15 is via apical Ca channels in gill ionocytes, passively down an electrochemical gradient. The Ca uptake rate of Eriocheir sinensis showed no significant decrease over the salinity range 33-10 (probably because of the small differences in an already low Ca uptake rate in this crab against a background of inter-individual variability), but decreased significantly at salinity 5. Added calcium increased the Ca uptake rate of E. sinensis at salinities 15 and 5, supporting the interpretation that Ca uptake in gills is typically passive via apical Ca channels. Cadmium (but not zinc) inhibited calcium uptake in both crabs at 15 salinity, indicating sharing of Ca channels by Cd, but not at salinity 5 (E. sinensis only) when Ca may be taken up into gill ionocytes by another (active?) physiological process

  8. High cadmium / zinc ratio in cigarette smokers: potential implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco smoke may be one of the most common sources of cadmium (Cd) in the general population, particularly in the rising population of smokers in developing countries. Although a relationship between both cigarette smoking and environmental Cd contamination with prostate cancer exist, the mechanisms are unclear.

  9. Determination of cadmium in zinc ores by thermal neutron absorption analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Norre, L.; Op de Beeck, J.; Hoste, J.

    1983-01-01

    A method has been developed for routine determination of cadmium in zinc ores by thermal neutron absorption analysis, based on the attenuation of a thermal neutron flux passing through a neutron absorbing material. The thermal neutron flux in related to the 52 V activity induced in a vanadium detector, surrounded by pellets pressed from a mixture of powdered material with graphite. Besides cadmium, also the major constituents zinc, iron and sulfur contribute significantly to the total attenuation of the thermal neutron flux. Calibration lines for these elements are worked out. All irradiations are carried out for 200 s in the partially thermalized neutron flux of a 5 Ci 227 Ac-Be isotope neutron source. After a decay of 30 s, the 52 V activity of the vanadium detector is measured for 400 s with a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The analysis sequence, including the computation of the results from the counting data, is automated by means of a LSI-11 Microprocessor with 12Kx16 bit memory. Zinc ores, containing 0.02 to 1.45% cadmium, have been analyzed with a precision ranging from 12.6% to 0.54%, resp. As a test for the reliability of the method, two NBS standard reference materials were analyzed in the same way as the zinc ore samples. (author)

  10. Preparation and study of the properties of indium phosphide thin films impregnated with cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Indium phosphide thin films were deposited by vacuum evaporation of indium and phosphorous, using the three-temperature method. The effects of the introduction of cadmium and zinc, group II impurities, on the properties of these films were studied. The introduction of cadmium was achieved by coevaporation of this element during the film deposition. The introduction of zinc was done by diffusion of this element in intrinsic films. Analyses of these films were carried out by the study of the composition, morphology, structure, optical properties and electrical properties. The introduction of cadmium led to the reduction of grain size and increase in the bandgap and in certain cases, even change in morphology. Phases of CdP2 and β-CdP2 were detected and the resistivity increased by some orders of magnitude. The introduction of zinc did not change the morphology, crystalline structure and bandgap. However, a new energy level corresponding to the zinc acceptor level was found and the resistivity increased by some orders of magnitude. (Author) [pt

  11. Characterization of large cadmium zinc telluride crystals grown by traveling heater method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H.; Awadalla, S.A.; Iniewski, K.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to evaluate thick, 20 X 20 X 10 and 10 X 10 X 10 mm(3), cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), Cd0.9Zn0.1Te, crystals grown using the traveling heater method (THIM). The phenomenal spectral performance and small size and low concentration of Te inclusions/precipitates of these c......The focus of this paper is to evaluate thick, 20 X 20 X 10 and 10 X 10 X 10 mm(3), cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), Cd0.9Zn0.1Te, crystals grown using the traveling heater method (THIM). The phenomenal spectral performance and small size and low concentration of Te inclusions...

  12. Combined effect of zinc, chromium, and cadmium on bacterial biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsak, M N; Nakani, D V; Chol' naya, G G

    1976-01-01

    The present work was carried out at the Rybinskoye storage-lake in 1974. Some tolerance limits of zinc, chromium and cadmium were chosen for the investigation. The bacterial production was estimated by /sup 14/C heterotrophic assimilation. Natural water included in polyethylene reservoirs was used. The bacterial production was determined in one to three days after the beginning of the experiment. In most off the experiments the negative influence of zinc and chromium on the bacterial biomass production was registered only after 3 days of exposure. The effect of cadmium during the entire period of observations proved to be unreliable. The effect of chromium was fairly constant in different seasons. The interaction of toxicants was not revealed in any the of experiments. 8 references.

  13. A survey of hazardous and toxic wastes from lead and zinc industries in Zanjan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamesi, J.; Asadi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Angoran, situated in north-west of Zanjan province is unique in Middle East in respect of its rich reserves of Lead and Zinc minerals. These valuable reserves have attracted a number of Lead and Zinc industries into the province. With the absent of a proper waste management practices, a great deal of hazardous and toxic wastes are produced which contains a high percent of heavy metals that are potential sources for soil and water pollution. In this paper, after recognition of the main sources of the pollutants, the affected and vulnerable areas are mapped using Geographic Information System. The quality and quantity of these hazardous wastes are then evaluated by sampling and analyzing the samples and by taking into account the undesirable environmental conditions faced by the province, a number of preventive and curative measures for a better waste management practices are introduced. The annual wastes produced by 22 Zinc plants in the province are calculated to be about 260000 tons of filter cake leachates, 13000 tons of Cobalt filter cake, and 6550 tons of Cadmium-Nickel filter cakes. Two active Lead factories in the province are also producing about 13000 tons of slag annually. These wastes are containing 27000 ton Zinc, 9220 ton Lead, 560 ton Cadmium and 242000 tons of other wastes, that are left in open spaces within the factory or is dumped in dry riverbeds or near river valleys.The wastes are transported and deposited by wind in the environment and are washed by rain into the river systems or are soaked into the ground polluting the underground aquifers. Based of Basel Convention, these wastes are given international codes (Y 23, Y 31, Y 26, Y 46). Possession, disposal, and recycling of such wastes must be undertaken with specific management measures

  14. Synthesis, characterization and thermogravimetric study of zinc and cadmium acetates-polyaniline hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes de Farias, Robson

    2004-01-01

    By dissolution of respective acetates and conducting polymer in dimethylformamide, homogeneous zinc acetate and cadmium acetate-polyaniline (PANI) hybrids were synthesized and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and SEM microscopy. The infrared spectra suggests that there are interactions between PANI and the metal cations involving both, imine and amine nitrogens in a typical Lewis acid-base reaction. The thermogravimetric degradation profile of the synthesized hybrids resembles those exhibited by PANI samples

  15. Potentiometric titration of zinc and cadmium in electrolytes of in galvanic baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyuga, E.A.; Kalugin, A.A.; Gur'ev, I.A.

    1979-01-01

    The method of potentiometric titration of zinc and cadmium by complexone 3 in electrolytes of galvanic baths using sulphide - silver electrode for determining the finite point of titration is suggested. Copper (2) ions are proposed as indicator ions. The potentiometric determination should be performed at pH=10. The method is verified on model electrolyte solutions and on the electrolyte solutions of operating baths.The technique can be used for automatic control. The time for analysis is 10 minutes

  16. Phytoremediation of Lead and Cadmium Contaminated Soils using Sunflower Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser Sewalem; Soad Elfeky; Fatma El- Shintinawy

    2014-01-01

    Phytremediation has emerged as a practical approach to clean up metal-polluted soils. In this study the role of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) plants as a potential phytoremediator to soils contaminated with cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) was investigated. Our results showed that the effect of Cd was stronger on the growth of the roots, while the effect of Pb was stronger on the shoots of sunflower seedlings. At the physiological level, Cd treatment was found to induce low levels of lipid pero...

  17. Lead and zinc removal with storage period in porous asphalt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... total suspended sediments (TSS)), nutrients (e.g., total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN)), oil ... (e.g., lead, copper and zinc), are carried by stormwater runoff ..... The essential mineral of limestone ..... kinetics of basalt–water interaction.

  18. Comparative Genotoxicity of Cadmium and Lead in Earthworm Coelomocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptumporn Muangphra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine genotoxicity to coelomocytes, Pheretima peguana earthworms were exposed in filter paper studies to cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb for 48 h, at concentrations less than the LC10—Cd: 0.09, 0.19, 0.38, 0.75, and 1.50 μg cm−2; Pb: 1.65, 3.29, 6.58, 13.16, and 26.32 μg cm−2. For Cd at 0.75 μg cm−2, in the micronucleus test (detects chromosomal aberrations, significant increases (<.05 in micronuclei and binucleate cells were observed, and in the comet assay (detects DNA single-strand breaks, tail DNA% was significantly increased. Lead was less toxic with minimal effects on DNA, but the binucleates were significantly increased by Pb at 3.29 μg cm−2. This study shows that Cd is more acutely toxic and sublethally genotoxic than Pb to P. peguana. Cadmium caused chromosomal aberrations and DNA single-strand breaks at 45% of the LC10 concentration. Lead, in contrast, did not induce DNA damage but caused cytokinesis defects.

  19. Integrated micro-biochemical approach for phytoremediation of cadmium and zinc contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Dinesh; Kumar, Chitranjan; Patel, Niraj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The integrated potential of oilcake manure (OM), elemental sulphur (S(0)), Glomus fasciculatum and Pseudomonas putida by growing Helianthus annuus L for phytoremediation of cadmium and zinc contaminated soils was investigated under pot experiment. The integrated treatment (2.5 g kg(-1) OM, 0.8 g kg(-1) S(0) and co-inoculation with G. fasciculatum and P. putida promoted the dry biomass of the plant. The treatment was feasible for enhanced cadmium accumulation up to 6.56 and 5.25 mg kg(-1) and zinc accumulation up to 45.46 and 32.56 mg kg(-1) in root and shoot, respectively, which caused maximum remediation efficiency (0.73 percent and 0.25 percent) and bioaccumulation factor (2.39 and 0.83) for Cd and Zn, respectively showing feasible uptake (in mg kg(-1) dry biomass) of Cd (5.55) and Zn (35.51) at the contaminated site. Thus, authors conclude to integrate oilcake manure, S(0) and microbial co-inoculation for enhanced clean-up of cadmium and zinc-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cadmium, zinc, copper, sodium and potassium concentrations in rooster and turkey semen and their correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massanyi, Peter; Weis, Jan; Lukac, Norbert; Trandzik, Jozef; Bystricka, Judita

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess concentration of selected elements (cadmium, zinc, copper, sodium and potassium) in rooster and turkey semen and to find possible correlations between these elements. Samples were analyzed on the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analysis of cadmium showed that the concentration in rooster is 9.06 +/- 7.70 and in turkey 4.10 +/- 3.59 microg/mL. In zinc 5.25 +/- 1.96 microg/mL in rooster and 3.70 +/- 1.26 microg/mL in turkey were detected. Higher concentration of copper was found in rooster semen (6.79 +/- 6.42 microg/mL) in comparison with turkey semen (4.29 +/- 5.43 microg/mL). The level of sodium (3.96 +/- 1.02 microg/mL; 3.14 +/- 0.85 microg/mL) and potassium (2.88 +/- 0.65 microg/mL; 3.42 +/- 1.41 microg/mL) was very similar in both species. Correlation analysis detected high positive correlation between cadmium and zinc (r = 0.701) in rooster and between sodium and potassium (r = 0.899) in turkey semen.

  1. Reproduction and biochemical responses in Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) to zinc or cadmium exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novais, Sara C.; Gomes, Susana I.L.; Gravato, Carlos; Guilhermino, Lucia; De Coen, Wim; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Amorim, Monica J.B.

    2011-01-01

    To better understand chemical modes of action, emphasis has been given to stress responses at lower levels of biological organization. Cholinesterases and antioxidant defenses are among the most used biomarkers due to their crucial role in the neurocholinergic transmission and in cell homeostasis preventing DNA damage, enzymatic inactivation and lipid peroxidation. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of zinc and cadmium on survival and reproduction of E. albidus and to assess metals oxidative stress potential and neurotoxic effects at concentrations that affected reproduction. Both metals affected the enchytraeids' survival and reproduction and induced significant changes in the antioxidant defenses as well as increased lipid peroxidation, indicating oxidative damage. This study demonstrates that determining effects at different levels of biological organization can give better information on the physiological responses of enchytraeids in metal contamination events and further unravel the mechanistic processes dealing with metal stress. - Highlights: → Zinc and cadmium influence the survival and reproduction of Enchytraeus albidus. → Oxidative stress and membrane damage occur at reproduction effect concentrations. → Glutathione seems to be important in the antioxidant defense against metals. → Time intervals (2, 4, 8 days) allowed following the evolution of oxidative events. - Zinc and cadmium cause oxidative stress and membrane damage in Enchytraeus albidus at reproduction effect concentrations.

  2. Reproduction and biochemical responses in Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) to zinc or cadmium exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novais, Sara C., E-mail: sara.novais@ua.pt [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gomes, Susana I.L. [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gravato, Carlos [CIIMAR-Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia e Ecologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Guilhermino, Lucia [CIIMAR-Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia e Ecologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); ICBAS-Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas Abel Salazar, Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); De Coen, Wim [University of Antwerp, Department of Biology - E.B.T., Groenenborgerlaan 171 - U.7., B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Amorim, Monica J.B. [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2011-07-15

    To better understand chemical modes of action, emphasis has been given to stress responses at lower levels of biological organization. Cholinesterases and antioxidant defenses are among the most used biomarkers due to their crucial role in the neurocholinergic transmission and in cell homeostasis preventing DNA damage, enzymatic inactivation and lipid peroxidation. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of zinc and cadmium on survival and reproduction of E. albidus and to assess metals oxidative stress potential and neurotoxic effects at concentrations that affected reproduction. Both metals affected the enchytraeids' survival and reproduction and induced significant changes in the antioxidant defenses as well as increased lipid peroxidation, indicating oxidative damage. This study demonstrates that determining effects at different levels of biological organization can give better information on the physiological responses of enchytraeids in metal contamination events and further unravel the mechanistic processes dealing with metal stress. - Highlights: > Zinc and cadmium influence the survival and reproduction of Enchytraeus albidus. > Oxidative stress and membrane damage occur at reproduction effect concentrations. > Glutathione seems to be important in the antioxidant defense against metals. > Time intervals (2, 4, 8 days) allowed following the evolution of oxidative events. - Zinc and cadmium cause oxidative stress and membrane damage in Enchytraeus albidus at reproduction effect concentrations.

  3. Alcohol vapor sensing by cadmium-doped zinc oxide thick films based chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, R. A.; Arora, M.; Chackrabarti, S.; Ahmad, S.; Kumar, J.; Hafiz, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles were derived by simple chemical co-precipitation route using zinc acetate dihydrate and cadmium acetate dihydrate as precursor materials. The thick films were casted from chemical co-precipitation route prepared nanoparticles by economic facile screen printing method. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the film were characterized relevant to alcohol vapor sensing application by powder XRD, SEM, UV-VIS and DC conductivity techniques. The response and sensitivity of alcohol (ethanol) vapor sensor are obtained from the recovery curves at optimum working temperature range from 20∘C to 50∘C. The result shows that maximum sensitivity of the sensor is observed at 25∘C operating temperature. On varying alcohol vapor concentration, minor variation in resistance has been observed. The sensing mechanism of sensor has been described in terms of physical adsorption and chemical absorption of alcohol vapors on cadmium-doped zinc oxide film surface and inside film lattice network through weak hydrogen bonding, respectively.

  4. Thermal decomposition of anhydrous zinc and cadmium salicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Tujebakhova, Z.K.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of studying thermograms, thermogravigrams, IR absorption spectra, X-rayograms of anhydrous znc and cadmium salicylate complexes of the M(HSal) 2 composition, (where M=Zn, Cd; HSal is an anion of once deprotonated salicyclic acid H 2 Sal) and products of their thermal transformations, the processes are characterized of stage-by-stage thermal decomposition of these compounds under continuous heating in the air from room temperature to approximately 1000 deg C. It is shown that the Cd(HSal) 2 pyrolysis proceeds with the formation of CdSal at 170-250 deg C and CdO - at 320-460 deg C

  5. Common and metal-specific proteomic responses to cadmium and zinc in the metal tolerant ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Oidiodendron maius Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapello, M; Martino, E; Perotto, S

    2015-05-01

    Although adaptive metal tolerance may arise in fungal populations in polluted soils, the mechanisms underlying metal-specific tolerance are poorly understood. Comparative proteomics is a powerful tool to identify variation in protein profiles caused by changing environmental conditions, and was used to investigate protein accumulation in a metal tolerant isolate of the ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Oidiodendron maius exposed to zinc and cadmium. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and shotgun proteomics followed by mass spectrometry lead to the identification of common and metal-specific proteins and pathways. Proteins selectively induced by cadmium exposure were molecular chaperons of the Hsp90 family, cytoskeletal proteins and components of the translation machinery. Zinc significantly up-regulated metabolic pathways related to energy production and carbohydrates metabolism, likely mirroring zinc adaptation of this fungal isolate. Common proteins induced by the two metal ions were the antioxidant enzyme Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and ubiquitin. In mycelia exposed to zinc and cadmium, both proteomic techniques also identified agmatinase, an enzyme involved in polyamine biosynthesis. This novel finding suggests that, like plants, polyamines may have important functions in response to abiotic environmental stress in fungi. Genetic evidence also suggests that the biosynthesis of polyamines via an alternative metabolic pathway may be widespread in fungi.

  6. Transfer functions for solid-solution partitioning of cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in soils. Derivation of relationships for free metal ion activities and validation with independent data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenenberg, J.E.; Roemkens, P.F.A.M.; De Vries, W. [Soil Science Centre, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Comans, R.N.J. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Luster, J. [Research Unit Soil Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Zuercherstrasse 111 CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Pampura, T. [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Soils, Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science RAS, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142290 (Russian Federation); Shotbolt, L. [Department of Geography, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Tipping, E. [Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Models to predict the solid-solution partitioning of trace metals are important tools in risk assessment, providing information on the biological availability of metals and their leaching. Empirically based models, or transfer functions, published to date differ with respect to the mathematical model used, the optimization method, the methods used to determine metal concentrations in the solid and solution phases and the soil properties accounted for. Here we review these methodological aspects before deriving our own transfer functions that relate free metal ion activities to reactive metal contents in the solid phase. One single function was able to predict free-metal ion activities estimated by a variety of soil solution extraction methods. Evaluation of the mathematical formulation showed that transfer functions derived to optimize the Freundlich adsorption constant (Kf ), in contrast to functions derived to optimize either the solid or solution concentration, were most suitable for predicting concentrations in solution from solid phase concentrations and vice versa. The model was shown to be generally applicable on the basis of a large number of independent data, for which predicted free metal activities were within one order of magnitude of the observations. The model only over-estimated free-metal ion activities at alkaline pH (>7). The use of the reactive metal content measured by 0.43 m HNO3 rather than the total metal content resulted in a close correlation with measured data, particularly for nickel and zinc.

  7. Survey of mercury, cadmium and lead content of household batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recknagel, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.recknagel@bam.de [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Reference Materials, Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Radant, Hendrik [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Reference Materials, Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Kohlmeyer, Regina [German Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Section III 1.6 Extended Producer Responsibility, Wörlitzer Platz 1, D-06844 Dessau-Roßlau (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • A well selected sample of 146 batteries was analysed for its heavy metals content. • A comparison was made between heavy metals contents in batteries in 2006 and 2011. • No significant change after implementation of the new EU Batteries Directive. • Severe differences in heavy metal contents were found in different battery-types. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to provide updated information on the development of the potential impact of heavy metal containing batteries on municipal waste and battery recycling processes following transposition of the new EU Batteries Directive 2006/66/EC. A representative sample of 146 different types of commercially available dry and button cells as well as lithium-ion accumulators for mobile phones were analysed for their mercury (Hg)-, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contents. The methods used for preparing the cells and analysing the heavy metals Hg, Cd, and Pb were either developed during a former study or newly developed. Several batteries contained higher mass fractions of mercury or cadmium than the EU limits. Only half of the batteries with mercury and/or lead fractions above the marking thresholds were labelled. Alkaline–manganese mono-cells and Li-ion accumulators, on average, contained the lowest heavy metal concentrations, while zinc–carbon batteries, on average, contained the highest levels.

  8. Removal of cadmium and lead from water by activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Shafy, H.I.; Abdel-Sabour, M.F.; El-Gamal, I.M.; Abo-El-Wafa, O.

    1989-01-01

    Adsorption of cadmium and lead from water by carbon was studied using powdered or granular carbon. The studied water artificially contaminated by cadmium and lead amounting to 1 mg/dm 3 each. Batch as well as continuous system were carried out. The batch system was used to determine the time to maintain equilibrium followed by adsorption isotherm. Results obtained by using the powered carbon were found to match with Freundlich's equation where 1/n was 2.12 and 2.096 for Cd and Pb, respectively. Corresponding constants (K) were 4.2·10 -2 and 76.0·10 -2 . The amount of powdered activated carbon required to reduce residual Cd and Pb concentration to 0.01 mg/dm 3 for each are 26.98 and 2.86 mg, respectively. Similar batch system study was carried out for the granular carbon. When granular carbon was used in a continuous system, two different contact times, namely 10 to 20 min were examined. The results obtained showed that increasing the contact time from 10 to 20 min increases the metal to carbon removal efficiency. The overall results indicated that the breakthrough point for either Cd or Pb is the reverse of their adsorption as indicated by K value. (author). 22 refs, 10 figs, 7 tabs

  9. Survey of mercury, cadmium and lead content of household batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recknagel, Sebastian; Radant, Hendrik; Kohlmeyer, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A well selected sample of 146 batteries was analysed for its heavy metals content. • A comparison was made between heavy metals contents in batteries in 2006 and 2011. • No significant change after implementation of the new EU Batteries Directive. • Severe differences in heavy metal contents were found in different battery-types. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to provide updated information on the development of the potential impact of heavy metal containing batteries on municipal waste and battery recycling processes following transposition of the new EU Batteries Directive 2006/66/EC. A representative sample of 146 different types of commercially available dry and button cells as well as lithium-ion accumulators for mobile phones were analysed for their mercury (Hg)-, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contents. The methods used for preparing the cells and analysing the heavy metals Hg, Cd, and Pb were either developed during a former study or newly developed. Several batteries contained higher mass fractions of mercury or cadmium than the EU limits. Only half of the batteries with mercury and/or lead fractions above the marking thresholds were labelled. Alkaline–manganese mono-cells and Li-ion accumulators, on average, contained the lowest heavy metal concentrations, while zinc–carbon batteries, on average, contained the highest levels

  10. Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in Sweat: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E. Sears

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury exposures are ubiquitous. These toxic elements have no physiological benefits, engendering interest in minimizing body burden. The physiological process of sweating has long been regarded as “cleansing” and of low risk. Reports of toxicant levels in sweat were sought in Medline, Embase, Toxline, Biosis, and AMED as well as reference lists and grey literature, from inception to March 22, 2011. Of 122 records identified, 24 were included in evidence synthesis. Populations, and sweat collection methods and concentrations varied widely. In individuals with higher exposure or body burden, sweat generally exceeded plasma or urine concentrations, and dermal could match or surpass urinary daily excretion. Arsenic dermal excretion was severalfold higher in arsenic-exposed individuals than in unexposed controls. Cadmium was more concentrated in sweat than in blood plasma. Sweat lead was associated with high-molecular-weight molecules, and in an interventional study, levels were higher with endurance compared with intensive exercise. Mercury levels normalized with repeated saunas in a case report. Sweating deserves consideration for toxic element detoxification. Research including appropriately sized trials is needed to establish safe, effective therapeutic protocols.

  11. Evaluation of the effect of divalent metal transporter 1 gene polymorphism on blood iron, lead and cadmium levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha, E-mail: kayaalti@ankara.edu.tr; Akyüzlü, Dilek Kaya; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-02-15

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a member of the proton-coupled metal ion transporter family, mediates transport of ferrous iron from the lumen of the intestine into the enterocyte and export of iron from endocytic vesicles. It has an affinity not only for iron but also for other divalent cations including manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. DMT1 is encoded by the SLC11a2 gene that is located on chromosome 12q13 in humans and express four major mammalian isoforms (1A/+IRE, 1A/-IRE, 2/+IRE and 2/-IRE). Mutations or polymorphisms of DMT1 gene may have an impact on human health by disturbing metal trafficking. To study the possible association of DMT1 gene with the blood levels of some divalent cations such as iron, lead and cadmium, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (IVS4+44C/A) in DMT1 gene was investigated in 486 unrelated and healthy individuals in a Turkish population by method of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). The genotype frequencies were found as 49.8% homozygote typical (CC), 38.3% heterozygote (CA) and 11.9% homozygote atypical (AA). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system and the average levels of iron, lead and cadmium in the blood samples were 446.01±81.87 ppm, 35.59±17.72 ppb and 1.25±0.87 ppb, respectively. Individuals with the CC genotype had higher blood iron, lead and cadmium levels than those with AA and CA genotypes. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism in the DMT1 gene and iron and lead levels (p=0.001 and p=0.036, respectively), but no association was found with cadmium level (p=0.344). This study suggested that DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, lead and cadmium levels. - Highlights: • DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, cadmium and lead levels.

  12. Evaluation of the effect of divalent metal transporter 1 gene polymorphism on blood iron, lead and cadmium levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha; Akyüzlü, Dilek Kaya; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-01-01

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a member of the proton-coupled metal ion transporter family, mediates transport of ferrous iron from the lumen of the intestine into the enterocyte and export of iron from endocytic vesicles. It has an affinity not only for iron but also for other divalent cations including manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. DMT1 is encoded by the SLC11a2 gene that is located on chromosome 12q13 in humans and express four major mammalian isoforms (1A/+IRE, 1A/-IRE, 2/+IRE and 2/-IRE). Mutations or polymorphisms of DMT1 gene may have an impact on human health by disturbing metal trafficking. To study the possible association of DMT1 gene with the blood levels of some divalent cations such as iron, lead and cadmium, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (IVS4+44C/A) in DMT1 gene was investigated in 486 unrelated and healthy individuals in a Turkish population by method of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). The genotype frequencies were found as 49.8% homozygote typical (CC), 38.3% heterozygote (CA) and 11.9% homozygote atypical (AA). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system and the average levels of iron, lead and cadmium in the blood samples were 446.01±81.87 ppm, 35.59±17.72 ppb and 1.25±0.87 ppb, respectively. Individuals with the CC genotype had higher blood iron, lead and cadmium levels than those with AA and CA genotypes. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism in the DMT1 gene and iron and lead levels (p=0.001 and p=0.036, respectively), but no association was found with cadmium level (p=0.344). This study suggested that DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, lead and cadmium levels. - Highlights: • DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, cadmium and lead levels.

  13. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinwood, A.L.; Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M.; Heyworth, J.; McCafferty, P.; Odland, J.Ø.

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  14. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: a.hinwood@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A. C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J. Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  15. Bioaccumulation of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead by Bacillus sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus subtilis Bioacumulação de cobre, zinco, cádmio e chumbo por Bacillus sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus e Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Augusto da Costa

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents some results on the use of microbes from the genus Bacillus for uptake of cadmium, zinc, copper and lead ions. Maximum copper bioaccumulations were 5.6 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 5.9 mol/g biomass for B. cereus and B. subtilis, and 6.4 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. Maximum zinc bioaccumulations were 4.3 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 4.6 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 4.8 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 5.0 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis. Maximum cadmium bioaccumulations were 8.0 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 9.5 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis, 10.8 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 11.8 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus. Maximum lead biomaccumulations were 0.7 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 1.1 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 1.4 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 1.8 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis. The different Bacillus strains tested presented distinct uptake capacities, and the best results were obtained for B. subtilis and B. cereus.Este trabalho apresenta resultados de acumulação dos íons metálicos cádmio, zinco, cobre e chumbo por bactérias do gênero Bacillus. A bioacumulação máxima de cobre foi 5,6 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 5,9 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus e B. subtilis, e 6,4 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp.. A bioacumulação máxima de zinco foi 4,3 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 4,6 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 4,8 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 5,0 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis. A bioacumulação máxima de cádmio foi 8,0 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 9,5 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis, 10,8 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 11,8 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus. A bioacumulação máxima de chumbo foi 0,7 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 1,1 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 1,4 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 1,8 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis. As distintas linhagens de Bacillus testadas apresentaram variáveis capacidades de carregamento de íons metálicos, sendo os

  16. Cadmium and lead in vegetable and fruit produce selected from specific regional areas of the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, Gareth J.; Deacon, Claire M.; Mestrot, Adrien; Feldmann, Joerg; Jenkins, Paul; Baskaran, Christina; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium and lead were determined in fruit and vegetable produce (~ 1300 samples) collected from a field and market basket study of locally grown produce from the South-West of Britain (Devon and Cornwall). These were compared with similarly locally grown produce from the North-East of Britain (Aberdeenshire). The concentrations of cadmium and lead in the market basket produce were compared to the maximum levels (ML) set by the European Union (EU). For cadmium 0.2% of the samples exceeded the ML, and 0.6% of the samples exceeded the ML for lead. The location of cadmium and lead in potatoes was performed using laser ablation ICP-MS. All tested samples exhibited higher lead concentrations, and most exhibited increased concentrations of cadmium in the potato skin compared to the flesh. The concentrations of cadmium and lead found in fruits and vegetables sampled during this study do not increase concern about risk to human health. - Highlights: • Cadmium and lead concentrations determined in fruit and vegetable produce • 0.2% of the samples exceeded guideline values for cadmium. • 0.6% of the samples exceeded guideline values for lead. • Higher concentrations of cadmium and lead were found in the skins of potatoes

  17. Interlaboratory Comparison of Lead and Cadmium in Blood, Urine, and Aqueous Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulev, P. E.; Solgaard, Per Bent; Tjell, Jens Christian

    1978-01-01

    Analysis for lead and cadmium in biological liquids (blood and urine) is difficult. Results of such analyses from five laboratories are compared for samples with known additions of lead and cadmium. The data, evaluated in terms of inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility and accuracy, suggest t...... that laboratories should voluntarily participate in quality control programs. Users of routine laboratories are advised to use their own quality control program......Analysis for lead and cadmium in biological liquids (blood and urine) is difficult. Results of such analyses from five laboratories are compared for samples with known additions of lead and cadmium. The data, evaluated in terms of inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility and accuracy, suggest...

  18. Cadmium and lead in vegetable and fruit produce selected from specific regional areas of the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, Gareth J., E-mail: g.norton@abdn.ac.uk [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Deacon, Claire M. [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Mestrot, Adrien [Soil Science Group, Institute of Geography, Universität Bern, Hallerstrasse 12, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Feldmann, Joerg [Department of Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Meston Building, AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Jenkins, Paul; Baskaran, Christina [Food Standards Agency, Aviation House, Kingsway, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Meharg, Andrew A. [Institute for Global Food Security, Queen' s University Belfast, David Keir Building, Malone Road, Belfast BT9 5BN (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium and lead were determined in fruit and vegetable produce (~ 1300 samples) collected from a field and market basket study of locally grown produce from the South-West of Britain (Devon and Cornwall). These were compared with similarly locally grown produce from the North-East of Britain (Aberdeenshire). The concentrations of cadmium and lead in the market basket produce were compared to the maximum levels (ML) set by the European Union (EU). For cadmium 0.2% of the samples exceeded the ML, and 0.6% of the samples exceeded the ML for lead. The location of cadmium and lead in potatoes was performed using laser ablation ICP-MS. All tested samples exhibited higher lead concentrations, and most exhibited increased concentrations of cadmium in the potato skin compared to the flesh. The concentrations of cadmium and lead found in fruits and vegetables sampled during this study do not increase concern about risk to human health. - Highlights: • Cadmium and lead concentrations determined in fruit and vegetable produce • 0.2% of the samples exceeded guideline values for cadmium. • 0.6% of the samples exceeded guideline values for lead. • Higher concentrations of cadmium and lead were found in the skins of potatoes.

  19. Preparation and adsorption characteristics for heavy metals of active silicon adsorbent from leaching residue of lead-zinc tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chang; Yan, Bo; Chen, Tao; Xiao, Xian-Ming

    2018-05-19

    To comprehensively reuse the leaching residue obtained from lead-zinc tailings, an active silicon adsorbent (ASA) was prepared from leaching residue and studied as an adsorbent for copper(II), lead(II), zinc(II), and cadmium(II) in this paper. The ASA was prepared by roasting the leaching residue with either a Na 2 CO 3 /residue ratio of 0.6:1 at 700 °C for 1 h or a CaCO 3 /residue ratio of 0.8:1 at 800 °C for 1 h. Under these conditions, the available SiO 2 content of the ASA was more than 20%. The adsorption behaviors of the metal ions onto the ASA were investigated and the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models were used to analyze the adsorption isotherm. The result showed that the maximum adsorption capacities of copper(II), lead(II), cadmium(II), and zinc(II) calculated by the Langmuir model were 3.40, 2.83, 0.66, and 0.62 mmol g -1 , respectively. The FT-IR spectra of the ASA and the mean free adsorption energies indicated that ion exchange was the mechanism of copper(II), lead(II), and cadmium(II) adsorption and that chemical reaction was the mechanism of zinc(II) adsorption. These results provide a method for reusing the leaching residue obtained from lead-zinc tailings and show that the ASA is an effective adsorbent for heavy metal pollution remediation.

  20. Zinc and cadmium mobility in a 5-year-old dredged sediment deposit: experiments and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lions, J. [BRGM, Orleans (France). Water Div.; Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, Douai (France); Lee, J. van der [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Fontainebleau (France). Geosciences - Reactive Hydrodynamics Group; Guerin, V.; Bataillard, P. [BRGM, Orleans (France). Environment and Process Div.; Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, Douai (France); Laboudigue, A. [Ecole des Mines de Douai (France). Environmental and Civil Engineering; Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, Douai (France)

    2007-08-15

    Background. Landfill deposits of contaminated, dredged sediments are subject to chemical alteration and especially to oxidation processes. Accordingly, sulphides are gradually oxidized leading to the formation of secondary phases and associated metals could become mobile and redistributed among the sediment components, such as carbonates, clay and freshly precipitated (hydr)oxides. Once mobilised, metals could represent a hazard for the environment and especially for drinking water supply facilities. Methods. In the present study, leaching experiments have been carried out on a dredged sediment to study metal mobilisation after 5 years of field aging. First, kinetic batch tests allowed one to evaluate the impact of solid-liquid contact time and to determine the kinetic parameters. Secondly, two types of dynamic experiments have been conducted: dynamic flush reactor and column leach test to evaluate the impact of solution renewing by excluding or not excluding the transport processes, respectively. In order to evaluate the impact of calcium on the metal mobilisation, the column leaching test is conducted with pure water and Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution, at the beginning and at the end of the injection, respectively. Geochemical and reactive transport modelling of the experiments was performed using the geochemical code CHESS and the reactive transport model HYTEC. Results and Discussion. The studied sediment is complex with numerous reactive phases such as sulphides, (hydr)oxides, organic matter, phyllosilicates. All leaching tests highlight that zinc and cadmium are mobilised in significant concentrations and lead remains insoluble. A conceptual geochemical model of the sediment has been built to allow simulations of the whole experiments, based on a single, coherent phase description and parameter set. Simulations of the batch, flush and column experiments were performed taking into account the major reaction-controlling mechanisms including, among others, p

  1. Remediation of arsenic and lead with nanocrystalline zinc sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquette, Alan; Cannon, Cody; Apblett, Allen W

    2012-07-27

    Nanocrystalline (1.7 ± 0.3 nm) zinc sulfide with a specific surface area up to 360 m(2) g(-1) was prepared from the thermal decomposition of a single-source precursor, zinc ethylxanthate. Zinc ethylxanthate decomposes to cubic zinc sulfide upon exposure to temperatures greater than or equal to 125 °C. The resulting zinc sulfide was tested as a water impurity extractant. The target impurities used in this study were As(5+), As(3+), and Pb(2+). The reaction of the nanocrystalline ZnS with Pb(2+) proceeds as a replacement reaction where solid PbS is formed and Zn(2+) is released into the aqueous system. Removal of lead to a level of less than two parts per billion is achievable. The results of a detailed kinetics experiment between the ZnS and Pb(2+) are included in this study. Unlike the instance of lead, both As(5+) and As(3+) adsorb on the surface of the ZnS extractant as opposed to an ion-exchange process. An uptake capacity of > 25 mg g(-1) for the removal of As(5+) is possible. The uptake of As(3+) appears to proceed by a slower process than that of the As(5+) with a capacity of nearly 20 mg g(-1). The nanocrystalline zinc sulfide was extremely successful for the removal of arsenic and lead from simulated oil sand tailing pond water.

  2. Cloning and occurrence of czrC, a gene conferring cadmium and zinc resistance in MRSA CC398 Isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Hasman, Henrik; Stegger, Marc

    2010-01-01

    the genetic determinant causing zinc resistance in CC398 and examine its prevalence in isolates of animal and human origin. Based on the sequence of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) CC398 strain SO385, a putative metal resistance gene......-four percent (n = 23) of the animal isolates and 48% (n = 24) of the human MRSA isolates of CC398 were resistant to zinc chloride and positive for czrC. All 48 MSSA strains from both human and pig origins were found to be susceptible to zinc chloride and negative for czrC. Our findings showed that czr......C is encoding zinc and cadmium resistance in CC398 MRSA isolates, and that it is widespread both in humans and animals. Thus, resistance to heavy metals such as zinc and cadmium may play a role in the coselection of methicillin resistance in S. aureus....

  3. Epigenetics, obesity and early-life cadmium or lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sarah S; Skaar, David A; Jirtle, Randy L; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease, which likely comprises multiple subtypes. Emerging data have linked chemical exposures to obesity. As organismal response to environmental exposures includes altered gene expression, identifying the regulatory epigenetic changes involved would be key to understanding the path from exposure to phenotype and provide new tools for exposure detection and risk assessment. In this report, we summarize published data linking early-life exposure to the heavy metals, cadmium and lead, to obesity. We also discuss potential mechanisms, as well as the need for complete coverage in epigenetic screening to fully identify alterations. The keys to understanding how metal exposure contributes to obesity are improved assessment of exposure and comprehensive establishment of epigenetic profiles that may serve as markers for exposures.

