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Sample records for zinc affects concentrations

  1. Zinc Concentration in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Grains and Allocation in Plants as Affected by Different Zinc Fertilization Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Hong Juan; Gao, Xiao Peng; Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Li, Lu Jiu; Zhang, Fu Suo; Zou, Chun Qin

    2016-01-01

    Concern over the food chain transfer of zinc (Zn) is increasing because of its importance in human health. A field experiment was conducted on a low Zn soil to determine the effect of different Zn fertilization strategies on grain Zn concentration and Zn allocation in different plant tissues of

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi differentially affect the response to high zinc concentrations of two registered poplar clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingua, Guido; Franchin, Cinzia; Todeschini, Valeria; Castiglione, Stefano; Biondi, Stefania; Burlando, Bruno; Parravicini, Valerio; Torrigiani, Patrizia; Berta, Graziella

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a high concentration of zinc on two registered clones of poplar (Populus alba Villafranca and Populus nigra Jean Pourtet), inoculated or not with two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae or Glomus intraradices) before transplanting them into polluted soil, were investigated, with special regard to the extent of root colonization by the fungi, plant growth, metal accumulation in the different plant organs, and leaf polyamine concentration. Zinc accumulation was lower in Jean Pourtet than in Villafranca poplars, and it was mainly translocated to the leaves; the metal inhibited mycorrhizal colonization, compromised plant growth, and, in Villafranca, altered the putrescine profile in the leaves. Most of these effects were reversed or reduced in plants pre-inoculated with G. mosseae. Results indicate that poplars are suitable for phytoremediation purposes, confirming that mycorrhizal fungi can be useful for phytoremediation, and underscore the importance of appropriate combinations of plant genotypes and fungal symbionts. - Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can improve poplar tolerance to heavy metals in phytoremediation programmes

  3. Effects of mine drainage on the River Hayle, Cornwall. Factors affecting concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron in water, sediments and dominant invertebrate fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B.E.

    1977-02-15

    Concentrations of copper, zinc and iron were measured in waters, sediments and invertebrates collected from the River Hayle. In river water at least 70% of copper and iron was associated with the ''particulate'' fraction whereas 80% of zinc was in the ''soluble'' form. Although total concentrations of zinc in water exceeded those of copper approximately ten fold, copper predominated over zinc in the sediments by a factor of approximately three. Iron was the most abundant metal recorded in both water and sediments. Seasonal differences in ''total'' metal content of waters suggested that concentrations of copper, zinc and iron increased during periods of high flow and decreased during lower flows. Copper concentrations in the sediment, unlike zinc and iron, showed markedly higher values during the summer sampling period when flows were minimal. In the ''free-living'' Trichoptera larvae, concentrations of copper and zinc in the tissue appeared to follow copper and zinc levels in the water. Similar relationships in Odonata and Plecoptera larvae were not obtained. Factors affecting animal/metal relationships are discussed with particular reference to adaptation shown by organisms exposed to high concentrations of heavy metals in their environment.

  4. Zinc sorption in two vertisol and one aridisol series as affected by electrolyte concentration and sodium adsorption ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A. A.; Elamin, E. A.; El Mahi, Y. E.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of electrolyte concentration (C) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) on zinc sorption was studied. Top soil samples (0-30 cm) were taken from soils representing three arid-zon smectitc sites in the Gezira Scheme (Sudan). The orders of these soils are vertisol (El-Hosh (now Wad El Ataya) and El-Suleimi) and aridisol (El-Laota). These soils had no previous history of zinc application, and were previously equilibrated with mixed NaCl-CaCl 2 solutions to render different levels of SAR and salt concentration. Zinc retention decreased as electrolyte concentration increased, where maximum sorption occurred at low electrolyte concentration soils having high pH and high negative charge. Sodium adsorption ratio had little effect on Zn sorption as precipitation prevailed at high pH. It was also found that the sorption capacity of three soils were similar despite the variation in CaCO 3 and clay contents, hence cation exchange capacity and surface area. The results indicated that Zn was more soluble in the saline phases of Gezira soils, whereas sodicity had little effect.(Author)

  5. Iron and zinc concentrations and 59Fe retention in developing fetuses of zinc-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.M.; Loennerdal, B.H.; Hurley, L.S.; Keen, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Because disturbances in iron metabolism might contribute to the teratogenicity of zinc deficiency, we examined the effect of zinc deficiency on fetal iron accumulation and maternal and fetal retention of 59 Fe. Pregnant rats were fed from mating a purified diet containing 0.5, 4.5 or 100 micrograms Zn/g. Laparotomies were performed on d 12, 16, 19 and 21 of gestation. Maternal blood and concepti were analyzed for zinc and iron. Additional groups of dams fed 0.5 or 100 micrograms Zn/g diet were gavaged on d 19 with a diet containing 59 Fe. Six hours later maternal blood and tissues, fetuses and placentas were counted for 59 Fe. Maternal plasma zinc, but not iron, concentration was affected by zinc deficiency on d 12. Embryo zinc concentration on d 12 increased with increasing maternal dietary zinc, whereas iron concentration was not different among groups. On d 16-21 plasma iron was higher in dams fed 0.5 micrograms Zn/g diet than in those fed 4.5 or 100 micrograms/g, whereas plasma zinc was lower in dams fed 0.5 or 4.5 micrograms Zn/g than in those fed 100 micrograms Zn/g diet. On d 19 zinc concentration in fetuses from dams fed 0.5 micrograms/g zinc was not different from that of those fed 4.5 micrograms/g zinc, and iron concentration was higher in the 0.5 microgram Zn/g diet group. The increase in iron concentration in zinc-deficient fetuses thus occurs too late to be involved in major structural teratogenesis. Although whole blood concentration of 59 Fe was not different in zinc-deficient and control dams, zinc-deficient dams had more 59 Fe in the plasma fraction

  6. Factors affecting the simultaneous determination of copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in human head hair using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandiga, S.O.; Jumba, I.O.

    1982-01-01

    Conditions of analysis of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc content in human hair using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) and hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) have been established. Sample digestion using using the mixture HCI; H 2 O 2 ;HNO 3 in the ratio 2:1:40 by volume gave the best wet-ashing procedure. The peak currents and peak potentials of zinc, cadmium and lead, copper were maximum at pH 6-7 and 1-3 respectively, when excess H 2 O 2 was eliminated with subsequent addition of hydroxyamine hydrochloride. Matrix concentration effects were minimized by digesting weights not exceeding 50 mg per sample. The effect of selenium (IV) was negligible and was ignored. The detection limit of 0.0036 ng/cm 3 for Cd + 2 was obtained while the values for zinc, lead and copper were 0.0230, 0.0287 and 0.0269 ng/cm 3 respectively at the 95% confidence limit. The observed DPASV condition of analysis of these metals are useful for routine determination of the metals in human hair and should complement the conventional flame absorption spectrophotometry method. (author)

  7. Roadside soils show low plant available zinc and copper concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, Natalie; Walter, M. Todd; Osmond, Deanna; Hunt, William

    2016-01-01

    Vehicle combustion and component wear are a major source of metal contamination in the environment, which could be especially concerning where road ditches are actively farmed. The objective of this study was to assess how site variables, namely age, traffic (vehicles day"−"1), and percent carbon (%C) affect metal accumulation in roadside soils. A soil chronosequence was established with sites ranging from 3 to 37 years old and bioavailable, or mobile, concentrations of Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) were measured along major highways in North Carolina using a Mehlich III extraction. Mobile Zn and Cu concentrations were low overall, and when results were scaled via literature values to “total metal”, the results were still generally lower than previous roadside studies. This could indicate farming on lands near roads would pose a low plant toxicity risk. Zinc and Cu were not correlated with annual average traffic count, but were positively correlated with lifetime traffic load (the product of site age and traffic count). This study shows an often overlooked variable, site age, should be included when considering roadside pollution accumulation. Zinc and Cu were more strongly associated with %C, than traffic load. Because vehicle combustion is also a carbon source, it is not obvious whether the metals and carbon are simply co-accumulating or whether the soil carbon in roadside soils may facilitate previously overlooked roles in sequestering metals on-site. - Highlights: • Low plant available zinc and copper concentrations in roadside soils of the southeast U.S. • Metals from vehicular traffic may not be adversely affecting plants in roadside environment. • Traffic volume and site age better predictor of metal pollution than traffic volume alone. - Mobile concentrations of Zn and Cu in roadside soils were below toxic levels. Zn and Cu concentrations were better correlated with lifetime vehicle load, as opposed to traffic volume.

  8. Influence of soil zinc concentrations on zinc sensitivity and functional diversity of microbial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, K.; Janssen, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    Pollution induced community tolerance (PICT) is based on the phenomenon that toxic effects reduce survival of the most sensitive organisms, thus increasing community tolerance. Community tolerance for a contaminant is thus a strong indicator for the presence of that contaminant at the level of adverse concentrations. Here we assessed PICT in 11 soils contaminated with zinc runoff from galvanised electricity pylons and 11 reference soils sampled at 10 m distance from these pylons. Using PICT, the influence of background concentration and bioavailability of zinc on zinc sensitivity and functional diversity of microbial communities was assessed. Zinc sensitivity of microbial communities decreased significantly with increasing zinc concentrations in pore water and calcium chloride extracted fraction while no significant relationship was found with total zinc concentration in the soil. It was also found that functional diversity of microbial communities decreased with increasing zinc concentrations, indicating that increased tolerance is indeed an undesirable phenomenon when environmental quality is considered. The hypothesis that zinc sensitivity of microbial communities is related to background zinc concentration in pore water could not be confirmed. - Zinc sensitivity of microbial communities and functional diversity decrease with increasing zinc concentration in the pore water

  9. Fine structure study on low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wei; Ma, Jun; Wang, Jianglin; Zhang, Shengmin

    2012-01-01

    The fine structure of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite was studied using experimental analysis and first-principles calculations. The synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles containing low Zn concentration show rod-like morphology. The crystallite sizes and unit-cell volumes tended to decrease with the increased Zn concentration according to X-ray diffraction patterns. The Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectra and fitting results suggest that the hydroxyapatite doped with 0.1 mole% zinc is different in the zinc coordination environments compared with that containing more zinc. The density function theory calculations were performed on zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Two mechanisms included replacing calcium by zinc and inserting zinc along the hydroxyl column and were investigated, and the related substitution energies were calculated separately. It is found that the substitution energies are negative and lowest for inserting zinc between the two oxygen atoms along the hydroxyl column (c-axis). Combined with the spectral analysis, it is suggested that the inserting mechanism is favored for low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Highlights: ► We investigate the fine structure of hydroxyapatite with low content of Zn. ► XANES spectra are similar but a little different at low zinc content. ► Zinc ions influence hydroxyapatite crystal formation and lattice parameters. ► Formation energies are calculated according to plane-wave density function theory. ► Low content of zinc prefers to locate at hydroxyl column in hydroxyapatite lattice.

  10. Copper and zinc concentrations in serum of healthy Greek adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouremenou-Dona, Eleni; Dona, Artemis; Papoutsis, John; Spiliopoulou, Chara

    2006-01-01

    Serum copper and zinc concentrations of 506 (414 males and 92 females) apparently healthy Greek blood donors aged 18-60 years old were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean copper and zinc concentrations were 115.46 ± 23.56 μg/dl and 77.11 ± 17.67 μg/dl, respectively. The mean value for copper and zinc in females was higher than in males, although the difference for zinc was smaller than the one observed for copper. When the subjects were divided into various age groups there appeared to be some increase in copper concentration as a function of age, whereas zinc concentration did not change. There were no significant variations in serum copper and zinc concentrations due to place of residence, occupation and socioeconomic status. This study is the first one evaluating the serum status of copper and zinc in healthy Greeks and it has shown that they are at the highest concentration range for copper and the lowest for zinc compared to literature data on copper and zinc levels for various countries

  11. Copper and zinc concentrations in serum of healthy Greek adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouremenou-Dona, Eleni [A' Hospital of IKA, Athens (Greece); Dona, Artemis [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, M. Asias 75, Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: artedona@med.uoa.gr; Papoutsis, John [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, M. Asias 75, Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece); Spiliopoulou, Chara [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, M. Asias 75, Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece)

    2006-04-15

    Serum copper and zinc concentrations of 506 (414 males and 92 females) apparently healthy Greek blood donors aged 18-60 years old were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean copper and zinc concentrations were 115.46 {+-} 23.56 {mu}g/dl and 77.11 {+-} 17.67 {mu}g/dl, respectively. The mean value for copper and zinc in females was higher than in males, although the difference for zinc was smaller than the one observed for copper. When the subjects were divided into various age groups there appeared to be some increase in copper concentration as a function of age, whereas zinc concentration did not change. There were no significant variations in serum copper and zinc concentrations due to place of residence, occupation and socioeconomic status. This study is the first one evaluating the serum status of copper and zinc in healthy Greeks and it has shown that they are at the highest concentration range for copper and the lowest for zinc compared to literature data on copper and zinc levels for various countries.

  12. Roadside soils show low plant available zinc and copper concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Natalie; Walter, M Todd; Osmond, Deanna; Hunt, William

    2016-02-01

    Vehicle combustion and component wear are a major source of metal contamination in the environment, which could be especially concerning where road ditches are actively farmed. The objective of this study was to assess how site variables, namely age, traffic (vehicles day(-1)), and percent carbon (%C) affect metal accumulation in roadside soils. A soil chronosequence was established with sites ranging from 3 to 37 years old and bioavailable, or mobile, concentrations of Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) were measured along major highways in North Carolina using a Mehlich III extraction. Mobile Zn and Cu concentrations were low overall, and when results were scaled via literature values to "total metal", the results were still generally lower than previous roadside studies. This could indicate farming on lands near roads would pose a low plant toxicity risk. Zinc and Cu were not correlated with annual average traffic count, but were positively correlated with lifetime traffic load (the product of site age and traffic count). This study shows an often overlooked variable, site age, should be included when considering roadside pollution accumulation. Zinc and Cu were more strongly associated with %C, than traffic load. Because vehicle combustion is also a carbon source, it is not obvious whether the metals and carbon are simply co-accumulating or whether the soil carbon in roadside soils may facilitate previously overlooked roles in sequestering metals on-site. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimating soil zinc concentrations using reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weichao; Zhang, Xia

    2017-06-01

    Soil contamination by heavy metals has been an increasingly severe threat to nature environment and human health. Efficiently investigation of contamination status is essential to soil protection and remediation. Visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (VNIRS) has been regarded as an alternative for monitoring soil contamination by heavy metals. Generally, the entire VNIR spectral bands are employed to estimate heavy metal concentration, which lacks interpretability and requires much calculation. In this study, 74 soil samples were collected from Hunan Province, China and their reflectance spectra were used to estimate zinc (Zn) concentration in soil. Organic matter and clay minerals have strong adsorption for Zn in soil. Spectral bands associated with organic matter and clay minerals were used for estimation with genetic algorithm based partial least square regression (GA-PLSR). The entire VNIR spectral bands, the bands associated with organic matter and the bands associated with clay minerals were incorporated as comparisons. Root mean square error of prediction, residual prediction deviation, and coefficient of determination (R2) for the model developed using combined bands of organic matter and clay minerals were 329.65 mg kg-1, 1.96 and 0.73, which is better than 341.88 mg kg-1, 1.89 and 0.71 for the entire VNIR spectral bands, 492.65 mg kg-1, 1.31 and 0.40 for the organic matter, and 430.26 mg kg-1, 1.50 and 0.54 for the clay minerals. Additionally, in consideration of atmospheric water vapor absorption in field spectra measurement, combined bands of organic matter and absorption around 2200 nm were used for estimation and achieved high prediction accuracy with R2 reached 0.640. The results indicate huge potential of soil reflectance spectroscopy in estimating Zn concentrations in soil.

  14. A concentrated electrolyte for zinc hexacyanoferrate electrodes in aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Lee, C.; Jeong, S.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a concentrated electrolyte was applied in an aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion battery system with a zinc hexacyanoferrate (ZnHCF) electrode to improve the electrochemical performance by changing the hydration number of the zinc ions. To optimize the active material, ZnHCF was synthesized using aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate with three different concentrations. The synthesized materials exhibited some differences in structure, crystallinity, and particle size, as observed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, these well-structured materials were applied in electrochemical tests. A more than two-fold improvement in the charge/discharge capacities was observed when the concentrated electrolyte was used instead of the dilute electrolyte. Additionally, the cycling performance observed in the concentrated electrolyte was superior to that in the dilute electrolyte. This improvement in the electrochemical performance may result from a decrease in the hydration number of the zinc ions in the concentrated electrolyte.

  15. Dietary Zinc Intake and Plasma Zinc Concentrations in Children with Short Stature and Failure to Thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazbeck, Nadine; Hanna-Wakim, Rima; El Rafei, Rym; Barhoumi, Abir; Farra, Chantal; Daher, Rose T; Majdalani, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    The burden of zinc deficiency on children includes an increased incidence of diarrhea, failure to thrive (FTT) and short stature. The aim of this study was to assess whether children with FTT and/or short stature have lower dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc concentrations compared to controls. A case-control study conducted at the American University of Beirut Medical Center included 161 subjects from 1 to 10 years of age. Cases had a statistically significant lower energy intake (960.9 vs. 1,135.2 kcal for controls, p = 0.010), lower level of fat (30.3 vs. 36.5 g/day, p = 0.0043) and iron intake (7.4 vs. 9.1 mg/day, p = 0.034). There was no difference in zinc, copper, carbohydrate and protein intake between the 2 groups. The plasma zinc concentration did not differ between the cases and controls (97.4 vs. 98.2 μg/dl, p = 0.882). More cases had mild-to-moderate zinc deficiency when compared to controls with 10.3 vs. 3.6%, p = 0.095. Our study did not show statistically significant difference in dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc concentrations between children with FTT and/or short stature compared to healthy controls. A prospective study is planned to assess the effect of zinc supplementation on growth parameters in FTT children. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Effect of zinc from zinc sulfate on trace mineral concentrations of milk in Varamini ewes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zali, A.; Ganjkhanlou, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding supplemental zinc (zinc sulfate) in different levels (15, 30, or 45 mg/kg) on trace mineral concentrations in milk of ewes. Thirty lactating Varaminni ewes were assigned to three experimental groups according to their live body weights, milk

  17. Copper and Zinc Uptake by Pakchoi and Rice as Affected by Applying Manure Compost with Different Levels of Cu and Zn Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang T. H.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cu and Zn are frequently added to livestock diets as additives to increase feed efficiency and production. This practice resulted in the higher contents of Cu and Zn in excrement of livestock. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Cu and Zn concentration of manure compost and its application rates on the production and quality of pakchoi and rice. The pot experiments were conducted and the six manure compost were applied at 3 rates (20, 40, and 80 ton/ha, including the control and chemical fertilizer treatments. Results showed that the yield of the crops was enhanced by the compost application, and the Cu and Zn concentration in the edible part of crops were in normal range (pakchoi: Cu 1.8-10.4 mg/kg, Zn 39-160 mg/kg; rice grain: Cu 0.6-4.0 mg/kg, Zn 58-79 mg/kg. The potential risk of long-term manure compost application on soil quality was also evaluated. The total Zn concentration in soils may reach the regulation standard after 22 years of manure compost application at the rate of 40 ton/ha/year.

  18. Intestinal absorption and excretion of zinc in streptozotocin-diabetic rats as affected by dietary zinc and protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.T.; Canfield, W.K.

    1985-01-01

    65 Zn was used to examine the effects of dietary zinc and protein on true zinc absorption and intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc by an isotope dilution technique in streptozotocin-diabetic and control rats. Four groups each of diabetic and control rats were fed diets containing 20 ppm Zn, 20% egg white protein (HMHP); 20 ppm Zn, 10% egg white protein (HMLP); 10 ppm Zn, 20% egg white protein (LMHP); and 10 ppm Zn, 10% egg white protein (LMLP). Measurement of zinc balance was begun 9 d after an i.m. injection of 65 Zn. True zinc absorption and the contribution of endogenous zinc to fecal zinc excretion were calculated from the isotopically labeled and unlabeled zinc in the feces, duodenum and kidney. Results from the isotope dilution study indicated that diabetic rats, but not control rats, absorbed more zinc from 20 ppm zinc diets than from 10ppm zinc diets and that all rats absorbed more zinc from 20% protein diets than from 10% protein diets. Furthermore, all rats excreted more endogenous zinc from their intestines when dietary zinc and protein levels resulted in greater zinc absorption. In diabetic and control rats, consuming equivalent amounts of zinc, the amount of zinc absorbed was not significantly different, but the amount of zinc excreted by the intestine was less in the diabetic rats. Decreased intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc may be a homeostatic response to the increased urinary excretion of endogenous zinc in the diabetic rats and may also lead to the elevated zinc concentrations observed in some organs of the diabetic rats

  19. Elevated zinc concentrations in a 5 months old infant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Eva Rabing Brix; Mortensen, Sven; Nybo, Mads

    2018-01-01

    Pre-analytical errors account for the majority of laboratory-associated errors. In a 5 months old infant hospitalised with lung dysfunction due to prematurity, a routine measurement of zinc revealed an unexpected elevated concentration of 20.2 µmol/L (reference interval 10.0 - 19.0 µmol/L) compar...

  20. Serum zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, and ceruloplasmin concentrations in infants receiving intravenous zinc and copper supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockitch, G; Godolphin, W; Pendray, M R; Riddell, D; Quigley, G

    1983-02-01

    One hundred twenty-seven newborn infants requiring parenteral nutrition were randomly assigned to receive differing amounts of zinc (40 to 400 micrograms/kg/day) and copper (20 or 40 micrograms/kg/day) supplementation within five birth weight groups (600 to 2,500 gm). The serum zinc concentration remained relatively constant in the group receiving the most zinc supplementation after two weeks of therapy, but declined sharply in the groups receiving less supplementation. No effect of increased copper intake was noted on ceruloplasmin values, but a difference in serum copper concentrations was noted at two weeks. No correlation was noted between serum zinc and copper values or among those for serum zinc, retinol-binding protein, and prealbumin. Reference ranges were defined for serum zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, and ceruloplasmin in the preterm infant.

  1. Effect of zinc from zinc sulfate on trace mineral concentrations of milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... It suggests that supplementation of ewes diet with zinc sulfate could be an effective way to increase zinc ... alkaline phosphates activity. Zinc supplements were .... Similar results have been reported previously when dairy cows.

  2. Effect of zinc supplementation on serum zinc concentration and T cell proliferation in nursing home elderly:A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Zinc is essential for the regulation of immune response. T cell function declines with age. Zinc supplementation has the potential to improve serum zinc concentrations and immunity of nursing home elderly with low serum zinc concentration. Objective: We aimed to determine the effect of ...

  3. Stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in rural areas with low soil zinc concentrations in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Yu; Boonstra, A.; Zhao, J.; Wu, M.; Hu, X.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in north rural area of Jiangsu Province with low soil zinc concentrations, eastern part of China. METHODS: Two data collection rounds were conducted. In the first data collection round, 2268 primary school children aged

  4. Correlation studies between serum concentrations of zinc and lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Alves, Edson R.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Sumita, Nairo M.; Jaluul, Omar; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2009-01-01

    In this study, serum zinc and lipoprotein concentrations were determined in order to assess the health status of an elderly population residing in Sao Paulo city, SP, Brazil. This population consisted of elderly considered healthy and participating of a 'Successful Ageing' program of the Sao Paulo University Medical School. Fasting blood samples were collected from 87 elderly individuals (63 females and 24 males) aged 60-91 and mean age of 72 +- 7 years. Zn concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis at the IPEN/CNEN/ SP and, the lipoprotein (HDL, LDL and total cholesterol) concentrations were determined using routine analysis methods of the Central Laboratory Division, Hospital das Clinicas, FMUSP. Results obtained for Zn indicated that all the individuals presented this element within the recommended value. For total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations, 96 % of elderly presented levels within the desired range but for LDL cholesterol concentrations only about 70.0 % of individuals were in the desired range. Serum concentration of Zn were positively correlated to LDL-cholesterol levels (correlation coefficient r = 0.21, p < 0.06). Furthermore, the ratios of [HDL-cholesterol] / [LDL-cholesterol] were negatively correlated with Zn concentrations (r = - 0.234, p < 0.04). The positive correlation found between the serum concentrations of Zn and LDL-cholesterol indicates the possible effect of this element in serum lipoprotein profiles. Thus ,these findings suggest that more investigations should be conducted on Zn supplementation in elderly subjects with cardiovascular diseases. (author)

  5. Zinc deficiency in field-grown pecan trees: changes in leaf nutrient concentrations and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-Barrios, Dámaris; Abadía, Javier; Lombardini, Leonardo; Abadía, Anunciación; Vázquez, Saúl

    2012-06-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a typical nutritional disorder in pecan trees [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] grown under field conditions in calcareous soils in North America, including northern Mexico and south-western United States. The aim of this study was to assess the morphological and nutritional changes in pecan leaves affected by Zn deficiency as well as the Zn distribution within leaves. Zinc deficiency led to decreases in leaf chlorophyll concentrations, leaf area and trunk cross-sectional area. Zinc deficiency increased significantly the leaf concentrations of K and Ca, and decreased the leaf concentrations of Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu. All nutrient values found in Zn-deficient leaves were within the sufficiency ranges, with the only exception of Zn, which was approximately 44, 11 and 9 µg g(-1) dry weight in Zn-sufficient, moderately and markedly Zn-deficient leaves, respectively. Zinc deficiency led to decreases in leaf thickness, mainly due to a reduction in the thickness of the palisade parenchyma, as well as to increases in stomatal density and size. The localisation of Zn was determined using the fluorophore Zinpyr-1 and ratio-imaging technique. Zinc was mainly localised in the palisade mesophyll area in Zn-sufficient leaves, whereas no signal could be obtained in Zn-deficient leaves. The effects of Zn deficiency on the leaf characteristics of pecan trees include not only decreases in leaf chlorophyll and Zn concentrations, but also a reduction in the thickness of the palisade parenchyma, an increase in stomatal density and pore size and the practical disappearance of Zn leaf pools. These characteristics must be taken into account to design strategies to correct Zn deficiency in pecan tree in the field. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Zinc Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? Ask ... find out more about zinc? Disclaimer What is zinc and what does it do? Zinc is a ...

  7. Association of Mood Disorders with Serum Zinc Concentrations in Adolescent Female Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Kobra; Amani, Reza; Nazari, Zahra; Ahmadi, Kambiz; Moazzen, Sara; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali

    2017-08-01

    Among various factors influencing mood disorders, the impact of micronutrient deficiencies has attracted a great attention. Zinc deficiency is considered to play a crucial role in the onset and progression of mood disorders in different stages of life. The main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between serum zinc levels and mood disorders in high school female students. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 100 representative high school female students. The participants completed 24-h food recall questionnaires to assess the daily zinc intakes. Serum zinc status was assessed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and zinc deficiency was defined accordingly. Mood disorders were estimated by calculating the sum of two test scores including Beck's depression inventory (BDI) and hospital anxiety depression scale (HADS) tests. General linear model (GLM) and Pearson's regression test were applied to show the correlation of serum zinc levels and mood disorder scores and the correlation between zinc serum levels and BDI scores, respectively. Dietary zinc intake was higher in subjects with normal zinc concentrations than that of zinc-deficient group (p = 0.001). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with BDI and HADS scores (p zinc levels led to 0.3 and 0.01 decrease in depression and anxiety scores, respectively (p zinc levels were inversely correlated with mood disorders including depression and anxiety in adolescent female students. Increasing serum levels of zinc in female students could improve their mood disorders.

  8. Correlation studies between serum concentrations of zinc and lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Alves, Edson R.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, e-mail: eralves@ipen.br, e-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br; Sumita, Nairo M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas.Central Lab. Division and Laboratories of Medical Investigation (LIM-03)], e-mail: dlc.bioquimica@hcnet.usp.br; Jaluul, Omar; Jacob-Filho, Wilson [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina], e-mail: jaluul@uol.com.br, wiljac@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    In this study, serum zinc and lipoprotein concentrations were determined in order to assess the health status of an elderly population residing in Sao Paulo city, SP, Brazil. This population consisted of elderly considered healthy and participating of a 'Successful Ageing' program of the Sao Paulo University Medical School. Fasting blood samples were collected from 87 elderly individuals (63 females and 24 males) aged 60-91 and mean age of 72 +- 7 years. Zn concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis at the IPEN/CNEN/ SP and, the lipoprotein (HDL, LDL and total cholesterol) concentrations were determined using routine analysis methods of the Central Laboratory Division, Hospital das Clinicas, FMUSP. Results obtained for Zn indicated that all the individuals presented this element within the recommended value. For total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations, 96 % of elderly presented levels within the desired range but for LDL cholesterol concentrations only about 70.0 % of individuals were in the desired range. Serum concentration of Zn were positively correlated to LDL-cholesterol levels (correlation coefficient r = 0.21, p < 0.06). Furthermore, the ratios of [HDL-cholesterol] / [LDL-cholesterol] were negatively correlated with Zn concentrations (r = - 0.234, p < 0.04). The positive correlation found between the serum concentrations of Zn and LDL-cholesterol indicates the possible effect of this element in serum lipoprotein profiles. Thus ,these findings suggest that more investigations should be conducted on Zn supplementation in elderly subjects with cardiovascular diseases. (author)

  9. X-ray radiometric analysis of lead and zinc concentrates using germanium radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajgachev, A.A.; Mamysh, V.A.; Mil'chakov, V.I.; Shchekin, K.I.; Berezkin, V.V.

    1975-01-01

    The results of determination of lead, zinc and iron in lead and zinc concentrates by the X-ray-radiometric method with the use of germanium semiconductor detector are presented. In the experiments the 57 Co source and tritium-zirconium target were used. The activity of 57 Co was 2 mc. The area of the germanium detector employed was 5g mm 2 , its thickness - 2.3 mm. In lead concentrates zinc and iron were determined from the direct intensity of K-series radiation. In the analysis of zinc concentrates the same conditions of recording and excitation were used as in the case of lead concentrates, but the measurements were conducted in saturated layers. It is demonstrated that the use of germanium semiconductor detectors in combination with the suggested methods of measurements makes it possible to perform determination of iron, zinc and lead in zinc and lead concentrates with permissible error

  10. Factors affecting the hot-dip zinc coatings structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sere, P.R.; Cuclcasi, J.D.; Elsner, C.I.; Sarli, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Coating solidification during hot-dip galvanizing is a very complex process due to Al-Fe, Al-Fe-Zn and Fe-Zn intermetallic compounds development . Fe-Zn intermetallics are brittle and detrimental for the coating ductility, while the diffusion towards the surface of a segregated insoluble alloying such as antimonium causes the sheet darkness. Steel of different roughness were hot-dip galvanized under different operation conditions using a laboratory scale simulator. The effect of steel roughness and process parameters upon coating characteristics were analysed. Experimental results showed that the steel roughness affects the coating thickness, zinc grain size and texture as well as the out-bursts development, while the process parameters affects the Fe 2 Al 5 morphology and antimonium segregation. (Author) 11 refs

  11. Association of Maternal Diet With Zinc, Copper, and Iron Concentrations in Transitional Human Milk Produced by Korean Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Cho, Mi Sook; Kang, Bong Soo; Choi, Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the transitory milk of Korean lactating mothers and to investigate the relationship between these concentrations and maternal diet. Human milk samples were collected between 5 and 15 days postpartum from 96 healthy, lactating mothers in postpartum care centers in Seoul, Korea. Dietary intake during lactation was determined based on a 3-day dietary record. The mean zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the human milk samples collected were 3.88 ± 1.74 mg/L, 0.69 ± 0.25 mg/L, and 5.85 ± 8.53 mg/L, respectively. The mothers who consumed alcoholic beverages during pregnancy had tended to have lower concentrations of zinc and copper, as well as significantly lower concentrations of iron, in their milk (p < 0.047). In contrast, the mothers who took daily supplements had much higher iron concentrations in their milk (p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of zinc, copper, and iron during lactation did not affect the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in the milk samples analyzed. Intakes of vitamin C, selenium, and iodine were associated with the concentration of copper in the milk samples analyzed, and consumption of food categorized as 'meat and meat products' was positively associated with the concentration of zinc. Consumption of rice was the top contributor to the concentrations of all three minerals. In conclusion, associations between maternal diet and nutrient concentrations in transitory human milk can provide useful information, particularly in regard to infant growth. PMID:26839873

  12. Zinc Transport Differs in Rat Spermatogenic Cell Types and Is Affected by Treatment with Cyclophosphamide1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Anne Marie; Hales, Barbara F.; Robaire, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Adequate zinc levels are required for proper cellular functions and for male germ cell development. Zinc transport is accomplished by two families of zinc transporters, the ZIPs and the ZnTs, that increase and decrease cytosolic zinc levels, respectively. However, very little is known about zinc transport in the testis. Furthermore, whether cytotoxic agents such as cyclophosphamide (CPA), a known male germ cell toxicant, can affect zinc transport and homeostasis is unknown. We examined zinc transporter expression and zinc transport in pachytene spermatocytes (PS) and round spermatids (RS) in a normal state and after exposure to CPA. We observed differences in the expression of members of the ZnT and ZIP families in purified populations of PS and RS. We also observed that RS accumulate more zinc over time than PS. The expression of many zinc binding genes was altered after CPA treatment. Interestingly, we found that the expression levels of ZIP5 and ZIP14 were increased in PS from animals treated daily with 6 mg/kg CPA for 4 wk but not in RS. This up-regulation led to an increase in zinc uptake in PS but not in RS from treated animals compared to controls. These data suggest that CPA treatment may alter zinc homeostasis in male germ cells leading to an increased need for zinc. Altered zinc homeostasis may disrupt proper germ cell development and contribute to infertility and effects on progeny. PMID:27281708

  13. Serum Zinc, Iron and Copper Concentrations in Dogs Infected with Hepatozoon canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Seyrek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, canine hepatozoonosis is an emerging infection with a large number of cases detected during the past five years. In the present study, serum zinc, copper and iron concentrations of dogs infected with Hepatozoon canis were measured for the first time. Compared to the controls (n = 10, serum zinc and iron concentrations in infected animals (n = 14 decreased significantly (p p p Hepatozoon canis infection may cause alterations in serum zinc iron and copper concentrations. Furthermore, in the treatment of infected animals addition of zinc and iron to the ration of infected animals should be taken into consideration.

  14. Factors Affecting Tocopherol Concentrations in Soybean Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Constanza S; Seguin, Philippe

    2016-12-21

    Soybean seeds contain several health-beneficial compounds, including tocopherols, which are used by the nutraceutical and functional food industries. Soybean tocopherol concentrations are, however, highly variable. Large differences observed in tocopherol concentrations among soybean genotypes together with the relatively simple biosynthetic pathway involving few genes support the feasibility of selecting for high-tocopherol soybean. Tocopherol concentrations are also highly influenced by environmental factors and field management. Temperature during seed filling and soil moisture appear to be the main factors affecting tocopherol concentrations; other factors such as soil fertility and solar radiation also affect concentrations and composition. Field management decisions including seeding date, row spacing, irrigation, and fertilization also affect tocopherols. Knowledge of factors affecting soybean tocopherols is essential to develop management strategies that will lead to the production of seeds with consistent target concentrations that will meet the needs of the nutraceutical and functional food industries.

  15. The correlation of prenatal zinc concentration and deficiency with anthropometric factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehr Hanachi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the status of serum zinc in pregnant women in different gestational ages and correlation with socio-demographic and anthropometric factors in Iranian women referring to prenatal care public health clinics.We analyzed the zinc concentrations in plasma samples obtained at different gestational ages from 961 women and recorded BMI at the first trimester in pregnant women who were screened for a trial designed to evaluate the zinc concentration. Subjects were from different socio economical backgrounds and attended public health clinics for their prenatal care. All analyses were performed by SPSS (version 16. P values < 0.05 were considered significant.The results showed that after plasma zinc concentrations were adjusted with Parity, weight (early pregnancy, BMI (at early pregnancy, age and educational statues. Plasma zinc deficiency declined as gestational age progressed, however it was not significant. There was no significant correlation between zinc concentration, anthropometric, method of contraception and socio factors. However, there were significant relation between parity (p = 0.007 and weight at early pregnancy (p= 0.039 with serum zinc levels.We conclude that plasma zinc concentrations decreased during the late first trimester to the early third trimester and with parity. These findings may indicate that the deficient levels of zinc in the latter third of pregnancy suggest a tendency for insufficient maternal nutrition. However larger studies are required to support this finding.

  16. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some early research suggests that zinc supplementation increases sperm count, testosterone levels, and pregnancy rates in infertile men with low testosterone levels. Other research suggests that taking zinc can improve sperm shape in men with moderate enlargement of a ...

  17. Effects of Dietary Zinc Pectin Oligosaccharides Chelate Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Tissue Zinc Concentrations of Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongcheng; Yu, Huimin; Wu, Xuezhuang; Zhang, Tietao; Cui, Hu; Wan, Chunmeng; Gao, Xiuhua

    2016-10-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zinc pectin oligosaccharides (Zn-POS) chelate on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and tissue zinc concentrations of Arbor Acre broilers aged from 1 to 42 days. A total of 576 1-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into 4 groups with 9 replicates per group and 16 chicks per replicate. Chicks were fed either a basal diet (control) or basal diet supplemented with Zn-POS at 300 (Zn-POS-300), 600 (Zn-POS-600), or 900 mg/kg (Zn-POS-900), respectively, for 42 days. A 3-day metabolism trial was conducted during the last week of the experiment feeding. The average daily gain and the average daily feed intake of Zn-POS-600 were significantly higher (P digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and metabolic energy among all groups. The control group had the lowest apparent digestibility of dry matter (P digestibility of dry matter in Zn-POS-600 was higher (P digestibility of crude protein in Zn-POS-600 or Zn-POS-900 was higher (P digestibility of metabolic energy in Zn-POS-600 or Zn-POS-900 was higher (P < 0.05) than that of Zn-POS-300. Zn-POS-600 had the highest liver zinc concentrations (P < 0.05), while Zn-POS-900 had the highest pancreatic zinc concentrations (P < 0.05). Our data suggest that the supplementation of 600 mg/kg Zn-POS is optimal in improving the average daily gain and the average daily feed intake, utilization of dietary dry matter and crude protein, and increasing tissue zinc concentrations in liver and pancreas of broilers.

  18. Concentration of lead and zinc in greenhouse cucumbers of Hamadan province in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z BigMohammadi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollution of agricultural soils is a major environmental problem that can affect plant production, food safety and human health. Soil contamination with heavy metals occurs as a result of human activities. Heavy metals can easily accumulate in edible tissues of leafy vegetables, fruits and seeds. Few studies have been conducted on heavy metals concentration in soil and greenhouse crops. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the concentrations of lead (Pb and zinc (Zn in greenhouse cucumbers produced in Hamadan province. The concentrations of heavy metals were measured using atomic emission method. Results showed that the mean concentrations of Pb and Zn in cucumber samples were 0.33 and 3.14 mg/kg, respectively. Also the results of the statistical analysis revealed a negative correlation between the measured concentrations. Moreover, the concentration of Zn in the samples obtained from Hamadan greenhouses and lead concentration in Tuyserkan, Famenin, as well as Malayer samples were above the recommended limits. Daily intake amounts of Pb and Zn from vegetables consumption for three age categories (children, adolescents, and adults were calculated. In conclusion, daily intake of Pb and Zn were determined below the recommended limits.

  19. Attenuation of hippocampal mossy fiber long-term potentiation by low micromolar concentrations of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Kanno, Shingo; Sakurada, Naomi; Ando, Masaki; Oku, Naoto

    2008-10-01

    The role of zinc in long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses is controversial because of the contrary results obtained when using zinc chelators. On the basis of the postulation that exogenous zinc enhances the action of zinc released from mossy fibers, mossy fiber LTP after tetanic stimulation (100 Hz, 1 sec) was checked in the presence of exogenous zinc at low micromolar concentrations. Mossy fiber LTP was significantly attenuated in the presence of 5-30 microM ZnCl(2), and the amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials 60 min after tetanic stimulation was decreased to almost the basal level. Mossy fiber LTP was also attenuated in the presence of 5 microM ZnCl(2) 5 min after tetanic stimulation. The present study is the first to demonstrate that low micromolar concentrations of zinc attenuate mossy fiber LTP. When mossy fiber LTP was induced in the presence of CaEDTA and ZnAF-2 DA, a membrane-impermeable and a membrane-permeable zinc chelator, respectively, extracellular and intracellular chelation of zinc enhanced a transient posttetanic potentiation (PTP) without altering LTP. It is likely that zinc released by tetanic stimulation is immediately taken up into the mossy fibers and attenuates mossy fiber PTP. These results suggest that attenuation of PTP rather than LTP at mossy fiber synapses is a more physiological role for endogenous zinc. Targeting molecules of zinc in mossy fiber LTP seem to be different between during and after LTP induction because of the differential synaptic activity between them. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Zinc Concentration during Pregnancy and Lactation in Enugu, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    of Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. 4. Zinc is an essential trace element in human and animal nutrition, with protective properties against endogenous or exogenous aggression, necessitated by the hyperproduction of highly reactive oxygen derivatives. It is an antioxidant, ... into the Nigerian market, of numerous.

  1. SLC30A9 mutation affecting intracellular zinc homeostasis causes a novel cerebro-renal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Yonatan; Shorer, Zamir; Liani-Leibson, Keren; Chabosseau, Pauline; Kadir, Rotem; Volodarsky, Michael; Halperin, Daniel; Barber-Zucker, Shiran; Shalev, Hanna; Schreiber, Ruth; Gradstein, Libe; Gurevich, Evgenia; Zarivach, Raz; Rutter, Guy A; Landau, Daniel; Birk, Ohad S

    2017-04-01

    A novel autosomal recessive cerebro-renal syndrome was identified in consanguineous Bedouin kindred: neurological deterioration was evident as of early age, progressing into severe intellectual disability, profound ataxia, camptocormia and oculomotor apraxia. Brain MRI was normal. Four of the six affected individuals also had early-onset nephropathy with features of tubulo-interstitial nephritis, hypertension and tendency for hyperkalemia, though none had rapid deterioration of renal function. Genome wide linkage analysis identified an ∼18 Mb disease-associated locus on chromosome 4 (maximal logarithm of odds score 4.4 at D4S2971; θ = 0). Whole exome sequencing identified a single mutation in SLC30A9 within this locus, segregating as expected within the kindred and not found in a homozygous state in 300 Bedouin controls. We showed that SLC30A9 (solute carrier family 30 member 9; also known as ZnT-9) is ubiquitously expressed with high levels in cerebellum, skeletal muscle, thymus and kidney. Confocal analysis of SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing SLC30A9 fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein demonstrated vesicular cytosolic localization associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, not co-localizing with endosomal or Golgi markers. SLC30A9 encodes a putative zinc transporter (by similarity) previously associated with Wnt signalling. However, using dual-luciferase reporter assay in SH-SY5Y cells we showed that Wnt signalling was not affected by the mutation. Based on protein modelling, the identified mutation is expected to affect SLC30A9's highly conserved cation efflux domain, putatively disrupting its transmembrane helix structure. Cytosolic Zn2+ measurements in HEK293 cells overexpressing wild-type and mutant SLC30A9 showed lower zinc concentration within mutant rather than wild-type SLC30A9 cells. This suggests that SLC30A9 has zinc transport properties affecting intracellular zinc homeostasis, and that the molecular mechanism of the disease is through

  2. Identification of a Hemolysis Threshold That Increases Plasma and Serum Zinc Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killilea, David W; Rohner, Fabian; Ghosh, Shibani; Otoo, Gloria E; Smith, Lauren; Siekmann, Jonathan H; King, Janet C

    2017-06-01

    Background: Plasma or serum zinc concentration (PZC or SZC) is the primary measure of zinc status, but accurate sampling requires controlling for hemolysis to prevent leakage of zinc from erythrocytes. It is not established how much hemolysis can occur without changing PZC/SZC concentrations. Objective: This study determines a guideline for the level of hemolysis that can significantly elevate PZC/SZC. Methods: The effect of hemolysis on PZC/SZC was estimated by using standard hematologic variables and mineral content. The calculated hemolysis threshold was then compared with results from an in vitro study and a population survey. Hemolysis was assessed by hemoglobin and iron concentrations, direct spectrophotometry, and visual assessment of the plasma or serum. Zinc and iron concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Results: A 5% increase in PZC/SZC was calculated to result from the lysis of 1.15% of the erythrocytes in whole blood, corresponding to ∼1 g hemoglobin/L added into the plasma or serum. Similarly, the addition of simulated hemolysate to control plasma in vitro caused a 5% increase in PZC when hemoglobin concentrations reached 1.18 ± 0.10 g/L. In addition, serum samples from a population nutritional survey were scored for hemolysis and analyzed for changes in SZC; samples with hemolysis in the range of 1-2.5 g hemoglobin/L showed an estimated increase in SZC of 6% compared with nonhemolyzed samples. Each approach indicated that a 5% increase in PZC/SZC occurs at ∼1 g hemoglobin/L in plasma or serum. This concentration of hemoglobin can be readily identified directly by chemical hemoglobin assays or indirectly by direct spectrophotometry or matching to a color scale. Conclusions: A threshold of 1 g hemoglobin/L is recommended for PZC/SZC measurements to avoid increases in zinc caused by hemolysis. The use of this threshold may improve zinc assessment for monitoring zinc status and nutritional interventions.

  3. Serum zinc and copper concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relation to course and outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Berendtsen, H; Nørgaard, J

    1988-01-01

    serum zinc and copper concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood from 500 Danish mothers at delivery, looking for an association between serum zinc and copper levels and various maternal and foetal complications. Preterm infants (n = 30) had significantly lower serum copper concentrations than...... reference infants (n = 346) (p = 0.01), whereas there was no difference in serum zinc concentrations. Mothers of preterm infants (n = 34) did not differ in serum zinc or copper concentrations from reference mothers (n = 220). Small for date infants (n = 37) and mothers of small for date infants (n = 47) had...... higher serum copper levels than reference infants and mothers (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively), whereas there was no difference in serum zinc concentrations. Serum zinc and copper concentrations in malformed infants (n = 14) and their mothers (n = 17) did not differ from concentrations in reference...

  4. Total antioxidative capacity and zinc concentration in dogs suffering from perianal tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodzki Adam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine total antioxidative capacity (TAC and zinc concentration in serum of dogs suffering from perianal tumours just before the start of the antihormonal treatment (AHT and one and six months later. The study was performed on 45 dogs divided into two groups: control group suffering from non-malignant tumours (N = 24 and a group with malignant neoplastic changes (N = 21. Serum TAC and zinc concentrations were measured using photometric and atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods. Six months after the start of the AHT, TAC was significantly lower by 10.6% in dogs with malignant tumours when compared to controls (P = 0.03. In the non-malignant group, serum zinc concentration was higher before the treatment than in the malignant group, while the opposite results were observed six months later (P < 0.001. In the non-malignant group, gradually decreasing values of serum zinc concentration at each stage of the investigation were observed, while the opposite results were obtained in the malignant group (P < 0.05. The obtained results indicate that malignant neoplastic process is associated with significantly reduced TAC. Determination of serum zinc concentration in dogs with non-malignant and malignant perianal tumours may have practical diagnostic and prognostic values and may serve towards increasing the effectiveness of AHT monitoring.