  4. Effects of alkaline and bioorganic amendments on cadmium, lead, zinc, and nutrient accumulation in brown rice and grain yield in acidic paddy fields contaminated with a mixture of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huaidong; Tam, Nora F Y; Yao, Aijun; Qiu, Rongliang; Li, Wai Chin; Ye, Zhihong

    2016-12-01

    Paddy soils and rice (Oryza sativa L.) contaminated by mixed heavy metals have given rise to great concern. Field experiments were conducted over two cultivation seasons to study the effects of steel slag (SS), fly ash (FA), limestone (LS), bioorganic fertilizer (BF), and the combination of SS and BF (SSBF) on rice grain yield, Cd, Pb, and Zn and nutrient accumulation in brown rice, bioavailability of Cd, Pb, and Zn in soil as well as soil properties (pH and catalase), at two acidic paddy fields contaminated with mixed heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn). Compared to the controls, SS, LS, and SSBF at both low and high additions significantly elevated soil pH over both cultivation seasons. The high treatments of SS and SSBF markedly increased grain yields, the accumulation of P and Ca in brown rice and soil catalase activities in the first cultivation season. The most striking result was from SS application (4.0 t ha -1 ) that consistently and significantly reduced the soil bioavailability of Cd, Pb, and Zn by 38.5-91.2 % and the concentrations of Cd and Pb in brown rice by 20.9-50.9 % in the two soils over both cultivation seasons. LS addition (4.0 t ha -1 ) also markedly reduced the bioavailable Cd, Pb, and Zn in soil and the Cd concentrations in brown rice. BF remobilized soil Cd and Pb leading to more accumulation of these metals in brown rice. The results showed that steel slag was most effective in the remediation of acidic paddy soils contaminated with mixed heavy metals.

  5. Investigation on life cycle assessment of lead and zinc production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabere Nazari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead and zinc production is one of the main predisposing factors of excessive greenhouse gases emissions, air pollution and water consumption. In this paper, the environmental problems of lead and zinc production in Calcimin plant are expressed and life cycle assessment of this plant is assessed. The data regarding the amount of induced global warming and pollution, acidification, and depletion of water resources were collected and discussed. It was concluded that depletion of water resources affected the environment and this was the main issue of the lead and zinc production of this plant. According to the results, in the global warming’s impact category, the proportion of carbon dioxide is more than that of methane. The results also showed that in the acidification’s impact category, the nitrogen oxide proportion is greater compared to that of the sulfur dioxide.

  6. A theoretical and experimental study of calcium, iron, zinc, cadmium, and sodium ions absorption by aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnam, Karim; Raisi, Fatame

    2017-03-01

    Aspartame (L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) is a sweet dipeptide used in some foods and beverages. Experimental studies show that aspartame causes osteoporosis and some illnesses, which are similar to those of copper and calcium deficiency. This raises the issue that aspartame in food may interact with cations and excrete them from the body. This study aimed to study aspartame interaction with calcium, zinc, iron, sodium, and cadmium ions via molecular dynamics simulation (MD) and spectroscopy. Following a 480-ns molecular dynamics simulation, it became clear that the aspartame is able to sequester Fe 2+ , Ca 2+ , Cd 2+ , and Zn 2+ ions for a long time. Complexation led to increasing UV-Vis absorption spectra and emission spectra of the complexes. This study suggests a potential risk of cationic absorption of aspartame. This study suggests that purification of cadmium-polluted water by aspartame needs a more general risk assessment.

  7. Certification of lead and cadmium in three lyophilized blood materials. CRM No. 194, 195, 196

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeoman, W B; Colinet, E; Griepink, B

    1985-01-01

    The report describes the work for certification of lead and cadmium in three lyophilized samples of bovine blood materials. Homogeneity and stability tests were carried out and are presented in the report. The concentrations of lead and cadmium in each sample of the reconstituted blood are certified. A variety of well established methods were used for certification of the materials.

  8. Study of Cadmium adsorption of Nickel and Zinc on a natural bentonite and homo ionic of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Giraldo, German Dario; Pinzon Bello, Jorge Alejo

    1999-01-01

    It was studied the adsorption of cadmium, nickel and zinc in aqueous solution at 25oC over a bentonite from the Cauca Valley, in its native state as well as in its sodium homo ionic form. The Langmuir isotherm adequately describes the adsorption of these metal ions over both bentonites, and the thermodynamic distribution coefficient, Kdm, which allow quantifying the degree of adsorption, can be calculated. Baeyens-bradbury model correlates well the adsorption of the metal ions over both bentonites but Kdm cannot be calculated from it. The adsorption data do not adjust to freundlich isotherm or B.E.T. As well as they do to the previously mentioned models. The sodium homo ionic bentonite adsorbs nickel and zinc better than the native bentonite, whereas there are not significant differences in cadmium adsorption. The order of adsorption over both bentonites, Cadmium > Zinc > Nickel, follow the HSAB principle

  9. Plasma cadmium and zinc and their interrelationship in adult Nigerians: potential health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwuja Emmanuel Ike

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (an essential trace element and cadmium (a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with acclaimed toxicity have been found to occur together in nature, with reported antagonism between the two elements. The present study aimed at determination of plasma levels of zinc (Zn and cadmium (Cd and their interrelationship in adult Nigerians. The series comprised adults (n=443 aged ≥18 yrs (mean ± SD 38.4±13.7 yrs, consisting of 117 males, 184 non-pregnant and 140 pregnant females. Sociodemographic data were collected by questionnaire while anthropometrics were determined using standard methods. Plasma Cd and Zn were determined by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean plasma zinc and cadmium were 94.7±18.1 μg/dl and 0.150±0.548 μg/dl, respectively. Age, sex, pregnancy, and parity had no effect on either plasma Zn or Cd. Although educational level had no effect on plasma Zn, it had a significant effect on Cd; subjects possessing either secondary or tertiary education had significantly lower plasma Cd than subjects without formal education. Moreover, there seemed to be an inverse relationship between Cd and Zn, but this was not statistically significant (r=–0.089; p=0.061. Although plasma Zn was not related to BMI (r=0.037; p=0.432, Cd was significantly negatively correlated with BMI (r=–0.124; p=0.009. It may be concluded that adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State have elevated plasma levels of Cd, with apparent impact on the levels of plasma Zn. This has important public health implications considering the essential roles of Zn in the protection of Cd mediated adverse health effects. While food diversification is recommended to improve plasma Zn, efforts should be made to reduce exposure to Cd to mitigate partially its possible adverse effects.

  10. Calcium, zinc and vitamin E ameliorate cadmium-induced renal oxidative damage in albino Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepkiran Jangampalli Adi

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to examine the protective effects of supplementation with calcium + zinc (Ca + Zn or vitamin E (Vit-E on Cd-induced renal oxidative damage. Young albino Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g (n = 6 control rats, Cd, Cd + Ca + Zn, and Cd + Vit-E experimental groups and the experimental period was 30 days. Rats were exposed to Cd (20 mg/kg body weight alone treated as Cd treated group and the absence or presence of Ca + Zn (2 mg/kg each or Vit-E (20 mg/kg body weight supplementation treated as two separate groups. The activities of the stress marker enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and lipid peroxidase (LPx were determined in renal mitochondrial fractions of experimental rats. We observed quantitative changes in SOD isoenzymatic patterns by non-denaturing PAGE analysis, and quantified band densities. These results showed that Cd exposure leads to decreases in SOD, CAT, GR, and GPx activities and a concomitant increase in LPx and GST activities. Ca + Zn and Vit-E administration with Cd significantly reversed Cd-induced perturbations in oxidative stress marker enzymes. However, Vit-E showed more inhibitory activity against Cd than did Ca + Zn, and it protected against Cd-induced nephrotoxicity. Keywords: Cadmium (Cd, Oxidative stress, Lipid peroxidation, Nephrotoxicity, PAGE analysis

  11. Scandium-doped zinc cadmium oxide as a new stable n-type oxide thermoelectric material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li; Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn; Bhowmik, Arghya

    2016-01-01

    Scandium-doped zinc cadmium oxide (Sc-doped ZnCdO) is proposed as a new n-type oxide thermoelectric material. The material is sintered in air to maintain the oxygen stoichiometry and avoid instability issues. The successful alloying of CdO with ZnO at a molar ratio of 1 : 9 significantly reduced...... is a good candidate for improving the overall conversion efficiencies in oxide thermoelectric modules. Meanwhile, Sc-doped ZnCdO is robust in air at high temperatures, whereas other n-type materials, such as Al-doped ZnO, will experience rapid degradation of their electrical conductivity and ZT....

  12. [Estimation of maximum acceptable concentration of lead and cadmium in plants and their medicinal preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitkevicius, Virgilijus; Savickiene, Nijole; Abdrachmanovas, Olegas; Ryselis, Stanislovas; Masteiková, Rūta; Chalupova, Zuzana; Dagilyte, Audrone; Baranauskas, Algirdas

    2003-01-01

    Heavy metals (lead, cadmium) are possible dashes which quantity is defined by the limiting acceptable contents. Different drugs preparations: infusions, decoctions, tinctures, extracts, etc. are produced using medicinal plants. The objective of this research was to study the impurities of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) in medicinal plants and some drug preparations. We investigated liquid extracts of fruits Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and herbs of Echinacea purpurea Moench., tinctures--of herbs Leonurus cardiaca L. The raw materials were imported from Poland. Investigations were carried out in cooperation with the Laboratory of Antropogenic Factors of the Institute for Biomedical Research. Amounts of lead and cadmium were established after "dry" mineralisation using "Perkin-Elmer Zeeman/3030" model electrothermic atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ETG AAS/Zeeman). It was established that lead is absorbed most efficiently after estimation of absorption capacity of cellular fibers. About 10.73% of lead crosses tinctures and extracts, better cadmium--49.63%. Herbs of Leonurus cardiaca L. are the best in holding back lead and cadmium. About 14.5% of lead and cadmium crosses the tincture of herbs Leonurus cardiaca L. We estimated the factors of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) in the liquid extracts of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and Echinacea purpurea Moench., tincture of Leonurus cardiaca L. after investigations of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) in drugs and preparations of it. The amounts of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) don't exceed the allowable norms in fruits of Crataegus monogyna Jacq., herbs of Leonurus cardiaca L. and Echinacea purpurea Moench. after estimation of lead and cadmium extraction factors, the maximum of acceptable daily intake and the quantity of drugs consumption in day.

  13. A Survey on Lead and Cadmium Content in Bread Produced in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Hajimohammadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to such complications of absorbing lead and cadmium heavy metals as kidney and liver dysfunction, vascular and heart diseases, anemia, digestive complications, nervous and skeletal problems and due to importance of bread as one of the most important food diets in Iran, especially in Yazd, the amount of lead and cadmium was evaluated in a variety of breads in Yazd. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 2013. Out of 69 bakeries, random probability proportionate sampling was applied in order to measure the heavy metals (lead and cadmium content in samples by ash and atomic absorption equipped with grafiti furnace(ETAAS with correction of background time. The study data were analyzed using SPSS (v.17 considering p-value of less than 0.05 as significant. Results: The average amounts of lead and cadmium were 99.05 and 7.49 mg/kg respectively. The amount of lead in Sangak bread was higher than that of other types of breads, whereas lead amounts of fantasy bread was reported less than those of other breads. Cadmium content demonstrated no significant differences among breads. Lead amount was higher in direct heat breads. Whereas, cadmium amount showed no significant differences between direct and indirect heat breads. It is worth mentioning that lead and cadmium content were reported lower than allowable levels in all samples. Conclusions: As the study results revealed and considering per capita consumption of bread in Iran (about 160 kg, it seems that weekly intake of lead and cadmium in Yazd is at an acceptable level, though possible risk of heavy metals(lead and cadmium need to decrease in order to prevent the probable risks of lead and cadmium heavy metals.

  14. Stabilize lead and cadmium in contaminated soils using hydroxyapatite and potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Liao, Xiaoyong; Wei, Binggan; Ye, Bixiong; Zhang, Fengying; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Combination of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and potassium chloride (KCl) was used to stabilize lead and cadmium in contaminated mining soils. Pot experiments of chilli (Capsicum annuum) and rape (Brassica rapachinensis) were used to evaluate the stabilization efficiency. The results were the following: (1) the optimal combination decreased the leachable lead by 83.3 and 97.27 %, and decreased leachable cadmium by 57.82 and 35.96% for soil HF1 and soil HF2, respectively; (2) the total lead and cadmium concentrations in both plants decreased 69 and 44 %, respectively; (3) The total lead and cadmium concentrations in the edible parts of both vegetables also decreased significantly. This study reflected that potassium chloride can improve the stabilization efficiency of hydroxyapatite, and the combination of hydroxyapatite and potassium chloride can be effectively used to remediate lead and cadmium contaminated mining soil.

  15. Potentiometric stripping analysis of lead and cadmium leaching from dental prosthetic materials and teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORAN M. NIKOLIC

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Potentiometric stipping analysis (PSA was applied for the determination of lead and cadmium leaching from dental prosthetic materials and teeth. The soluble lead content in finished dental implants was found to be much lower than that of the individual components used for their preparation. Cadmium was not detected in dental implants and materials under the defined conditions. The soluble lead and cadmium content of teeth was slightly lower than the lead and cadmium content in whole teeth (w/w reported by other researchers, except in the case of a tooth with removed amalgam filling. The results of this work suggest that PSA may be a good method for lead and cadmium leaching studies for investigation of the biocompatibility of dental prosthetic materials.

  16. Cadmium-containing waste and recycling possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, V.; Rauhut, A.

    1981-01-01

    To begin with, the processes of cadmium production from zinc ores in smelting plants or from intermediates of other metal works are described. A considerable amount of the cadmium is obtained in the recycling process in zinc, lead, and copper works. The way of the cadmium-containing intermediaries, processing, enrichment, and disposal of cadmium waste are described. Uses of cadmium and its compounds are mentioned, and cadmium consumption in the years 1973-1977 in West Germany is presented in a table. Further chapters discuss the production and the way of waste during production and processing of cadmium-containing products, the problem of cadmium in household refuse and waste incineration plants, and the problem of cadmium emissions. (IHOE) [de

  17. Transfer and accumulation of lead, zinc, cadmium and copper in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    Ninety percent of the mining wastes come from the extraction of metals as sulfides (Moore and Luoma,. 1990). High concentrations of toxic metals (e.g. Cu, Zn,. Cd and Pb) are usually contained in these wastes (Levy et al., 1997). These metals can cause widespread contamination of soils and sediments in the vicinity of the.

  18. OPERATIONAL SPECIATION OF LEAD, CADMIUM, AND ZINC IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    The total heavy metal concentrations were obtained through a mixed acid digestion. A modified ... solutions to remediating heavy metal polluted lands centers on a clear understanding of the behavior of metals in .... Muller (1969), was calculated by computing the base 2 logarithm of the measured total concentration of the ...

  19. OPERATIONAL SPECIATION OF LEAD, CADMIUM, AND ZINC IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    such as the exchange, oxide and organically bound fractions may make the metals bioavailable on ... processes at reactive natural surfaces, including surfaces of clay minerals, metal oxides and .... contaminants to the food chain is high. Hence ..... States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

  20. Spatial mapping of cadmium zinc telluride materials properties and electrical response to improve device yield and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Van Scyoc, J M; Yoon, H; Gilbert, T S; Hilton, N R; Lund, J C; James, R B

    1999-01-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride has experienced tremendous growth in its application to various radiation sensing problems over the last five years. However, there are still issues with yield, particularly of the large volume devices needed for imaging and sensitivity-critical applications. Inhomogeneities of various types and on various length scales currently prevent the fabrication of large devices of high spectral performance. This paper discusses the development of a set of characterization tools for quantifying these inhomogeneities, in order to develop improvement strategies to achieve the desired cadmium zinc telluride crystals for detector fabrication.

  1. Essential elements, cadmium, and lead in raw and pasteurized cow and goat milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, A.; Collins, W.F.; Williams, H.L.

    1985-08-01

    Fifteen essential elements plus cadmium and lead were determined in raw and pasteurized cow and goat milks by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. When results were compared on a wet weight basis, there were no significant differences between the raw and pasteurized milks except for cobalt, iron, and lead in goat milk. When copper in goat milk was expressed on a dry weight basis, there was a significant difference between raw and pasteurized milk. There were significantly higher amounts of cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, and phosphorus, wet weight basis, in pasteurized goat milk than in pasteurized cow milk. Significantly more nickel and sodium were in pasteurized cow milk. No difference in the content of chloride, calcium, potassium, and zinc was significant between the two milks. When dry weights of the two milks were compared, statistical differences were the same, except there was significantly more calcium and potassium in pasteurized cow milk than in pasteurized goat milk and there were no significant differences in the content of lead and phosphorus between the two milks. Percentages of the established and estimated recommended daily allowances show both cow and goat milk to be excellent sources of calcium, phosphorus, and potassium and fair sources of iron, magnesium, and sodium.

  2. Cadmium and zinc activate adaptive mechanisms in Nicotiana tabacum similar to those observed in metal tolerant plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Gómez-Méndez, María F; Amezcua-Romero, Julio C; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Rosas-Santiago, Paul; Pantoja, Omar

    2017-09-01

    Tobacco germinated and grew in the presence of high concentrations of cadmium and zinc without toxic symptoms. Evidence suggests that these ions are sequestered into the vacuole by heavy metal/H + exchanger mechanisms. Heavy metal hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance are traits shared by a small set of plants which show specialized physiological and molecular adaptations allowing them to accumulate and sequester toxic metal ions. Nicotiana tabacum was used to test its potential as a metal-accumulator in a glass house experiment. Seed germination was not affected in the presence of increasing concentrations of zinc and cadmium. Juvenile and adult plants could concentrate CdCl 2 and ZnSO 4 to levels exceeding those in the hydroponic growth medium and maintained or increased their leaf dry weight when treated with 0.5- or 1-mM CdCl 2 or 1-mM ZnSO 4 for 5 days. Accumulation of heavy metals did not affect the chlorophyll and carotenoid levels, while variable effects were observed in cell sap osmolarity. Heavy metal-dependent H + transport across the vacuole membrane was monitored using quinacrine fluorescence quenching. Cadmium- or zinc-dependent fluorescence recovery revealed that increasing concentrations of heavy metals stimulated the activities of the tonoplast Cd 2+ or Zn 2+ /H + exchangers. Immunodetection of the V-ATPase subunits showed that the increased proton transport by zinc was not due to changes in protein amount. MTP1 and MTP4 immunodetection and semiquantitative RT-PCR of NtMTP1, NtNRAMP1, and NtZIP1 helped to identify the genes that are likely involved in sequestration of cadmium and zinc in the leaf and root tissue. Finally, we demonstrated that cadmium and zinc treatments induced an accumulation of zinc in leaf tissues. This study shows that N. tabacum possesses a hyperaccumulation response, and thus could be used for phytoremediation purposes.

  3. The Study on the Effect of Cadmium, Zinc and Zeolite Application on Physiomorphological Characteristics of St. Johnʼs Wort (Hypericum perforatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaleh Zandavifard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among the heavy metals, cadmium, because of high mobility and bioavailability in soil and also toxicity at low concentrations is very important. Cadmium (Cd is known as carcinogen and can induce many types of cancers. Human activities (metallic industries, contaminated fertilizer, herbicides or insecticides, irrigation with contaminated groundwater, and use of contaminated sewage sludge are largely responsible for accumulation of different levels of Cd in soil. Saint John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum L. is a medicinal plant and belongs to the family Hypericaceae which its extract, one of the best-characterized herbal medicines, known as the Cd-hyperaccumulator, is widely sold for the treatment of depression. Hyperaccumulator plants are species able to accumulate high amounts of heavy metals in their tissue at concentrations of 10 to 100 times higher than tolerated by crop plants. Zinc (Zn is an essential element occurring in several enzymes, where it plays a catalytic or structural role. Cadmium and zinc have similar electron configuration, valence state as well as affinity to S, N and O donor ligands and thus their geochemical and environmental properties are comparable. The antagonism activity between Cd and Zn in the environment and their chemical similarity can lead to interactions between Cd and Zn during plant uptake, transport from roots to shoots, or accumulation in edible tissues. Ion exchange is one of the methods used for the removal of several toxic substances. In recent years, natural amendments, such as zeolite have been widely used to address trace metals contamination. Therefore, adding zinc and zeolite to the growth medium of plant can be moderating the toxic effects of cadmium. Materials and Methods: This pot experiment was conducted at the Experimental Field of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM from September 2013 to June 2014. Treatments consisted of three levels of cadmium (0, 10 and 20 mg Cd kg-1 soil

  4. Effect of zinc fertilization on cadmium toxicity in durum and bread wheat grown in zinc-deficient soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeleli, Nurcan; Eker, Selim; Cakmak, Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The effect of increasing application of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) on shoot dry weight and shoot concentrations of Zn and Cd was studied in bread and durum wheat cultivars. Plants were grown in severely Zn-deficient calcareous soil treated with increasing Zn (0 and 10 mg kg -1 soil) and Cd (0, 10 and 25 mg kg -1 soil) and harvested after 35 and 65 days of growth under greenhouse conditions. Growing plants without Zn fertilization caused severe depression in shoot growth, especially in durum wheat and at high Cd treatment. Cadmium treatments resulted in rapid development of necrotic patches on the base and sheath parts of the oldest leaves of both wheat cultivars, but symptoms were more severe in durum wheat and under Zn deficiency. Decreases in shoot dry weight from increasing Cd application were more severe in Zn-deficient plants. Severity of Cd toxicity symptoms in durum and bread wheat at different Zn treatments did not show any relation to the Cd concentrations in shoot. Increasing Cd application to Zn-deficient plants tended to decrease Zn concentrations in Zn-deficient plants, whereas in plants with adequate Zn, concentrations of Zn were either not affected or increased by Cd. The results show that durum wheat was more sensitive to both Zn deficiency and Cd toxicity as compared to bread wheat. Cadmium toxicity in the shoot was alleviated by Zn treatment, but this was not accompanied by a corresponding decrease in shoot concentrations of Cd. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that Zn protects plants from Cd toxicity by improving plant defense against Cd-induced oxidative stress and by competing with Cd for binding to critical cell constituents such as enzymes and membrane protein and lipids

  5. Rhizosphere Microbial Community Composition Affects Cadmium and Zinc Uptake by the Metal-Hyperaccumulating Plant Arabidopsis halleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehe, E. Marie; Weigold, Pascal; Adaktylou, Irini J.; Planer-Friedrich, Britta; Kraemer, Ute; Kappler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The remediation of metal-contaminated soils by phytoextraction depends on plant growth and plant metal accessibility. Soil microorganisms can affect the accumulation of metals by plants either by directly or indirectly stimulating plant growth and activity or by (im)mobilizing and/or complexing metals. Understanding the intricate interplay of metal-accumulating plants with their rhizosphere microbiome is an important step toward the application and optimization of phytoremediation. We compared the effects of a “native” and a strongly disturbed (gamma-irradiated) soil microbial communities on cadmium and zinc accumulation by the plant Arabidopsis halleri in soil microcosm experiments. A. halleri accumulated 100% more cadmium and 15% more zinc when grown on the untreated than on the gamma-irradiated soil. Gamma irradiation affected neither plant growth nor the 1 M HCl-extractable metal content of the soil. However, it strongly altered the soil microbial community composition and overall cell numbers. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons of DNA extracted from rhizosphere samples of A. halleri identified microbial taxa (Lysobacter, Streptomyces, Agromyces, Nitrospira, “Candidatus Chloracidobacterium”) of higher relative sequence abundance in the rhizospheres of A. halleri plants grown on untreated than on gamma-irradiated soil, leading to hypotheses on their potential effect on plant metal uptake. However, further experimental evidence is required, and wherefore we discuss different mechanisms of interaction of A. halleri with its rhizosphere microbiome that might have directly or indirectly affected plant metal accumulation. Deciphering the complex interactions between A. halleri and individual microbial taxa will help to further develop soil metal phytoextraction as an efficient and sustainable remediation strategy. PMID:25595759

  6. Spectrometry of X-ray beams using Cadmium and Zinc Teluride detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Paulo Henriques Bastos

    1997-06-01

    Determination of X-ray spectra to be utilized for medical diagnostics is a complementary process to the development of procedures to be applied to the quality control of radiodiagnostics X-ray equipment. Until some years ago, that was only possible using Germanium or Silicon detectors. Both have an excellent resolution in this energy range, but present also some restrictions as there are high costs and the necessity of operating them at temperature of liquid Nitrogen, which is not always available at the measurement's place. Room temperature detectors like Cadmium Telluride and Mercury Iodine don't have these restrictions. They, however, have a lower resolution and incomplete collection of the charges produced by their interaction with radiation. With technological advance of crystal growth in general and new techniques like cooling the crystal with a Peltier cell and rise time discrimination circuits, today Cadmium Telluride detectors show a resolution very close to that from Germanium detectors. This work relates to the routine use of Cadmium and Zinc Telluride detectors for measuring X-ray spectra in loco of diagnostic X-ray units. It characterizes the properties of a commercially available detector and offers a model for stripping the measured pulse height distribution. It was also developed a collimator to allow the direct measurement of the beam. The model developed and the constructed set-up were applied to two X-ray tubes and the achieved spectra compared with some spectra available from the literature. (author)

  7. Associations of lead and cadmium with sex hormones in adult males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresovich, Jacob K., E-mail: jkreso2@uic.edu; Argos, Maria; Turyk, Mary E.

    2015-10-15

    Heavy metal exposures are ubiquitous in the environment and their relation to sex hormones is not well understood. This paper investigates the associations between selected heavy metals (lead and cadmium) and sex hormones (testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, free estradiol) as well as other major molecules in the steroid biosynthesis pathway (androstanedione glucuronide and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG)). Blood lead and cadmium were selected as biomarkers of exposure, and tested for associations in males using National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999–2004. After adjustment for age, race, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes and alcohol intake, blood lead was positively associated with testosterone and SHBG while blood cadmium was positively associated with SHBG. After controlling for additional heavy metal exposure, the associations between lead and testosterone as well as cadmium and SHBG remained significant. Furthermore, the association between blood lead and testosterone was modified by smoking status (P for interaction=0.011), diabetes (P for interaction=0.021) and blood cadmium (P for interaction=0.029). The association between blood cadmium and SHBG levels was modified by blood lead (P for interaction=0.004). This study is the most comprehensive investigation to date regarding the association between heavy metals and sex hormones in males. - Highlights: • We used a nationally representative dataset (NHANES) and employed sample weighting. • We examined associations between lead and cadmium with sex-hormone levels. • Blood lead level was positively associated with serum testosterone and SHBG levels. • Blood cadmium level was positively associated with SHBG levels, modified by lead. • Diabetes, smoking and cadmium modified lead and testosterone association.

  8. Associations of lead and cadmium with sex hormones in adult males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresovich, Jacob K.; Argos, Maria; Turyk, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal exposures are ubiquitous in the environment and their relation to sex hormones is not well understood. This paper investigates the associations between selected heavy metals (lead and cadmium) and sex hormones (testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, free estradiol) as well as other major molecules in the steroid biosynthesis pathway (androstanedione glucuronide and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG)). Blood lead and cadmium were selected as biomarkers of exposure, and tested for associations in males using National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999–2004. After adjustment for age, race, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes and alcohol intake, blood lead was positively associated with testosterone and SHBG while blood cadmium was positively associated with SHBG. After controlling for additional heavy metal exposure, the associations between lead and testosterone as well as cadmium and SHBG remained significant. Furthermore, the association between blood lead and testosterone was modified by smoking status (P for interaction=0.011), diabetes (P for interaction=0.021) and blood cadmium (P for interaction=0.029). The association between blood cadmium and SHBG levels was modified by blood lead (P for interaction=0.004). This study is the most comprehensive investigation to date regarding the association between heavy metals and sex hormones in males. - Highlights: • We used a nationally representative dataset (NHANES) and employed sample weighting. • We examined associations between lead and cadmium with sex-hormone levels. • Blood lead level was positively associated with serum testosterone and SHBG levels. • Blood cadmium level was positively associated with SHBG levels, modified by lead. • Diabetes, smoking and cadmium modified lead and testosterone association.

  9. Poplar response to cadmium and lead soil contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojčić Redovniković, Ivana; De Marco, Alessandra; Proietti, Chiara; Hanousek, Karla; Sedak, Marija; Bilandžić, Nina; Jakovljević, Tamara

    2017-10-01

    An outdoor pot experiment was designed to study the potential of poplar (Populus nigra 'Italica') in phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). Poplar was treated with a combination of different concentrations of Cd (w = 10, 25, 50mgkg -1 soil) and Pb (400, 800, 1200mgkg -1 soil) and several physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored including the accumulation and distribution of metals in different plant parts (leaf, stem, root). Simultaneously, the changes in the antioxidant system in roots and leaves were monitored to be able to follow synergistic effects of both heavy metals. Moreover, a statistical analysis based on the Random Forests Analysis (RFA) was performed in order to determine the most important predictors affecting growth and antioxidative machinery activities of poplar under heavy metal stress. The study demonstrated that tested poplar could be a good candidate for phytoextraction processes of Cd in moderately contaminated soils, while in heavily contaminated soil it could be only considered as a phytostabilisator. For Pb remediation only phytostabilisation process could be considered. By using RFA we pointed out that it is important to conduct the experiments in an outdoor space and include environmental conditions in order to study more realistic changes of growth parameters and accumulation and distribution of heavy metals. Also, to be able to better understand the interactions among previously mentioned parameters, it is important to conduct the experiments during prolonged time exposure., This is especially important for the long life cycle woody species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Phytoremediation of Lead and Cadmium Contaminated Soils using Sunflower Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Sewalem

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytremediation has emerged as a practical approach to clean up metal-polluted soils. In this study the role of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants as a potential phytoremediator to soils contaminated with cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb was investigated. Our results showed that the effect of Cd was stronger on the growth of the roots, while the effect of Pb was stronger on the shoots of sunflower seedlings. At the physiological level, Cd treatment was found to induce low levels of lipid peroxidation and membrane leakage with less affected photosynthesis in the leaves of the treated sunflower seedlings compared to the effects of Pb. The results presented here showed that a high amount of the total absorbed Cd (88.84% was accumulated in roots, while a high amount of the total absorbed Pb (71.39 was tranlocated to shoots of sunflower seedlings. Similar trends of Cd and Pb allocation between roots and shoots at the yield stage were recorded. We suggest here that sunflower plants may remediate Cd contaminated soils through phytostabilization, while may remediate Pb contaminated soils through phytoextraction. Finaly, the trace amounts of Cd and Pb that were accumulated in seeds recommends sunflower plants to be used safely and economically for cleaning up soils contaminated with Cd and/or Pb.

  11. Phytoextraction potential of cadmium and lead contamination using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... Vegetative growth, biomass, chemical content and uptake of cadmium (Cd) and ... Vegetative growth and chemical properties of M. azedarach are ..... MSc thesis. ... In: Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology.

  12. Lead and zinc contamination of vegetation in the southern Pennines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimwell, D W; Laurie, A E

    1972-01-01

    Three types of heavy metal tolerant vegetation occurring on the spoil heaps in the Pennines are described sociologically and ecologically and their distribution in the Peak District National Park mapped. Concentrations of lead and zinc extractable from soils by acetic acid are recorded, as are total values for these two heavy metals in the tissues of the main component phanerogams and cryptogams of the vegetation. The range of values for zinc in plant tissues are uniformly higher than those for lead. Concentrations of lead accumulated by these plants are higher than those reported for the accumulation of atmospheric lead. The differences in heavy metal absorption, retention and excretion between ectohydric and myxohydric mosses are shown to be quite distinct. The heavy metals are excreted in the former type and form a crust in periods of drought with up to 6% lead and 1.5% zinc content, while, in the latter, the metals tend to be located mainly in the older growth at the base of the moss carpets. The concentrations of the two metal ions in two Peak District rivers proved to be less than 1 ppm in all samples.

  13. Quaternary oxide halides of group 15 with zinc and cadmium; Quaternaere Oxidhalogenide der Gruppe 15 mit Zink und Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueck, Nadia

    2014-07-30

    The present thesis ''Quaternary oxide halides of group 15 with zinc and cadmium'' deals with the chemical class of oxide halides, which contain d-block element cations and pnicogens. Over the past few years compounds containing pnicogene cations are intensively investigated. The reason for this is the free electron pair of the Pn{sup 3+} cation, which is responsible for some interesting properties. Free electron pairs do not only impact the spatial structure of molecules but also the properties of materials. The object of this work was the synthesis and characterization of compounds containing Pn{sup 3+} cations with free electron pairs. Due to the structure-determining effect of these free electron pairs and in combination with halides it is possible to synthesize compounds with low-dimensional structures like chains and layers. In these compounds the structure is separated into halophilic and chalcophilic sub-structures, which are held together only by weak Van der Waals forces.

  14. 113Cd-NMR investigation of a cadmium-substituted copper, zinc-containing superoxide dismutase from yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Pauli; Bauer, Rogert; Danielsen, Eva

    1991-01-01

    113Cd nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to investigate the metal binding sites of cadmium-substituted copper,zinc-containing superoxide dismutase from baker's yeast. NMR signals were obtained for 113Cd(II) at the Cu site as well as for 113Cd(II) at the Zn site. The two subunits...

  15. Protein Biochemistry and Expression Regulation of Cadmium/Zinc Pumping ATPases in the Hyperaccumulator Plants Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea caerulescens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mishra, S.; Mishra, Archana; Küpper, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, May 22 (2017), č. článku 835. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000336 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cellular compartmentation * zinc homeostasis * cadmium * metal hyperaccumulator plants Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  16. Gomphrena claussenii, a novel metal-hypertolerant bioindicator species, sequesters cadmium, but not zinc, in vacuolar oxalate crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villafort Carvalho, M.T.; Pongrac, P.; Mumm, R.; Arkel, van J.; Aelst, van A.; Jeromel, L.; Vavpetic, P.; Pelicon, P.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Gomphrena claussenii is a recently described zinc (Zn)- and cadmium (Cd)-hypertolerant Amaranthaceae species displaying a metal bioindicator Zn/Cd accumulation response. We investigated the Zn and Cd distribution in stem and leaf tissues of G. claussenii at the cellular level, and determined

  17. Factors that Affect the Content of Cadmium, Nickel, Copper and Zinc in Tissues of the Knee Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roczniak, Wojciech; Brodziak-Dopierała, Barbara; Cipora, Elżbieta; Jakóbik-Kolon, Agata; Kluczka, Joanna; Babuśka-Roczniak, Magdalena

    2017-08-01

    Osteoarthritis causes the degradation of the articular cartilage and periarticular bones. Trace elements influence the growth, development and condition of the bone tissue. Changes to the mineral composition of the bone tissue can cause degenerative changes and fractures. The aim of the research was to determine the content of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in the tibia, the femur and the meniscus in men and women who underwent a knee replacement surgery. Samples were collected from 50 patients, including 36 women and 14 men. The determination of trace elements content were performed by ICP-AES method, using Varian 710-ES. Average concentration in the tissues of the knee joint teeth amounted for cadmium 0.015, nickel 0.60, copper 0.89 and zinc 80.81 mg/kg wet weight. There were statistically significant differences in the content of cadmium, copper and zinc in different parts of the knee joint. There were no statistically significant differences in the content of cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc in women and men in the examined parts of the knee joint. Among the elements tested, copper and nickel showed a high content in the connective tissue (the meniscus) compared to the bone tissue (the tibia and the femur).

  18. Neutron transmission measurements of zinc and lead single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Abdel-Kawy, A.

    1988-01-01

    Neutron transmission measurements of zinc and lead single crystals have been carried out in a neutron wavelength band from 0.03 to 0.55 nm at different orientations of the crystal with regard to the beam direction. The measurements were performed using both time-of-flight and fixed-angle scattering spectrometers installed in front of the ET-RR-1 reactor horizontal channels. It was found that the position of the observed dips in the neutron transmission measurements corresponded to the reflections from the (h k l) planes of the hexagonal zinc single crystal which was cut along the (0 0 2) plane, while in the case of lead, the single crystal was cut perpendicular to the (3 1 1) plane. The reflectivity from the (0 0 2) plane of zinc was determined using both transmission and reflection methods. The maximum reflectivity was found to be 55% when the zinc crystal was orientated at 45 0 to the beam direction. The wavelength spread of the observed reflectivity curve was found to be in agreement with the calculated one, taking into consideration the spectrometer's resolution and the crystal mosaic spread. (author)

  19. Copper, zinc, and cadmium in various fractions of soil and fungi in a Swedish forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinichuk, Mykhailo M

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi profoundly affect forest ecosystems through mediating nutrient uptake and maintaining forest food webs. The accumulation of metals in each transfer step from bulk soil to fungal sporocarps is not well known. The accumulation of three metals copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in bulk soil, rhizosphere, soil-root interface, fungal mycelium and sporocarps of mycorrhizal fungi in a Swedish forest were compared. Concentrations of all three metals increased in the order: bulk soil soil-root interface (or rhizosphere) soil and sporocarps occurred against a concentration gradient. In fungal mycelium, the concentration of all three metals was about three times higher than in bulk soil, and the concentration in sporocarps was about two times higher than in mycelium. In terms of accumulation, fungi (mycelium and sporocarps) preferred Cd to Zn and Cu. Zinc concentration in sporocarps and to a lesser extent in mycelium depended on the concentration in soil, whereas, the uptake of Cu and Cd by both sporocarps and mycelium did not correlate with metal concentration in soil. Heavy metal accumulation within the fungal mycelium biomass in the top forest soil layer (0-5 cm) might account for ca. 5-9% of the total amount of Cu, 5-11% of Zn, and 16-32% of Cd. As the uptake of zinc and copper by fungi may be balanced, this implied similarities in the uptake mechanism.

  20. Reversible surface binding of cadmium and lead by lactic acid and bifidobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teemu, Halttunen; Seppo, Salminen; Jussi, Meriluoto; Raija, Tahvonen; Kalle, Lertola

    2008-07-15

    Extensive cadmium and lead contamination of water has been reported to occur locally as a result of human activities. Lactic acid bacteria have been reported to remove cadmium and lead from water. The aim of this work was to clarify the mechanisms of cadmium and lead removal from water. In addition, the effect of other metals, reversibility of binding and recyclability of the biomass was assessed. Based on our earlier data, the two most promising lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus fermentum ME3 and Bifidobacterium longum 46, were selected for these experiments. The results showed that the presence of other cationic metals and blocking of carboxyl and phosphoryl groups reduced cadmium and lead removal. These results suggest involvement of electrostatic interactions in cadmium and lead removal, and support our earlier findings. Transmission electron micrographs showed large deposits of lead on the bacterial surface suggesting formation of metallic lead precipitates. Both cadmium and lead removal were reversible processes established by full recovery of removed metal after desorption with dilute solutions of EDTA and HNO(3). Resorption capacity of both biomasses tested was reduced after regeneration with 10 mM EDTA and 15 mM HNO(3). Taken together, the results suggest involvement of several reversible mechanisms such as ion exchange and precipitation in cadmium and lead binding by lactic acid bacteria. The results show that specific lactic acid bacteria have the potential for removal of cadmium and lead from water although reduction in resorption capacity after regeneration of the biomass may form a problem. Since the studies so far have mainly focused on removal of single metals from pure water, metal removal in conditions of natural waters should be assessed in further experiments.

  1. The immobilisation and retention of soluble arsenic, cadmium and zinc by biochar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beesley, Luke; Marmiroli, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Water-soluble inorganic pollutants may constitute an environmental toxicity problem if their movement through soils and potential transfer to plants or groundwater is not arrested. The capability of biochar to immobilise and retain arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) from a multi-element contaminated sediment-derived soil was explored by a column leaching experiment and scanning electron microanalysis (SEM/EDX). Sorption of Cd and Zn to biochar's surfaces assisted a 300 and 45-fold reduction in their leachate concentrations, respectively. Retention of both metals was not affected by considerable leaching of water-soluble carbon from biochar, and could not be reversed following subsequent leaching of the sorbant biochar with water at pH 5.5. Weakly water-soluble As was also retained on biochar's surface but leachate concentrations did not duly decline. It is concluded that biochar can rapidly reduce the mobility of selected contaminants in this polluted soil system, with especially encouraging results for Cd. - Research highlights: → The capability of biochar to immobilise and retain arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) from a multi-element contaminated sediment-derived soil was explored by a column leaching experiment and scanning electron microanalysis (SEM/EDX). We highlight the following results from this study: → Large surface area and surface sorption of Cd and Zn to biochar reduces the concentrations of these metals in leachates from a contaminated soil 300 and 45-fold respectively. → Metal retention was not reversible by continued leaching of the sorbant biochar. → Biochar increased leachate pH and water-soluble carbon but this did not appear to be detrimental to its effects and may aid retention of Cd. → Although some arsenic was sorbed to biochar, leachate concentrations were not duly reduced. → Developments in micro-analyses techniques will allow more detailed exploration of the encouraging results seen here with regards to interior

  2. The use of vegetables in the biomonitoring of cadmium and lead pollution in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczygłowska, Marzena; Bodnar, Małgorzata; Namieśnik, Jacek; Konieczka, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Lead and cadmium emitted from various anthropogenic sources have the ability to accumulate in tissues of living organisms. The phenomenon of accumulation of metals in the body is harmful and undesirable. The ability of plants to accumulate heavy metals from the individual elements of the environment has been used in biomonitoring of pollution. Leaves and roots of vegetables have particular predisposition for accumulating toxic metals such as lead and cadmium and therefore can be used for biomonitoring of the environment, mainly as a tool for assessing the extent of soil contamination. The article discusses information in the literature on entry paths of lead and cadmium into the body, toxic effects of lead and cadmium on the human organism, and the use of vegetables as a tool in the biomonitoring of heavy metals in different elements of the environment.

  3. Cadmium, lead, arsenic and selenium levels in patients with type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Cadmium, lead, arsenic ... Increasing rates of type 2 diabetes in the developed and developing countries ... Measurement of height was taken in standing position using a stadiometer. The height ...

  4. Phytoextraction potential of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. with specific reference to lead and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varun, Mayank; D'Souza, Rohan; Pratas, João; Paul, M S

    2011-07-01

    Root and shoot samples of Prosopis juliflora were assessed for their heavy metal content to evaluate the species as a green solution to decontaminate soils contaminated with lead and cadmium. The highest uptake of both the metals was observed in plants from industrial sites. Sites with more anthropogenic disturbance exhibited reduced chlorophyll levels, stunted growth, delayed and shortened reproductive phase. The ratios of lead and cadmium in leaves to lead and cadmium in soil were in the range of 0.62-1.46 and 0.55-1.71, respectively. Strong correlation between the degree of contamination and concentrations of lead and cadmium in plant samples identifies P. juliflora as an effective heavy metal remediator coupled with environmental stress.

  5. Adsorption of zinc and lead on clay minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Jablonovská

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Clays (especially bentonite, zeolite and quartz sand are widely used as landfill barriers to prevent contamination of subsoil and groundwater by leachates containing heavy metals. The sorption of zinc and lead on these clays was studied as a function of time and it was found that the initial 1 h our was sufficient to exchange most of the metal ions. The retention efficiency of clay samples of Zn2+ and Pb2+ follows the order of bentonite > zeolite> quartz sand. Whatever the clay sample, lead is retained more than zinc. The concentration of elements in the solution was followed by atomic adsorption spectrofotometry. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus, previously isolated from the kaoline deposit Horna Prievrana was added into the clay samples to comparise the accumulation of Zn2+ and Pb2+ from the model solution. The study of heavy metal adsorption capacity of bacteria- enriched clay adsorbent showed a high retention efficiency for lead ions as comparised with zinc ions. Biosorption is considered a potential instrument for the removal of metals from waste solutions and for the precious metals recovery as an alternative to the conventional processes.

  6. Luminescence properties of copper(I), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) coordination compounds with picoline ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Małecki, Jan Grzegorz, E-mail: gmalecki@us.edu.pl; Maroń, Anna

    2017-06-15

    Mononuclear coordination compounds of copper(I) – [Cu(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}(picoline)(NO{sub 3})], zinc(II) – [ZnCl{sub 2}(picoline){sub 2}] (picoline=3– and 4–methylpyridine) and polymeric cadmium(II) – [CdCl{sub 2}(β-picoline){sub 2}]{sub n} were prepared and their luminescence properties in solid state and acetonitrile solutions were determined. Single crystal X-ray crystallography revealed distorted tetrahedral geometry around the central ions of the compounds. The compounds exhibit green photoluminescence in solid state and in acetonitrile solutions. The emission of copper(I) compounds originated from metal-to-ligand charge transfer state combined with nitrato-to-picoline charge transfer state i.e. ({sup 1}(M+X)LCT). The presence of nitrato ligand in the coordination sphere of copper(I) compounds quenches the emission. Luminescence of zinc(II) and cadmium(II) compounds results from chloride-to-picoline charge transfer state and the quantum efficiency in the case of the polymeric Cd(II) compound reaches 39%. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the mononuclear zinc(II) compounds vary from 10 to 16% depending on the conditions (solid state, solution). - Graphical abstract: Coordination compounds of copper(I), zinc(II) and polymeric cadmium(II) with picoline ligands were prepared and their luminescence properties in solid state and acetonitrile solutions were determined. The compounds exhibit green photoluminescence in solid state and in acetonitrile solutions. Emission of copper(I) compounds originated from {sup 1}(M+X)LCT state. Luminescence of zinc(II) and cadmium(II) compounds results from chloride-to-picoline charge transfer state and the quantum efficiency in the case of the polymeric Cd(II) compound reaches 39%. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the mononuclear zinc(II) compounds vary from 10 to 16% depending on the conditions (solid state, solution).

  7. Determination of lead and cadmium in urine by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, L.A.; Grinshtejn, I.L.; Gucher, Sh.; Izgi, B.

    2008-01-01

    The applicability of a DETATA sorbent to the preconcentration of lead and cadmium followed by the determination of these elements in urine using atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization was demonstrated. After preconcentration by a factor of 10, the limits of detection were 0.01 and 0.2 μg/l for cadmium and lead, respectively. The accuracy of the results was supported by the analysis of Seronorm TM Trace Elements Urine Batch no.101021 [ru

  8. Charge sharing and charge loss in a cadmium-zinc-telluride fine-pixel detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskin, J.A.; Sharma, D.P.; Ramsey, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    Because of its high atomic number, room temperature operation, low noise, and high spatial resolution a cadmium-zinc-telluride multi-pixel detector is ideal for hard X-ray astrophysical observation. As part of on-going research at MSFC to develop multi-pixel CdZnTe detectors for this purpose, we have measured charge sharing and charge loss for a 4x4 (750 μm pitch), 1 mm thick pixel array and modeled these results using a Monte-Carlo simulation. This model was then used to predict the amount of charge sharing for a much finer pixel array (with a 300 μm pitch). Future work will enable us to compare the simulated results for the finer array to measured values

  9. Efficiency of repeated phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc from an agricultural soil contaminated with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kai; Ma, Tingting; Liu, Hongyan; Wu, Longhua; Ren, Jing; Nai, Fengjiao; Li, Rui; Chen, Like; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Long-term application of sewage sludge resulted in soil cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) contamination in a pot experiment conducted to phytoextract Cd/Zn repeatedly using Sedum plumbizincicola and Apium graceolens in monoculture or intercropping mode eight times. Shoot yields and soil physicochemical properties changed markedly with increasing number of remediation crops when the two plant species were intercropped compared with the unplanted control soil and the two monoculture treatments. Changes in soil microbial indices such as average well colour development, soil enzyme activity and soil microbial counts were also significantly affected by the growth of the remediation plants, especially intercropping with S. plumbizincicola and A. graveolens. The higher yields and amounts of Cd taken up indicated that intercropping of the hyperaccumulator and the vegetable species may be suitable for simultaneous agricultural production and soil remediation, with larger crop yields and higher phytoremediation efficiencies than under monoculture conditions.

  10. Removal of Cadmium and Zinc from Soil using Immobilized Cell of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charoon Sarin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized biosurfactant producing bacteria (Bacillus subtilis TP8 and Pseudomonas fluorescens G7 were assessed for survival in heavy metal contaminated soil and for their ability to remove cadmium and zinc from contaminated soil. P. fluorescens G7 was considered to be a good candidate for bioremediation of heavy metals because of its high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for each heavy metal and because of the obviously increased numbers of cell surviving after incubation in the heavy metal contaminated soil up to 4 weeks. The results of soil remediation showed that approximately 19% of Zn and 16.7% of Cd could be removed by this immobilized biosurfactant producing bacteria after incubation for 2 weeks. The results confirm the potential applicability of the immobilized biosurfactant producing bacteria for heavy metal bioremediation.

  11. Increasing cadmium and zinc levels in wild common eiders breeding along Canada's remote northern coastline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, Mark L.; Braune, Birgit M.; Robertson, Gregory J.; Gilchrist, H. Grant; Mallory, Conor D.; Forbes, Mark R.; Wells, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The common eider (Somateria mollissima) is an abundant sea duck breeding around the circumpolar Arctic, and is an important component of subsistence and sport harvest in some regions. We determined hepatic cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the livers of breeding females sampled during three time periods including 1992/3, 2001/2 and 2008 at three sites spanning 53.7°N–75.8°N in the eastern Canadian Arctic. At all sites, concentrations of both Cd and Zn increased ∼ 300% over this time period. The reasons for this rapid increase in concentrations are unclear. - Highlights: • Cd and Zn analyzed in common eider (Somateria mollissima) liver tissue in Canadian Arctic from sites spanning 3000 km. • ∼ 300% increase in concentrations observed over ∼ 20 years • Levels of both elements considered high and near levels thought to pose concerns for wildlife health

  12. Isolation and Identification of Cadmium and Lead Resistant Bacteria and their Bacterial Removal from Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Abbasi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal and industrial effluents continually release into the environment heavy metals of a variety of physical and chemical forms and at various concentrations. Biological treatment processes have attracted a growing attention for the removal of heavy metals from these effluents. For the purposes of the present study, bacteria that are relatively resistant to heavy metals, such as cadmium and lead, were isolated from municipal waste and purified. They were then subjected to biochemical tests for identification and their minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined. Bacterial minimum inhibitory concentrations were initially measured in flasks containing 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 300, 500, and 700 ppm of lead and cadmium before superior bacteria at populations of 108 CFU/ml were evaluated in terms of their ability to remove lead and cadmium at concentrations of 50, 100, 150, and 300 ppm from enriched municipal wastewater. Base on the results, Bacillus laterosporous and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were identified as the resistant bacteria and the minimum lead and cadmium inhibitory concentrations for these bacteria were determined to be 300 and 500 ppm, respectively. Moreover, Bacillus laterosporous and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis recorded maximum removal efficiencies of around 50.6% and 45.7%, respectively, with wastewater containing 100 mg/l of lead and 36.18% and 21.41% in the case of cadmium from wastewater enriched with 100 mg/l of lead and 150 mg/l of cadmium.

  13. Imprinted Genes and the Environment: Links to the Toxic Metals Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Smeester

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Imprinted genes defy rules of Mendelian genetics with their expression tied to the parent from whom each allele was inherited. They are known to play a role in various diseases/disorders including fetal growth disruption, lower birth weight, obesity, and cancer. There is increasing interest in understanding their influence on environmentally-induced disease. The environment can be thought of broadly as including chemicals present in air, water and soil, as well as food. According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR, some of the highest ranking environmental chemicals of concern include metals/metalloids such as arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury. The complex relationships between toxic metal exposure, imprinted gene regulation/expression and health outcomes are understudied. Herein we examine trends in imprinted gene biology, including an assessment of the imprinted genes and their known functional roles in the cell, particularly as they relate to toxic metals exposure and disease. The data highlight that many of the imprinted genes have known associations to developmental diseases and are enriched for their role in the TP53 and AhR pathways. Assessment of the promoter regions of the imprinted genes resulted in the identification of an enrichment of binding sites for two transcription factor families, namely the zinc finger family II and PLAG transcription factors. Taken together these data contribute insight into the complex relationships between toxic metals in the environment and imprinted gene biology.

  14. Imprinted Genes and the Environment: Links to the Toxic Metals Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeester, Lisa; Yosim, Andrew E.; Nye, Monica D.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Murphy, Susan K.; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2014-01-01

    Imprinted genes defy rules of Mendelian genetics with their expression tied to the parent from whom each allele was inherited. They are known to play a role in various diseases/disorders including fetal growth disruption, lower birth weight, obesity, and cancer. There is increasing interest in understanding their influence on environmentally-induced disease. The environment can be thought of broadly as including chemicals present in air, water and soil, as well as food. According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), some of the highest ranking environmental chemicals of concern include metals/metalloids such as arsenic, cadmium, and lead. The complex relationships between toxic metal exposure, imprinted gene regulation/expression and health outcomes are understudied. Herein we examine trends in imprinted gene biology, including an assessment of the imprinted genes and their known functional roles in the cell, particularly as they relate to toxic metals exposure and disease. The data highlight that many of the imprinted genes have known associations to developmental diseases and are enriched for their role in the TP53 and AhR pathways. Assessment of the promoter regions of the imprinted genes resulted in the identification of an enrichment of binding sites for two transcription factor families, namely the zinc finger family II and PLAG transcription factors. Taken together these data contribute insight into the complex relationships between toxic metals in the environment and imprinted gene biology. PMID:24921406

  15. Imprinted genes and the environment: links to the toxic metals arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeester, Lisa; Yosim, Andrew E; Nye, Monica D; Hoyo, Cathrine; Murphy, Susan K; Fry, Rebecca C

    2014-06-11

    Imprinted genes defy rules of Mendelian genetics with their expression tied to the parent from whom each allele was inherited. They are known to play a role in various diseases/disorders including fetal growth disruption, lower birth weight, obesity, and cancer. There is increasing interest in understanding their influence on environmentally-induced disease. The environment can be thought of broadly as including chemicals present in air, water and soil, as well as food. According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), some of the highest ranking environmental chemicals of concern include metals/metalloids such as arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury. The complex relationships between toxic metal exposure, imprinted gene regulation/expression and health outcomes are understudied. Herein we examine trends in imprinted gene biology, including an assessment of the imprinted genes and their known functional roles in the cell, particularly as they relate to toxic metals exposure and disease. The data highlight that many of the imprinted genes have known associations to developmental diseases and are enriched for their role in the TP53 and AhR pathways. Assessment of the promoter regions of the imprinted genes resulted in the identification of an enrichment of binding sites for two transcription factor families, namely the zinc finger family II and PLAG transcription factors. Taken together these data contribute insight into the complex relationships between toxic metals in the environment and imprinted gene biology.

  16. Growth-inhibitory and metal-binding proteins in Chlorella vulgaris exposed to cadmium or zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhiyong; Li Lianping; Huang Gaoling; Yan Qingpi; Shi Bing; Xu Xiaoqin

    2009-01-01

    Phytochelatins, with the general structure of (γ-Glu-Cys)n-Gly (n = 2-11), are usually recognized as being strongly induced by metals in microalgae and play an important role in the detoxification of heavy metals in environment. However, there have been few studies on metallothionein (MT) synthesis in Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) exposed to heavy metals. The present study describes the growth inhibition of C. vulgaris exposed to different concentrations of cadmium and zinc, and the induction of metal-binding MT-like proteins in the cells. The amounts of metal-binding proteins, induced in the alga exposed to different concentrations of Cd and Zn, were analyzed with a size-exclusion HPLC coupled to ICP-MS. After being purified with a gel filtration column (Sephadex G-75, 3.5 cm x 80 cm) and a desalting column (G-25, 1.5 cm x 30 cm), the isoforms and sub-isoforms of Zn-binding protein were characterized by a reverse phase-HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). In addition, the ultraviolet spectra of purified Zn-binding proteins were analyzed in media with different pH values. The results showed that the significant inhibitory effects (at p -1 of Cd, and 60 and 80 μmol l -1 of Zn were added. The Cd/Zn-binding proteins induced in C. vulgaris exposed to Cd and Zn were referred to as Cd/Zn-MT-like proteins in which the mean molecular mass of the apo-MT-like was 6152 Da. The induced Cd/Zn-MT-like proteins might be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals, such as cadmium and zinc, by the alga

  17. Growth-inhibitory and metal-binding proteins in Chlorella vulgaris exposed to cadmium or zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zhiyong [College of Bioengineering, Jimei University, Xiamen, 361021 (China)], E-mail: zhyhuang@jmu.edu.cn; Li Lianping; Huang Gaoling [College of Bioengineering, Jimei University, Xiamen, 361021 (China); Yan Qingpi [College of fisheries, Jimei University, Xiamen, 361021 (China); Shi Bing; Xu Xiaoqin [Xiamen Products Quality Inspection Institute, Xiamen, 361004 (China)

    2009-01-18

    Phytochelatins, with the general structure of ({gamma}-Glu-Cys)n-Gly (n = 2-11), are usually recognized as being strongly induced by metals in microalgae and play an important role in the detoxification of heavy metals in environment. However, there have been few studies on metallothionein (MT) synthesis in Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) exposed to heavy metals. The present study describes the growth inhibition of C. vulgaris exposed to different concentrations of cadmium and zinc, and the induction of metal-binding MT-like proteins in the cells. The amounts of metal-binding proteins, induced in the alga exposed to different concentrations of Cd and Zn, were analyzed with a size-exclusion HPLC coupled to ICP-MS. After being purified with a gel filtration column (Sephadex G-75, 3.5 cm x 80 cm) and a desalting column (G-25, 1.5 cm x 30 cm), the isoforms and sub-isoforms of Zn-binding protein were characterized by a reverse phase-HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). In addition, the ultraviolet spectra of purified Zn-binding proteins were analyzed in media with different pH values. The results showed that the significant inhibitory effects (at p < 0.05) on the cell growth were observed when excessive metals such as 80 {mu}mol l{sup -1} of Cd, and 60 and 80 {mu}mol l{sup -1} of Zn were added. The Cd/Zn-binding proteins induced in C. vulgaris exposed to Cd and Zn were referred to as Cd/Zn-MT-like proteins in which the mean molecular mass of the apo-MT-like was 6152 Da. The induced Cd/Zn-MT-like proteins might be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals, such as cadmium and zinc, by the alga.

  18. The spectrographic determination of minor and trace elements in copper, lead, and zinc concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckenridge, R.L.; Russell, G.M.; Watson, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    This report deals with the development of a method for the determination, by an emission-spectrographic technique, of magnesium, manganese, aluminium, silver, calcium, chromium, cobalt, titanium, antimony, cadmium, molybdenum, zirconium, nickel, boron, vanadium, arsenic, beryllium, tin, germanium, and bismuth in copper, lead, and zinc sulphide concentrates. The method involves the preparation of complex standards in which the volatile elements arsenic, antimony, cadmium, tin, and bismuth are incorporated as sulphide compounds at temperatures of 800 degrees Celsius in evacuated silica tubes together with a synthetic sulphide matrix. These standards are then mixed with the other minor and trace elements to form composite standards. The conditions for excitation with a direct-current arc, and the analytical lines for the elements and internal standards, are given. The procedure is rapid and convenient, and involves the minimum of sample preparation. The accuracy is about 10 per cent, and the method has a coefficient of variation for the various elements of between 2 and 13 per cent

  19. Influence of lead ions on the macromorphology of electrodeposited zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, Tetsuaki [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tobias, Charles W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1981-09-01

    The morphology of zinc as it is electrodeposited from acid solutions demonstrates a remarkable imprint of electrolyte flow conditions. The development of macromorphology of zinc deposits has been investigated under galvanostatic conditions on a rotating plantinum disk electrode by use of photomacrography, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and Auger microprobe analysis. Logarithmic spiral markings, which reflect the hydrodynamic flow on a rotating disk, appear in a certain region of current density well below the limiting current density. Morphological observations revealed the major influence of trace lead ions on the amplifications of surface roughness through coalescence and preferred growth of initial protrusions. Results obtained from ultra-pure electrolyte suggest preferred crystal growth towards well-mixed orientation in the concentration field caused by slight differences in crystallization overpotential. A qualitative model involving a coupling mechanism between the evolving surface roughness and instability phenomena in the boundary layer is advanced to explain the formation of spiral patterns.

  20. Concentration of cadmium, zinc and manganese in root, stalk and leaf of spinach and tomato in Hamedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghobadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are considers as significant environment pollutants. Their entrance into food chain is a serious health hazard to humans. This study was conducted to determine the concentrations of Cadmium, Zinc and Manganese in root, stalk and leaf portions of spinach and tomato. For this reason, during 2014 in Hamedan city, 3 farms with 5 repetitions from each farm were sampled. Samples were subjected to acid-digestion and the concentrations of the elements were assayed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP. According to the results, the average concentrations of heavy metals in root, stalk and leaf of spinach was estimated at: cadmium, 0.14, 0.24, 0.34 mg/kg, zinc, 15.53, 24.82, 35 mg/kg and manganese, 26.59, 24.42, 45.38 mg/kg, respectively. The data for the tomato samples were: cadmium, 16.20, 24.42, 33.81 mg/kg, Zinc, 21.48, 39.74, 52.92 mg/kg and manganese, 26.60, 42.41, 61.90 mg/kg, respectively. The mean concentration of cadmium and manganese in spinach and tomato showed a significant difference with the WHO/FAO standard limit. However, in the case of zinc the difference was insignificant. It was concluded that in this experiment the spinach and tomato samples were polluted with higher concentration of cadmium and manganese than the approved limit of WHO/FAO and therefore was found risky for the consumers.

  1. Effects of cadmium on chick embryogenesis and some comparisons with lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D W; Chen, D C.C.; Hsu, J L

    1978-07-01

    During the last ten years because of the severity of the problem of pollution and the part that heavy metals play in it we have been doing research on the effects of some heavy metals on chick embryogenesis in order to get a comparative study and to elucidate their mechanisms of action. Experiments were performed using 431 fertilized white Leghorn eggs to study the effect of cadmium on chick embryogenesis. Cadmium acetate at 0.015, 0.030, 0.045, 0.060, 0.12 or 0.24 mg/egg and lead acetate at 0.02, 0.04 or 0.075 mg/egg was injected in ovo on the fourth day of incubation. The embryos were taken out on the 19th day and examined for gross defects. Electrocardiograms were recorded on some embryos. Hemoglobin determinations were done on others. The changes in plasma delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydrase (ALAD) of the embryos due to cadmium and lead acetate were also determined. It was found that the LD50 of cadmium acetate was close to 0.045 mg. The highest incidence of abnormality, 30.9% of the surviving embryos, appeared in the 0.030 mg group although malformed embryos were also found in the 0.015, 0.045 and 0.060 mg groups. The most common malformations occurred in the liver (58%) and the cardiovascular system, with edema totalling over 90%. Lesser abnormalities were observed in the limbs. Lead acetate affected ALAD more than cadmium acetate. There was no significant difference on hemoglobin concentration or EKG between the distilled water control and either the cadmium or lead treated groups. Thus, embryolethality, embryotoxicity, congenital abnormalities and changes in ALAD were all observed in the cadmium-treated chick embryos although lead acetate seemed to inhibit the ALAD activity more effectively than cadmium acetate.

  2. Properties of Nitrogen-Doped Zinc Telluride Films for Back Contact to Cadmium Telluride Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpi, Tushar M.; Drayton, Jennifer; Swanson, Drew E.; Sampath, Walajabad S.

    2017-08-01

    Zinc telluride (ZnTe) films have been deposited onto uncoated glass superstrates by reactive radiofrequency (RF) sputtering with different amounts of nitrogen introduced into the process gas, and the structural and electronic transport properties of the resulting nitrogen-doped ZnTe (ZnTe:N) films characterized. Based on transmission and x-ray diffraction measurements, it was observed that the crystalline quality of the ZnTe:N films decreased with increasing nitrogen in the deposition process. The bulk carrier concentration of the ZnTe:N films determined from Hall-effect measurements showed a slight decrease at 4% nitrogen flow rate. The effect of ZnTe:N films as back contact to cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells was also investigated. ZnTe:N films were deposited before or after CdCl2 passivation on CdTe/CdS samples. Small-area devices were characterized for their electronic properties. Glancing-angle x-ray diffraction measurements and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis confirmed substantial loss of zinc from the samples where CdCl2 passivation was carried out after ZnTe:N film deposition.

  3. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Esquinas, Esther, E-mail: esthergge@gmail.com [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Navas-Acien, Ana [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Environmental Epidemiology and Cancer Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  4. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Esquinas, Esther; Navas-Acien, Ana; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  5. Biomarker responses of Peromyscus leucopus exposed to lead and cadmium in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W Nelson; Casteel, Stan W; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Gramlich, Eric; Houseright, Ruth A; Nichols, John R; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Kim, Dae Young; Rangen, Kathleen L; Rattner, Barnett A; Schultz, Sandra L

    2018-01-29

    Biomarker responses and histopathological lesions have been documented in laboratory mammals exposed to elevated concentrations of lead and cadmium. The exposure of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) to these metals and the potential associated toxic effects were examined at three contaminated sites in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District and at a reference site in MO, USA. Mice from the contaminated sites showed evidence of oxidative stress and reduced activity of red blood cell δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD). Histological examinations of the liver and kidney, cytologic examination of blood smears, and biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage failed to show indications of toxic effects from lead. The biomagnification factor of cadmium (hepatic concentration/soil concentration) at a site with a strongly acid soil was 44 times the average of the biomagnification factors at two sites with slightly alkaline soils. The elevated concentrations of cadmium in the mice did not cause observable toxicity, but were associated with about a 50% decrease in expected tissue lead concentrations and greater ALAD activity compared to the activity at the reference site. Lead was associated with a decrease in concentrations of hepatic glutathione and thiols, whereas cadmium was associated with an increase. In addition, to support risk assessment efforts, we developed linear regression models relating both tissue lead dosages (based on a previously published a laboratory study) and tissue lead concentrations in Peromyscus to soil lead concentrations.

  6. Biomarker responses of Peromyscus leucopus exposed to lead and cadmium in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Casteel, Stan W.; Friedrichs, Kristen R.; Gramlich, Eric; Houseright, Ruth A.; Nichols, John W.; Karouna-Renier, Natalie; Kim, Dae Young; Rangen, Kathleen; Rattner, Barnett A.; Schultz, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Biomarker responses and histopathological lesions have been documented in laboratory mammals exposed to elevated concentrations of lead and cadmium. The exposure of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) to these metals and the potential associated toxic effects were examined at three contaminated sites in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District and at a reference site in MO, USA. Mice from the contaminated sites showed evidence of oxidative stress and reduced activity of red blood cell δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD). Histological examinations of the liver and kidney, cytologic examination of blood smears, and biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage failed to show indications of toxic effects from lead. The biomagnification factor of cadmium (hepatic concentration/soil concentration) at a site with a strongly acid soil was 44 times the average of the biomagnification factors at two sites with slightly alkaline soils. The elevated concentrations of cadmium in the mice did not cause observable toxicity, but were associated with about a 50% decrease in expected tissue lead concentrations and greater ALAD activity compared to the activity at the reference site. Lead was associated with a decrease in concentrations of hepatic glutathione and thiols, whereas cadmium was associated with an increase. In addition, to support risk assessment efforts, we developed linear regression models relating both tissue lead dosages (based on a previously published a laboratory study) and tissue lead concentrations in Peromyscus to soil lead concentrations.

  7. Physicochemical analysis of zinc and cadmium ions interaction with unithiol; Fiziko-khimicheskij analiz vzaimodejstviya ionov tsinka i kadmiya s unitiolom v vodykh rastvorakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinina, L K; Shejkkh, M A; Ospanov, Kh K; Gemanova, L N [Kazakhskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakhstan)

    1995-01-01

    Zinc and cadmium interaction with sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane sulfonate in aqueous solution is studied by means of physicochemical analysis techniques (pH-metry, conductometry, viscosimetry, volumetry). Cadmium is determined to form 1:1 and 1:2 composition complex compounds. Formation constants of complex ions are determined. Mechanism of interaction of initial reagents is suggested. 7 refs.; 1 fig.

  8. Cadmium but not lead exposure affects Xenopus laevis fertilization and embryo cleavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaby, Sylvain [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); Lemière, Sébastien [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Hanotel, Julie; Lescuyer, Arlette [Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); Demuynck, Sylvain [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Bodart, Jean-François [Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); and others

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • First embryonic steps were studied. • Fertilization success was impacted by cadmium exposures. • Oocytes were most affected instead of spermatozoa by cadmium exposures. • First embryonic cleavages were slown down or stopped by cadmium exposures. • Lead exposures did not affected fertilization and segmentation. - Abstract: Among the toxicological and ecotoxicological studies, few have investigated the effects on germ cells, gametes or embryos, while an impact at these stages will result in serious damage at a population level. Thus, it appeared essential to characterize consequences of environmental contaminant exposures at these stages. Therefore, we proposed to assess the effects of exposure to cadmium and lead ions, alone or in a binary mixture, on early stages of Xenopus laevis life cycle. Fertilization and cell division during segmentation were the studied endpoints. Cadmium ion exposures decreased in the fertilization rates in a concentration-dependent manner, targeting mainly the oocytes. Exposure to this metal ions induced also delays or blockages in the embryonic development. For lead ion exposure, no such effect was observed. For the exposure to the mixture of the two metal ions, concerning the fertilization success, we observed results similar to those obtained with the highest cadmium ion concentration.

  9. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at the...

  10. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Nduka, John Kanayochukwu

    2009-01-01

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO 3 (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

  11. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere, E-mail: eorish@aol.com [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology,College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Nduka, John Kanayochukwu [Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Research Unit, Pure and Industrial Chemistry Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka Anambra State (Nigeria)

    2009-11-15

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO{sub 3} (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

  12. Determination of zinc and cadmium with characterized Electrodes of carbon and polyurethane modified by a bismuth film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jossy Karla Brasil Bernardelli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to use electrodes modified with bismuth films for the determination of zinc and cadmium. The film was electrodeposited ex situ on a composite carbon electrode with polyurethane and 2% metallic bismuth (2BiE and on a carbon bar electrode (CBE. The electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Through differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, the electrodes 2BiE and CBE containing bismuth films showed a limit of detection (LOD of 5.56 × 10-5 and 3.07 × 10-5 g.L-1 for cadmium and 1.24 × 10-4 and 1.53 × 10-4 g.L-1 for zinc, respectively. The presence of a bismuth film increased the sensitivity of both electrodes.

  13. Concurrent reduction and distillation: an improved technique for the recovery and chemical refinement of the isotopes of cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudill, H.H.; McBride, L.E.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Electromagnetic Isotope Separations Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been involved in the separation, chemical recovery, and refinement of the stable isotopes of cadmium and zinc since 1946. Traditionally, the chemical refinement procedures for these elements consisted of ion exchange separations using anion exchange resins followed by pH-controlled hydrogen sulfide precipitations. The procedures were quite time-consuming and made it difficult to remove trace quantities of sulfur which interferes in subsequent attempts to prepare rolled metal foils. As demands for 113 Cd and 68 Zn (a precursor for the production of the radiopharmaceutical 67 Ga) increased, it became evident that a quicker, more efficient refinement procedure was needed. Details of an improved method, which employs concurrent hydrogen reduction and distillation in the recovery and refinement of isotopically enriched zinc, are described. Modifications of the procedure suitable for the refinement of cadmium isotopes are also described. 3 figures, 1 table

  14. Environmental arsenic, cadmium and lead dust emissions from metal mine operations: Implications for environmental management, monitoring and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick, E-mail: mark.taylor@mq.edu.au; Mould, Simon Anthony; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Rouillon, Marek

    2014-11-15

    Although blood lead values in children are predominantly falling globally, there are locations where lead exposure remains a persistent problem. One such location is Broken Hill, Australia, where the percentage of blood lead values >10 μg/dL in children aged 1–4 years has risen from 12.6% (2010), to 13% (2011) to 21% (2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of metal contamination in places accessible to children. This study examines contemporary exposure risks from arsenic, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc in surface soil and dust, and in pre- and post-play hand wipes at six playgrounds across Broken Hill over a 5-day period in September 2013. Soil lead (mean 2,450 mg/kg) and zinc (mean 3,710 mg/kg) were the most elevated metals in playgrounds. Surface dust lead concentrations were consistently elevated (mean 27,500 μg/m{sup 2}) with the highest lead in surface dust (59,900 μg/m{sup 2}) and post-play hand wipes (60,900 μg/m{sup 2}) recorded close to existing mining operations. Surface and post-play hand wipe dust values exceeded national guidelines for lead and international benchmarks for arsenic, cadmium and lead. Lead isotopic compositions ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) of surface dust wipes from the playgrounds revealed the source of lead contamination to be indistinct from the local Broken Hill ore body. The data suggest frequent, cumulative and ongoing mine-derived dust metal contamination poses a serious risk of harm to children. - Highlights: 1.Playground soils and surface dust in a mining town have high metal concentrations. 2.Elevated levels of As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust are found on playground users′ hands. 3.Pb isotope analysis shows that the source of playground dust is ore body Pb. 4.Surface mine operations must be contained to reduce childhood lead exposure risks. 5.Mine environmental licences need to set trigger values for As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust.

  15. Environmental arsenic, cadmium and lead dust emissions from metal mine operations: Implications for environmental management, monitoring and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Mould, Simon Anthony; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Rouillon, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Although blood lead values in children are predominantly falling globally, there are locations where lead exposure remains a persistent problem. One such location is Broken Hill, Australia, where the percentage of blood lead values >10 μg/dL in children aged 1–4 years has risen from 12.6% (2010), to 13% (2011) to 21% (2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of metal contamination in places accessible to children. This study examines contemporary exposure risks from arsenic, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc in surface soil and dust, and in pre- and post-play hand wipes at six playgrounds across Broken Hill over a 5-day period in September 2013. Soil lead (mean 2,450 mg/kg) and zinc (mean 3,710 mg/kg) were the most elevated metals in playgrounds. Surface dust lead concentrations were consistently elevated (mean 27,500 μg/m 2 ) with the highest lead in surface dust (59,900 μg/m 2 ) and post-play hand wipes (60,900 μg/m 2 ) recorded close to existing mining operations. Surface and post-play hand wipe dust values exceeded national guidelines for lead and international benchmarks for arsenic, cadmium and lead. Lead isotopic compositions ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb, 208 Pb/ 207 Pb) of surface dust wipes from the playgrounds revealed the source of lead contamination to be indistinct from the local Broken Hill ore body. The data suggest frequent, cumulative and ongoing mine-derived dust metal contamination poses a serious risk of harm to children. - Highlights: 1.Playground soils and surface dust in a mining town have high metal concentrations. 2.Elevated levels of As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust are found on playground users′ hands. 3.Pb isotope analysis shows that the source of playground dust is ore body Pb. 4.Surface mine operations must be contained to reduce childhood lead exposure risks. 5.Mine environmental licences need to set trigger values for As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust

  16. Assessment of copper, cadmium and zinc remobilization in Mediterranean marine coastal sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellari, Aikaterini; Plavšić, Marta; Karavoltsos, Sotiris; Dassenakis, Manos; Scoullos, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The remobilization of copper, cadmium and zinc in sediments of three selected coastal microenvironments of the Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean) is assessed. Various analytical methods and techniques were employed providing concentrations, profiles and forms of metals and organic matter in sediments and pore waters. At Loutropyrgos, a non-industrial site located, however, within an intensively industrialized enclosed gulf, an intense resupply of zinc in pore water from sediment was recorded, correlating with the highest value of weakly bound fraction of zinc determined at this area. The comparatively high zinc concentrations measured in the pore waters (394 nM), exceed considerably those in the overlying seawater (12.5 nM determined by DGT; 13.5 nM total), resulting in the formation of a strong concentration gradient at the sediment-water interface. Potential zinc flux at the sediment-water interface at Loutropyrgos (based on 0.4 mm DGT profile) was calculated equal to 0.8 mmol.m -2.d -1. The half lives of trace metals at Loutropyrgos site, based on the aforementioned DGT profiles, amount to 0.1 y (Zn), 2.8 y (Cd), 4.5 y (Cu), 2.2 y (Mn) and 0.4 y (Fe) pointing out to the reactivity of these metals at the sediment-water interface. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in pore waters of the three selected sites (2.7-5.2 mg/L) was up to four times higher compared to that of the corresponding overlying seawater. Similarly, the concentrations of carbohydrates in pore waters (0.20-0.91 mg/L monosaccharides; 0.71-1.6 mg/L polysaccharides) are an order of magnitude higher than those of seawater, forming a concentration gradient at the sediment-water interface. Total carbohydrates contribute between 34 and 48% of the organic carbon of the pore waters, being significantly higher than those of seawater from the corresponding areas, which were in the range of 15-21%. The complexing capacity as for copper ions (CCu) determined in pore water ranges widely, from 0

  17. Size-dependent effects of low level cadmium and zinc exposure on the metabolome of the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spann, Nicole, E-mail: nicole.spann@web.de [Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom); Aldridge, David C., E-mail: da113@cam.ac.uk [Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom); Griffin, Julian L., E-mail: jlg40@mole.bio.cam.ac.uk [Sanger Building, Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA (United Kingdom); Jones, Oliver A.H., E-mail: o.jones@gmail.com [Sanger Building, Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: Small and large Corbicula fluminea were exposed to cadmium and zinc spiked sediment. Metabolomic changes in the freshwater clams were determined by NMR and GC-MS. Metabolic perturbations were related to amino acid and energy related metabolism. Small and large clams were differentiated by their metabolic composition. Size classes showed opposite responses to metal stress. - Abstract: The toxic effects of low level metal contamination in sediments are currently poorly understood. We exposed different sized Asian clams, Corbicula fluminea, to sediment spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of either zinc, cadmium or a zinc-cadmium mixture for one week. This freshwater bivalve is well suited for sediment toxicity tests as it lives partly buried in the sediment and utilises sediment particles as a food resource. After one week, the whole tissue composition of low molecular weight metabolites was analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The condition index (ratio of tissue dry weight to volume inside the shell valves) was also measured. Small and large clams were clearly differentiated by their metabolic composition and the two size classes showed opposite responses to the mixture spiked sediment. No effects of zinc alone on the metabolome were found and cadmium only influenced the smaller size class. The main perturbations were seen in amino acid and energy metabolism, with small clams using amino acids as an energy resource and larger clams primarily drawing on their larger storage reserves of carbohydrates. Our study demonstrates that metabolomics is a useful technique to test for low level toxicity which does not manifest in mortality or condition index changes. The differing effects between the two size classes stress that it is important to consider age/size when conducting metabolomic and ecotoxicology assessments, since testing for the effects on only one size class makes

  18. Transport and detoxification of cadmium, copper and zinc in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens

    OpenAIRE

    Leitenmaier, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    SummaryIn this thesis, various aspects on heavy metal accumulation by the hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens have been investigated. T. caerulescens belongs to the family of Brassicaceae and hyperaccumulates zinc. Its ecotype Ganges, originating from Southern France, additionally takes up cadmium actively. It is known from previous studies that hyperaccumulators have highly overexpressed metal transporters and that most of them store the metal in the vacuole of large epidermal cells....