  5. High Concentration of Zinc in Sub-retinal Pigment Epithelial Deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lengyel,I.; Flinn, J.; Peto, T.; Linkous, D.; Cano, K.; Bird, A.; Lanzirotti, A.; Frederickson, C.; van Kuijk, F.

    2007-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in Western societies, is the accumulation of sub-retinal pigment epithelial deposits (sub-RPE deposits), including drusen and basal laminar deposits, in Bruch's membrane (BM). The nature and the underlying mechanisms of this deposit formation are not fully understood. Because we know that zinc contributes to deposit formation in neurodegenerative diseases, we tested the hypothesis that zinc might be involved in deposit formation in AMD. Using zinc specific fluorescent probes and microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence we showed that sub-RPE deposits in post-mortem human tissues contain unexpectedly high concentrations of zinc, including abundant bio-available (ionic and/or loosely protein bound) ions. Zinc accumulation was especially high in the maculae of eyes with AMD. Internal deposit structures are especially enriched in bio-available zinc. Based on the evidence provided here we suggest that zinc plays a role in sub-RPE deposit formation in the aging human eye and possibly also in the development and/or progression of AMD.

  6. High Concentration of Zinc in Sub-retinal Pigment Epithelial Deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, I.; Flinn, J.; Peto, T.; Linkous, D.; Cano, K.; Bird, A.; Lanzirotti, A.; Frederickson, C.; van Kuijk, F.

    2007-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in Western societies, is the accumulation of sub-retinal pigment epithelial deposits (sub-RPE deposits), including drusen and basal laminar deposits, in Bruch's membrane (BM). The nature and the underlying mechanisms of this deposit formation are not fully understood. Because we know that zinc contributes to deposit formation in neurodegenerative diseases, we tested the hypothesis that zinc might be involved in deposit formation in AMD. Using zinc specific fluorescent probes and microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence we showed that sub-RPE deposits in post-mortem human tissues contain unexpectedly high concentrations of zinc, including abundant bio-available (ionic and/or loosely protein bound) ions. Zinc accumulation was especially high in the maculae of eyes with AMD. Internal deposit structures are especially enriched in bio-available zinc. Based on the evidence provided here we suggest that zinc plays a role in sub-RPE deposit formation in the aging human eye and possibly also in the development and/or progression of AMD

  7. On-line estimation of the dissolved zinc concentration during ZnS precipitation in a CSTR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootscholten, T.I.M.; Keesman, K.J.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In this paper a method is presented to estimate the reaction term of zinc sulphide precipitation and the zinc concentration in a CSTR, using the read-out signal of a sulphide selective electrode. The reaction between zinc and sulphide is described by a non-linear model and therefore

  8. New perspectives on the regulation of iron absorption via cellular zinc concentrations in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Marija; Graham, Robin D; Welch, Ross M; Stangoulis, James C R

    2017-07-03

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency, affecting more than 30% of the total world's population. It is a major public health problem in many countries around the world. Over the years various methods have been used with an effort to try and control iron-deficiency anemia. However, there has only been a marginal reduction in the global prevalence of anemia. Why is this so? Iron and zinc are essential trace elements for humans. These metals influence the transport and absorption of one another across the enterocytes and hepatocytes, due to similar ionic properties. This paper describes the structure and roles of major iron and zinc transport proteins, clarifies iron-zinc interactions at these sites, and provides a model for the mechanism of these interactions both at the local and systemic level. This review provides evidence that much of the massive extent of iron deficiency anemia in the world may be due to an underlying deficiency of zinc. It explains the reasons for predominance of cellular zinc status in determination of iron/zinc interactions and for the first time thoroughly explains mechanisms by which zinc brings about these changes.

  9. Relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters in infertile subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.; Ahmed, M.; Baig, M.; Ali, M.

    2007-01-01

    To find out relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters between fertile and infertile men. (JPMC), Karachi and Department of Biochemistry. Basic Medical Sciences Institute, JPMC, Karachi. Fifty eight primary infertile male subjects, without any treatment, who had regular unprotected intercourse for at least 12 months without conception with their partners, aged 20-40 years, were selected from Infertility Clinic Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi. After semen analyses they were grouped as, oligospermic (30), and azoospermic (28). Twenty five known fertile male selected from general population and after semen analysis were taken as normospermic control group. Semen analyzed according to WHO criteria. Serum and seminal plasma zinc were estimated by 5Br. PAPS Colorimetric method. This study showed significant difference in serum and seminal zinc levels in normospermic, oligospermic (p<0.05) and azoospermic (p<0.005). Seminal plasma zinc showed a positive correlation with sperm count and negative with sperm motility in normospermic and oligospermic and negative correlation with volume, pH, WBC concentration in all three groups. There was no correlation found with sperm morphology. On the basis of the findings of this study and those of other reports, zinc may contribute to fertility through its significant effects on various semen parameters. It seems that the estimation of seminal plasma zinc may help in investigation and treatment of infertile males. (author)

  10. Measured soil water concentrations of cadmium and zinc in plant pots and estimated leaching outflows from contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, P.E.; Christensen, T.H.

    1998-01-01

    Soil water concentrations of cadmium and zinc were measured in plant pots with 15 contaminated soils which differed in origin, texture, pH (5.1-7.8) and concentrations of cadmium (0.2-17 mg Cd kg(-1)) and zinc (36-1300 mg Zn kg(-1)). The soil waters contained total concentrations of 0.5 to 17 mu g...... to 0.1% per year of the total soil content of cadmium and zinc. The measured soil water concentrations of cadmium and zinc did not correlate linearly with the corresponding soil concentrations but correlated fairly well with concentrations measured in Ca(NO(3))(2) extracts of the soils and with soil...... water concentrations estimated from soil concentrations and pH. Such concentration estimates may be useful for estimating amounts of cadmium and zinc being leached from soils....

  11. Anodic behavior of Al-Zn-In sacrificial anodes at different concentration of zinc and indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyvani, Ahmad [Shahrekord Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). School of Metallurgy and Materials; Saremi, Mohsen [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). School of Metallurgy and Materials; Saeri, Mohammad Reza [Shahrekord Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Materials Engineering

    2012-12-15

    Al-Zn-In anodes show better performance due to the beneficial effects of Zn and In on prevention of aluminum passivity and producing a homogeneous structure for uniform corrosion of the anodes. However, there are different views about the optimum concentration of each element in the anode. In this study, the anodic behavior of Al-Zn-In alloy with different concentrations of zinc from 1 to 6wt.% and indium from 0.01 to 0.05wt.% are studied. The NACE efficiency test and polarization are used in 3wt.% NaCl solution for corrosion characterization. The results showed that zinc and indium change the anode potential to more active potentials and improve the microstructure uniformity of anodes. The latter leads to more uniform corrosion. Optimum concentrations of zinc (5wt.%) and indium (0.02wt.%) were found in this respect. (orig.)

  12. Mineralogy affects geoavailability, bioaccessibility and bioavailability of zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, Ramon M.; Schaider, Laurel A.; Donaghey, Thomas C.; Shine, James P.; Brain, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    We correlated mineralogical and particle characteristics of Zn-containing particles with Zn geoavailability, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability following gavage and intranasal (IN) administration in rats. We compared samples of Zn/Pb mine waste and five pulverized pure-phase Zn minerals ( 65 Zn. We assessed geoavailability using sequential extractions and bioaccessibility using in vitro extraction tests simulating various pH and biological conditions. Zn in vivo bioavailability and in vitro bioaccessibility decreased as follows: mine waste > hydrozincite > hemimorphite > zincite ≈ smithsonite >> sphalerite. We found significant correlations among geoavailability, bioaccessibility and bioavailability. In particular, Zn bioavailability post-gavage and post-IN was significantly correlated with bioaccessibility in simulated phagolysosomal fluid and gastric fluid. These data indicate that solid phase speciation influences biological uptake of Zn and that in vitro tests can be used to predict Zn bioavailability in exposure assessment and effective remediation design. Highlights: •Zinc particle mineralogy influences bioaccessibility and bioavailability. •Zn bioavailability via gavage was 1.2–1.6 times higher than via intranasal route. •Zn particle geoavailability correlates with bioaccessibility. •In vitro bioaccessibility tests can predict in vivo Zn bioavailability. •Metal speciation and geochemical alterations can impact Zn bioavailability. -- Zinc mineralogy influences in vitro bioaccessibility and in vivo bioavailability and in vitro extraction tests can be used to predict Zn bioavailability from particles

  13. CADMIUM AND ZINC CONCENTRATIONS IN THE HAIR AFTER OF ADULTS MAGNESIUM SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sałacka

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium is a biological zinc antagonist and may interfere with metabolic zinc-regulated or zincdependent processes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between cadmium and zinc concentrations in the hair of adults after oral supplementation with magnesium. Material and methods: The levels of elements in the hair were determined by the inverse voltammetry. The analysis was performed on the hair of 32 people from the study group and 10 from the control group. Supplementation was performed using Slow-Mag B6. Results: Cadmium concentration in the study group before supplementation ranged from indeterminable levels, to 1,92 µg per gram of dry matter. The range of cadmium concentration after supplementation was between the indeterminable level, and 0,45 µg per gram of dry matter. Based on the statistical analysis, we found that cadmium concentration was significantly lower after magnesium supplementation with a significance level of p*0,02. Zinc level before supplementation was between 11,66 and 250,48 µg per gram of dry matter, and after supplementation between 68,31 and 185,24 µg per gram of dry matter. Conclusion: The results obtained suggest that supplementation with magnesium contributed to the lowering of cadmium concentration in the hair of the people examined.

  14. Zinc bioleaching from an iron concentrate using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain from Hercules Mine of Coahuila, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Ramírez, Diola Marina; Solís-Soto, Aquiles; López-Miranda, Javier; Pereyra-Alférez, Benito; Rutiaga-Quiñónes, Miriam; Medina-Torres, Luis; Medrano-Roldán, Hiram

    2011-10-01

    The iron concentrate from Hercules Mine of Coahuila, Mexico, which mainly contained pyrite and pyrrhotite, was treated by the bioleaching process using native strain Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ( A. ferrooxidans) to determine the ability of these bacteria on the leaching of zinc. The native bacteria were isolated from the iron concentrate of the mine. The bioleaching experiments were carried out in shake flasks to analyze the effects of pH values, pulp density, and the ferrous sulfate concentration on the bioleaching process. The results obtained by microbial kinetic analyses for the evaluation of some aspects of zinc leaching show that the native bacteria A. ferrooxidans, which is enriched with a 9K Silverman medium under the optimum conditions of pH 2.0, 20 g/L pulp density, and 40 g/L FeSO4, increases the zinc extraction considerably observed by monitoring during15 d, i.e., the zinc concentration has a decrease of about 95% in the iron concentrate.

  15. Zinc and copper levels in the plasma of Nubian goat as affected by the physiological status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid, Tag-Eldin Mohamed [Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1997-11-01

    This study is undertaken directed to determine the blood concentration of micro (trace) minerals, particularly zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), in dairy goats as affected by the different physiological status. Animals selected were the Nubian goats as an important dairy breed in sudan. The animals were divided into eight groups as follows: Young animals (4-6 month old), adult animals (9-12 month old), up to 50 days after first kidding, up to 50 days after second kidding, up to 50 days after third kidding, low yielder, high yielder. Each of the above groups consisted of 5 animals. The analysis was carried by using the spectrophotometer technique and the results revealed that, plasma Zn concentration decreased with increase of age while that of Cu increased with the increase of age. The plasma Zn level showed continuous increase through first pregnancy, after first kidding, after second kidding and after third kidding. It increased in the lactating animals. The plasma Cu concentration fluctuated throughout the groups with different physiological status, it showed the same levels in the pregnant group, up to 50 days after second kidding, and up to 50 days after third kidding groups, while it showed a marked decrease in the group of up to 50 days after first kidding. No significant differences were observed between the low lactating and the high lactating groups. (Author) 68 refs. , 3 tabs. , 2 figs.

  16. Zinc and copper levels in the plasma of Nubian goat as affected by the physiological status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, Tag-Eldin Mohamed

    1997-11-01

    This study is undertaken directed to determine the blood concentration of micro (trace) minerals, particularly zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), in dairy goats as affected by the different physiological status. Animals selected were the Nubian goats as an important dairy breed in sudan. The animals were divided into eight groups as follows: Young animals (4-6 month old), adult animals (9-12 month old), up to 50 days after first kidding, up to 50 days after second kidding, up to 50 days after third kidding, low yielder, high yielder. Each of the above groups consisted of 5 animals. The analysis was carried by using the spectrophotometer technique and the results revealed that, plasma Zn concentration decreased with increase of age while that of Cu increased with the increase of age. The plasma Zn level showed continuous increase through first pregnancy, after first kidding, after second kidding and after third kidding. It increased in the lactating animals. The plasma Cu concentration fluctuated throughout the groups with different physiological status, it showed the same levels in the pregnant group, up to 50 days after second kidding, and up to 50 days after third kidding groups, while it showed a marked decrease in the group of up to 50 days after first kidding. No significant differences were observed between the low lactating and the high lactating groups. (Author)

  17. Behavioral and dermatologic changes and low serum zinc and copper concentrations in two premature infants after parenteral alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasubramanian, K N; Henkin, R I

    1978-11-01

    Two premature infants were observed to develop behavioral and dermatologic changes and low serum zinc and copper concentrations following cessation of prolonged parenteral alimentation, while being fed exclusively with human milk. Following treatment with exogenous oral zinc supplementation, prompt relief of symptoms and increases of serum zinc and copper concentrations were observed in both infants. These patients comprise about 5% of our premature infants who are treated with parenteral alimentation for more than two weeks. We recommend that premature infants on prolonged parenteral alimentation should be monitored for changes in serum zinc and copper concentrations and, if a marked fall is observed, supplementation should be considered.

  18. Serum copper and zinc concentrations in a representative sample of the Canarian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Romero, Carlos; Henríquez Sánchez, Patricia; López Blanco, Félix; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Serra Majem, Lluis

    2002-01-01

    Serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations of 395 individuals (187 males + 208 females) living in Canary Islands were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean copper and zinc concentrations were 1.10 +/- 0.25 mg/L and 1.16 +/- 0.52 mg/L respectively. Our data were similar to other data published in other Spanish regions. Individuals from Lanzarote presented a mean Cu and Zn concentrations higher (p EL Hierro showed the lowest (p 0.05) among the different age intervals. No clear trends in the serum Cu and Zn concentrations were observed when drinking and smoking habits were considered. The increase of physical exercise reduced (p < 0.05) the serum Cu concentrations.

  19. Myo-inositol, glucose and zinc concentrations determined in the preconceptional period, during and after pregnancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, P.M.; Roes, E.M.; Peer, P.G.M.; Merkus, H.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the blood concentrations of myo-inositol, glucose and zinc before, during and after normal pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Preconceptionally, at 6, 10, 20, 30 and 37 weeks amenorrhea, and 6 weeks after delivery, blood samples of 18 nulliparae and 19 multiparae were obtained and

  20. Lead, zinc and pH concentrations of Enyigba soils in Abakaliki Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were quantitatively determined in surface and sub-surface soils in Enyigba, Ebonyi State, Nigerian's major lead mining area using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. pH status of the soils was similarly determined. The survey was conducted to establish a base line pollution ...

  1. Highly concentrated zinc oxide nanocrystals sol with strong blue emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vafaee, M.; Sasani Ghamsari, M.; Radiman, S.

    2011-01-01

    Highly concentrated ZnO sol was synthesized by an improved sol-gel method. Water was used as a modifier to control the sol-gel reaction and provide a way to increase the sol concentration. Concentration of ZnO in the prepared sol is higher than from other methods. Optical absorption and photoluminescence were used to investigate optical properties of the prepared sol. FTIR test was performed to study the influence of water on the compounds of as-prepared sol. The size and morphology of ZnO nanoparticles have been studied by HRTEM. The prepared colloidal ZnO nanocrystals have narrow size distribution (5-8 nm) and showed strong blue emission. The prepared sol has enough potential for optoelectronic applications. - Research highlights: → Novel sol-gel route has been employed to prepare highly concentrated ZnO colloidal nanocrystals. → Water has been used to control the sources of emission in synthesized material. → A strong blue luminescent material has been obtained.

  2. Determination of bioavailable concentrations of copper and Zinc in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil samples were taken over a period of three months from each zone for analysis of soil physicochemical properties and Cu and Zn concentrations in sequential fraction of the soil sample. Composite samples of soil were collected from vegetable farms and gardens in each zone and also from two rural villages, about 30 ...

  3. Concentrations of plasma copper and zinc and blood selenium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prior to lambing, when they were transferred to kikuyu pastures. From six weeks prior to lambing, all the ewes received 0,5 kg supplementary feeding daily. This was increased by 0,1 kg per week up to lambing. The diet consisted of 55% oaten hay, 35,6% barley, 4% fish meal, 3% Rumevite stud concentrate,. 1% bentonite,.

  4. Effect of sublethal concentrations of zinc on reproduction in the zebrafish, Brachydanio rerio Hamilton--Buchanan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speranza, A.W.; Seeley, R.J.; Seeley, V.A.; Perlmutter, A.

    1977-03-01

    Adult zebrafish, when held in water containing a threshold concentration (55 ppM) of zinc for a 9-day period in which the gametes were maturing, showed a delay in spawning. When spawning did occur, the experimental pairs of fish produced an average of 165 eggs of which only 21.1 percent were viable. In contrast, control pairs of fish produced an average of 434 eggs of which 90.2 percent were viable. In addition, survival of the eggs to hatching was significantly lower than in controls, the survival rate for the experimentals being 0.9 percent, that of the controls, 63.3 percent. The adverse effects on zebrafish of exposure to zinc can be reversed by returning the fish to a zinc-free environment.

  5. The Effect of Different Zinc Application Methods on Yield and Grain Zinc Concentration of Bread Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatun Barut

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to elucidate the impacts of zinc (Zn treatments on growth, development, quality and yield of commonly sown bread wheat cultivars under field conditions of Çukurova Region. Three different bread wheat cultivars (Adana-99, Ceyhan-99 and Pandas were experimented in randomized complete blocks-split plots experimental design with 3 replications. Field experiments were performed by two different Zn application methods; via soil and via soil+foliage. In the both trials, 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 kg ha-1 pure Zn doses were applied to the soil. 0.4% ZnSO4.7H2O solution was used for foliar Zn applications. Current findings revealed that Zn treatments had significant effects on grain yield, grain Zn concentration, grain phosphorus (P concentration and thousand grain weight of bread wheat cultivars, but significant effects were not observed on grain protein concentrations. Soil+foliar Zn treatments were more effective in improving grain Zn concentrations. It was concluded that 10- 20 kg ha-1 Zn treatment was quite effective on grain Zn concentrations.

  6. Does folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention affect endocrine parameters and sperm characteristics in men?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebisch, T.M.; Pierik, F.H.; Jong, F.H. de; Thomas, C.M.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated pre- and post-intervention endocrine and semen parameters in a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study to investigate the underlying mechanism of increased sperm concentration after folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention. A total of 47 fertile and 40 subfertile males

  7. The measurement of the isotope ratios and concentrations of zinc by thermal ionization mass spectrometry using double isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Zhongguo

    1994-01-01

    The isotope ratios and concentrations of zinc are measured by silicagel-thermal ionization mass spectrometry using the double isotope spikers. The double isotope spikers ( 70 Zn and 67 Zn-enriched isotopes) are used to correct the isotope mass fractionation for the zinc isotope ratios, and to certify the zinc concentrations in the unknown samples. The zinc concentrations of these double isotope spikers are surveyed by a spiker made of pure (99.99%) natural zinc metal powder. The correcting factors (f a , f t and f n ) of the zinc isotope ratios in the spiked mixture, spike and unspiked samples for the isotope mass fractionation, and the spike-to-unspiked ratios (X r ) of the zinc isotope r in the spiked mixture samples can be obtained to solve the matrix equations by numerical approximation. The natural zinc isotope ratios are: 64 Zn/ 67 Zn = 11.8498, 66 Zn/ 67 Zn = 6.7977, 68 Zn/ 67 Zn = 4.5730 and 70 Zn/ 67 Zn = 0.1520. The uncertainties determined of the isotope ratios and concentrations of zinc are +- 0.16% and +-0.31%, respectively

  8. Strontium and zinc concentrations in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lill, J.-O.; Himberg, M.; Harju, L.; Ek, P.; Lindroos, A.; Wiklund, T.; Gunnelius, K.; Smått, J.-H.; Heselius, S.-J.; Hägerstrand, H.

    2014-01-01

    Otoliths of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) caught at different locations in the northern Baltic Sea along the Finnish west coast and at some rivers and lakes were subjected to elemental analyses with particle induced X-ray emission and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The strontium concentration in otoliths from whitefish (∼3300 μg/g) was 2–3 times higher than that of perch and pike (∼1400 μg/g), while within species the strontium concentration of otoliths from fish caught at different locations was in the same range. The strontium concentrations were lowest in fish from the lakes (∼450 μg/g). Whitefish otoliths contained more zinc (∼60 μg/g) than those of pike (∼30 μg/g), while the zinc concentration in perch otoliths were below the detection limit. No spatial intraspecies variations in zinc concentrations were observed. X-ray diffraction showed that the otoliths consisted of aragonite solely

  9. Strontium and zinc concentrations in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lill, J.-O., E-mail: jlill@abo.fi [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Porthansgatan 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Himberg, M. [Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Husö Biological Station, Environmental and Marine Biology, Department of Biosciences, Åbo Akademi University, Artillerigatan 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland); Harju, L.; Ek, P. [Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, Åbo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Lindroos, A. [Geology and Mineralogy, Department of Natural Sciences, Åbo Akademi University, Domkyrkotorget, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Wiklund, T. [Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Husö Biological Station, Environmental and Marine Biology, Department of Biosciences, Åbo Akademi University, Artillerigatan 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland); Gunnelius, K.; Smått, J.-H. [Physical Chemistry, Department of Natural Sciences, Åbo Akademi University, Porthansgatan 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Heselius, S.-J. [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Porthansgatan 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Hägerstrand, H. [Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Husö Biological Station, Environmental and Marine Biology, Department of Biosciences, Åbo Akademi University, Artillerigatan 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland)

    2014-01-01

    Otoliths of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) caught at different locations in the northern Baltic Sea along the Finnish west coast and at some rivers and lakes were subjected to elemental analyses with particle induced X-ray emission and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The strontium concentration in otoliths from whitefish (∼3300 μg/g) was 2–3 times higher than that of perch and pike (∼1400 μg/g), while within species the strontium concentration of otoliths from fish caught at different locations was in the same range. The strontium concentrations were lowest in fish from the lakes (∼450 μg/g). Whitefish otoliths contained more zinc (∼60 μg/g) than those of pike (∼30 μg/g), while the zinc concentration in perch otoliths were below the detection limit. No spatial intraspecies variations in zinc concentrations were observed. X-ray diffraction showed that the otoliths consisted of aragonite solely.

  10. Zinc treatment increases the titre of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in Huanglongbing-affected citrus plants while affecting the bacterial microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB)-affected citrus often display zinc deficiency symptoms. In this study, supplemental zinc was applied to citrus to determine its effect on Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) titer, HLB symptoms, and leaf microbiome. HLB-affected citrus were treated with various amounts of zi...

  11. Low concentrations of zinc in gastric mucosa are associated with increased severity of Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempértegui, Fernando; Díaz, Myriam; Mejía, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Mora, Oswaldo G; Rentería, Edgar; Guarderas, Carlos; Estrella, Bertha; Recalde, Ramiro; Hamer, Davidson H; Reeves, Philip G

    2007-02-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is the most common cause of gastric cancer. H. pylori induces oxidative stress while zinc deficiency results in increased sensitivity to it. In Ecuador, the prevalence of gastric cancer and zinc deficiency are high. We hypothesized that zinc deficiency in Ecuadorian people would cause increased H. pylori-induced inflammation in the gastric mucosa associated with lower tissue zinc concentrations. Three hundred and fifty-two patients with dyspepsia underwent endoscopy to obtain gastric mucosa biopsies. Diagnosis of H. pylori infection and its severity, histopathology, mucosal zinc concentration, and inflammation intensity were determined. H. pylori-infected patients with non-atrophic chronic gastritis had lower concentrations of zinc in gastric mucosa than uninfected patients with the same type of gastritis (251.3 +/- 225.3 vs. 426.2 +/- 279.9 ng/mg of protein; p = .016). Considering all patients, the more severe the H. pylori infection, the higher the percentage of subjects with infiltration by polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells (p = .0001). Patients with high PMN infiltration had lower mucosal zinc concentrations than patients with low PMN infiltration (35.2 +/- 20.7 vs. 242.9 +/- 191.8 ng/mg of protein; p = .021). The degree of inflammation in H. pylori-induced gastritis appears to be modulated by gastric tissue zinc concentrations.

  12. Baseline mercury and zinc concentrations in terrestrial and coastal organisms of Admiralty Bay, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues dos Santos, Isaac; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira; Schaefer, Carlos; Maria Sella, Silvia; Silva, Carlos A.; Gomes, Vicente; Passos, Maria Jose de A.C.R.; Phan Van Ngan

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides the first quantitative information on mercury in soil, coastal sediment, and in characteristic organisms of terrestrial and shallow coastal marine ecosystems from Admiralty Bay (King George Island, Antarctica). As expected for a remote area, mercury content is low in abiotic components of the ecosystem, and probably similar to natural levels. Mercury also occurs in very low concentrations in the vegetation, invertebrates and fish. These low mercury levels may be due to sulphide formation in reducing sediments of this environment. Higher concentrations of mercury occurred in bird feathers and mammal hair, indicating biomagnification. This was not found for Zinc. These results may be useful as a reference background to detect future inputs of trace elements in this remote area of the earth. Terrestrial vegetation and bird feathers are suggested as target regional biomonitors. - Low levels of mercury and zinc occurred in soil and plant samples from Antarctica, but high levels occurred in birds and mammals

  13. Grinding in lead-zinc concentrator Sasa – choice between different grinding media

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Boris

    2004-01-01

    In this paper will be present result obtained from investigation in the grinding circuit of the lead-zinc concentrator Sasa,using differen grindng media: • Litzkhun-Niederwipper Forged Steel grinding balls; • GSI LUCCHINI Moly-Cop Forged Steel grinding balls; • Cast steel grinding balls from Ukraina and Bulgaria; In the same time will be shown comparation between obtained parameters using different grinding balls specially: • Capacity of the grinding mill; • Particle size; ...

  14. Determination of zinc concentration in female reproductive system by instrumental neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando Ramos de

    2009-01-01

    Non-surgical female sterilization through the transcervical insertion of quinacrine pellets was considered a definitive, low-cost, safe and effective contraceptive method. The zinc, present in both uterus and Fallopian tubes, inhibit the quinacrine efficiency. The addition of copper increases the efficacy of quinacrine, reducing the risk of pregnancy due to the failure to obstruct the Fallopian tubes. The copper neutralized the deleterious effect of the zinc and so the treatment efficacy is increased. In order to obtain a mapping to study the zinc content in the female reproductive system, samples of both uterus and Fallopian tubes were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation. The results show that, on average, the obtained zinc concentrations in tubes (89 μg-g -1 ) is lower than in the uterus (118 μg-g -1 ), confirming results obtained by other authors. These results will support a research project about non-surgical female sterilization of the 'Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais' (Medical School of Federal University of Minas Gerais). The used methodology and obtained results are here reported. (author)

  15. Determination of zinc concentration in female reproductive system by instrumental neutron activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando Ramos de, E-mail: framosc@oi.com.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Ginecologia e Obstetricia; Ferreira, Claudia R.C.; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: claudia@medicina.ufmg.b, E-mail: ranf@cdtn.b, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Non-surgical female sterilization through the transcervical insertion of quinacrine pellets was considered a definitive, low-cost, safe and effective contraceptive method. The zinc, present in both uterus and Fallopian tubes, inhibit the quinacrine efficiency. The addition of copper increases the efficacy of quinacrine, reducing the risk of pregnancy due to the failure to obstruct the Fallopian tubes. The copper neutralized the deleterious effect of the zinc and so the treatment efficacy is increased. In order to obtain a mapping to study the zinc content in the female reproductive system, samples of both uterus and Fallopian tubes were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation. The results show that, on average, the obtained zinc concentrations in tubes (89 mug-g{sup -1}) is lower than in the uterus (118 mug-g{sup -1}), confirming results obtained by other authors. These results will support a research project about non-surgical female sterilization of the 'Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais' (Medical School of Federal University of Minas Gerais). The used methodology and obtained results are here reported. (author)

  16. Assessment of Fluoride Concentration of Soil and Vegetables in Vicinity of Zinc Smelter, Debari, Udaipur, Rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Nagesh; Jain, Sandeep; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Shinde, Kushal; Singh, Anukriti; Gandhi, Neha; Gupta, Vivek Vardhan

    2015-10-01

    As of late, natural contamination has stimulated as a reaction of mechanical and other human exercises. In India, with the expanding industrialization, numerous unsafe substances are utilized or are discharged amid generation as cleans, exhaust, vapours and gasses. These substances at last are blended in the earth and causes health hazards. To determine concentration of fluoride in soils and vegetables grown in the vicinity of Zinc Smelter, Debari, Udaipur, Rajasthan. Samples of vegetables and soil were collected from areas situated at 0, 1, 2, 5, and 10 km distance from the zinc smelter, Debari. Three samples of vegetables (i.e. Cabbage, Onion and Tomato) and 3 samples of soil {one sample from the upper layer of soil (i.e. 0 to 20 cm) and one from the deep layer (i.e. 20 - 40 cm)} at each distance were collected. The soil and vegetable samples were sealed in clean polythene bags and transported to the laboratory for analysis. One sample each of water and fertilizer from each distance were also collected. The mean fluoride concentration in the vegetables grown varied between 0.36 ± 0.69 to 0.71 ± 0.90 ppm. The fluoride concentration in fertilizer and water sample from various distances was found to be in the range of 1.4 - 1.5 ppm and 1.8 - 1.9 ppm respectively. The fluoride content of soil and vegetables was found to be higher in places near to the zinc smelter.

  17. Cadmium, zinc, copper, sodium and potassium concentrations in rooster and turkey semen and their correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massanyi, Peter; Weis, Jan; Lukac, Norbert; Trandzik, Jozef; Bystricka, Judita

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess concentration of selected elements (cadmium, zinc, copper, sodium and potassium) in rooster and turkey semen and to find possible correlations between these elements. Samples were analyzed on the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analysis of cadmium showed that the concentration in rooster is 9.06 +/- 7.70 and in turkey 4.10 +/- 3.59 microg/mL. In zinc 5.25 +/- 1.96 microg/mL in rooster and 3.70 +/- 1.26 microg/mL in turkey were detected. Higher concentration of copper was found in rooster semen (6.79 +/- 6.42 microg/mL) in comparison with turkey semen (4.29 +/- 5.43 microg/mL). The level of sodium (3.96 +/- 1.02 microg/mL; 3.14 +/- 0.85 microg/mL) and potassium (2.88 +/- 0.65 microg/mL; 3.42 +/- 1.41 microg/mL) was very similar in both species. Correlation analysis detected high positive correlation between cadmium and zinc (r = 0.701) in rooster and between sodium and potassium (r = 0.899) in turkey semen.

  18. THE EFFECT OF BLOOD AND MILK SERUM ZINC CONCENTRATION ON MILK SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Davidov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of blood and milk zinc concentration on somatic cell count and occurrence of subclinical mastitis cases. The study was performed on thirty Holstein cows approximate same body weight, ages 3 to 5 years, with equally milk production. Blood samples were taken after the morning milking from the caudal vein and milk from all four quarters was taken before morning milking. All samples of blood and milk were taken to determined zinc, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. 37.67% (11/30 cows have blood serum zinc concentration below 7µmol/l, and 63.33% or 19/30 cows have blood serum zinc concentration higher then 13µmol/l. Also 30% (9/30 cows have somatic cell count lower then 400.000/ml which indicate absence of subclinical mastitis, but 70% (21/30 cows have somatic cell count higher then 400.000/ml which indicate subclinical mastitis. Results indicate that cows with level of zinc in blood serum higher then 13 µmol/l have lower somatic cell count. Cows with lower zinc blood serum concentration then 7 µmol/l have high somatic cell count and high incidence of subclinical mastitis. According to results in this research there is no significant effect of milk serum zinc concentration on somatic cell count in dairy cows.

  19. Genetic Variability, Genotype × Environment Interaction, Correlation, and GGE Biplot Analysis for Grain Iron and Zinc Concentration and Other Agronomic Traits in RIL Population of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul M. Phuke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The low grain iron and zinc densities are well documented problems in food crops, affecting crop nutritional quality especially in cereals. Sorghum is a major source of energy and micronutrients for majority of population in Africa and central India. Understanding genetic variation, genotype × environment interaction and association between these traits is critical for development of improved cultivars with high iron and zinc. A total of 336 sorghum RILs (Recombinant Inbred Lines were evaluated for grain iron and zinc concentration along with other agronomic traits for 2 years at three locations. The results showed that large variability exists in RIL population for both micronutrients (Iron = 10.8 to 76.4 mg kg−1 and Zinc = 10.2 to 58.7 mg kg−1, across environments and agronomic traits. Genotype × environment interaction for both micronutrients (iron and zinc was highly significant. GGE biplots comparison for grain iron and zinc showed greater variation across environments. The results also showed that G × E was substantial for grain iron and zinc, hence wider testing needed for taking care of G × E interaction to breed micronutrient rich sorghum lines. Iron and zinc concentration showed high significant positive correlation (across environment = 0.79; p < 0.01 indicating possibility of simultaneous effective selection for both the traits. The RIL population showed good variability and high heritabilities (>0.60, in individual environments for Fe and Zn and other traits studied indicating its suitability to map QTL for iron and zinc.

  20. [Reduced zinc concentration in expressed prostatic secretion relates to the pain symptoms of types Ⅲ and Ⅳ prostatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Lin-Jian; Chen, Xi; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Li, Guang-Yu; Zhang, Xun; Huang, Shan; Xie, Zhi-Bin; Mo, Zeng-Nan

    2016-06-01

    To determine the zinc levels in the expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) of the patients with different types of chronic nonbacterial prostatitis, and explore the reference value of zinc concentration in EPS in the diagnosis and treatment of prostatitis. We collected EPS samples from 35 healthy men and 173 patients with chronic nonbacterial prostatitis, including 65 cases of type ⅢA, 69 cases of type ⅢB, and 39 cases of type Ⅳ, according to the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI). We compared the zinc levels in the EPS samples among different groups and analyzed the correlations of zinc concentration with the NIH-CPSI scores, WBC count, pH value, and age of the subjects. The participants were aged 17-65 (32.5±8.5) years. The zinc concentrations in the EPS were significantly lower in the ⅢA ([162.2±10.8] μg/ml) and ⅢB ([171.2±12.0] μg/ml) than in the Ⅳ ([234.6±17.9] μg/ml) (Pprostatitis may be associated with the pain symptoms of the disease, which suggests the potential reference value of measuring the zinc concentration in EPS in the diagnosis and treatment of prostatitis.

  1. Physiological responses of Porphyra haitanesis to different copper and zinc concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xia Li

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, several physiological responses of the red marine alga Porphyra haitanesis to elevated concentrations of copper (up to 50 μM and zinc (up to 100 μM were investigated. Our results showed that the effects of Cu2+ and Zn2+ on growth, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids, phycobiliprotein and metabolism (the fluorescence emission spectra and the activities of photosystemII did not follow the same pattern. The relative growth rate was inhibited by different concentrations of Cu2+, and was slightly increased at lower concentrations (up to 10 μM and inhibited at higher Zn2+concentrations. On the other hand, the phycoerythrin contents were slightly increased at relatively low concentrations (up to 1 μM Cu2+ or 20 μM Zn2+ and inhibited by high Cu2+ and Zn2+ concentrations. Moreover, photosynthesis and respiration showed an increase in the amount of oxygen exchange in response to relatively low Cu2+ (up to 1 μM and Zn2+ concentrations (up to 10 μM, and a reduction to relatively high Cu2+ and Zn2+ concentrations. Oxygen evolution was more sensitive than oxygen uptake to Cu2+ and Zn2+. In addition, the photoreductive activities and fluorescence emission of photosystem II (PS II were enhanced by lower concentrations of Cu2+ (up to 0.1 μM and Zn2+ (up to 10 μM and inhibited by higher concentrations. Furthermore, the intensity of chlorophyll a fluorescence and the active PSII reaction centers followed a similar pattern in response to elevated concentrations of Cu2+ and Zn2+. These results suggest that lower concentrations of Cu2+ and Zn2+ affected the metabolism of P. haitanesis, which was inhibited by higher concentrations of these metals.No presente estudo foram investigadas as respostas fisiológicas da alga vermelha Porphyra haitanesis às elevadas concentrações de cobre (acima de 50 μM e de zinco (acima de 100 μM. Os resultados mostram que os efeitos de Cu2+ e Zn2+ sobre o crescimento, pigmentos

  2. Concentration effect on the spectroscopic behavior of Tb3+ ions in zinc phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavulu, C.R.; Almeida Silva, Anielle Christine; Dousti, M.R.; Dantas, Noelio Oliveira; Camargo, A.S.S. de; Catunda, Tomaz

    2015-01-01

    Zinc phosphate glasses (PZABPTb) in the compositional system: P 2 O 5 –ZnO–Al 2 O 3 –BaO–PbO doped with variable Tb 3+ concentrations (1–5 wt% Tb 2 O 3 ) were prepared and characterized through absorption, excitation, emission and intensity decay rate measurements. The Judd–Ofelt model has been adopted to evaluate the radiative properties of the 5 D 4 → 7 F 6–3 emission transitions. The effect of Tb 3+ ion concentration on the emissions from the 5 D 3,4 excited levels is discussed in detail. Analysis of the intensity decay curves corresponding to blue and green emissions from levels 5 D 3 and 5 D 4 , respectively, allowed determination of effective lifetimes, which confirmed the Tb 3+ ion concentration quenching of the blue emission in these glasses. The decay curves for the 5 D 3 level are found to be non-exponential in nature for all the studied concentrations due to ion–ion energy transfer through cross-relaxation. In an attempt to identify the origin of the energy transfer mechanism, the decay curves were well fitted to the Inokuti–Hirayama model for S=6, which indicates that the energy transfer process is of dipole–dipole type. The optical band gap energy (E opt ) has been evaluated taking into account the ultraviolet edge of absorption spectra. - Highlights: • Tb 3+ -doped zinc phosphate glasses have been prepared by melt quenching technique. • Spectroscopic parameters were evaluated using the Judd–Ofelt theory. • Effects of Tb 3+ concentration on luminescence of the glasses were studied. • Strong intense laser transition for Tb 3+ ion in PZABPTb glasses is 5 D 4 → 7 F 5 (0.54 μm). • PZABPTb glasses could be used in the development of green color display devices and solid state visible lasers

  3. Phosphorus reduces the zinc concentration in cereals pot-grown on calcareous Vertisols from southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Antonio Rafael; Del Campillo, María Carmen; Torrent, José

    2017-08-01

    Zinc deficiency, a major problem in crops grown on soils low in available Zn, is even more important in phosphorus-rich soils. This work aimed to elucidate the effects of soil P and Zn levels, and of fertilizer application, on yield and Zn concentration in cereal grains. Wheat and barley were successively pot-grown on 20 calcareous Vertisols low in available Zn and ranging widely in available P. Grain yield in the plants grown on the native soils was positively correlated with Olsen P but not with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn except for wheat on P-rich soils. Grain Zn concentration was negatively correlated with Olsen P. Grain Zn uptake differed little among soils. Application of P to the soils increased grain yield insignificantly and P concentration significantly; however, it reduced grain Zn concentration (particularly at low Olsen P values). Applying Zn alone only increased grain Zn concentration, whereas applying P and Zn in combination increased yield and grain Zn concentration at low and high Olsen P values, respectively. Applying P alone to plants grown on calcareous Vertisols low in available P and Zn may in practice reduce grain Zn concentrations while not increasing grain yield significantly. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Characterizing Zinc Speciation in Soils from a Smelter-Affected Boreal Forest Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jordan G; Farrell, Richard E; Chen, Ning; Feng, Renfei; Reid, Joel; Peak, Derek

    2016-03-01

    HudBay Minerals, Inc., has mined and/or processed Zn and Cu ore in Flin Flon, MB, Canada, since the 1930s. The boreal forest ecosystem and soil surrounding these facilities have been severely impacted by mixed metal contamination and HSO deposition. Zinc is one of the most prevalent smelter-derived contaminants and has been identified as a key factor that may be limiting revegetation. Metal toxicity is related to both total concentrations and speciation; therefore, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence mapping were used to characterize Zn speciation in soils throughout the most heavily contaminated areas of the landscape. Zinc speciation was linked to two distinct soil types. Group I soils consist of exposed soils in weathered positions of bedrock outcrops with Zn present primarily as franklinite, a (ZnFeO) spinel mineral. Group II soils are stabilized by an invasive metal-tolerant grass species, with Zn found as a mixture of octahedral (Fe oxides) and tetrahedral Mn oxides) adsorption complexes with a franklinite component. Soil erosion influences Zn speciation through the redistribution of Zn and soil particulates from Group I landscape positions to Group II soils. Despite Group II soils having the highest concentrations of CaCl-extractable Zn, they support metal-tolerant plant growth. The metal-tolerant plants are probably preferentially colonizing these areas due to better soil and nutrient conditions as a result of soil deposition from upslope Group I areas. Zinc concentration and speciation appears to not influence the colonization by metal-tolerant grasses, but the overall soil properties and erosion effects prevent the revegetation by native boreal forest species. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. On-line estimation of the dissolved zinc concentration during ZnS precipitation in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootscholten, T.I.M.; Keesman, K.J.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a method is presented to estimate the reaction term of zinc sulphide precipitation and the zinc concentration in a CSTR, using the read-out signal of a sulphide selective electrode. The reaction between zinc and sulphide is described by a non-linear model and therefore classical

  6. Fever and changes in plasma zinc and iron concentrations in the goat: The role of leukocytic pyrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, J.H.M.; Miert, A. S. J. P. A. M. Van; Duin, C.T.M. van; Schotman, A.J.H.; Nieuwenhuis, J.

    1984-01-01

    In goats with trypanosomiasis (T. vivax or T. congolense) no marked fall in plasma zinc concentration was seen despite high temperature peaks, whereas plasma concentrations of iron tended to undergo some decline. In goats infected with Ehrlichia phagocytophila, there was a marked decline in plasma

  7. Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) Concentrations in Marine Gastropod Strombus Canarium in Johor Coastal Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikhah Sabri; Mohd Ismid Mohd Said; Shamila Azman

    2014-01-01

    Strombus canarium is a popular food source with high commercial value in southern part of Peninsular Malaysia. As a deposit feeder, Strombus canarium can accumulate pollutants especially heavy metals in their system. Study on this species was conducted at Teluk Sengat and Mersing, Johor where samples of seawater and Strombus canarium were collected during spring low tides around 0 to 0.2 meters. Lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were investigated to determine pollution status in the area. Samples from Teluk Sengat showed that Zn has higher concentration in both water and S. canarium with 0.055 mg/ L and 20.257 mg/ kg wet weight respectively. However the concentrations were within permissible limit of Malaysia Marine Water Quality Criteria and Standard (MMWQS). In contrast, Pb concentration at Teluk Sengat exceeded the MMWQS and its concentration in soft tissues of S. canarium also exceeded the permissible limit recommended by Food and Agriculture Organisation (0.5 mg/ kg wet weight) and World Health Organisation (0.2 mg/ kg wet weight). (author)

  8. Environmental cadmium and zinc concentrations in liver and kidney of European hare from different Serbian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Zoran I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hares assayed (n=84 were divided into five age groups: 3-6; 12; 12-24; 24-36 and 36 + months. Between all sampling regions (11 significant differences of Cd levels were found in kidney and liver (p value, p=0.001 and 0.007, respectively . Significant statistical differences (p=0.001 are registered between Cd content in kidney and liver of hares among all represented age groups. Looking at all investigated hare samples, moderately higher concentrations of Zn were found in liver (median value: 25.4 mg/kg w.w compared to those in kidney (21.4 mg/kg. These differences were statistically significant (p=0.001. Zinc concentrations in liver, between all age groups, did not differ significantly (p=0.512 but in kidney these differences were statistically significant (p=0,001. Significant differences between Zn concentrations in liver in comparison to kidney (pairwise differences were found within every single age group with exception of the oldest (36+ . Strong statistically significant correlations (Ps- Pearson's correlation between Cd concentrations in kidney and liver were registered in three groups older than 12 months (Ps=0.81, p=0.001; 0.78, p=0.001; and 0.79, p=0.001, respectively. Negative correlation between Zn and Cd concentrations were found in liver samples within the age group of 12 months (Ps= -0,67, p=0.004.

  9. Bioavailability of zinc to rats from defatted soy flour, acid-precipitated soy concentrate and neutralized soy concentrate as determined by intrinsic and extrinsic labeling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelsen, S.M.; Stuart, M.A.; Weaver, C.M.; Forbes, R.M.; Erdman, J.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The bioavailability of 65Zn from intrinsically and extrinsically labeled soy flour, acid-precipitated soy concentrate and neutralized soy concentrate was evaluated in rats. Weanling rats were fed marginally zinc-deficient diets, providing 8 ppm zinc from one of these three soy products, for 7 days. The rats then received a radioactively labeled test meal, identical in composition to the previous diet except that the soy product was either intrinsically or extrinsically labeled with 65Zn. After the test meal the rats were again fed diets the same as those consumed prior to the test meal. Whole-body retention of 65Zn at 24 hours and 12 days as well as 65Zn retained in tibias of rats given meals containing neutralized concentrate-based meals was significantly lower than for rats given meals containing the soy flour or acid-precipitated concentrate. In addition, retention of 65Zn from the extrinsically labeled acid-precipitated concentrate-based meal was significantly higher than from the same product intrinsically labeled. These findings confirm the results of previous feeding studies from which it was suggested that neutralization of soy protein concentrates reduces zinc bioavailability to the rat. In addition, the results are taken to suggest that experimental conditions may influence the validity of the extrinsic labeling technique for zinc

  10. Control of exogenous factors affecting plasma homovanillic acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M; Giordani, A B; Mohs, R C; Mykytyn, V V; Platt, S; Aryan, Z S; Davis, K L

    1987-04-01

    Measurements of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations appear to be a valid research strategy in psychiatric disorders in which a central dopamine (DA) abnormality has been implicated. This study provides guidance about the control of some of the exogenous factors affecting pHVA concentrations. Fasting for 14 hours eliminates the dietary effects on pHVA in healthy human subjects. Changing position, walking for 30 minutes, or smoking two cigarettes has no effect on pHVA concentrations.

  11. Determination of lead and zinc concentrations in the blood and liver of the captive common green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Russell P; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2009-09-01

    Heavy metal toxicosis is a well-known phenomenon in wild, captive-animal, and domestic animal medicine. However, the occurrence among reptiles is not well documented. One reason for this is the lack of information regarding reference blood and tissue levels of heavy metals in reptiles. To determine normal blood lead, plasma zinc, and liver lead and zinc concentrations, blood and liver samples were collected from 4 adult and 16 juvenile, healthy green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Lead and zinc levels were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Using the mean +/- two SD as the normal reference range, the present study suggests the following for captive common green iguana: 1) whole blood lead level: 0.06 +/- 0.06 microg/ml; 2) plasma zinc level: 2.68 +/- 1.66 microg/ml; 3) liver lead level (wet-weight basis): <1.0 +/- 0.0 microg/g; 4) liver lead level (dry-weight basis): <3.0 +/- 0.0 microg/g; 5) liver zinc level (wet-weight basis): 24.9 +/- 11.6 microg/g; and 6) liver zinc level (dry-weight basis): 83.4 +/- 44.6 microg/g. These values are fairly consistent with published reference levels in other mammalian and avian species.