  19. Cycle life test. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells. [performance tests on silver zinc batteries, silver cadmium batteries, and nickel cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Considerable research is being done to find more efficient and reliable means of starting electrical energy for orbiting satellites. Rechargeable cells offer one such means. A test program is described which has been established in order to further the evaluation of certain types of cells and to obtain performance and failure data as an aid to their continued improvement. The purpose of the program is to determine the cycling performance capabilities of packs of cells under different load and temperature conditions. The various kinds of cells tested were nickel-cadmium, silver-cadmium, and silver-zinc sealed cells. A summary of the results of the life cycling program is given in this report.

  20. The determination of levels of mercury, cadmium and lead in water samples from Naivasha area, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muigai, P.G.; Kamau, G.N.; Kinyua, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of mercury, cadmium and lead in water samples from different environments (Lake Naivasha, River Malewa boreholes and Olkaria geothermal wells) in Naivasha region and their possible origins are reported. The levels of mercury and lead in the water samples were above the maximum permissible limits of 0.005 mg/1 and 0.1 mg/1 respectively, as stipulated by the WHO. On the other hand, 83.3% of the samples had cadmium levels above the maximum permissible limit of 0.01mg/1 in drinking water by WHO. The mercury and lead levels were also higher than those previously obtained from different regions of Kenya, while those for cadmium were within the corresponding range. Possible sources of elevated values were the geology of the surrounding area, sewage treatment works, use of phosphate rock fertilizers and lead fuels.(author)

  1. Biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions using mushrooms: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimala, R., E-mail: vimararagu@yahoo.co.in [School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Das, Nilanjana [School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2009-08-30

    Sorption capacity of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus platypus), button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) were evaluated on biosorption of heavy metals, viz. cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions. The optimum sorption conditions were studied for each metal separately. The desired pH of the aqueous solution was found to be 6.0 for the removal of cadmium (II) and 5.0 for removal of lead (II) for all the mushrooms. The percent removal of both the metals was found to increase with the increase in biosorbent dosage and contact time. The fitness of the biosorption data for Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models was investigated. It was found that biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions onto the biomass of the three mushrooms were better suitable to Langmuir than Freundlich adsorption model. P. platypus showed the highest metal uptake potential for cadmium (q{sub max} 34.96 mg/g) whereas A. bisporus exhibited maximum potential for lead (q{sub max} 33.78 mg/g). Milky mushroom showed the lowest metal uptake capacity for both the metals. The present data confirms that mushrooms may be used as efficient biosorbent for the removal of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions from aqueous solution.

  2. Voltammetric determination of cadmium and lead in human hair as healthy indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasser, H.; Kherbik, R.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium and Lead level were examined in hair of patients and healthy donors. Hair sample were collected and analyzed for their contents of the trace metals (Cd, Pb) by Voltammetry. It was found that the existence of Cadmium and Lead in the hair was significantly higher in the patients (19.7 μg/g - 38.2 μg/g) for lead, (0.4 μg/g - 2.1 μg/g) for cadmium. On the other hand, the healthy had lower concentration (7.8 μg/g - 8.8 μg/g) for Lead, (0.2 μg/g - 0.3 μg/g) for cadmium. In this study, hairs were analyzed to find the effect these elements on health. Correlation coefficients between the levels of the elements in hair found in this study showed that hair is a good indicator of Cadmium and Lead in the hair. The method is applicable as a tool for monitoring pollution level of groups.(author)

  3. Bioabsorption of cadmium, copper and lead by the red macroalga Gelidium floridanum: physiological responses and ultrastructure features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rodrigo W; Schmidt, Éder C; de L Felix, Marthiellen R; Polo, Luz K; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Debora T; Costa, Giulia B; Simioni, Carmen; Chow, Fungyi; Ramlov, Fernanda; Maraschin, Marcelo; Bouzon, Zenilda L

    2014-07-01

    Heavy metals, such as lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel, are among the most common pollutants found in both industrial and urban effluents. High concentrations of these metals cause severe toxic effects, especially to organisms living in the aquatic ecosystem. Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) are the heavy metals most frequently implicated as environmental contaminants, and they have been shown to affect development, growth, photosynthesis and respiration, and morphological cell organization in seaweeds. This paper aimed to evaluate the effects of 50μM and 100μM of Cd, Pb and Cu on growth rates, photosynthetic pigments, biochemical parameters and ultrastructure in Gelidium floridanum. To accomplish this, apical segments of G. floridanum were individually exposed to the respective heavy metals over a period of 7 days. Plants exposed to Cd, Cu and Pb showed discoloration of thallus pigmentation, chloroplast alteration, especially degeneration of thylakoids, and decrease in photosynthetic pigments, such as chlorophyll a and phycobiliproteins, in samples treated with Cd and Cu. Moreover, cell wall thickness and the volume of plastoglobuli increased. X-ray microanalysis detected Cd, Cu and Pb absorption in the cell wall. The results indicate that Cd, Pb and Cu negatively affect metabolic performance and cell ultrastructure in G. floridanum and that Cu was more toxic than either Pb or Cd. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Protective Roles of Zinc and Magnesium in Cadmium-Induced Renal Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Babaknejad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium (Cd is a heavy metal that has widespread use. It enters the food chain in different ways, including soil and water. Cadmium can cause dysfunction of different body organs. Zinc (Zn and magnesium (Mg supplementation can have protective effects against cadmium toxicity due to their antagonistic and antioxidants properties. This study examines the influence of supplemental Zn and Mg on Cd renal toxicity. Methods: Young male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of five. The Cd group received 1 mg Cd/kg and the control group received 0.5 mg/kg normal saline (i.p.. The other four groups were administered 1 mg/kg Cd+0.5 mg/kg Zn, 1 mg/kg Cd+1.5 mg/kg Zn, 1 mg/kg Cd+ 0.5 mg/kg Mg, and 1 mg/kg Cd+ 1.5 mg/kg Mg (i.p. for 21 days. Then, serum sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, and protein levels were measured. Results: The results indicated that creatinine and protein levels decreased while urea, sodium, and potassium levels increased as a result of Cd exposure. Co-administered Cd and Zn and Mg decreased urea and increased sodium serum level in comparison to the cadmium group. Treatment by Mg, contrary to co-administered Cd and Zn, reduced serum protein level compared to the cadmium group. Compared to the cadmium treated group, Zn and Mg treatment enhanced serum creatinine level and reduced serum potassium level. Conclusion: The findings seem to suggest that zinc and magnesium compounds, due to their antagonistic and antioxidant activities, can protect Cd renal toxic effects in a dose-dependent manner.

  5. Occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the Spring River flood plain and tributary flood plains, Cherokee County, Kansas, 2009--11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2013-01-01

    Historical mining activity in the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD), located in parts of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma, has resulted in a substantial ongoing input of cadmium, lead, and zinc to the environment. To provide some of the information needed to support remediation efforts in the Cherokee County, Kansas, superfund site, a 4-year study was begun in 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey that was requested and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A combination of surficial-soil sampling and coring was used to investigate the occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the flood plains of the Spring River and several tributaries within the superfund site. Lead- and zinc-contaminated flood plains are a concern, in part, because they represent a long-term source of contamination to the fluvial environment. Lead and zinc contamination was assessed with reference to probable-effect concentrations (PECs), which represent the concentrations above which adverse aquatic biological effects are likely to occur. The general PECs for lead and zinc were 128 and 459 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. The TSMD-specific PECs for lead and zinc were 150 and 2,083 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. Typically, surficial soils in the Spring River flood plain had lead and zinc concentrations that were less than the general PECs. Lead and zinc concentrations in the surficial-soil samples were variable with distance downstream and with distance from the Spring River channel, and the largest lead and zinc concentrations usually were located near the channel. Lead and zinc concentrations larger than the general or TSMD-specific PECs, or both, were infrequent at depth in the Spring River flood plain. When present, such contamination typically was confined to the upper 2 feet of the core and frequently was confined to the upper 6 inches. Tributaries with few or no lead- and zinc-mined areas in the basin—Brush Creek

  6. The cadmium and lead content of the grain produced by leading Chinese rice cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, L H; Tang, S Q; Wei, X J; Shao, G N; Jiao, G A; Sheng, Z H; Luo, J; Hu, P S

    2017-02-15

    The cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) content in both white and wholemeal flour milled from 110 leading rice cultivars was assessed. The white flour Cd content ranged from <0.0025 to 0.2530mg/kg (geometric mean (GM)=0.0150mg/kg), while its Pb content ranged from <0.0250 to 0.3830mg/kg (GM=0.0210mg/kg). The indica types took up higher amounts of Cd and Pb than did the japonica types. Although the heavy metal content of wholemeal flour tended to higher than that of white flour, nevertheless 84.5% (Cd) and 95.4% (Pb) of the entries were compliant with the national maximum allowable concentration of 0.2000mg/kg of each contaminant. An analysis of the Cd content in the white flour of three indica type cultivars grown in two consecutive years at two locations indicated that Cd content may be significantly affected by the conditions prevailing in the growing season. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. On the physicochemical states of cadmium and lead in sea water and sediment pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Isao; Sakai, Takashi; Inoue, Yoriteru

    1976-01-01

    The existence states of cadmium and lead in sea water taken from Wakasa Bay in Japan were experimentally studied and their transfer to bottom sand layer was tested. Sample water was filtered through a glass wool filter and a 0.45 μ-m membrane filter. Cadmium chloride and lead chloride were fed so that the concentrations of the metals became the environmental standard values (0.01 ppm for cadmium and 0.1 ppm for lead). Cd-115m and lead-210 were added to the sample as tracers. The existence states were measured by dialysis, the filtration with a membrane filter and the adsorption on an ion-exchange resin. As a result, the ionic state of cadmium decreased to 85% and the deposition factor on the membrane filter increased to about 30% when pH is 9.6. The distribution factor of the cation exchange resin was 2 - 5, whereas that of the anion exchange resin was 1000 or more at pH 8,4 or less, but was reduced to 541 at pH 9.6. The ion existence ratio of lead was 80% - 90% at pH 8 or less, and was 10% or less at pH 8.8. The deposition factor of lead was higher than that of cadmium. The distribution factor of lead showed similar tendency to that of cadmium. As a result of measuring the radioactivity adsorbed by the bottom sand in the experimental tank, it was found that the transfer of very small amount of heavy metals to the bottom material depended upon the physicochemical existence states of the metals in water. (Iwakiri, K.)

  8. Adverse health effects in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) associated with waste from zinc and lead mines in the Tri-State Mining District (Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Deon; Carpenter, James W; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Miesner, John F

    2011-07-01

    Lead and zinc poisoning have been recorded in a variety of bird species, including migrating waterfowl such as Canada Geese (Branta canadensis), at sites contaminated with mine waste from lead and zinc mines in the Tri-State Mining District, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA. The adverse health impacts from mine waste on these birds may, however, be more extensive than is apparent from incidental reports of clinical disease. To characterize health impacts from mine waste on Canada Geese that do not have observable signs of poisoning, four to eight apparently healthy birds per site were collected from four contaminated sites and an uncontaminated reference site, and examined for physical and physiologic evidence of metals poisoning. Tissue concentrations of silver, aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, selenium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Adverse health effects due to lead were characterized by assessing blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) enzyme activity. Adverse effects associated with zinc poisoning were determined from histologic examination of pancreas tissues. Elevated tissue lead concentrations and inhibited blood ALAD enzyme activities were consistently found in birds at all contaminated sites. Histopathologic signs of zinc poisoning, including fibrosis and vacuolization, were associated with elevated pancreatic zinc concentrations at one of the study sites. Adverse health effects associated with other analyzed elements, or tissue concentrations indicating potentially toxic exposure levels to these elements, were not observed.

  9. Protective effect of zinc over lead toxicity on testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, M.; Shaikh, S.P.; Tahir, F.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effects of lead and zinc on testes. Study Design: Randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from August 2003 to December 2005. Methodology: Sixty adult (90 days old) albino rats were obtained from animal house JPMC for the study and divided into 3 groups. Group A received injection normal saline 1 cc intraperitoneally daily for 8 weeks. Group B received lead chloride in a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally daily. Group C received zinc chloride in a dose of 1 mg/kg body weight before half an hour of injection of lead chloride in a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally daily so that to provide pre-treatment. On the day of completion of treatment the animals were sacrificed testes removed and fixed in Bouin's fluid. Testes were dehydrated in the ascending strength of alcohol, 5 mu m thick sections were cut and stained with PAS Iron Hematoxylin. Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis with significance at p < 0.05. Results: The mean diameter of seminiferous tubule was 291.91+-1.18, 198.53 +- 1.67 and 288.77 +- 1.11 mu m in groups A, B and C respectively. Diameter of seminiferous tubules decreased by 31.99% in group B (p < 0.001; CI 89.023 to 97.736) as compared group A and while group B comparing with group C, the diameter of seminiferous tubules was decreased by 31.25% (p-value = 0.076; CI -94.264 to -86.203). Mean thickness of germinal epithelium was 96.19 +- 1.01, 50.69 +- 1.20 and 94.94 +- 0.54 mu m in groups A, B and C respectively. Thickness of germinal epithelium decreased by 47.30 in group B (P < 0.001; CI 42.503 to 48.496) as compared to group A and while comparing group B with group C, the thickness of germinal epithelium was decreased by 46.61% (p=-44.25; CI -46.704 to -41.787). Conclusion: Zinc prevented toxic effects of lead on germinal epithelium in the albino rats. (author)

  10. Perinatal exposure to lead and cadmium affects anxiety-like behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leret, M.Luisa; Millan, Jose Antonio San; Antonio, M.Teresa

    2003-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of early simultaneous exposure to low level of lead and cadmium on anxiety-like behaviour in the rat, and on monoamine levels in the hypothalamus and hippocampus at weaning and adult animals. Rats were intoxicated with cadmium acetate (10 mg/l) and lead acetate (300 mg/l) in drinking water from the beginning of pregnancy until weaning. Maternal co-exposure to lead and cadmium produced mainly alterations in dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems of hippocampus in both age studied, while noradrenaline content in hypothalamus and hippocampus remained unchanged at 75 days of age. The intoxicated rats showed an increased on indices of anxiety on the elevated plus-maze. These long-term changes in anxiety-like behaviour can be related to dopaminergic and serotoninergic alterations detected in hippocampus

  11. Assessment of the pollution and ecological risk of lead and cadmium in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Jerzy; Baran, Agnieszka; Urbański, Krzysztof; Mazurek, Ryszard; Klimowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka

    2018-03-27

    The aim of the study was to assess the content, distribution, soil binding capacity, and ecological risk of cadmium and lead in the soils of Malopolska (South Poland). The investigation of 320 soil samples from differently used land (grassland, arable land, forest, wasteland) revealed a very high variation in the metal content in the soils. The pollution of soils with cadmium and lead is moderate. Generally, a point source of lead and cadmium pollution was noted in the study area. The highest content of cadmium and lead was found in the northwestern part of the area-the industrial zones (mining and metallurgical activity). These findings are confirmed by the arrangement of semivariogram surfaces and bivariate Moran's correlation coefficients. Among the different types of land use, forest soils had by far the highest mean content of bioavailable forms of both metals. The results showed a higher soil binding capacity for lead than for cadmium. However, for both metals, extremely high (class 5) accumulation capacities were dominant. Based on the results, the investigated soils had a low (Pb) and moderate (Cd) ecological risk on living components. Soil properties, such as organic C, pH, sand, silt, and clay content, correlated with the content of total and bioavailable forms of metals in the soils. The correlations, despite being statistically significant, were characterized by very low values of correlation coefficient (r = 0.12-0.20, at p ≤ 0.05). Therefore, the obtained data do not allow to define any conclusions as to the relationships between these soil properties. However, it must be highlighted that there was a very strong positive correlation between the total content of cadmium and lead and their bioavailable forms in the soils.

  12. Adaptive and cross-protective responses against cadmium and zinc toxicity in cadmium-resistant bacterium isolated from a zinc mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjaphorn Prapagdee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a major environmental hazard, which usually is detected in its ionic form of Cd2+. It also causes adverse toxic effects on human health and other living organisms. Cd-resistant bacteria were isolated from Cd-contaminated soils. One isolate, TAK1, was highly resistance level to Cd toxicity. TAK1 was isolated from soil contaminated with a high Cd concentration (204.1 mg.kg-1. The result of 16S rDNA sequence analysis found that the TAK1 showed the similarity to Ralstonia sp. Physiological adaptive and cross-protective responses to Cd and Zn killing were investigated in Ralstonia sp.TAK1. Exposure to a low concentration of Cd induced adaptive resistance to higher concentrations of Cd. In addition, pretreatment of Ralstonia sp.TAK1 with an inducing concentration of Cd conferred cross-protective response against subsequent exposure to the lethal concentrations of Zn. The induced adaptive and cross-protective response Ralstonia sp.TAK1 required newly synthesized protein(s. Cd-induced adaptive and cross-protective responses against Cd and Zn toxicity are the important mechanisms used by Ralstonia sp.TAK1 to survive in the heavy metal contaminated environments. These findings might lead to the use of Ralstonia sp.TAK1 for microbial based remediation in Cd and Zn-contaminated soils.

  13. EFFECTS OF LEAD AND CADMIUM UPON THE KIDNEY FUNCTION OF THE A TEMPORE NEWBORNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Jonović

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the subjection of the embryo and the newborn to lead and cadmium as well as the effects of these metals upon the kidney function in the children newly born on time. The hypothetical framework of the paper was that lead and cadmium that are trans placental transmitted to the embryo organism lead to the change of the kidney function in the sence of damages done to the tubular system and to the interstitium along with changes in the urine sediment and in the levels of urea and creatinine in the serum; thus induced effects can be detected in the first week of life of the newborn babies.The examination was done in 1995 at Gynecological and Obstetric Clinic in Niš. The examined and the control group consisted of 30 newborns on time. The clinic examination was done on all the newborns. Regarding the kidney function examination, on the forth day of life all the newborn children were subjected to the determination of the value of urea and creatinine in the vein blood, the urine examination, the physical and physical-chemical features of the urine (outlook, specific weight, color, pH, the chemical status of the urine, the microscopic examination of the urine sediment, the ultrasonic examination of the kidneys. On the basis of the carried out examination and obtained results we came to the following conclusions:The lead concentration in the air at the localities related to the examined group is above G VI while for the control one below GVI. The cadmium concentration in the air from the examined localities in both the groups are above GVI. The lead and cadmium concentrations in the sediment materials at the localities related to the examined and control group are below GVI.The lead concentration in the umbilical cord blood is higher in the control group with respect to the examined one though without statistic significance. The lead concentration in the human milk is higher in the control group than in the examined one

  14. A study of copper, lead and cadmium speciation in some estuarine and coastal marine waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batley, G E; Gardner, D

    1978-07-01

    The significance of the measured changes in heavy metal distribution for different sampled environments was ascertained. The potential of a heavy metal speciation scheme to reflect differences in marine metal distributions was evaluated in a study of soluble copper, lead, and cadmium speciation in water samples from Port Hacking Estuary and one coastal Pacific station in Australia. In all samples, the percentages of metals associated with colloidal matter were high40-60% of total copper, 45-75% of total lead, and 15-35% of total cadmium. (1 map, 26 references, 4 tables)

  15. Low-cost cadmium zinc telluride radiation detectors based on electron-transport-only designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunett, B.A.; Lund, J.C.; Van Scyoc, J.M.; Hilton, N.R.; Lee, E.Y.; James, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this project was to utilize a novel device design to build a compact, high resolution, room temperature operated semiconductor gamma ray sensor. This sensor was constructed from a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) crystal. It was able to both detect total radiation intensity and perform spectroscopy on the detected radiation. CZT detectors produced today have excellent electron charge carrier collection, but suffer from poor hole collection. For conventional gamma-ray spectrometers, both the electrons and holes must be collected with high efficiency to preserve energy resolution. The requirement to collect the hole carriers, which have relatively low lifetimes, limits the efficiency and performance of existing experimental devices. By implementing novel device designs such that the devices rely only on the electron signal for energy information, the sensitivity of the sensors for detecting radiation can be increased substantially. In this report the authors describe a project to develop a new type of electron-only CZT detector. They report on their successful efforts to design, implement and test these new radiation detectors. In addition to the design and construction of the sensors the authors also report, in considerable detail, on the electrical characteristics of the CZT crystals used to make their detectors

  16. Concentrations of Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Giant Freshwater Prawn) from Natural Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Farah Akmal; Basri, Masania Mohd; Rahim, Khairul Adha A; Rahim, Nur Syazwani Abd; Chong, Melissa Dennis

    2018-03-01

    This study analyzed the levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) by the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS), in the muscle tissues, exoskeletons, and gills from freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) (n = 20) harvested from natural habitat in Kerang River, Malaysia on 25th November 2015. Significant increase of the metals level in muscle tissue and gill (r > 0.70, p < 0.05) were observed with increase in length except for Cu in gills. No relationship was found between metals level in exoskeleton and length. The concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in males (muscle tissues and exoskeleton) except for Cd in exoskeleton. In gills, only Cu was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in female than male. All samples contained metals below the permissible limit for human consumption (i.e., Cd < 2.00 mg/kg; Cu < 30.00 mg/kg; Zn < 150 mg/kg). Annual metals monitoring in prawn and environmental samples is recommended to evaluate changes of metals bioaccumulation and cycling in the system, which is useful for resources management.

  17. Study of a high-resolution, 3-D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Matteson, J L; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M; Levin, C S

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3-D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06±0.39% at 511 keV throughout most the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44±0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78±0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes – as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system. PMID:21335649

  18. Study of a high-resolution, 3D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Matteson, J L; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M; Levin, C S

    2011-03-21

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06 ± 0.39% at 511 keV throughout most of the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44 ± 0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78 ± 0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes-as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system.

  19. Determination and evaluation of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc in agricultural soils of western Macedonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, A; Prochaska, C; Papadopoulos, F; Gantidis, N; Metaxa, E

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of major phytotoxic metals--including cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn)--in agricultural soils of Western Macedonia, Greece. We also wanted to determine the possible relationships among elements and between soil properties and elemental concentrations. Surface soil samples, n = 570, were collected and analyzed. The results of the elemental analysis showed that the mean metal concentrations were consistent with reported typical concentrations found in Greek agricultural soils in the cases of Zn and Cu. Cd exhibited lower and Ni higher mean concentrations than the typical levels reported in the literature. Metal concentrations in the majority of the examined samples (>69%) were found to be higher than the respective critical plant-deficiency levels. However, only 0.4% and 0.2% of the analyzed soil samples, respectively, exhibited Cd and Ni concentrations higher than the levels that cause plant toxicity, as referenced by other investigators. These results suggest that the soils studied can be considered as unpolluted with respect to the examined food-chain metal contaminants. However, the levels of the metal concentrations in some of the soil samples, and the low correlation of the metals with soil properties, suggest an anthropogenic rather that lithogenic origin.

  20. Application of sequential extraction analysis to electrokinetic remediation of cadmium, nickel and zinc from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannis, Apostolos; Pentari, Despina; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2010-01-01

    An enhanced electrokinetic process for the removal of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) from contaminated soils was performed. The efficiency of the chelate agents nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and diaminocycloexanetetraacetic acid (DCyTA) was examined under constant potential gradient (1.23 V/cm). The results showed that chelates were effective in desorbing metals at a high pH, with metal-chelate anion complexes migrating towards the anode. At low pH, metals existing as dissolved cations migrated towards the cathode. In such conflicting directions, the metals accumulated in the middle of the cell. Speciation of the metals during the electrokinetic experiments was performed to provide an understanding of the distribution of the Cd, Ni and Zn. The results of sequential extraction analysis revealed that the forms of the metals could be altered from one fraction to another due to the variation of physico-chemical conditions throughout the cell, such as pH, redox potential and the chemistry of the electrolyte solution during the electrokinetic treatment. It was found that binding forms of metals were changed from the difficult type to easier extraction type.

  1. Application of sequential extraction analysis to electrokinetic remediation of cadmium, nickel and zinc from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannis, Apostolos, E-mail: apostolos.giannis@enveng.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Pentari, Despina [Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Wang, Jing-Yuan [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre (R3C), Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); Gidarakos, Evangelos, E-mail: gidarako@mred.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece)

    2010-12-15

    An enhanced electrokinetic process for the removal of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) from contaminated soils was performed. The efficiency of the chelate agents nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and diaminocycloexanetetraacetic acid (DCyTA) was examined under constant potential gradient (1.23 V/cm). The results showed that chelates were effective in desorbing metals at a high pH, with metal-chelate anion complexes migrating towards the anode. At low pH, metals existing as dissolved cations migrated towards the cathode. In such conflicting directions, the metals accumulated in the middle of the cell. Speciation of the metals during the electrokinetic experiments was performed to provide an understanding of the distribution of the Cd, Ni and Zn. The results of sequential extraction analysis revealed that the forms of the metals could be altered from one fraction to another due to the variation of physico-chemical conditions throughout the cell, such as pH, redox potential and the chemistry of the electrolyte solution during the electrokinetic treatment. It was found that binding forms of metals were changed from the difficult type to easier extraction type.

  2. Repeated phytoextraction of four metal-contaminated soils using the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhu; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Luo, Yongming; Zhang, Hao; Christie, Peter

    2014-06-01

    A cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator extracted metals from four contaminated soils over three years in a glasshouse experiment. Changes in plant metal uptake and soil total (aqua regia-extractable) and available metals were investigated. Plant Cd concentrations in a high-Cd acid soil and plant Zn concentrations in two acid soils decreased during repeated phytoextraction and were predicted by soil available metal concentrations. However, on repeated phytoextraction, plant Cd concentrations remained constant in lightly Cd-polluted acid soils, as did plant Cd and Zn in alkaline soils, although soil available metal concentrations decreased markedly. After phytoextraction acid soils showed much higher total metal removal efficiencies, indicating possible suitability of phytoextraction for acid soils. However, DGT-testing, which takes soil metal re-supply into consideration, showed substantial removal of available metal and distinct decreases in metal supply capacity in alkaline soils after phytoextraction, suggesting that a strategy based on lowering the bioavailable contaminant might be feasible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride photon detector for epithermal neutron spectroscopy--pulse height response characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardocchi, M.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreani, C.; Bracco, A.; D'Angelo, A.; Gorini, G.; Imberti, S.; Senesi, R.; Rhodes, N.J.; Schooneveld, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Resonance Detector Spectrometer was recently revised for neutron spectroscopic studies in the eV energy region. In this technique one makes use of a photon detector to record the gamma emission from analyser foils used as neutron-gamma converters. The pulse-height response of a Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride photon detector to neutron capture emission from 238 U and 197 Au analyser foils was characterised in the neutron energy range 1-200 eV. The experiment was performed on the VESUVIO spectrometer at the ISIS neutron-pulsed source. A biparametric data acquisition, specifically developed for these measurements, allowed the simultaneous measurements of both the neutron time of flight and γ pulse-height spectra. Through the analysis of the γ pulse-height spectra the main components of the signal associated with resonant and non-resonant neutron absorption were identified. It was also shown that, in principle, energy discrimination can be used to improve the signal to background ratio of the neutron time-of-flight measurement

  4. Investigation of the Electronic Properties of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) Detectors using a Nuclear Microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRUNETT, BRUCE A.; DOYLE, BARNEY L.; JAMES, RALPH B.; VIZKELETHY, GYORGY; WALSH, DAVID S.

    1999-01-01

    The electronic transport properties of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) determine the charge collection efficiency (i.e. the signal quality) of CZT detectors. These properties vary on both macroscopic and microscopic scale and depend on the presence of impurities and defects introduced during the crystal growth. Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) is a proven method to measure the charge collection efficiency. Using an ion microbeam, the charge collection efficiency can be mapped with submicron resolution, and the map of electronic properties (such as drift length) can be calculated from the measurement. A more sophisticated version of IBICC, the Time Resolved IBICC (TRIBICC) allows them to determine the mobility and the life time of the charge carriers by recording and analyzing the transient waveform of the detector signal. Furthermore, lateral IBICC and TRIBICC can provide information how the charge collection efficiency depends on the depth where the charge carriers are generated. This allows one to deduce information on the distribution of the electric field and transport properties of the charge carriers along the detector axis. IBICC and TRIBICC were used at the Sandia microbeam facility to image electronic properties of several CZT detectors. From the lateral TRIBICC measurement the electron and hole drift length profiles were calculated

  5. Acclimation to and recovery from cadmium and zinc exposure by a freshwater cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Jin; Yang Liuyan; Wang Wenxiong

    2009-01-01

    To understand the metal tolerance of a bloom-forming cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, we investigated its acclimation to and recovery from cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) exposure. The intracellular Cd and Zn (intra-Cd and intra-Zn) quotas increased upon acclimation to increased metal concentrations and were reduced following 1-day or 5-day recovery. Different acclimation to varying metal concentrations or durations (5 days or 15 days) did not have significant effects on the short-term uptake of Cd or Zn, whereas a 1-day recovery period promoted Cd or Zn uptake significantly. The values of median growth-inhibition concentrations (free ion concentration or intracellular quota) increased when the cyanobacterial cells were acclimated to higher Cd or Zn concentrations, indicating that M. aeruginosa became more tolerant to these metals. Consistent with the significant increase in metal uptake, the cyanobacteria become very sensitive to metals following 1-day recovery. A longer recovery (5 days) led to comparable uptake and toxicity responses to the controls. The efflux rate constants were not significantly different following metal acclimation. In the subcellular metal measurements, Cd was mostly distributed in the soluble fraction, whereas Zn was distributed evenly in the adsorbed, insoluble and soluble fractions of the cells. This study suggested the strong ability of these cyanobacteria to acclimate to different environments.

  6. Repeated phytoextraction of four metal-contaminated soils using the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhu; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Luo, Yongming; Zhang, Hao; Christie, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator extracted metals from four contaminated soils over three years in a glasshouse experiment. Changes in plant metal uptake and soil total (aqua regia-extractable) and available metals were investigated. Plant Cd concentrations in a high-Cd acid soil and plant Zn concentrations in two acid soils decreased during repeated phytoextraction and were predicted by soil available metal concentrations. However, on repeated phytoextraction, plant Cd concentrations remained constant in lightly Cd-polluted acid soils, as did plant Cd and Zn in alkaline soils, although soil available metal concentrations decreased markedly. After phytoextraction acid soils showed much higher total metal removal efficiencies, indicating possible suitability of phytoextraction for acid soils. However, DGT-testing, which takes soil metal re-supply into consideration, showed substantial removal of available metal and distinct decreases in metal supply capacity in alkaline soils after phytoextraction, suggesting that a strategy based on lowering the bioavailable contaminant might be feasible. - Highlights: • Plant shoot Cd decreased in high-Cd acid soil and also plant Zn did in two acid soils. • Plant shoot Cd remained constant in low-Cd acid soil and also plant Zn did in alkaline soils. • Acidic soils showed much higher total metal removal efficiency than the alkaline soils. - Acid soil has high total metal phytoremediation efficiency while a strategy based on stripping of the bioavailable contaminant might be feasible for alkaline soil phytoremediation

  7. Antagonistic effects of cadmium on lead accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Euan; Gancarz, Dorota; Rofe, Allan; Kempson, Ivan M.; Weber, John; Juhasz, Albert L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigate the exposure of pregnant and non-pregnant mice to cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) contaminated soil. ► We examine the changes in lead accumulation in mice due to the presence of cadmium in soil. ► Lead accumulation is higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant mice. ► Cadmium decreases lead accumulation in all mice irrespective of status. - Abstract: People are frequently exposed to combinations of contaminants but there is a paucity of data on the effects of mixed contaminants at low doses. This study investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice following exposure to contaminated soil. Exposure to Pb from contaminated soils increased Pb accumulation in both pregnant and non-pregnant mice compared to unexposed control animals (pregnant and non-pregnant). Lead accumulation in the liver and kidneys of exposure pregnant mice (40 ± 15 mg Pb kg −1 ) was significantly higher (P −1 ). The presence of Cd in contaminated soil had a major effect on the Pb and Fe accumulation in the kidneys and liver, respectively. This study shows that Pb uptake is mediated by the presence of Cd in the co-contaminated soil and demonstrates that further research is required to investigate the influence of co-contaminants on human exposure at sub-chronic concentrations.

  8. Assessment of Lead and Cadmium Levels in Frequently Used Cosmetic Products in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmoradi, H.; Foroghi, M.; Farhadkhani, M.; Vahid Dastjerdi, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the content of lead and cadmium in most frequently used brands of cosmetic products (lipstick and eye shadow) in Iran. Fifty samples of lipstick (5 colors in 7 brands) and eye shadow (3 colors in 5 brands) were selected taken from large cosmetic stores in Isfahan (Iran) and lead and cadmium of them were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the lipsticks was within the range of 0.08–5.2 µg/g and 4.08–60.20 µg/g, respectively. The eye shadow samples had a lead level of 0.85–6.90 µg/g and a cadmium level of 1.54–55.59 µg/g. The content range of the heavy metals in the eye shadows was higher than that of the lipsticks. There was significant difference between the average of the lead content in the different brands of the lipsticks and eye shadows. Thus, the continuous use of these cosmetics can increase the absorption of heavy metals, especially Cd and Pb, in the body when swallowing lipsticks or through dermal cosmetic absorption. The effects of heavy metals such as lead can be harmful, especially for pregnant women and children. Therefore, effort must be made to inform the users and the general public about the harmful consequences of cosmetics. PMID:24174937

  9. Size-dependent effects of low level cadmium and zinc exposure on the metabolome of the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spann, Nicole; Aldridge, David C.; Griffin, Julian L.; Jones, Oliver A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: Small and large Corbicula fluminea were exposed to cadmium and zinc spiked sediment. Metabolomic changes in the freshwater clams were determined by NMR and GC–MS. Metabolic perturbations were related to amino acid and energy related metabolism. Small and large clams were differentiated by their metabolic composition. Size classes showed opposite responses to metal stress. - Abstract: The toxic effects of low level metal contamination in sediments are currently poorly understood. We exposed different sized Asian clams, Corbicula fluminea, to sediment spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of either zinc, cadmium or a zinc–cadmium mixture for one week. This freshwater bivalve is well suited for sediment toxicity tests as it lives partly buried in the sediment and utilises sediment particles as a food resource. After one week, the whole tissue composition of low molecular weight metabolites was analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The condition index (ratio of tissue dry weight to volume inside the shell valves) was also measured. Small and large clams were clearly differentiated by their metabolic composition and the two size classes showed opposite responses to the mixture spiked sediment. No effects of zinc alone on the metabolome were found and cadmium only influenced the smaller size class. The main perturbations were seen in amino acid and energy metabolism, with small clams using amino acids as an energy resource and larger clams primarily drawing on their larger storage reserves of carbohydrates. Our study demonstrates that metabolomics is a useful technique to test for low level toxicity which does not manifest in mortality or condition index changes. The differing effects between the two size classes stress that it is important to consider age/size when conducting metabolomic and ecotoxicology assessments, since testing for the effects on only one size

  10. Revegetation of metalliferous mine spoil contaminated by lead and zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M S; McNeilly, T; Putwain, P D

    1977-04-01

    Plant growth and development on metalliferous mine spoil is restricted by the high concentrations of phytotoxic metals and by the low levels of macronutrients in the substrates. Swards established on innocuous amendments applied to the surface of mine spoil deteriorate when roots penetrate to the underlying toxic substratum. This deterioration is attributed to the accumulation of toxic metals. The rate of decline is determined by the inherent fertility of the amendment and the depth to which it is applied. Results of field trials on calcareous and acidic lead/zinc spoils indicate that inert amendments may be more suitable where revegetation is for amenity or recreational purposes. Legumes are essential components of low-maintenance swards established on substrates of low nutrient status.

  11. Isotherms and kinetics of lead and cadmium uptake from the waste leachate by natural and modified clinoptilolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Faraji

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The modified zeolite with surfactant can be used as an appropriate adsorbent for the separation of heavy metals from waste Leachate. Lead and cadmium were absorbed in a single layer on the surface of the modified zeolite with surfactant, comparing different isoterm models, indicated that the capacity of the modified zeolite for lead adsorption was more than cadmium adsorption, but cadmium was absorbed with higher energy.

  12. X-ray radiometric analysis of lead and zinc concentrates using germanium radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajgachev, A.A.; Mamysh, V.A.; Mil'chakov, V.I.; Shchekin, K.I.; Berezkin, V.V.

    1975-01-01

    The results of determination of lead, zinc and iron in lead and zinc concentrates by the X-ray-radiometric method with the use of germanium semiconductor detector are presented. In the experiments the 57 Co source and tritium-zirconium target were used. The activity of 57 Co was 2 mc. The area of the germanium detector employed was 5g mm 2 , its thickness - 2.3 mm. In lead concentrates zinc and iron were determined from the direct intensity of K-series radiation. In the analysis of zinc concentrates the same conditions of recording and excitation were used as in the case of lead concentrates, but the measurements were conducted in saturated layers. It is demonstrated that the use of germanium semiconductor detectors in combination with the suggested methods of measurements makes it possible to perform determination of iron, zinc and lead in zinc and lead concentrates with permissible error

  13. Removal of lead and zinc ions from water by low cost adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, P C; Patel, R K

    2009-08-30

    In this study, activated carbon, kaolin, bentonite, blast furnace slag and fly ash were used as adsorbent with a particle size between 100 mesh and 200 mesh to remove the lead and zinc ions from water. The concentration of the solutions prepared was in the range of 50-100 mg/L for lead and zinc for single and binary systems which are diluted as required for batch experiments. The effect of contact time, pH and adsorbent dosage on removal of lead and zinc by adsorption was investigated. The equilibrium time was found to be 30 min for activated carbon and 3h for kaolin, bentonite, blast furnace slag and fly ash. The most effective pH value for lead and zinc removal was 6 for activated carbon. pH value did not effect lead and zinc removal significantly for other adsorbents. Adsorbent doses were varied from 5 g/L to 20 g/L for both lead and zinc solutions. An increase in adsorbent doses increases the percent removal of lead and zinc. A series of isotherm studies was undertaken and the data evaluated for compliance was found to match with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. To investigate the adsorption mechanism, the kinetic models were tested, and it follows second order kinetics. Kinetic studies reveals that blast furnace slag was not effective for lead and zinc removal. The bentonite and fly ash were effective for lead and zinc removal.

  14. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead...

  15. Cadmium purification with a vibrating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, N.; Esna-Ashari, M.; Biallas, H.; Kangas, K.

    1986-01-01

    While electrolytically producing zinc from sulfide concentrates, purification is the most significant step. Impurities such as Co, Sn, Ge, Ni and Sb can cause extensive redissolution of the electrodeposited zinc, thus diminishing current efficiency. Other metals, particularly cadmium, lead and copper, can negatively affect zinc properties by deposition on the cathode. It is standard practice to use atomized zinc dust as a reducing agent in the purification process, either alone or combined with additives. In conventional operations, special facilities are necessary to produce zinc dust in an amount close to 8wt% of cathode production. This paper examines a technique which makes use of zinc granules instead of dust

  16. Uptake of Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic by Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens from Contaminated Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Camenzuli, L; van der Lee, M K; Oonincx, D G A B

    2016-01-01

    Insects have potential as a novel source of protein in feed and food production in Europe, provided they can be used safely. To date, limited information is available on the safety of insects, and toxic elements are one of the potential hazards of concern. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of cadmium, lead and arsenic in larvae of two insect species, Tenebrio molitor (yellow mealworm) and Hermetia illucens (black soldier fly), which seem to hold potential as a source of food or feed. An experiment was designed with 14 treatments, each in triplicate, per insect species. Twelve treatments used feed that was spiked with cadmium, lead or arsenic at 0.5, 1 and 2 times the respective maximum allowable levels (ML) in complete feed, as established by the European Commission (EC). Two of the 14 treatments consisted of controls, using non-spiked feed. All insects per container (replicate) were harvested when the first larva in that container had completed its larval stage. Development time, survival rates and fresh weights were similar over all treatments, except for development time and total live weight of the half of the maximum limit treatment for cadmium of the black soldier fly. Bioaccumulation (bioaccumulation factor > 1) was seen in all treatments (including two controls) for lead and cadmium in black soldier fly larvae, and for the three arsenic treatments in the yellow mealworm larvae. In the three cadmium treatments, concentrations of cadmium in black soldier fly larvae are higher than the current EC maximum limit for feed materials. The same was seen for the 1.0 and 2.0 ML treatments of arsenic in the yellow mealworm larvae. From this study, it can be concluded that if insects are used as feed materials, the maximum limits of these elements in complete feed should be revised per insect species.

  17. Deposition of heavy metal in the environment. Balances of the consumption and fate of lead and cadmium 1984-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzer, D.

    1991-10-01

    The data on the consumption and fate of lead and cadmium as well as their compounds was compiled in a balance for the Federal Republic of Germany for the period between 1984 and 1989. To obtain a general overview of the known mass flows, additional flow sheets for lead and cadmium were drawn up. (orig./BBR) [de

  18. Wild Boar Tissue Levels of Cadmium, Lead and Mercury in Seven Regions of Continental Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedak, Marija; Đokić, Maja; Šimić, Branimir

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and lead were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry in the kidney and muscle of free-living wild boar (n = 169) from hunting grounds in seven counties of continental Croatia. Mean levels of metals (mg/kg) in muscle and kidney of boars ranged as follows: Cd: 0.005–0.016 and 0.866–4.58, Pb: 0.033–0.15 and 0.036–0.441, Hg: 0.004–0.012 and 0.04–0.152. In all seven regions, concentrations exceeded the permitted values (muscle and kidney mg/kg: cadmium 0.05/1; lead 0.1/0.5; mercury 0.03/0.1) in 13.6% and 71.6% of samples (muscle and kidney, respectively) for cadmium; 13.6% and 8.9% for lead; 19.5% and 2.4% for mercury. There were significant differences among the regions. Vukovar-Srijem and Virovitica-Podravina Counties were highly contaminated with cadmium, Sisak-Moslavina and Virovitica-Podravina Counties with lead and Brod-Posavina County had highest mercury concentrations. These results suggest a detailed investigation of physiological and environmental factors contributing to accumulation of metals in boars. PMID:20405101

  19. Updated assessment of critical loads of lead and cadmium for European forest soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinds, G.J.; Vries, de W.; Groenenberg, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    At its 20th session the Working Group on Effects (WGE) of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECECLRTAP), noted the need to further develop and test the methodology for mapping critical loads for cadmium and lead. To this

  20. Trace analysis of lead and cadmium in seafoods by differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumera, F.C.; Verceluz, F.P.; Kapauan, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of cadmium and lead in seafoods is described. The sample is dry ashed in a muffle furnace elevating the temperature gradually up to 500 0 C. The ashed sample is treated with concentrated nitric acid, dried on a heating plate and returned to the muffle furnace for further heating. The treated ash is then dissolved in 1 N HCL acetate buffer and citric acid are added and the pH adjusted to 3.6-4. The resulting solution is analyzed for lead and cadmium by differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry (DPASV) using a wax-impregnated graphite thin film electrode. The average recoveries of 0.4 of cadmium and lead added to 5 fish samples were 97% and 99% respectively. The standard deviations, on a homogenized shark sample for lead and cadmium analysis were 6.7 ppb and 12.3 ppb, respectively, and the relative standard deviations were 21.0% and 15.5% respectively. Studies on instrumental parameters involved in the DPASV step of analysis and methods of measuring peak current signals were also made. (author)

  1. Spirulina platensis feeding inhibited the anemia- and leucopenia-induced lead and cadmium in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simsek, Nejdet [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 25700 Erzurum (Turkey); Karadeniz, Ali, E-mail: karadenizali@gmail.com [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Physiology, 25700 Erzurum (Turkey); Kalkan, Yildiray; Keles, Osman N.; Unal, Buenyami [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2009-05-30

    In the present investigation, the effect of Spirulina platensis (Sp) was undertaken on rats fed with lead and cadmium including diet by using physiological, enzymehistochemical and stereological methods. For this aim, 50 rats were equally divided into five groups as control (C), lead (Pb), Spirulina + lead (Sp + Pb), cadmium (Cd), and Spirulina + cadmium (Sp + Cd). Red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), and haemoglobine (Hb) concentrations were determined by haemocytometric methods in blood samples collected on 30th day. Population of T lymphocyte was counted by the {alpha}-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) staining method, and reticulocytes were counted by stereological method. The counts of RBC, WBC, and ANAE positive T lymphocyte, and the values of Hb, PCV, and MCHC were decreased in the Pb and Cd groups compared to control group. Also, the number of reticulocytes (polychromatofilic erythrocyte) increased in the Pb groups, whereas it decreased in the Cd group. On the other hand, these values were ceased by S. platensis in the treated groups. These results suggest that S. platensis supplementation may be useful in adjuvant treatment of leukemia and anemia caused by lead and cadmium toxication.

  2. Preconcentration system for cadmium and lead determination in environmental samples using polyurethane foam/Me-BTANC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira Gama, Ednilton; Silva Lima, Adriana da; Azevedo Lemos, Valfredo

    2006-01-01

    In this work, polyurethane foam (PUF) loaded with 2-(6'-methyl-2'-benzothiazolylazo)chromotropic acid (Me-BTANC) was packed in a minicolumn and it was used in an on-line preconcentration system for cadmium and lead determination. Optimum hydrodynamic and chemical conditions for metal sorption were investigated. The effects of several foreign substances on the adsorption of cadmium and lead were also reported. The enrichment factor obtained was 37 (Cd and Pb) for 180 s preconcentration time. The proposed procedures allowed the determination of metals with detection limits (3σ) of 0.80 and 3.75 μg L -1 (0.10 and 0.47 μg g -1 of solid sample) for cadmium and lead, respectively. The precision of the procedures was also calculated: 3.1 (Cd 10 μg L -1 ) and 4.4% (Pb 100 μg L -1 ). The accuracy of the procedure was checked by analysis of the certified reference materials Spinach Leaves and Fish Tissue. Cadmium and lead contents in environmental samples (black tea, spinach leaves, natural and tap water) were determined by applying the proposed procedure

  3. Simultaneous Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for Cadmium and Lead Determination in Wastewater: A Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Paulo R. M.; Oliveira, Pedro V.

    2004-01-01

    The simultaneous determination of cadmium and lead by multi-element atomic absorption spectrometry with electrochemical atomization is proposed by employing a problem-based approach. The reports indicate that the students assimilated the principles of the simultaneous atomic absorption spectrometry (SIMAAS), the role of the chemical modifier, the…

  4. Mushroom contamination by mercury, cadmium and lead; Contaminazione di funghi commestibili con mercurio, cadmio e piombo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dojmi Di Delupis, G.; Dojmi Di Delupis, F. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Comparata ed Ecotossicologia

    1996-12-01

    Occurrence and bioaccumulation of mercury, cadmium and lead were found in mushrooms by various researchers. Such mushrooms were often found in polluted areas. Pollution was mainly caused by industrial or mining plants, by some agricultural treatments and by road traffic. Considerations and recommendations concerning food consumption are made.

  5. Method of analysis for the determination of lead and cadmium in fresh meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruig, de W.G.

    1980-01-01

    This report comprises the result of the RIKILT of an intercomparison on the determination of lead and cadmium in bovine liver and bovine kidney. The aim of this round robbin was to check a wet ashing procedure followed by a flame AAS determination as described too in EEC doc. 2266/VI/77. Special

  6. Critical loads and excess loads of cadmium, copper and lead for European forest soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinds, G.J.; Bril, J.; Vries, de W.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Breeuwsma, A.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, concern has arisen about the impact of the dispersion of heavy metals in Europe. Therefore, a study (ESQUAD) was initiated to assess critical loads and steady-state concentrations of cadmium, copper and lead for European forest soils. The calculation methods used strongly resemble those

  7. Lead, cadmium and chromium in raw and boiled portions of Norway lobster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini, Monia; Visciano, Pierina; Manera, Maurizio; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Tarasco, Renata; Amorena, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Lead, cadmium and chromium levels were determined in different raw and boiled portions of Norway lobster caught in the central Adriatic Sea (Italy). In raw specimens, the lowest concentrations were always detected in the white meat. Lead and cadmium content in the edible portion never exceeded the maximum levels set by European legislation. The highest cadmium and chromium values (0.47 ± 0.04 and 0.62 ± 0.13 mg/kg wet weight, respectively) were detected in the brown meat, while the highest lead concentrations were found in the exoskeleton (0.21 ± 0.01 mg/kg wet weight). Also, the boiled samples showed the lowest metal levels in the white meat, even if a significant increase (p < 0.01) was found for lead and cadmium compared to the corresponding raw portions. Among metals, chromium showed the highest concentrations in both raw and boiled portions, but up to now, the European legislation did not envisage any limits in seafood.

  8. Screening Technique for Lead and Cadmium in Toys and Other Materials Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Henry

    2005-01-01

    A simple procedure to quickly screen different consumer products for the presence of lead, cadmium, and other metals is described. This screening technique avoids expending a lot of preparation time on samples known to contain low levels of hazardous metals where only samples testing positive for the desired elements need to be analyzed…

  9. Cadmium and lead contents in drinking milk from selected regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pietrzak-Fiećko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cadmium and lead are classified as toxic metals. Toxicity is attributed to the adverse effect on the human body, and therefore the content of these elements is analyzed in the environment and in food products. Studies conducted by many researchers indicate that more of cadmium and lead accumulate in products of plant origin, however, food products of animal origin are also not free from these compounds. The aim of this study was to determine the content of cadmium and lead in drinking milk originating from four selected milk producers from two different regions. Methods. A total of 28 milk samples were tested. The tested material was mineralized dry. To determine the content of the analyzed elements the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry method was used. There were no significant differences in the content of heavy metals in the analyzed samples of milk. Results. None of the samples revealed the exceedance of the highest permissible level of these elements. Conclusions. Cadmium and lead content in tested drinking milk does not pose a threat to human health

  10. Differential pulse polarography of cadmium-and lead-urate and adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of uric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandour, M A; Ensaf-Aboul-Kasim; Amrallah, A H; Farghaly, O A

    1994-03-01

    The complex formation between uric acid and zinc, cadmium and lead ions has been investigated using differential pulse polarography in 0.01M NaNO(3). It is found that the complexes formed by Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions with uric acid have the stoichiometry of 1:2 and the logarithmic values of the apparent stability constant are 9.47 and 11.7, respectively. On the other hand, zinc(II) ions do not give any indication of complexation with uric acid. A sensitive voltammetric method is developed for the quantitative determination of uric acid. This method is based on controlled adsorptive preconcentration of uric acid on the hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE), followed by tracing the voltammogram in the cathodic going potential scan. The modes used are direct current stripping voltammetry (DCSV) and differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV). The detection limits found were 8 x 10(-9)M (quiescent period 15 sec) by DPSV and 1.6 x 10(-8)M by DCSV.

  11. Investigation of Released Cadmium and Lead from Different Colors of Over Glaze Designs to Food Stuff in Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hashemi-Moghaddam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, leaching of lead and cadmium was investigated from porcelain over glaze designs between different colors.  Also the effect of microwave heating was considered on leaching of lead and cadmium.  Dishes were selected with a decor with the dominant color of gray, red, yellow, blue, and dark blue. Amounts of cadmium and lead which leached from the container by acetic acid and orange juice were measured according to the standard ASTM C738.  The results showed that especially in the red and dark blue colors cadmium and lead could be released easily by either acetic acid or orange juice, and these amounts were much higher than the permissible standard amount. Also microwave heating could enhance releasing of lead and cadmium from decorated dinnerware. 

  12. Copper and zinc content in wild game shot with lead or non-lead ammunition - implications for consumer health protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Daniela; Sommerfeld, Christine; Müller-Graf, Christine; Selhorst, Thomas; Greiner, Matthias; Gerofke, Antje; Ulbig, Ellen; Gremse, Carl; Spolders, Markus; Schafft, Helmut; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contamination of game meat with copper and zinc and establish whether the use of alternative (non-lead) ammunition can lead to higher or unsafe levels of copper and zinc in the meat of roe deer, wild boar and red deer. The research project "Safety of game meat obtained through hunting" (LEMISI) was conducted in Germany with the purpose of examining the entry of lead as well as copper and zinc into the meat of hunted game when using either lead or non-lead ammunition. The outcome of this study shows that the usage of both lead-based ammunition and alternative non-lead ammunition results in the entry of copper and zinc into the edible parts of the game. Using non-lead ammunition does not entail dangerously elevated levels of copper and zinc, so replacing lead ammunition with alternative ammunition does not introduce a further health problem with regard to these metals. The levels of copper and zinc in game meat found in this study are in the range found in previous studies of game. The content of copper and zinc in game meat is also comparable to those regularly detected in meat and its products from livestock (pig, cattle, sheep) for which the mean human consumption rate is much higher. From the viewpoint of consumer health protection, the use of non-lead ammunition does not pose an additional hazard through copper and zinc contamination. A health risk due to the presence of copper and zinc in game meat at typical levels of consumer exposure is unlikely for both types of ammunition.

  13. Effect of zinc-lysine on growth, yield and cadmium uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Hussain, Afzal; Ali, Qasim; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Farid, Mujahid; Asma, Maliha

    2017-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is among the most widespread toxic trace elements found in agricultural soils due to various anthropogenic activities. The role of micronutrient-amino chelates on reducing Cd toxicity in crop plants is recently introduced. The current study was conducted to highlight the role of foliar application of zinc-lysine (Zn-lys) complex on biochemical and growth parameters and Cd uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in aged Cd-contaminated soil. Foliar concentration of Zn-lys (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg L -1 ) was applied at different time intervals (2nd, 3rd, 5th and 7th week of sowing) and plants were harvested at maturity. Folliar application of Zinc-lys significantly increased the photosynthesis, grain yield, enzyme activities and Zn contents in different plant tissues. Zinc-lys reduced Cd contents in grains, shoot and root as well as reduced the oxidative stress in wheat linearly in a dose-additive manner. Taken together, Zn-lys chelate efficiently improved wheat growth and fortified Zn contents while reduced Cd concentration in plant in a Zn-deficient Cd-contaminated soil. Although, health risk index (HRI) from the soil sampling area seems to be lower than <1 for Cd but may exceed due to long-term consumption of grains produced from such contaminated soil. Foliar applied Zn-lys reduced HRI which may help to reduce health risks associated with Cd. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Residues of lead, cadmium, and arsenic in livers of Mexican free-tailed bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thies, M.; Gregory, D. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (United States))

    1994-05-01

    Since 1936, the size of the summer population of Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensisat Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, declined from an estimated 8.7 million to 700,000 in 1991. This decline has been attributed primarily to human disturbance and the heavy agricultural use of organochlorine pesticides. Members of this species forage extensively over heavily agricultural areas, feeding on insects potentially contaminated with high levels of insecticides and trace metals. However, contamination from elements such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic have not been examined. The accumulation of these elements in wild vertebrates is often a primary reflection of contamination of the food supply. The presence of elemental contaminants in body tissues of bats is poorly documented. The objectives of this study were to examine and compare lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in livers of adult T. Brasiliensis from Carlsbad Caverns and Vickery Cave, a maternity colony in northwestern Oklahoma. Lead, cadmium, and arsenic were specifically selected because of their documented toxic and/or reproductive effects and their potential availability to this species. Large quantities of tetraethyl lead have been released into the environment and other lead compounds continue to be released by industrial manufacturing and petroleum refinement processes. Cadmium is used in a number of industrial processes such as metal plating and fabrication of alloys and is released from phosphate fertilizers and combusted coals. Teratogenicity appears to be greater for cadmium than for other elements. Arsenical compounds have been commonly used as herbicides and defoliants. These compounds have been demonstrated to cause abnormal embryonic development, degenerative tissue changes, cancer, chromosomal damage, and death in domestic animals.

  15. Biochemical mechanism of phytoremediation process of lead and cadmium pollution with Mucor circinelloides and Trichoderma asperellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Xinxin; Yang, Huanhuan; Cui, Zhaojie

    2018-08-15

    This study focused on the bioremediation mechanisms of lead (0, 100, 500, 1000 mg kg -1 ) and cadmium (0,10,50,100 mg kg -1 ) contaminated soil using two indigenous fungi selected from mine tailings as the phytostimulation of Arabidopsis thaliana. The two fungal strains were characterized as Mucor circinelloides (MC) and Trichoderma asperellum (TA) by internal transcribed spacer sequencing at the genetic levels. Our research revealed that Cadmium was more toxic to plant growth than lead and meanwhile, MC and TA can strengthen A. thaliana tolerance to cadmium and lead with 40.19-117.50% higher root length and 58.31-154.14% shoot fresh weight of plant compared to non-inoculation. In this study, TA exhibited a higher potential to the inactivation of cadmium; however, MC was more effective in lead passivation. There was a direct correlation between the type of fungi, heavy metal content, heavy metal type and oxidative damage in plant. Both lead and cadmium induced oxidative damage as indicated by increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, while the antioxidant levels were significantly higher in fungal inoculated plants compared with those non-inoculated. The analysis of soil enzyme activity and taxonomic richness uncovered that the dominant structures of soil microbial community were altered by exogenous microbial agents. MC enhanced higher microbial diversity and soil enzyme activity than TA. The two indigenous fungi lessened several limiting factors with respect to phytoremediation technology, such as soil chemistry, contamination level and transformation, and metal solubility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An evaluation of airborne nickel, zinc, and lead exposure at hot dip galvanizing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, D K; Shaw, D S

    1991-12-01

    Industrial hygiene surveys were conducted at three hot dip galvanizing plants to determine occupational exposure to nickel, zinc, and lead. All three plants employed the "dry process" and used 2% nickel, by weight, in their zinc baths. A total of 32 personal and area air samples were taken. The air samples were analyzed for nickel, zinc, and lead. Some samples were also analyzed for various species of nickel (i.e., metallic, soluble, and oxidic). The airborne concentrations observed for nickel and its three species, zinc, and lead at the three plants were all well below the current and proposed threshold limit values recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).

  17. Simultaneous Removal of Lindane, Lead and Cadmium from Soils by Rhamnolipids Combined with Citric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Tao; Ying, Rongrong; Ye, Mao; Zhang, Shengtian; Li, Qun; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Yusuo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of rhamnolipids-citric acid mixed agents in simultaneous desorption of lindane and heavy metals from soils. The capacity of the mixed agents to solubilize lindane, lead and cadmium in aqueous solution was also explored. The results showed that the presence of citric acid greatly enhanced the solubilization of lindane and cadmium by rhamnolipids. A combined effect of the mixed agents on lindane and heavy metals removal from soils was observed. The maximum desorption ratios for lindane, cadmium and lead were 85.4%, 76.4% and 28.1%, respectively, for the mixed agents containing 1% rhamnolipidsand 0.1 mol/L citric acid. The results also suggest that the removal efficiencies of lead and cadmium were strongly related to their speciations in soils, and metals in the exchangeable and carbonate forms were easier to be removed. Our study suggests that the combining use of rhamnolipids and citric acid is a promising alternative to simultaneously remove organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals from soils. PMID:26087302

  18. Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents in edible dried seaweed in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Y O; Park, S G; Park, G Y; Choi, S M; Kim, M Y

    2010-01-01

    Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents were determined in 426 samples of seaweed sold in Korea in 2007-08. The average concentrations, expressed in mg kg(-1), dry weight, were: total arsenic 17.4 (less than the limit of detection [LOD] to 88.8), Hg 0.01 (from 0.001 to 0.050), lead 0.7 (less than the LOD to 2.7), and cadmium 0.50 (less than the LOD to 2.9). There were differences in mercury, cadmium, and arsenic content in seaweed between different kinds of products and between coastal areas. The intakes of total mercury, lead, and cadmium for Korean people from seaweed were estimated to be 0.11, 0.65, and 0.45 µg kg(-1) body weight week(-1), respectively. With respect to food safety, consumption of 8.5 g day(-1) of the samples analysed could represent up to 0.2-6.7% of the respective provisional tolerable weekly intakes established by the World Health Organization (WHO). Therefore, even if Korean people have a high consumption of seaweed, this study confirms the low probability of health risks from these metals via seaweed consumption.

  19. Concentrations of heavy metals (lead, manganese, cadmium) in blood and urine of former uranium workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolova, D.; Pavlova, S.; Paskalev, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Uranium ores contain heavy metals and other stable chemical elements as oxides, hydro-carbonates, sulphates, etc. During chemical processing of ore they could be transformed into compounds soluble in biologic liquids. The purpose of this study was to determine the combined intoxication of uranium miners and millers by heavy metals and radiation. Heavy metal (lead, manganese and cadmium) concentrations in blood and urine od 149 former uranium miners and millers were determined by AAS method. Data of significantly increased lead and manganese concentration in blood (p<0.05) of two groups were established in comparison with a control group. There is no statistical significant differences in the cadmium concentrations. The lead and manganese blood levels at the uranium millers were significant higher than those of the uranium miner group (p<0.05). Tendency towards increased blood lead concentrations of uranium millers depending on the length of service was established

  20. Effects of ghost shrimp on zinc and cadmium in sediments from Tampa Bay, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerks, P.L.; Felder, D.L.; Strasser, K.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects that ghost shrimp have on the distribution of metals in sediment. We measured levels of HNO3-extractable zinc and cadmium in surface sediment, in ghost shrimp burrow walls and in sediment ejected by the ghost shrimp from their burrows, at five sandy intertidal sites in Tampa Bay. Ghost shrimp densities and their rate of sediment ejection were also quantified, as were sediment organic content and silt + clay content. Densities of ghost shrimp (Sergio trilobata and Lepidophthalmus louisianensis) averaged 33/m2 at our sites, and they ejected sediment at an average rate of 28 g/burrow/day. Levels of both Zn and Cd were significantly higher in burrow walls than in surface sediments. Sediment ejected by the shrimp from their burrows had elevated levels of Zn (relative to surface sediments) at one of the sites. Sediment organic content and silt + clay content were higher in burrow-wall sediments than in ejected sediment, which in turn tended to have values above those of surface sediments. Differences in levels of HNO3-extractable Zn and Cd among sediment types may be a consequence of these sediments differing in other physiochemical characteristics, though the differences in metal levels remained statistically significant for some sites after correcting for differences in organic content and silt + clay content. We conclude that the presence of ghost shrimp burrows contributes to spatial heterogeneity of sedimentary metal levels, while the ghost shrimp bioturbation results in a significant flux of metals to the sediment surface and is expected to decrease heterogeneity of metal levels in sedimentary depth profiles.

  1. Zinc supplementation protects against cadmium accumulation and cytotoxicity in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Zhang

    Full Text Available Cadmium ions (Cd2+ have been reported to accumulate in bovine tissues, although Cd2+ cytotoxicity has not been investigated thoroughly in this species. Zinc ions (Zn2+ have been shown to antagonize the toxic effects of heavy metals such as Cd2+ in some systems. The present study investigated Cd2+ cytotoxicity in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK epithelial cells, and explored whether this was modified by Zn2+. Exposure to Cd2+ led to a dose- and time-dependent increase in apoptotic cell death, with increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial damage. Zn2+ supplementation alleviated Cd2+-induced cytotoxicity and this protective effect was more obvious when cells were exposed to a lower concentration of Cd2+ (10 μM, as compared to 50 μM Cd2+. This indicated that high levels of Cd2+ accumulation might induce irreversible damage in bovine kidney cells. Metallothioneins (MTs are metal-binding proteins that play an essential role in heavy metal ion detoxification. We found that co-exposure to Zn2+ and Cd2+ synergistically enhanced RNA and protein expression of MT-1, MT-2, and the metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 in MDBK cells. Notably, addition of Zn2+ reduced the amounts of cytosolic Cd2+ detected following MDBK exposure to 10 μM Cd2+. These findings revealed a protective role of Zn2+ in counteracting Cd2+ uptake and toxicity in MDBK cells, indicating that this approach may provide a means to protect livestock from excessive Cd2+ accumulation.

  2. Bioremediation of cadmium- and zinc-contaminated soil using Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Weihua; Li, Xiaomin; Song, Jingxiang; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Yingying; Fan, Wenhong

    2018-04-01

    Bioremediation using microorganisms is a promising technique to remediate soil contaminated with heavy metals. In this study, Rhodobacter sphaeroides was used to bioremediate soils contaminated with cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn). The study found that the treatment reduced the overall bioavailable fractions (e.g., exchangeable and carbonate bound phases) of Cd and Zn. More stable fractions (e.g., Fe-Mn oxide, organic bound, and residual phases (only for Zn)) increased after bioremediation. A wheat seedling experiment revealed that the phytoavailability of Cd was reduced after bioremediation using R. sphaeroides. After bioremediation, the exchangeable phases of Cd and Zn in soil were reduced by as much as 30.7% and 100.0%, respectively; the Cd levels in wheat leaf and root were reduced by as much as 62.3% and 47.2%, respectively. However, when the soils were contaminated with very high levels of Cd and Zn (Cd 54.97-65.33 mg kg -1 ; Zn 813.4-964.8 mg kg -1 ), bioremediation effects were not clear. The study also found that R. sphaeroides bioremediation in soil can enhance the Zn/Cd ratio in the harvested wheat leaf and root overall. This indicates potentially favorable application in agronomic practice and biofortification. Although remediation efficiency in highly contaminated soil was not significant, R. sphaeroides may be potentially and practically applied to the bioremediation of soils co-contaminated by Cd and Zn. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tolerance to and Accumulation of Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc by Cupriavidus necator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayssa Pereira Vicentin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Preliminary results of in vitro experiments with multicontaminated soils and solid media indicated that nodulating diazotrophic bacteria of the genus Cupriavidus are promising for the remediation of contaminated environments due to their symbiosis with legumes and metal tolerance. Thus, strains of Cupriavidus spp. (LMG 19424T, UFLA 01-659, UFLA 01-663, and UFLA 02-71 were tested for their ability to tolerate and bioaccumulate cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, and zinc (Zn in Luria-Bertani broth. Changes in the growth pattern of Cupriavidus strains in the presence or absence of heavy metals were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and metal allocation by transmission electron microscopy, to clarify the mechanisms of bioremediation. Highest tolerance was detected for strain UFLA 01-659 (minimum inhibitory concentration of 5, 4.95, and 14.66 mmol L−1 of Cd, Cu, and Zn, respectively. Among the removal rates of the metals tested (9.0, 4.6, and 3.2 mg L−1 of Cd, Cu, and Zn, respectively, the bacterial activity was clearly highest for Cd. The efficiency of strain UFLA 01-659 in removing the heavy metals is associated with its high biomass production and/or higher contents of heavy metals adsorbed and absorbed in the biomass. In response to the presence of heavy metals in the liquid culture medium, the bacteria produced exopolysaccharides and small and aggregated cells. However, these responses varied according to the strains and heavy metals. Regarding allocation, all heavy metals were adsorbed on the cell wall and membrane, whereas complexation was observed intracellularly and only for Cu and Zn. These results indicate the possibility of using C. necator UFLA 01-659 for remediation in areas with very high Cd, Cu, and Zn contents.

  4. Absorption and excretion of zinc, cadmium and mercury in the gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, H [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1975-10-01

    The absorption and excretion of inorganic zinc, cadmium and mercury in the gastrointestinal tract were compared using /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd and /sup 203/Hg. A single dose of /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd or /sup 203/Hg was administered orally or injected intravenously to investigate the distribution, excretion into bile and excretion into feces or urine. Absorption and excretion through the gastrointestinal tract of mice were studied by the tied loop method. Groups of eight mice or rats were used to measure the radioactivity in sample with a scintillation counter. Most of the orally administered /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd or /sup 203/Hg was excreted into feces and was less absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, respectively. Absorption rate in the gastrointestinal tract was as follows: /sup 203/Hg>/sup 65/Zn>/sup 109/Cd. Intravenously injected /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd or /sup 203/Hg was escreted into the gastrointestinal tract through the gastrointestinal wall and bile duct, respectively. Excretion rate in the gastrointestinal tract was as follows: /sup 65/Zn>/sup 203/Hg>/sup 109/Cd. When comparing the absorption and excretion in each gastrointestinal tract divided into 10 parts, /sup 65/Zn, and /sup 109/Cd were relatively well absorbed from the upper and lower part of small intestine and excreted into the upper, middle, lower part. /sup 203/Hg was relatively well absorbed from the upper, lower part of small intestine and excreted into the stomach and the caecum. The major organs that accumulated absorbed /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd or /sup 203/Hg were the pancreas and liver, liver and kidney, kidney and liver, respectively.

  5. Effect of cadmium, lead and arsenic on the oviposition, hatching and embryonic survival of Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansaldo, Martin; Nahabedian, Daniel E.; Di Fonzo, Carla; Wider, Eva A.

    2009-01-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata is a widespread freshwater gastropod mollusc. The easy aquaculture of these organisms allow its use as an accessible tool for contamination bioassays. B. glabrata showed marked metabolic responses when exposed to cadmium, lead and arsenic. Those responses could also affect the reproduction of the snails. Taking into account this hypothesis, B. glabrata were exposed for 96 h (acute laboratory bioassays) to different concentrations of cadmium (0.1, 0.05 and 0 mg/L), lead (0.5, 0.1, 0.05 and 0 mg/L) and arsenic (0.5, 0.1, 0.05 and 0 mg/L). Snails were removed from the aquaria while eggs were left in the same contaminant concentrations. The effect of the assayed toxicants on snail reproduction was registered as the alterations of the total number of laid eggs (TNLE), hatching time and embryonic survival. At 0.10 mg/L cadmium significantly decreased the TNLE (p < 0.05) and no embryos survived. The lowest assayed level (0.05 mg/L) of cadmium, delayed the hatching time twice when it was compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Lead decreased the TNLE at 0.5 mg/L level (p < 0.01). The other assayed doses (0.05 and 0.10 mg/L) also decreased embryonic survival significantly (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 respectively) and extended twice the time to hatching (p < 0.01). The 0.50 mg/L level killed all embryos. Arsenic at all studied concentrations decreased the TNLE (p < 0.05) while the hatching time was increased by 50%. Embryo survival only decreased at the highest level (0.5 mg/L) of arsenic assayed. In summary, the acute exposure (96 h) to cadmium lead and arsenic, altered the reproduction of B. glabrata, modifying the TNLE, hatching time and embryonic survival

  6. Histopathological changes in kidneys of free ranging animals in relation to lead and cadmium residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiglboeck, C.

    2000-05-01

    Kidney samples of 234 roe deer and 45 wild boars were collected in Lower Austria and Vienna, and were analyzed for lead and cadmium contents. Samples of the organs were examined histologically, considering 12 different morphological parameters. Influences of age, sex and origin of the animals on heavy metal burdens were assessed, and the possible correlation between histopathological changes and age, sex, origin and heavy metal concentrations in the kidneys was tested. Lead concentrations were low with medians (mg/kg wet tissue) being 0,062 in roe deer and 0,044 in wild boars. Neither age nor sex nor origin influenced the lead contents of the kidneys. Cadmium burden was fairly high, both in roe deer (median: 0,954) and wild boars (median: 3,009). It increased with age in both species, while female roe deer showed higher contents as well. No influence of the animals' origin was found. The correlation between histopathological changes and age, sex, origin and heavy metal concentrations in the kidneys was tested in 208 roe deer and 44 wild boars which showed no signs of kidney related diseases. In roe deer, the frequency of vacuolic degeneration, pycnotic nuclei, caryolysis and necrosis was related with increased cadmium concentrations. Increasing age correlated with lymphohistiocytic infiltration, interstitial fibrosis and swelling of glomeruli. Pigment deposits and thickening of the Bowman's capsule could be related to both cadmium and age. Furthermore, roe deer from Vienna more frequently showed alterations as observed in animals from Lower Austria. No correlation existed between morphological changes and lead concentrations or sex. In wild boars, there was no obvious relationship between all parameters tested and the frequency of histopathologic changes, except changes in pigmentation. Possible nephrotoxic agents in free ranging animals and the demonstrated influence of cadmium on severe kidney damage are discussed. (author)

  7. Incidence of nephrolithiasis in relation to environmental exposure to lead and cadmium in a population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Azusa; Yang, Wen-Yi; Petit, Thibault; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Gu, Yu-Mei; Wei, Fang-Fei; Jacobs, Lotte [Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Odili, Augustine N. [Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences University of Abuja (Nigeria); Thijs, Lutgarde [Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Nawrot, Tim S. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, University of Hasselt (Belgium); Staessen, Jan A., E-mail: jan.staessen@med.kuleuven.be [Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); R& D Group VitaK, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    Whether environmental exposure to nephrotoxic agents that potentially interfere with calcium homeostasis, such as lead and cadmium, contribute to the incidence of nephrolithiasis needs further clarification. We investigated the relation between nephrolithiasis incidence and environmental lead and cadmium exposure in a general population. In 1302 participants randomly recruited from a Flemish population (50.9% women; mean age, 47.9 years), we obtained baseline measurements (1985–2005) of blood lead (BPb), blood cadmium (BCd), 24-h urinary cadmium (UCd) and covariables. We monitored the incidence of kidney stones until October 6, 2014. We used Cox regression to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for nephrolithiasis. At baseline, geometric mean BPb, BCd and UCd was 0.29 µmol/L, 9.0 nmol/L, and 8.5 nmol per 24 h, respectively. Over 11.5 years (median), nephrolithiasis occurred in 40 people. Contrasting the low and top tertiles of the distributions, the sex- and age-standardized rates of nephrolithiasis expressed as events per 1000 person-years were 0.68 vs. 3.36 (p=0.0016) for BPb, 1.80 vs. 3.28 (p=0.11) for BCd, and 1.65 vs. 2.95 (p=0.28) for UCd. In continuous analysis, with adjustments applied for sex, age, serum magnesium, and 24-h urinary volume and calcium, the hazard ratios expressing the risk associated with a doubling of the exposure biomarkers were 1.35 (p=0.015) for BPb, 1.13 (p=0.22) for BCd, and 1.23 (p=0.070) for UCd. In conclusion, our results suggest that environmental lead exposure is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis in the general population. - Highlights: • Prevalence and incidence rates of nephrolithiasis are increasing worldwide. • Lead and cadmium interfere with calcium homeostasis and might cause nephrolithiasis. • Environmental exposure to lead, not cadmium, predicts nephrolithiasis in the population. • Safety standards for environmental lead exposure need to account for nephrolithiasis. • Reducing environmental

  8. Cadmium and lead availability for rapeseed grown on an artificial ISO soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryla, A.; Sahut, C.