  12. The effect of feed supplementation with zinc chelate and zinc sulphate on selected humoral and cell-mediated immune parameters and cytokine concentration in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Łukasz; Marek, Agnieszka; Grądzki, Zbigniew; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Kalinowski, Marcin

    2017-06-01

    The ability of poultry to withstand infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses or protozoa depends upon the integrity of the immune system. Zinc is important for proper functioning of heterophils, mononuclear phagocytes and T lymphocytes. Numerous data indicate that the demand for zinc in poultry is not met in Poland due to its low content in feeds of vegetable origin. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of supplementation of inorganic (ZnSO 4 and ZnSO 4 + phytase enzyme), and organic forms of zinc (Zn with glycine and Zn with glycine and phytase enzyme) on selected parameters of the cellular and humoral immune response in broiler chickens by evaluating the percentage of CD3 + CD4 + , CD3 + CD8 + , CD25 + , MHC Class II, and BU-1 + lymphocytes, the phagocytic activity of monocytes and heterophils, and the concentration of IL-2, IL-10 and TNF-α in the peripheral blood. Flow cytometry was used to determine selected cell-mediated immune response parameters. Phagocytic activity in whole blood was performed using the commercial Phagotest kit (ORPEGEN-Pharma, Immuniq, Poland). The results showed that supplementation with zinc chelates causes activation of the cellular and humoral immune response in poultry, helping to maintain the balance between the Th1 and Th2 response and enhancing resistance to infections. In contrast with chelates, the use of zinc in the form of sulphates has no immunomodulatory effect and may contribute to the development of local inflammatory processes in the digestive tract, increasing susceptibility to infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Concentration effect on the spectroscopic behavior of Tb{sup 3+} ions in zinc phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesavulu, C.R., E-mail: crkesavulu2005@gmail.com [Instituto de Fisica de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Trabalhador Sãocarlense 400, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Almeida Silva, Anielle Christine [Laboratorio de Novos Materials Isolantes e Semicondutores (LNMIS), Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberândia, MG (Brazil); Dousti, M.R. [Instituto de Fisica de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Trabalhador Sãocarlense 400, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Dantas, Noelio Oliveira [Laboratorio de Novos Materials Isolantes e Semicondutores (LNMIS), Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberândia, MG (Brazil); Camargo, A.S.S. de; Catunda, Tomaz [Instituto de Fisica de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Trabalhador Sãocarlense 400, São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Zinc phosphate glasses (PZABPTb) in the compositional system: P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–ZnO–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–BaO–PbO doped with variable Tb{sup 3+} concentrations (1–5 wt% Tb{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were prepared and characterized through absorption, excitation, emission and intensity decay rate measurements. The Judd–Ofelt model has been adopted to evaluate the radiative properties of the {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 6–3} emission transitions. The effect of Tb{sup 3+} ion concentration on the emissions from the {sup 5}D{sub 3,4} excited levels is discussed in detail. Analysis of the intensity decay curves corresponding to blue and green emissions from levels {sup 5}D{sub 3} and {sup 5}D{sub 4}, respectively, allowed determination of effective lifetimes, which confirmed the Tb{sup 3+} ion concentration quenching of the blue emission in these glasses. The decay curves for the {sup 5}D{sub 3} level are found to be non-exponential in nature for all the studied concentrations due to ion–ion energy transfer through cross-relaxation. In an attempt to identify the origin of the energy transfer mechanism, the decay curves were well fitted to the Inokuti–Hirayama model for S=6, which indicates that the energy transfer process is of dipole–dipole type. The optical band gap energy (E{sub opt}) has been evaluated taking into account the ultraviolet edge of absorption spectra. - Highlights: • Tb{sup 3+}-doped zinc phosphate glasses have been prepared by melt quenching technique. • Spectroscopic parameters were evaluated using the Judd–Ofelt theory. • Effects of Tb{sup 3+} concentration on luminescence of the glasses were studied. • Strong intense laser transition for Tb{sup 3+} ion in PZABPTb glasses is {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 5} (0.54 μm). • PZABPTb glasses could be used in the development of green color display devices and solid state visible lasers.

  14. Synchrotron radiation microbeam X-ray fluorescence analysis of zinc concentration in remineralized enamel in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Tsunenori; Ishizaki, Hidetaka; Tanabe, Shuji; Hayashi, Yoshihiko

    2009-05-01

    Remineralization is an indispensable phenomenon during the natural healing process of enamel decay. The incorporation of zinc (Zn) into enamel crystal could accelerate this remineralization. The present study was designed to investigate the concentration and distribution of Zn in remineralized enamel after gum chewing. The experiment was performed at the Photon Factory. Synchrotron radiation was monochromatized and X-rays were focused into a small beam spot. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) from the sample was detected with a silicon (Si) (lithium (Li)) detector. X-ray beam energy was tuned to detect Zn. The examined samples were small enamel fragments remineralized after chewing calcium phosphate-containing gum in situ. The incorporation of Zn atom into hydroxyapatite (OHAP), the main component of enamel, was measured using Zn K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) with fluorescence mode at the SPring-8. A high concentration of Zn was detected in a superficial area 10-microm deep of the sectioned enamel after gum chewing. This concentration increased over that in the intact enamel. The atomic distance between Zn and O in the enamel was calculated using the EXAFS data. The analyzed atomic distances between Zn and O in two sections were 0.237 and 0.240 nm. The present experiments suggest that Zn is effectively incorporated into remineralized enamel through the physiological processes of mineral deposition in the oral cavity through gum-chewing and that Zn substitution probably occurred at the calcium position in enamel hydroxyapatite.

  15. Electrical properties of tin-doped zinc oxide nanostructures doped at different dopant concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, M. F.; Zainol, M. N.; Hannas, M.; Mamat, M. H.; Rusop, Mohamad; Rahman, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    This project has been focused on the electrical and optical properties respectively on the effect of Tin doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films at different dopant concentrations. These thin films were doped with different Sn dopant concentrations at 1 at%, 2 at%, 3 at%, 4 at% and 5 at% was selected as the parameter to optimize the thin films quality while the annealing temperature is fixed 500 °C. Sn doped ZnO solutions were deposited onto the glass substrates using sol-gel spin coating method. This project was involved with three phases, which are thin films preparation, deposition and characterization. The thin films were characterized using Current Voltage (I-V) measurement and ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer Lambda 750) for electrical properties and optical properties. The electrical properties show that the resistivity is the lowest at 4 at% Sn doping concentration with the value 3.08 × 10"3 Ωcm"−"1. The absorption coefficient spectrum obtained shows all films exhibit very low absorption in the visible (400-800 nm) and near infrared (NIR) (>800 nm) range but exhibit high absorption in the UV range.

  16. Electrical properties of tin-doped zinc oxide nanostructures doped at different dopant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, M. F., E-mail: babaibaik2002@yahoo.com; Zainol, M. N., E-mail: nizarzainol@yahoo.com; Hannas, M., E-mail: mhannas@gmail.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Mamat, M. H., E-mail: mhmamat@salam.uitm.edu.my; Rusop, Mohamad, E-mail: rusop@salam.uitm.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, S. A., E-mail: saadah@um.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    This project has been focused on the electrical and optical properties respectively on the effect of Tin doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films at different dopant concentrations. These thin films were doped with different Sn dopant concentrations at 1 at%, 2 at%, 3 at%, 4 at% and 5 at% was selected as the parameter to optimize the thin films quality while the annealing temperature is fixed 500 °C. Sn doped ZnO solutions were deposited onto the glass substrates using sol-gel spin coating method. This project was involved with three phases, which are thin films preparation, deposition and characterization. The thin films were characterized using Current Voltage (I-V) measurement and ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer Lambda 750) for electrical properties and optical properties. The electrical properties show that the resistivity is the lowest at 4 at% Sn doping concentration with the value 3.08 × 10{sup 3} Ωcm{sup −1}. The absorption coefficient spectrum obtained shows all films exhibit very low absorption in the visible (400-800 nm) and near infrared (NIR) (>800 nm) range but exhibit high absorption in the UV range.

  17. Effects of zinc supplementation and zinc chelation on in vitro β-cell function in INS-1E cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne Bjørn; Larsen, Agnete; Knuhtsen, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Zinc is essential for the activities of pancreatic β-cells, especially insulin storage and secretion. Insulin secretion leads to co-release of zinc which contributes to the paracrine communication in the pancreatic islets. Zinc-transporting proteins (zinc-regulated transporter, iron......-regulated transporter-like proteins [ZIPs] and zinc transporters [ZnTs]) and metal-buffering proteins (metallothioneins, MTs) tightly regulate intracellular zinc homeostasis. The present study investigated how modulation of cellular zinc availability affects β-cell function using INS-1E cells. RESULTS: Using INS-1E...... cells, we found that zinc supplementation and zinc chelation had significant effects on insulin content and insulin secretion. Supplemental zinc within the physiological concentration range induced insulin secretion. Insulin content was reduced by zinc chelation with N,N,N',N-tektrakis(2-pyridylmethyl...

  18. Low-Concentration Indium Doping in Solution-Processed Zinc Oxide Films for Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of low-concentration indium (In doping on the chemical and structural properties of solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO films and the electrical characteristics of bottom-gate/top-contact In-doped ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs. The thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry analysis results showed that thermal annealing at 400 °C for 40 min produces In-doped ZnO films. As the In content of ZnO films was increased from 1% to 9%, the metal-oxygen bonding increased from 5.56% to 71.33%, while the metal-hydroxyl bonding decreased from 72.03% to 9.63%. The X-ray diffraction peaks and field-emission scanning microscope images of the ZnO films with different In concentrations revealed a better crystalline quality and reduced grain size of the solution-processed ZnO thin films. The thickness of the In-doped ZnO films also increased when the In content was increased up to 5%; however, the thickness decreased on further increasing the In content. The field-effect mobility and on/off current ratio of In-doped ZnO TFTs were notably affected by any change in the In concentration. Considering the overall TFT performance, the optimal In doping concentration in the solution-processed ZnO semiconductor was determined to be 5% in this study. These results suggest that low-concentration In incorporation is crucial for modulating the morphological characteristics of solution-processed ZnO thin films and the TFT performance.

  19. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods: Effects of zinc salt concentration, various solvents and alkaline mineralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edalati, Khatereh, E-mail: kh_ed834@stu.um.ac.ir [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM) Campus, Azadi Sq., Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakiba, Atefeh [Department of Material Science and Metallurgy, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vahdati-Khaki, Jalil; Zebarjad, Seyed Mojtaba [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM) Campus, Azadi Sq., Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • We synthesized ZnO nanorods by a simple hydrothermal process at 60 °C. • Effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent and alkaline mineralizer was studied. • Increasing concentration of zinc salt changed ZnO nucleation system. • NaOH yielded better results in the production of nanorods in both solvents. • Methanol performed better in the formation of nanorods using the two mineralizers. - Abstract: ZnO has been produced using various methods in the solid, gaseous, and liquid states, and the hydrothermal synthesis at low temperatures has been shown to be an environmentally-friendly one. The current work utilizes a low reaction temperature (60 °C) for the simple hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorod morphologies. Furthermore, the effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent type and alkaline mineralizer type on ZnO nanorods synthesis at a low reaction temperature by hydrothermal processing was studied. Obtained samples were analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Increasing the concentration of the starting zinc salt from 0.02 to 0.2 M changed ZnO nucleation system from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous state. The XRD results confirmed the production hexagonal ZnO nanostructures of with a crystallite size of 40.4 nm. Varying the experimental parameters (mineralizer and solvent) yielded ZnO nanorods with diameters ranging from 90–250 nm and lengths of 1–2 μm.

  20. The concentration of copper, zinc and molybdenum in serum and red blood cells of Filipinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, B. de la; Lansangan, L.M.; Asprer, G.A.; Paradero, R.R.; Acuna, T.T.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-two samples of serum and red blood cells from 32 normal subjects and 50 patients with hypertension, old myocardial infarct and diabetes mellitus were analyzed by neutron activation analysis for copper, zinc and molybdenum. The mean value of copper in the normal serum (0.56 μg/g) was found to be lower than the reported mean values of 1.13 μg/g and 1.15 μg/g for foreign subjects. The mean value of copper in the normal red blood cells (0.55 μg/g) was also found to be lower than the reported values of 0.92 μg/g and 0.95 μg/g among foreigners. The mean concentration of copper in the serum of patients with hypertension and old myocardial infarct (1.02+-0.25 μg/g) and diabetes mellitus (1.06+-0.02 μg/g) were higher than the normal value of 0.56+-0.15 μg/g. The mean concentration of zinc in the serum of patients with hypertension and old myocardial infarct (0.74+-0.38 μg/g) and in diabetes mellitus (0.61+-0.33 μg/g) were lower than the normal value of 1.25+-0.58 μg/g. The level of copper in the red blood cells of patients with hypertension and old myocardial infarct (0.99+-0.62 μg/g) and diabetes mellitus (0.75+-0.39 μg/g) were found to be higher than the normal value of (0.55+-0.41) μg/g). The mean concentration of molybdenum in the red blood cells of patients with hypertension and old myocardial infarct (1.16+-0.73 μg/g) and diabetes mellitus (1.55+-0.91 μg/g) were higher than the normal level of 0.73+-0.43 μg/g. The results are discussed

  1. Simultaneous analysis of Zn, Cu, Mn, In, As and Sb in Zinc concentrates by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenorio, F.; Mendoza, P.; Espinosa, R.

    1986-01-01

    A method has been developed for simultaneous analysis by neutronic activation of Zn, Cu, As, Mn, In and Sb in concentrated minerals of Zn. The method is based entirely on the use of instruments as it does not comprise any chemical treatments. Samples and models are submitted to irradiation for 60 minutes in a flux of thermal neutrons of 1.5x10 n/cm 2 s in the reactor RP-0 of IPEN. The induced activities are measured by gamma spectrometry of high resolution using an intrinsic detector of germanium. One measurement is made immediately after the irradiation of 2000s and another 24 hours after the 3600s irradiation. The interference, the reproductibility, and the limits of detection of each element are discussed. The analytic results of 5 zinc concentrates are compared with the ones obtained by atomic absorption showing excellent concordance. The method is particularly adaptable to portable radioisotope sources of neutrons making it possible to use it in sites such as industrial plants

  2. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Aghili

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower, ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF, and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs.

  3. Effective radium concentration in topsoils contaminated by lead and zinc smelters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girault, Frédéric, E-mail: girault@ipgp.fr [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS, Paris, France. (France); Perrier, Frédéric; Poitou, Charles; Isambert, Aude [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS, Paris, France. (France); Théveniaut, Hervé; Laperche, Valérie [Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, Orléans, France. (France); Clozel-Leloup, Blandine [Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, Villeurbanne, France. (France); Douay, Francis [Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo Environnement, ISA Lille, Lille, France. (France)

    2016-10-01

    Trace elements (TE) are indicative of industrial pollution in soils, but geochemical methods are difficult to implement in contaminated sites with large numbers of samples. Therefore, measurement of soil magnetic susceptibility (MS) has been used to map TE pollutions, albeit with contrasted results in some cases. Effective radium concentration (EC{sub Ra}), product of radium concentration by the emanation factor, can be measured in a cost-effective manner in the laboratory, and could then provide a useful addition. We evaluate this possibility using 186 topsoils sampled over about 783 km{sup 2} around two former lead and zinc smelters in Northern France. The EC{sub Ra} values, obtained from 319 measurements, range from 0.70 ± 0.06 to 12.53 ± 0.49 Bq·kg{sup −1}, and are remarkably organized spatially, away from the smelters, in domains corresponding to geographical units. Lead-contaminated soils, with lead concentrations above 100 mg·kg{sup −1} < 3 km from the smelters, are characterized on average by larger peak EC{sub Ra} values and larger dispersion. At large scales, away from the smelters, spatial variations of EC{sub Ra} correlate well with spatial variations of MS, thus suggesting that, at distance larger than 5 km, variability of MS contains a significant natural component. Larger EC{sub Ra} values are correlated with larger fine fraction and, possibly, mercury concentration. While MS is enhanced in the vicinity of the smelters and is associated with the presence of soft ferrimagnetic minerals such as magnetite, it does not correlate systematically with metal concentrations. When multiple industrial and urban sources are present, EC{sub Ra} mapping, thus, can help in identifying at least part of the natural spatial variability of MS. More generally, this study shows that EC{sub Ra} mapping provides an independent and reliable assessment of the background spatial structure which underlies the structure of a given contamination. Furthermore, EC{sub Ra

  4. Effective radium concentration in topsoils contaminated by lead and zinc smelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girault, Frédéric; Perrier, Frédéric; Poitou, Charles; Isambert, Aude; Théveniaut, Hervé; Laperche, Valérie; Clozel-Leloup, Blandine; Douay, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Trace elements (TE) are indicative of industrial pollution in soils, but geochemical methods are difficult to implement in contaminated sites with large numbers of samples. Therefore, measurement of soil magnetic susceptibility (MS) has been used to map TE pollutions, albeit with contrasted results in some cases. Effective radium concentration (EC_R_a), product of radium concentration by the emanation factor, can be measured in a cost-effective manner in the laboratory, and could then provide a useful addition. We evaluate this possibility using 186 topsoils sampled over about 783 km"2 around two former lead and zinc smelters in Northern France. The EC_R_a values, obtained from 319 measurements, range from 0.70 ± 0.06 to 12.53 ± 0.49 Bq·kg"−"1, and are remarkably organized spatially, away from the smelters, in domains corresponding to geographical units. Lead-contaminated soils, with lead concentrations above 100 mg·kg"−"1 < 3 km from the smelters, are characterized on average by larger peak EC_R_a values and larger dispersion. At large scales, away from the smelters, spatial variations of EC_R_a correlate well with spatial variations of MS, thus suggesting that, at distance larger than 5 km, variability of MS contains a significant natural component. Larger EC_R_a values are correlated with larger fine fraction and, possibly, mercury concentration. While MS is enhanced in the vicinity of the smelters and is associated with the presence of soft ferrimagnetic minerals such as magnetite, it does not correlate systematically with metal concentrations. When multiple industrial and urban sources are present, EC_R_a mapping, thus, can help in identifying at least part of the natural spatial variability of MS. More generally, this study shows that EC_R_a mapping provides an independent and reliable assessment of the background spatial structure which underlies the structure of a given contamination. Furthermore, EC_R_a may provide a novel index to identify soils

  5. Zinc Absorption from Milk Is Affected by Dilution but Not by Thermal Processing, and Milk Enhances Absorption of Zinc from High-Phytate Rice in Young Dutch Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talsma, Elise F; Moretti, Diego; Ly, Sou Chheng; Dekkers, Renske; van den Heuvel, Ellen Ghm; Fitri, Aditia; Boelsma, Esther; Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Zeder, Christophe; Melse-Boonstra, Alida

    2017-06-01

    Background: Milk has been suggested to increase zinc absorption. The effect of processing and the ability of milk to enhance zinc absorption from other foods has not been measured directly in humans. Objective: We aimed to assess zinc absorption from 1 ) milk undergoing various processing and preparatory steps and 2 ) from intrinsically labeled high-phytate rice consumed with milk or water. Methods: Two randomized crossover studies were conducted in healthy young women [age:18-25 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 20-25]: 1 ) a milk study ( n = 19) comparing the consumption of 800 mL full-fat ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk [heat-treated milk (HTM)], full-fat UHT milk diluted 1:1 with water [heat-treated milk and water (MW)], water, or unprocessed (raw) milk (UM), each extrinsically labeled with 67 Zn, and 2 ) a rice study ( n = 18) comparing the consumption of 90 g intrinsically 67 Zn-labeled rice with 600 mL of water [rice and water (RW)] or full-fat UHT milk [rice and milk (RM)]. The fractional absorption of zinc (FAZ) was measured with the double-isotope tracer ratio method. In vitro, we assessed zinc extraction from rice blended into water, UM, or HTM with or without phytate. Results: FAZ from HTM was 25.5% (95% CI: 21.6%, 29.4%) and was not different from UM (27.8%; 95% CI: 24.2%, 31.4%). FAZ from water was higher (72.3%; 95% CI: 68.7%, 75.9%), whereas FAZ from MW was lower (19.7%; 95% CI: 17.5%, 21.9%) than HTM and UM (both P zinc from rice with HTM than from rice with water at various phytate concentrations. Conclusions: Milk enhanced human FAZ from high-phytate rice by 62% compared with water. Diluting milk with water decreases its absorption-enhancing proprieties, whereas UHT processing does not. This trial was registered at the Dutch trial registry as NTR4267 (http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=4267). © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Zinc Absorption from Micronutrient Powder Is Low but Is not Affected by Iron in Kenyan Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Esamai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interference with zinc absorption is a proposed explanation for adverse effects of supplemental iron in iron-replete children in malaria endemic settings. We examined the effects of iron in micronutrient powder (MNP on zinc absorption after three months of home fortification with MNP in maize-based diets in rural Kenyan infants. In a double blind design, six-month-old, non-anemic infants were randomized to MNP containing 5 mg zinc, with or without 12.5 mg of iron (MNP + Fe and MNP − Fe, respectively; a control (C group received placebo powder. After three months, duplicate diet collections and zinc stable isotopes were used to measure intake from MNP + non-breast milk foods and fractional absorption of zinc (FAZ by dual isotope ratio method; total absorbed zinc (TAZ, mg/day was calculated from intake × FAZ. Mean (SEM TAZ was not different between MNP + Fe (n = 10 and MNP − Fe (n = 9 groups: 0.85 (0.22 and 0.72 (0.19, respectively, but both were higher than C (n = 9: 0.24 (0.03 (p = 0.04. Iron in MNP did not significantly alter zinc absorption, but despite intakes over double estimated dietary requirement, both MNP groups’ mean TAZ barely approximated the physiologic requirement for age. Impaired zinc absorption may dictate need for higher zinc doses in vulnerable populations.

  7. The critical importance of pulp concentration on the flotation of galena from a low grade lead–zinc ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianping Luo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Qixia orebody is a complex lead–zinc sulfide system with pyrite gangue and minor amounts of copper. In order to improve the flotation results, laboratory scale flotation testing of ore samples taken from this operation was performed. Flotation tests used a sequential recovery protocol for selective flotation of first the lead and thereafter the zinc. The key parameters that influence flotation performance of lead mineral were tested in this paper. The test data show that, for comparable collector, grinding time, flotation pH and solid-in-pulp concentration, the increase of solid-in-pulp concentration has the most significant effect on the recovery and selective separation of lead mineral. The increase of solid-in-pulp concentration from 27% to 55% makes the recovery of lead mineral increased from 60% to 80% and the lead grade increased from 27.5% to 29.1%.

  8. Concentrations of Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Giant Freshwater Prawn) from Natural Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Farah Akmal; Basri, Masania Mohd; Rahim, Khairul Adha A; Rahim, Nur Syazwani Abd; Chong, Melissa Dennis

    2018-03-01

    This study analyzed the levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) by the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS), in the muscle tissues, exoskeletons, and gills from freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) (n = 20) harvested from natural habitat in Kerang River, Malaysia on 25th November 2015. Significant increase of the metals level in muscle tissue and gill (r > 0.70, p < 0.05) were observed with increase in length except for Cu in gills. No relationship was found between metals level in exoskeleton and length. The concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in males (muscle tissues and exoskeleton) except for Cd in exoskeleton. In gills, only Cu was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in female than male. All samples contained metals below the permissible limit for human consumption (i.e., Cd < 2.00 mg/kg; Cu < 30.00 mg/kg; Zn < 150 mg/kg). Annual metals monitoring in prawn and environmental samples is recommended to evaluate changes of metals bioaccumulation and cycling in the system, which is useful for resources management.

  9. The spectrographic determination of minor and trace elements in copper, lead, and zinc concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckenridge, R.L.; Russell, G.M.; Watson, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    This report deals with the development of a method for the determination, by an emission-spectrographic technique, of magnesium, manganese, aluminium, silver, calcium, chromium, cobalt, titanium, antimony, cadmium, molybdenum, zirconium, nickel, boron, vanadium, arsenic, beryllium, tin, germanium, and bismuth in copper, lead, and zinc sulphide concentrates. The method involves the preparation of complex standards in which the volatile elements arsenic, antimony, cadmium, tin, and bismuth are incorporated as sulphide compounds at temperatures of 800 degrees Celsius in evacuated silica tubes together with a synthetic sulphide matrix. These standards are then mixed with the other minor and trace elements to form composite standards. The conditions for excitation with a direct-current arc, and the analytical lines for the elements and internal standards, are given. The procedure is rapid and convenient, and involves the minimum of sample preparation. The accuracy is about 10 per cent, and the method has a coefficient of variation for the various elements of between 2 and 13 per cent

  10. Anomalous concentrations of zinc and copper in highmoor peat bog, southeast coast of Lake Baikal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, V. A.; Bogush, A. A.; Leonova, G. A.; Krasnobaev, V. A.; Anoshin, G. N.

    2011-08-01

    When examining the peat deposit discovered in Vydrinaya bog, South Baikal region, the authors encountered anomalous Zn and Cu concentrations for highmoors being up to 600-500 ppm on a dry matter basis in the Early Holocene beds (360-440 cm) formed 11 000-8500 years ago. It has been demonstrated that Zn and Cu are present inside the plant cells of peat moss in the form of authigenic sulfide minerals of micron size. Apart from Zn and Cu, native Ag particles (5-7 um) have been encountered in the peat of the Vydrinaya bog at a depth of 390-410 cm; these particles formed inside the organic matter of the plasma membrane of peat moss containing Ca, Al, S, and Cu. This study suggests probable patterns of the formation of zinc sulfides, copper sulfides, and native silver in peat moss. The results obtained indicate that biogenic mineral formation plays a significant role in this system, which is a very important argument in the discussion on the ore genesis, in which physicochemical processes are normally favored, while the role of living matter is quite frequently disregarded.

  11. Association of Increased Grain Iron and Zinc Concentrations with Agro-morphological Traits of Biofortified Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tatiana Moreno-Moyano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biofortification of rice (Oryza sativa L. with micronutrients is widely recognized as a sustainable strategy to alleviate human iron (Fe and zinc (Zn deficiencies in developing countries where rice is the staple food. Constitutive overexpression of the rice nicotianamine synthase (OsNAS genes has been successfully implemented to increase Fe and Zn concentrations in unpolished and polished rice grain. Intensive research is now needed to couple this high-micronutrient trait with high grain yields. We investigated associations of increased grain Fe and Zn concentrations with agro-morphological traits of backcross twice second filial (BC2F2 transgenic progeny carrying OsNAS1 or OsNAS2 overexpression constructs under indica/japonica and japonica/japonica genetic backgrounds. Thirteen agro-morphological traits were evaluated in BC2F2 transgenic progeny grown under hydroponic conditions. Concentrations of 8 mineral nutrients (Fe, Zn, copper, manganese, calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus in roots, stems/sheaths, non-flag leaves, flag leaves, panicles and grain were also determined. A distance-based linear model (DistLM was utilized to extract plant tissue nutrient predictors accounting for the largest variation in agro-morphological traits differing between transgenic and non-transgenic progeny. Overall, the BC2F2 transgenic progeny contained up to 148% higher Fe and 336% higher Zn concentrations in unpolished grain compared to non-transgenic progeny. However, unpolished grain concentrations surpassing 23 µg Fe g-1 and 40 µg Zn g-1 in BC2F2 indica/japonica progeny, and 36 µg Fe g-1 and 56 µg Zn g1 in BC2F2 japonica/japonica progeny, were associated with significant reductions in grain yield. DistLM analyses identified grain-Zn and panicle-magnesium as the primary nutrient predictors associated with grain yield reductions in the indica/japonica and japonica/japonica progeny, respectively. We subsequently produced polished grain from high

  12. [Effect of the consumption of a food supplement on plasma zinc concentrations of free-living Chilean elderly adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos H, Rosa Isela; Atalah S, Eduardo; Urteaga R, Carmen; Castañeda L, Rutila; Orozco L, Maribel; Avila, Laura; Martínez, Homero

    2007-08-01

    Zinc intake is well below recommendation among Chilean free living elderly adults of low socioeconomic level. To assess the effect of the consumption of a food supplement on plasma zinc concentrations in elderly adults (EA). Ambulatory EA (> or = 70) with controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus or high blood pressure, ascribed to public family health centers were studied. They were separated in a control and intervention group, without blinding techniques. The intervention group consumed daily 50 g of a special nutritional supplement prepared as a soup or porridge, provided by the Government, for 3 months. The control group did not receive the supplement. A good compliance with the supplement was defined as a consumption of 7 portions per week. A fasting venous blood sample was obtained to determine plasma zinc at the beginning and end of the study. Forty three supplemented EA aged 76+/-5 years (21 women) and 31 non supplemented EA aged 78+/-5 years (20 women), completed 3 months of follow up. Mean compliance with the supplement was 40.5% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 40.3-40.6%). General characteristics of the study subjects upon recruitment were similar, except for the literacy that was higher in the intervention group. We fitted a multiple linear regression model which explained 39% of the variance, where the consumption of the nutritional supplement increased the concentration of plasmatic zinc by 4.14 microg/dL (95% CI 0.25-8.02) (pfood supplement significantly increased plasma zinc concentrations in Chilean elderly adults.

  13. Meals and dephytinization affect calcium and zinc absorption in Nigerian children with rickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional rickets resulting from calcium insufficiency is common in Nigeria, and high dietary phytate is thought to inhibit calcium and zinc absorption. We compared the effects of a high-phytate meal and enzymatic dephytinization on calcium and zinc absorption in Nigerian children with and without...

  14. EFFECT OF SEASON ON SERUM COPPER AND ZINC CONCENTRATIONS IN CROSSBRED GOATS HAVING DIFFERENT REPRODUCTIVE STATUS UNDER SEMIARID RANGELAND CONDITIONS IN SOUTHERN MEXICO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Vázquez-Armijo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of season (rainy: RS, and dry: DS and reproductive status on copper (Cu and zinc (Zn concentrations in blood serum of crossbred goats (BW= 36.01 ± 1.59 kg were studied under semiarid rangeland conditions in Southern Mexico State. Blood samples from 80 crossbred goats were taken each season (RS and DS. The goats were clustered into 10 different groups considering their reproductive status. Concentrations of Cu and Zn in serum were assayed using atomic absorption. Data were analyzed using a general linear model procedure for a completely randomized design and differences among means were examined using a Tukey test. Blood serum concentrations of Cu and Zn were affected by reproductive status and season (P

  15. Salt type and concentration affect the viscoelasticity of polyelectrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoz, Emre; Perazzo, Antonio; Arnold, Craig B.; Stone, Howard A.

    2018-05-01

    The addition of small amounts of xanthan gum to water yields viscoelastic solutions. In this letter, we show that the viscoelasticity of aqueous xanthan gum solutions can be tuned by different types of salts. In particular, we find that the decrease in viscoelasticity not only depends, as is known, on the salt concentration, but also is affected by the counterion ionic radius and the valence of the salt.

  16. Separation of cadmium from solutions containing high concentration of zinc ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, K.D.; Bhutani, A.K.; Parvathisem, P.

    1984-01-01

    In hydrometallurgical process of extracting cadmium as a byproduct, zinc dust is added for separation of cadmium as cadimum sponge. High amounts of zinc are quite often noticed in the cadmium electrolyte subjected for electrowinning of the metal. This leads to poor quality of cadmium deposit and lower current efficiencies. Study of cadmium sponge cementation process revealed that zinc dust may be added to an acidic cadmium solution for precipitation of cadmium sponge without neutralization of the free acidity present in the system. This fact is utilized for obtaining a high cadmium sponge with 75-80 per cent cadmium and 5-10 per cent zinc with 98 per cent recovery of cadmium from the solution as sponge. The suggested process is confirmed in a cadmium production plant producing 11.0 MT of cadmium per month. (author)

  17. Modelling drivers and distribution of lead and zinc concentrations in soils of an urban catchment (Sydney estuary, Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L E; Bishop, T F A; Birch, G F

    2017-11-15

    The human population is increasing globally and land use is changing to accommodate for this growth. Soils within urban areas require closer attention as the higher population density increases the chance of human exposure to urban contaminants. One such example of an urban area undergoing an increase in population density is Sydney, Australia. The city also possesses a notable history of intense industrial activity. By integrating multiple soil surveys and covariates into a linear mixed model, it was possible to determine the main drivers and map the distribution of lead and zinc concentrations within the Sydney estuary catchment. The main drivers as derived from the model included elevation, distance to main roads, main road type, soil landscape, population density (lead only) and land use (zinc only). Lead concentrations predicted using the model exceeded the established guideline value of 300mgkg -1 over a large portion of the study area with concentrations exceeding 1000mgkg -1 in the south of the catchment. Predicted zinc did not exceed the established guideline value of 7400mgkg -1 ; however concentrations were higher to the south and west of the study area. Unlike many other studies we considered the prediction uncertainty when assessing the contamination risk. Although the predictions indicate contamination over a large area, the broadness of the prediction intervals suggests that in many of these areas we cannot be sure that the site is contaminated. More samples are required to determine the contaminant distribution with greater precision, especially in residential areas where contamination was highest. Managing sources and addressing areas of elevated lead and zinc concentrations in urban areas has the potential to reduce the impact of past human activities and improve the urban environment of the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Concentration of cadmium, zinc and manganese in root, stalk and leaf of spinach and tomato in Hamedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghobadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are considers as significant environment pollutants. Their entrance into food chain is a serious health hazard to humans. This study was conducted to determine the concentrations of Cadmium, Zinc and Manganese in root, stalk and leaf portions of spinach and tomato. For this reason, during 2014 in Hamedan city, 3 farms with 5 repetitions from each farm were sampled. Samples were subjected to acid-digestion and the concentrations of the elements were assayed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP. According to the results, the average concentrations of heavy metals in root, stalk and leaf of spinach was estimated at: cadmium, 0.14, 0.24, 0.34 mg/kg, zinc, 15.53, 24.82, 35 mg/kg and manganese, 26.59, 24.42, 45.38 mg/kg, respectively. The data for the tomato samples were: cadmium, 16.20, 24.42, 33.81 mg/kg, Zinc, 21.48, 39.74, 52.92 mg/kg and manganese, 26.60, 42.41, 61.90 mg/kg, respectively. The mean concentration of cadmium and manganese in spinach and tomato showed a significant difference with the WHO/FAO standard limit. However, in the case of zinc the difference was insignificant. It was concluded that in this experiment the spinach and tomato samples were polluted with higher concentration of cadmium and manganese than the approved limit of WHO/FAO and therefore was found risky for the consumers.

  19. Varying hemin concentrations affect Porphyromonas gingivalis strains differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Manabu; Cueno, Marni E; Tamura, Muneaki; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2016-05-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis requires heme to grow, however, heme availability and concentration in the periodontal pockets vary. Fluctuations in heme concentration may affect each P. gingivalis strain differently, however, this was never fully demonstrated. Here, we elucidated the effects of varying hemin concentrations in representative P. gingivalis strains. Throughout this study, representative P. gingivalis strains [FDC381 (type I), MPWIb-01 (type Ib), TDC60 (type II), ATCC49417 (type III), W83 (type IV), and HNA99 (type V)] were used and grown for 24 h in growth media under varying hemin concentrations (5 × , 1 × , 0.5 × , 0.1 × ). Samples were lysed and protein standardized. Arg-gingipain (Rgp), H2O2, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were subsequently measured. We focused our study on 24 h-grown strains which excluded MPWIb-01 and HNA99. Rgp activity among the 4 remaining strains varied with Rgp peaking at: 1 × for FDC381, 5 × for TDC60, 0.5 × for ATCC49417, 5 × and 0.5 × for W83. With regards to H2O2 and SOD amounts: FDC381 had similar H2O2 amounts in all hemin concentrations while SOD levels varied; TDC60 had the lowest H2O2 amount at 1 × while SOD levels became higher in relation to hemin concentration; ATCC49417 also had similar H2O2 amounts in all hemin concentrations while SOD levels were higher at 1 × and 0.5 × ; and W83 had statistically similar H2O2 and SOD amounts regardless of hemin concentration. Our results show that variations in hemin concentration affect each P. gingivalis strain differently. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Zinc finger protein rotund deficiency affects development of the thoracic leg in Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chun-Yan; Zha, Xing-Fu; Liu, Hua-Wei; Xia, Qing-You

    2017-06-01

    The insect limb develops from the imaginal disc or larval leg during metamorphosis. The molecular mechanisms involved in the development from the larval to the adult leg are poorly understood. Herein, we cloned the full length of a zinc finger gene rotund from Bombyx mori (Bmrn), which contained a 1419 bp open reading frame, and encoded a 473 amino acid protein. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses demonstrated that Bmrn was expressed at higher levels in the epidermis than in other tissues tested, and it showed a very high expression level during metamorphosis. Knock-down of Bmrn produced defects in the tarsus and pretarsus, including the fusion and reduction of tarsomeres, and the developmental arrest of pretarsus. Our data showed that Bmrn is involved in the formation of the tarsus and pretarsus, whereas its homologous gene in Drosophila has been shown to affect three tarsal segments (t2-t4), suggesting that the remodeling of the leg has involved changes in the patterning of gene regulation during evolution. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Zinc Status Affects Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Secretion in Patients with Thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen B. Fung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Up to 20% of adult patients with Thalassemia major (Thal live with diabetes, while 30% may be zinc deficient. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between zinc status, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in Thal patients. Charts from thirty subjects (16 male, 27.8 ± 9.1 years with Thal were reviewed. Patients with low serum zinc had significantly lower fasting insulin, insulinogenic and oral disposition indexes (all p < 0.05 and elevated glucose response curve, following a standard 75 g oral load of glucose compared to those with normal serum zinc after controlling for baseline (group × time interaction p = 0.048. Longitudinal data in five patients with a decline in serum zinc over a two year follow up period (−19.0 ± 9.6 μg/dL, showed consistent increases in fasting glucose (3.6 ± 3.2 mg/dL and insulin to glucose ratios at 120 min post glucose dose (p = 0.05. Taken together, these data suggest that the frequently present zinc deficiency in Thal patients is associated with decreased insulin secretion and reduced glucose disposal. Future zinc trials will require modeling of oral glucose tolerance test data and not simply measurement of static indices in order to understand the complexities of pancreatic function in the Thal patient.

  2. Does the oral zinc tolerance test measure zinc absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Brennan, J.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Increases in plasma zinc concentration were compared with radiozinc absorption after oral test doses. Ten healthy, fasting subjects were each given 385 mumol zinc chloride (25 mg Zn) labelled with 0.5 muCi /sup 65/ZnCl/sub 2/ and a non-absorbed marker, /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, dissolved in 100 ml of water; another 10 persons were given 354 mumol zinc chloride and 125 g of minced turkey containing 31 mumol zinc also labelled with /sup 65/Zn and /sup 51/Cr. Measurements were made of plasma zinc concentration at hourly intervals for 5 hours, radiozinc absorption by stool counting of unabsorbed radioactivity 12-36 hours later, and radiozinc retention by whole body counting at 7 days. The mean percentage of radiozinc absorbed and retained in the body from the two test meals was found to be identical (42%). In contrast the increased area under the plasma zinc curve up to 5 hours after the turkey meal, 28 +/- 9 mumol/L (mean +/- SD) was significantly less than that for zinc chloride alone, 47 +/- 15 mumol/L, p less than 0.005. Despite this difference, a good correlation was found between the area under the plasma zinc curve and /sup 65/Zn absorption in individual subjects after each meal. The discrepancy between the results of zinc absorption derived from the plasma zinc curve and /sup 65/Zn absorption for the liquid and solid test meals was most likely explained by binding of zinc to food and delayed gastric emptying of the solid meal. With a test meal of turkey meat at least this dampened the plasma appearance of zinc but did not affect its overall absorption.

  3. Does the oral zinc tolerance test measure zinc absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Brennan, J.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Increases in plasma zinc concentration were compared with radiozinc absorption after oral test doses. Ten healthy, fasting subjects were each given 385 mumol zinc chloride (25 mg Zn) labelled with 0.5 muCi 65 ZnCl 2 and a non-absorbed marker, 51 CrCl 3 , dissolved in 100 ml of water; another 10 persons were given 354 mumol zinc chloride and 125 g of minced turkey containing 31 mumol zinc also labelled with 65 Zn and 51 Cr. Measurements were made of plasma zinc concentration at hourly intervals for 5 hours, radiozinc absorption by stool counting of unabsorbed radioactivity 12-36 hours later, and radiozinc retention by whole body counting at 7 days. The mean percentage of radiozinc absorbed and retained in the body from the two test meals was found to be identical (42%). In contrast the increased area under the plasma zinc curve up to 5 hours after the turkey meal, 28 +/- 9 mumol/L (mean +/- SD) was significantly less than that for zinc chloride alone, 47 +/- 15 mumol/L, p less than 0.005. Despite this difference, a good correlation was found between the area under the plasma zinc curve and 65 Zn absorption in individual subjects after each meal. The discrepancy between the results of zinc absorption derived from the plasma zinc curve and 65 Zn absorption for the liquid and solid test meals was most likely explained by binding of zinc to food and delayed gastric emptying of the solid meal. With a test meal of turkey meat at least this dampened the plasma appearance of zinc but did not affect its overall absorption

  4. Zinc intake and plasma/serum zinc concentration: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warthon-Medina, M.; Dullemeijer, C.; Skinner, A.L.; Moran, V.H.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to investigate how Zn intake influences plasma/serum Zn concentrations. We used protocols developed by EURRECA to perform a literature search for papers published up until February 2010 through MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane

  5. The effect of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dong; Han, GuangWei; Shang, YongGang; Mu, LiJun; Long, QingZhi; Du, YueFeng

    2015-01-01

    Prostatitis is a common disease in urology departments. Prostatic zinc accumulation is connected with the secretory function of the prostate, and zinc concentrations present in prostatic diseases differ greatly from the normal level. Studies have investigated the effect of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma, but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of chronic prostatitis on the zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma. Systematic literature searches were conducted with PubMed, Embase, Science Direct/Elsevier, CNKI and the Cochrane Library up to March 2015 for case-control studies that involved the relationship between chronic prostatitis and zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma. Meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager and Stata software. Standard mean differences (SMDs) of zinc concentration were identified with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) in a random- or fixed-effects model. Our results illustrated that the zinc concentrations in prostatic fluid and seminal plasma from chronic prostatitis patients were significantly lower than normal controls (SMD [95% CI] -246.71 [-347.97, -145.44], -20.74 [-35.11, -6.37], respectively). The sample size of each study was relatively small, and a total of 731 chronic prostatitis patients and 574 normal controls were investigated in all fourteen studies. Several studies related to the subject were excluded due to lack of control data or means and standard deviations. The present study illustrates that there was a significant negative effect of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentrations of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to better illuminate the negative impact of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentrations.

  6. Serum Zinc Concentrations in Children with Acute Bloody and Watery Diarrhoea

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    Abolfazl Mahyar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The role of zinc in the pathogenesis of diarrhoea is controversial. This study was conducted to compare serum zinc levels in children with acute diarrhoea to those found in healthy children. Methods: This case-control study was carried out at the Qazvin Children’s Hospital in Qazvin, Iran, between July 2012 and January 2013. A total of 60 children with acute diarrhoea (12 children with bloody diarrhoea and 48 children with watery diarrhoea and 60 healthy children were included. Zinc levels for all subjects were measured using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer and data were analysed and compared between groups. Results: Mean serum zinc levels in the patients with acute bloody diarrhoea, acute watery diarrhoea and the control group were 74.1 ± 23.7 μg/dL, 169.4 ± 62.7 μg/dL and 190.1 ± 18.0 μg/dL, respectively (P = 0.01. Hypozincaemia was observed in 50.0% of children with acute bloody diarrhoea and 12.5% of those with acute watery diarrhoea. None of the patients in the control group had hypozincaemia (P = 0.01. Conclusion: Children with acute bloody diarrhoea had significantly reduced serum zinc levels in comparison to healthy children. However, a study with a larger sample size is needed to examine the significance of this trend.

  7. The relationship between zinc intake and serum/plasma zinc concentration in pregnant and lactating women: A systematic review with dose-response meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall Moran, V.; Skinner, A.L.; Warthon Medina, M.; Patel, S.; Dykes, F.; Souverein, O.W.; Dullemeijer, C.; Lowe, N.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Recommendations for zinc intake during pregnancy and lactation vary widely across Europe. Using data on zinc intake and biomarkers of zinc status reported in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies can provide estimates of dose–response relationships that may be used for

  8. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.M. [ARS USDA, Germplasm and Gamete Physiology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States); Anderson, M.B. [Dept. of Anatomy, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sikka, S.C. [Dept. of Urology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); George, W.J. [Dept. of Pharmacology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2}). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 {mu}mol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2} administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  9. Factors that Affect the Content of Cadmium, Nickel, Copper and Zinc in Tissues of the Knee Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roczniak, Wojciech; Brodziak-Dopierała, Barbara; Cipora, Elżbieta; Jakóbik-Kolon, Agata; Kluczka, Joanna; Babuśka-Roczniak, Magdalena

    2017-08-01

    Osteoarthritis causes the degradation of the articular cartilage and periarticular bones. Trace elements influence the growth, development and condition of the bone tissue. Changes to the mineral composition of the bone tissue can cause degenerative changes and fractures. The aim of the research was to determine the content of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in the tibia, the femur and the meniscus in men and women who underwent a knee replacement surgery. Samples were collected from 50 patients, including 36 women and 14 men. The determination of trace elements content were performed by ICP-AES method, using Varian 710-ES. Average concentration in the tissues of the knee joint teeth amounted for cadmium 0.015, nickel 0.60, copper 0.89 and zinc 80.81 mg/kg wet weight. There were statistically significant differences in the content of cadmium, copper and zinc in different parts of the knee joint. There were no statistically significant differences in the content of cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc in women and men in the examined parts of the knee joint. Among the elements tested, copper and nickel showed a high content in the connective tissue (the meniscus) compared to the bone tissue (the tibia and the femur).

  10. Zinc treatment increases the titre of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in huanglongbing-affected citrus plants while affecting the bacterial microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacterial microbiomes of citrus plants in response to ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las)-infection and zinc treatments were deciphered by Phylochip-based metagenomics. The results indicated that 5,475 of over 50,000 known Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) in 52 phyla were detected in cit...

  11. Metal contamination of soils and crops affected by the Chenzhou lead/zinc mine spill (Hunan, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Probst, Anne; Liao, Bohan

    2005-03-01

    In 1985, the collapse of the tailing dam in Chenzhou lead/zinc mine (Hunan, southern China) led to the spread of mining waste spills on the farmland along the Dong River. After the accident, an urgent soil cleaning up was carried out in some places. Seventeen years later, cereal (rice, maize, and sorghum), pulses (soybean, Adzuki bean, mung bean and peanut), vegetables (ipomoea, capsicum, taro and string bean) and the rooted soils were sampled at four sites: (1) the mining area (SZY), (2) the area still covered with the mining tailing spills (GYB), (3) the cleaned area from mining tailing spills (JTC), and (4) a background site (REF). Metal concentrations in the crops and soils were analyzed to evaluate the long-term effects of the spilled waste on the soil and the potential human exposure through food chains. The results showed that the physical-chemical properties of the soils obviously changed due to the different farming styles used by each individual farmer. Leaching effects and plant extraction of metals from some soils were quite weak. Certain soils were still heavily polluted with As, Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. The contamination levels were in the order of GYB>SZY>JTC showing that the clean-up treatment was effective. The maximum allowable concentration (MAC) levels for Chinese agricultural soils were still highly exceeded, particularly for As and Cd (followed by Zn, Pb and Cu), with mean concentrations of 709 and 7.6 mg kg(-1), respectively. These concentrations exceed the MAC levels by 24 times for As and 13 times for Cd at GYB. Generally, the edible leaves or stems of crops were more heavily contaminated than seeds or fruits. Ipomoea was the most severely contaminated crop. The concentrations of Cd and Pb were 3.30 and 76.9 mg kg(-1) in ipomoea leaves at GYB, which exceeded the maximum permit levels (0.5 mg kg(-1) for Cd and 9 mg kg(-1) for Pb) by 6.6 and 8.5 times, respectively. Taro (+skin) could accumulate high concentrations of Zn and Cd in the edible stem

  12. Proof-of-Concept of a Zinc-Silver Battery for the Extraction of Energy from a Concentration Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Marino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of heat into current can be obtained by a process with two stages. In the first one, the heat is used for distilling a solution and obtaining two flows with different concentrations. In the second stage, the two flows are sent to an electrochemical cell that produces current by consuming the concentration difference. In this paper, we propose such an electrochemical cell, working with water solutions of zinc chloride. The cell contains two electrodes, made respectively of zinc and silver covered by silver chloride. The operation of the cell is analogous to that of the capacitive mixing and of the “mixing entropy battery”: the electrodes are charged while dipped in the concentrated solution and discharged when dipped in the diluted solution. The cyclic operation allows us to extract a surplus of energy, at the expense of the free energy of the concentration difference. We evaluate the feasibility of such a cell for practical applications and find that a power up to 2 W per m2 of the surface of the electrodes can be achieved.

  13. A Novel Research on Behavior of Zinc Ferrite Nanoparticles in Different Concentration of Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimah Mohamed Kamari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc ferrite nanocrystals were prepared from an aqueous solution containing metal nitrates and various of concentrations of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, i.e., 0, 15, 40, and 55 g/L, as a capping agent. To stabilize the particles, they were thermally treated at 873 K, as an optimum calcination temperature. The behaviors of the polymeric precursor were analyzed by use of simultaneous thermo-gravimetry (TG and derivative thermo-gravimetry analyses (DTG. The presence of the crystalline phase in each sample was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The average particle size and the morphology of the nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and these parameters were found to differ at various concentrations of PVP. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR confirmed the presence of metal oxide bands for all the PVP concentrations and confirmed the absence of organic bands for PVP concentrations less than 55 g/L. Measurements of the magnetization value of the zinc ferrite nanoparticles were obtained at room temperature by using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM, which showed that, in the absence of PVP, the sample exhibited a paramagnetic behavior while, in the presence of PVP, samples have a super-paramagnetic behavior.

  14. Concentration dependent luminescence quenching of Er{sup 3+}-doped zinc boro-tellurite glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said Mahraz, Zahra Ashur; Sahar, M.R., E-mail: mrahim057@gmail.com; Ghoshal, S.K.; Reza Dousti, M.

    2013-12-15

    Understanding the mechanism of luminescence quenching in rare earth doped tellurite glass is an important issue. The Er{sup 3+}-doped boro-tellurite glasses with compositions 30B{sub 2}O{sub 3}+10ZnO+(60−x)TeO{sub 2}+xEr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (where x=0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mol%) were prepared by melt quenching method. Structural and optical properties of the proposed glasses were characterized using XRD, FTIR, density, UV–vis-IR absorption and PL spectroscopy. The amorphous nature of these glasses was confirmed by XRD technique. The IR-spectrum reveals five absorption bands assigned to different B–O and Te–O vibrational groups. UV–vis-IR absorption spectrum exhibits seven absorption bands at 6553, 10,244, 12,547, 15,360, 19,230, 20,661 and 22,522 cm{sup −1} corresponding to {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 7/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} excited states of Er{sup 3+} ion respectively. The optical band gap energy (E{sub opt}) corresponding to the direct and indirect allowed transitions decreased, while the Urbach energy and cut-off wavelengths are increased by the introduction of Er{sup 3+} ions. The refractive index, density and phonon cut-off edge of the samples are increased and the molar volume decreased with the further addition of dopants. The Judd–Ofelt parameter (Ω{sub 2}) decreased from 5.73 to 3.13×10{sup −20} cm{sup 2} with the increase of erbium ions concentration from 0.5 to 2 mol%. The PL spectra show green emissions for the transition from {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} excited states to {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} ground state, which show strong quenching due to the addition of Er{sup 3+} ions. -- Highlights: • Er{sup 3+}-doped zinc boro-tellurite glass has been synthesized by melt quench method. • Spectroscopic properties dependent concentration is analyzed by different techniques. • Judd–Ofelt intensity parameter (Ω{sub 2}) decreased by increase in erbium

  15. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  16. Concentration differences between serum and plasma of the elements cobalt, iron, mercury, rubidium, selenium and zinc determined by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperek, K.; Kiem, J.; Iyengar, G.V.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    The differences in concentrations of cesium, cobalt, iron, mercury, rubidium, selenium and zinc between serum and plasma were examined with the aid of instrumental neutron activation analysis. Eighty serum and plasma samples obtained from 13 donors were compared. Serum was prepared in plastic tubes immediately after clotting, and plasma was separated with heparin as anticoagulant. No significant differences in the concentrations of cesium, cobalt, mercury and selenium were observed. However, the concentrations of iron, rubidium and zinc were significantly higher in serum than in plasma. The average differences were 322, 12 and 20 ng/ml for iron, rubidium and zinc, respectively. The average differences found for cesium, rubidium and zinc were far below that which can be expected from a complete, or considerable release of these elements from platelets which aggregate or disintegrate during the clotting process in preparing serum. (orig.)

  17. Estimate of oxygen consumption and intracellular zinc concentration of human spermatozoa in relation to motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Ralf R; Defosse, Kerstin; Koyro, Hans-Wilhelm; Weissmann, Norbert; Schill, Wolf-Bernhard

    2003-03-01

    To investigate the human sperm oxygen/energy consumption and zinc content in relation to motility. In washed spermatozoa from 67 ejaculates, the oxygen consumption was determined. Following calculation of the total oxygen consumed by the Ideal Gas Law, the energy consumption of spermatozoa was calculated. In addition, the zinc content of the sperm was determined using an atomic absorption spectrometer. The resulting data were correlated to the vitality and motility. The oxygen consumption averaged 0.24 micromol/10(6) sperm x 24h, 0.28 micromol/10(6) live sperm x 24h and 0.85 micromol/10(6) live motile sperm x 24h. Further calculations revealed that sperm motility was the most energy consuming process (164.31 mJ/10(6) motile spermatozoa x 24h), while the oxygen consumption of the total spermatozoa was 46.06 mJ/10(6) spermatozoa x 24h. The correlation of the oxygen/energy consumption and zinc content with motility showed significant negative correlations (r= -0.759; P<0.0001 and r=-0.441; P<0.0001, respectively). However, when correlating sperm energy consumption with the zinc content, a significant positive relation (r=0.323; P=0.01) was observed. Poorly motile sperm are actually wasting the available energy. Moreover, our data clearly support the "Geometric Clutch Model" of the axoneme function and demonstrate the importance of the outer dense fibers for the generation of sperm motility, especially progressive motility.

  18. Rising Intracellular Zinc by Membrane Depolarization and Glucose in Insulin-Secreting Clonal HIT-T15 Beta Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira G. Slepchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn2+ appears to be intimately involved in insulin metabolism since insulin secretion is correlated with zinc secretion in response to glucose stimulation, but little is known about the regulation of zinc homeostasis in pancreatic beta-cells. This study set out to identify the intracellular zinc transient by imaging free cytosolic zinc in HIT-T15 beta-cells with fluorescent zinc indicators. We observed that membrane depolarization by KCl (30–60 mM was able to induce a rapid increase in cytosolic concentration of zinc. Multiple zinc transients of similar magnitude were elicited during repeated stimulations. The amplitude of zinc responses was not affected by the removal of extracellular calcium or zinc. However, the half-time of the rising slope was significantly slower after removing extracellular zinc with zinc chelator CaEDTA, suggesting that extracellular zinc affect the initial rising phase of zinc response. Glucose (10 mM induced substantial and progressive increases in intracellular zinc concentration in a similar way as KCl, with variation in the onset and the duration of zinc mobilization. It is known that the depolarization of beta-cell membrane is coupled with the secretion of insulin. Rising intracellular zinc concentration may act as a critical signaling factor in insulin metabolism of pancreatic beta-cells.

  19. Rising intracellular zinc by membrane depolarization and glucose in insulin-secreting clonal HIT-T15 beta cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepchenko, Kira G; Li, Yang V

    2012-01-01

    Zinc (Zn(2+)) appears to be intimately involved in insulin metabolism since insulin secretion is correlated with zinc secretion in response to glucose stimulation, but little is known about the regulation of zinc homeostasis in pancreatic beta-cells. This study set out to identify the intracellular zinc transient by imaging free cytosolic zinc in HIT-T15 beta-cells with fluorescent zinc indicators. We observed that membrane depolarization by KCl (30-60 mM) was able to induce a rapid increase in cytosolic concentration of zinc. Multiple zinc transients of similar magnitude were elicited during repeated stimulations. The amplitude of zinc responses was not affected by the removal of extracellular calcium or zinc. However, the half-time of the rising slope was significantly slower after removing extracellular zinc with zinc chelator CaEDTA, suggesting that extracellular zinc affect the initial rising phase of zinc response. Glucose (10 mM) induced substantial and progressive increases in intracellular zinc concentration in a similar way as KCl, with variation in the onset and the duration of zinc mobilization. It is known that the depolarization of beta-cell membrane is coupled with the secretion of insulin. Rising intracellular zinc concentration may act as a critical signaling factor in insulin metabolism of pancreatic beta-cells.

  20. Effect of dietary organic zinc sources on growth performance, incidence of diarrhoea, serum and tissue zinc concentrations, and intestinal morphology in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Y. Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary organic zinc (Zn sources on growth performance, the incidence of diarrhoea, serum and tissue Zn concentration, and intestinal morphology in growing rabbits. A total of 120 New Zealand White rabbits aged 35 d and with an initial body weight of 755±15 g, were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups for a 49 d feeding trial. Dietary treatments were designed with different Zn supplements as follows: (1 Control group: 80 mg/kg Zn as ZnSO4; (2 ZnLA group: 80 mg/kg Zn as Zn lactate; (3 ZnMet group: 80 mg/kg Zn as Zn methionine; (4 ZnGly group: 80 mg/kg Zn as Zn glycine. The results showed that, when compared with rabbits fed ZnSO4, supplementation with ZnLA improved (P4. Supplementing with ZnLA increased duodenum villi height (681.63 vs. 587.14 μm, P4, except that feeding ZnMet led to higher (P4. The results indicated that supplementation with 80 mg/kg Zn as ZnLA could improve growth performance, increase liver Zn concentration and enhance duodenum morphology, while reducing the incidence of diarrhoea in growing rabbits.

  1. The association effect of human serum albumin under different zinc ion concentrations studied by small angle of neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jian; Xu Yanping; Yang Tonghua; He Jintian; Li Lianzhi; Zhou Yongqia

    1997-01-01

    The microscopic parameters of the HSA-Zn 2+ , R g and I(0), are obtained directedly by small angle of neutron scattering (SANS) under different concentrations of zinc ion. Comparing with other relevant experimental results, e.g. equilibrium dialysis, we can determine and distinguish the apparent interactive subsequences into more detailed sub-actions, such as self-association, inter-association, disintegration and deconformation et al., or even certain combination of them, other than some indirect and microscopic results. Results obtained by SANS can qualitatively and readily interpret the characteristics from the viewpoint of microscopic process

  2. Holder pasteurization affects S100B concentrations in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, Chiara; Coscia, Alessandra; Bertino, Enrico; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Visser, Gerard H A; Gazzolo, Diego

    2018-02-01

    Donor milk (DM) represents an important nutrition source for high-risk newborns. Holder pasteurization (HoP) is the most recommended procedure for DM treatment, providing a good compromise between microbiological safety and biological quality. HoP was previously shown to affect DM cytokines, growth factors and hormones levels, whilst no data concerning the possible effects of HoP on neurobiomarkers (NB) are available. Therefore, our study investigated whether the concentration in DM of a well-known NB involved in brain development/damage, namely S100B, changes due to HoP. We conducted a pretest-test study in 11 mothers, whose DM samples were sub-divided into two parts: the first was immediately frozen (-80 °C); the second was pasteurized with Holder method before freezing. S100B DM levels were measured using a commercially available immunoluminometric assay. S100B protein was detected in all milk samples. Results showed significant differences between groups (p pasteurization stresses and the need to develop new storage techniques to preserve the biological quality of human milk.

  3. Zinc Deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cediel, Gustavo; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Cori, Héctor; López de Romaña, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Zinc deficiency affects multiple vital functions in the life cycle, especially growth. Limited information is available on the magnitude of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean. To examine the latest available information on both the prevalence of zinc deficiency and the risk of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was identified through a systematic review looking for the latest available data on serum zinc concentrations from surveys or studies with national representativeness conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. The risk of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean was estimated based on dietary zinc inadequacy (according to the 2011 National Food Balance Sheets) and stunting in children under 5 years of age. Only four countries had available national biochemical data. Mexican, Colombian, Ecuadorian, and Guatemalan children under 6 years of age and women 12 to 49 years of age had a high prevalence of zinc deficiency (19.1% to 56.3%). The countries with the highest risk of zinc deficiency (estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake > 25% plus prevalence of stunting > 20%) were Belize, Bolivia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Zinc dietary inadequacy was directly correlated with stunting (r = 0.64, p zinc deficiency in children under 6 years of age and women 12 to 49 years of age. High rates of both estimated zinc dietary inadequacy and stunting were also reported in most Latin America and Caribbean countries.

  4. Bioconcentration of zinc and cadmium in ectomycorrhizal fungi and associated aspen trees as affected by level of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krpata, Doris; Fitz, Walter; Peintner, Ursula; Langer, Ingrid; Schweiger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of Zn and Cd were measured in fruitbodies of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and leaves of co-occurring accumulator aspen. Samples were taken on three metal-polluted sites and one control site. Fungal bioconcentration factors (BCF = fruitbody concentration: soil concentration) were calculated on the basis of total metal concentrations in surface soil horizons (BCF tot ) and NH 4 NO 3 -extractable metal concentrations in mineral soil (BCF lab ). When plotted on log-log scale, values of BCF decreased linearly with increasing soil metal concentrations. BCF lab for both Zn and Cd described the data more closely than BCF tot . Fungal genera differed in ZnBCF but not in CdBCF. The information on differences between fungi with respect to their predominant occurrence in different soil horizons did not improve relations of BCF with soil metal concentrations. Aspen trees accumulated Zn and Cd to similar concentrations as the ECM fungi. Apparently, the fungi did not act as an effective barrier against aspen metal uptake by retaining the metals. - Populus tremula and associated ectomycorrhizal fungi accumulate zinc and cadmium to similar concentrations

  5. The extraction of zinc and other minor metals from concentrated ammonium chloride solutions with D2EHPA and Cyanex 272

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer, S.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study is made of the extractants D2EHPA and Cyanex 272 for the zinc and minor metal extraction from aqueous concentrated ammonium chloride solutions, as those of the leaching liquors of the CENIM-LNETI process. Extraction equilibrium data for zinc are presented as extraction isotherms at constant pH and at a temperature of 50 °C. Zinc extraction and coextraction of minor metal ions as Cu, Ca, Pb, Mg, Cd, Co, Ni and Hg are studied. Mercury does not extract from concentrated ammonium chloride solutions. Cyanex 272 shows a better selectivity for zinc with regard to the minor metals than D2EHPA, which is especially remarkable for calcium, the most coextracted element by D2EHPA. Nickel and cadmium coextraction is negligible for both extractants. The possible use of the Cyanex 272 as an alternative to D2EHPA is considered.

    Se realiza un estudio comparativo del comportamiento del D2EHPA y del Cyanex 272 durante la extracción del cinc y otros metales minoritarios de soluciones acuosas concentradas de cloruro amónico, como las de las soluciones de lixiviación del proceso CENIM-LNETI. Se presentan los datos de equilibrio de extracción del cinc en forma de isotermas de extracción a una temperatura de 50 °C y pH constante y se estudia la coextracción de los metales minoritarios Cu, Ca, Pb, Mg, Cd, Co, Ni y Hg. El mercurio no se extrae de las soluciones concentradas de cloruro amónico. La selectividad del Cyanex 272 para el cinc respecto de esos metales minoritarios es mejor que la del D2EHPA, siendo verdaderamente notable para el calcio, que es la impureza que más se coextrae con el D2EHPA. La coextracción de níquel y de cadmio es muy pequeña para ambos extractantes. Se considera la posibilidad del uso alternativo del Cyanex 272 en lugar del D2EHPA.

  6. Relationships between serum selenium and zinc concentrations versus profibrotic and proangiogenic cytokines (FGF-19 and endoglin) in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prystupa, Andrzej; Kiciński, Paweł; Luchowska-Kocot, Dorota; Błażewicz, Anna; Kurys-Denis, Ewa; Niedziałek, Jarosław; Sak, Jarosław; Panasiuk, Lech

    2017-09-21

    Liver cirrhosis is a disease involving the liver parenchyma, which is characterised by fibrosis and impaired architectonics of the parenchyma with regenerative nodules. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between stage of alcoholic liver cirrhosis, concentrations of selenium, zinc and profibrotic and proangiogenic cytokines (FGF-19, ENG). The study included 99 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and 20 healthy subjects. Ion chromatography with UV/VIS detection was used for determination of zinc ions in the previously mineralized serum samples. The measurements of selenium were performed with the ContrAA700 high-resolution continuum source graphite tube atomic absorption spectrometer. ELISA was used to determine concentration of FGF-19 and ENG in serum samples. Concentrations of zinc and selenium were significantly decreased in cirrhotic patients (pselenium in serum of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis are not independently related to concentrations of FGF-19 and ENG.

  7. Effect of precursor concentration on the growth of zinc oxide nanorod arrays on pre-treated substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urgessa, Z.N.; Oluwafemi, O.S.; Botha, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Well aligned zinc oxide nanorod arrays (ZNAs) synthesized by a simple chemical bath deposition method were fabricated on pre-treated Si substrates. By keeping the molar VI/II ratio constant, the effect of precursor concentration on the growth and optical quality of the ZNAs was investigated. The as-synthesized ZNAs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). FESEM images show that both the diameter and aspect ratio of the ZNAs increase dramatically as the precursor concentration increases. The XRD analysis indicates that all the as-grown ZNAs are crystalline and are preferentially oriented along the c-axis. The high intensity ratio of the UV emission to visible emission in the room temperature PL spectra illustrate that high optical quality ZNAs were produced.

  8. Effect of precursor concentration on the growth of zinc oxide nanorod arrays on pre-treated substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgessa, Z.N. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Oluwafemi, O.S., E-mail: oluwafemi.oluwatobi@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha Campus, Private Bag XI, 5117 (South Africa); Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    Well aligned zinc oxide nanorod arrays (ZNAs) synthesized by a simple chemical bath deposition method were fabricated on pre-treated Si substrates. By keeping the molar VI/II ratio constant, the effect of precursor concentration on the growth and optical quality of the ZNAs was investigated. The as-synthesized ZNAs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). FESEM images show that both the diameter and aspect ratio of the ZNAs increase dramatically as the precursor concentration increases. The XRD analysis indicates that all the as-grown ZNAs are crystalline and are preferentially oriented along the c-axis. The high intensity ratio of the UV emission to visible emission in the room temperature PL spectra illustrate that high optical quality ZNAs were produced.

  9. Zinc, copper and lead contents of wines. Comparison between the total concentrations by atomic absorption spectrometry and the concentrations of the free ions by polarography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-B. Fournier

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In the introduction of this article, some examples of the use of trace element data in the characterisation of viticultural produce are reminded. This paper described the determination of zinc, copper and lead by two techniques based on radically different principles. The atomic absorption spectrometry, applied after the mineralisation of the samples by wet process, allows the determination of the total element contents in wine. The polarography allows the analysis of the concentrations of these elements that are under labile chemical forms, and which are dissolved under the ionic forms Zn++, Cu++ and Pb++. The wines analysed in this study were produced from three different parcels chosen in relation to their geological qualities. The vines implanted on these parcels are strictly identical, and three fermentation techniques were applied to each lots of grapes. The results obtained shows that the copper is only under ionic form and that the temperature of the fermentation influences the total copper level in the final wine. At the opposite, there is no ion Pb++ in the samples, but a long duration of maceration increases the lead content. Concerning zinc, only the ions Zn++ are present in the wine in case of a short duration of the maceration. When this duration increases, some other chemical forms of zinc are dissolved in addition to the ions Zn++ which are instantaneously dissociated in aqueous solutions. The problem of the contamination of grapes by the materials used, the phytosanitary treatments and the atmospheric pollution is discussed. The knowledge of the proportion of a trace element that is under ionic forms is indispensable to evaluate the bio-availability of the considered element and the toxicologic risks. The advent and the expansion of the electrochemical methods is expected as an important advance in this field of research.

  10. Differences in zinc status between patients with osteoarthritis and osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Janne; Møller-Madsen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Poul Torben

    2009-01-01

    Zinc has been suggested to play an important role in the development of osteoporosis, whereas the influence of zinc on osteoarthritis has attracted much less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the zinc status and bone turnover, density, and biomechanical properties...... of osteoarthritic and osteoporotic patients. The study comprised 40 women who underwent hip replacement due to osteoarthritis or osteoporosis. Serum and urine zinc content, and bone resorption markers and serum bone formation markers were determined. The unaffected hip and the exarticulated affected femoral head...... underwent DEXA scanning. Bone biopsies were obtained from the femoral heads and the biomechanical properties were determined. The biopsies were ashed and the bone zinc content was ascertained. Osteoarthritic patients had significantly higher serum zinc concentrations and lower urine zinc concentrations than...

  11. The Effect of Exogenous Zinc Concentration on the Responsiveness of MC3T3-E1 Pre-Osteoblasts to Surface Microtopography: Part II (Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Dorst

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Osseointegration of bone implants is a vital part of the recovery process. Numerous studies have shown that micropatterned geometries can promote cell-substrate associations and strengthen the bond between tissue and the implanted material. As demonstrated previously, exogenous zinc levels can influence the responsiveness of pre-osteoblasts to micropatterns and modify their migratory behavior. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of exogenous zinc on differentiation of osteoblasts cultured on micropatterned vs. planar substrates. Levels of activated metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1, as well as early stage differentiation marker alkaline phosphatase, were altered with the addition of zinc. These results suggest that exogenous zinc concentration and micropatterning may interdependently modulate osteoblast differentiation.

  12. Zinc concentrations in marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland in relation to phylogenetic grouping, habitat and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stengel, Dagmar B.; Macken, Ailbhe; Morrison, Liam; Morley, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    Zinc concentrations in 19 species of marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland (Spiddal, Co. Galway) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Algae were collected from a single site but occupied different shore levels and belonged to distinct phylogenetic groupings and to different (previously recognised) morphological groups. Concentrations ranged from 15-115 μg g -1 dry weight. The greatest variation in concentration occurred amongst the red algal species, containing both maximum and minimum concentrations. Zn concentrations in brown and green algae were generally lower than those in red algae. When grouped according to thallus morphology, thin, branched sheets (which consisted mainly of red algae) contained the highest Zn concentrations. In filamentous algae, Zn levels were higher than in thick-leathery or coarsely branched algae. However, all green algal species examined had similar Zn concentrations, despite their different morphologies. In brown algae, the highest Zn levels were detected in mid-shore fucoids (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus), while thicker, subtidal and low-shore brown algae (Laminaria digitata, Halydris siliquosa) exhibited lower Zn concentrations. The lowest Zn concentrations were detected in high-intertidal species (Fucus spiralis, Pelvetia canaliculata), the only marine lichen examined (Ramalina siliquosa) and a red crustose alga (Corallina officinalis). In all morphological groups, red algal representatives contained relatively higher levels of Zn, the exception being Corallina officinalis. Zn levels in 4 species from a second, estuarine site in Galway Bay exhibited the same relative differences amongst species, but were all consistently higher than in algae from Spiddal. It is concluded that Zn accumulation in macroalgae is closely related to ecological growth strategies, following a functional-form model. However, the phylogenetic origin of species which determines carbohydrate and phenol composition, and

  13. Zinc concentrations in marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland in relation to phylogenetic grouping, habitat and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengel, Dagmar B.; Macken, Ailbhe; Morrison, Liam; Morley, Nicholas

    2004-05-01

    Zinc concentrations in 19 species of marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland (Spiddal, Co. Galway) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Algae were collected from a single site but occupied different shore levels and belonged to distinct phylogenetic groupings and to different (previously recognised) morphological groups. Concentrations ranged from 15-115 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight. The greatest variation in concentration occurred amongst the red algal species, containing both maximum and minimum concentrations. Zn concentrations in brown and green algae were generally lower than those in red algae. When grouped according to thallus morphology, thin, branched sheets (which consisted mainly of red algae) contained the highest Zn concentrations. In filamentous algae, Zn levels were higher than in thick-leathery or coarsely branched algae. However, all green algal species examined had similar Zn concentrations, despite their different morphologies. In brown algae, the highest Zn levels were detected in mid-shore fucoids (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus), while thicker, subtidal and low-shore brown algae (Laminaria digitata, Halydris siliquosa) exhibited lower Zn concentrations. The lowest Zn concentrations were detected in high-intertidal species (Fucus spiralis, Pelvetia canaliculata), the only marine lichen examined (Ramalina siliquosa) and a red crustose alga (Corallina officinalis). In all morphological groups, red algal representatives contained relatively higher levels of Zn, the exception being Corallina officinalis. Zn levels in 4 species from a second, estuarine site in Galway Bay exhibited the same relative differences amongst species, but were all consistently higher than in algae from Spiddal. It is concluded that Zn accumulation in macroalgae is closely related to ecological growth strategies, following a functional-form model. However, the phylogenetic origin of species which determines carbohydrate and phenol composition

  14. Toxic effects of zinc from trout farm sediments on ATP, protein, and hemoglobin concentrations of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Tabche, L; Gutiérrez Cabrera, I; Gómez Oliván, L; Galar Martinez, M; Germán Faz, C

    2000-04-14

    Zinc (Zn) is a nutritionally essential metal, and deficiency results in severe health consequences to aquatic organisms. In this study toxicity data for Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri produced by Zn in systems using three natural sediments (trout farms: El Oyamel, El Truchón, and El Potrero) are presented. Hemoglobin, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and protein concentrations were measured in L. hoffmeisteri exposed to spiked sediments, as indicators of exposure. Physicochemical characteristics of water and sediments were also considered. Zn concentrations were measured in water and sediment. El Oyamel, El Truchón, and El Potrero pond sediments did not have similar physicochemical characteristics. Zn concentrations of water obtained from the rustic ponds were near 0.4575 mg/L; however, this metal was always found to be higher in the sediments (0.0271-0.9754 mg/kg). The bioassay with worms demonstrated that pond sediments from El Oyamel, El Potrero, and El Truchón produced toxicity since ATP and protein concentrations were low compared to controls (organisms without metal). All spiked sediments had a significant reduction effect on ATP, protein, and hemoglobin concentrations. This investigation clearly shows that sediments of El Truchón, El Oyamel, and El Potrero possess toxicity potential. These results suggest the usefulness of these bioassays to evaluate the toxicity of sediments polluted with heavy metals.

  15. Zinc concentration effect on structural, optical and electrical properties of Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Se thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akaltun, Yunus [Department of Electrical and Electronic, Engineering Faculty, Erzincan University, Erzincan (Turkey); Yıldırım, M. Ali, E-mail: mayildirim@erzincan.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Science and Art Faculty, Erzincan University, Erzincan (Turkey); Ateş, Aytunç [Department of Material Engineering, Engineering and Natural Sciences Faculty, Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara (Turkey); Yıldırım, Muhammet [Department of Physics, Science Faculty, Atatürk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Se thin films were deposited using SILAR method. ► The electron effective mass, refractive index, dielectric constant values were calculated by using the energy bandgap values as a function of the zinc concentration (x). ► The resistivity and activation energy changed as a function of the zinc concentration (x). -- Abstract: Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Se thin films with different compositions (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) were deposited on glass substrates using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method at room temperature and ambient pressure. The zinc concentration (x) effect on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Se thin films were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that all the films exhibited polycrystalline nature and were covered well on glass substrates. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis confirmed nearly stoichiometric deposition of the films. The energy bandgap values were changed from 1.99 to 2.82 eV depending on the zinc concentration. Bowing parameter was calculated as 0.08 eV. The electron effective mass (m{sub e}*/m{sub o}), refractive index (n), optical static and high frequency dielectric constants (ε{sub o}, ε{sub ∞}) values were calculated by using the energy bandgap values as a function of the zinc concentration. The resistivity values of the films changed between 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 7} Ω cm with increasing zinc concentration at room temperature.

  16. Transformation of zinc-concentrate in surface and subsurface environments: Implications for assessing zinc mobility/toxicity and choosing an optimal remediation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Man Jae; Boyanov, Maxim I; Yang, Jung-Seok; Lee, Seunghak; Hwang, Yun Ho; Lee, Ju Yeon; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Kemner, Kenneth M

    2017-07-01

    Zinc contamination in near- and sub-surface environments is a serious threat to many ecosystems and to public health. Sufficient understanding of Zn speciation and transport mechanisms is therefore critical to evaluating its risk to the environment and to developing remediation strategies. The geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of contaminated soils in the vicinity of a Zn ore transportation route were thoroughly investigated using a variety of analytical techniques (sequential extraction, XRF, XRD, SEM, and XAFS). Imported Zn-concentrate (ZnS) was deposited in a receiving facility and dispersed over time to the surrounding roadside areas and rice-paddy soils. Subsequent physical and chemical weathering resulted in dispersal into the subsurface. The species identified in the contaminated areas included Zn-sulfide, Zn-carbonate, other O-coordinated Zn-minerals, and Zn species bound to Fe/Mn oxides or clays, as confirmed by XAFS spectroscopy and sequential extraction. The observed transformation from S-coordinated Zn to O-coordinated Zn associated with minerals suggests that this contaminant can change into more soluble and labile forms as a result of weathering. For the purpose of developing a soil washing remediation process, the contaminated samples were extracted with dilute acids. The extraction efficiency increased with the increase of O-coordinated Zn relative to S-coordinated Zn in the sediment. This study demonstrates that improved understanding of Zn speciation in contaminated soils is essential for well-informed decision making regarding metal mobility and toxicity, as well as for choosing an appropriate remediation strategy using soil washing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Repletion of zinc in zinc-deficient cells strongly up-regulates IL-1β-induced IL-2 production in T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daaboul, Doha; Rosenkranz, Eva; Uciechowski, Peter; Rink, Lothar

    2012-10-01

    Mild zinc deficiency in humans negatively affects IL-2 production resulting in declined percentages of cytolytic T cells and decreased NK cell lytic activity, which enhances the susceptibility to infections and malignancies. T-cell activation is critically regulated by zinc and the normal physiological zinc level in T-cells slightly lies below the optimal concentration for T-cell functions. A further reduction in zinc level leads to T-cell dysfunction and autoreactivity, whereas high zinc concentrations (100 μM) were shown to inhibit interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced IL-1 receptor kinase (IRAK) activation. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which zinc regulates the IL-1β-induced IL-2 expression in T-cells. Zinc supplementation to zinc-deficient T-cells increased intracellular zinc levels by altering the expression of zinc transporters, particularly Zip10 and Zip12. A zinc signal was observed in the murine T-cell line EL-4 6.1 after 1 h of stimulation with IL-1β, measured by specific zinc sensors FluoZin-3 and ZinPyr-1. This signal is required for the phosphorylation of MAPK p38 and NF-κB subunit p65, which triggers the transcription of IL-2 and strongly increases its production. These results indicate that short-term zinc supplementation to zinc-deficient T-cells leads to a fast rise in zinc levels which subsequently enhance cytokine production. In conclusion, low and excessive zinc levels might be equally problematic for zinc-deficient subjects, and stabilized zinc levels seem to be essential to avoid negative concentration-dependent zinc effects on T-cell activation.

  18. Storage mediums affect metal concentration in woodlice (Isopoda)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickx, Frederik; Maelfait, J.-P.; Mayer, Ann de; Tack, F.M.G.; Verloo, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Pitfall traps containing formaldehyde influence dry weights and consequently metal concentrations in woodlice. - Terrestrial invertebrates are becoming widely established as tools to assess heavy metal pollution at contaminated sites. A practical and time saving method to sample terrestrial invertebrates consist of pitfall traps, often filled with a 4% formaldehyde solution and some detergent. The reliability of metal concentrations based on organisms captured and stored in this solution might however be questioned and we therefore tested the effect of formaldehyde on Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb concentration experimentally in three isopod species. Our results showed that in many cases, significant decreases in Cu concentrations compared to animals stored in a freezer were observed that could be as high as 40%, while Zn, Cd and Pb concentrations increased. A regression analysis of individual dry weight on individual size revealed that formaldehyde decreases the dry weight substantially and in that way causes increased measurements of Zn, Cd and Pb concentrations. We conclude that pitfall traps with formaldehyde should better not be used to collect animals in which concentrations of heavy metals or other toxic substances will be determined

  19. PREPARATION OF ZINC ENRICHED YEAST (SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE BY CULTIVATION WITH DIFFERENT ZINC SALTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš Harangozo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the best known microorganism and therefore widely used in many branches of industry. This study aims to investigate the accumulation of three inorganic zinc salts. Our research presents the ability of this yeast to absorb zinc from liquid medium and such enriched biomass use as a potential source of microelements in animal and/or human nutrition. It was found that the addition of different zinc forms, i.e. zinc nitrate, zinc sulphate and zinc chloride in fixed concentrations of 0, 25, 50 and 100 mg.100 ml-1 did not affect the amount of dry yeast biomass yielded, i.e. 1.0 – 1.2 g of yeast cells from 100 ml of cultivation medium, while higher presence of zinc solutions caused significantly lower yield of yeast biomass. The highest amount of zinc in yeast cells was achieved when added in the form of zinc nitrate in concentration of 200 mg.100 ml-1 YPD medium. The increment of intracellular zinc was up to 18.5 mg.g-1 of yeast biomass.

  20. Association between Folic Acid and Zinc Concentration with Incidence of Bacterial Vaginosis in The First Trimester of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noroyono Wibowo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV in pregnancy is associated with the increase of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as premature rupture of membranes and preterm labor. One of the multifactorial causes of BV is thechange in vaginal immunity. Malnutrition, including micronutrient deficiency, increases the vulnerability toinfections. This study aim to investigate the association between folic acid and zinc concentration with theincidence of bacterial vaginosis in the first trimester of pregnancy. This descriptive cross sectional studyinvolved 139 mothers with first trimester pregnancy, aged between 17-39 years old. The study was conductedat dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital from September 2013 until August 2014. Vaginal secretions was sampledto diagnose BV under nugent criteria. Folic acid and zinc in the serum were measured. From 139 subject,18.7% (n=26 were found to be BV positive (nugent score =7. No deficiency of folic acid (<7 ng/mL and40.3% (n=56 of zinc deficiency (<60  µg/dL were found. Bivariate analysis used Kruskal-Wallis test betweenfolic acid and zinc concentration with BV incidence gives p value of 0.668 and 0.478 respectively. Prevalenceof BV in this study was 18.7%. The relation between the maternal statuses of folic acid with BV in the firsttrimester of pregnancy was not found. Keywords: bacterial vaginosis, folic acid, zinc, pregnancy.   Hubungan antara Kadar Asam Folat dan Seng terhadap KejadianVaginosis Bakteri pada Trimester Pertama Kehamilan Abstrak Bakterial vaginosis (BV pada kehamilan dihubungkan dengan meningkatnya luaran maternal yang buruk seperti ketuban pecah dini dan persalinan prematur. Penyebab BV multifaktor salah satunya adalahperubahan imunitas di vagina. Malnutrisi termasuk defisiensi mikronutrien meningkatkan kerentananterhadap infeksi. Studi ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara kadar asam folat dan seng terhadapkejadian vaginosis bakteri pada trimester pertama kehamilan. Penelitian ini merupakan studi

  1. The steady-state and transient electron transport within bulk zinc-blende indium nitride: The impact of crystal temperature and doping concentration variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqua, Poppy; O'Leary, Stephen K.

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of a semi-classical three-valley Monte Carlo electron transport simulation approach, we analyze the steady-state and transient aspects of the electron transport within bulk zinc-blende indium nitride, with a focus on the response to variations in the crystal temperature and the doping concentration. We find that while the electron transport associated with zinc-blende InN is highly sensitive to the crystal temperature, it is not very sensitive to the doping concentration selection. The device consequences of these results are then explored.

  2. Paper-Based Analytical Device for Zinc Ion Quantification in Water Samples with Power-Free Analyte Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Kudo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient sensitivity is a general issue of colorimetric paper-based analytical devices (PADs for trace analyte detection, such as metal ions, in environmental water. This paper demonstrates the colorimetric detection of zinc ions (Zn2+ on a paper-based analytical device with an integrated analyte concentration system. Concentration of Zn2+ ions from an enlarged sample volume (1 mL has been achieved with the aid of a colorimetric Zn2+ indicator (Zincon electrostatically immobilized onto a filter paper substrate in combination with highly water-absorbent materials. Analyte concentration as well as sample pretreatment, including pH adjustment and interferent masking, has been elaborated. The resulting device enables colorimetric quantification of Zn2+ in environmental water samples (tap water, river water from a single sample application. The achieved detection limit of 0.53 μM is a significant improvement over that of a commercial colorimetric Zn2+ test paper (9.7 μM, demonstrating the efficiency of the developed analyte concentration system not requiring any equipment.

  3. Elemental concentrations and tracer uptake behavior of manganese, zinc, and selenium in brain of normal mice during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarohda, Tohru; Yabushita, Yuko; Kanayama, Yousuke; Amano, Ryohei; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations and uptake behavior of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) in mouse brain were studied by a multitracer technique, neutron activation analysis and autoradiography. Comparative concentrations on Mn, Zn, and Se and tracer uptake behavior of 54 Mn, 65 Zn, and 75 Se were examined in brains of 1-, 4-, 8-, 21-, and 56-day-old mice, and evaluated in terms of brain concentration (parts per million, ppm) and brain uptake rate (the radioactivity percentage of injected dose per gram of brain, %dose/g), respectively. As a result, the brain concentrations of Mn increased with growth, although those of Se and Zn did not change. On the other hand, the uptakes of the three tracers by brains of 1-day-old mice were much higher than those of older ones. Using radioactive 54 Mn as a single tracer, autoradiography was examined to determine the Mn uptake regional distribution in brains of 1-, 8-, and 21-day-old mice, and a higher regional uptake of Mn by the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and hypothalamus in brains of young mice was observed. (author)

  4. Effects of pharmacological concentrations of dietary zinc oxide on growth of post-weaning pigs: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, James

    2013-06-01

    Pharmacological dietary zinc (Zn) concentrations of 1,000 to 3,000 mg/kg diet from Zn oxide have been found to increase growth in post-weaning pigs. However, results were inconsistent among studies. A frequentist meta-analysis, in which effects were numerically described with standardized effect sizes (Hedges's g), was conducted in order to identify and quantify the responses in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain to feed ratio (G/F) in post-weaning pigs upon dietary Zn supplementation from Zn oxide. The inability of independent continuous variables to explain significant heterogeneity obtained with fixed effect models necessitated the use of random effects models to calculate summary statistics. Dietary Zn supplementation increased (P potential environmental pollution will have to be negated by alternative feed additives and management strategies in order to prevent economic losses.

  5. Transformation of zinc-concentrate in surface and subsurface environments: Implications for assessing zinc mobility/toxicity and choosing an optimal remediation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Man Jae; Boyanov, Maxim I.; Yang, Jung-Seok; Lee, Seunghak; Hwang, Yun Ho; Lee, Ju Yeon; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Kemner, Kenneth M.

    2017-01-01

    Zinc contamination in near- and sub-surface environments is a serious threat to many ecosystems and to public health. Sufficient understanding of Zn speciation and transport mechanisms is therefore critical to evaluating its risk to the environment and to developing remediation strategies. The geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of contaminated soils in the vicinity of a Zn ore transportation route were thoroughly investigated using a variety of analytical techniques (sequential extraction, XRF, XRD, SEM, and XAFS). Imported Zn-concentrate (ZnS) was deposited in a receiving facility and dispersed over time to the surrounding roadside areas and rice-paddy soils. Subsequent physical and chemical weathering resulted in dispersal into the subsurface. The species identified in the contaminated areas included Zn-sulfide, Zn-carbonate, other O-coordinated Zn-minerals, and Zn species bound to Fe/Mn oxides or clays, as confirmed by XAFS spectroscopy and sequential extraction. The observed transformation from S-coordinated Zn to O-coordinated Zn associated with minerals suggests that this contaminant can change into more soluble and labile forms as a result of weathering. For the purpose of developing a soil washing remediation process, the contaminated samples were extracted with dilute acids. The extraction efficiency increased with the increase of O-coordinated Zn relative to S-coordinated Zn in the sediment. This study demonstrates that improved understanding of Zn speciation in contaminated soils is essential for well-informed decision making regarding metal mobility and toxicity, as well as for choosing an appropriate remediation strategy using soil washing. - Graphical abstract: Graphical Abstract. Conceptual model of the apparent physical and geochemical processes controlling surface-subsurface partitioning of Zn in the study area. - Highlights: • Zn-concentrate accumulated in soils transformed to Zn species of various stability. • Zn species at our

  6. The DnaJ-like zinc finger domain protein PSA2 affects light acclimation and chloroplast development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Wen eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis of chlorophylls and carotenoids and the assembly of thylakoid membranes are critical for the photoautotrophic growth of plants. Different factors are involved in these two processes. In recent years, members of the DnaJ-like zinc finger domain proteins have been found to take part in the biogenesis and/or the maintenance of plastids. One member of this family of proteins, PSA2, was recently found to localize to the thylakoid lumen and regulate the accumulation of photosystem I. In this study, we report that the silencing of PSA2 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in variegated leaves and retarded growth. Although both chlorophylls and total carotenoids decreased in the psa2 mutant, violaxanthin and zeaxanthin accumulated in the mutant seedlings grown under growth condition. Lower levels of non-photochemical quenching and electron transport rate were also found in the psa2 mutant seedlings under growth condition compared with those of the wild-type plants, indicating an impaired capability to acclimate to normal light irradiance when PSA2 was silenced. Moreover, we also observed an abnormal assembly of grana thylakoids and poorly developed stroma thylakoids in psa2 chloroplasts. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PSA2 is a member of the DnaJ-like zinc finger domain protein family that affects light acclimation and chloroplast development.

  7. Rhizosphere Microbial Community Composition Affects Cadmium and Zinc Uptake by the Metal-Hyperaccumulating Plant Arabidopsis halleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehe, E. Marie; Weigold, Pascal; Adaktylou, Irini J.; Planer-Friedrich, Britta; Kraemer, Ute; Kappler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The remediation of metal-contaminated soils by phytoextraction depends on plant growth and plant metal accessibility. Soil microorganisms can affect the accumulation of metals by plants either by directly or indirectly stimulating plant growth and activity or by (im)mobilizing and/or complexing metals. Understanding the intricate interplay of metal-accumulating plants with their rhizosphere microbiome is an important step toward the application and optimization of phytoremediation. We compared the effects of a “native” and a strongly disturbed (gamma-irradiated) soil microbial communities on cadmium and zinc accumulation by the plant Arabidopsis halleri in soil microcosm experiments. A. halleri accumulated 100% more cadmium and 15% more zinc when grown on the untreated than on the gamma-irradiated soil. Gamma irradiation affected neither plant growth nor the 1 M HCl-extractable metal content of the soil. However, it strongly altered the soil microbial community composition and overall cell numbers. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons of DNA extracted from rhizosphere samples of A. halleri identified microbial taxa (Lysobacter, Streptomyces, Agromyces, Nitrospira, “Candidatus Chloracidobacterium”) of higher relative sequence abundance in the rhizospheres of A. halleri plants grown on untreated than on gamma-irradiated soil, leading to hypotheses on their potential effect on plant metal uptake. However, further experimental evidence is required, and wherefore we discuss different mechanisms of interaction of A. halleri with its rhizosphere microbiome that might have directly or indirectly affected plant metal accumulation. Deciphering the complex interactions between A. halleri and individual microbial taxa will help to further develop soil metal phytoextraction as an efficient and sustainable remediation strategy. PMID:25595759

  8. Applications of Fertilizer Cations Affect Cadmium and Zinc Concentrations in Soil Solutions and Uptake by Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, S. E.; Hamon, R. E.; McGrath, S. P.

    1994-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study changes over time of Cd and Zn in soil solution and in plants. Radish was grown in a soil which had been contaminated with heavy metals prior to 1961. Constant amounts of a fertilizer solution (NH4N03, KN03) were added daily. Soil solution was obtained......-metal (Cd, Zn) ions in soil solutions and a decrease in soil pH, probably due to ion-exchange mechanisms and the dissolution of carbonates. Uptake of Cd and Zn into leaves was correlated with the mass flow of Cd (adjusted r2 = 0.798) and Zn (adjusted r2=0.859). Uptake of K, Ca and Mg by the plants...... at intervals by displacement with water. The cumulative additions of small amounts of fertilizers were made equal to the plants' requirements at the final harvest but were found to exceed them during most of the experiment. Excess fertilizers caused substantial increases of major (K, Ca, Mg) and heavy...

  9. Explant age, auxin concentrations and media type affect callus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of explant age of oil palm (Elaeis huineensis) embryo axes, 15 and 18 weeks after anthesis (WAA), media type (Eeuwens and Murashige and Skoog) supplemented with various concentrations of 2,4-D on callus production employing standard in vitro techniques were investigated. The results of the study showed ...

  10. Evaluation the concentration of mercury, zinc, arsenic, lead and cobalt in the Ilam city water supply network and resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Yazdanbakhsh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of heavy metals in water resources above threshold levels can be toxic and carcinogenic for consumers. This study determined the concentrations of heavy metals in the drinking water distribution network and resources of the city of Ilam in Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study from 6 sources of water supply and also, different parts of the water supply system of Ilam city, samples were collected based on standard sampling methods. The samples were tested with a BRAIC atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data was analyzed using nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Results: The concentration of zinc in all water sources of the city of Ilam was higher than WHO guidelines and Iranian standard 1053. Contamination by cobalt, arsenic and lead from Ilam dam, Pich-e Ashoori well and Haft Cheshmeh well was higher than national and international standards. The amount of cobalt and mercury at Ilam dam was significantly different from the levels at other sources (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The use of pesticides in the agricultural sector, contamination of water by human waste and aged and worn water pipes are the likely sources of the increased concentrations of heavy metals, especially lead and arsenic. Because there is a cumulative effect from these metals, appropriate measures are necessary by the relevant agencies to address this problem.