    2000-01-01

    Accumulations of heavy metals in soils have become a major concern for food crop production. Of these metals, cadmium and lead are recognized as the most widespread elements, that are non-essential for plant growth. While the toxicity of these metals is often investigated on plants grown in nutrient solution, soil is a complex medium. Metals may be dissolved in the soil solution or chelated to carbonates, to oxides of iron or manganese, or to organic matter. This chemical state of the metal is important because it determines the availability of the metal for the crop. Yet its study is complicated by numerous factors (soil pH, temperature, humidity..) which modify this chemical equilibrium. To standardize the experiments, an artificially reconstituted soil was prepared from clay, sand and peat according to standards ISO 11268-1 (May 1994). Metals (lead and cadmium) were added as nitrate salts. Plants used were rapeseeds. Seeds were sown on 20 cm diameter pots and placed in a controlled growth chamber. At harvest, roots, leaves and stems were separated, dried, and mineralized with concentrated nitric acid. Sequential analysis of the soil was carried out to assess the chemical behavior of the cadmium. The chemical speciation of cadmium is shown. The metal is essentially soluble in the soil and poorly complexed to the organic matter. This indicates that contamination is recent and derives from metal salts; cadmium complexation to organic matter appears only after years of soil evolution. The metal is then essentially available for plants but equilibrium is established between the different forms. Plant growth is shown. Cadmium has a strong effect on biomass production at 50 μg / g in the soil. No toxic effect of lead was observed from 0 to 2000 μg / g in the soil, probably because lead is strongly complexed to the soil and less toxic for plants. Metal concentrations in plants after two months of growth are shown in Figures 4 and 5. Plant cadmium content reached 150

  9. Comparative Hepatotoxicity Test of Cadmium and Lead in Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adverse environmental impacts include contamination of water, soil, and phytotoxicity from excessive heavy metals dispersed from mines and smelter sites leading to potential risk to human health. This study investigated the comparative hepatotoxicity test of mining pond waters used for domestic purposes in ...

  10. Cadmium Contamination and Health Assessment in Frog Microhyla fissipes Living Downstream of Zinc Mining Area in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirarach Kitana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand, concerns have been raised over cadmium contamination, potentially due to zinc mining activities. Although there is no report of acute toxicity on animals in this area, the impact of long-term environmental exposure to cadmium on their health are of attention. Water and sediment samples collected from two field sites (low-Cd and high-Cd sites in Mae Sot during 2008 were analyzed by GFAAS. Year round cadmium contamination in water ranged from 0.0015-0.002 mg/L in low-Cd site to 0.0019-0.0023 mg/L in high-Cd site, while higher levels were found in sediment ranged from 0.1013-0.2206 mg/kg in low-Cd site to 2.9260-3.2888 mg/kg in high-Cd site. Microhyla fissipes was collected from each habitat in 2-month interval during wet season. Detectable level of cadmium residue was found only in the frog collected from high-Cd habitat. Gravimetric analysis showed that hepatosomatic indices were significantly higher in high-Cd habitat. Histopathology showed several similar alterations in the liver, however higher number of melanomacrophage center was found in high-Cd habitat. Renosomatic indices and kidney tissue alterations were not significantly different between two sites. Reproductive health in term of gonadosomatic indices (GSI was not significantly different between male frogs from both habitats. But in the females living in high-Cd habitat, significantly lower GSI were observed. The results indicate that exposure to environmentally relevant dose of cadmium may interfere with the frog health. Using the frog as a sentinel species in this study suggests an important implication for overall health of animals/human in this area.

  11. Spatial and temporal variation in lead and cadmium in the Laughing Gull, Larus atricilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M; Hacker, C S

    1982-11-01

    Lead and cadmium concentrations were measured in eggs and in bone, kidney, liver and stomach contents of downy young, prefledgling, and adult Laughing Gulls collected from Matagorda Bay and Galveston Bay, Texas. Matagorda Bay drains a rural, moderately industrialized region while the Galveston Bay area is heavily urbanized and industrialized. Lead levels were lower in birds from Matagorda Bay and decreased in birds from Galveston Bay between 1977 and 1980. Cadmium levels were also lower in birds from Matagorda Bay but increased over the three-year period in those from Galveston Bay. The temporal decrease in lead may be associated with such environmental control efforts as reduced point source emissions and substitution of unleaded gasoline.

  12. Heavy metals (copper, cadmium, lead, mercury) in mute swans from Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvestad, K.; Karlog, O.; Clausen, B.

    1982-03-01

    During the severe winter of 1978-79, large numbers of mute swans died in coastal areas of Denmark. Of these, 2111 were collected for examination. The analyses confirm previous findings of relatively high copper levels in mute swans (mean for 178 livers was 2680 mg/kg dry weight (Dw) and for 110 kidneys 34 mg/kg Dw) (Table I, Fig. 1). The copper content was not related to sex or age (Table II). The highest liver levels of copper were found in swans from Western Jutland. Cadmium was found at the same relatively low levels as recorded for waterfowl elsewhere (mean for 178 livers was 12 mg/kg Dw, for 110 kidneys 24 mg/kg Dw) (Table I, Fig. 2). The cadmium content was not sex-related, but it increased with age (Table II). The mean mercury content (liver) was 1.4 mg/kg Dw in the 10 birds analysed (Table I). The mean lead content was 15 mg/kg Dw in the 178 livers analysed and 31 mg/kg Dw in 110 sternum (Table I and Fig. 3). The lead content was not sex-related. In sternum, but not in livers, it was related to age (Table II). One third of the swans were found lead-contaminated probably after ingestion of lead pellets. None of the swans carried high levels of both copper, cadmium, and lead (Table III).

  13. Cadmium, lead, mercury and 137cesium in fruticose lichens of northern Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crete, M.; Zikovsky, L.

    1992-01-01

    Cadmium, lead and mercury concentration averaged 0.171, 4.09 and 0.09 μg·g -1 (dry wt.) in terrestrial lichens over a 640000-km 2 study area of northern Quebec; average cesium level reached 378 Bq·kg -1 (dry wt.). Cadmium and lead were the most closely related pollutants in lichens, while there was little relationship between 137 Cs and the 3 trace metals. Distribution of elements over the territory was not uniform and the altitude influenced 3 of them. The cesium concentration increased along with this variable, while lead levels were higher in the middle altitude class (200-400 m) than in the 2 other classes. There was a significant interaction between altitude and biome for mercury concentration, this element being almost twice more abundant in tundra below 400m than in forest tundra and boreal forest. Mercury level was related to percent ground cover by Alectoria ochroleuca, Cornicularia divergens and Cetraria nivalis, 3 lichen species typical of a wind-exposed habitat. Lead concentration was related only to Cornicularia divergens ground cover. In general concentration of cadmium, lead and mercury was higher in the northwest quarter of the study area than elsewhere, while cesium contamination was highest in the southeast quarter. It seems preferable that caribou should be harvested at low elevation when they are taken in winter in order to minimize the risk associated with cesium consumption by humans. (author). 37 refs.; 2 figs.; 5 tabs

  14. Antagonistic effects of cadmium on lead accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Euan, E-mail: euan.smith@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Gancarz, Dorota; Rofe, Allan [Veterinary Services Division, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, Gilles Plains, SA 5086 (Australia); Kempson, Ivan M. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, 128 Academia Road, Section 2, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Weber, John; Juhasz, Albert L. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the exposure of pregnant and non-pregnant mice to cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) contaminated soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the changes in lead accumulation in mice due to the presence of cadmium in soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lead accumulation is higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium decreases lead accumulation in all mice irrespective of status. - Abstract: People are frequently exposed to combinations of contaminants but there is a paucity of data on the effects of mixed contaminants at low doses. This study investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice following exposure to contaminated soil. Exposure to Pb from contaminated soils increased Pb accumulation in both pregnant and non-pregnant mice compared to unexposed control animals (pregnant and non-pregnant). Lead accumulation in the liver and kidneys of exposure pregnant mice (40 {+-} 15 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than concentrations detected in control pregnant mice (<1 mg Pb kg{sup -1}). The presence of Cd in contaminated soil had a major effect on the Pb and Fe accumulation in the kidneys and liver, respectively. This study shows that Pb uptake is mediated by the presence of Cd in the co-contaminated soil and demonstrates that further research is required to investigate the influence of co-contaminants on human exposure at sub-chronic concentrations.

  15. Effect of Cadmium and Lead on Quantitative and Essential Oil Traits of Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Amirmoradi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available **Introduction Industrialization has been the cause of environmental pollution and one of significant pollutant is that of heavy metals. These hazardous elements can cause to water and soil pollution. These metals can accumulate in the food chain and create damages for human and livestock. Researchers revealed that increasing Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn and Zn concentrations caused to decreasing of shoot fresh weight and essential oil yield. Scavroni et al (2005 indicated that peppermint was able to accumulate the heavy metals in shoot tissues but did not enter into essential oil. Therefore study the effect of heavy metals on morphological and quantitative traits of medicinal plants is essential. Material and Method The experiment was done in the research greenhouse of the Agricultural Faculty of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2011.The treatments were arranged basis on a randomized block design with three replications. Treatments were included T1:0, T2:10 ppm cd , T3:20 ppm cd,T4:40 ppm cd,T5:60 ppm cd,T6:80 ppm cd cd,T7:100 ppm cd,T8:100ppm pb, T9:300 ppm pb, T10: 600 ppm pb, T11: 900 ppm pb, T12: 1200 ppm pb and T13: 1500 ppm pb. Peppermint was cultivated with uniform weight rhizomes harvested from the research farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Every rhizome had two buds and six rhizomes were planted in pots of dimensions 30×50×35 cm. Treatments were irrigated with cdcl2 and pbcl2 with the administered doses and control was irrigated with distilled water. Plants were harvested two times at the first stages of flowering. The essential oil percentage was measured with 30 grams of dried leaves by Clevenger device. Result and Discussion Increasing cadmium and lead concentrations caused a decline of fresh and dry weight, main stem height, leaf area per plant, leaf number per plant, number of nodes per plant and essential oil percentage compared to the control. At the first harvest, increasing doses of Cd caused a decrease of fresh weight. This

  16. [The occurance lead and cadmium in hip joint in aspect of exposure on tobacco smoke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogunia, Mariusz; Brodziak-Dopierała, Barbara; Kwapuliński, Jerzy; Ahnert, Bozena; Kowol, Jolanta; Nogaj, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was qualification of content cadmium and lead in selected elements of the hip joint in aspect of tobacco smoking. The material for the research were 5 elements of hip joint (articular cartilage, trabecular bone and cortical bone femur head, fragment articular capsule and fragment trabecular bone from region intertrochanteric femoral bone), obtained intraoperatively during endoprothesoplastic surgeries. The samples come from habitants of Upper Silesian Region. Determination of trace elements contents were performed by ASA method (Pye Unicam SP-9) in acetylene-oxygen flame. Higher contents of lead were observed for smoking people, however in case of cadmium the differences of this element were not statistical essential between smokers and non-smokers.

  17. Monitoring of the content of lead and cadmium in the waters of the river Tuis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arce Urbina, Maria Elena; Molina Salazar, Ofelia; Hidalgo Paniagua, David

    2007-01-01

    The content of lead and cadmium was monitored in the waters of the river Tuis for 11 months. The method of digestion most suitable was determined for this type of matrix. The chemical analyses were realized by means of the technique of anodic stripping voltammetry by differential pulse, for which some parameters of measurement were optimized and there decided the limits of detection and quantification. The veracity of the method was evaluated by means of the percentage of recovery for each of the analytes. The limit of detection of the lead is of 0,46 μgL-1 and limit of quantification is 1, 5 μgL-1, the cadmium has a limit of detection of 0,40 μgL-1 and 1,3 μgL-1 of quantification. (author) [es

  18. In vivo detection of the toxic heavy elements, lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.J.; Thomas, B.W.; Davey, J.F.; Baddeley, H.; Summers, V.; Craswell, P.

    1986-01-01

    Portable systems for the in vivo measurement of the toxic heavy elements, cadmium and lead are described. The cadmium concentration in either the liver or left kidney is determined using a technique of thermal neutron capture gamma-ray analysis. X-ray fluorescence analysis is used to measure lead within the bone of the second phalanx of the index finger. Each of the measurements is used as an index of long term exposure to the element and applied to screening of exposed industrial workers. The results of these industrial health applications are presented. Clinical application of the measurements to the study of the involvement of these elements in renal disease is described in brief. (author)

  19. Effects of iron deficiency on the absorption and distribution of lead and cadmium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of iron deficiency on the absorption of pollutant metals, an iron-deficient diet was fed to young rats until their tissue-iron stores were depleted. Prior to the development of anemia, the iron-deficient rats and littermate controls were administered an intragastric gavage of lead-210 or cadmium-109 and were killed 48 hr later. The body burden of lead was approximately 6 times greater, and that of cadmium approximately 7 times greater, in iron-deficient rats than in the controls. No consistent effects were observed on concentrations of serum total lipids or serum proteins nor on protein electrophoretic patterns in rats with a deficit in iron stores

  20. Elements in rice from the Swedish market: 1. Cadmium, lead and arsenic (total and inorganic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorhem, L; Astrand, C; Sundström, B; Baxter, M; Stokes, P; Lewis, J; Grawé, K Petersson

    2008-03-01

    A survey of the levels of cadmium, lead and arsenic in different types of rice available on the Swedish retail market was carried out in 2001--03. The types of rice included long and short grain, brown, white, and parboiled white rice. The mean levels found were as follows: total As: 0.20 mg kg(-1), inorganic As: 0.11 mg kg(-1); Cd: 0.024 mg kg(-1); and Pb: 0.004 mg kg(-1). ICP-MS was used for the determination of As (total and inorganic) after acid digestion. Lead and cadmium were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after dry ashing. In countries where rice is a staple food, it may represent a significant contribution in relation to the provisional tolerable weekly intake for Cd and inorganic As.

  1. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Zinc Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? Ask ... find out more about zinc? Disclaimer What is zinc and what does it do? Zinc is a ...

  2. Study of the influence of stable cadmium on the transfer of zinc-65 in an ecosystem irrigated by submersion (irrigated rice field)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myttenaere, C.; Merlini, M.; Dabin, P.; Mousny, J.M.; Pozzi, G.; Bittel, R.

    1975-01-01

    Irrigation water contains varying amounts of stable cadmium from industrial disposal. The presence of this element is capable of modifying the transfer of and affecting the mechanisms of absorption of zinc-65, a radionuclide which is discharged into water by nuclear power stations. This type of interaction between a nuclear contaminant and a conventional contaminant was studied in a rice-field irrigated by submersion. This ecosystem was reproduced under controlled 'mini-rice-field' conditions: the water was enriched in stable zinc (1 ppm) and in stable cadmium (2,5x10 -3 ; 50x10 -3 ppm) so as to reproduce the actual conditions; the stable zinc was traced by means of zinc-65. Fish (20 Carassius auratus L.) were introduced into each compartment of the ecosystem. Samples of irrigation water and surface water were taken during cultivation, and at the end of cultivation the content of stable zinc, radioactive zinc and stable cadmium was determined in each component of the ecosystem. The results show the important influence of a conventional contaminant on the transfer of a radionuclide and justify the use of the term 'associate contaminant' to describe it. (author)

  3. Contribution of hot spring bacterial consortium in cadmium and lead bioremediation through quadratic programming model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Sudip Kumar; Raut, Sangeeta; Dora, Tapas Kumar [Department of Biotechnology, Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Gunupur, Rayagada 765 022, Odisha (India); Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das, E-mail: pkdmvu@gmail.com [Department of Microbiology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721 102, West Bengal (India)

    2014-01-30

    Highlights: • Adsorption of cadmium and lead using hot spring microbial consortium. • Development of empirical models for % adsorption using ANOVA and response surface methodology. • Fitting of the kinetics of adsorption to Freundlich and Langmuir model. • Optimization of the operating parameters to maximize the % of adsorption. -- Abstract: In the present investigation, a number of experiments have been conducted to isolate microbial strains from Taptapani Hot Spring Odisha, India for bioremediation of cadmium and lead. The strains Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SS1), Aeromonas veronii (SS2) and Bacillus barbaricus (SS3) have shown better adaptation to metal tolerance test, with different concentrations of cadmium and lead and hence have been selected for further studies of metal microbial interaction and optimization. The results of bioremediation process indicate that consortium of thermophilic isolates adsorbed heavy metals more effectively than the individually treated isolates. Therefore, A 24 full factorial central composite design has been employed to analyze the effect of metal ion concentration, microbial concentration and time on removal of heavy metals with consortium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows a high coefficient of determination value. The kinetic data have been fitted to pseudo-first order and second-order models. The isotherm equilibrium data have been well fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The optimum removal conditions determined for initial ion concentration was 0.3 g/l; contact time 72 h; microbial concentration, 3 ml/l; and pH 7. At optimum adsorption conditions, the adsorption of cadmium and lead are found to be 92% and 93%, respectively, and presence of metals was confirmed through EDS analysis.

  4. Contribution of hot spring bacterial consortium in cadmium and lead bioremediation through quadratic programming model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Sudip Kumar; Raut, Sangeeta; Dora, Tapas Kumar; Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Adsorption of cadmium and lead using hot spring microbial consortium. • Development of empirical models for % adsorption using ANOVA and response surface methodology. • Fitting of the kinetics of adsorption to Freundlich and Langmuir model. • Optimization of the operating parameters to maximize the % of adsorption. -- Abstract: In the present investigation, a number of experiments have been conducted to isolate microbial strains from Taptapani Hot Spring Odisha, India for bioremediation of cadmium and lead. The strains Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SS1), Aeromonas veronii (SS2) and Bacillus barbaricus (SS3) have shown better adaptation to metal tolerance test, with different concentrations of cadmium and lead and hence have been selected for further studies of metal microbial interaction and optimization. The results of bioremediation process indicate that consortium of thermophilic isolates adsorbed heavy metals more effectively than the individually treated isolates. Therefore, A 24 full factorial central composite design has been employed to analyze the effect of metal ion concentration, microbial concentration and time on removal of heavy metals with consortium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows a high coefficient of determination value. The kinetic data have been fitted to pseudo-first order and second-order models. The isotherm equilibrium data have been well fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The optimum removal conditions determined for initial ion concentration was 0.3 g/l; contact time 72 h; microbial concentration, 3 ml/l; and pH 7. At optimum adsorption conditions, the adsorption of cadmium and lead are found to be 92% and 93%, respectively, and presence of metals was confirmed through EDS analysis

  5. Lead and Cadmium Toxicity in Tile Manufacturing Workers in Assiut, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragaa M Abd Elmaaboud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Occupational lead and cadmium exposure are important health issues in developing countries. This study aimed to detect toxic metal contents in raw materials used to make tiles and to assess exposure health impacts on workers. The study sample consisted of 74 tile workers, having a mean age of 35.2 years, in the Industrial City of Arab El Awamer, Assiut (Egypt. Elemental analysis of the raw materials was performed by using scanning electron microscopy. The data collection questionnaire was divided into two parts; the first included demographic data, symptoms attributed to toxic elements and possible sources of exposure to metals. The second part was designated to assess heavy metal exposure health impacts through clinical examination and biological  investigations. Many toxic elements were identified in the raw materials used to make tiles, and the most abundant were lead and cadmium. Analysis of the clinical data revealed that 66% of the workers suffered from headache, constipation (8%, abdominal colic (33.8% and 30% suffered from a variety of respiratory problems such as dyspnea (60%, cough (13% and chest tightness (27%. Fifty percent of the workers complained of weak grip, 33.8% of foot drop, and 54% had tremors. Burton’s line in gums was present in 28% of workers and 28.2% were diagnosed with constrictive lung diseases. Of the 74 workers, 90.5 % showed toxic lead levels and 80% had toxic cadmium levels. 10.8% had abnormal alpha glutathione levels with a positive strong linear correlation between lead and cadmium levels and years of work. It is mandatory to develop and implement measures to prevent these hazardous exposure effects among tile industry workers.

  6. Maternal exposure to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury and neural tube defects in offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brender, Jean D.; Suarez, Lucina; Felkner, Marilyn; Gilani, Zunera; Stinchcomb, David; Moody, Karen; Henry, Judy; Hendricks, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury are neurotoxins, and some studies suggest that these elements might also be teratogens. Using a case-control study design, we investigated the relation between exposure to these heavy metals and neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring of Mexican-American women living in 1 of the 14 Texas counties bordering Mexico. A total of 184 case-women with NTD-affected pregnancies and 225 control-women with normal live births were interviewed about their environmental and occupational exposures during the periconceptional period. Biologic samples for blood lead and urinary arsenic, cadmium, and mercury were also obtained for a subset of these women. Overall, the median levels of these biomarkers for heavy metal exposure did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between case- and control-women. However, among women in the highest income group, case-women were nine times more likely (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-57) than control-women to have a urinary mercury >=5.62μg/L. Case-women were 4.2 times more likely (95% CI 1.1-16) to report burning treated wood during the periconceptional period than control-women. Elevated odds ratios (ORs) were observed for maternal and paternal occupational exposures to arsenic and mercury, but the 95% CIs were consistent with unity. The 95% CIs of the ORs were also consistent with unity for higher levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in drinking water and among women who lived within 2 miles at the time of conception to industrial facilities with reported emissions of any of these heavy metals. Our findings suggest that maternal exposures to arsenic, cadmium, or lead are probably not significant risk factors for NTDs in offspring. However, the elevated urinary mercury levels found in this population and exposures to the combustion of treated wood may warrant further investigation

  7. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Mataveli, Lidiane Raquel Verola; Buzzo, Márcia Liane; Arauz, Luciana Juncioni de; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Henriques; Arakaki, Edna Emy Kumagai; Matsuzaki, Richard; Tiglea, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, relative bias, and rep...

  8. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Du, Libo [Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Wenlan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Liu, Yang [Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Hudson, Laurie G. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Liu, Ke Jian, E-mail: kliu@salud.unm.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  9. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi; Du, Libo; Liu, Wenlan; Liu, Yang; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  10. Scientific/Technical Report: Improvement in compensation and crystal growth of cadmium zinc telluride radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelvin G. Lynn; Kelly A. Jones

    2007-01-01

    Comparison of actual accomplishments with goals and objectives: (1) Growth of 12 ingots--Washington State University (WSU) more than met this goal for the project by growing 12 final ingots for the year. Nine of the twelve crystal growth ingots resolved gamma radiation at room temperature. The other three ingots where resistivity of ∼ 3 x 10 8 Ohm*cm for CG32a, CG36, and CG42 lower than expected, however none of these were tried with blocking contacts. All ingots were evaluated from tip to heel. In these three cases, the group III, dopant Aluminum (Al) was not detected to a level to compensate the Cd vacancies in the cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) thus the ingots were lower resistivity. The nine ingots that were successful radiation detectors averaged a bulk resistivity of 1.25 x 10 10 Ohm*cm and with a average μτ product for electrons of ∼ 2 x 10 -4 cm 2 /V with a 1/4 microsecond shaping time with samples ∼2 mm in thickness. (2) Attempt new compensations techniques--WSU also met this goal. Several doping schemes were attempted and investigated with various amounts of excess Tellurium added to the growth. The combination of Al and Erbium (Er) were first attempted for these ingots and subsequently CG34 was grown with Al, Er and Holmium. These compensation techniques produced radiation detectors and are currently under investigation. These growths were made with significant different doping levels to determine the affect of the dopants. CG43 was doped with Indium and Er. Indium was introduced instead of Al to determine if Indium is more soluble than Al for CZT and was less oxidized. This may decrease the amount of low resistivity ingots grown by doping with Indium instead of Al. (3) Grow large single crystals--Several changes in approach occurred in the crystal growth furnace. Steps were taken to maximize the crystal growth interface during growth by modifying liners, quartz, heat sinks, crucibles and various growth steps and temperature profiles. CG39 ingot

  11. Larval aquatic insect responses to cadmium and zinc in experimental streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, Christopher A; Schmidt, Travis S; Balistrieri, Laurie S

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the risks of metal mixture effects to natural stream communities under ecologically relevant conditions, the authors conducted 30-d tests with benthic macroinvertebrates exposed to cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in experimental streams. The simultaneous exposures were with Cd and Zn singly and with Cd+Zn mixtures at environmentally relevant ratios. The tests produced concentration-response patterns that for individual taxa were interpreted in the same manner as classic single-species toxicity tests and for community metrics such as taxa richness and mayfly (Ephemeroptera) abundance were interpreted in the same manner as with stream survey data. Effect concentrations from the experimental stream exposures were usually 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than those from classic single-species tests. Relative to a response addition model, which assumes that the joint toxicity of the mixtures can be predicted from the product of their responses to individual toxicants, the Cd+Zn mixtures generally showed slightly less than additive toxicity. The authors applied a modeling approach called Tox to explore the mixture toxicity results and to relate the experimental stream results to field data. The approach predicts the accumulation of toxicants (hydrogen, Cd, and Zn) on organisms using a 2-pK a bidentate model that defines interactions between dissolved cations and biological receptors (biotic ligands) and relates that accumulation through a logistic equation to biological response. The Tox modeling was able to predict Cd+Zn mixture responses from the single-metal exposures as well as responses from field data. The similarity of response patterns between the 30-d experimental stream tests and field data supports the environmental relevance of testing aquatic insects in experimental streams. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:749-762. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the

  12. The effects of air pollution and smoking on placental cadmium, zinc concentration and metallothionein expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorkun, Hulya Cetin; Bir, Ferda; Akbulut, Metin; Divrikli, Umit; Erken, Gulten; Demirhan, Huriye; Duzcan, Ender; Elci, Latif; Celik, Ismail; Yozgatli, Unsal

    2007-01-01

    This study is designed to determine the placental zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) levels in mothers who were smokers, mothers who were thought to be exposed to air pollution, and mothers who were non-smokers and to investigate the relationship between the expression of placental metallothionein (MT) binding these metals and blood progesterone level. Placental Zn and Cd levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Presence of placental MT was determined immunohistochemically. Placental changes were examined by light microscope after H and E and PAS staining. Immunohistochemical MT staining of syncytiotrophoblastic and villous interstitial cells were scored as positive or negative. Among the 92 mothers included in the study, 33 were smokers (Group I), 29 had been exposed to air pollution (Group II) and 30 were non-smoker rural residents who had never been exposed to air pollution (Group III). Mean off-spring birth weight of 3198.62 ± 380.01 g and mean placenta weight of 561.38 ± 111.55 g of Group II were lower when compared with those of other two groups. In Group I, mean placental Cd and Zn were 0.063 ± 0.022 μg/g and 39.84 ± 15.5 μg/g, respectively, being higher than in other groups. In Group II, mean placental Cd and Zn levels were higher than those of Group III. Blood progesterone levels of subjects in Group I (121 ng/ml) were the lowest of all groups. While the mean count of villi was the highest in Group III; the highest mean count of syncytial knots was in Group II. Thickening of vasculo-syncytial membrane was most prominent in Group I. Similarly, MT staining was positive and very dense in 72.7% (24/33) of cases in Group I (p ≤ 0.05). MT staining was positive in 69.0% (29/20) and denser in Group II cases compared to 36% (11/30) in Group III (p ≤ 0.05). This study showed that smoking increased Cd levels in placenta and accompanied an increase in placental MT expression immunohistochemically. The effects of exposure to air pollution are equally

  13. Proteomic responses of oceanic Synechococcus WH8102 to phosphate and zinc scarcity and cadmium additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alysia eCox

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Synechococcus sp. WH 8102 is a motile marine cyanobacterium isolated originally from the Sargasso Sea. To test the response of this organism to cadmium (Cd -generally considered a toxin- cultures were grown in a matrix of high and low zinc (Zn and phosphate (PO43- and were then exposed to an addition of 4.4 pM free Cd2+ at mid-log phase and harvested after 24 h. Whereas Zn and PO43- had little effect on overall growth rates, in the final 24 h of the experiment three growth effects were noticed: i low PO43- treatments showed increased growth rates relative to high PO43- treatments, ii the Zn/high PO43- treatment appeared to enter stationary phase, and iii Cd increased growth rates further in both the low PO43- and Zn treatments. Global proteomic analysis revealed that: i Zn appeared to be critical to the PO43- response in this organism, ii bacterial metallothionein (SmtA appears correlated with PO43- stress-associated proteins, iii Cd has the greatest influence on the proteome at low PO43- and Zn, iv Zn buffered the effects of Cd, and v in the presence of both replete PO43- and added Cd the proteome showed little response to the presence of Zn. Similar trends in alkaline phosphate (ALP and SmtA suggest the possibility of a Zn supply system to provide Zn to ALP that involves SmtA. In addition, proteome results were consistent with a previous transcriptome study of PO43- stress (with replete Zn in this organism, including the greater relative abundance of ALP (PhoA, ABC phosphate binding protein (PstS and other proteins. Yet with no Zn in this proteome experiment the PO43- response was quite different including the greater relative abundance of five hypothetical proteins with no increase in PhoA or PstS, suggesting that Zn nutritional levels are connected to the PO43- response in this cyanobacterium. Alternate ALP PhoX (Ca was found to be a low abundance protein, suggesting that PhoA (Zn, Mg may be more environmentally relevant than PhoX.

  14. Thermodynamics of post-growth annealing of cadmium zinc telluride nuclear radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Aaron Lee

    Nuclear Radiation Detectors are used for detecting, tracking, and identifying radioactive materials which emit high-energy gamma and X-rays. The use of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) detectors is particularly attractive because of the detector's ability to operate at room temperature and measure the energy spectra of gamma-ray sources with a high resolution, typically less than 1% at 662 keV. While CdZnTe detectors are acceptable imperfections in the crystals limit their full market potential. One of the major imperfections are Tellurium inclusions generated during the crystal growth process by the retrograde solubility of Tellurium and Tellurium-rich melt trapped at the growth interface. Tellurium inclusions trap charge carriers generated by gamma and X-ray photons and thus reduce the portion of generated charge carriers that reach the electrodes for collection and conversion into a readable signal which is representative of the ionizing radiation's energy and intensity. One approach in resolving this problem is post-growth annealing which has the potential of removing the Tellurium inclusions and associated impurities. The goal of this project is to use experimental techniques to study the thermodynamics of Tellurium inclusion migration in post-growth annealing of CdZnTe nuclear detectors with the temperature gradient zone migration (TGZM) technique. Systematic experiments will be carried out to provide adequate thermodynamic data that will inform the engineering community of the optimum annealing parameters. Additionally, multivariable correlations that involve the Tellurium diffusion coefficient, annealing parameters, and CdZnTe properties will be analyzed. The experimental approach will involve systematic annealing experiments (in Cd vapor overpressure) on different sizes of CdZnTe crystals at varying temperature gradients ranging from 0 to 60°C/mm (used to migrate the Tellurium inclusion to one side of the crystal), and at annealing temperatures ranging

  15. Deposition of lead and cadmium released by cigarette smoke in dental structures and resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Cristina Yoshie Garcia; Corrêa-Afonso, Alessandra Marques; Pedrazzi, Hamilton; Dinelli, Welingtom; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2011-03-01

    Cigarette smoke is a significant source of cadmium, lead, and toxic elements, which are absorbed into the human organism. In this context, the aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the presence of toxic elements, cadmium, and lead deriving from cigarette smoke in the resin composite, dentine, and dental enamel. Eight cylindrical specimens were fabricated from resin composite, bovine enamel, and root dentin fragments that were wet ground and polished with abrasive paper to obtain sections with 6-mm diameter and 2-mm thickness. All specimens were exposed to the smoke of 10 cigarettes/day during 8 days. After the simulation of the cigarette smoke, the specimens were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. In the photomicrographic analysis in SEM, no morphological alterations were found; however, the microanalysis identified the presence of cadmium, arsenic, and lead in the different specimens. These findings suggest that the deposition of these elements derived from cigarette smoke could be favored by dental structures and resin composite. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Dietary exposure to cadmium, lead and nickel among students from south-east Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec, Zbigniew; Koch, Wojciech; Marzec, Agnieszka; Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta

    2014-01-01

    The dietary intake of cadmium, lead and nickel was determined among students from three universities in the city of Lublin in south-east Poland to assess the levels of exposure to these contaminants, compared to PTWI and TDI values. The study was performed in 2006–2010 and involved 850 daily food rations of students. The technique of 24-hour dietary recall and diet duplicates was used. Cadmium, lead and nickel complexes with ammonium-pyrrolidindithiocarbamate were formed and extracted to the organic phase with 4-methylpentan-2-one–MIBK, in which their content was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest intake of the elements studied was observed in 2008. The data show that in none of the cases, the level of intake reached 70% of PTWI/TDI values, and thus the risk of developing diseases related to high exposure to these toxic metals absorbed from foodstuffs was low. The parameters of methods were checked during determinations by adding standard solutions to the samples before mineralization and by using two reference materials: Total diet ARC/CL HDP and Bovine muscle RM NIST 8414. The dietary exposure to lead and cadmium has significantly decreased in recent years, whereas the exposures to nickel remains on a stable level.

  17. Investigation of heavy metals (Cadmium, Lead in Chironomidae and Gammarus pulex Namrood River – Tehran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaei M. Kamali A. and Shapoori M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecosystem pollution is one of the important problems of today environment. In this study the existence of heavy metal in the Namrood River, situated in Firoozkooh in Tehran province, Iran has been investigated. The Namrood River is located near Firoozkooh route, and is affected by pollutant from tourist centers, entertainment, gas stations, nearby villages’ sewage systems, farming effluent, and hatchery farms. In some areas, its water is heavily polluted possibly by heavy metals. After selecting two stations in upstream and downstream of the river, they were sampled three times in both cold and hot seasons of year (mid-March, and June for Chironomidae, and Gammarus plux sediments. The measured heavy metals were cadmium and lead. The results showed that the concentration of cadmium in measured samples varied from 0.010-0.2033 ppm. The concentration of lead in samples varied from 0.11-2.16 ppm. The results also indicated that sediments of samples taken from the upper station in the cold season had a higher proportion of cadmium and a higher concentration of lead  than  sediments in the lower station during the hot season.

  18. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataveli, Lidiane Raquel Verola; Buzzo, Márcia Liane; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Henriques; Arakaki, Edna Emy Kumagai; Matsuzaki, Richard; Tiglea, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, relative bias, and repeatability. Regarding the sample preparation, recoveries of spiked samples were within the acceptable range from 89.3 to 98.2% for muffle furnace, 94.2 to 103.3% for heating block, 81.0 to 115.0% for hot plate, and 92.8 to 108.2% for microwave. Validation parameters showed that the method fits for its purpose, being the total arsenic, cadmium, and lead within the Brazilian Legislation limits. The method was applied for analyzing 37 rice samples (including polished, brown, and parboiled), consumed by the Brazilian population. The total arsenic, cadmium, and lead contents were lower than the established legislative values, except for total arsenic in one brown rice sample. This study indicated the need to establish monitoring programs for emphasizing the study on this type of cereal, aiming at promoting the Public Health.

  19. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Raquel Verola Mataveli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD, limit of quantification (LOQ, linearity, relative bias, and repeatability. Regarding the sample preparation, recoveries of spiked samples were within the acceptable range from 89.3 to 98.2% for muffle furnace, 94.2 to 103.3% for heating block, 81.0 to 115.0% for hot plate, and 92.8 to 108.2% for microwave. Validation parameters showed that the method fits for its purpose, being the total arsenic, cadmium, and lead within the Brazilian Legislation limits. The method was applied for analyzing 37 rice samples (including polished, brown, and parboiled, consumed by the Brazilian population. The total arsenic, cadmium, and lead contents were lower than the established legislative values, except for total arsenic in one brown rice sample. This study indicated the need to establish monitoring programs for emphasizing the study on this type of cereal, aiming at promoting the Public Health.

  20. Effects of lead and cadmium exposure from electronic waste on child physical growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Huo, Xia; Yekeen, Taofeek Akangbe; Zheng, Qiujian; Zheng, Minghao; Xu, Xijin

    2013-07-01

    Many studies indicate that lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) exposure may alter bone development through both direct and indirect mechanisms, increasing the risk of osteoporosis later in life. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Pb and Cd exposure, physical growth, and bone and calcium metabolism in children of an electronic waste (e-waste) processing area. We recruited 246 children (3-8 years) in a kindergarten located in Guiyu, China. Blood lead levels (BLLs) and blood cadmium levels (BCLs) of recruited children were measured as biomarkers for exposure. Serum calcium, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and urinary deoxypyridinoline were used as biomarkers for bone and calcium metabolism. Physical indexes such as height, weight, and head and chest circumference were also measured. The mean values of BLLs and BCLs obtained were 7.30 μg/dL and 0.69 μg/L, respectively. The average of BCLs increased with age. In multiple linear regression analysis, BLLs were negatively correlated with both height and weight, and positively correlated with bone resorption biomarkers. Neither bone nor calcium metabolic biomarkers showed significant correlation with cadmium. Childhood lead exposure affected both physical development and increased bone resorption of children in Guiyu. Primitive e-waste recycling may threaten the health of children with elevated BLL which may eventually cause adult osteoporosis.