  11. Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in aquatic food chains from the Upper Sacramento River (California) and selected tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, M.K.; Castleberry, D. T.; May, T. W.; Martin, B.A.; Bullard, F. N.

    1995-01-01

    Metals enter the Upper Sacramento River above Redding, California, primarily through Spring Creek, a tributary that receives acid-mine drainage from a US EPA Superfund site known locally as Iron Mountain Mine. Waterweed (Elodea canadensis) and aquatic insects (midge larvae, Chironomidae; and mayfly nymphs, Ephemeroptera) from the Sacramento River downstream from Spring Creek contained much higher concentrations of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) than did similar taxa from nearby reference tributaries not exposed to acid-mine drainage. Aquatic insects from the Sacramento River contained especially high maximum concentrations of Cu (200 mg/kg dry weight in midge larvae), Cd (23 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs), and Zn (1,700 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs). Although not always statistically significant, whole-body concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn in fishes (threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus; Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis; Sacramento squawfish, Ptychocheilus grandis; and chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytasch) from the Sacramento River were generally higher than in fishes from the reference tributaries.

  12. Effect of zinc concentration on the structural and magnetic properties of mixed Co–Zn ferrites nanoparticles synthesized by sol/gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ali, M., E-mail: m.benali06@gmail.com [MAScIR Foundation, Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, Materials & Nanomaterials Center, B.P., 10100 Rabat (Morocco); Laboratory of Magnetism and the Physics of the high Energies, URAC 12, Department of Physics, B.P. 1014, Faculty of Science, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco); El Maalam, K. [MAScIR Foundation, Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, Materials & Nanomaterials Center, B.P., 10100 Rabat (Morocco); Laboratory of Magnetism and the Physics of the high Energies, URAC 12, Department of Physics, B.P. 1014, Faculty of Science, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco); El Moussaoui, H.; Mounkachi, O. [MAScIR Foundation, Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, Materials & Nanomaterials Center, B.P., 10100 Rabat (Morocco); Hamedoun, M., E-mail: m.hamedoun@mascir.com [MAScIR Foundation, Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, Materials & Nanomaterials Center, B.P., 10100 Rabat (Morocco); Masrour, R. [Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cady Ayyed University, National School of Applied Sciences, PB 63 46000, Safi (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF, B.P. 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Benyoussef, A. [MAScIR Foundation, Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, Materials & Nanomaterials Center, B.P., 10100 Rabat (Morocco); Laboratory of Magnetism and the Physics of the high Energies, URAC 12, Department of Physics, B.P. 1014, Faculty of Science, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco)

    2016-01-15

    Synthesization of zinc-substituted cobalt ferrites nano-particles Co{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.0–0.3) has been achieved by the sol/gel method. The characterization of the synthesized nano-particles has been done by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FITR). The relation between the composition and magnetic properties has been investigated by Magnetic Properties Measurement System (MPMS). The results revealed that the nanoparticles size is in the range of 11–28 nm. It was found that the zinc substitution in cobalt ferrite increases saturation magnetization from 60.92 emu/g (x=0) to 74.67 emu/g (x=0.3). Nevertheless, zinc concentrations cause a significant decrease in coercivity.▪ - Highlights: • The nanocrystals size of synthesized of Co{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is of 11–28 nm. • The zinc substitution in cobalt ferrite increase saturation magnetization. • The increase of zinc concentration causes a significant decrease in coercivity.

  13. The effects of air pollution and smoking on placental cadmium, zinc concentration and metallothionein expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorkun, Hulya Cetin; Bir, Ferda; Akbulut, Metin; Divrikli, Umit; Erken, Gulten; Demirhan, Huriye; Duzcan, Ender; Elci, Latif; Celik, Ismail; Yozgatli, Unsal

    2007-01-01

    This study is designed to determine the placental zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) levels in mothers who were smokers, mothers who were thought to be exposed to air pollution, and mothers who were non-smokers and to investigate the relationship between the expression of placental metallothionein (MT) binding these metals and blood progesterone level. Placental Zn and Cd levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Presence of placental MT was determined immunohistochemically. Placental changes were examined by light microscope after H and E and PAS staining. Immunohistochemical MT staining of syncytiotrophoblastic and villous interstitial cells were scored as positive or negative. Among the 92 mothers included in the study, 33 were smokers (Group I), 29 had been exposed to air pollution (Group II) and 30 were non-smoker rural residents who had never been exposed to air pollution (Group III). Mean off-spring birth weight of 3198.62 ± 380.01 g and mean placenta weight of 561.38 ± 111.55 g of Group II were lower when compared with those of other two groups. In Group I, mean placental Cd and Zn were 0.063 ± 0.022 μg/g and 39.84 ± 15.5 μg/g, respectively, being higher than in other groups. In Group II, mean placental Cd and Zn levels were higher than those of Group III. Blood progesterone levels of subjects in Group I (121 ng/ml) were the lowest of all groups. While the mean count of villi was the highest in Group III; the highest mean count of syncytial knots was in Group II. Thickening of vasculo-syncytial membrane was most prominent in Group I. Similarly, MT staining was positive and very dense in 72.7% (24/33) of cases in Group I (p ≤ 0.05). MT staining was positive in 69.0% (29/20) and denser in Group II cases compared to 36% (11/30) in Group III (p ≤ 0.05). This study showed that smoking increased Cd levels in placenta and accompanied an increase in placental MT expression immunohistochemically. The effects of exposure to air pollution are equally

  14. Analysis of Blood Concentrations of Zinc, Germanium, and Lead and Relevant Environmental Factors in a Population Sample from Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements, including zinc (Zn and germanium (Ge, are essential for health; deficiency or excess levels of trace elements results is harmful. As a result of industrial and agricultural production, Pb widely exists in people’s living environment. It is absorbed mainly through the respiratory and digestive tracts, producing systemic harm. Reference values for a normal, healthy population are necessary for health assessment, prevention and treatment of related diseases, and evaluation of occupational exposures. Reference ranges for the Chinese population have not been established. From March 2009 to February 2010; we collected data and blood samples (n = 1302 from residents aged 6–60 years living in Shandong Province, China. We measured blood concentrations of Zn, Ge, and Pb using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine reference ranges. Results were stratified by factors likely to affect the concentrations of these trace elements: sex, use of cosmetics or hair dye, age, alcohol intake, smoking habits, and consumption of fried food. The overall geometric mean (GM concentrations (95% confidence interval were 3.14 (3.08–3.20 mg/L for Zn, 19.9 (19.3–20.6 μg/L for Ge, and 24.1 (23.2–25.1 μg/L for Pb. Blood Zn concentrations were higher in women than in men (p < 0.001, while the opposite was found for Pb (p < 0.001 and sex did not influence Ge (p = 0.095. Alcohol use was associated with higher blood concentrations of Zn (p = 0.002, Ge (p = 0.002, and Pb (p = 0.001. The GM concentration of Zn was highest in 20–30-year-olds (p < 0.001, while Pb concentrations were highest in 12–16-year-olds (p < 0.001. Use of hair dye was associated with lower blood concentrations of Ge (p < 0.05. GM blood concentrations of Pb differed significantly between those who consumed fried foods 1–2 times/month (18.7 μg/L, 1–2 times/week (20.9 μg/L, and every day (28.5 μg/L; p < 0.001. Blood Pb concentrations were higher in subjects

  15. Zinc affects differently growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and phytochelatin synthase expression of four marine diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Deroche, Thi Le Nhung; Caruso, Aurore; Le, Thi Trung; Bui, Trang Viet; Schoefs, Benoît; Tremblin, Gérard; Morant-Manceau, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Zinc-supplementation (20 μM) effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase), and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa). Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses.

  16. Zinc Affects Differently Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Phytochelatin Synthase Expression of Four Marine Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Le Nhung Nguyen-Deroche

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc-supplementation (20 μM effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa. Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses.

  17. Indices to screen for grain yield and grain-zinc mass concentrations in aerobic rice at different soil-Zn levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.; Zhao, M.; Keulen, van H.; Fan, T.Q.; Stomph, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    Zinc is an important micronutrient for both crop growth and human nutrition. In rice production, yields are often reduced and Zn mass concentrations in the grains are often low when Zn is in short supply to the crop. This may result in malnutrition of people dependent on a rice-based diet. Plant

  18. [Advances in the research of zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation treatment in patients with severe burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X X; Zhang, M J; Li, X B

    2018-01-20

    Zinc is one of the essential trace elements in human body, which plays an important role in regulating acute inflammatory response, glucose metabolism, anti-oxidation, immune and gastrointestinal function of patients with severe burns. Patients with severe burns may suffer from zinc deficiency because of insufficient amount of zinc intake from the diet and a large amount of zinc lose through wounds and urine. Zinc deficiency may affect their wound healing process and prognosis. This article reviews the characteristics of zinc metabolism in patients with severe burns through dynamic monitoring the plasma and urinary concentration of zinc. An adequate dosage of zinc supplemented to patients with severe burns by an appropriate method can increase the level of zinc in plasma and skin tissue and improve wound healing, as well as reduce the infection rates and mortality. At the same time, it is important to observe the symptoms and signs of nausea, dizziness, leukopenia and arrhythmia in patients with severe burns after supplementing excessive zinc.

  19. Lead and zinc concentrations in plasma, erythrocytes, and urine in relation to ALA-D activity after intravenous infusion of Ca-EDTA.

    OpenAIRE

    Ishihara, N; Shiojima, S; Hasegawa, K

    1984-01-01

    Lead and zinc concentrations in plasma, erythrocytes, and urine, urinary ALA concentration, and ALA-D activity in blood were studied for four hours in two male lead workers during and after a one hour infusion of Ca-EDTA 2Na. Urinary and plasma lead concentrations increased as a result of administering Ca-EDTA 2Na, and the ratios of lead concentrations in plasma to those in urine were greatly increased. The increase of plasma lead concentration was not due to the haemolytic effect of Ca-EDTA ...

  20. Factors affecting yearly variations of indoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steck, D.J.; Baynes, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Since indoor radon exposures take place over many years while radon measurement periods are shorter, we are studying the yearly variation of indoor radon concentrations in approximately 100 houses located throughout Minnesota. Most houses were initially measured for one or more years in the late 1980's and for 5 consecutive years starting in 1990. Two houses have been monitored for 12 y. Each year, two alpha track detectors were placed on the two lowest livable levels. The year-to-year variations averaged about 35% (corrected for instrumental uncertainties) in both basements and first floors. The minimum observed variation was 5% and the maximum was 130%. Some homes have shown substantial variation associated with Structural modifications. While most homes show no obvious systematic trends, a few houses have shown temporal trends that may be associated with aging or climate. We are studying possible correlation between year-to-year radon variation, climatic variables (yearly-average and seasonal such as heating/cooling degree days, precipitation, soil moisture), and structural changes

  1. Zinc in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiilerich, S.

    1987-01-01

    The zinc ion is essential for the living organism. Many pathological conditions have been described as a consequence of zinc deficiency. As zinc constitutes less than 0.01 per cent of the body weight, it conventionally belongs to the group of trace elements. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry is used to measure the concentration of zinc in serum and urine from healthy persons. The assumptions of the method is discussed. The importance of proteinbinding, diet and the diurnal variation of serum zinc concentration is presented. Serum versus plasma zinc concentration is discussed. Reference serum zinc values from 104 normal subjects are given. Zinc in serum is almost entirely bound to proteins. A preliminary model for the estimation of the distribution of zinc between serum albumin and α 2 -macroglobulin is set up. This estimate has been examined by an ultracentrufugation method. The binding of zinc to a α 2 -macroglobulin in normal persons is appoximately 7 per cent, in patients with cirrhosis of the liver of alcoholic origin approximately 6 per cent, in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus approximately 5 per cent, and in patients with chronic renal failure approximately 2 per cent. It is concluded, therefore, that for clinical purposes it is sufficient to use the concentration of total serum zinc corrected for the concentration of serum albumin. (author)

  2. Zinc movement in the brain under kainate-induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Hirate, Maki; Tamano, Haruna; Oku, Naoto

    2003-05-01

    On the basis of the evidence that elimination of 65Zn from the brain of epilepsy (EL) mice is facilitated by induction of seizures, zinc movement in the brain was studied in mice injected with kainate (12 mg/kg x 3), which exhibited status epilepticus within 120 min after the last injection of kainate. Zinc concentrations in the brain were determined 24 h after the last injection of kainate. Zinc concentrations in the hippocampus, amygdala and cerebral cortex, in which zinc-containing glutamatergic neuron terminals exist, were significantly decreased by the treatment with kainate, while that in the cerebellum was not decreased. Timm's stain in the brain was extensively attenuated 24 h after the last injection of kainate. These results indicate that zinc homeostasis in the brain is affected by kainate-induced seizures. In the hippocampus of rats injected with kainate (10 mg/kg), furthermore, the release of zinc and glutamate into the extracellular fluid was studied using in vivo microdialysis. The levels of zinc and glutamate in the perfusate were increased along with seizure severity after injection of kainate. It is likely that zinc concentration in the synaptic vesicles is decreased by the excess excitation of glutamatergic neurons. The present study suggests that the excessive release of zinc and glutamate from the neuron terminals under kainate-induced seizures is associated with the loss of zinc from the brain.

  3. Concentric resistance training increases muscle strength without affecting microcirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Marc-Andre; Hildebrandt, Wulf; Schroeder, Leif; Kinscherf, Ralf; Krix, Martin; Bachert, Peter; Delorme, Stefan; Essig, Marco; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Krakowski-Roosen, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: While the evidence is conclusive regarding the positive effects of endurance training, there is still some controversy regarding the effects of resistance training on muscular capillarity. Thus, the purpose was to assess whether resistance strength training influences resting skeletal muscle microcirculation in vivo. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine middle-aged subjects (15 female, 24 male; mean age, 54 ± 9 years) were trained twice a week on an isokinetic system (altogether 16 sessions lasting 50 min, intensity 75% of maximum isokinetic and isometric force of knee flexors and extensors). To evaluate success of training, cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris muscle and its isokinetic and isometric force were quantified. Muscular capillarization was measured in biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle. In vivo, muscular energy and lipid metabolites were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and parameters of muscular microcirculation, such as local blood volume, blood flow and velocity, by contrast-enhanced ultrasound analyzing replenishment kinetics. Results: The significant (P 2 after training) and in absolute muscle strength (isometric, 146 ± 44 vs. 174 ± 50 Nm; isokinetic, 151 ± 53 vs. 174 ± 62 Nm) demonstrated successful training. Neither capillary density ex vivo (351 ± 75 vs. 326 ± 62) nor ultrasonographic parameters of resting muscle perfusion were significantly different (blood flow, 1.2 ± 1.2 vs. 1.1 ± 1.1 ml/min/100 g; blood flow velocity, 0.49 ± 0.44 vs. 0.52 ± 0.74 mm s -1 ). Also, the intensities of high-energy phosphates phosphocreatine and β-adenosintriphosphate were not different after training within the skeletal muscle at rest (β-ATP/phosphocreatine, 0.29 ± 0.06 vs. 0.28 ± 0.04). Conclusion: The significant increase in muscle size and strength in response to concentric isokinetic and isometric resistance training occurs without an increase in the in vivo microcirculation of the skeletal muscles at

  4. Concentric resistance training increases muscle strength without affecting microcirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Marc-Andre [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: MarcAndre.Weber@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Hildebrandt, Wulf [Immunochemistry, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Schroeder, Leif [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Kinscherf, Ralf [Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Krix, Martin [Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Bachert, Peter [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, Stefan; Essig, Marco [Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Krakowski-Roosen, Holger [National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: While the evidence is conclusive regarding the positive effects of endurance training, there is still some controversy regarding the effects of resistance training on muscular capillarity. Thus, the purpose was to assess whether resistance strength training influences resting skeletal muscle microcirculation in vivo. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine middle-aged subjects (15 female, 24 male; mean age, 54 {+-} 9 years) were trained twice a week on an isokinetic system (altogether 16 sessions lasting 50 min, intensity 75% of maximum isokinetic and isometric force of knee flexors and extensors). To evaluate success of training, cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris muscle and its isokinetic and isometric force were quantified. Muscular capillarization was measured in biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle. In vivo, muscular energy and lipid metabolites were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and parameters of muscular microcirculation, such as local blood volume, blood flow and velocity, by contrast-enhanced ultrasound analyzing replenishment kinetics. Results: The significant (P < 0.001) increase in CSA (60 {+-} 16 before vs. 64 {+-} 15 cm{sup 2} after training) and in absolute muscle strength (isometric, 146 {+-} 44 vs. 174 {+-} 50 Nm; isokinetic, 151 {+-} 53 vs. 174 {+-} 62 Nm) demonstrated successful training. Neither capillary density ex vivo (351 {+-} 75 vs. 326 {+-} 62) nor ultrasonographic parameters of resting muscle perfusion were significantly different (blood flow, 1.2 {+-} 1.2 vs. 1.1 {+-} 1.1 ml/min/100 g; blood flow velocity, 0.49 {+-} 0.44 vs. 0.52 {+-} 0.74 mm s{sup -1}). Also, the intensities of high-energy phosphates phosphocreatine and {beta}-adenosintriphosphate were not different after training within the skeletal muscle at rest ({beta}-ATP/phosphocreatine, 0.29 {+-} 0.06 vs. 0.28 {+-} 0.04). Conclusion: The significant increase in muscle size and strength in response to concentric isokinetic and isometric

  5. Associations between Dietary Iron and Zinc Intakes, and between Biochemical Iron and Zinc Status in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are found in similar foods and absorption of both may be affected by food compounds, thus biochemical iron and zinc status may be related. This cross-sectional study aimed to: (1 describe dietary intakes and biochemical status of iron and zinc; (2 investigate associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes; and (3 investigate associations between biochemical iron and zinc status in a sample of premenopausal women aged 18–50 years who were recruited in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a 154-item food frequency questionnaire (n = 379. Iron status was assessed using serum ferritin and hemoglobin, zinc status using serum zinc (standardized to 08:00 collection, and presence of infection/inflammation using C-reactive protein (n = 326. Associations were explored using multiple regression and logistic regression. Mean (SD iron and zinc intakes were 10.5 (3.5 mg/day and 9.3 (3.8 mg/day, respectively. Median (interquartile range serum ferritin was 22 (12–38 μg/L and mean serum zinc concentrations (SD were 12.6 (1.7 μmol/L in fasting samples and 11.8 (2.0 μmol/L in nonfasting samples. For each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron intake, zinc intake increased by 0.4 mg/day. Each 1 μmol/L increase in serum zinc corresponded to a 6% increase in serum ferritin, however women with low serum zinc concentration (AM fasting < 10.7 μmol/L; AM nonfasting < 10.1 μmol/L were not at increased risk of depleted iron stores (serum ferritin <15 μg/L; p = 0.340. Positive associations were observed between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between iron and zinc status, however interpreting serum ferritin concentrations was not a useful proxy for estimating the likelihood of low serum zinc concentrations and women with depleted iron stores were not at increased risk of impaired zinc status in this cohort.

  6. KINETIC BEHAVIOR OF SOME AZO DYES DECOLORIZATION BY VARIATION OF ZINC OXIDE AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace J. C. da Silva

    Full Text Available The decolorization of three monoazo dyes (acid orange 7, direct orange 34, and methyl orange, one diazo dye (direct yellow 86 and one tetraazo dye (direct red 80 were mediated by n-type semiconductors as ZnO and TiO2 under pseudo-first order conditions at 30 ºC. The decolorization rate constants of these azo dyes were determined, varying the semiconductor concentration for the majority of them from 1.0 to 10.0 g L-1. In general, the highest rate constants were displayed for ZnO. This work elucidates that the decolorization capacity depends on the charge, structure, and adsorption of the azo dye on the semiconductor surface as well as the agglomeration of the photocatalyst particles.

  7. Interdependence of free zinc changes and protein complex assembly - insights into zinc signal regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyła, Anna; Adamczyk, Justyna; Krężel, Artur

    2018-01-24

    Cellular zinc (Zn(ii)) is bound with proteins that are part of the proteomes of all domains of life. It is mostly utilized as a catalytic or structural protein cofactor, which results in a vast number of binding architectures. The Zn(ii) ion is also important for the formation of transient protein complexes with a Zn(ii)-dependent quaternary structure that is formed upon cellular zinc signals. The mechanisms by which proteins associate with and dissociate from Zn(ii) and the connection with cellular Zn(ii) changes remain incompletely understood. In this study, we aimed to examine how zinc protein domains with various Zn(ii)-binding architectures are formed under free Zn(ii) concentration changes and how formation of the Zn(ii)-dependent assemblies is related to the protein concentration and reactivity. To accomplish these goals we chose four zinc domains with different Zn(ii)-to-protein binding stoichiometries: classical zinc finger (ZnP), LIM domain (Zn 2 P), zinc hook (ZnP 2 ) and zinc clasp (ZnP 1 P 2 ) folds. Our research demonstrated a lack of changes in the saturation level of intraprotein zinc binding sites, despite various peptide concentrations, while homo- and heterodimers indicated a concentration-dependent tendency. In other words, at a certain free Zn(ii) concentration, the fraction of a formed dimeric complex increases or decreases with subunit concentration changes. Secondly, even small or local changes in free Zn(ii) may significantly affect protein saturation depending on its architecture, function and subcellular concentration. In our paper, we indicate the importance of interdependence of free Zn(ii) availability and protein subunit concentrations for cellular zinc signal regulation.

  8. Thermo-physical and structural studies of sodium zinc borovanadate glasses in the region of high concentration of modifier oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chethana, B.K. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Reddy, C. Narayana [Maharani' s Science College for Women, Bangalore 560 001 (India); Rao, K.J., E-mail: kalyajrao@yahoo.co.in [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: ► Highly modified sodium zinc borovanadate glasses. ► Structural model for borovanadate glasses. ► Network forming tendency of ZnO in borovanadate glasses. ► Fragility can be limited to NBO concentration in borovanadate glasses. -- Abstract: This paper reports investigation of Na{sub 2}O and ZnO modified borovanadate glasses in the highly modified regime of compositions. These glasses have been prepared by microwave route. Ultraviolet (UV) and visible, infrared (IR), Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopies have been used to characterize the speciation in the glasses. Together with the variation of properties such as molar volume and glass transition temperatures, spectroscopic data indicate that at high levels of modification, ZnO tends to behave like network former. It is proposed that the observed variation of all the properties can be reasonably well understood with a structural model. The model considers that the modification and speciation in glasses are strongly determined by the hierarchy of group electronegativities. Further, it is proposed that the width of the transitions of glasses obtained under same condition reflects the fragility of the glasses. An empirical expression has been suggested to quantify fragility on the basis of width of the transition regions.

  9. Effects of Iron Concentration Level in Extracting Solutions from Contaminated Soils on the Determination of Zinc by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Two Background Correctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Waterlot

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc and iron concentrations were determined after digestion, water, and three-step sequential extractions of contaminated soils. Analyses were carried out using flame absorption spectrometry with two background correctors: a deuterium lamp used as the continuum light source (D2 method and the high-speed self-reversal method (HSSR method. Regarding the preliminary results obtained with synthetic solutions, the D2 method often emerged as an unsuitable configuration for compensating iron spectral interferences. In contrast, the HSSR method appeared as a convenient and powerful configuration and was tested for the determination of zinc in contaminated soils containing high amounts of iron. Simple, fast, and interference-free method, the HSSR method allows zinc determination at the ppb level in the presence of large amounts of iron with high stability, sensitivity, and reproducibility of results. Therefore, the HSSR method is described here as a promising approach for monitoring zinc concentrations in various iron-containing samples without any pretreatment.

  10. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Dopamine elevates intracellular zinc concentration in cultured rat embryonic cortical neurons through the cAMP-nitric oxide signaling cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hui-Hsing; Kao, Lung-Sen; Liu, Pei-Shan; Huang, Chien-Chang; Yang, De-Ming; Pan, Chien-Yuan

    2017-07-01

    Zinc ion (Zn 2+ ), the second most abundant transition metal after iron in the body, is essential for neuronal activity and also induces toxicity if the concentration is abnormally high. Our previous results show that exposure of cultured cortical neurons to dopamine elevates intracellular Zn 2+ concentrations ([Zn 2+ ] i ) and induces autophagosome formation but the mechanism is not clear. In this study, we characterized the signaling pathway responsible for the dopamine-induced elevation of [Zn 2+ ] i and the effect of [Zn 2+ ] i in modulating the autophagy in cultured rat embryonic cortical neurons. N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), a membrane-permeable Zn 2+ chelator, could rescue the cell death and suppress the autophagosome puncta number induced by dopamine. Dopamine treatment increased the lipidation level of the endogenous microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3 II), an autophagosome marker. TPEN added 1h before, but not after, dopamine treatment suppressed the dopamine-induced elevation of LC3 II level. Inhibitors of the dopamine D1-like receptor, protein kinase A (PKA), and NOS suppressed the dopamine-induced elevation of [Zn 2+ ] i . PKA activators and NO generators directly increased [Zn 2+ ] i in cultured neurons. Through cell fractionation, proteins with m.w. values between 5 and 10kD were found to release Zn 2+ following NO stimulation. In addition, TPEN pretreatment and an inhibitor against PKA could suppress the LC3 II level increased by NO and dopamine, respectively. Therefore, our results demonstrate that dopamine-induced elevation of [Zn 2+ ] i is mediated by the D1-like receptor-PKA-NO pathway and is important in modulating the cell death and autophagy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Zinc transporter 7 deficiency affects lipid synthesis in adipocytes by inhibiting insulin-dependent Akt activity and glucose uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mice deficient for zinc transporter 7 (Znt7) are mildly zinc deficient, accompanied with low body weight gain and body fat accumulation. To investigate the underlying mechanism of Znt7 deficiency in body adiposity, we investigated fatty acid composition and insulin sensitivity in visceral (epididyma...

  13. Metamorphosis Affects Metal Concentrations and Isotopic Signatures in a Mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus): Implications for the Aquatic-Terrestrial Transfer of Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesner, Jeff S; Walters, David M; Schmidt, Travis S; Kraus, Johanna M; Stricker, Craig A; Clements, William H; Wolf, Ruth E

    2017-02-21

    Insect metamorphosis often results in substantial chemical changes that can alter contaminant concentrations and fractionate isotopes. We exposed larval mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus) and their food (periphyton) to an aqueous zinc gradient (3-340 μg Zn/l) and measured zinc concentrations at different stages of metamorphosis: larval, subimago, and imago. We also measured changes in stable isotopes (δ 15 N and δ 13 C) in unexposed mayflies. Larval zinc concentrations were positively related to aqueous zinc, increasing 9-fold across the exposure gradient. Adult zinc concentrations were also positively related to aqueous zinc, but were 7-fold lower than larvae. This relationship varied according to adult substage and sex. Tissue concentrations in female imagoes were not related to exposure concentrations, but the converse was true for all other stage-by-sex combinations. Metamorphosis also increased δ 15 N by ∼0.8‰, but not δ 13 C. Thus, the main effects of metamorphosis on insect chemistry were large declines in zinc concentrations coupled with increased δ 15 N signatures. For zinc, this change was largely consistent across the aqueous exposure gradient. However, differences among sexes and stages suggest that caution is warranted when using nitrogen isotopes or metal concentrations measured in one insect stage (e.g., larvae) to assess risk to wildlife that feed on subsequent life stages (e.g., adults).

  14. Zinc at glutamatergic synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, P; Vergnano, A M; Barbour, B; Casado, M

    2009-01-12

    It has long been known that the mammalian forebrain contains a subset of glutamatergic neurons that sequester zinc in their synaptic vesicles. This zinc may be released into the synaptic cleft upon neuronal activity. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate receptors and transporters. Among these targets, NMDA receptors appear particularly interesting because certain NMDA receptor subtypes (those containing the NR2A subunit) contain allosteric sites exquisitely sensitive to extracellular zinc. The existence of these high-affinity zinc binding sites raises the possibility that zinc may act both in a phasic and tonic mode. Changes in zinc concentration and subcellular zinc distribution have also been described in several pathological conditions linked to glutamatergic transmission dysfunctions. However, despite intense investigation, the functional significance of vesicular zinc remains largely a mystery. In this review, we present the anatomy and the physiology of the glutamatergic zinc-containing synapse. Particular emphasis is put on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the putative roles of zinc as a messenger involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also highlight the many controversial issues and unanswered questions. Finally, we present and compare two widely used zinc chelators, CaEDTA and tricine, and show why tricine should be preferred to CaEDTA when studying fast transient zinc elevations as may occur during synaptic activity.

  15. The influence of selenium and zinc addition in food on concentration of these elements in blood and milk, on somatic cells number and histological characteristics of cows udders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidov Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment included 30 cows of Holstein-Friesian breed, out of which 15 were receiving selenium and zinc in optimal doses before calving, while the others had never been supplemented with these micronutrients. There was analysed the concentration of selenium and zinc in blood and milk serum as well as the average number of somatic cells in corresponding lactation. After the cows exclusion from production, histological characteristics of cows udders were examined. The results of the investigation have shown that addition of selenium and zinc before calving has a positive effect on the values of these microelements in the blood and milk during the period of early lactation, that is, the concentration of these elements was significantly higher in the blood and milk of the cows that obtained selenium and zinc supplements. Also, in these cows there was significantly lower number of somatic cells during the following lacation period. In the parenchyma of the udder there was found less pronounced infiltration of leukocytes, notably thicker keratin layer of ductus papillaris and less expressed repairing processes that indicate a chronic inflammation of the udder in the samples after exclusion of the cows from production. There was a significant positive correlation between selenium in blood and milk, while there was not observed such a correlation for zinc. On the other hand, there was a significant negative correlation between the concentration of selenium in the blood and milk with the average number of somatic cells and the degree of infiltration of leukocytes, while its influence on the keratin layer of ductus papillarus was not shown. Zinc from blood and udder had a negative correlation with the number of somatic cells, had a positive correlation with the thickness of ductus papillaris keratin layer and had no influence on the level of leukocyte infiltration of udder parenchyma. Zinc demonstrates a positive influence on the formation of ductus

  16. Zinc dosing and glucose tolerance in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenley, S.; Taylor, M.

    1986-01-01

    Animal data suggest the existence of a physiologic relationship between glucoregulatory hormones and zinc metabolism. In order to investigate this proposed relationship in humans, they examined the effect of moderately elevated plasma zinc levels on blood glucose clearance. Eight women (24-37 yrs) served as subjects for the study. Fasted volunteers were tested under two experimental conditions (a) ingestion of 50 g D-glucose (b) ingestion of 25 mg zinc followed 60 min later by ingestion of 50 g D-glucose. Five ml venous blood was drawn into trace-metal-free, fluoride-containing vacutainer tubes prior to and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after glucose ingestion. Plasma was analyzed for glucose and zinc; glycemic responses were quantified by computing areas under the curves and times to peak concentration. Their human data indicate varied glycemic responses to the acute elevation of plasma zinc: 4 subjects showed little apparent effect; 3 subjects marginally increased either the area under the curve or time to peak and 1 subject (classified as suspect diabetic in the non-zinc condition) showed marked improvement in glycemic response following zinc ingestion. Their preliminary results suggest that blood glucose clearance may be affected in some individuals by the acute elevation of plasma zinc

  17. Self-diffusion of zinc in Egyptian soils as affected by chelating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massoud, M.A.; El-Nennah, M.E.; El-Kholi, A.F.; Gad-Allah, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Haematological data are, on the average, greater in normal juvenile than in adult fish. No significant difference in such haematological data have been recorded between adult males and females. Total-body gamma irradiation at the dose levels of 100, 200 and 400 rad caused in juvenile fish, decreased haematological data. The decrease was more intensive after the higher radiation dose. In adult fish, such decrease in haematological data was not well pronounced. However, males, on the average, were slightly more affected than females. The creatinine level in blood was, on the average, slightly higher in adult than in juvenile animals. In adult fish, however, the males showed slightly higher level than did the females. Total-body gamma irradiation at the tested dose levels, did not show significant changes in blood creatinine level apart from a slight rise recorded in the blood of adult males after the higher dose of 400 rad. (author)

  18. Zinc oxide nanoparticles affect carbon and nitrogen mineralization of Phoenix dactylifera leaf litter in a sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Shahzad, Tanvir; Shahid, Muhammad; Ismail, Iqbal M I; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Almeelbi, Talal

    2017-02-15

    We investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs; 1000mgkg -1 soil) on soil microbes and their associated soil functions such as date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) leaf litter (5gkg -1 soil) carbon and nitrogen mineralization in mesocosms containing sandy soil. Nanoparticles application in litter-amended soil significantly decreased the cultivable heterotrophic bacterial and fungal colony forming units (cfu) compared to only litter-amended soil. The decrease in cfu could be related to lower microbial biomass carbon in nanoparticles-litter amended soil. Likewise, ZnO NPs also reduced CO 2 emission by 10% in aforementioned treatment but this was higher than control (soil only). Labile Zn was only detected in the microbial biomass of nanoparticles-litter applied soil indicating that microorganisms consumed this element from freely available nutrients in the soil. In this treatment, dissolved organic carbon and mineral nitrogen were 25 and 34% lower respectively compared to litter-amended soil. Such toxic effects of nanoparticles on litter decomposition resulted in 130 and 122% lower carbon and nitrogen mineralization efficiency respectively. Hence, our results entail that ZnO NPs are toxic to soil microbes and affect their function i.e., carbon and nitrogen mineralization of applied litter thus confirming their toxicity to microbial associated soil functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term dispersal of heavy metals in a catchment affected by historic lead and zinc mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciszewski, Dariusz; Kubsik, Urszula; Aleksander-Kwaterczak, Urszula [AGH Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland)

    2012-10-15

    The Matylda catchment, in southern Poland, was polluted by the discharge of mine waters from a lead and zinc mine that inundated parts of a valley floor and caused the accumulation of metal-polluted sediments. After a partial reclamation of the mine site in the early 1980s, polluted sediments continue to accumulate on downstream floodplains and in fishponds. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the changes in metal dispersal during 100 years of mining and during the 40-year post-mining period and to propose a strategy for pollution mitigation in the area. Analyses of Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn, Ca, Mg and Fe concentrations, speciation of heavy metals and mineralogical analyses were undertaken on overbank sediment cores and in stream sediments. Concentrations of the same elements and macro-ions soluble in stream waters were also determined. Concentrations of Zn, Cd and Pb in the sediment profiles vary between 40,000 and 55,000, 300 and 600 and 30,000 and 50,000 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. Changes of metal concentrations and the stratigraphy of sediments from the floodplains, stream channels and fishponds suggest rapid changes of metal loads migrating downstream during both the mining and post-mining periods. Since the time of mine closure, fine-grained, mine-derived sediments (ca. 12 cm thick) have been the main source of pollution of post-mining sediments and surface waters. Closure of the mine was followed by a relatively short period of rapid redistribution of sediment-associated heavy metals in the stream channel. Since the 1980s, the floodplain and fishponds have received a constant supply of metals. It contrasts with the slow sediment accretion rate and a rapid decrease of metal concentrations in floodplain pools due to dilution by decomposed leaf litter. A fivefold increase of Cd content in waters over the 4.6 km reach of the Matylda stream indicates continuous leaching of this element from the contaminated valley floor. Unsuccessful mine site rehabilitation is

  20. Effects of Different Metals on Photosynthesis: Cadmium and Zinc Affect Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momchil Paunov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the effects of exposure to high Cd2+ (50 µM and excess Zn2+ (600 µM on photosynthetic performance of hydroponically-grown durum wheat seedlings was performed. At day 8, Cd and Zn were added to the nutrient solution. After 7-days exposure, the chosen concentrations of both metals resulted in similar relative growth rate (RGR inhibitions of about 50% and comparable retardations of the CO2 assimilation rates (about 30% in the second developed leaf of wheat seedlings. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence indicated that both metals disturbed photosynthetic electron transport processes which led to a 4- to 5-fold suppression of the efficiency of energy transformation in Photosystem II. Non-specific toxic effects of Cd and Zn, which prevailed, were an inactivation of part of Photosystem II reaction centres and their transformation into excitation quenching forms as well as disturbed electron transport in the oxygen-evolving complex. The specificity of the Cd and Zn modes of action was mainly expressed in the intensity of the toxicity effects: despite the similar inhibitions of the CO2 assimilation rates, the wheat photochemistry showed much more sensitivity to Cd than to Zn exposure.

  1. Gene expression profiling of a Zn-tolerant and a Zn-sensitive Suillus luteus isolate exposed to increased external zinc concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    MULLER, Ludo; Craciun, A. R.; RUYTINX, Joske; LAMBAERTS, Marc; Verbruggen, N.; VANGRONSVELD, Jaco; COLPAERT, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Complementary DNA (cDNA)-amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) was applied to analyze transcript profiles of a Zn-tolerant and a Zn-sensitive isolate of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Suillus luteus, both cultured with and without increased external zinc concentrations. From the obtained transcript profiles that covered approximately 2% of the total expected complement of genes in S. luteus, 144 nonredundant, differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), falling in ...

  2. Interaction of Salmonella Gallinarum infection and zinc metabolism in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments to be reported was to determine whether or not the response of zinc metabolism to infection in chicks was similar to that reported for mammals and to determine the effect of maintaining serum zinc at normal levels in infected animals on the outcome of infection as determined by mortality. Within 48 hours after administration of the organism serum zinc concentrations declined to ca. half of the control value. The serum zinc concentrations remained depressed throughout the experimental infection (12 days). Isotope studies with 65 Zn indicated that the infection had no effect on absorption. The infection resulted in a sequestering of zinc in the liver, the kidney being relatively inert in this system. Fractionation of liver homogenates by column chromatography with Seph. G-75 revealed that the zinc in the livers of the infected animals eluted in a volume characteristic of metallothionein, while that of the control animals was associated with higher molecular weight proteins. Increasing the serum levels of zinc by injecting 200 μg Zn/100 g body weight twice a day for 5 days had no effect on mortality from the infection. They conclude that zinc metabolism in the chick is affected by infection in a manner similar to that reported for mammals and that the decrease in serum zinc concentration per se has no survival value for the chick in this infection

  3. HUBUNGAN ANTARA ZINC SERUM DENGAN STATUS GIZI LANSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitrah Emawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ZINC SERUM AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF ELDERLY PEOPLE.Background: The findings of study that 30% in Bogor and 27% in Jakarta of elderly people were undernourished. Malnutrition may occur due to infection and low food intake. Among elderly people, one of the factors that causes low food intake is affected by impairment of taste sensory and teeth function. The impairment of taste sensory is influenced by zinc status in the body.Objective: To collect food consumption pattem data of zinc rich foods, zinc concentration in serum and to analyze association of zinc concentration and nutritional status.Methods: Research design was cross sectional, and conducted in two sub districts in Bogor city. The respondents were women in 60-75 years of age, no suffering from illnesses and chronically disease. The total respondent was 90 people, and divided into three groups of 30 peoples. Data gathered included respondent identity, physical examination, anthropometry, blood biochemical and zinc dietary consumption.Results: Zinc dietary consumption adequacy of underweight group was only 30% of recommended dietary allowance, while for normal and overweight groups were 40% of dietary allowance. Zinc serum concentration of underweight group (82 ug/dl was not significantly different with normal group (85 ug/dl, however differed significantly (p<0.05 with overweight group (95 ug/dl. Underweight group suffered 40% zinc deficiency, 27% for normal and only 7% for overweight group.Conclusions: Zinc deficiency was more prevalent in underweight group than that of normal and overweight group. [Panel Gizi Makan 2002,25: 26-33.Keywords: zinc serum concentration, zinc dietary consumption, underweight

  4. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data...... on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris...... trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children...

  5. Annual trace-metal load estimates and flow-weighted concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the Spokane River basin, Idaho and Washington, 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Mary M.

    2006-01-01

    Streamflow and trace-metal concentration data collected at 10 locations in the Spokane River basin of northern Idaho and eastern Washington during 1999-2004 were used as input for the U.S. Geological Survey software, LOADEST, to estimate annual loads and mean flow-weighted concentrations of total and dissolved cadmium, lead, and zinc. Cadmium composed less than 1 percent of the total metal load at all stations; lead constituted from 6 to 42 percent of the total load at stations upstream from Coeur d'Alene Lake and from 2 to 4 percent at stations downstream of the lake. Zinc composed more than 90 percent of the total metal load at 6 of the 10 stations examined in this study. Trace-metal loads were lowest at the station on Pine Creek below Amy Gulch, where the mean annual total cadmium load for 1999-2004 was 39 kilograms per year (kg/yr), the mean estimated total lead load was about 1,700 kg/yr, and the mean annual total zinc load was 14,000 kg/yr. The trace-metal loads at stations on North Fork Coeur d'Alene River at Enaville, Ninemile Creek, and Canyon Creek also were relatively low. Trace-metal loads were highest at the station at Coeur d'Alene River near Harrison. The mean annual total cadmium load was 3,400 kg/yr, the mean total lead load was 240,000 kg/yr, and the mean total zinc load was 510,000 kg/yr for 1999-2004. Trace-metal loads at the station at South Fork Coeur d'Alene River near Pinehurst and the three stations on the Spokane River downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake also were relatively high. Differences in metal loads, particularly lead, between stations upstream and downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake likely are due to trapping and retention of metals in lakebed sediments. LOADEST software was used to estimate loads for water years 1999-2001 for many of the same sites discussed in this report. Overall, results from this study and those from a previous study are in good agreement. Observed differences between the two studies are attributable to streamflow

  6. Comparison of the serumic levels of vitamin A, vitamin C and zinc between apparently healthy and those affected by febrile pneumonia in Ghezel sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mashayekhi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between subclinical deficiency of Vit A, Vit C and zinc and ovine pneumonia. This study was conducted on 400 sheep affected by pneumonia and 100 apparently healthy sheep. All animals were from the Ghezel breed with the age of 0.5-2 years and body weight of 35-60 kg. Sampling was done during the summer and autumn in Miandoab province. Patients showing signs of rapid and shallow breathing, dyspnea, coughing, nasal discharge and abnormal lung sound were selected as having pneumonia. Animals without any sign of particular disease were selected as apparently healthy after general examination. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein. The results indicated that serum levels of vitamin A, vitamin C and zinc were 46.94±0.26 (μg/dl, 1.83±0.05 (mg/dl and 183.25±1.86 (μg/dl in healthy sheep respectively and serum levels of vitamin A, vitamin C and zinc were 42.45±0.19 (μg/dl, 1.47±0.02 (mg/dl and 134.59±1.77 (μg/dl in pneumonic sheep (p=0.000 respectively. It can be concluded that there is a significant correlation between subclinical deficiency of vitamin A, vitamin C and zinc serum and ovine pneumonia

  7. A review of phytate, iron, zinc, and calcium concentrations in plant-based complementary foods used in low-income countries and implications for bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rosalind S; Bailey, Karl B; Gibbs, Michelle; Ferguson, Elaine L

    2010-06-01

    Plant-based complementary foods often contain high levels of phytate, a potent inhibitor of iron, zinc, and calcium absorption. This review summarizes the concentrations of phytate (as hexa- and penta-inositol phosphate), iron, zinc, and calcium and the corresponding phytate:mineral molar ratios in 26 indigenous and 27 commercially processed plant-based complementary foods sold in low-income countries. Phytate concentrations were highest in complementary foods based on unrefined cereals and legumes (approximately 600 mg/100 g dry weight), followed by refined cereals (approximately 100 mg/100 g dry weight) and then starchy roots and tubers (source foods and/or fortification with minerals. Dephytinization, either in the household or commercially, can potentially enhance mineral absorption in high-phytate complementary foods, although probably not enough to overcome the shortfalls in iron, zinc, and calcium content of plant-based complementary foods used in low-income countries. Instead, to ensure the World Health Organization estimated needs for these minerals from plant-based complementary foods for breastfed infants are met, dephytinization must be combined with enrichment with animal-source foods and/or fortification with appropriate levels and forms of mineral fortificants.

  8. Influence of ageing on zinc bioavailability in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lock, K.; Janssen, C.R

    2003-12-01

    Currently, soil quality criteria or soil risk assessments of metals are based on laboratory toxicity tests which are carried out in soils freshly spiked with metal salts. With these data, species sensitivity distributions are fitted, from which hazardous concentrations and predicted no effect concentrations are derived. However, due to long-term processes, called ageing, soil metal availability decreases with time. Here we show that pH is the most important parameter determining the effect of ageing on zinc partitioning in soils, with the effect of ageing becoming more important with increasing pH. Furthermore, zinc bioavailability, expressed as the internal zinc concentrations in red clover (Trifolium pratense) is closely related to pore water zinc concentration. In addition, there is a clear dose-response relationship between the survival of the earthworm Eisenia fetida and the calcium chloride-extracted zinc fraction. These results indicate that zinc partitioning can be used to predict zinc bioavailability to terrestrial organisms. However, the use of spiked soils in toxicity assays can result in an over-estimation of the effects of zinc, especially at a high pH. - Zn ageing is affected by pH, while Zn partitioning can be used to predict its bioavailability.

  9. [Effects of Different Modifier Concentrations on Lead-Zinc Tolerance, Subcellular Distribution and Chemical Forms for Four Kinds of Woody Plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-hua; Zhang, Fu-yun; Wu, Xiao-fu; Liang, Xi; Yuan, Si-wen

    2015-10-01

    Four kinds of lead-zinc tolerant woody plants: Nerium oleander, Koelreuteria paniculata, Paulownia and Boehmeria were used as materials to estimate their enrichment and transferable capacity of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) and analyze the subcellular distribution and chemical speciation of Zn and Ph in different parts of plants, under different modifier concentrations (CK group: 100% lead-zinc slag plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved one: 85% of lead-zinc slag ± 10% peat ± 5% bacterial manure plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved two: 75% lead-zinc slag ± 20% peat ± 5% bacterial manure ± a small amount of phosphate). Results showed that: (1) The content of Pb, Zn in matrix after planting four kinds of plants was lower than before, no significant difference between improved one and improved two of Nerium oleander and Boehmeria was found, but improved two was better than improved one of Paulownia, while improved one was better than improved two of Koelreuteria paniculata; Four plants had relatively low aboveground enrichment coefficient of Pb and Zn, but had a high transfer coefficient, showed that the appropriate modifier concentration was able to improve the Pb and Zn enrichment and transfer ability of plants. (2) In subcellular distribution, most of Pb and Zn were distributed in plant cell wall components and soluble components while the distribution in cell organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts and nucleus component were less. Compared with CK group, two improved group made soluble components of the cell walls of Pb fixation and retention of zinc role in the enhancement. (3) As for the chemical forms of Pb and Zn in plants, the main chemical forms of Pb were hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and ethanol extractable forms, while other chemical form contents were few, the main chemical forms of Zn were different based on plant type. Compared with CK group, the proportion of the active Pb chemical form in different plant

  10. Correlation between heavy metal ions (copper, zinc, lead concentrations and root length of Allium cepa L. in polluted river water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Moreno Palacio

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work was performed using the common onion (Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator of toxicity of heavy metals in river water. The test waters were collected at two sampling sites: at the beginning and the end of the Toledo River. The bulbs of A. cepa L. were grown in test water with nine concentration levels of copper, zinc and lead from 0.1 to 50 ppm. In the laboratory, the influence of these test liquids on the root growth was examined during five days. For test liquids containing below 0.03-ppm dissolved Cu the root growth was reduced by 40% However, the same reduction occurred for 1-ppm dissolved Zn. For dissolved Pb, results reveal toxicity above 0.1 and 0.6 ppm at the beginning and the end of the Toledo river water, respectively.O presente trabalho foi realizado utilizando a cebola comum (Allium cepa L. como bioindicador da toxicidade de metais pesados em água de rio. As águas de teste foram coletadas em dois locais: na nascente e na foz do rio Toledo. Os bulbos de A. cepa L. foram cultivados em água de teste com nove níveis de concentração de cobre, zinco e chumbo de 0,1 a 50 ppm. Em laboratório a influência destes líquidos de teste em crescimento de raiz foi examinada durante cinco dias. Em todos os líquidos de teste o metal dissolvido contido foi medido pela técnica TXRF. Para líquidos de teste contendo 0,1-ppm de Cu dissolvido o crescimento da raiz foi reduzido em 50%. Entretanto, ocorreu a mesma redução para 1-ppm de Zn dissolvido. Para Pb dissolvido, o método do Allium teste revela toxidade acima de 0,1 e 0,5 ppm para a nascente e a foz do rio Toledo, respectivamente.