  1. Cadmium(II) and lead(II) adsorption onto hetero-atom functional mesoporous silica and activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Motoi; Fotoohi, Babak; Amamo, Yoshimasa; Mercier, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption of cadmium(II) and lead(II) on amino-, mercapto-functionalized mesoporous silica (HMS) and carboxylic-functionalized activated carbon (AC) were examined. The resultant isotherms fitted the Langmuir model and amino-functionalized HMS exhibited the highest adsorption capacity for both cadmium(II) and lead(II). Adsorption affinities for cadmium(II) were always greater than those for lead(II) in all three adsorbent types, while the difference between the two values was the largest for mercapto-functionalized HMS indicating a selective adsorption of cadmium(II). Influence of equilibrium solution pH on adsorption of cadmium(II), lead(II) and their binary mixtures was also studied. Carboxylic-functionalized AC adsorbed cadmium(II) and lead(II) in a wide pH range than conditions for the mercapto-functionalized HMS. It was concluded that each functional group had its own characteristics and advantages for adsorption of heavy metal ions; amino-groups showed high adsorption capacity, while mercapto-groups had good selectivity toward cadmium(II) adsorption and a wide solution pH in adsorption by carboxylic-groups were established in this study.

  2. Cadmium(II) and lead(II) adsorption onto hetero-atom functional mesoporous silica and activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Motoi; Fotoohi, Babak; Amamo, Yoshimasa; Mercier, Louis

    2012-07-01

    Adsorption of cadmium(II) and lead(II) on amino-, mercapto-functionalized mesoporous silica (HMS) and carboxylic-functionalized activated carbon (AC) were examined. The resultant isotherms fitted the Langmuir model and amino-functionalized HMS exhibited the highest adsorption capacity for both cadmium(II) and lead(II). Adsorption affinities for cadmium(II) were always greater than those for lead(II) in all three adsorbent types, while the difference between the two values was the largest for mercapto-functionalized HMS indicating a selective adsorption of cadmium(II). Influence of equilibrium solution pH on adsorption of cadmium(II), lead(II) and their binary mixtures was also studied. Carboxylic-functionalized AC adsorbed cadmium(II) and lead(II) in a wide pH range than conditions for the mercapto-functionalized HMS. It was concluded that each functional group had its own characteristics and advantages for adsorption of heavy metal ions; amino-groups showed high adsorption capacity, while mercapto-groups had good selectivity toward cadmium(II) adsorption and a wide solution pH in adsorption by carboxylic-groups were established in this study.

  3. On the problem of zinc extraction from the slags of lead heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, V. V.; Besser, A. D.; Paretskii, V. M.

    2013-12-01

    The possibilities of zinc extraction from the slags of lead heat are studied as applied to the ZAO Karat-TsM lead plant to be built for processing ore lead concentrates. The process of zinc extraction into commercial fumes using the technology of slag fuming by natural gas developed in Gintsvetmet is recommended for this purpose. Technological rules are developed for designing a commercial fuming plant, as applied to the conditions of the ZAO Karat-TsM plant.

  4. Cadmium, lead, and mercury exposure assessment among croatian consumers of free-living game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Maja; Prevendar Crnić, Andreja; Bilandžić, Nina; Kusak, Josip; Reljić, Slaven

    2014-09-29

    Free-living game can be an important source of dietary cadmium and lead; the question is whether exposure to these two elements is such that it might cause adverse health effects in the consumers. The aim of this study was to estimate dietary exposure to cadmium, lead, and mercury from free-living big game (fallow deer, roe deer, red deer, wild boar, and brown bear), and to mercury from small game (pheasant and hare), hunted in Croatia from 1990 to 2012. The exposure assessment was based on available literature data and our own measurements of metal levels in the tissues of the game, by taking into account different consumption frequencies (four times a year, once a month and once a week). Exposure was expressed as percentage of (provisional) tolerable weekly intake [(P)TWI] values set by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Consumption of game meat (0.002-0.5 % PTWI) and liver (0.005-6 % PTWI) assumed for the general population (four times a year) does not pose a health risk to consumers from the general population, nor does monthly (0.02-6 % PTWI) and weekly (0.1-24 % PTWI) consumption of game meat. However, because of the high percentage of free-living game liver and kidney samples exceeding the legislative limits for cadmium (2-99 %) and lead (1-82 %), people should keep the consumption of certain game species' offal as low as possible. Children and pregnant and lactating women should avoid eating game offal altogether. Free-living game liver could be an important source of cadmium if consumed on a monthly basis (3-74 % TWI), and if consumed weekly (11-297 % TWI), it could even give rise to toxicological concern.

  5. Micro solid phase spectrophotometry in a sequential injection lab-on-valve platform for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Inês C.; Mesquita, Raquel B.R.; Rangel, António O.S.S.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the development of a solid phase spectrophotometry method in a μSI-LOV system for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters. NTA (Nitrilotriacetic acid) beads with 60–160 μm diameter were packed in the flow cell of the LOV for a μSPE column of 1 cm length. The spectrophotometric determination is based on the colourimetric reaction between dithizone and the target metals, previously retained on NTA resin. The absorbance of the coloured product formed is measured, at 550 nm, on the surface of the NTA resin beads in a solid phase spectrophotometry approach. The developed method presented preconcentration factors in the range of 11–21 for the metal ions. A LOD of 0.23 μg L"−"1 for cadmium, 2.39 μg L"−"1 for zinc, and 0.11 μg L"−"1 for copper and a sampling rate of 12, 13, and 15 h"−"1 for cadmium, zinc, and copper were obtained, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to freshwater samples. - Highlights: • Multi-parametric determination of cadmium, zinc, and copper at the μg L"−"1 level. • In-line metal ions preconcentration using NTA resin. • Minimization of matrix interferences by performing solid phase spectrometry in a SI-LOV platform. • Successful application to metal ions determination in freshwaters.

  6. Changes in phytochelatins and their biosynthetic intermediates in red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) cell suspension cultures under cadmium and zinc stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Thangavel; Stephanie Long; Rakesh Minocha

    2007-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) were selected to study the effects of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) on phytochelatins (PCs) and related metabolites after 24 h exposure. The PC2 and its precursor, γ-glutamylcysteine (γ-EC) increased two to fourfold with Cd concentrations ranging from 12...

  7. Evaluation of estimated daily intake (EDI) of cadmium and lead for rice (Oryza sativa L.) in calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamannejadian, Ali; Sayyad, Gholamabbas; Moezzi, Abdolamir; Jahangiri, Alireza

    2013-04-08

    The excessive amounts of cadmium and lead in food chain can cause health problems for humans and ecosystem. Rice is an important food in human diet. Therefore this study was conducted in order to investigate cadmium and Lead concentrations in seed rice (Oryza saliva) of paddy fields in southwest of Iran. A total of 70 rice seed samples were collected from paddy fields in five regions of Khuzestan province, Southwest Iran, during harvesting time. In the samples cadmium and Lead concentrations were measured. To assess the daily intake of Cadmium and Lead by rice, daily consumption of rice was calculated. The results showed that average concentrations of Cadmium and Lead in rice seeds were 273.6 and 121.8 μg/kg, respectively. Less than 72% of rice seed samples had Cadmium concentrations above 200 μg/kg (i.e. Guide value for cadmium); and less than 3% had Lead concentrations above 150 μg/kg (i.e. Guide value for Lead). The estimated daily intakes of cadmium by the local population was calculated to 0.59 μg/day kg bw, which corresponds to 59% of the tolerable daily intakes (i.e. 1 μg/day kg bw). Eleven out of 70 samples (15.71%) exceed the tolerable daily intakes. The dietary intakes for Lead in the local population ranged from 0.22 to 0.47 μg/day kg bw. Tolerable daily intakes for Lead is 3.6 μg/day kg bw. As a whole, long term consumption of the local rice may bear high risk of heavy metal exposure to the consumer in the study region.

  8. Toxicity of cadmium and lead on tropical midge larvae, Chironomus kiiensis Tokunaga and Chironomus javanus Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebau, Warrin; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Din, Zubir; Al-Shami, Salman Abdo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the acute toxicity of cadmium and lead on larvae of two tropical Chironomid species, Chironomus kiiensis (C. kiiensis) Tokunaga and Chironomus javanus (C. javanus) Kieffer. Methods Different larval instars (first-fourth) were exposed using a static non-replacement testing procedures to various concentrations of cadmium and lead. Results In general, younger larvae (first and second instars) of both species were more sensitive to both metals than older larvae (third and forth instars). The toxic effects of the metals on C. kiiensis and C. javanus were influenced by the age of the larvae (first to fourth instars), types of metals (cadmium or lead) and duration of larval exposure (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) to the metals. Conclusions Cadmium was more toxic to the chironomids than lead and C. javanus was significantly more sensitive to both metals than C. kiiensis (P<0.05). PMID:23569984

  9. Effects of blood lead and cadmium levels on the functioning of children with behaviour disorders in the family environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkup-Jabłońska, Małgorzata; Karakiewicz, Beata; Grochans, Elżbieta; Jurczak, Anna; Nowak-Starz, Grażyna; Rotter, Iwona; Prokopowicz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The developing brain of a child is extremely prone to damage resulting from exposure to harmful environmental factors, e.g. heavy metals. Intoxication of children's organisms with lead and cadmium affects their intellectual development. Even a relatively small amount of this metal in children's blood can lead to developmental dysfunctions. The aim of this study was to analyse the correlation between blood lead and cadmium levels in children with behaviour disorders and their functioning in the home. This survey-based study was conducted among 78 families with children diagnosed as having behaviour disorders. It was performed using the ADHD-Rating Scale-IV. To determine lead and cadmium levels the laboratory procedure was based on Stoppler and Brandt's method. The mean blood lead level was 19.71 µg/l and the mean blood cadmium level was 0.215 µg/l. Higher blood lead levels in children correlates positively with incidences of hyperactive and impulsive behaviour in the home, as assessed by parents (p=0.048). Statistically significant effects of cadmium on children's behaviour were not noticed. The effect of lead on the developing organism of a child has such behavioural consequences as attention disorders, hyperactivity and impulsive behaviour which, in turn, may interfere with children's functioning in the home. A negative effect of cadmium on the functioning of children with behaviour disorders in the home was not proved.

  10. Uptake of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury from polluted waters by the water hyacinth Eichornia crassipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chigbo, F.E.; Smith, R.W.; Shore, F.L.

    1982-01-01

    The water hyacinth Eichornia crassipes was studied as a pollution monitor for the simultaneous accumulation of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mecury. After cultivation of the plants for 2 days in tanks containing 10 ppm of each of the metals in aqueous solution, the plants were harvested and rinsed with tap water. The leaves and stems were separated and analysed for each of the metals. The ratio of the concentration of arsenic and mercury in the leaves to the concentrations in the stems was found to be 2:1. Cadmium and lead showed a concentration ratio in leaves to stems of about 1:1. The leaf concentration of arsenic was the lowest of the metals of 0.3428 mg g/sup -1/ of dried plant material whilst the leaf concentration of cadmium was highest at 0.5740 mg g/sup -1/ of dried plant material. Control plants were grown in unpolluted water. Plants grown in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi sewage lagoon were also analysed. The mercury concentrations of the leaves of plants grown in the sewage lagoon were significantly different from the control sample which had a concentration of 0.0700 mg g/sup -1/ of dried plant material.

  11. Cadmium, lead and mercury levels in feeding yeast produced in Czechoslovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, J; Turecki, T; Miholová, D; Mader, P; Száková, J; Brabec, M

    1992-04-01

    Ninety-six samples of the feeding yeast known as VITEX were analyzed for Cd, Pb and Hg content during 1987-1989. Cadmium content ranged from 0.30 to 5.12 mg/kg(-1), lead content from 0.21 to 3.01 mg/kg(-1) and mercury content from 0.008 to 0.187 mg/kg(-1). Our findings meet the current government standards (max. allowed Pb = 5.00, Cd = 0.50 and Hg = 0.100 mg/kg(-1)) only for lead, and with five exceptions, for mercury. With two exceptions, all cadmium levels found in the samples exceeded the limit. One raw material - the wood chips - was shown to be the main source of cadmium in the technological process. Relatively high Hg contents were measured in the wood chips (up to 0.155 mg/kg(-1)); the highest Hg level (1.105 mg/kg(-1)) however was found in a sample of KOH.

  12. 78 FR 46948 - Proposed Agreement Regarding Site Costs and Covenants Not To Sue for American Lead and Zinc Mill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Not To Sue for American Lead and Zinc Mill Site, Ouray County, Colorado AGENCY: Environmental... provides for Settling Party's payment of certain response costs incurred at the American Lead and Zinc Mill... reference the American Lead and Zinc Mill Site, the EPA Docket No. CERCLA-08-2013- 0004. The Agency's...

  13. QUANTIFICATION OF LEAD AND CADMIUM IN POULTRY AND BIRD GAME MEAT BY SQUARE WAVE ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetric method for the analysis of lead and cadmium in chicken muscle and liver was developed and validated, and the results of a monitoring study relative to chicken and pigeon meat are reported. The voltammetric method allows the analysis of lead and cadmium at the same time in samples after acid digestion. The use of perchloric acid for digestion and of acetate buffer in the supporting electrolyte have been found suitable to reduce ma...

  14. Determination of Lead and Cadmium in cow’s Milk and Elimination by Using Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haniyeh Moallem Bandani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Heavy metals such as cadmium and lead are the most important toxins spreading through various ways like water, soil, and air in nature and easily enter human food chain. It is essential to determine the cumulative and harmful effects of these metals in nutrients, especially in cow milk because it is a unique source of food for all ages and it contains both essential and nonessential trace elements. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 milk samples were directly collected from healthy cows in Zabol located on east of Iran. The samples were tested to determine lead and cadmium residues. The rates of the heavy metals were determined using a Rayleigh atomic absorption spectrum equipped with hollow cathode lamps (HCL at 283.3 nm for lead (Pb and at 228.8 nm for cadmium (Cd. By using the photo-catalytic titanium dioxide nanoparticles, these toxic metals were removed. Results: The mean ± SD of the concentration of lead and cadmium in raw milk were 9.175± 2.5 and 4.557 ± 1.081 ppb, respectively. Also, the P-values of Kalmogorov– Smiranov test for lead and cadmium were respectively 0.057 ppb (P>0.05 and 0.435 ppb (P>0.05. TiO2 nanoparticles were used to eliminate and remove lead and cadmium in milk samples. The results showed that there was a significant difference between lead and cadmium contents before and after adding TiO2 nanoparticles (P<0.05. Conclusions: According to results of this study, there was a very low amount of toxic metals. So, it seems that it is not necessary to use TiO2 in milk samples but these days it used frequently as an additive to some samples like milk to remove these pollutants. Keywords: lead, cadmium, milk, atomic absorption spectroscopy, TiO2 nanoparticles

  15. Exposure to lead and cadmium released from ceramics and glassware intended to come into contact with food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeniak, Małgorzata; Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Mania, Monika; Szynal, Tomasz; Strzelecka, Agnieszka; Starska, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    The dietary intake of harmful elements, particularly lead and cadmium constitutes a health threat and essential measures should be undertaken to reduce consumer exposure. The latest risk assessments by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) have indicated that the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) for lead and cadmium do not ensure health safety and their review had to be undertaken. Migration from ceramics and glassware intended for food contact is an important source of lead and cadmium intake. To study the release of lead and cadmium from ceramics and glassware (including decorated products) intended for food contact that are available on the Polish market and to assess the resulting health risk to the consumer. Ceramics and glassware (mainly decorated) were sampled from the Polish market during 2010- 2012 throughout the country by staff of the Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations in accordance with monitoring procedures and guidelines designed by the National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene. Migration of lead and cadmium was measured by incubating the samples with 4% acetic acid for 24 hours at a temperature of 22±2ºC in the dark. Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) was used to measure these elements in food simulant according to a validated and accredited method (PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025). 1273 samples of ceramics and glass wares were analysed in 2010-2012. Lead and cadmium release were usually found to be below analytical detection limits. Permissible migration limits (as prescribed by the legislation) of these metals were rarely exceeded and were reported mainly in articles imported from outside the EU. Two imported and decorated ceramic flat plates released lead at 0.9 and 11.9 mg/dm2 (limit 0.8 mg/dm2) and 5 imported deep plates gave migration values of 4.7 mg/L, 4.9 mg/L, 5.6 mg/L, 6.1 mg/L, 8.6 mg/L (limit 4.0 mg/L). Lead migrations from ceramic ware rims

  16. Growth of Bi doped cadmium zinc telluride single crystals by Bridgman oscillation method and its structural, optical, and electrical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcelen, V.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, J.; Dieguez, E.; Hidalgo, P.

    2010-01-01

    The II-VI compound semiconductor cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) is very useful for room temperature radiation detection applications. In the present research, we have successfully grown Bi doped CZT single crystals with two different zinc concentrations (8 and 14 at. %) by the Bridgman oscillation method, in which one experiment has been carried out with a platinum (Pt) tube as the ampoule support. Pt also acts as a cold finger and reduces the growth velocity and enhances crystalline perfection. The grown single crystals have been studied with different analysis methods. The stoichiometry was confirmed by energy dispersive by x-ray and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy analyses and it was found there is no incorporation of impurities in the grown crystal. The presence of Cd and Te vacancies was determined by cathodoluminescence studies. Electrical properties were assessed by I-V analysis and indicated higher resistive value (8.53x10 8 Ω cm) for the crystal grown with higher zinc concentration (with Cd excess) compare to the other (3.71x10 5 Ω cm).

  17. Human exposure to pollutants - part: 1 blood lead and cadmium in a sample of population of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousufzai, A.H.K.; Khalid, Q.; Sultana, L.

    1994-01-01

    A study was carried out to see the blood lead and cadmium levels in fifty employees working at PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Karachi. These employees belonged to various socio-economic groups and had their residences in different areas of Karachi. Sixty two percent staff had blood lead level between 100-200 micro g/L. The highest blood lead level(>400 micro g/L) was found in volunteers working as garage staff. No significant difference was found between the blood lead levels of volunteers belonging to different socio-economic and age groups, only 8% of the staff had blood lead levels below 100 micro g/L. Lead in the dust collected from the residences of the volunteers was also estimated for lead and correlated with blood lead levels. Blood cadmium levels were also estimated. These were found to be higher in smokers and tobacco chewers. A definite correlation was observed between blood cadmium levels and smoking habits. (author)

  18. Determination of mercury, lead and cadmium in water by the CRA-atomic absorption spectrophotometry with solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Y.B.; Won, M.S.; Kim, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The method of CRA-atomic absorption spectrophotometer with solvent extraction for the determination of mercury, lead and cadmium in water was studied. The optimum extracting conditions for CRA-atomic absorption spectrophotometry were the following: the complexes of mercury, lead and cadmium with dithizone were separated from the aqueous solution and concentrated into the 10 ml chloroform solution. Back extraction was performed; the concentrated mercury, lead and cadmium was extracted from the chloroform solution into the 10 ml 6-normal aqueous hydrochloric acid solution. In this case, recovery ratios were the following: mercury was 94.7%, lead 97.7% and cadmium 103.6%. The optimum operating conditions for the determination of mercury, lead and cadmium by the CRA-atomic absorption spectrophotometry also were investigated to test the dry step, ash step and atomization step for each metal. The experimental results of standard addition method were the following: the determination limit of each metal within 6% relative deviation was that lead was 0.04 ppb, and cadmium 0.01 ppb. Especially, mercury has been known impossible to determine by CRA-atomic absorption spectrophotometry until now. But in this study, mercury can be determined with CRA-atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Its determination limit was 4 ppb within 8% relative deviation. (author)

  19. Crystal structure of Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein with a di-nuclear ferroxidase center in a zinc or cadmium-bound form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Hideshi, E-mail: h-yokoya@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Tsuruta, Osamu; Akao, Naoya; Fujii, Satoshi [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structures of a metal-bound Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two zinc ions were tetrahedrally coordinated by ferroxidase center (FOC) residues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two cadmium ions were coordinated in a trigonal-bipyramidal and octahedral manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The second metal ion was more weakly coordinated than the first at the FOC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A zinc ion was found in one negatively-charged pore suitable as an ion path. -- Abstract: Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP) is a Dps-like iron storage protein forming a dodecameric shell, and promotes adhesion of neutrophils to endothelial cells. The crystal structure of HP-NAP in a Zn{sup 2+}- or Cd{sup 2+}-bound form reveals the binding of two zinc or two cadmium ions and their bridged water molecule at the ferroxidase center (FOC). The two zinc ions are coordinated in a tetrahedral manner to the conserved residues among HP-NAP and Dps proteins. The two cadmium ions are coordinated in a trigonal-bipyramidal and distorted octahedral manner. In both structures, the second ion is more weakly coordinated than the first. Another zinc ion is found inside of the negatively-charged threefold-related pore, which is suitable for metal ions to pass through.

  20. Biomonitoring of lead and cadmium in women from industrial regions of eastern Germany; Biomonitoring von Blei und Cadmium bei Frauen aus industriellen Regionen Sachsen-Anhalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, I.; Wichmann, H.E. [Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Epidemiologie; GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie; Becker, K.; Lippold, U.; Meyer, E. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Heinrich, J. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this analysis was to detemine the body burden of lead and cadmium in women aged 50 to 59 years from a mining and smelter area (Hettstedt) and two control areas (Bitterfeld, Zerbst) in eastern Germany. In the years 1992-93 1405 women aged 50 to 59 participated in a cross-sectional survey (response rate: 41.6%). 1188 women provided blood and urine samples and in 411 of these samples blood lead levels and cadmium levels in urine (standardised by creatinine) were determined. The geometric mean of blood lead levels among the 50 to 59 year-old woman was 41.5 {mu}g/l with a 95% confidence interval (C.I.) of 39.6-43.6. The geometric mean of cadmium in urine was 0.417 {mu}g/g Cr (95% C.I. 0.390-0.447). Thus the body burden of lead and cadmium differed only slightly, if at all, from the body burden of the general population. The measured body burden did not pose a risk to the evaluated population. Compared to women from the control regions Bitterfeld and Zerbst, women from Hettstedt did not have elevated blood lead levels. Blood lead levels, which reflect mostly the current exposure to lead, were positively influenced by individual behaviours such as smoking and by the distance of the residential area of Hettstedt from the former smelters. Besides this, elevated lead concentrations in tap water and the release of lead from bone after menopause resulted in increased blood lead levels. Compared to women from the control regions women from Hettstedt had significantly increased cadmium excretion in urine. Cadmium levels in urine reflect mainly the cumulative, lifetime exposure to cadmium. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Untersuchung hatte zum Ziel, die innere Belastung von Frauen mit Blei und Cadmium in den Regionen Hettstedt (Huettenstandort), Bitterfeld und Zerbst zu untersuchen. 1992/93 nahmen 1405 50- bis 59-jaehrige Frauen an einer Querschnittsuntersuchung teil (Teilnahmerate: 41,6%). In 411 Blut- bzw. Urin-Proben wurden die Bleikonzentration im Blut und die

  1. Contamination by cadmium and lead of some fruits and vegetables exposed to polluted air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohra, R.

    2004-01-01

    Author.Global air pollution and particularly in the urban cities derives from vehicle transportation (cars, buses, trucks) and electric generators. In Lebanon, many people use fuel diesel and leaded gasoline in the engines of their vehicles. Indeed, the fuel used in our country, contains thirteen times more pollutants than that used legally in the developed countries (Magazine de l'environnement, 2002). This contributes to the pollution of the air that we breathe as well as the fruits and vegetables exposed to air. 762 samples of four kinds of different fruits (peaches, apples, strawberries and grapes) and two kinds of vegetables (parsleys and cucumbers) were taken twice and during different periods from eight different places in laps of time of seven days. The samples were analyzed in the laboratories of IRAL at Fanar and Tal-Amara, using the Spectroscopy Atomic Absorption method. The analysis included two groups of samples: the first one comprises 192 samples of fruits and vegetables without peeling and the second one comprises 570 samples of fruit and vegetables with peeling. The average values of the non washed samples were between 0.13 ±0.012 and 0.6 ppm ± 0.02 for lead and 0.06 ± 0.015 and 0.18 ppm ± 0.02 for cadmium. Those of the non washed peelings were between 0.08 ± 0.015 and 0.38 ppm ±0.025 for lead and 0.03 ±0.006 and 0.11 ppm ± for cadmium. On the other hand, those of the non-washed peeled samples were between 0.05 ± 0.01 and 0.27 ppm ± 0.016 for lead and 0.03 ± 0.016 and lead and 0.03 ± 0.06 and 0.07 ppm ± 0.015 for cadmium. Once these samples were washed , the average values were marked between 0.03 ± 0.006 and 0.15 ppm ± 0.02 for the lead and 0.02 ± 0.006 and 0.06 ppm ± 0.015 for the cadmium. Then, after drying them, concentrations revealed to be comprised between 0.02 ± 0.005 and 0.1 ppm ± 0.02 for the lead and 0.01 and 0.04 ppm ± 0.006 for the cadmium and that of the washing water was concentrated between 0.09 ± 0.016 and 0

  2. Arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium: Toxicity, levels in breast milk and the risks for breastfed infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebelo, Fernanda Maciel [Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency, University of Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Caldas, Eloisa Dutra, E-mail: eloisa@unb.br [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacy, University of Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    Metals are ubiquitous in nature, being found in all environmental compartments, and have a variety of applications in human activities. Metals are transferred by maternal blood to the fetus via the placenta, and exposure continues throughout life. For the general population, exposure comes mainly from water and food consumption, including breast milk. In this paper, we reviewed studies on the toxicity of arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium, the toxic metals of most concern to human health, focusing on the potential risks to newborns and infants. A total of 75 studies published since 2000 reporting the levels of these metals in breast milk were reviewed. Lead was the metal most investigated in breast milk (43 studies), and for which the highest levels were reported (up to 1515 µg/L). Arsenic was the least investigated (18 studies), with higher levels reported for breast milk (up to 149 µg/L) collected in regions with high arsenic concentrations in water (>10 µg/L). Data from 34 studies on mercury showed that levels in breast milk were generally higher in populations with high fish consumption, where it may be present mainly as MeHg. Cadmium levels in breast milk were the lowest, with means <2 µg/L in most of the 29 studies reviewed. Results of risk assessments indicated that the intake of arsenic, lead and mercury by infants through breastfeeding can be considered a health concern in most regions of the world. Although the potential risks to infants are mostly outweighed by the benefits of breast milk consumption, it is essential that contaminants be continuously monitored, especially in the most critical regions, and that measures be implemented by health authorities to reduce exposure of newborns and infants to these metals, and thus avoid unnecessary health risks. - Highlights: • Review of 75 studies that analyzed arsenic, lead, mercury and/or cadmium levels. • Higher levels of arsenic found in India; of mercury found in Brazil. • Lead was the most

  3. Arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium: Toxicity, levels in breast milk and the risks for breastfed infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelo, Fernanda Maciel; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2016-01-01

    Metals are ubiquitous in nature, being found in all environmental compartments, and have a variety of applications in human activities. Metals are transferred by maternal blood to the fetus via the placenta, and exposure continues throughout life. For the general population, exposure comes mainly from water and food consumption, including breast milk. In this paper, we reviewed studies on the toxicity of arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium, the toxic metals of most concern to human health, focusing on the potential risks to newborns and infants. A total of 75 studies published since 2000 reporting the levels of these metals in breast milk were reviewed. Lead was the metal most investigated in breast milk (43 studies), and for which the highest levels were reported (up to 1515 µg/L). Arsenic was the least investigated (18 studies), with higher levels reported for breast milk (up to 149 µg/L) collected in regions with high arsenic concentrations in water (>10 µg/L). Data from 34 studies on mercury showed that levels in breast milk were generally higher in populations with high fish consumption, where it may be present mainly as MeHg. Cadmium levels in breast milk were the lowest, with means <2 µg/L in most of the 29 studies reviewed. Results of risk assessments indicated that the intake of arsenic, lead and mercury by infants through breastfeeding can be considered a health concern in most regions of the world. Although the potential risks to infants are mostly outweighed by the benefits of breast milk consumption, it is essential that contaminants be continuously monitored, especially in the most critical regions, and that measures be implemented by health authorities to reduce exposure of newborns and infants to these metals, and thus avoid unnecessary health risks. - Highlights: • Review of 75 studies that analyzed arsenic, lead, mercury and/or cadmium levels. • Higher levels of arsenic found in India; of mercury found in Brazil. • Lead was the most

  4. Increasing cadmium and zinc levels in wild common eiders breeding along Canada's remote northern coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallory, Mark L., E-mail: mark.mallory@acadiau.ca [Biology Department, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia B4P 2R6 (Canada); Braune, Birgit M. [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 (Canada); Robertson, Gregory J. [Environment Canada, Wildlife Research Division, 6 Bruce Street, Mount Pearl, Newfoundland and Labrador A1N 4T3 (Canada); Gilchrist, H. Grant [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 (Canada); Mallory, Conor D. [Chemistry Department, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Forbes, Mark R. [Biology Department, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Wells, Regina [Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, 512 Lahr Boulevard, Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador A0P 1C0 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    The common eider (Somateria mollissima) is an abundant sea duck breeding around the circumpolar Arctic, and is an important component of subsistence and sport harvest in some regions. We determined hepatic cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the livers of breeding females sampled during three time periods including 1992/3, 2001/2 and 2008 at three sites spanning 53.7°N–75.8°N in the eastern Canadian Arctic. At all sites, concentrations of both Cd and Zn increased ∼ 300% over this time period. The reasons for this rapid increase in concentrations are unclear. - Highlights: • Cd and Zn analyzed in common eider (Somateria mollissima) liver tissue in Canadian Arctic from sites spanning 3000 km. • ∼ 300% increase in concentrations observed over ∼ 20 years • Levels of both elements considered high and near levels thought to pose concerns for wildlife health.

  5. Gastrointestinal and in vitro release of copper, cadmium, indium, mercury and zinc from conventional and copper-rich amalgams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Gjerdet, N.; Paulsen, G.

    1983-01-01

    Particles of a conventional lathe-cut, a spherical non-gamma 2 and a copper amalgam have been gastrointestinally administered to rats for the purpose of evaluation of the dissolution resistance. The animals were sacrificed after 20 hrs. The contents of copper, cadmium, indium, mercury and zinc in kidney, liver, lung or blood were measured using nuclear tracer techniques. From a copper amalgam an extreme release of copper was demonstrated. This study simulates the clinical conditions of elemental release from swallowed amalgam particles after amalgam insertion or after removal of old amalgam fillings. Specimens of the same types of amalgams were also exposed to artificial saliva for a period of 10 days. The amounts of copper and mercury released were measured with flame and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry respectively. The levels of copper and mercury released from the copper amalgam were approximately 50 times those of the two other amalgam types studied. (author)

  6. Interaction of cadmium and zinc in biological samples of smokers and chewing tobacco female mouth cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Naveed; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Baig, Jamil Ahmed; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency and high accumulation of cadmium (Cd) may be associated with increased risk of cancer. The incidence of mouth cancer has increased among females, who possess habits of chewing tobacco with gradients (areca nut and betel quid) and smoking tobacco in Pakistan. In present study, we measured the concentration of Cd and Zn in 96 mouth cancer patients (MCPs) and 110 female controls/referents (67 smoker and chewing tobacco), while 43 have none of smoking and chewing tobacco habits, belongs to different cities of Pakistan. Both controls and patients have same age group (ranged 35-65 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The Zn and Cd were determined by flame/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion method. The Cd/Zn ratio in both biological samples was also calculated. The results of this study showed that the mean value of Zn was lower, while the mean concentration of Cd was higher in the blood and scalp hair samples of MCPs as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). The controls chewing and smoking tobacco have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to those have not smoking or chewing tobacco (p < 0.012). The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in MCPs than control subjects. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking, deficiency of Zn and cancer risk.

  7. Interaction of cadmium and zinc in biological samples of smokers and chewing tobacco female mouth cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Wadhwa, Sham Kumar, E-mail: wadhwashamkumar@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Naveed, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Baig, Jamil Ahmed, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kolachi, Nida Fatima [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Arain, Muhammad Balal, E-mail: bilal_ku2004@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics and Basic Sciences, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan)

    2010-04-15

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency and high accumulation of cadmium (Cd) may be associated with increased risk of cancer. The incidence of mouth cancer has increased among females, who possess habits of chewing tobacco with gradients (areca nut and betel quid) and smoking tobacco in Pakistan. In present study, we measured the concentration of Cd and Zn in 96 mouth cancer patients (MCPs) and 110 female controls/referents (67 smoker and chewing tobacco), while 43 have none of smoking and chewing tobacco habits, belongs to different cities of Pakistan. Both controls and patients have same age group (ranged 35-65 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The Zn and Cd were determined by flame/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion method. The Cd/Zn ratio in both biological samples was also calculated. The results of this study showed that the mean value of Zn was lower, while the mean concentration of Cd was higher in the blood and scalp hair samples of MCPs as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). The controls chewing and smoking tobacco have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to those have not smoking or chewing tobacco (p < 0.012). The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in MCPs than control subjects. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking, deficiency of Zn and cancer risk.

  8. Lead and cadmium exposures from canned and non-canned beverages in Nigeria: A public health concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maduabuchi, J.-M.U. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Nzegwu, C.N. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Adigba, E.O. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Aloke, R.U. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Ezomike, C.N. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Okocha, C.E. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Obi, E. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Orisakwe, O.E. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria)]. E-mail: eorish@aol.com

    2006-08-01

    The lead and cadmium levels of canned and non-canned foods purchased in Nigeria were studied. Fifty samples of these beverages were digested in nitric acid and were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The cadmium levels ranged from 0.003-0.081 mg/L for the canned and 0.006-0.071 mg/L for non-canned beverages. About 85.71% of the canned beverages had cadmium levels that exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 0.005 mg/L set by US EPA while 82.7% non-canned beverages had cadmium levels exceeding the MCL. The mean and median levels of cadmium exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. Whereas only 79.3% of the non-canned beverages showed lead levels that exceeded the US EPA's MCL of 0.015 mg/L, 100% of the canned beverages had lead levels that were greater than the MCL. The range of the lead in the canned beverages was 0.002-0.0073 and 0.001-0.092 mg/L for the non-canned beverages. The mean and median values of lead exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. The calculated amount of lead and cadmium in three beverages were 0.204 mg (204 {mu}g) and 0.177 mg (177 {mu}g), respectively. These represent the estimated intake of a consumer who takes three of the products selected randomly in a week; assuming an average volume of one liter (1 L) for each product. Taken together 86% and 84% of the 50 beverages (canned and non-canned) studied in March, 2005 in Nigeria failed to meet the US EPA criteria for acceptable lead and cadmium levels in consumer products.

  9. Lead and cadmium exposures from canned and non-canned beverages in Nigeria: A public health concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduabuchi, J.-M.U.; Nzegwu, C.N.; Adigba, E.O.; Aloke, R.U.; Ezomike, C.N.; Okocha, C.E.; Obi, E.; Orisakwe, O.E.

    2006-01-01

    The lead and cadmium levels of canned and non-canned foods purchased in Nigeria were studied. Fifty samples of these beverages were digested in nitric acid and were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The cadmium levels ranged from 0.003-0.081 mg/L for the canned and 0.006-0.071 mg/L for non-canned beverages. About 85.71% of the canned beverages had cadmium levels that exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 0.005 mg/L set by US EPA while 82.7% non-canned beverages had cadmium levels exceeding the MCL. The mean and median levels of cadmium exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. Whereas only 79.3% of the non-canned beverages showed lead levels that exceeded the US EPA's MCL of 0.015 mg/L, 100% of the canned beverages had lead levels that were greater than the MCL. The range of the lead in the canned beverages was 0.002-0.0073 and 0.001-0.092 mg/L for the non-canned beverages. The mean and median values of lead exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. The calculated amount of lead and cadmium in three beverages were 0.204 mg (204 μg) and 0.177 mg (177 μg), respectively. These represent the estimated intake of a consumer who takes three of the products selected randomly in a week; assuming an average volume of one liter (1 L) for each product. Taken together 86% and 84% of the 50 beverages (canned and non-canned) studied in March, 2005 in Nigeria failed to meet the US EPA criteria for acceptable lead and cadmium levels in consumer products

  10. Selective determination of cyanide complexes of copper, zinc and cadmium in electrolytes by spectrophotometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.V.; Korchagina, O.A.; Samorukova, O.L.

    1986-01-01

    Selective, sensitive and rapid method for determining Cd, Zn, Cu and their mixtures in cyanide electrolytes of galvanic bathes has been developed. Analysis is performed by means of indicator spectrophotometric titration with barium and strontium salts of cadmium cyanide complexes in organic-aqueous solvents

  11. SOME BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN SERUM AND TISSUES OF BROILERS EXPOSED TO CADMIUM AND TRIAL TO REDUCE ITS EFFECT BY ZINC SUPPLEMENTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAMAL, A.M.; ABD EL-HAKIM, T.; ABU-TALEB, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the changes in biochemical parameters of blood and tissue mineral levels caused by various levels of dietary cadmium (Cd) and the effects of zinc on cadmium-induced changes in broilers. A total of 210 days old broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 7 dietary groups of 30 chicks in each. Group 1 was feed basal diet and served as control group. The diets of the groups 2, 3 and 4 were supplemented with 50, 75 and 100 mg Cd/kg, respectively. Groups 5, 6 and 7 received 50, 75 and 100 mg Cd /kg plus 40 mg Zn/kg which added to the basal ration from one day to 42 days. Water and feed were provided ad libitum. The results showed that addition of Cd in the ration of broiler caused the significant reduction in live body weight as well as body weight gain and significant increase in serum total protein, globulin, urea, creatinine and activities of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH and GGT. In addition, Cd caused significant increases in triiodothyronine (T3), T3/T4 ratio and lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, decrease in calcium, phosphorus, zinc and cholesterol was observed while serum glucose did not affect by cadmium.Supplementation of zinc in the diet of broiler improved the reduction in body weight and body weight gain and also increased calcium, phosphorus and zinc and improved liver and kidney functions

  12. Cadmium and lead in tissues of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) using the Illinois River (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levengood, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Tissue lead and cadmium concentrations were examined in two common, widely distributed species of duck, utilizing a major river system. - Cadmium and lead concentrations were determined in the tissues of Mallards and Wood Ducks collected from two waterfowl management areas along the Illinois River, USA, during the autumn and late winter of 1997-1998. Lead concentrations in livers of Mallards were lower than previously reported, and, along with those in a small sample of Wood Duck livers, were within background levels (<2.0 μg/g wet weight). Mean concentrations of cadmium in the kidneys of Wood Ducks utilizing the Illinois River were four times greater than in after-hatch-year Mallards, and 14 times greater than in hatch-year Mallards. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidneys of Wood Ducks were comparable with those of specimens dosed with cadmium or inhabiting contaminated areas in previous studies. Wood Ducks utilizing wetlands associated with the Illinois River, and presumably other portions of the lower Great Lakes region, may be chronically exposed to cadmium

  13. Strong positive association of traditional Asian-style diets with blood cadmium and lead levels in the Korean adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-12-01

    Blood lead and cadmium levels are more than twofold to fivefold higher in the Korean population compared to that of the USA. This may be related to the foods consumed. We examined which food categories are related to blood lead and cadmium levels in the Korean adult population using the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 5504). High and moderate consumption of bread and crackers, potatoes, meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, and pizza and hamburger resulted in significantly lower odds ratios for blood lead levels than their low consumption. However, consumption of salted fish, white fish, green vegetables, white and yellow vegetables, coffee, and alcohol resulted in significantly higher odds ratios of blood lead and cadmium. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet based on rice, fish, vegetables, regular coffee, and alcoholic drinks may be associated with higher blood cadmium and lead levels. This study suggests that lead and cadmium contents should be monitored and controlled in agricultural products to reduce health risks from heavy metals.