  11. Zinc source and concentration altered physiological responses of beef heifers during a combined viral-bacterial respiratory challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three treatments were evaluated in feedlot heifers to determine the effects of zinc supplementation on the immune response to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory disease challenge. Thirty-two beef heifers (255+/-15 kg) were subjected to a 30d period of Zn depletion, then randomly assigned to one ...

  12. Gene expression profiling of a Zn-tolerant and a Zn-sensitive Suillus luteus isolate exposed to increased external zinc concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, L A H; Craciun, A R; Ruytinx, J; Lambaerts, M; Verbruggen, N; Vangronsveld, J; Colpaert, J V

    2007-10-01

    Complementary DNA (cDNA)-amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) was applied to analyze transcript profiles of a Zn-tolerant and a Zn-sensitive isolate of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Suillus luteus, both cultured with and without increased external zinc concentrations. From the obtained transcript profiles that covered approximately 2% of the total expected complement of genes in S. luteus, 144 nonredundant, differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), falling in different classes of expression pattern, were isolated and sequenced. Thirty-six of the represented genes showed homology to function-known genes, whereas 6 matched unknown protein coding sequences, and 102 were possibly novel. Although relatively few TDFs were found to be responsive to the different zinc treatments, their modulated expression levels may suggest a different transcriptional response to zinc treatments in both isolates. Among the identified genes that could be related to heavy-metal detoxification or the tolerance trait were genes encoding for homologues of a heat-shock protein, a putative metal transporter, a hydrophobin, and several proteins involved in ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis.

  13. Factors affecting the concentration of outdoor particles indoors: Existing data and data needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.; Thatcher, T.L.; Fisk, W.J.; Sextro, R.G.; Sohn, M.D.; Delp, W.W.; Riley, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Accurate characterization of particle concentrations indoors is critical to exposure assessments. It is estimated that indoor particle concentrations depend strongly on outdoor concentrations. For health scientists, knowledge of the factors that control the relationship of indoor particle concentrations to outdoor levels is particularly important. In this paper, we identify and evaluate sources of data for those factors that affect the transport to and concentration of outdoor particles indoors. To achieve this goal, we (i) identify and assemble relevant information on how particle behavior during air leakage, HVAC operation, and particle filtration effects indoor particle concentration; (ii) review and evaluate the assembled information to distinguish data that are directly relevant to specific estimates of particle transport from those that are only indirectly useful; and (iii) provide a synthesis of the currently available information on building air-leakage parameters and their effect on indoor particle matter concentrations

  14. Uptake and partitioning of zinc in Lemnaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahive, Elma; O'Callaghan, Michael J A; Jansen, Marcel A K; O'Halloran, John

    2011-11-01

    Macrophytes provide food and shelter for aquatic invertebrates and fish, while also acting as reservoirs for nutrients and trace elements. Zinc accumulation has been reported for various Lemnaceae species. However, comparative accumulation across species and the link between zinc accumulation and toxicity are poorly understood. Morphological distribution and cellular storage, in either bound or soluble form, are important for zinc tolerance. This study shows differences in the uptake and accumulation of zinc by three duckweed species. Landoltia punctata and Lemna minor generally accumulated more zinc than Lemna gibba. L. minor, but not L. gibba or L. punctata, accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in roots compared to fronds when exposed to high levels of zinc. The proportion of zinc stored in the bound form relative to the soluble-form was higher in L. minor. L. punctata accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in fronds compared to roots and increased the proportion of zinc it stored in the soluble form, when exposed to high zinc levels. L. gibba is the only species that significantly accumulated zinc at low concentrations, and was zinc-sensitive. Overall, internal zinc concentrations showed no consistent correlation with toxic effect. We conclude that relationships between zinc toxicity and uptake and accumulation are species specific reflecting, among others, zinc distribution and storage. Differences in zinc distribution and storage are also likely to have implications for zinc bioavailability and trophic mobility.

  15. Fortification and Elevated Alcohol Concentration Affect the Concentration of Rotundone and Volatiles in Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangzhen Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rotundone is a key aromatic compound for cool-climate Shiraz. This compound is produced in the skin of grape berries and extracted into wine during fermentation. This project investigated the influence of fermentation techniques on the concentration of rotundone in the resultant wine. Wine was fortified with ethanol and sucrose on the 1st and 5th days of fermentation and rotundone, volatile aroma compounds and colour were assessed in the resultant wine. The relationship between the concentration of rotundone and alcoholic strength during fermentation process was also investigated. Wine alcoholic strength and skin–wine contact time were two factors affecting rotundone extraction rate from grapes into wine. Fortification significantly enhanced rotundone extraction rate, and improved wine colour and phenolics and affects the concentration of ethyl acetate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, methyl nonanoate, isopentanol and phenylethyl alcohol in the resultant wine. Understanding how ethanol produced during fermentation can change the extraction of skin-bound aroma compounds and the colour and flavour of wine allows greater control of fermentation parameters to produce quality wine.

  16. Albendazole therapy reduces serum zinc in elementary school children with Ascaris lumbricoides infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Buana

    2016-12-01

    Albendazole treatment produces lower serum zinc concentration in elementary school children with A.lumbricoides infections. A profound understanding of the interaction between helminth infections and zinc may assist in guiding integrated and sustainable intervention strategies among affected children throughout the world.

  17. The concentration of heavy metals: zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandiga, S.O.; Jumba, I.O.

    1982-01-01

    An intercomparative analysis of the concentration of heavy metals:zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people using the techniques of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPAS) has been undertaken. The percent relative standard deviation for each sample analysed using either of the techniques show good sensitivity and correlation between the techniques. The DPAS was found to be slightly sensitive than the AAs instrument used. The recalculated body burden rations of Cd to Zn, Pb to Fe reveal no unusual health impairement symptoms and suggest a relatively clean environment in Kenya.(author)

  18. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the accumulation of cadmium and metallothionein in selected tissues of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of continuous dietary zinc deficiency on the metabolism of the toxic heavy metal cadmium has not been widely studied. This investigation was designed to assess the effects of subadequate dietary zinc intake on the accumulation of dietary cadmium and on metallothionein (MT) and zinc concentrations in target organs of cadmium toxicity. Adult male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were allowed, ad libitum, diets either adequate (60 ppm) or deficient (7 ppm) in zinc for a total of 9 wk. The zinc-deficient diet resulted in an approximately 40% reduction in plasma zinc (assessed at 3, 6, and 9 wk) in the absence of overt signs of zinc deficiency (i.e., reduced weight gain, alopecia, etc.). Separate groups of rats were also maintained on zinc-defined diets for a total of 9 wk, but cadmium was added to the diet (0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 ppm) a the end of wk 3 and maintained at that level throughout the remaining 6 wk of the study, when the rats were killed. The feeding of the zinc-deficient diet markedly enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the liver, kidney, and testes. Hepatic, renal, and testicular zinc concentrations were not affected by suboptimal zinc intake alone. However, marked reductions in renal and testicular zinc concentrations were caused by zinc deficiency in concert with cadmium exposure. MT levels, when related to tissue cadmium concentrations, were elevated to a significantly lesser extent in the kidneys of zinc-deficient animals. These results indicate that marginal zinc deficiency markedly increases cadmium accumulation in various organs and reduces zinc content and MT induction in some organs.

  19. Comparison of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron concentrations of elements in 24-h urine and spot urine in hypertensive patients with healthy renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianjing; Chang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Wanlu; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Faxuan; Huang, Liping; Liao, Sha; Liu, Xiuying; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron are associated with the sequela of hypertension. The most reliable method for testing those elements is by collecting 24-h urine samples. However, this is cumbersome and collection of spot urine is more convenient in some circumstance. The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of different elements in 24-h urine and spot urine. Data was collected from a sub-study of China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study. 240 participants were recruited randomly from 12 villages in two counties in Ningxia, China. Both spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected from each patient. Routine urine test was conducted, and concentration of elements was measured using microwave digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. Partial correlation analysis and Spearman correlation analysis were used to investigate the concentration of different elements and the relationship between 24- h urine and spot urine. A partial correlation in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron was found between paired 24-h urine and spot urine samples except copper and zinc: 0.430, 0.426, 0.550, 0.221 and 0.191 respectively. Spot urine can replace 24-h urine for estimating some of the elements in hypertensive patients with normal renal function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Calcium, potassium, iron, copper and zinc concentrations in the white and gray matter of the cerebellum and corpus callosum in brain of four genetic mouse strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeant, C. [CNRS-Universite de Bordeaux I, UMR 5084, Chimie Nucleaire Analytique et Bio environnementale, Le Haut Vigneau, BP120, 33175 Bordeaux-Gradignan (France)]. E-mail: sergeant@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Vesvres, M.H. [CNRS-Universite de Bordeaux I, UMR 5084, Chimie Nucleaire Analytique et Bio environnementale, Le Haut Vigneau, BP120, 33175 Bordeaux-Gradignan (France); Deves, G. [CNRS-Universite de Bordeaux I, UMR 5084, Chimie Nucleaire Analytique et Bio environnementale, Le Haut Vigneau, BP120, 33175 Bordeaux-Gradignan (France); Guillou, F. [INRA-CNRS-Universite de Tours-Haras nationaux, UMR 6175, Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements, 37380 Nouzilly (France)

    2005-04-01

    In the central nervous system, metallic cations are involved in oligodendrocyte maturation and myelinogenesis. Moreover, the metallic cations have been associated with pathogenesis, particularly multiple sclerosis and malignant gliomas. The brain is vulnerable to either a deficit or an excess of available trace elements. Relationship between trace metals and myelinogenesis is important in understanding a severe human pathology : the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. One approach to understand this disease has used mutant or transgenic mice presenting myelin deficiency or excess. But to date, the concentration of trace metals and mineral elements in white and gray matter areas in wild type brain is unknown. The aim of this study is to establish the reference concentrations of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) in the white and gray matter of the mouse cerebellum and corpus callosum. The brains of four different genetic mouse strains (C57Black6/SJL, C57Black6/D2, SJL and C3H) were analyzed. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow PIXE (Proton-induced X-ray emission) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. The results obtained give the first reference values. Furthermore, one species out of the fours testes exhibited differences in calcium, iron and zinc concentrations in the white matter.

  1. Influence of indium concentration and substrate temperature on the physical characteristics of chemically sprayed ZnO:In thin films deposited from zinc pentanedionate and indium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, L; Morales-Saavedra, O G; Cheang-Wong, J C; Acosta, D R; Banuelos, J G; Maldonado, A; Olvera, M de la L

    2006-01-01

    Chemically sprayed indium-doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO:In) were deposited on glass substrates starting from zinc pentanedionate and indium sulfate. The influence of both the dopant concentration in the starting solution and the substrate temperature on the transport, morphology, composition, linear and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of the ZnO:In thin films were studied. The structure of all the ZnO:In thin films was polycrystalline, and variation in the preferential growth with the indium content in the solution was observed: from an initial (002) growth in films with low In content, switching to a predominance of (101) planes for intermediate dopant regime, and finally turning to a (100) growth for heavily doped films. The crystallite size was found to decrease with doping concentration and range from 36 to 23 nm. The film composition and the dopant concentration were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry; these results showed that the films are almost stoichiometric ZnO. The optimum deposition conditions leading to conductive and transparent ZnO:In thin films were also found. In this way a resistivity of 4 x 10 -3 Ω cm and an average transmittance in the visible spectra of 85%, with a (101) preferential growth, were obtained in optimized ZnO:In thin films

  2. Calcium, potassium, iron, copper and zinc concentrations in the white and gray matter of the cerebellum and corpus callosum in brain of four genetic mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Deves, G.; Guillou, F.

    2005-01-01

    In the central nervous system, metallic cations are involved in oligodendrocyte maturation and myelinogenesis. Moreover, the metallic cations have been associated with pathogenesis, particularly multiple sclerosis and malignant gliomas. The brain is vulnerable to either a deficit or an excess of available trace elements. Relationship between trace metals and myelinogenesis is important in understanding a severe human pathology : the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. One approach to understand this disease has used mutant or transgenic mice presenting myelin deficiency or excess. But to date, the concentration of trace metals and mineral elements in white and gray matter areas in wild type brain is unknown. The aim of this study is to establish the reference concentrations of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) in the white and gray matter of the mouse cerebellum and corpus callosum. The brains of four different genetic mouse strains (C57Black6/SJL, C57Black6/D2, SJL and C3H) were analyzed. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow PIXE (Proton-induced X-ray emission) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. The results obtained give the first reference values. Furthermore, one species out of the fours testes exhibited differences in calcium, iron and zinc concentrations in the white matter

  3. Effects of a Brief Meditation Training on Negative Affect, Trait Anxiety and Concentrated Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Baptista Menezes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMeditation has been associated with positive psychological outcomes, but few studies have investigated brief interventions. This randomized controlled pilot study assessed the effects of five days of focused meditation on positive and negative affect, state and trait anxiety, as well as concentrated attention in a nonclinical sample distributed in two groups (experimental = 14, 51.8% female, Mage= 23.9; control = 19, 62% female, Mage= 24.9. The instruments used were the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Concentrated Attention Test. The meditation group reduced negative affect and trait anxiety, and also improved correct responses on the attention test, relative to controls. These preliminary findings indicate that even short focused meditation training may help improve some psychological variables. It is discussed that the early manifestation of these benefits may be especially relevant to strengthen the motivation to continue and practice regularly.

  4. Leader protein of encephalomyocarditis virus binds zinc, is phosphorylated during viral infection, and affects the efficiency of genome translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, C M; Hall, D J; Hill, M; Riddle, M; Pranter, A; Dillman, J; Deibel, M; Palmenberg, A C

    2001-11-25

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is the prototype member of the cardiovirus genus of picornaviruses. For cardioviruses and the related aphthoviruses, the first protein segment translated from the plus-strand RNA genome is the Leader protein. The aphthovirus Leader (173-201 amino acids) is an autocatalytic papain-like protease that cleaves translation factor eIF-4G to shut off cap-dependent host protein synthesis during infection. The less characterized cardioviral Leader is a shorter protein (67-76 amino acids) and does not contain recognizable proteolytic motifs. Instead, these Leaders have sequences consistent with N-terminal zinc-binding motifs, centrally located tyrosine kinase phosphorylation sites, and C-terminal, acid-rich domains. Deletion mutations, removing the zinc motif, the acid domain, or both domains, were engineered into EMCV cDNAs. In all cases, the mutations gave rise to viable viruses, but the plaque phenotypes in HeLa cells were significantly smaller than for wild-type virus. RNA transcripts containing the Leader deletions had reduced capacity to direct protein synthesis in cell-free extracts and the products with deletions in the acid-rich domains were less effective substrates at the L/P1 site, for viral proteinase 3Cpro. Recombinant EMCV Leader (rL) was expressed in bacteria and purified to homogeneity. This protein bound zinc stoichiometrically, whereas protein with a deletion in the zinc motif was inactive. Polyclonal mouse sera, raised against rL, immunoprecipitated Leader-containing precursors from infected HeLa cell extracts, but did not detect significant pools of the mature Leader. However, additional reactions with antiphosphotyrosine antibodies show that the mature Leader, but not its precursors, is phosphorylated during viral infection. The data suggest the natural Leader may play a role in regulation of viral genome translation, perhaps through a triggering phosphorylation event.

  5. Adsorption of Zinc Contained in the Poultry Feedstuff onto Clinoptilolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Šucman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to find whether an adsorbent used as an additive in the feed mixtures could influence the concentration of free available zinc. The feed supplement ZeoFeed, which often constitutes a part of animal feed mixtures, mainly for poultry, was used as adsorbent in the amount of 10 g kg-1 of the feed mixture. A substantial part of ZeoFeed is clinoptilolite, a natural form of zeolite. Two sample preparation methods were used for the determination of zinc. The microwave-assisted wet digestion method was used to achieve a complete decomposition of the feed mixture in order to determine the total zinc concentration. The extraction method represented a simplified model of the processes in the digestive fluid tract. The extraction was done under laboratory temperature for 30, 60 and 120 min. Concentrations of zinc both in digests and extracts were determined by the method of the differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The total zinc concentration (mean ± 95% confidence interval in the feed mixture without addition of clinoptilolite was found to be 145 ± 32.0 mg kg-1 and in the feed mixture with added clinoptilolite 146 ± 11.5 mg kg-1. The concentrations of free available zinc were approximately ten times lesser than the total amount. The analysis of extracts showed that no statistically significant differences between concentrations of zinc in extracts without clinoptilolite and with clinoptilolite addition have been found. The extraction time did not affect the extracted amount of zinc significantly. In addition to zinc, also other three trace elements, namely the essential trace element copper and the toxic trace elements cadmium and lead, were measured. However, these data have only preliminary value and need further verification.

  6. Lead, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in plaster and mortar from structures in Jasper and Newton Counties, Missouri (Tri-State Mining District)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Phyllis M [Chemistry Department, Southwest Missouri State University, 901 S. National Avenue, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States); Pavlik, Jeffrey W [Chemistry Department, Southwest Missouri State University, 901 S. National Avenue, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States); Sheets, Ralph W [Chemistry Department, Southwest Missouri State University, 901 S. National Avenue, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States); Biagioni, Richard N [Chemistry Department, Southwest Missouri State University, 901 S. National Avenue, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States)

    2005-01-05

    The primary goal of this study was to evaluate anecdotal evidence that within Jasper and Newton Counties, Missouri, two counties within the Tri-State Mining District, granular mine tailings were commonly used in place of river sands in wall plasters and mortar. Interior wall plaster and mortar samples from structures in this mining district were analyzed for lead, cadmium, and zinc, and compared to samples from Springfield, MO (comparison site). The Jasper and Newton County samples showed elevated concentrations of the three elements, consistent with the inclusion of mine tailings, with a number of samples containing lead and cadmium at concentrations greater than EPA remediation targets for yard soil. X-ray diffraction studies showed the presence of the zinc ore minerals, sphalerite and hemimorphite, in high level samples. Thin section optical studies identified the major component of the aggregate as chert, a mineral abundant within the tailing piles. Because dust from crumbling plaster and mortar could represent an avenue for significant heavy metal exposure to building occupants, we suggest that there may be associated health consequences that should be further evaluated.

  7. Lead, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in plaster and mortar from structures in Jasper and Newton Counties, Missouri (Tri-State Mining District)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, Phyllis M.; Pavlik, Jeffrey W.; Sheets, Ralph W.; Biagioni, Richard N.

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to evaluate anecdotal evidence that within Jasper and Newton Counties, Missouri, two counties within the Tri-State Mining District, granular mine tailings were commonly used in place of river sands in wall plasters and mortar. Interior wall plaster and mortar samples from structures in this mining district were analyzed for lead, cadmium, and zinc, and compared to samples from Springfield, MO (comparison site). The Jasper and Newton County samples showed elevated concentrations of the three elements, consistent with the inclusion of mine tailings, with a number of samples containing lead and cadmium at concentrations greater than EPA remediation targets for yard soil. X-ray diffraction studies showed the presence of the zinc ore minerals, sphalerite and hemimorphite, in high level samples. Thin section optical studies identified the major component of the aggregate as chert, a mineral abundant within the tailing piles. Because dust from crumbling plaster and mortar could represent an avenue for significant heavy metal exposure to building occupants, we suggest that there may be associated health consequences that should be further evaluated

  8. Effects of catecholamines on ovary morphology, blood concentrations of estradiol-17beta, progesterone, zinc, triglycerides and rate of ovulation in domestic hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeid, T A; Eid, Y Z; El-Abd, E A; El-Habbak, M M

    2008-04-15

    The present study is an attempt to shed more light on the role of epinephrine (EP) and norepinephrine (NE) in regulating ovarian follicular development, folliculogenesis and ovulation in laying hens. Sixty Egyptian local cross females (Mandarah), 50 weeks old, were individually housed and equally divided into three treatments: control (saline, 0.9% NaCl), EP (0.15 mg epinephrine/hen/day) and NE (0.75 mg norepinephrine/hen/day) (n=20). Animals were injected intramuscularly once a day for 15 successive days. At the end of the experimental period, 10 females from each treatment were randomly chosen, weighed and killed by decapitation. Ovaries and oviducts and ovarian follicles were examined. Plasma concentrations of estradiol-17beta, progesterone, zinc and triglyceride were determined. Results indicated that the ovaries of NE- and EP-treated hens were more developed than those of control hens being heavier and containing more yellow yolk-filled follicles. EP or NE significantly increased the ovulation rate and plasma concentrations of estradiol-17beta, progesterone, zinc and triglyceride compared with control treatment. It could be concluded that catecholamines may have a part in promoting ovarian follicular development and in stimulating ovulation in laying hens at the end of their reproductive lives.

  9. Effects of low-temperature (120 °C) annealing on the carrier concentration and trap density in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-sung; Piao, Mingxing; Jang, Ho-Kyun; Kim, Gyu-Tae, E-mail: gtkim@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Byung Su [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Display Company, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Min-Kyu [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); IMEP-LAHC, Grenoble INP, Minatec, CS 50257, 38016 Grenoble (France); Ahn, Seung-Eon [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics Corporations, Yongin 446-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-28

    We report an investigation of the effects of low-temperature annealing on the electrical properties of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize the charge carrier concentration, which is related to the density of oxygen vacancies. The field-effect mobility was found to decrease as a function of the charge carrier concentration, owing to the presence of band-tail states. By employing the transmission line method, we show that the contact resistance did not significantly contribute to the changes in device performance after annealing. In addition, using low-frequency noise analyses, we found that the trap density decreased by a factor of 10 following annealing at 120 °C. The switching operation and on/off ratio of the a-IGZO TFTs improved considerably after low-temperature annealing.

  10. Supplementation with zinc in rats enhances memory and reverses an age-dependent increase in plasma copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandusky-Beltran, Leslie A; Manchester, Bryce L; McNay, Ewan C

    2017-08-30

    Zinc and copper are essential trace elements. Dyshomeostasis in these two metals has been observed in Alzheimer's disease, which causes profound cognitive impairment. Insulin therapy has been shown to enhance cognitive performance; however, recent data suggest that this effect may be at least in part due to the inclusion of zinc in the insulin formulation used. Zinc plays a key role in regulation of neuronal glutamate signaling, suggesting a possible link between zinc and memory processes. Consistent with this, zinc deficiency causes cognitive impairments in children. The effect of zinc supplementation on short- and long-term recognition memory, and on spatial working memory, was explored in young and adult male Sprague Dawley rats. After behavioral testing, hippocampal and plasma zinc and copper were measured. Age increased hippocampal zinc and copper, as well as plasma copper, and decreased plasma zinc. An interaction between age and treatment affecting plasma copper was also found, with zinc supplementation reversing elevated plasma copper concentration in adult rats. Zinc supplementation enhanced cognitive performance across tasks. These data support zinc as a plausible therapeutic intervention to ameliorate cognitive impairment in disorders characterized by alterations in zinc and copper, such as Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlations in distribution and concentration of calcium, copper and iron with zinc in isolated extracellular deposits associated with age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Jane M; Kakalec, Peter; Tappero, Ryan; Jones, Blair F.; Lengyel, Imre

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is abundantly enriched in sub-retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) deposits, the hallmarks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and is thought to play a role in the formation of these deposits. However, it is not known whether Zn is the only metal relevant for sub-RPE deposit formation. Because of their involvement in the pathogenesis of AMD, we determined the concentration and distribution of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) and compared these with Zn in isolated and sectioned macular (MSD), equatorial (PHD) and far peripheral (FPD) sub-RPE deposits from an 86 year old donor eye with post mortem diagnosis of early AMD. The sections were mounted on Zn free microscopy slides and analyzed by microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (μSXRF). Metal concentrations were determined using spiked sectioned sheep brain matrix standards, prepared the same way as the samples. The heterogeneity of metal distributions was examined using pixel by pixel comparison. The orders of metal concentrations were Ca ⋙ Zn > Fe in all three types of deposits but Cu levels were not distinguishable from background values. Zinc and Ca were consistently present in all deposits but reached highest concentration in MSD. Iron was present in some but not all deposits and was especially enriched in FPD. Correlation analysis indicated considerable variation in metal distribution within and between sub-RPE deposits. The results suggest that Zn and Ca are the most likely contributors to deposit formation especially in MSD, the characteristic risk factor for the development of AMD in the human eye.

  12. Concentrations of cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Blood and Fillets of Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-Zinc mining: Implications for monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained Fillet Pb and calcium concentrations were correlated (r = 0.83), but only in the 12 fish from the most contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet-to-blood relation explained an

  13. The zinc dyshomeostasis hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J A Craddock

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Hallmark AD neuropathology includes extracellular amyloid plaques composed largely of the amyloid-β protein (Aβ, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs composed of hyper-phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau (MAP-tau, and microtubule destabilization. Early-onset autosomal dominant AD genes are associated with excessive Aβ accumulation, however cognitive impairment best correlates with NFTs and disrupted microtubules. The mechanisms linking Aβ and NFT pathologies in AD are unknown. Here, we propose that sequestration of zinc by Aβ-amyloid deposits (Aβ oligomers and plaques not only drives Aβ aggregation, but also disrupts zinc homeostasis in zinc-enriched brain regions important for memory and vulnerable to AD pathology, resulting in intra-neuronal zinc levels, which are either too low, or excessively high. To evaluate this hypothesis, we 1 used molecular modeling of zinc binding to the microtubule component protein tubulin, identifying specific, high-affinity zinc binding sites that influence side-to-side tubulin interaction, the sensitive link in microtubule polymerization and stability. We also 2 performed kinetic modeling showing zinc distribution in extra-neuronal Aβ deposits can reduce intra-neuronal zinc binding to microtubules, destabilizing microtubules. Finally, we 3 used metallomic imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS to show anatomically-localized and age-dependent zinc dyshomeostasis in specific brain regions of Tg2576 transgenic, mice, a model for AD. We found excess zinc in brain regions associated with memory processing and NFT pathology. Overall, we present a theoretical framework and support for a new theory of AD linking extra-neuronal Aβ amyloid to intra-neuronal NFTs and cognitive dysfunction. The connection, we propose, is based on β-amyloid-induced alterations in zinc ion concentration inside neurons affecting stability of

  14. The zinc dyshomeostasis hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Travis J A; Tuszynski, Jack A; Chopra, Deepak; Casey, Noel; Goldstein, Lee E; Hameroff, Stuart R; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Hallmark AD neuropathology includes extracellular amyloid plaques composed largely of the amyloid-β protein (Aβ), intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of hyper-phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau (MAP-tau), and microtubule destabilization. Early-onset autosomal dominant AD genes are associated with excessive Aβ accumulation, however cognitive impairment best correlates with NFTs and disrupted microtubules. The mechanisms linking Aβ and NFT pathologies in AD are unknown. Here, we propose that sequestration of zinc by Aβ-amyloid deposits (Aβ oligomers and plaques) not only drives Aβ aggregation, but also disrupts zinc homeostasis in zinc-enriched brain regions important for memory and vulnerable to AD pathology, resulting in intra-neuronal zinc levels, which are either too low, or excessively high. To evaluate this hypothesis, we 1) used molecular modeling of zinc binding to the microtubule component protein tubulin, identifying specific, high-affinity zinc binding sites that influence side-to-side tubulin interaction, the sensitive link in microtubule polymerization and stability. We also 2) performed kinetic modeling showing zinc distribution in extra-neuronal Aβ deposits can reduce intra-neuronal zinc binding to microtubules, destabilizing microtubules. Finally, we 3) used metallomic imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) to show anatomically-localized and age-dependent zinc dyshomeostasis in specific brain regions of Tg2576 transgenic, mice, a model for AD. We found excess zinc in brain regions associated with memory processing and NFT pathology. Overall, we present a theoretical framework and support for a new theory of AD linking extra-neuronal Aβ amyloid to intra-neuronal NFTs and cognitive dysfunction. The connection, we propose, is based on β-amyloid-induced alterations in zinc ion concentration inside neurons affecting stability of polymerized

  15. Dietary zinc deficiency effects dorso-lateral and ventral prostate of Wistar rats: histological, biochemical and trace element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sangeeta; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, R S

    2014-10-01

    Zinc deficiency has become a global problem affecting the developed and developing countries due to inhibitors in the diet which prevents its absorption or due to a very low concentration of bioavailable zinc in the diet. Being present in high concentration in the prostate and having diverse biological function, we investigated the effects of dietary zinc deficiency for 2 and 4 weeks on dorso-lateral and ventral prostate. Sixty prepubertal rats were divided into three groups: zinc control (ZC), pair fed (PF) and zinc deficient (ZD) and fed on 100 μg/g (zinc control and pair fed groups) and 1 μg/g (zinc deficient) diet. Zinc deficiency was associated with degenerative changes in dorso-lateral and ventral prostate as made evident by karyolysis, karyorhexis, cytoplasmolysis, loss of cellularisation, decreased intraluminar secretion and degeneration of fibromuscular stroma. In response, protein carbonyl, nitric oxide, acid phosphatase, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase increased, exhibiting variable level of significance. Total protein and total zinc concentration in dorso-lateral and ventral prostate as well as in serum decreased (P dorso-lateral and ventral prostate after dietary zinc deficiency as well as impairment of metabolic and secretory activity, reduced gonadotropin levels by hypothalamus -hypophysial system which is indicative of a critical role of zinc in maintaining the prostate integrity.

  16. Consumption of organic diets does not affect intake and absorption of zinc and copper in men-evidence from two cross-over trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Alicja Budek; Kápolna, Emese; Laursen, Kristian H.

    2013-01-01

    diets on intake and absorption of zinc and copper in men. Two double-blinded, cross-over, intervention trials (3 dietary periods of 12 days with 2-week-long wash-out) were performed in 2008 (n = 17) and 2009 (n = 16) in young men. The diets were based on 9 crops grown in rigidly controlled organic......Agricultural methods may affect the nutritional composition of plants and cause complex changes in the food matrix. Whether this affects the dietary absorption of minerals that are important for maintaining health thorough life remains unclear. We compared the effects of organic and conventional......; 12.35 ± 0.47 mg per 10 MJ and 44.6% ± 12.1, respectively) and copper (overall mean ± SD; 2.12 ± 0.28 mg per 10 MJ and 41.2% ± 13.2, respectively) were not different between the organic and conventional diets. The growing season had no effect on zinc intake and absorption, but the copper intake...

  17. Effect of individual components of soy formula and cows milk formula on zinc bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennerdal, B.; Cederblad, A.; Davidsson, L.; Sandstroem, B.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc absorption from human milk, cows milk formulas, and soy formulas was studied in human adults by a radioisotope technique using 65 Zn and whole body counting. Individual dietary components were investigated for effects on zinc absorption. Phytate was found to have a strong inhibitory effect on zinc absorption; addition of phytate to cows milk formula (yielding a phytate concentration similar to that of soy formula) resulted in a decrease in zinc absorption from 31 to 16% similar to the absorption for soy formula (14%). Carbohydrate source, calcium, and zinc levels of the diet did not affect zinc absorption significantly. Iron supplementation of cows milk formula decreased zinc absorption from 24 to 18% although this decrease was not found to be significant (p less than 0.1). Absorption of zinc from a whey-adjusted cows milk formula was higher (31%) than from a nonmodified cows milk formula (22%). Increasing the zinc supplementation level in cows milk formula but not in soy formula increased zinc absorption to approximate that from breast milk. It is suggested that reduction of phytate content of soy formula may be a more effective avenue of modification than increased level of zinc supplementation

  18. Combinatorial effects of zinc deficiency and arsenic exposure on zebrafish (Danio rerio development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Beaver

    Full Text Available Zinc deficiency and chronic low level exposures to inorganic arsenic in drinking water are both significant public health concerns that affect millions of people including pregnant women. These two conditions can co-exist in the human population but little is known about their interaction, and in particular, whether zinc deficiency sensitizes individuals to arsenic exposure and toxicity, especially during critical windows of development. To address this, we utilized the Danio rerio (zebrafish model to test the hypothesis that parental zinc deficiency sensitizes the developing embryo to low-concentration arsenic toxicity, leading to altered developmental outcomes. Adult zebrafish were fed defined zinc deficient and zinc adequate diets and were spawned resulting in zinc adequate and zinc deficient embryos. The embryos were treated with environmentally relevant concentrations of 0, 50, and 500 ppb arsenic. Arsenic exposure significantly reduced the amount of zinc in the developing embryo by ~7%. The combination of zinc deficiency and low-level arsenic exposures did not sensitize the developing embryo to increased developmental malformations or mortality. The combination did cause a 40% decline in physical activity of the embryos, and this decline was significantly greater than what was observed with zinc deficiency or arsenic exposure alone. Significant changes in RNA expression of genes that regulate zinc homeostasis, response to oxidative stress and insulin production (including zip1, znt7, nrf2, ogg1, pax4, and insa were found in zinc deficient, or zinc deficiency and arsenic exposed embryos. Overall, the data suggests that the combination of zinc deficiency and arsenic exposure has harmful effects on the developing embryo and may increase the risk for developing chronic diseases like diabetes.

  19. Nuclear microprobe investigation of the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into human skin affected by atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szikszai, Z.; Kertész, Zs.; Bodnár, E.; Borbíró, I.; Angyal, A.; Csedreki, L.; Furu, E.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Kiss, Á. Z.; Hunyadi, J.

    2011-10-01

    Skin penetration is one of the potential routes for nanoparticles to gain access into the human body. Ultrafine metal oxides, such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are widely used in cosmetic and health products like sunscreens. These oxides are potent UV filters and the particle size smaller than 200 nm makes the product more transparent compared to formulations containing coarser particles. The present study continues the work carried out in the frame of the NANODERM: “Quality of skin as a barrier to ultrafine particles” European project and complements our previous investigations on human skin with compromised barrier function. Atopic dermatitis (a type of eczema) is an inflammatory, chronically relapsing, non-contagious skin disease. It is very common in children but may occur at any age. The exact cause of atopic dermatitis is unknown, but is likely due to a combination of impaired barrier function together with a malfunction in the body's immune system. In this study, skin samples were obtained from two patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Our results indicate that the ultrafine zinc oxide particles, in a hydrophobic basis gel with an application time of 2 days or 2 weeks, have penetrated deeply into the stratum corneum in these patients. On the other hand, penetration into the stratum spinosum was not observed even in the case of the longer application time.

  20. Effect of subchronic zinc toxicity on rat salivary glands and serum composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizari, Nazer; Hirbod-Mobarakeh, Armin; Shahinpour, Shervin; Ghalichi-Tabriz, Mostafa; Beigy, Maani; Yamini, Ali; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2012-11-01

    Zinc plays an important role in a wide variety of metabolic processes in animal systems. The role of zinc in preservative treatment, fungicidal action and medicine, and addition of supplementary zinc have increased the probability of zinc toxicity, specially the chronic type. It is known that the composition and quantity of saliva influence the oral health. Regarding people's exposure to zinc in routine life and the importance of saliva, our purpose was to investigate the effects of oral zinc intoxication on secretory function in rat salivary glands and also on serum composition. In this study, there were five groups of female rats. Four groups received zinc acetate dehydrate through their drinking water. After 3 months of experiment, the chemical characteristics and flow rate of saliva and weight of salivary glands were determined. The effects of zinc on hematological and chemical factors of plasma were assessed too. Flow rate of submandibular glands was significantly lower in experimental groups and there were significant changes in Na(+), Ca(2+) and K(+) concentration both in saliva and in plasma. The serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glucose levels in the plasma and urine creatinine levels were also altered in experimental groups in comparison with the control group. Our results show that zinc toxicity will affect the quantity and quality of saliva probably through changes in the various neurologic pathways to the salivary glands or effects on acinar cells of the salivary glands. Furthermore, our results showed that zinc toxicity will affect the liver and renal function.

  1. Nitrogen fertilization affects silicon concentration, cell wall composition and biofuel potential of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murozuka, Emiko; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Lindedam, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential input factor required for plant growth and biomass production. However, very limited information is available on how nitrogen fertilization affects the quality of crop residues to be used as lignocellulosic feedstock. In the present study, straw of winter wheat plants grown...... linearly from 0.32% to 0.71% over the range of nitrogen treatments. Cellulose and hemicellulose were not affected by the nitrogen supply while lignin peaked at medium rates of nitrogen application. The nitrogen treatments had a distinct influence on the silicon concentration, which decreased from 2.5% to 1.......5% of the straw dry matter when the nitrogen supply increased from 48 to 192kgha-1. No further decline in Si occurred at higher rates of nitrogen application. The most abundant metals in the straw were potassium and calcium and their concentrations almost doubled over the range of nitrogen supplies. The enzymatic...

  2. Particle Size Affects Concentration-Dependent Cytotoxicity of Chitosan Nanoparticles towards Mouse Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, S. S. O.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Katas, H.

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) have been extensively applied in medical and pharmaceutical fields as promising drug delivery systems. Despite that, the safety of CSNPs remains inadequate and needs further investigation, particularly on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). CSNPs were prepared by ionic gelation method and later were characterized for their physical characteristics (particle size and zeta potential). Cytotoxicity of CSNPs was assessed by MTT assay. Particle size was highly influenced by chitosan concentration and molecular weight (medium and high molecular weight (MMW and HMW)). Higher chitosan concentration and molecular weight produced larger nanoparticles. Zeta potential of CSNPs was not significantly affected by chitosan concentrations and molecular weights used in the present study. MMW had a better stability than HMW CSNPs as their particle size and zeta potential were not significantly altered after autoclaving. Cytotoxicity of CSNPs was influenced by zeta potential and particle size. On the other hand, chitosan concentration and molecular weight indirectly influenced cytotoxicity by affecting particle size and zeta potential of CSNPs. In conclusion, cytotoxicity of CSNPs was mainly attributed to their physical characteristics and this opens a strategy to ensure the safety of CSNPs applications in stem cell technology.

  3. Factors affecting biotic mercury concentrations and biomagnification through lake food webs in the Canadian high Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescord, Gretchen L., E-mail: glescord@gmail.com [University of New Brunswick/Canadian Rivers Institute, 100 Tucker Park Rd, Saint John, NB E2L 4A6 (Canada); Kidd, Karen A. [University of New Brunswick/Canadian Rivers Institute, 100 Tucker Park Rd, Saint John, NB E2L 4A6 (Canada); Kirk, Jane L. [Environment Canada, Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, 867 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington, ON L7S 1A1 (Canada); O' Driscoll, Nelson J. [Acadia University, 15 University Ave, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Wang, Xiaowa; Muir, Derek C.G. [Environment Canada, Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, 867 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington, ON L7S 1A1 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    In temperate regions of Canada, mercury (Hg) concentrations in biota and the magnitude of Hg biomagnification through food webs vary between neighboring lakes and are related to water chemistry variables and physical lake features. However, few studies have examined factors affecting the variable Hg concentrations in landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) or the biomagnification of Hg through their food webs. We estimated the food web structure of six high Arctic lakes near Resolute Bay, Nunavut, Canada, using stable carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) isotopes and measured Hg (total Hg (THg) in char, the only fish species, and methylmercury (MeHg) in chironomids and zooplankton) concentrations in biota collected in 2010 and 2011. Across lakes, δ{sup 13}C showed that benthic carbon (chironomids) was the dominant food source for char. Regression models of log Hg versus δ{sup 15}N (of char and benthic invertebrates) showed positive and significant slopes, indicting Hg biomagnification in all lakes, and higher slopes in some lakes than others. However, no principal components (PC) generated using all water chemistry data and physical characteristics of the lakes predicted the different slopes. The PC dominated by aqueous ions was a negative predictor of MeHg concentrations in chironomids, suggesting that water chemistry affects Hg bioavailability and MeHg concentrations in these lower-trophic-level organisms. Furthermore, regression intercepts were predicted by the PCs dominated by catchment area, aqueous ions, and MeHg. Weaker relationships were also found between THg in small char or MeHg in pelagic invertebrates and the PCs dominated by catchment area, and aqueous nitrate and MeHg. Results from these high Arctic lakes suggest that Hg biomagnification differs between systems and that their physical and chemical characteristics affect Hg concentrations in lower-trophic-level biota. - Highlights: • Mercury (Hg) in Arctic char and invertebrates

  4. Effects of metformin treatment on Iron, Zinc and Copper status concentration in the serum of female rats with induced polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhsin S. G. Al-Moziel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study conducted to investigate the effects of metformin drug on serum Iron, Zinc and Copper concentration in Estradiol Valerate(EV induced polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS in virgin rats. Thirty virgin rats were randomly allotted to constitute Normal control (NC-I group and induced polycystic ovary (PCO-I and PCO-II groups having 10 rats in each group. Rats from NC-I group were administered intramuscularly with 0.2 ml of corn oil whereas polycystic ovary was induced in rats from PCO-I and PCO-II groups by administering single intra-muscular injection of estradiol Valerate 4mg/rat. The rats from PCO-I and PCO-II groups were left for 60 days for development of polycystic ovary syndrome. Animals from PCO-I group were then administered with 0.2 ml normal saline as oral gavage for 15 days, these animals were kept as PCO control group animals whereas those from PCO-II groups received metformin (50mg/kg B.wt as oral gavage for 15 days, these animals served as metformin treated PCO group animals. All the rats were thereafter sacrificed for collecting blood from inferior vena-cava. Serum samples from each rat were assessed for iron, zinc and copper status in each experimental group. The results revealed a significant (p≤0.05 increase in serum Fe and Zn and a significant (p≤0.05 decrease in serum Cu concentration in PCO group 1 compared with control non-treated group. The PCO group2 treated with metformin showed a significant (p≤0.05 decrease in serum Fe concentration as compared with those in animals from group NC-I and PCO-I. While, no significant differences were found in serum Zn concentration between all treated groups. On the other hand, a significant (p≤0.05 increase in serum Cu concentration appeared in metformin treated group compared with PCO group 1 which appears significant decrease compared with control group.

  5. Trace contaminant concentration affects mineral transformation and pollutant fate in hydroxide-weathered Hanford sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdrial, Nicolas; Rivera, Nelson; Thompson, Aaron; O’Day, Peggy A.; Chorover, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fate of Sr, Cs and I tracked during hydroxide-weathering of sediments. ► pCO 2 and contaminant concentration affected mineral transformation. ► Sodalite/cancrinite formed at μM levels, chabazite at mM levels. ► Absence of CO 2 resulted in calcite dissolution and strätlingite formation. ► Trace contaminant concentrations modified their own sequestration path. - Abstract: Prior work has shown that when silicaceous sediments are infused with caustic radioactive waste, contaminant fate is tightly coupled to ensuing mineral weathering reactions. However, the effects of local aqueous geochemical conditions on these reactions are poorly studied. Thus, we varied contaminant concentration and pCO 2 during the weathering of previously uncontaminated Hanford sediments over 6 months and 1 year in a solution of caustic waste (pH 13, high ionic strength). Co-contaminants Sr, Cs and I were added at “low” (Cs/Sr: 10 −5 m; I: 10 −7 m) and “high” (Cs/Sr: 10 −3 m; I: 10 −5 m) concentrations, and headspace was held at atmospheric or undetectable ( 2 partial pressure. Solid phase characterization revealed the formation of the zeolite chabazite in “high” samples, whereas feldspathoids, sodalite and cancrinite, were formed preferentially in “low” samples. Sr, Cs and I were sequestered in all reacted sediments. Native calcite dissolution in the CO 2 -free treatment drove the formation of strätlingite (Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 ·8H 2 O) and diminished availability of Si and Al for feldspathoid formation. Results indicate that pCO 2 and contaminant concentrations strongly affect contaminant speciation in waste-weathered sediments, and are therefore likely to impact reaction product stability under any remediation scenario.

  6. Water quality and processes affecting dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Blackwater River, Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, M.C.; Wiley, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The water quality and environmental processes affecting dissolved oxygen were determined for the Blackwater River in Canaan Valley, West Virginia. Canaan Valley is oval-shaped (14 miles by 5 miles) and is located in the Allegheny Mountains at an average elevation of 3,200 feet above sea level. Tourism, population, and real estate development have increased in the past two decades. Most streams in Canaan Valley are a dilute calcium magnesium bicarbonate-type water. Streamwater typicaly was soft and low in alkalinity and dissolved solids. Maximum values for specific conductance, hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved solids occurred during low-flow periods when streamflow was at or near baseflow. Dissolved oxygen concentrations are most sensitive to processes affecting the rate of reaeration. The reaeration is affected by solubility (atmospheric pressure, water temperature, humidity, and cloud cover) and processes that determine stream turbulence (stream depth, width, velocity, and roughness). In the headwaters, photosynthetic dissolved oxygen production by benthic algae can result in supersaturated dissolved oxygen concentrations. In beaver pools, dissolved oxygen consumption from sediment oxygen demand and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand can result in dissolved oxygen deficits.

  7. Pro-inflammatory responses of RAW264.7 macrophages when treated with ultralow concentrations of silver, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovanni, Marcella; Yue, Junqi; Zhang, Lifeng; Xie, Jianping; Ong, Choon Nam; Leong, David Tai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultralow levels of common nanoparticles exist in environment and consumer products. • Common nanoparticles at ultralow levels induce mild pro-inflammation by macrophages. • The nanoparticles are cytotoxic only at high doses. - Abstract: To cellular systems, nanoparticles are considered as foreign particles. Upon particles and cells contact, innate immune system responds by activating the inflammatory pathway. However, excessive inflammation had been linked to various diseases ranging from allergic responses to cancer. Common nanoparticles, namely silver, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide exist in the environment as well as in consumer products at ultralow level of 10 −6 –10 −3 μg mL −1 . However, so far the risks of such low NPs concentrations remain unexplored. Therefore, we attempted to screen the pro-inflammatory responses after ultralow concentration treatments of the three nanoparticles on RAW264.7 macrophages, which are a part of the immune system, at both cellular and gene levels. Even though cytotoxicity was only observed at nanoparticles concentrations as high as 10 μg mL −1 , through the level of NF-κB and upregulation of pro-inflammatory genes, we observed activation of the induction of genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines starting already at 10 −7 μg mL −1 . This calls for more thorough characterization of nanoparticles in the environment as well as in consumer products to ascertain the health and safety of the consumers and living systems in general

  8. Effect of precursor solutions stirring on deep level defects concentration and spatial distribution in low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnoor, Hatim, E-mail: hatim.alnoor@liu.se; Chey, Chan Oeurn; Pozina, Galia; Willander, Magnus; Nur, Omer [Department of Science and Technology (ITN), Campus Norrköping, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping (Sweden); Liu, Xianjie; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-583 81 Linköping (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    Hexagonal c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) with 120-300 nm diameters are synthesized via the low temperature aqueous chemical route at 80 °C on silver-coated glass substrates. The influence of varying the precursor solutions stirring durations on the concentration and spatial distributions of deep level defects in ZnO NRs is investigated. Room temperature micro-photoluminesnce (μ-PL) spectra were collected for all samples. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of the as-synthesized NRs reveal a significant change in the intensity ratio of the near band edge emission (NBE) to the deep-level emission (DLE) peaks with increasing stirring durations. This is attributed to the variation in the concentration of the oxygen-deficiency with increasing stirring durations as suggested from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Spatially resolved CL spectra taken along individual NRs revealed that stirring the precursor solutions for relatively short duration (1-3 h), which likely induced high super saturation under thermodynamic equilibrium during the synthesis process, is observed to favor the formation of point defects moving towards the tip of the NRs. In contrary, stirring for longer duration (5-15 h) will induce low super saturation favoring the formation of point defects located at the bottom of the NRs. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to control the concentration and spatial distribution of deep level defects in ZnO NRs by varying the stirring durations of the precursor solutions.