  14. Analysis of Lead and Zinc by Mercury-Free Potentiometric Stripping Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    1997-01-01

    A method is presented for trace-element analysis of lead and zinc by potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) where both the glassy-carbon working electrode and the electrolyte are free of mercury. Analysis of zinc requires an activation procedure of the glassy-carbon electrode. The activation...... is performed by pre-concentrating zinc on glassy carbon at -1400 mV(SCE) in a mercury-free electrolyte containing 0.1 M HCl and 2 ppm Zn2+, followed by stripping at approx. -1050 mV. A linear relationship between stripping peak areas, recorded in the derivative mode, and concentration was found...

  15. Zinc, nickel and cadmium in carambolas marketed in Guangzhou and Hong Kong, China: Implication for human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.T.; Liao, B.; Lan, C.Y.; Qiu, J.W.; Shu, W.S.

    2007-01-01

    Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) is a popular juicy fruit throughout the tropical and subtropical world. This study was designed to quantify the levels of zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) in carambolas marketed in southern China, and further to evaluate the potential health risk of human consumption of carambola. Zinc concentrations, ranging from 1.471 to 2.875 mg/kg (on fresh weight basis), were below the maximum permissible concentration for Zn in fruit of China (5 mg/kg). However, Ni concentrations (0.134-0.676 mg/kg) were considerably higher than the related recommendation values. Furthermore, Cd concentrations in 51% of the carambolas purchased from Guangzhou exceeded the maximum permissible concentration for Cd in fruit of China (0.03 mg/kg). Our results implicated that the consumption of 0.385 kg carambola contaminated by Cd per day would cause the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of Cd by the consumer to be exceeded. In addition, the remarkably high Ni concentrations in carambolas should also be of concern. The status of heavy metal contamination of carambola products marketed in the other regions and their implications for human health should be identified urgently by in-depth studies

  16. Phytoavailability, human risk assessment and transfer characteristics of cadmium and zinc contamination from urban gardens in Kano, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu, Nafiu; Agbenin, John O; Buerkert, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative data about phytoavailability and transfer into consumed plant parts for heavy metals in intensively managed urban vegetable production areas of sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. We therefore studied the transfer of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) from soil to the root and subsequent translocation to edible portions of four vegetables in six urban gardens. While respective diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-available Zn and Cd concentrations ranged from 18 to 66 mg kg(-1) and from 0.19 to 0.35 mg kg(-1) , respectively, in soils, total Zn and Cd were 8.4-256 mg kg(-1) and 0.04-1.7 mg kg(-1) in shoot parts. Metal transfer factor (MTF) ratios were higher in Zn (0.2-0.9) than in Cd (0.1-0.6). Our data suggest that total Zn concentration in soil is a reliable indicator to assess its transfer from soil to crop in lettuce, carrot and parsley, while for Cd DTPA-extractable concentration may be used to estimate soil-crop transfer of Cd in amaranthus and carrot. Overall, Cd was more easily translocated to the aerial plant parts than Zn. Zinc and Cd accumulation by vegetables in our soils is mainly a metabolically controlled process. Such accumulation can contaminate the ecosystem but under our conditions intake and ingestion of these metals will likely have to occur over a prolonged period to experience health hazard. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Zinc, nickel and cadmium in carambolas marketed in Guangzhou and Hong Kong, China: Implication for human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.T.; Liao, B.; Lan, C.Y. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275, Guangdong (China); Qiu, J.W. [Deparment of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Shu, W.S. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275, Guangdong (China)], E-mail: shuws@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2007-12-15

    Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) is a popular juicy fruit throughout the tropical and subtropical world. This study was designed to quantify the levels of zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) in carambolas marketed in southern China, and further to evaluate the potential health risk of human consumption of carambola. Zinc concentrations, ranging from 1.471 to 2.875 mg/kg (on fresh weight basis), were below the maximum permissible concentration for Zn in fruit of China (5 mg/kg). However, Ni concentrations (0.134-0.676 mg/kg) were considerably higher than the related recommendation values. Furthermore, Cd concentrations in 51% of the carambolas purchased from Guangzhou exceeded the maximum permissible concentration for Cd in fruit of China (0.03 mg/kg). Our results implicated that the consumption of 0.385 kg carambola contaminated by Cd per day would cause the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of Cd by the consumer to be exceeded. In addition, the remarkably high Ni concentrations in carambolas should also be of concern. The status of heavy metal contamination of carambola products marketed in the other regions and their implications for human health should be identified urgently by in-depth studies.

  18. Zinc, nickel and cadmium in carambolas marketed in Guangzhou and Hong Kong, China: implication for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J T; Liao, B; Lan, C Y; Qiu, J W; Shu, W S

    2007-12-15

    Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) is a popular juicy fruit throughout the tropical and subtropical world. This study was designed to quantify the levels of zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) in carambolas marketed in southern China, and further to evaluate the potential health risk of human consumption of carambola. Zinc concentrations, ranging from 1.471 to 2.875 mg/kg (on fresh weight basis), were below the maximum permissible concentration for Zn in fruit of China (5 mg/kg). However, Ni concentrations (0.134-0.676 mg/kg) were considerably higher than the related recommendation values. Furthermore, Cd concentrations in 51% of the carambolas purchased from Guangzhou exceeded the maximum permissible concentration for Cd in fruit of China (0.03 mg/kg). Our results implicated that the consumption of 0.385 kg carambola contaminated by Cd per day would cause the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of Cd by the consumer to be exceeded. In addition, the remarkably high Ni concentrations in carambolas should also be of concern. The status of heavy metal contamination of carambola products marketed in the other regions and their implications for human health should be identified urgently by in-depth studies.

  19. Exposure of cultured human proximal tubular cells to cadmium, mercury, zinc and bismuth: toxicity and metallothionein induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, V; Miles, A T; Jenner, W; Hawksworth, G M

    1998-08-14

    The kidney, in particular the proximal convoluted tubule, is a major target site for the toxic effects of various metals. However, little is known about the early effects of these metals after acute exposure in man. In the present study we have evaluated the toxicity of several inorganic metal compounds (CdCl2, HgCl2, ZnCl2, and Bi(NO3)3) and the induction of metallothionein by these compounds in cultured human proximal tubular (HPT) cells for up to 4 days. The results showed that bismuth was not toxic even at the highest dose (100 microM) used, while zinc, cadmium and mercury exhibited varying degrees of toxicity, zinc being the least toxic and mercury the most potent. A significant degree of interindividual variation between the different isolates used in these experiments was also observed. All metals used in the present study induced MT, as revealed by immunocytochemistry. All metals showed maximal induction between 1 and 3 days after treatment. Although a certain amount of constitutive MT was present in the cultures, the intensity of the staining varied with time in culture and between the different isolates studied. No correlation could be made between the intensity of the staining in control cultures (indicating total amount of constitutive MT) and the susceptibility of a given isolate to metal toxicity. Furthermore, no correlation could be made between metal-induced MT and the susceptibility of a given isolate to that particular metal.

  20. Lead, zinc and pHconcentrationsof Enyigba soils in Abakaliki Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... Lead is relatively unavailable to plants when the soil pH is above 6.5, while availability of zinc ... zinc, in a soil is available for uptake by plants or move- ment down the soil profile depends on a range of .... incineration as manure including the natural occurrence of rock or ore bodies with high levels of trace ...

  1. Evaluation of the cadmium and lead phytoextraction by castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) in hydroponics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Z. X.; Sun, L. N.

    2017-06-01

    Phytoextraction has been considered as an innovative method to remove toxic metals from soil; higher biomass plants such as castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) have already been considered as a hyperaccumulating candidate. In the present study, castor bean was used to accumulate the cadmium and lead in hydroponic culture, and the root exudates and biomass changes were analyzed. Results demonstrated that ratios of aerial biomass/ root biomass (AW/RW) in treatments declined with concentrations of Cd or Pb. Optical density (OD) at 190 nm and 280 nm of root exudates observed in Cd and Pb treatments were lower than the control. In single Cd or Pb treatments, bioconcentration factors (BCF) of Cd or Pb increased with time and decreased with concentrations, the highest BCFs appeared in Cd5 (14.36) and Pb50 (6.48), respectively. Cd-BCF or Pb-BCF showed positive correlations with AW/RW ratios and OD values, and they were negative correlated with Cd and Pb concentration. Results in this study may supply useful information for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium and lead in situ.

  2. Flow injection determination of lead and cadmium in hair samples from workers exposed to welding fumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cespon-Romero, R.M.; Yebra-Biurrun, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    A flow injection procedure involving continuous acid leaching for lead and cadmium determination in hair samples of persons in permanent contact with a polluted workplace environment by flame atomic absorption spectrometry is proposed. Variables such as sonication time, nature and concentration of the acid solution used as leaching solution, leaching temperature, flow-rate of the continuous manifold, leaching solution volume and hair particle size were simultaneously studied by applying a Plackett-Burman design approach. Results showed that nitric acid concentration (leaching solution), leaching temperature and sonication time were statistically significant variables (confidence interval of 95%). These last two variables were finally optimised by using a central composite design. The proposed procedure allowed the determination of cadmium and lead with limits of detection 0.1 and 1.0 μg g -1 , respectively. The accuracy of the developed procedure was evaluated by the analysis of a certified reference material (CRM 397, human hair, from the BCR). The proposed method was applied with satisfactory results to the determination of Cd and Pb in human hair samples of workers exposed to welding fumes

  3. Lead, cadmium, and mercury contents of fungi in the Helsinki area and in unpolluted control areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuusi, T.; Liukkonen-Lilja, H.; Piepponen, S.; Laaksovirta, K.; Lodenius, M.

    1981-10-01

    More than 40 species of wild-growing fungi in Finland have been investigated with regard to their contents of lead, cadmium and mercury. A total of 326 samples was studied, 242 being from the urban area of Helsinki and 84 from unpolluted rural areas. The lead content ranged from < 0.5 to 78 mg/kg of dry matter. In the control areas the mean contents for the different species ranged from < 0.5 to 13 mg/kg, and in the urban area from 0.5 to 16.8 mg/kg. The cadmium content ranged from < 0.2 to 101 mg/kg of dry matter. In the control areas the mean contents for the different species ranged from < 0.2 to 16.8 mg/kg, and in the urban area from < 0.2 to 17.3 mg/kg. The mercury content ranged from < 0.01 to 95 mg/kg of dry matter. In the rural areas the mean contents for the diferent species ranged from 0.03 to 4.2 mg/kg, and in the urban area from 0.02 to 14.1 mg/kg. In conclusion, consumption of those fungi that grow in unpolluted rural areas carries no risk, particularly when they belong to mycorrhizal species. In urban areas the risk is somewhat greater. The Agaricus species show the highest contents of the metals studied and their use as food requires caution.

  4. Electrochemical Microsensors for the Detection of Cadmium(II and Lead(II Ions in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Krystofova

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Routine determination of trace metals in complex media is still a difficult task for many analytical instruments. The aim of this work was to compare three electro-chemical instruments [a standard potentiostat (Autolab, a commercially available miniaturized potentiostat (PalmSens and a homemade micropotentiostat] for easy-to-use and sensitive determination of cadmium(II and lead(II ions. The lowest detection limits (hundreds of pM for both metals was achieved by using of the standard potentiostat, followed by the miniaturized potentiostat (tens of nM and the homemade instrument (hundreds of nM. Nevertheless, all potentiostats were sensitive enough to evaluate contamination of the environment, because the environmental limits for both metals are higher than detection limits of the instruments. Further, we tested all used potentiostats and working electrodes on analysis of environmental samples (rainwater, flour and plant extract with artificially added cadmium(II and lead(II. Based on the similar results obtained for all potentiostats we choose a homemade instrument with a carbon tip working electrode for our subsequent environmental experiments, in which we analyzed maize and sunflower seedlings and rainwater obtained from various sites in the Czech Republic.

  5. Lead and Cadmium: Priorities for action from UNEP’s perspective for addressing risks posed by these two heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP has been focusing on actions with regard to lead and cadmium since 2001 when the work of the Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles (PCFV was initiated. The development and finalization of the reviews of scientific information on lead and cadmium facilitated discussions among Governments in relation to the need for global action with regard to these heavy metals. UNEP continues to address priority areas for focusing to reduce risks posed by lead and cadmium. The Global Alliance to Eliminate Lead Paint (GAELP is a clear example for addressing those risks; however more work is expected to be done in relation to these key issues.

  6. Health Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution (Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic in Citrus Marketed in Tehran, Iran, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Saleh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Today, the environment pollution with heavy metals has increased. It is important to study various types of pollutions specially those regarding fruits. The effect of pollutions on food safety for human consumption is a global concern.  This study was conducted for health assessment of heavy metals pollution (cadmium, lead, and arsenic in citrus marketed in Tehran, Iran in 2015. Materials & Methods: After collecting and preparing 2 samples from each citrus species (tangerine, grapefruit, sweet lime, sour orange, orange with acid digestion method, the citrus pulp and peel were surveyed. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES was used to determine the concentrations of heavy metals with three replications. Moreover, SPSS version 19 was employed to perform statistical analysis. Results: The results showed that the concentration average of Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic in citrus samples of the pulp parts were 19.73, 42.95 and 2.30 mg/kg and in peel parts were 20.09, 42.71 and 2.12 mg/kg, respectively. The average concentrations of heavy metals were higher than WHO maximum permissible limits. Conclusions: Based on these results, consumption of citrus species has no adverse effect on the consumers’ health (except Sweet lime, Orange, Tangerine and Grapefruit in lead is risky for adults and Sweet lime and Orange that Health Index in Lead and Arsenic and Sour Orange, Tangerine and Grapefruit that Health Index in Lead is more than 1 and is risky for children. Thus, individuals living in Tehran should be cautious about using these citrus fruits and researchers should try to obtain national standards in the field of entering these metals to food in environmental conditions that are in Iran.

  7. Environmental pollution levels of lead and zinc in Ishiagu and Uburu communities of Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oje, Obinna A; Uzoegwu, Peter N; Onwurah, Ikechukwu N E; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U

    2010-09-01

    Water and soil samples from the area were therefore analyzed for their lead and zinc content. Computation of pollution statuses of lead and zinc revealed topsoil lead geoaccumulation indices of -0.143 and -0.069 and zinc geoaccumulation indices of 1.168 and 0.713 for Ishiagu and Uburu respectively. The pollution indices were determined to be 0.499 and 0.3564 for soil in Ishiagu and Uburu respectively and also 5.11 and 2.42 for water in Ishiagu and Uburu communities respectively. Water/soil concentration ratio were found to be 0.0018 and 0.0014 for lead in Ishiagu and Uburu respectively. On the other hand, the water/soil concentration ratio for zinc was computed to be 0.001 and 0.0008 for Ishiagu and Uburu respectively. These results seem to suggest that the pollution of the environment by these heavy metals in the areas were as a result of the water being contaminated by lead and zinc not necessarily their concentrations in the soil.

  8. Lead, zinc and pH concentrations of Enyigba soils in Abakaliki Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were quantitatively determined in surface and sub-surface soils in Enyigba, Ebonyi State, Nigerian's major lead mining area using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. pH status of the soils was similarly determined. The survey was conducted to establish a base line pollution ...

  9. House dust as possible route of environmental exposure to cadmium and lead in the adult general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogervorst, Janneke; Plusquin, Michelle; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Nawrot, Tim; Cuypers, Ann; Van Hecke, Etienne; Roels, Harry A.; Carleer, Robert; Staessen, Jan A.

    2007-01-01

    Contaminated soil particles and food are established routes of exposure. We investigated the relations between biomarkers of exposure to cadmium and lead, and the metal loading rates in house dust in the adult residents of an area with a soil cadmium concentration of >=3mg/kg (n=268) and a reference area (n=205). We determined the metal concentrations in house dust allowed to settle for 3 months in Petri dishes placed in the participants' bedrooms. The continuously distributed vegetable index was the first principal component derived from the metal concentrations in six different vegetables. The biomarkers of exposure (blood cadmium 9.2 vs. 6.2nmol/L; 24-h urinary cadmium 10.5 vs. 7.0nmol; blood lead 0.31 vs. 0.24μmol/L), the loading rates of cadmium and lead in house dust (0.29 vs. 0.12 and 7.52 vs. 3.62ng/cm 2 /92 days), and the vegetable indexes (0.31 vs. -0.44 and 0.13 vs. -0.29 standardized units) were significantly higher in the contaminated area. A two-fold increase in the metal loading rate in house dust was associated with increases (P<0.001) in blood cadmium (+2.3%), 24-h urinary cadmium (+3.0%), and blood lead (+2.0%), independent of the vegetable index and other covariates. The estimated effect sizes on the biomarkers of internal exposure were three times greater for house dust than vegetables. In conclusion, in the adult population, house dust is potentially an important route of exposure to heavy metals in areas with contaminated soils, and should be incorporated in the assessment of health risks

  10. Lead inhibition of DNA-binding mechanism of Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanas, J S; Rodgers, J S; Bantle, J A; Cheng, Y G

    1999-11-01

    The association of lead with chromatin in cells suggests that deleterious metal effects may in part be mediated through alterations in gene function. To elucidate if and how lead may alter DNA binding of cysteine-rich zinc finger proteins, lead ions were analyzed for their ability to alter the DNA binding mechanism of the Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger protein transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA). As assayed by DNase I protection, the interaction of TFIIIA with the 50-bp internal control region of the 5S ribosomal gene was partially inhibited by 5 microM lead ions and completely inhibited by 10 to 20 microM lead ions. Preincubation of free TFIIIA with lead resulted in DNA-binding inhibition, whereas preincubation of a TFIIIA/5S RNA complex with lead did not result in DNA-binding inhibition. Because 5S RNA binds TFIIIA zinc fingers, this result is consistent with an inhibition mechanism via lead binding to zinc fingers. The complete loss of DNase I protection on the 5S gene indicates the mechanism of inhibition minimally involves the N-terminal fingers of TFIIIA. Inhibition was not readily reversible and occurred in the presence of an excess of beta-mercaptoethanol. Inhibition kinetics were fast, progressing to completion in approximately 5 min. Millimolar concentrations of sulfhydryl-specific arsenic ions were not inhibitory for TFIIIA binding. Micromolar concentrations of lead inhibited DNA binding by Sp1, another Cys(2)His(2) finger protein, but not by the nonfinger protein AP2. Inhibition of Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger transcription factors by lead ions at concentrations near those known to have deleterious physiological effects points to new molecular mechanisms for lead toxicity in promoting disease.

  11. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the simultaneous separation of trace amounts of zinc and cadmium ions in water samples prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Zia Mohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the proposed method, carbon tetrachloride and ethanol were used as extraction and dispersive solvents. Several factors that may be affected on the extraction process, such as extraction solvent, disperser solvent, the volume of extraction and disperser solvent, pH of the aqueous solution and extraction time were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, linearity was maintained between 1.0 ng mL-1 to 1.5 mg mL-1 for zinc and 1.0 ng mL-1 to 0.4 mg mL-1 for cadmium. The proposed method has been applied for determination of trace amount of zinc and cadmium in standard and water samples with satisfactory results.

  12. The use of retardion 11A8 amphoteric ion exchange resin for separation and determination of cadmium and zinc in geological and environmental materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samczynski, Z.; Dybczynski, R.

    2001-01-01

    In this work the ion exchange separation scheme with the use of amphoteric ion exchange resin Retardion 11A8 underlying the method for the determination of cadmium and zinc in geological and environmental materials by neutron activation analysis has been devised. The accuracy of the elaborated method was tested by determining Cd and Zn content in two reference materials: Lake Sediment (SL-1) of environmental and Zinnwaldite ZW-C of geological origin. The results of quantitative determinations show good agreement with the certified values. Gamma ray spectra of zinc and cadmium fractions are practically free from other activities apart from those, which are normally observed in the background. Analytical results were corrected for the blank resulting from using reagents, glassware and contact with atmosphere when isolation of analytes before neutron activation is accomplished. Considerable minimization and good reproducibility of the blank was finally achieved.(authors)

  13. Effects of reaction conditions on the emission behaviors of arsenic, cadmium and lead during sewage sludge pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hengda; Hu, Song; Syed-Hassan, Syed Shatir A; Xiao, Yiming; Wang, Yi; Xu, Jun; Jiang, Long; Su, Sheng; Xiang, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Sewage sludge is an important class of bioresources whose energy content could be exploited using pyrolysis technology. However, some harmful trace elements in sewage sludge can escape easily to the gas phase during pyrolysis, increasing the potential of carcinogenic material emissions to the atmosphere. This study investigates emission characteristics of arsenic, cadmium and lead under different pyrolysis conditions for three different sewage sludge samples. The increased temperature (within 723-1123K) significantly promoted the cadmium and lead emissions, but its influence on arsenic emission was not pronounced. The releasing rate order of the three trace elements is volatile arsenic compounds>cadmium>lead in the beginning of pyrolysis. Fast heating rates promoted the emission of trace elements for the sludge containing the highest amount of ash, but exhibited an opposite effect for other studied samples. Overall, the high ash sludge released the least trace elements almost under all reaction conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Zinc and lead detoxifying abilities of humic substances relevant to environmental bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelomov, L V; Sarkar, Binoy; Sizova, O I; Chilachava, K B; Shvikin, A Y; Perelomova, I V; Atroshchenko, Y M

    2018-04-30

    The effect of humic substances (HS) and their different fractions (humic acids (HA) and hymatomelanic acids (HMA)) on the toxicity of zinc and lead to different strains of bacteria was studied. All tested bacteria demonstrated a lower resistance to zinc than lead showing minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.1 - 0.3mM and 0.3-0.5mM, respectively. The highest resistance to lead was characteristic of Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391 and Rhodococcus RS67, while Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391 showed the greatest resistance to zinc. The combined fractions of HS and HA alone reduced zinc toxicity at all added concentrations of the organic substances (50 - 200mgL -1 ) to all microorganisms, while hymatomelanic acids reduced zinc toxicity to Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391 at 200mgL -1 organic concentration only. The HS fractions imparted similar effects on lead toxicity also. This study demonstrated that heavy metal toxicity to bacteria could be reduced through complexation with HS and their fractions. This was particularly true when the metal-organic complexes held a high stability, and low solubility and bioavailability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Studies of cadmium, mercury and lead in man. The value of X-ray fluorescence measurements in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, J

    1996-10-01

    Two XRF methods have been used for in vivo studies of mercury, cadmium and lead. Persons with a history of long-term occupational mercury exposure had elevated mercury concentrations in their kidneys (up to 65 {mu}g/g). The minimum detectable concentration varied between 12 and 45 {mu}g/g. Battery plant workers had elevated cadmium concentrations in their kidneys (up to 350 {mu}g/g) and liver (up to 80 {mu}g/g), with mean values about 3-5 times higher than the general population. The mean ratio between concentrations of cadmium in kidney and liver was 7. Levels in kidney and liver indicated that a simple integration of cadmium in work-place air is not sufficient to describe the body burden. Fingerbone lead in smelters was 6-8 times higher than in members of the general population. The half-time of bone lead in active workers was estimated to about 5 years during the accumulation phase. A model for description of a person`s lead exposure in terms of lead in fingerbone, lead in blood and time of exposure has been developed and can be used, e.g. for retrospective blood lead estimates if the period of exposure and the current fingerbone lead is known. This will be of value for the evaluation of toxic effects of long-term lead exposure when data on previous lead levels are lacking. In total, in vivo measurements of mercury, cadmium and lead give unique information, which has shown to be an important tool for understanding of metal kinetics and toxicity. If the precision and accuracy of the method can be further improved, the technique will also have a given place in the clinical practice. 168 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Micro solid phase spectrophotometry in a sequential injection lab-on-valve platform for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Inês C. [CBQF–Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina – Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa/Porto, Rua Arquiteto Lobão Vital, Apartado 2511, 4202-401 Porto (Portugal); Mesquita, Raquel B.R. [CBQF–Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina – Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa/Porto, Rua Arquiteto Lobão Vital, Apartado 2511, 4202-401 Porto (Portugal); Laboratório de Hidrobiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar (ICBAS), Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira no. 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Rangel, António O.S.S., E-mail: arangel@porto.ucp.pt [CBQF–Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina – Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa/Porto, Rua Arquiteto Lobão Vital, Apartado 2511, 4202-401 Porto (Portugal)

    2015-09-03

    This work describes the development of a solid phase spectrophotometry method in a μSI-LOV system for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters. NTA (Nitrilotriacetic acid) beads with 60–160 μm diameter were packed in the flow cell of the LOV for a μSPE column of 1 cm length. The spectrophotometric determination is based on the colourimetric reaction between dithizone and the target metals, previously retained on NTA resin. The absorbance of the coloured product formed is measured, at 550 nm, on the surface of the NTA resin beads in a solid phase spectrophotometry approach. The developed method presented preconcentration factors in the range of 11–21 for the metal ions. A LOD of 0.23 μg L{sup −1} for cadmium, 2.39 μg L{sup −1} for zinc, and 0.11 μg L{sup −1} for copper and a sampling rate of 12, 13, and 15 h{sup −1} for cadmium, zinc, and copper were obtained, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to freshwater samples. - Highlights: • Multi-parametric determination of cadmium, zinc, and copper at the μg L{sup −1} level. • In-line metal ions preconcentration using NTA resin. • Minimization of matrix interferences by performing solid phase spectrometry in a SI-LOV platform. • Successful application to metal ions determination in freshwaters.

  17. Environmental risk assessment of lead-zinc mining: a case study of Adudu metallogenic province, middle Benue Trough, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwe, Ogbonnaya; Una, Chuku Okoro; Abu, Ezekiel; Adepehin, Ekundayo Joseph

    2017-09-07

    Assessment of the impacts of lead-zinc mining in Adudu-Imon metallogenic province was carried out. Reconnaissance and detailed field studies were done. Lithologies, stream sediments, farmland soils, mine tailings, artificial pond water, stream water, well water, and borehole water were collected and subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses. Geochemical maps were generated using ArcGIS 10.1. Significant contamination with cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), and lead (Pb) was recorded in the collected water samples. Virtually all collected soil samples were observed to be highly contaminated when compared with the European Union environmental policy standard. The discharge of mining effluents through farmlands to the Bakebu stream, which drains the area, further exposes the dwellers of this environment to the accumulation of potentially harmful metals (PHMs) in their bodies through the consumption of food crops, aquatic animals, and domestic uses of the water collected from the stream channels. The study revealed non-conformity of past mining operations in the Adudu-Imon province to existing mining laws in Nigeria. Inhabitants of this region should stop farming in the vicinity of the mines, fishing from the Bakebu stream channels should be discouraged, and domestic use of the water should be condemned, even as concerned government agencies put necessary mercenaries in place to ensure conformity of miners to standard mining regulations in Nigeria.

  18. [Remediation Pb, Cd contaminated soil in lead-zinc mining areas by hydroxyapatite and potassium chloride composites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Li, Yong-Hua; Ji, Yan-Fang; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Li, Hai-Rong; Zhang, Xiu-Wu; Yu, Jiang-Ping

    2011-07-01

    The composite agents containing potassium chloride (KCl) and Hydroxyapatite (HA) were used to remediate the lead and cadmium contaminated soil in Fenghuang lead-zinc mining-smelting areas, Hunan province. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate the influence of Cl- to the fixing efficiency of Pb and Cd by HA. Two types of contaminated soil (HF-1, HF-2) were chosen and forty treatments were set by five different Hydroxyapatite (HA) dosages and four different Cl- dosages. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to evaluate the results. It showed that HA could efficiently fix the Pb and Cd from TCLP form. The maximum Pb-fixing efficiency and Cd-fixing efficiency of two types of soil were 83.3%, 97.27% and 35.96%, 57.82% when the HA: Pb: KCl molar ratio was 8: 1: 2. Compared to the fixing efficiency without KCl, KCl at the KCl: Pb molar ratio of 2 improved Pb-fixing efficiency and Cd-fixing efficiency by 6.26%, 0.33% and 7.74%, 0.83% respectively when the HA: Pb molar ratio was 8. Generally, Cl- can improve the Pb/Cd-fixing efficiency in heavy metal contaminated soil by Hydroxyapatite.

  19. Micro solid phase spectrophotometry in a sequential injection lab-on-valve platform for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-09-03

    This work describes the development of a solid phase spectrophotometry method in a μSI-LOV system for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters. NTA (Nitrilotriacetic acid) beads with 60-160 μm diameter were packed in the flow cell of the LOV for a μSPE column of 1 cm length. The spectrophotometric determination is based on the colourimetric reaction between dithizone and the target metals, previously retained on NTA resin. The absorbance of the coloured product formed is measured, at 550 nm, on the surface of the NTA resin beads in a solid phase spectrophotometry approach. The developed method presented preconcentration factors in the range of 11-21 for the metal ions. A LOD of 0.23 μg L(-1) for cadmium, 2.39 μg L(-1) for zinc, and 0.11 μg L(-1) for copper and a sampling rate of 12, 13, and 15 h(-1) for cadmium, zinc, and copper were obtained, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to freshwater samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mobility of arsenic, cadmium and zinc in a multi-element contaminated soil profile assessed by in-situ soil pore water sampling, column leaching and sequential extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beesley, Luke; Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo; Clemente, Rafael; Lepp, Nicholas; Dickinson, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Three methods for predicting element mobility in soils have been applied to an iron-rich soil, contaminated with arsenic, cadmium and zinc. Soils were collected from 0 to 30 cm, 30 to 70 cm and 70 to 100 cm depths in the field and soil pore water was collected at different depths from an adjacent 100 cm deep trench. Sequential extraction and a column leaching test in the laboratory were compared to element concentrations in pore water sampled directly from the field. Arsenic showed low extractability, low leachability and occurred at low concentrations in pore water samples. Cadmium and zinc were more labile and present in higher concentrations in pore water, increasing with soil depth. Pore water sampling gave the best indication of short term element mobility when field conditions were taken into account, but further extraction and leaching procedures produced a fuller picture of element dynamics, revealing highly labile Cd deep in the soil profile. - Mobility of arsenic, cadmium and zinc in a polluted soil can be realistically interpreted by in-situ soil pore water sampling.

  1. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some early research suggests that zinc supplementation increases sperm count, testosterone levels, and pregnancy rates in infertile men with low testosterone levels. Other research suggests that taking zinc can improve sperm shape in men with moderate enlargement of a ...

  2. Cadmium, mercury, and lead in kidney cortex of living kidney donors: Impact of different exposure sources,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barregard, Lars, E-mail: lars.barregard@amm.gu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Fabricius-Lagging, Elisabeth [Department of Nephrology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and Boras Hospital (Sweden); Lundh, Thomas [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital and Lund University (Sweden); Moelne, Johan [Department of Clinical Pathology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Wallin, Maria [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Olausson, Michael [Department of Transplantation and Liver Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Modigh, Cecilia; Sallsten, Gerd [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Most current knowledge on kidney concentrations of nephrotoxic metals like cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb) comes from autopsy studies. Assessment of metal concentrations in kidney biopsies from living subjects can be combined with information about exposure sources like smoking, diet, and occupation supplied by the biopsied subjects themselves. Objectives: To determine kidney concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Pb in living kidney donors, and assess associations with common exposure sources and background factors. Methods: Metal concentrations were determined in 109 living kidney donors aged 24-70 years (median 51), using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Cd and Pb) and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Hg). Smoking habits, occupation, dental amalgam, fish consumption, and iron stores were evaluated. Results: The median kidney concentrations were 12.9 {mu}g/g (wet weight) for cadmium, 0.21 {mu}g/g for mercury, and 0.08 {mu}g/g for lead. Kidney Cd increased by 3.9 {mu}g/g for a 10 year increase in age, and by 3.7 {mu}g/g for an extra 10 pack-years of smoking. Levels in non-smokers were similar to those found in the 1970s. Low iron stores (low serum ferritin) in women increased kidney Cd by 4.5 {mu}g/g. Kidney Hg increased by 6% for every additional amalgam surface, but was not associated with fish consumption. Lead was unaffected by the background factors surveyed. Conclusions: In Sweden, kidney Cd levels have decreased due to less smoking, while the impact of diet seems unchanged. Dental amalgam is the main determinant of kidney Hg. Kidney Pb levels are very low due to decreased exposure.

  3. Cadmium, mercury, and lead in kidney cortex of living kidney donors: Impact of different exposure sources,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barregard, Lars; Fabricius-Lagging, Elisabeth; Lundh, Thomas; Moelne, Johan; Wallin, Maria; Olausson, Michael; Modigh, Cecilia; Sallsten, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    Background: Most current knowledge on kidney concentrations of nephrotoxic metals like cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb) comes from autopsy studies. Assessment of metal concentrations in kidney biopsies from living subjects can be combined with information about exposure sources like smoking, diet, and occupation supplied by the biopsied subjects themselves. Objectives: To determine kidney concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Pb in living kidney donors, and assess associations with common exposure sources and background factors. Methods: Metal concentrations were determined in 109 living kidney donors aged 24-70 years (median 51), using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Cd and Pb) and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Hg). Smoking habits, occupation, dental amalgam, fish consumption, and iron stores were evaluated. Results: The median kidney concentrations were 12.9 μg/g (wet weight) for cadmium, 0.21 μg/g for mercury, and 0.08 μg/g for lead. Kidney Cd increased by 3.9 μg/g for a 10 year increase in age, and by 3.7 μg/g for an extra 10 pack-years of smoking. Levels in non-smokers were similar to those found in the 1970s. Low iron stores (low serum ferritin) in women increased kidney Cd by 4.5 μg/g. Kidney Hg increased by 6% for every additional amalgam surface, but was not associated with fish consumption. Lead was unaffected by the background factors surveyed. Conclusions: In Sweden, kidney Cd levels have decreased due to less smoking, while the impact of diet seems unchanged. Dental amalgam is the main determinant of kidney Hg. Kidney Pb levels are very low due to decreased exposure.

  4. Study on complexed lead and cadmium ions removal from aqueous solutions by means of ion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudzinska, M.

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of simultaneous removal of heavy metal ions and organic chelates from waste water has been studied. The experimental work has been preceded by extensive theoretical considerations and calculations of physico-chemical parameters of the process for model and real waste water systems. The negative influence of the presence of sulfate anions on cadmium and lead complexes removal in ion exchange process has been experimentally proved. In the systems free of sulfate anions or when their concentrations were low, the purification process conducted on Amberlite IRA-68 was very effective for cadmium and lead complexes removal. 112 refs, 78 figs, 15 tabs

  5. Determination of serum cadmium and lead in patients of ischemic hear disease associated with or without hypertension and diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagra, S.A.; Zikrya, B.; Maqbool, T.

    1999-01-01

    Human health and trace minerals are closely associated with each other. The vital role of trace elements has become clear in the recent years. The relation of trace elements in serum varies with the state of human health, ecology and under different pathological conditions. Determination of cadmium, and lead in the blood serum of normal, hypertensive patients, Ischemic heart patients, diabetic patients, hypertensive patients having diabetes, ischemic heart patients with diabetes, and hypertensive patients having ischemic heart disease, was carried out by using atomic absorption spectroscopic techniques. The results indicated that the concentration of cadmium and lead was elevated as compared with the normal and discussed in this paper. (author)

  6. Application of extraction-chromatographic concentration to atomic absorption determination of lead and cadmium in drinking and sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shova, T.A.; Agapkina, G.I.; Ershova, N.I.; Narankho, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    To increase the detection limits for lead and cadmium atomic-absorption determination in natural waters methods of extraction-chromatographic concentration of these metals using tri-n-octylamine (TOA) on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is developed. Chromatograpy was carried out from 1.5-2.0 M HBr solutions. For cadmium and lead elution acetic acid was used. It is shown that extraction-chromatographic concentration permits to decrease limits of metal atomic-absorption detection by 10 3 with the 500 ml volume sample analysis

  7. Development of quantitative analysis for cadmium, lead and chromium in aluminum alloys by using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Kurusu, Kazuhiko; Kudou, Aiko

    2009-01-01

    A highly reliable quantitative analysis for cadmium, lead and chromium in aluminum alloys was developed. Standard samples were made by doping cadmium, lead and chromium into several aluminum alloys, and the composition of standard samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and gravimetric method. The calibration curves for these standard samples by using WD-XRF and ED-XRF exhibited linear correlation. Slope of calibration curves for Al-Cu alloy and Al-Zn-Mg alloy were smaller than other alloy's one, because of the effect by coexistent elements. Then, all calibration curves agreed with each other by performing correction with α-coefficient method. (author)

  8. Assessment of cadmium, copper and lead in marine species of the atlantic and pacific oceans of Guatemala by voltametry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Evelyn

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis results of measurements of cooper,