  9. Effects of cadmium, zinc, lead, and mercury on respiration and fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafl, H J; Schwantes, H O

    1983-01-01

    Zinc and lead did not affect the rate of respiration and fermentation. Concentrations of cadmium higher than 10/sup -7/ M and concentrations of mercury higher than 5 x 10/sup -5/ M significantly reduced the O/sub 2/ consumption and the CO/sub 2/ production. 10/sup -2/ M cadmium and 10/sup -3/ M mercury completely inhibited respiration and fermentation. Low concentrations of mercury inhibited respiration irreversibly and fermentation reversibly. High concentrations of zinc reduced the toxicity of low concentrations of cadmium but they enhanced the effects of high concentrations of cadmium and mercury. No interactions between lead and the other tested heavy metals were observed.

  10. Sampling method, storage and pretreatment of sediment affect AVS concentrations with consequences for bioassay responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lange, H J; Van Griethuysen, C; Koelmans, A A

    2008-01-01

    Sediment treatment and sediment storage may alter sediment toxicity, and consequently biotic response. Purpose of our study was to combine these three aspects (treatment-toxicity-biotic response) in one integrated approach. We used Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS) concentrations as a proxy of the disturbance of the sediment. AVS and Simultaneously Extracted Metal (SEM) concentrations were compared to bioassay responses with the freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate Asellus aquaticus. Storage conditions and sediment treatment affected AVS but not SEM levels. AVS can be used as a proxy for sediment disturbance. The best way to pretreat the sediment for use in a bioassay in order to maintain initial AVS conditions was to sample the sediment with an Ekman grab, immediately store it in a jar without headspace, and freeze it as soon as possible. In a survey using seven different sediments, bioassay responses of A. aquaticus were correlated with SEM and AVS characteristics.

  11. Factors affecting Escherichia coli concentrations at Lake Erie public bathing beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental and water-quality factors that affect concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water and sediment were investigated at three public bathing beachesEdgewater Park, Villa Angela, and Sims Parkin the Cleveland, Ohio metropolitan area. This study was done to aid in the determination of safe recreational use and to help water- resource managers assess more quickly and accurately the degradation of recreational water quality. Water and lake-bottom sediments were collected and ancillary environmental data were compiled for 41 days from May through September 1997. Water samples were analyzed for E. coli concentrations, suspended sediment concentrations, and turbidity. Lake- bottom sediment samples from the beach area were analyzed for E. coli concentrations and percent dry weight. Concentrations of E. coli were higher and more variable at Sims Park than at Villa Angela or Edgewater Park; concentrations were lowest at Edgewater Park. Time-series plots showed that short-term storage (less than one week) of E. coli in lake-bottom sediments may have occurred, although no evidence for long-term storage was found during the sampling period. E. coli concentrations in water were found to increase with increasing wave height, but the resuspension of E. coli from lake-bottom sediments by wave action could not be adequately assessed; higherwave heights were often associated with the discharge of sewage containing E. coli during or after a rainfall and wastewater-treatment plant overflow. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to develop models to predict recreational water quality at the in water. The related variables included turbidity, antecedent rainfall, antecedent weighted rainfall, volumes of wastewater-treatment plant overflows and metered outfalls (composed of storm-water runoff and combined-sewer overflows), a resuspension index, and wave heights. For the beaches in this study, wind speed, wind direction, water temperature, and the prswimmers

  12. Correlation between nitrate concentration in groundwater and parameters affecting aquifer intrinsic vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debernardi, Laura; de Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela

    2008-08-01

    the complex phenomena affecting nitrate concentrations in soil, subsoil and groundwater. In particular, the traditional methods for vulnerability analysis do not analyze physical processes in aquifers, such as denitrification and nitrate dilution. According to a recent study in the shallow unconfined aquifer of the Piemonte plain, dilution can be considered as the main cause for nitrate attenuation in groundwater.

  13. Induced ferromagnetic and gas sensing properties in ZnO-nanostructures by altering defect concentration of oxygen and zinc vacancies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motaung, DE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available synthesis reaction-time due to a decreased surface area, as well as VþO and VZn concentrations. Thus, the synthesis reaction-time clearly controls the relative occupancy of the VþO and VZn present on the surface of ZnO- nanostructures, which is enunciated...

  14. Neutron Gauge Calibration Curve as Affected by Chloride Concentration and Bulk Density of Loam Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Hasani, A.A.; Fahad, A.A.; Shihab, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    chloride concentration and bulk density are considered among important factors affecting calibration curve of neutron gauge in the soil.The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chloride concentration and bulk density of a loam soil on neutron gauge calibration curve.Sufficient amount of loam soil was air dried screened through a 2 mm sieve,and divided into three equal portions.Sodium chloride of 2.5 and 6.6g kg'-1 soil was added to the first and second portions,respectively.The third portion was left as a control.The soil then moistened and mixed well to make volumetric water content within the range of 0.01 to 0.24 cm 3 cm - 3. The moist soil was packed into an iron drum 0.80 m diameter and 1.00 m height to obtain bulk densities of 1.10 and 1.30 to 1.60 Mg m - 3 for uncompacted soil,respectively.Access tube 0.05 m inner diameter was installed in the center of the drum.Three readings from CPN 503 neutron gauge were taken at each 0.15,0.30, 0.45,and 0.75 m depth.Results indicated that the count (counts/standard count) for an aqueous solution decreased with the increase in chloride concentration.Similarly, the slope of the linear calibration curves of the investigated soil decreased with the increase in chloride concentration.Shifting of the curves was 9 to 10%for the uncompacted soil, whereas it was 12 to 14 % for the compacted of low and high concentration of chloride, respectively . Results of changing bulk density always reduced the slope value as compared with the uncorrected count ratio.

  15. Zinc allocation and re-allocation in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Jiang, Wen; Van Der Putten, Peter E. L.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Agronomy and breeding actively search for options to enhance cereal grain Zn density. Quantifying internal (re-)allocation of Zn as affected by soil and crop management or genotype is crucial. We present experiments supporting the development of a conceptual model of whole plant Zn allocation and re-allocation in rice. Methods: Two solution culture experiments using 70Zn applications at different times during crop development and an experiment on within-grain distribution of Zn are reported. In addition, results from two earlier published experiments are re-analyzed and re-interpreted. Results: A budget analysis showed that plant zinc accumulation during grain filling was larger than zinc allocation to the grains. Isotope data showed that zinc taken up during grain filling was only partly transported directly to the grains and partly allocated to the leaves. Zinc taken up during grain filling and allocated to the leaves replaced zinc re-allocated from leaves to grains. Within the grains, no major transport barrier was observed between vascular tissue and endosperm. At low tissue Zn concentrations, rice plants maintained concentrations of about 20 mg Zn kg−1 dry matter in leaf blades and reproductive tissues, but let Zn concentrations in stems, sheath, and roots drop below this level. When plant zinc concentrations increased, Zn levels in leaf blades and reproductive tissues only showed a moderate increase while Zn levels in stems, roots, and sheaths increased much more and in that order. Conclusions: In rice, the major barrier to enhanced zinc allocation towards grains is between stem and reproductive tissues. Enhancing root to shoot transfer will not contribute proportionally to grain zinc enhancement. PMID:24478788

  16. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren: a study in Cuba and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D; D'Haese, Patrick C; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E; Díaz, Raquel Junco; Núñez, Fidel Angel; Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Doak, Colleen M; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Wieringa, Frank T; Polman, Katja

    2015-04-20

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  17. Evaluation of soil characteristics potentially affecting arsenic concentration in paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdan, Katja; Schenk, Manfred K.

    2009-01-01

    Paddy rice may contribute considerably to the human intake of As. The knowledge of soil characteristics affecting the As content of the rice plant enables the development of agricultural measures for controlling As uptake. During field surveys in 2004 and 2006, plant samples from 68 fields (Italy, Po-area) revealed markedly differing As concentration in polished rice. The soil factors total As (aquaregia) , pH, grain size fractions, total C, plant available P (CAL) , poorly crystalline Fe (oxal.) and plant available Si (Na-acetate) content that potentially affect As content of rice were determined. A multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant positive influence of the total As (aquaregia) and plant available P (CAL) content and a negative influence of the poorly crystalline Fe (oxal.) content of the soil on the As content in polished rice and rice straw. Si concentration in rice straw varied widely and was negatively related to As content in straw and polished rice. - Field selection for total As, poorly crystalline Fe and plant available P in soil might contribute to control As content of paddy rice.

  18. Factors Affecting 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration in Response to Vitamin D Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Mazahery

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sun exposure is the main source of vitamin D. Due to many lifestyle risk factors vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is becoming a worldwide health problem. Low 25(OHD concentration is associated with adverse musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal health outcomes. Vitamin D supplementation is currently the best approach to treat deficiency and to maintain adequacy. In response to a given dose of vitamin D, the effect on 25(OHD concentration differs between individuals, and it is imperative that factors affecting this response be identified. For this review, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify those factors and to explore their significance in relation to circulating 25(OHD response to vitamin D supplementation. The effect of several demographic/biological factors such as baseline 25(OHD, aging, body mass index(BMI/body fat percentage, ethnicity, calcium intake, genetics, oestrogen use, dietary fat content and composition, and some diseases and medications has been addressed. Furthermore, strategies employed by researchers or health care providers (type, dose and duration of vitamin D supplementation and environment (season are other contributing factors. With the exception of baseline 25(OHD, BMI/body fat percentage, dose and type of vitamin D, the relative importance of other factors and the mechanisms by which these factors may affect the response remains to be determined.

  19. Factors Affecting 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration in Response to Vitamin D Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazahery, Hajar; von Hurst, Pamela R

    2015-06-25

    Sun exposure is the main source of vitamin D. Due to many lifestyle risk factors vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is becoming a worldwide health problem. Low 25(OH)D concentration is associated with adverse musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal health outcomes. Vitamin D supplementation is currently the best approach to treat deficiency and to maintain adequacy. In response to a given dose of vitamin D, the effect on 25(OH)D concentration differs between individuals, and it is imperative that factors affecting this response be identified. For this review, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify those factors and to explore their significance in relation to circulating 25(OH)D response to vitamin D supplementation. The effect of several demographic/biological factors such as baseline 25(OH)D, aging, body mass index(BMI)/body fat percentage, ethnicity, calcium intake, genetics, oestrogen use, dietary fat content and composition, and some diseases and medications has been addressed. Furthermore, strategies employed by researchers or health care providers (type, dose and duration of vitamin D supplementation) and environment (season) are other contributing factors. With the exception of baseline 25(OH)D, BMI/body fat percentage, dose and type of vitamin D, the relative importance of other factors and the mechanisms by which these factors may affect the response remains to be determined.

  20. Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kříbek, B.; Majer, V.; Knésl, I.; Nyambe, I.; Mihaljevič, M.; Ettler, V.; Sracek, O.

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1/HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015 mg kg-1/HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard

  1. Starch source in high concentrate rations does not affect rumen pH, histamine and lipopolysaccharide concentrations in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.; Schonewille, J.T.; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C.; Aiumlamai, S.; Wachirapakom, C.; Everts, H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The replacement of ground corn by cassava meal on rumen pH, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and histamine concentrations under typical Thai feeding conditions (high concentrate diets and rice straw as the sole source of roughage) was investigated. Four rumen-fistulated crossbred Holstein, non-pregnant, dry

  2. Factors Affecting Ballability of Mixture Iron Ore Concentrates and Iron Oxide Bearing Wastes in Metallurgical Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mfon Udo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide bearing wastes (IROBEWAS are produced at every segment of processing stage of sinter, molten iron and steel production. They are hard to handle and in many cases are stockpiled only to be a source of environmental pollution but can be balled into pellets. Pellet of good ballability values are transportable and recyclable as they can withstand stress they will encounter without disintegrating back to dust. But ballability is affected by some factors like the grain sizes of the materials, the moisture and binder contents of the ball mix, wettability of the balled materials and the processing perimeters of the granulator. The objective of this research work is to investigate the factors affecting ballability of mixture of iron ore concentrates and iron oxide bearing wastes (IROBEWAS in metallurgical processing. The parameters under consideration were grain size of materials, the moisture contents, the speed of balling disc, IROBEWAS and Bentonite (Binder contents of the balled mix. This was carried out by balling different volume fractions of mix containing iron oxide concentrate and IROBEWAS using a balling disc and testing the resulting balls for green compressive strength using universal testing machine. It was found that the ballability of the mixture of iron ore concentrate and IROBEWAS increases as grain sizes of the materials reduce but increases as the moisture contents and IROBEWAS content increase up to an optimum value of moisture content in the mix before it starts to reduce. The ballability also increases as the speed of the granulator (Balling disc increases within the limit of this work. It was also observed that there was an increase in ballability with slight increase in bentonite content in the mix.

  3. Influence of cortisol on zinc metabolism in morbidly obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota Martins, Luana; Soares de Oliveira, Ana Raquel; Clímaco Cruz, Kyria Jayanne; Borges de Araújo, Camila Guedes; de Oliveira, Francisco Erasmo; Santos de Sousa, Gustavo; do Nascimento Nogueira, Nadir; do Nascimento Marreiro, Dilina

    2014-01-01

    The accumulation of visceral fat affects the metabolism of hormones and some nutrients, but these mechanisms remain unclear. To assess the influence of cortisol on the metabolism of zinc in morbidly obese women. Cross-sectional, case-control study involving 80 women aged between 20 and 59 years. The participants were divided into two groups: experimental (morbidly obese, n = 40) and control (normal weight, n = 40). Zinc concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and serum and urinary cortisol by chemiluminescence method. Zinc intake was significantly different between groups. Mean plasma zinc was lower in obese compared to control group. Mean values for erythrocyte zinc were 44.52 ± 7.84 µg/gHb and 40.17 ± 6.71 µg/gHb for obese and control groups, respectively. Urinary excretion of this mineral was higher in obese compared to control subjects (p cortisol were 9.58 ± 4.86 µg/dL for obese and 9.89 ± 5.61 µg/dL for control groups. Mean values for urinary cortisol were 163.00 ± 100.35 µg/dL and 109.71 ± 34.88 µg/dL for obese and control groups, respectively (p > 0.05). The correlation analysis between cortisol and zinc was not significant (p > 0.05). Obese patients have hypozincemia and high erythrocyte zinc levels. The correlation between zinc parameters and cortisol concentration showed no influence of this hormone on zinc metabolism.

  4. CADMIUM, COPPER, LEAD AND ZINC CONCENTRATIONS IN LOW QUALITY WINES AND ALCOHOL CONTAINING DRINKS FROM ITALY, BULGARIA AND POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Muchacka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in low quality wines produced in Bulgaria and Italy and in alcohol containing multi-fruit drinks produced in Poland. All the metals were present in tested products. Cadmium was not detected in Italian and Polish products. In one of the Bulgarian wines cadmium was detected in concentration of 0.004 mg•l-1. Italian wines were not contaminated with Pb. Its concentration was the highest in Polish drinks (0.88±0.52 mg•l-1. The largest and statistically significant differences occurred between Cu and Zn contents. Both metals had the highest concetrations in Italian wines (Cu - 0.13±0.05 mg•l-1; Zn - 0.83±0.56 mg•l-1, and the lowest in Polish products (Cu - 0.04±0.001 mg•l-1; Zn -0.18±0.16 mg•l-1.

  5. Increased Zinc Availability Enhances Initial Aggregation and Biofilm Formation of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lindsey R; Caulkins, Rachel C; Schartel, Tyler E; Rosch, Jason W; Honsa, Erin S; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Meliopoulos, Victoria A; Cherry, Sean; Thornton, Justin A

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria growing within biofilms are protected from antibiotics and the immune system. Within these structures, horizontal transfer of genes encoding virulence factors, and promoting antibiotic resistance occurs, making biofilms an extremely important aspect of pneumococcal colonization and persistence. Identifying environmental cues that contribute to the formation of biofilms is critical to understanding pneumococcal colonization and infection. Iron has been shown to be essential for the formation of pneumococcal biofilms; however, the role of other physiologically important metals such as copper, zinc, and manganese has been largely neglected. In this study, we investigated the effect of metals on pneumococcal aggregation and early biofilm formation. Our results show that biofilms increase as zinc concentrations increase. The effect was found to be zinc-specific, as altering copper and manganese concentrations did not affect biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed structural differences between biofilms grown in varying concentrations of zinc. Analysis of biofilm formation in a mutant strain lacking the peroxide-generating enzyme pyruvate oxidase, SpxB, revealed that zinc does not protect against pneumococcal H 2 O 2 . Further, analysis of a mutant strain lacking the major autolysin, LytA, indicated the role of zinc as a negative regulator of LytA-dependent autolysis, which could affect biofilm formation. Additionally, analysis of cell-cell aggregation via plating and microscopy revealed that high concentrations of zinc contribute to intercellular interaction of pneumococci. The findings from this study demonstrate that metal availability contributes to the ability of pneumococci to form aggregates and subsequently, biofilms.

  6. Dietary Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 and Zinc Oxide Stimulate Immune Reactions to Trivalent Influenza Vaccination in Pigs but Do Not Affect Virological Response upon Challenge Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenya; Burwinkel, Michael; Chai, Weidong; Lange, Elke; Blohm, Ulrike; Breithaupt, Angele; Hoffmann, Bernd; Twardziok, Sven; Rieger, Juliane; Janczyk, Pawel; Pieper, Robert; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) regularly cause significant disease in pigs worldwide. Since there is no causative treatment of SIV, we tested if probiotic Enterococcus (E.) faecium NCIMB 10415 or zinc (Zn) oxide as feed supplements provide beneficial effects upon SIV infection in piglets. Seventy-two weaned piglets were fed three different diets containing either E. faecium or different levels of Zn (2500 ppm, Znhigh; 50 ppm, Znlow). Half of the piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly (VAC) twice with an inactivated trivalent SIV vaccine, while all piglets were then infected intranasally with H3N2 SIV. Significantly higher weekly weight gains were observed in the E. faecium group before virus infection, and piglets in Znhigh and E. faecium groups gained weight after infection while those in the control group (Znlow) lost weight. Using ELISA, we found significantly higher H3N2-specific antibody levels in the E. faecium+VAC group 2 days before and at the day of challenge infection as well as at 4 and 6 days after challenge infection. Higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers were also observed in the Znhigh+VAC and E. faecium+VAC groups at 0, 1 and 4 days after infection. However, there were no significant differences in virus shedding and lung lesions between the dietary groups. Using flow cytometry analysis significantly higher activated T helper cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte percentages in the PBMCs were detected in the Znhigh and E. faecium groups at single time points after infection compared to the Znlow control group, but no prolonged effect was found. In the BAL cells no influence of dietary supplementation on immune cell percentages could be detected. Our results suggest that feeding high doses of zinc oxide and particularly E. faecium could beneficially influence humoral immune responses after vaccination and recovery from SIV infection, but not affect virus shedding and lung pathology. PMID:24489827

  7. Dietary Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 and zinc oxide stimulate immune reactions to trivalent influenza vaccination in pigs but do not affect virological response upon challenge infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenya; Burwinkel, Michael; Chai, Weidong; Lange, Elke; Blohm, Ulrike; Breithaupt, Angele; Hoffmann, Bernd; Twardziok, Sven; Rieger, Juliane; Janczyk, Pawel; Pieper, Robert; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) regularly cause significant disease in pigs worldwide. Since there is no causative treatment of SIV, we tested if probiotic Enterococcus (E.) faecium NCIMB 10415 or zinc (Zn) oxide as feed supplements provide beneficial effects upon SIV infection in piglets. Seventy-two weaned piglets were fed three different diets containing either E. faecium or different levels of Zn (2500 ppm, Zn(high); 50 ppm, Zn(low)). Half of the piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly (VAC) twice with an inactivated trivalent SIV vaccine, while all piglets were then infected intranasally with H3N2 SIV. Significantly higher weekly weight gains were observed in the E. faecium group before virus infection, and piglets in Zn(high) and E. faecium groups gained weight after infection while those in the control group (Zn(low)) lost weight. Using ELISA, we found significantly higher H3N2-specific antibody levels in the E. faecium+VAC group 2 days before and at the day of challenge infection as well as at 4 and 6 days after challenge infection. Higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers were also observed in the Zn(high)+VAC and E. faecium+VAC groups at 0, 1 and 4 days after infection. However, there were no significant differences in virus shedding and lung lesions between the dietary groups. Using flow cytometry analysis significantly higher activated T helper cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte percentages in the PBMCs were detected in the Zn(high) and E. faecium groups at single time points after infection compared to the Zn(low) control group, but no prolonged effect was found. In the BAL cells no influence of dietary supplementation on immune cell percentages could be detected. Our results suggest that feeding high doses of zinc oxide and particularly E. faecium could beneficially influence humoral immune responses after vaccination and recovery from SIV infection, but not affect virus shedding and lung pathology.

  8. Dietary Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 and zinc oxide stimulate immune reactions to trivalent influenza vaccination in pigs but do not affect virological response upon challenge infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenya Wang

    Full Text Available Swine influenza viruses (SIV regularly cause significant disease in pigs worldwide. Since there is no causative treatment of SIV, we tested if probiotic Enterococcus (E. faecium NCIMB 10415 or zinc (Zn oxide as feed supplements provide beneficial effects upon SIV infection in piglets. Seventy-two weaned piglets were fed three different diets containing either E. faecium or different levels of Zn (2500 ppm, Zn(high; 50 ppm, Zn(low. Half of the piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly (VAC twice with an inactivated trivalent SIV vaccine, while all piglets were then infected intranasally with H3N2 SIV. Significantly higher weekly weight gains were observed in the E. faecium group before virus infection, and piglets in Zn(high and E. faecium groups gained weight after infection while those in the control group (Zn(low lost weight. Using ELISA, we found significantly higher H3N2-specific antibody levels in the E. faecium+VAC group 2 days before and at the day of challenge infection as well as at 4 and 6 days after challenge infection. Higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI titers were also observed in the Zn(high+VAC and E. faecium+VAC groups at 0, 1 and 4 days after infection. However, there were no significant differences in virus shedding and lung lesions between the dietary groups. Using flow cytometry analysis significantly higher activated T helper cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte percentages in the PBMCs were detected in the Zn(high and E. faecium groups at single time points after infection compared to the Zn(low control group, but no prolonged effect was found. In the BAL cells no influence of dietary supplementation on immune cell percentages could be detected. Our results suggest that feeding high doses of zinc oxide and particularly E. faecium could beneficially influence humoral immune responses after vaccination and recovery from SIV infection, but not affect virus shedding and lung pathology.

  9. Canadian House Dust Study: Population-based concentrations, loads and loading rates of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc inside urban homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Pat E. [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Levesque, Christine [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Chénier, Marc; Gardner, H. David [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Jones-Otazo, Heather [Regions and Programs Branch, Health Canada, 180 Queen Street West, Toronto, ON, Canada M5V 3L7 (Canada); Petrovic, Sanya [Contaminated Sites Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Ave West, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    The Canadian House Dust Study was designed to obtain nationally representative urban house dust metal concentrations (μg g{sup −1}) and metal loadings (μg m{sup −2}) for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Consistent sampling of active dust of known age and provenance (area sampled) also permitted the calculation of indoor loading rates (mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1} for dust and μg m{sup −2} day{sup −1} for metals) for the winter season (from 2007 to 2010) when houses are most tightly sealed. Geomean/median indoor dust loading rates in homes located more than 2 km away from industry of any kind (9.6/9.1 mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1}; n = 580) were significantly lower (p < .001) than geomean (median) dust loading rates in homes located within 2 km of industry (13.5/13.4 mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1}; n = 421). Proximity to industry was characterized by higher indoor metal loading rates (p < .003), but no difference in dust metal concentrations (.29 ≥ p ≤ .97). Comparisons of non-smokers' and smokers' homes in non-industrial zones showed higher metal loading rates (.005 ≥ p ≤ .038) in smokers' homes, but no difference in dust metal concentrations (.15 ≥ p ≤ .97). Relationships between house age and dust metal concentrations were significant for Pb, Cd and Zn (p < .001) but not for the other four metals (.14 ≥ p ≤ .87). All seven metals, however, displayed a significant increase in metal loading rates with house age (p < .001) due to the influence of higher dust loading rates in older homes (p < .001). Relationships between three measures of metals in house dust – concentration, load, and loading rate – in the context of house age, smoking behavior and urban setting consistently show that concentration data is a useful indicator of the presence of metal sources in the home, whereas dust mass is the overriding influence on metal loadings and loading rates

  10. Controlled water deficit during ripening affects proanthocyanidin synthesis, concentration and composition in Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Mella, Alejandro; Talaverano, M Inmaculada; Villalobos-González, Luis; Ribalta-Pizarro, Camila; Pastenes, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    The influence of controlled water deficit on the phenolic composition and gene expression of VvLAR2, VvMYBPA1, VvMYBPA2 and VvMYB4a in Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins throughout ripening was investigated. The assay was carried out on own-rooted Vitis vinifera plants cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in a commercial vineyard from veraison until commercial harvest. Three irrigation regimes were used from veraison until harvest with the following treatments: T1: 3.6 mm day -1 ; T2: 1.8 mm day -1 and T3: 0.3 mm day -1 . The content of total phenols and total anthocyanins in grape skins increased during ripening, but water deficit did not produce differences among treatments in the total anthocyanin concentration. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) decreased throughout ripening, although approximately 25 days after veraison (DAV), their content slightly increased. This effect was more pronounced in the most restrictive treatment (T3). A similar pattern was observed in the transcript abundance of VvLAR2, VvMYBPA1 and VvMYB4a. PAs separation revealed differences in concentration but not in the proportion among fractions among the irrigation treatments. Additionally, controlled water deficit increased the mean degree of polymerization and the flavan-3-ol polymeric concentration in grape skins throughout ripening but with no effects on the extent of PAs galloylation. Our results suggest that the water status of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines affects the gene expression for proteins involved in the synthesis of PAs, increasing their concentration and also their composition, with further evidence for the efficacy of a convenient, controlled water deficit strategy for grapevine cultivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Subinhibitory concentrations of perilla oil affect the expression of secreted virulence factor genes in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiazhang Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenicity of staphylococcus aureus is dependent largely upon its ability to secrete a number of virulence factors, therefore, anti-virulence strategy to combat S. aureus-mediated infections is now gaining great interest. It is widely recognized that some plant essential oils could affect the production of staphylococcal exotoxins when used at subinhibitory concentrations. Perilla [Perilla frutescens (L. Britton], a natural medicine found in eastern Asia, is primarily used as both a medicinal and culinary herb. Its essential oil (perilla oil has been previously demonstrated to be active against S. aureus. However, there are no data on the influence of perilla oil on the production of S. aureus exotoxins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of perilla oil against S. aureus strains. Hemolysis, tumour necrosis factor (TNF release, Western blot, and real-time RT-PCR assays were performed to evaluate the effects of subinhibitory concentrations of perilla oil on exotoxins production in S. aureus. The data presented here show that perilla oil dose-dependently decreased the production of α-toxin, enterotoxins A and B (the major staphylococcal enterotoxins, and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1 in both methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The production of α-toxin, SEA, SEB, and TSST-1 in S. aureus was decreased by perilla oil. These data suggest that perilla oil may be useful for the treatment of S. aureus infections when used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics, which can increase exotoxins production by S. aureus at subinhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, perilla oil could be rationally applied in food systems as a novel food preservative both to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and to repress the production of exotoxins, particularly staphylococcal enterotoxins.

  12. Fear-of-intimacy-mediated zinc transport controls the function of zinc-finger transcription factors involved in myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Rando, Marta; Atienza-Manuel, Alexandra; Martín, Paloma; Burke, Richard; Ruiz-Gómez, Mar

    2016-06-01

    Zinc is a component of one-tenth of all human proteins. Its cellular concentration is tightly regulated because its dyshomeostasis has catastrophic health consequences. Two families of zinc transporters control zinc homeostasis in organisms, but there is little information about their specific developmental roles. We show that the ZIP transporter Fear-of-intimacy (Foi) is necessary for the formation of Drosophila muscles. In foi mutants, myoblasts segregate normally, but their specification is affected, leading to the formation of a misshapen muscle pattern and distorted midgut. The observed phenotypes could be ascribed to the inactivation of specific zinc-finger transcription factors (ZFTFs), supporting the hypothesis that they are a consequence of intracellular depletion of zinc. Accordingly, foi phenotypes can be rescued by mesodermal expression of other ZIP members with similar subcellular localization. We propose that Foi acts mostly as a transporter to regulate zinc intracellular homeostasis, thereby impacting on the activity of ZFTFs that control specific developmental processes. Our results additionally suggest a possible explanation for the presence of large numbers of zinc transporters in organisms based on differences in ion transport specificity and/or degrees of activity among transporters. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Detection of quantitative trait loci controlling grain zinc concentration using Australian wild rice, Oryza meridionalis, a potential genetic resource for biofortification of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Iwata, Masahide; Taniko, Kenta; Monden, Gotaro; Miyazaki, Naoya; Orn, Chhourn; Tsujimura, Yuki; Yoshida, Shusaku; Ma, Jian Feng; Ishii, Takashige

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is one of the essential mineral elements for both plants and humans. Zn deficiency in human is one of the major causes of hidden hunger, a serious health problem observed in many developing countries. Therefore, increasing Zn concentration in edible part is an important issue for improving human Zn nutrition. Here, we found that an Australian wild rice O. meridionalis showed higher grain Zn concentrations compared with cultivated and other wild rice species. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was then performed to identify the genomic regions controlling grain Zn levels using backcross recombinant inbred lines derived from O. sativa 'Nipponbare' and O. meridionalis W1627. Four QTLs responsible for high grain Zn were detected on chromosomes 2, 9, and 10. The QTL on the chromosome 9 (named qGZn9), which showed the largest effect on grain Zn concentration was confirmed with the introgression line, which had a W1627 chromosomal segment covering the qGZn9 region in the genetic background of O. sativa 'Nipponbare'. Fine mapping of this QTL resulted in identification of two tightly linked loci, qGZn9a and qGZn9b. The candidate regions of qGZn9a and qGZn9b were estimated to be 190 and 950 kb, respectively. Furthermore, we also found that plants having a wild chromosomal segment covering qGZn9a, but not qGZn9b, is associated with fertility reduction. qGZn9b, therefore, provides a valuable allele for breeding rice with high Zn in the grains.

  14. Effect of precursor solutions stirring on deep level defects concentration and spatial distribution in low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim Alnoor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods (NRs with 120-300 nm diameters are synthesized via the low temperature aqueous chemical route at 80 °C on silver-coated glass substrates. The influence of varying the precursor solutions stirring durations on the concentration and spatial distributions of deep level defects in ZnO NRs is investigated. Room temperature micro-photoluminesnce (μ-PL spectra were collected for all samples. Cathodoluminescence (CL spectra of the as-synthesized NRs reveal a significant change in the intensity ratio of the near band edge emission (NBE to the deep-level emission (DLE peaks with increasing stirring durations. This is attributed to the variation in the concentration of the oxygen-deficiency with increasing stirring durations as suggested from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Spatially resolved CL spectra taken along individual NRs revealed that stirring the precursor solutions for relatively short duration (1-3 h, which likely induced high super saturation under thermodynamic equilibrium during the synthesis process, is observed to favor the formation of point defects moving towards the tip of the NRs. In contrary, stirring for longer duration (5-15 h will induce low super saturation favoring the formation of point defects located at the bottom of the NRs. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to control the concentration and spatial distribution of deep level defects in ZnO NRs by varying the stirring durations of the precursor solutions.

  15. Detection of quantitative trait loci controlling grain zinc concentration using Australian wild rice, Oryza meridionalis, a potential genetic resource for biofortification of rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn is one of the essential mineral elements for both plants and humans. Zn deficiency in human is one of the major causes of hidden hunger, a serious health problem observed in many developing countries. Therefore, increasing Zn concentration in edible part is an important issue for improving human Zn nutrition. Here, we found that an Australian wild rice O. meridionalis showed higher grain Zn concentrations compared with cultivated and other wild rice species. The quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis was then performed to identify the genomic regions controlling grain Zn levels using backcross recombinant inbred lines derived from O. sativa 'Nipponbare' and O. meridionalis W1627. Four QTLs responsible for high grain Zn were detected on chromosomes 2, 9, and 10. The QTL on the chromosome 9 (named qGZn9, which showed the largest effect on grain Zn concentration was confirmed with the introgression line, which had a W1627 chromosomal segment covering the qGZn9 region in the genetic background of O. sativa 'Nipponbare'. Fine mapping of this QTL resulted in identification of two tightly linked loci, qGZn9a and qGZn9b. The candidate regions of qGZn9a and qGZn9b were estimated to be 190 and 950 kb, respectively. Furthermore, we also found that plants having a wild chromosomal segment covering qGZn9a, but not qGZn9b, is associated with fertility reduction. qGZn9b, therefore, provides a valuable allele for breeding rice with high Zn in the grains.

  16. Pro-inflammatory responses of RAW264.7 macrophages when treated with ultralow concentrations of silver, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanni, Marcella [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, Singapore 117585 (Singapore); Yue, Junqi; Zhang, Lifeng [PUB, 40 Scotts Road, Singapore 228231 (Singapore); Xie, Jianping [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, Singapore 117585 (Singapore); Ong, Choon Nam [Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, 12 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117549 (Singapore); NUS Environmental Research Institute, National University of Singapore, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Leong, David Tai, E-mail: cheltwd@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, Singapore 117585 (Singapore)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Ultralow levels of common nanoparticles exist in environment and consumer products. • Common nanoparticles at ultralow levels induce mild pro-inflammation by macrophages. • The nanoparticles are cytotoxic only at high doses. - Abstract: To cellular systems, nanoparticles are considered as foreign particles. Upon particles and cells contact, innate immune system responds by activating the inflammatory pathway. However, excessive inflammation had been linked to various diseases ranging from allergic responses to cancer. Common nanoparticles, namely silver, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide exist in the environment as well as in consumer products at ultralow level of 10{sup −6}–10{sup −3} μg mL{sup −1}. However, so far the risks of such low NPs concentrations remain unexplored. Therefore, we attempted to screen the pro-inflammatory responses after ultralow concentration treatments of the three nanoparticles on RAW264.7 macrophages, which are a part of the immune system, at both cellular and gene levels. Even though cytotoxicity was only observed at nanoparticles concentrations as high as 10 μg mL{sup −1}, through the level of NF-κB and upregulation of pro-inflammatory genes, we observed activation of the induction of genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines starting already at 10{sup −7} μg mL{sup −1}. This calls for more thorough characterization of nanoparticles in the environment as well as in consumer products to ascertain the health and safety of the consumers and living systems in general.

  17. Zinc Biochemistry: From a Single Zinc Enzyme to a Key Element of Life12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional essentiality of zinc for the growth of living organisms had been recognized long before zinc biochemistry began with the discovery of zinc in carbonic anhydrase in 1939. Painstaking analytical work then demonstrated the presence of zinc as a catalytic and structural cofactor in a few hundred enzymes. In the 1980s, the field again gained momentum with the new principle of “zinc finger” proteins, in which zinc has structural functions in domains that interact with other biomolecules. Advances in structural biology and a rapid increase in the availability of gene/protein databases now made it possible to predict zinc-binding sites from metal-binding motifs detected in sequences. This procedure resulted in the definition of zinc proteomes and the remarkable estimate that the human genome encodes ∼3000 zinc proteins. More recent developments focus on the regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions in intra- and intercellular information transfer and have tantalizing implications for yet additional functions of zinc in signal transduction and cellular control. At least three dozen proteins homeostatically control the vesicular storage and subcellular distribution of zinc and the concentrations of zinc(II) ions. Novel principles emerge from quantitative investigations on how strongly zinc interacts with proteins and how it is buffered to control the remarkably low cellular and subcellular concentrations of free zinc(II) ions. It is fair to conclude that the impact of zinc for health and disease will be at least as far-reaching as that of iron. PMID:23319127

  18. Zinc concentrations in the water column influenced by the oil spill in the vicinity of the Prestige shipwreck; Concentraciones de zinc en la columna de agua influida por el derrame de fuel en los alrededores a la zona de naufragio del Prestige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prego, Ricardo; Cobelo-Garcia, Antonio [Marine Biogeochemistry Research Group, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas CSIC, Vigo (Spain)

    2003-03-15

    Sixteen days after the Prestige tanker sank in the Northeast Atlantic (42 degrees 11 minutes North, 12 degrees 02 minutes West), a sampling campaign in the neighbouring water column was carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of zinc contamination due to the oil spill. Samples were taken in the water column (0-190 m) and in bottom waters -in the vicinity of the bow and stern- where the tanker lies (3520-3820 m). Total zinc concentrations found ranged from 14 to 571 nM, which are from one to two orders of magnitude higher than typical concentrations in these waters (0.2 - 3.2 nM). Therefore, a contamination by this metal, contained in the oil spilt from the tanks of the sunken ship, was detected. Zinc was also found to be a good tracer to detect the presence of fuel in those areas free of patches. [Spanish] Dieciseis dias despues del hundimiento del petrolero Prestige en el Atlantico Noreste (zona 42 grados 11 minutos Norte, 12 grados 02 minutos Este) se llevo a cabo una campana de muestreo en la columna de agua adyacente para evaluar la posible contaminacion de zinc debido al fuel derramado al agua. Para ello se tomaron muestras en la columna de agua (0-190m) y en el fondo marino -en las proximidades de la proa y la popa- donde yace el petrolero (3530-3820 m). Las concentraciones totales de zinc obtenidas oscilaron entre 14 y 571 nM, esto es, de uno a dos ordenes de magnitud superiores a las normales en esas aguas (0.2-3.2 nM). Se detecta, pues, una contaminacion por este metal contenido en el fuel vertido procedente de los tanques del buque hundido. El zinc resulta, ademas, un buen trazador para detectar la presencia de fuel en zonas limpias de manchas.

  19. Effect of increasing concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel, or zinc on lettuce grown in nutrient solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroughi, M.; Hoffmann, G.; Teicher, K.; Venter, F.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were performed to examine concentrations at which excess symptoms could be expected, which kind of damage symptoms appear and in which amount the heavy metals are enriched in roots and leaves. The following results were revealed. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata L.) can tolerate amounts of Cd below 1 ppm, of Ni below 2 ppm and of Pb below 20 ppm in the nutrient solution without any symptoms of excess. The growth of lettuce was mostly influenced by Cd, least of all by Pb. Only Ni caused specific poisoning symptoms. Heavy metals were enriched in different amounts in roots and leaves. The contents of Cd and Ni were more than twice as high as those of Pb. The heavy metals influenced the uptake and distribution of macro-elements more (nitrogen) or less (potassium) vigorously.

  20. Gene expression of the zinc transporter ZIP14 (SLC39a14) is affected by weight loss and metabolic status and associates with PPARγ in human adipose tissue and 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Trine Maxel; Smidt, Kamille; Larsen, Agnete

    2015-01-01

    of clinical importance, including body mass index, triglyceride, and insulin resistance, were inversely correlated with ZIP14. During early adipogensis an up-regulation of ZIP14 gene expression was found. PPARγ gene expression was positively correlated with the ZIP14 gene expression in both adipose tissue......BACKGROUND: The expansion and function of adipose tissue are important during the development of insulin resistance and inflammation in obesity. Zinc dyshomeostasis is common in obese individuals. In the liver, zinc influx transporter ZIP14, affects proliferation and glucose metabolism but the role...

  1. Even low alcohol concentrations affect obstacle avoidance reactions in healthy senior individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienhuis Bart

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol is a commonly used social drug and driving under influence is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents1. To improve road safety, legal limits are set for blood alcohol concentration (BAC and driving, usually at 0.05% (most European countries or 0.08% (most US states, Canada and UK. In contrast, for walking there are no legal limits, yet there are numerous accounts of people stumbling and falling after drinking. Alcohol, even at these low concentrations, affects brain function and increases fall risk. An increased fall risk has been associated with impaired obstacle avoidance skills. Low level BACs are likely to affect obstacle avoidance reactions during gait, since the brain areas that are presumably involved in these reactions have been shown to be influenced by alcohol. Therefore we investigated the effect of low to moderate alcohol consumption on such reactions. Thirteen healthy senior individuals (mean(SD age: 61.5(4.4 years, 9 male were subjected to an obstacle avoidance task on a treadmill after low alcohol consumption. Fast stepping adjustments were required to successfully avoid suddenly appearing obstacles. Response times and amplitudes of the m. biceps femoris, a prime mover, as well as avoidance failure rates were assessed. Findings After the first alcoholic drink, 12 of the 13 participants already had slower responses. Without exception, all participants' biceps femoris response times were delayed after the final alcoholic drink (avg ± sd:180 ± 20 ms; p r = 0.6; p Conclusions The present results clearly show that even with BACs considered to be safe for driving, obstacle avoidance reactions are inadequate, late, and too small. This is likely to contribute to an increased fall risk. Therefore we suggest that many of the alcohol-related falls are the result of the disruptive effects of alcohol on the online corrections of the ongoing gait pattern when walking under challenging conditions.

  2. Effects of dietary zinc status on seizure susceptibility and hippocampal zinc content in the El (epilepsy) mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahori, M; Itoh, M

    1990-10-08

    The effects of dietary zinc status on the development of convulsive seizures, and zinc concentrations in discrete hippocampal areas and other parts of the limbic system were studied in the El mouse model receiving zinc-adequate, zinc-deficient or zinc-loaded diets. Seizure susceptibility of the El mouse was increased by zinc deficiency, and decreased by zinc loading, while an adequate diet had no effect. Zinc loading was accompanied by a marked increase in hippocampal zinc content in the El mouse. Conversely, hippocampal zinc content declined in the El mouse fed a zinc-deficient diet. These results suggest that zinc may have a preventive effect on the development of seizures in the El mouse, and hippocampal zinc may play an important role in the pathophysiology of convulsive seizures of epilepsy.

  3. Pretransplant soluble CD30 serum concentration does not affect kidney graft outcomes 3 years after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovač, J; Arnol, M; Vidan Jeras, B; Bren, A F; Kandus, A

    2010-12-01

    An elevated serum concentration of soluble the form of CD30 (sCD30), an activation marker of mainly T(H)2-type cytokines producing T lymphocytes, has been reported as a predictive factor for acute cellular rejection episodes and poor graft outcomes in kidney transplantation. This historic cohort study investigated the association of a pretransplant sCD30 serum concentrations with kidney graft function and graft survival 3 years posttransplantation in adult recipients of deceased donor kidney grafts, treated with monoclonal anti-CD25 antibodies as an induction treatment combined with a cyclosporine (CsA)-based maintenance triple therapy. The pretransplant sera of 296 recipients were tested for sCD30 content using a microsphere flow-cytometry assay. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was determined by the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. The incidences of graft loss were calculated with the use of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and compared using the log-rank test. According to the distribution of the pretransplant sCD30 levels concentration ≥2700 pg/mL was defined as high (n = 146) and concentration sCD30 groups (65 ± 24 vs 67 ± 21 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P = .43); there was no association between the eGFR 3 years after transplantation and the pretransplant sCD30 levels (r(2) = 0.002; P = .49). Graft survival 3 years after transplantation was also not different in the recipients in high and low sCD30 groups (P = .52). In our adult deceased-donor kidney graft recipients, the pretransplant sCD30 serum concentration was not a predictive factor of immunologic risk associated with the kidney graft function 3 years posttransplantation; neither did it affect graft survival 3 years after transplantation. The immunosuppression with anti-CD25 antibodies as an induction treatment combined with the CsA-based maintenance triple therapy could possibly be decisive for our findings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Time-dependent irisin concentration changes in patients affected by overt hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zybek-Kocik, Ariadna; Sawicka-Gutaj, Nadia; Wrotkowska, Elżbieta; Sowiński, Jerzy; Ruchała, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Irisin, a cleaved and secreted part of the transmembrane protein FNDC5, is a recently discovered adipo-myokine that is said to have a significant influence on body metabolism. Changes in thyrometabolic state may also alter the serum irisin level. Since already reported data are not fully consistent, the aim of the present research is to evaluate the time-dependent changes in serum irisin level in patients affected by overt hypothyroidism. The study involved 36 subjects - two groups of 12 patients with long-lasting (AITD) and short-term (TC) overt hypothyroidism, and a control group (CG) of 12 subjects, matched for age and gender. Serum irisin level, thyrometabolic state, creatine kinase (CK - muscle damage marker), glucose, and insulin concentration were assessed and compared between groups. The irisin level was significantly lower in AITD than in TC and CG (p = 0.02; p 0.05). There was no significant difference between free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels in AITD and TC patients (p > 0.05). CK concentration was significantly higher in AITD than in CG patients (p 0.05) as well as TC and CG patients (p > 0.05). Additionally, the CK level negatively correlated with the irisin level (r = -0.58; p hypothyroidism have lower irisin levels that those with short-term disorder. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (5): 476-480).

  5. BLOOD SELENIUM CONCENTRATION AFFECT MASTITIS AND MILK QUALITY IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidov Ivana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk quality is usually defined in terms of mastitis. Milk with somatic cell count low then 400.000/ml and visibly normal (no clots is considered high quality. Thirty Holstein cows were used in the study to determine affect blood serum selenium concentration on mastitis and milk quality. Cows received ad libitum access to potable water and daily 0.3 mg/kg inorganic selenium supplementation in food. Blood and milk samples were taken at first and sixth lactating month. Mean selenium blood serum concentrations were found to be lower within first lactating month, and then increased in the sixth lactating month. Average somatic cell count at first lactating month was 450.000/ml of milk and at sixth lactating month was 355.000/ml. On the basis of these results it can be conclude that selenium have importance in proper functioning of the mammary glands of cows, and in reducing mastitis and in improving milk quality.

  6. Sampling method, storage and pretreatment of sediment affect AVS concentrations with consequences for bioassay responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, H.J. de [Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen (Netherlands); Centre for Ecosystem Studies, Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: marieke.delange@wur.nl; Griethuysen, C. van; Koelmans, A.A. [Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    Sediment treatment and sediment storage may alter sediment toxicity, and consequently biotic response. Purpose of our study was to combine these three aspects (treatment-toxicity-biotic response) in one integrated approach. We used Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS) concentrations as a proxy of the disturbance of the sediment. AVS and Simultaneously Extracted Metal (SEM) concentrations were compared to bioassay responses with the freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate Asellus aquaticus. Storage conditions and sediment treatment affected AVS but not SEM levels. AVS can be used as a proxy for sediment disturbance. The best way to pretreat the sediment for use in a bioassay in order to maintain initial AVS conditions was to sample the sediment with an Ekman grab, immediately store it in a jar without headspace, and freeze it as soon as possible. In a survey using seven different sediments, bioassay responses of A. aquaticus were correlated with SEM and AVS characteristics. - Change in AVS is a good proxy for sediment disturbance and combined with SEM it can be used as a suitable predictor for biotic effects of sediment contamination.

  7. Separation and Pre-concentration of Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Nickel and Zinc by Solid-Liquid Extraction of their Cocrystallized Naphthalene Dithizone Chelate in Saline Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Antônio C. Spínola

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for separation and pre-concentration of trace amounts of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in brine samples has been proposed. It is based on the adsorption of metal ions onto dithizone co-crystallized with microcrystalline naphthalene, in the pH range 8.5-9.1. Nitric acid is used to back-extract the cations from the solid phase, which are measured by ICP-OES. Various parameters, such as the effect of pH, stirring time, and amounts of solid phase, have been studied in detail, to optimize the conditions for the determination of trace amounts of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn in synthetic brine samples. The limits of detection values expressed in mug L-1 are 44 (Zn, 11 (Ni, 30 (Cd, 47 (Pb and 11 (Cu. The precision of the procedure was determined by running 10 replicate samples, each one containing 250 mug L-1 of each element and the relative standard deviations were 2.71 % (Cd, 2.15 % (Cu, 1.53 % (Pb, 2.47 % (Ni, and 2.78 % (Zn. The accuracy of the procedure was confirmed by applying the analyte additions method and the results indicated that quantitative recoveries (superscript three 95 % were obtained.

  8. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  9. Chloroquine is a zinc ionophore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xue

    Full Text Available Chloroquine is an established antimalarial agent that has been recently tested in clinical trials for its anticancer activity. The favorable effect of chloroquine appears to be due to its ability to sensitize cancerous cells to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and induce apoptosis. The present study investigated the interaction of zinc ions with chloroquine in a human ovarian cancer cell line (A2780. Chloroquine enhanced zinc uptake by A2780 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as assayed using a fluorescent zinc probe. This enhancement was attenuated by TPEN, a high affinity metal-binding compound, indicating the specificity of the zinc uptake. Furthermore, addition of copper or iron ions had no effect on chloroquine-induced zinc uptake. Fluorescent microscopic examination of intracellular zinc distribution demonstrated that free zinc ions are more concentrated in the lysosomes after addition of chloroquine, which is consistent with previous reports showing that chloroquine inhibits lysosome function. The combination of chloroquine with zinc enhanced chloroquine's cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in A2780 cells. Thus chloroquine is a zinc ionophore, a property that may contribute to chloroquine's anticancer activity.

  10. Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in juvenile Chinook salmon and selected fish-forage organisms (aquatic insects) in the upper Sacramento River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; Thompson, Larry D.; Walsh, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed the downstream extent andseverity of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn)contamination from acid mine drainage on juvenile chinook salmon(Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and aquatic insects over aroughly 270-km reach of the Sacramento River below KeswickReservoir. During April–May 1998, salmon were collected fromfour sites in the river and from a fish hatchery that receiveswater from Battle Creek. Salmon from river sites were examinedfor gut contents to document their consumption of variousinvertebrate taxa, whereas salmon from river sites and thehatchery were used for metal determinations. Midge(Chironomidae) and caddisfly (Trichoptera) larvae and mayfly(Ephemeroptera) nymphs were collected for metal determinationsduring April–June from river sites and from Battle and Buttecreeks. The fish hatchery and Battle and Butte creeks served asreference sites because they had no history of receiving minedrainage. Salmon consumed mostly midge larvae and pupae (44.0%,damp-dry biomass), caddisfly larvae (18.9%), Cladocera (5.8%),and mayfly nymphs (5.7%). These results demonstrated thatinsects selected for metal determinations were important as fishforage. Dry-weight concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn weregenerally far higher in salmon and insects from the river thanfrom reference sites. Within the river, high metalconcentrations persisted as far downstream as South Meridian (thelowermost sampling site). Maximum concentrations of Cd (30.7 μg g-1) and Zn (1230 μg g-1),but not Cu (87.4 μg g-1), in insects exceeded amounts that other investigators reported as toxic when fed for prolonged periods to juvenile salmonids.

  11. Properties of tire rubber with zinc-containing technological additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Kayushnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we studied the influence of zinc-containing technological additives on partial replacement of zinc oxide and stearic acid on deformation-strength and performance properties of tire elastomeric compositions based on polyisoprene rubber and combination of oil-filled butadiene-styrene and polybutadiene rubbers. It was revealed that partial replacement of zinc oxide and stearic acid with zinc-containing technological additives does not significantly affect the basic physico-mechanical properties of rubbers based on synthetic rubbers of general use. It was determined that the introduction of zinc-containing technological additives SCC2 in combination with zinc oxide in all the studied ratios and SCC3 in combination with zinc oxide in 4: 1 and 3: 1 ratios leads to increase (up to 10.4% of the resistance of these rubbers under the action of temperature-force fields, which is probably due to a more even distribution of polar components of curing system in non-polar elastomeric matrix, as well as the type of cross-links formed during vulcanization under the action of surface-active additives. It has been found that the introduction of zinc-containing additives into the elastomeric compositions based on SRMS-30 ARKM-15 + SRD in combination with zinc oxide leads to increase to 6.3% of wear resistance of rubbers, which may be due to a lower defectiveness of vulcanization structure of these rubbers, concentration of stress centers in the material. For rubbers based on SRI-3, preservation of bond strength of rubber with a textile cord at a sufficiently high level is shown.

  12. Gender, season and management affect fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in captive goral (Naemorhedus griseus in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwan Khonmee

    Full Text Available Chinese goral (Naemorhedus griseus are a threatened species in Thailand and the focus of captive breeding for possible reintroduction. However, little is known of their biology or what factors in the captive environment affect welfare. Our objective was to determine the impact of gender, season, and management on goral adrenal activity. We hypothesized that differences in fecal glucocorticoid concentrations would be related to animal density. Fecal samples were collected 3 days/week for 1 year from 63 individuals (n = 32 males, 31 females at two facilities that house the majority of goral in Thailand: Omkoi Wildlife Sanctuary (Omkoi, an off-exhibit breeding center that houses goral in individual pens (16 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females and in small family groups (8 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females; and the Chiang Mai Night Safari (NS, a zoo that maintains 31 goral (n = 17 males, 14 females in one large pen. Glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were higher in male than female goral at Omkoi throughout the year, and there was a seasonal effect on adrenal activity (p<0.05. Goral at Omkoi and NS were used to test the effect of animal density on fecal glucocorticoid excretion of goral housed in similar-sized enclosures. Overall, the highest levels were found at NS (n = 31 adults/pen; 27 m2 per animal compared to Omkoi (n = 2 adults/pen; 400 m2 per animal (p<0.05. Overall findings support our hypothesis that animal density and aspects of the captive environment impact adrenal steroid activity in captive goral. In addition, gender and season also had significant effects on glucocorticoid metabolite production. Potential stressors pertaining to the welfare of this species were identified, which will guide future efforts to improve management and create self-sustaining and healthy populations of this threatened species.

  13. Chronic loss of melanin-concentrating hormone affects motivational aspects of feeding in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joram D Mul

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Current epidemic obesity levels apply great medical and financial pressure to the strenuous economy of obesity-prone cultures, and neuropeptides involved in body weight regulation are regarded as attractive targets for a possible treatment of obesity in humans. The lateral hypothalamus and the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh form a hypothalamic-limbic neuropeptide feeding circuit mediated by Melanin-Concentrating Hormone (MCH. MCH promotes feeding behavior via MCH receptor-1 (MCH1R in the AcbSh, although this relationship has not been fully characterized. Given the AcbSh mediates reinforcing properties of food, we hypothesized that MCH modulates motivational aspects of feeding.Here we show that chronic loss of the rat MCH-precursor Pmch decreased food intake predominantly via a reduction in meal size during rat development and reduced high-fat food-reinforced operant responding in adult rats. Moreover, acute AcbSh administration of Neuropeptide-GE and Neuropeptide-EI (NEI, both additional neuropeptides derived from Pmch, or chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of NEI, did not affect feeding behavior in adult pmch(+/+ or pmch(-/- rats. However, acute administration of MCH to the AcbSh of adult pmch(-/- rats elevated feeding behavior towards wild type levels. Finally, adult pmch(-/- rats showed increased ex vivo electrically evoked dopamine release and increased limbic dopamine transporter levels, indicating that chronic loss of Pmch in the rat affects the limbic dopamine system.Our findings support the MCH-MCH1R system as an amplifier of consummatory behavior, confirming this system as a possible target for the treatment of obesity. We propose that MCH-mediated signaling in the AcbSh positively mediates motivational aspects of feeding behavior. Thereby it provides a crucial signal by which hypothalamic neural circuits control energy balance and guide limbic brain areas to enhance motivational or incentive-related aspects of food consumption.

  14. Leaching and recovery of zinc and copper from brass slag by sulfuric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, I.M.; Nayl, A.A.; Daoud, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Leaching and recovery processes for zinc and copper from brass slag by sulfuric acid were carried out and iron and aluminum were also precipitated as hydroxides in addition to silica gel. The factors affecting the performance and efficiency of the leaching processsuch as agitation rate, leaching time, acid concentration and temperature were separately investigated. The results obtained revealed that zinc and copper are successfully recovered from these secondary resources, where the percent r...

  15. Effect of Zinc Deficiency and Excess on the Growth and Photosynthesis of Winter Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    N.M. Kaznina; A.F. Titov

    2017-01-01

    Zinc is one of the necessary micronutrients for plants, which performs a number of various functions in their cells. Therefore, the deficiency of this element negatively affects on plants and leads to a significant decrease of their productivity. On the other hand, zinc in high concentrations is toxic to plants, and its accumulation in aerial organs, especially in cereals, represent a real danger to human and animal health. In this investigation the effect of the deficiency (Zn 0 μM) and the ...

  16. Leaching and recovery of zinc and copper from brass slag by sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaching and recovery processes for zinc and copper from brass slag by sulfuric acid were carried out and iron and aluminum were also precipitated as hydroxides in addition to silica gel. The factors affecting the performance and efficiency of the leaching processsuch as agitation rate, leaching time, acid concentration and temperature were separately investigated. The results obtained revealed that zinc and copper are successfully recovered from these secondary resources, where the percent recovery amounts to 95% and 99% for zinc and copper, respectively. The experimental data of this leaching process were well interpreted with the shrinking core model under chemically controlled processes. The apparent activation energy for the leaching of zinc has been evaluated using the Arrhenius expression. Based on the experimental results, a separation method and a flow sheet were developed and tested to separate zinc, copper, iron, aluminum and silica gel from the brass slag.

  17. High concentrations of radon. Specifically affected buildings; Hohe Radonkonzentrationen. Besonders betroffene Gebaeudetypen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Winfried [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The paper presents a concept for the prognosis of exceeding probabilities of thresholds of radon in dwellings in different building types. A transfer model for the interface subsoil - building was used as a basis. The partial datasets obtained by stratification of five relevant building characteristics can be de-scribed by a 3-parametric-lognormal distribution good in most times. The available data permit statistical predictions to 60 combinations of building characteristics for the region ''east'' and 85 combinations of building characteristics for the region ''West''. The uncertainties for the probability of exceeding a threshold were estimated from the data with bootstrapping. The importance of different building characteristics for the presence of enhanced radon concentrations can be predicted from the results of this estimation. Therefore, targeting of affected buildings is possible on this basis. Regional prognoses of exceeding probabilities for building types with high presence can also be created by the use of transfer factors. A Strategy to reduce the health risk from radon in the long run might be derived, where alongside the delineation of radon prone areas, special attention should be paid to a set out building characteristics, also outside the radon prone areas.

  18. Biological variables and health status affecting inorganic element concentrations in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from Portugal (western Iberian Peninsula)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Marisa; Monteiro, Silvia S.; Torres, Jordi; Oliveira, Isabel; Sequeira, Marina; López, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    The coastal preferences of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) intensify their exposure to human activities. The harbour porpoise Iberian population is presently very small and information about the threats it endures is vital for the conservation efforts that are being implemented to avoid local extinction. The present study explored the possible relation between the accumulation of trace elements by porpoises and their sex, body length, nutritional state, presence of parasites and gross pathologies. The concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) were evaluated in 42 porpoises stranded in Portugal between 2005 and 2013. Considering European waters, porpoises stranded in Portugal present the highest Hg concentrations and the lowest Cd concentrations, which may reflect dietary preferences and the geographic availability of these pollutants. While no effect of sex on trace element concentrations was detected, there was a positive relationship between porpoise body length and the concentration of Cd, Hg and Pb. Animals in worse nutritional condition showed higher levels of Zn. Harbour porpoises with high parasite burdens showed lower levels of Zn and As in all analysed tissues and also lower levels of renal Ni, while those showing gross pathologies presented higher Zn and Hg levels. This is the first data on the relationship between trace elements and health-related variables in porpoises from southern European Atlantic waters, providing valuable baseline information about the contamination status of this vulnerable population. - Highlights: • High levels of mercury in harbour porpoises from Portugal. • Evidence of bioaccumulation of non-essential trace elements. • Presence of parasites influenced some essential trace elements. • Evidence of nutritional state effect on Zn levels. • Presence of gross pathologies influenced Zn and Hg levels. - The small harbour

  19. The affect of loyal customer concentration benefits when choosing banking and insurance service provider, Case: Etelä-Karjalan Osuuspankki

    OpenAIRE

    Suhonen, Sari

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to examine how the loyal customer concentration benefits affect when a customer is choosing a banking and insurance service provider. The loyal customer concentration benefits are used in OP-Pohjola Group but this research only concerns Etelä-Karjalan Osuuspankki’s loyal customer concentration benefits. The purpose of the research was also to gain information about what clients think about these benefits: what benefits are important and how these benefits can ...

  20. Effects of concentration of reduced graphene oxide on properties of sol–gel prepared Al-doped zinc oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Ching-Tian; Wang, Fang-Hsing, E-mail: fansen@dragon.nchu.edu.tw; Chen, Wei-Chun

    2016-04-30

    Reduced-graphene-oxide-incorporated aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO:rGO) composite thin films were synthesized on glass substrates by using the sol–gel method. The effect of the rGO concentration (0–3 wt%) on structural, electrical, and optical properties of the composite film was investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Hall-effect measurement, and ultraviolet–visible spectrometry. All of the composite films showed a typical hexagonal wurtzite structure, and the films incorporated with 1 wt% rGO showed the highest (0 0 2) peak intensity. The sheet resistance of the films was effectively reduced by a factor of more than two as the rGO ratio increased from 0 to 1 wt%. However, the sheet resistance increased with a further increase in the rGO ratio. The optical transmittance of the composite film monotonically decreased with increasing the rGO ratio from 0 to 3 wt%. The average optical transmittance (400–700 nm) of the AZO:rGO thin film within 1 wt% rGO was above 81%. - Highlights: • Reduced-graphene-oxide-doped ZnO:Al composite films are synthesized by sol–gel. • All AZO:rGO thin films show a typical hexagonal wurtzite structure. • Sheet resistance of AZO:rGO(1 wt%) film decreases by a factor of more than two. • The average visible transmittance of the AZO:rGO(1 wt%) film was 81%.

  1. Subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics affect stress and virulence gene expression in Listeria monocytogenes and cause enhanced stress sensitivity but do not affect Caco‐2 cell invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gitte Maegaard; Holch, Anne; Gram, Lone

    2012-01-01

    with promoter fusions, 14 of 16 antibiotics induced or repressed expression of one or more stress and/or virulence genes. Despite ampicillin‐induced up‐regulation of PinlA‐lacZ expression, Caco‐2 cell invasion was not affected. Subinhibitory concentrations of ampicillin and tetracycline caused up‐ and down...

  2. Amelioration of boron toxicity in sweet pepper as affected by calcium management under an elevated CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, María Carmen; Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; López-Marín, Josefa; Del Amor, Francisco M

    2017-04-01

    We investigated B tolerance in sweet pepper plants (Capsicum annuun L.) under an elevated CO 2 concentration, combined with the application of calcium as a nutrient management amelioration technique. The data show that high B affected the roots more than the aerial parts, since there was an increase in the shoot/root ratio, when plants were grown with high B levels; however, the impact was lessened when the plants were grown at elevated CO 2 , since the root FW reduction caused by excess B was less marked at the high CO 2 concentration (30.9% less). Additionally, the high B concentration affected the membrane permeability of roots, which increased from 39 to 54% at ambient CO 2 concentration, and from 38 to 51% at elevated CO 2 concentration, producing a cation imbalance in plants, which was differentially affected by the CO 2 supply. The Ca surplus in the nutrient solution reduced the nutritional imbalance in sweet pepper plants produced by the high B concentration, at both CO 2 concentrations. The medium B concentration treatment (toxic according to the literature) did not result in any toxic effect. Hence, there is a need to review the literature on critical and toxic B levels taking into account increases in atmospheric CO 2 .

  3. Zinc, nitrogen and salinity interaction on agronomic traits and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... percentage decreased due to nitrogen, zinc and salinity in the first year but .... Analysis of variance on canola traits affected by nitrogen, zinc and salinity at ...... a result less of the latter are available for fat synthesis ... Na+ and Cl- in plant tissues, effects of nitrogen and zinc ... Zinc alleviates cadmium-induced.

  4. Differential Concentrations of some Nutrient Element in Forage of Corn (Zea mays L. as Affected by Organic Fertilizers and Soil Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Najafi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction is one of the most important limiting factor for normal crop growth, because it reduces absorption by the plant. Application of organic fertilizers in agricultural soils can reduce the detrimental effects of soil compaction on plant growth and also supply some nutrients to plant. Thus, a factorial experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications and 14 treatments to evaluate the effects of organic fertilizers in mitigating soil compaction. The first factor in this study was the source and amount of organic fertilizer at seven levels (control, farmyard manure, sewage sludge compost and municipal solid waste compost and each of organic fertilizers at two levels of 15 and 30 g/kg of soil. The second factor was soil compaction at two levels (bulk density of 1.2 and 1.7 g/cm3. To perform this experiment, 10 kg of dry soil was poured into special PVC pots and then seeds of single cross 704 corn were planted. At the end of the growth period, the corn shoot was harvested and concentrations of phosphorus (P, potassium (K, sodium (Na, iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, manganese (Mn, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb were determined by dry ashing method. The results showed that concentrations of Cd and Pb in the shoot, related to the different treatments, were negligible. Concentrations of P, K, Fe, Mn and Zn in the corn shoot were increased significantly by application of farmyard manure, sewage sludge compost and municipal solid waste compost at both levels of soil compaction. However, Na concentration of shoot did not change significantly. Soil compaction significantly reduced P, Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations of corn shoot, but it affected concentrations of Na and K significantly. Application of organic fertilizers and increasing their levels reduced the negative effects of soil compaction on nutrients uptake by corn plant. This study showed that to improve forage corn nutrition, application of 15 or 30 g of farmyard

  5. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process.

  6. Reduction of radon concentration in a basement workplace: study of the problem and characterization of the main parameters affecting the radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaberto, E.M.; Magnoni, M.; Righino, F.; Costa Laia, R.

    2002-01-01

    In this work is described the method used for the mitigation of high radon concentrations found in a basement workplace, the ARPA laboratory used for the metrology of EMF. In this lab was in fact measured a radon concentration up to 1900 Bq/m 3 , a value largely exceeding the Italian limit for workplaces (500 Bq/m 3 ). The basement workplace affected by radon is a room of around 500 m 3 with no windows and only one door, during work usually close, and therefore with a very low ventilation rate. In this workplace, usually two persons spent about 6 hour per day. Therefore their exposure to the radon and its decay products can attain a considerable value. For this people, accordingly to the accepted dosimetric models, an effective dose of several mSv per year could be estimated (ICRP Publication n. 65, 1993). It is thus important to reduce the radon concentration to acceptable levels, i.e. at least lower than 500 Bq/m 3 . This paper deals not only with the simple method used for the remedial action, but also to the investigation of the relevant parameters affecting the radon concentration. In particular, the monitoring of the radon concentration before and after the remedial action, allowed the calculation of the radon entry rates (Bq/s) and the ventilation rates (s-1) in the different experimental condition

  7. Simulation of Zinc Release Affected by Microbial Inoculation and Salinity Levels in a non-sterile Calcareous Soil Using kinetic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamidreza boostani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Zinc (Zn is an important nutrient element for humans and plants that controls many biochemical and physiological functions of living organisms. Zinc deficiency is common in high pH, low organic matter, carbonatic, saline and sodic soils. Salinity is a major abiotic environmental stresses that limits growth and production in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Bioavailability of Zn is low in calcareous and saline soils having high levels of pH and calcium. Desorption of Zinc (Zn from soil as influenced by biological activities is one of the important factors that control Zn bioavailability. Few reports on the effects of salinity on the availability and desorption kinetics of Zn are available. Rupa et al. (2000 reported that increasing the salt concentration led to increase Zn desorption from soil due to ion competition on soil exchangeable sites. Different kinetic equations have been used to describe the release kinetics of nutrients. Reyhanitabar and Gilkes (2010 found that the power function model was the best equation to describe the release of Zn from some calcareous soil of Iran, whereas Baranimotlagh and Gholami (2013 stated that the best model for describing Zn desorption from 15 calcareous soils of Iran was the first-order equation.less attention has been paid to kinetics of Zn release by DTPA extractant over time by inoculation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and mycorrhizae fungi in comination with soil salinity.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and mycorrhizae fungi (MF inoculation on release kinetic of Zn in a calcareous soil at different salinity levels after in cornplantation Materials and Methods: A composite sample of bulk soil from the surface horizon (0-30 cm of a calcareous soil from southern part of Iran was collected, air dried, passed through 2 mm sieve, and thoroughly mixed. Routine soil analysis was performed to determine some

  8. Factors affecting water strider (Hemiptera: Gerridae) mercury concentrations in lotic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, T.D.; Kidd, K.A.; Cunjak, R.A.; Arp, P.A. [University of New Brunswick, St John, NB (Canada). Canadian Rivers Institute

    2009-07-15

    Water striders (Hemiptera: Gerridae) have been considered as a potential sentinel for mercury (Hg) contamination of freshwater ecosystems, yet little is known about factors that control Hg concentrations in this invertebrate. Striders were collected from 80 streams and rivers in New Brunswick, Canada, in August and September of 2004 through 2007 to assess the influence of factors such as diet, water chemistry, and proximity to point sources on Hg concentrations in this organism. Higher than average Hg concentrations were observed in the southwest and Grand Lake regions of the province, the latter being the location of a coal-fired power plant that is a source of Hg (similar to 100 kg annually), with elevated Hg concentrations in the lichen Old Man's Beard (Usnea spp.) in its immediate vicinity. Across all streams, pH and total organic carbon of water were relatively weak predictors of strider Hg concentrations. Female striders that were larger in body size than males had significantly lower Hg concentrations within sites, suggestive of growth dilution. There was no relationship between percent aquatic carbon in the diet and Hg concentrations in striders. For those striders feeding solely on terrestrial carbon, Hg concentrations were higher in animals occupying a higher trophic level. Mercury concentrations were highly variable in striders collected monthly over two growing seasons, suggesting short-term changes in Hg availability. These measurements highlight the importance of considering both deposition and postdepositional processes in assessing Hg bioaccumulation in this species.

  9. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4–6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose–supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

  10. Lutein supplementation increases breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations in lactating women and infant plasma concentrations but does not affect other carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Christina L; Oliver, Jeffery S; Renzi, Lisa M; Marriage, Barbara J

    2014-08-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2-3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose-supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Soil zinc and cadmium availability and uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as affected by long-term organic matter management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüter, Roman; Costerousse, Benjamin; Mayer, Jochen; Mäder, Paul; Thonar, Cécile; Frossard, Emmanuel; Schulin, Rainer; Tandy, Susan

    2017-04-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a widespread problem in human mineral nutrition. It is mainly caused by imbalanced diets with low contents of bioavailable Zn. This is in particular a problem in populations depending on cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as a major source of this essential micronutrient element. Increasing Zn concentrations in wheat grains (biofortification) is therefore an important challenge. At the same time, increased uptake of the toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd) must be prevented. Agronomic practises influence soil properties such as pH and soil organic carbon and thus also have an indirect effect on phytoavailable soil Zn and Cd concentrations and the uptake of these metals by wheat in addition to direct inputs with fertilizers and other amendments. This study investigated the effects of long-term organic matter management on the phytoavailability of soil Zn and Cd and their uptake by wheat on plots of two Swiss long-term field trials. In one trial (DOK), a farming system comparison trial established in 1978, we compared plots under conventional management with mineral fertilization either in combination or not with farmyard manure application to plots under biodynamic organic management and control plots with no fertilizer application. In the second trial (ZOFE), established in 1949, we compared different fertilizer regimes on conventionally managed plots, including plots with application of mineral fertilizers only, farmyard manure, or compost and control plots with no fertilizer application. Soil physico-chemical and biological properties were determined at the beginning of the growing season. Soil Zn and Cd availabilities were assessed by the Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (DGT) method and by DTPA extraction before and after wheat cultivation. Additionally, various wheat yield components and element concentrations in shoots and grains were measured at harvest. In the ZOFE trial, soil Zn and Cd concentrations were lowest in the mineral

  12. Sublethal concentrations of ichthyotoxic alga Prymnesium parvum affect rainbow trout susceptibility to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted; Lorenzen, Ellen; Boutrup, Torsten Snogdal

    2016-01-01

    Ichthyotoxic algal blooms are normally considered a threat to maricultured fish only when blooms reach lethal cell concentrations. The degree to which sublethal algal concentrations challenge the health of the fish during blooms is practically unknown. In this study, we analysed whether sublethal...

  13. Affect and Cognition in the Writing Processes of Eleventh Graders: A Study of Concentration and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Linda Miller

    1991-01-01

    Investigates the writing experience of 40 eleventh graders and examines the social and pedagogical circumstances contributing to their limited concentration and motivation. Finds that emotion disrupts sustained and thoughtful attention to writing. Demonstrates the psychological toll of limited concentration, negative self-view, and limited…

  14. How do health insurer market concentration and bargaining power with hospitals affect health insurance premiums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trish, Erin E; Herring, Bradley J

    2015-07-01

    The US health insurance industry is highly concentrated, and health insurance premiums are high and rising rapidly. Policymakers have focused on the possible link between the two, leading to ACA provisions to increase insurer competition. However, while market power may enable insurers to include higher profit margins in their premiums, it may also result in stronger bargaining leverage with hospitals to negotiate lower payment rates to partially offset these higher premiums. We empirically examine the relationship between employer-sponsored fully-insured health insurance premiums and the level of concentration in local insurer and hospital markets using the nationally-representative 2006-2011 KFF/HRET Employer Health Benefits Survey. We exploit a unique feature of employer-sponsored insurance, in which self-insured employers purchase only administrative services from managed care organizations, to disentangle these different effects on insurer concentration by constructing one concentration measure representing fully-insured plans' transactions with employers and the other concentration measure representing insurers' bargaining with hospitals. As expected, we find that premiums are indeed higher for plans sold in markets with higher levels of concentration relevant to insurer transactions with employers, lower for plans in markets with higher levels of insurer concentration relevant to insurer bargaining with hospitals, and higher for plans in markets with higher levels of hospital market concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Silver-zinc electrodeposition from a thiourea solution with added EDTA or HEDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, G.M. de; Carlos, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows the study of silver-zinc electrodeposition from a thiourea solution with added (ethylenedinitrilo)tetraacetic acid (EDTA), disodium salt and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), trisodium salt. Voltammetric results indicated that silver-zinc alloy can be obtained applying overpotential higher than 0.495 V, in Tu solution containing 1.0 x 10 -1 mol L -1 Zn(NO 3 ) 2 + 2.5 x 10 -2 mol L -1 AgNO 3 . This was due to silver(I) ion complexation with thiourea, which shifted the silver deposition potential to more negative value and due to silver-zinc alloy deposition, which occurred at potentials more positive than the potential to zinc deposition alone. EDTA or HEDTA did not significantly affect the silver and zinc deposition potentials, but decreased the current density for silver-zinc deposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of the silver-zinc deposits showed that the morphology and composition changed as a function of the conditions of deposition, viz, deposition potential (E d ), deposition charge density (q d ) and solution composition (silver, EDTA and HEDTA concentrations). EDS analysis of the deposits showed sulphur (S) incorporated into the silver-zinc deposit, while SEM images showed that this sulphur content seemed to improve the silver-zinc morphology, as did the presence of EDTA and HEDTA in the solution, which enhanced the sulphur incorporation into the silver-zinc deposit. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the silver-zinc deposit showed that it was amorphous, irrespective of its composition and morphology

  16. Improved colorimetric determination of serum zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D J; Djuh, Y Y; Bruton, J; Williams, H L

    1977-07-01

    We show how zinc may easily be quantified in serum by first using an optimum concentration of guanidine hydrochloride to cause release of zinc from proteins, followed by complexation of released metals with cyanide. The cyanide complex of zinc is preferentially demasked with chloral hydrate, followed by a colorimetric reaction between zinc and 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. This is a sensitive water-soluble ligand; its complex with zinc has an absorption maximum at 497 nm. Values found by this technique compare favorably with those obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  17. Influence of DNA-methylation on zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells: Regulation of zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Jana Elena; Wessels, Inga; Haase, Hajo; Rink, Lothar; Uciechowski, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of intracellular zinc, predominantly regulated through zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins, is required to support an efficient immune response. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are involved in the expression of these genes. In demethylation experiments using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) increased intracellular (after 24 and 48h) and total cellular zinc levels (after 48h) were observed in the myeloid cell line HL-60. To uncover the mechanisms that cause the disturbed zinc homeostasis after DNA demethylation, the expression of human zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins were investigated. Real time PCR analyses of 14 ZIP (solute-linked carrier (SLC) SLC39A; Zrt/IRT-like protein), and 9 ZnT (SLC30A) zinc transporters revealed significantly enhanced mRNA expression of the zinc importer ZIP1 after AZA treatment. Because ZIP1 protein was also enhanced after AZA treatment, ZIP1 up-regulation might be the mediator of enhanced intracellular zinc levels. The mRNA expression of ZIP14 was decreased, whereas zinc exporter ZnT3 mRNA was also significantly increased; which might be a cellular reaction to compensate elevated zinc levels. An enhanced but not significant chromatin accessibility of ZIP1 promoter region I was detected by chromatin accessibility by real-time PCR (CHART) assays after demethylation. Additionally, DNA demethylation resulted in increased mRNA accumulation of zinc binding proteins metallothionein (MT) and S100A8/S100A9 after 48h. MT mRNA was significantly enhanced after 24h of AZA treatment also suggesting a reaction of the cell to restore zinc homeostasis. These data indicate that DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism affecting zinc binding proteins and transporters, and, therefore, regulating zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Homocyst(e)ine-lowering therapy does not affect plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine concentrations in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Sophie; Mittermayer, Friedrich; Plank, Christina; Minar, Erich; Wolzt, Michael; Schernthaner, Gerit-Holger

    2005-04-01

    Elevated plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) is suggested to contribute to hyperhomocyst(e)ine-related vascular dysfunction in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). The present trial investigated whether homocyst(e)ine (Hcy)-lowering therapy with vitamin-B (vit-B) and folic acid affects plasma concentrations of ADMA in patients with PAD and hyperhomocyst(e)inemia. Forty-nine subjects (15 women, 34 men) with PAD and fasting plasma total Hcy concentrations greater than 15 micromol/liter were randomized to receive either oral vit-B and folic acid therapy (n = 27) or placebo (n = 22) for 6 wk. Fasting venous blood samples were monitored for plasma total Hcy, vit-B12 and folate, ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine, L-arginine, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. After 6 wk, plasma Hcy concentrations were decreased, and concentrations of vit-B12 and folate were elevated in patients with vitamin supplementation (all P < 0.05 vs. baseline) and unchanged in the placebo group. Dimethylarginine plasma concentrations were not affected by treatment. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein correlated with ADMA plasma concentrations (r = 0.29; P < 0.01). The lack of vit-B and folic acid therapy on plasma concentrations of ADMA renders a role of extracellular methylarginines unlikely to be involved in the pathophysiology of hyperhomocyst(e)inemia and its complications.

  19. A field investigation of physical and chemical mechanisms affecting pollutant concentrations in fog droplets

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Waldman, Jed. M.; Munger, J. William; Hoffmann, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    High ionic loadings were found in fogwater collected at Bakersfield. California during an extended stagnation episode. The major ions were NH4+ NO3-, and SO42-, with concentrations usually in the millimolar range. Droplet growth played an important rôle in determining fogwater concentrations. The amount of solute decreased substantially over the course of each fog event; this was attributed, at least in part, to deposition of fog droplets on surfaces. The occurrence of dense fogs thus seemed ...

  20. Case study of stratospheric ozone affecting ground-level oxidant concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    During the predawn hours of 19 November 1972, the air pollution monitoring station at Santa Rosa, Calif., recorded five consecutive hours of oxidant concentrations in excess of the present National Ambient Air Quality Standard. The highest of the hourly averages was 0.23 ppm. From a detailed analysis of the meteorological conditions surrounding this incident, it is shown that the ozone responsible for the anomalous concentrations originated in the stratosphere and not from anthropogenic sources

  1. Factors affecting ANKOM™ fiber analysis of forage and browse varying in condensed tannin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Thomas H; Wolfe, Richard M; Muir, James P

    2010-12-01

    Browse species containing condensed tannins (CTs) are an important source of nutrition for grazing/browsing livestock and wildlife in many parts of the world, but information on fiber concentration and CT-fiber interactions for these plants is lacking. Ten forage or browse species with a range of CT concentrations were oven dried and freeze dried and then analyzed for ash-corrected neutral detergent fiber (NDFom) and corrected acid detergent fiber (ADFom) using separate samples (ADFSEP) and sequential NDF-ADF analysis (ADFSEQ) with the ANKOM™ fiber analysis system. The ADFSEP and ADFSEQ residues were then analyzed for nitrogen (N) concentration. Oven drying increased (P < 0.05) fiber concentrations with some species, but not with others. For high-CT forage and browse species, ADFSEP concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) than NDFom values and approximately double the ADFSEQ values. Nitrogen concentration was greater (P < 0.05) in ADFSEP than ADFSEQ residues, likely due to precipitation with CTs. Sequential NDF-ADF analysis gave more realistic values and appeared to remove most of the fiber residue contaminants in CT forage samples. Freeze drying samples with sequential NDF-ADF analysis is recommended in the ANKOM™ fiber analysis system with CT-containing forage and browse species. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Environmental Factors and Seasonality Affect the Concentration of Rotundone in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz Wine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangzhen Zhang

    Full Text Available Rotundone is a sesquiterpene that gives grapes and wine a desirable 'peppery' aroma. Previous research has reported that growing grapevines in a cool climate is an important factor that drives rotundone accumulation in grape berries and wine. This study used historical data sets to investigate which weather parameters are mostly influencing rotundone concentration in grape berries and wine. For this purpose, wines produced from 15 vintages from the same Shiraz vineyard (The Old Block, Mount Langi Ghiran, Victoria, Australia were analysed for rotundone concentration and compared to comprehensive weather data and minimal temperature information. Degree hours were obtained by interpolating available temperature information from the vineyard site using a simple piecewise cubic hermite interpolating polynomial method (PCHIP. Results showed that the highest concentrations of rotundone were consistently found in wines from cool and wet seasons. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA showed that the concentration of rotundone in wine was negatively correlated with daily solar exposure and grape bunch zone temperature, and positively correlated with vineyard water balance. Finally, models were constructed based on the Gompertz function to describe the dynamics of rotundone concentration in berries through the ripening process according to phenological and thermal times. This characterisation is an important step forward to potentially predict the final quality of the resultant wines based on the evolution of specific compounds in berries according to critical environmental and micrometeorological variables. The modelling techniques described in this paper were able to describe the behaviour of rotundone concentration based on seasonal weather conditions and grapevine phenological stages, and could be potentially used to predict the final rotundone concentration early in future growing seasons. This could enable the adoption of precision irrigation and

  3. Environmental Factors and Seasonality Affect the Concentration of Rotundone in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Howell, Kate; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward William R.; Fuentes, Sigfredo

    2015-01-01

    Rotundone is a sesquiterpene that gives grapes and wine a desirable ‘peppery’ aroma. Previous research has reported that growing grapevines in a cool climate is an important factor that drives rotundone accumulation in grape berries and wine. This study used historical data sets to investigate which weather parameters are mostly influencing rotundone concentration in grape berries and wine. For this purpose, wines produced from 15 vintages from the same Shiraz vineyard (The Old Block, Mount Langi Ghiran, Victoria, Australia) were analysed for rotundone concentration and compared to comprehensive weather data and minimal temperature information. Degree hours were obtained by interpolating available temperature information from the vineyard site using a simple piecewise cubic hermite interpolating polynomial method (PCHIP). Results showed that the highest concentrations of rotundone were consistently found in wines from cool and wet seasons. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the concentration of rotundone in wine was negatively correlated with daily solar exposure and grape bunch zone temperature, and positively correlated with vineyard water balance. Finally, models were constructed based on the Gompertz function to describe the dynamics of rotundone concentration in berries through the ripening process according to phenological and thermal times. This characterisation is an important step forward to potentially predict the final quality of the resultant wines based on the evolution of specific compounds in berries according to critical environmental and micrometeorological variables. The modelling techniques described in this paper were able to describe the behaviour of rotundone concentration based on seasonal weather conditions and grapevine phenological stages, and could be potentially used to predict the final rotundone concentration early in future growing seasons. This could enable the adoption of precision irrigation and canopy

  4. Effect of Zinc Methionine or Zinc Sulfate Supplementation on Milk Production and Composition of Milk in Lactating Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobhanirad, Saeid; Carlson, Dorthe; Kashani, Reza Bahari

    2010-01-01

     Zn/kg of dry matter (DM) as zinc sulfate monohydrate (ZnS) and basal diet plus 500 mg Zn/kg of DM as zinc methionine (ZnM). Results showed that milk and fat-corrected milk yield in dairy cows were not significantly affected by Zn source although a numerical increase was observed. The percentages of protein......, lactose, fat, solid nonfat, total solid, and density of milk were not significantly different between treatments. However, dairy cows that received ZnM tended to produce more milk and fat-corrected milk with a lower somatic cell count as compared to controls. The zinc concentration in milk in the Zn...

  5. Platelet concentration in platelet-rich plasma affects tenocyte behavior in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Ilaria; D'Ascenzo, Sandra; Mancò, Annalisa; Di Stefano, Gabriella; Di Francesco, Marianna; Rughetti, Anna; Dal Mas, Antonella; Properzi, Gianfranco; Calvisi, Vittorio; Dolo, Vincenza

    2014-01-01

    Since tendon injuries and tendinopathy are a growing problem, sometimes requiring surgery, new strategies that improve conservative therapies are needed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) seems to be a good candidate by virtue of its high content of growth factors, most of which are involved in tendon healing. This study aimed to evaluate if different concentrations of platelets in PRP have different effects on the biological features of normal human tenocytes that are usually required during tendon healing. The different platelet concentrations tested (up to 5 × 10(6) plt/µL) stimulated differently tenocytes behavior; intermediate concentrations (0.5 × 10(6), 1 × 10(6) plt/µL) strongly induced all tested processes (proliferation, migration, collagen, and MMPs production) if compared to untreated cells; on the contrary, the highest concentration had inhibitory effects on proliferation and strongly reduced migration abilities and overall collagen production but, at the same time, induced increasing MMP production, which could be counterproductive because excessive proteolysis could impair tendon mechanical stability. Thus, these in vitro data strongly suggest the need for a compromise between extremely high and low platelet concentrations to obtain an optimal global effect when inducing in vivo tendon healing.

  6. Field investigation of physical and chemical mechanisms affecting pollutant concentrations in fog droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, D.J.; Waldman, J.M.; Munger, J.W.; Hoffmann, M.R.

    1984-09-01

    High ionic loadings were found in fogwater collected at Bakersfield, California during an extended stagnation episode. The major ions were NH4(+), NO3(-), and SO4(2-), with concentrations usually in the millimolar range. Droplet growth played an important role in determining fogwater concentrations. The amount of solute decreased substantially over the course of each fog event this was attributed, at least in part, to deposition of fog droplets on surfaces. The occurrence of this was attributed, at least in part, to deposition of fog droplets on surfaces. The sulfate fraction in the aerosol increased appreciably over several days of stagnation, but no statistical evidence for in situ S(IV) aqueous-phase oxidation was found. The high ammonia concentrations present were sufficient to neutralize a large fraction of the ambient acidity. As a result, fogwater pH values rarely attained the extremely low values found in other polluted environments. 46 references.

  7. Time changes in radiocesium concentration in aquatic systems affected by the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Yuichi; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Kato, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Iwagami, Sho; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masatoshi

    2015-04-01

    Due to Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radioactive materials including Cs-134 and Cs-137 were widely distributed in surrounded area. The radiocesiums have been transported in river networks. The monitoring started at 6 sites from June 2011. Subsequently, additional 24 monitoring sites were installed between October 2012 and January 2013. Flow and turbidity (for calculation of suspended sediment concentration) were measured at each site, while suspended sediments and river water were collected every one or half month to measure Cs-134 and Cs-137 activity concentrations by gamma spectrometry. Also detailed field monitoring has been condcuted in Yamakiya-district, Kawamata town, Fukushima prefecture. These monitoring includes, 1) Radiocesium wash-off from the runoff-erosion plot under different land use, 2) 2. Measurement of radiocesium transfer in forest environment, in association with hydrological pathways such as throughfall and overlandflow on hillslope, 3) Monitoring on radiocesium concentration in soil water, ground water, and spring water, 4)Monitoring of dissolved and particulate radiocesium concentration in river water, and stream water from the forested catchment, and 5)Measurement of radiocesium content in drain water and suspended sediment from paddy field. Our monitoring result demonstrated that the Cs-137 concentration in eroded sediment from the runoff-erosion plot has been almost constant for the past 3 years, however the Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment from the forested catchment showed slight decrease through time. On the other hand, the suspended sediment from paddy field and those in river water from large catchments exhibited rapid decrease in Cs-137 concentration with time. The decreasing trend of Cs-137 concentration were fitted by the two-component exponential model, differences in decreasing rate of the model were compared and discussed among various land uses and catchment scales. Such analysis can provide

  8. Phenylbutyrate reduces plasma leucine concentrations without affecting the flux of leucine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenylbutyrate (PB) has been used as an alternative pathway to excrete nitrogen in urea cycle disorder patients for the last 20 years. PB, after oxidation to phenylacetate, is conjugated with glutamine and excreted in the urine. A reduction in the plasma concentration of branched amino acids (BCAA) ...

  9. Application technique affects the potential of mineral concentrates from livestock manure to replace inorganic nitrogen fertilizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.; Velthof, G.L.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that mineral concentrates (MCs) produced from livestock manure might partly replace inorganic N fertilizers, thereby further closing the nitrogen (N) cycle. Here, we quantified nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and N loss pathways associated with MCs, compared with inorganic

  10. Solute concentration affects bradykinin-mediated increases in renal prostaglandin E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenser, T.V.; Davis, E.S.; Rapp, N.S.; Davis, B.B.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of solute concentration on the bradykinin-mediated increase in inner medullary slice prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis were investigated. PG content was determined by specific RIA. Bradykinin stimulation was prevented by the addition of the following solutes to Krebs buffer: 1.0 M urea, 0.5 or 1.0 M NaCl, 0.5 or 1.0 M mannitol, 1.0 M urea plus 0.5 M NaCl, or 1.0 M mannitol plus 0.5 M NaCl. By contrast, basal PGE2 synthesis was increased by 1.0 M mannitol or by 1.0 M mannitol plus 0.5 M NaCl, but decreased by 1.0 M urea. Urea elicited a concentration-dependent, reversible inhibition of bradykinin stimulation, with 0.01 M urea being the lowest effective concentration. By contrast, basal PGE2 synthesis was only reduced at a urea concentration greater than 0.6 M. Arachidonic acid-mediated increases in both PGE2 and PGF2 alpha synthesis were not prevented by 1.0 M urea. The latter suggests that neither PG endoperoxide synthetase nor PG endoperoxide E isomerase are inhibited by urea. The data indicate that different hypertonic solutions have different effects on basal PG production, but all inhibit bradykinin stimulation

  11. Soil CO2 concentration does not affect growth or root respiration in bean or citrus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; Nielsen, K.F.; Eissenstat, D.M.; Lynch, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Contrasting effects of soil CO2 concentration on root respiration rates during short-term CO2 exposure, and on plant growth during long-term CO2 exposure, have been reported, Here we examine the effects of both short-and long-term exposure to soil CO2 on the root respiration of intact plants and on

  12. Sampling method, storage and pretreatment of sediment affect AVS concentrations with consequences for bioassay responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Griethuysen, van C.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Sediment treatment and sediment storage may alter sediment toxicity, and consequently biotic response. Purpose of our study was to combine these three aspects (treatment-toxicity-biotic response) in one integrated approach. We used Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS) concentrations as a proxy of the

  13. Even low alcohol concentrations affect obstacle avoidance reactions in healthy senior individuals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegeman, J.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Bemt, B.J.F van den; Nienhuis, B.; Limbeek, J. van; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a commonly used social drug and driving under influence is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents1. To improve road safety, legal limits are set for blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and driving, usually at 0.05% (most European countries) or 0.08% (most US

  14. Zinc in Cellular Regulation: The Nature and Significance of "Zinc Signals".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2017-10-31

    In the last decade, we witnessed discoveries that established Zn 2+ as a second major signalling metal ion in the transmission of information within cells and in communication between cells. Together with Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ covers biological regulation with redox-inert metal ions over many orders of magnitude in concentrations. The regulatory functions of zinc ions, together with their functions as a cofactor in about three thousand zinc metalloproteins, impact virtually all aspects of cell biology. This article attempts to define the regulatory functions of zinc ions, and focuses on the nature of zinc signals and zinc signalling in pathways where zinc ions are either extracellular stimuli or intracellular messengers. These pathways interact with Ca 2+ , redox, and phosphorylation signalling. The regulatory functions of zinc require a complex system of precise homeostatic control for transients, subcellular distribution and traffic, organellar homeostasis, and vesicular storage and exocytosis of zinc ions.

  15. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  16. Estradiol and endocrine disrupting compounds adversely affect development of sea urchin embryos at environmentally relevant concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roepke, Troy A.; Snyder, Mark J.; Cherr, Gary N.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a wide variety of chemicals that typically exert effects, either directly or indirectly, through receptor-mediated processes, thus mimicking endogenous hormones and/or inhibiting normal hormone activities and metabolism. Little is known about the effects of EDCs on echinoderm physiology, reproduction and development. We exposed developing sea urchin embryos (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus anamesus) to two known EDCs (4-octylphenol (OCT), bisphenol A (BisA)) and to natural and synthetic reproductive hormones (17β-estradiol (E 2 ), estrone (E 1 ), estriol (E 3 ), progesterone (P 4 ) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE 2 )). In addition, we studied two non-estrogenic EDCs, tributyltin (TBT) and o,p-DDD. Successful development to the pluteus larval stage (96 h post-fertilization) was used to define EDC concentration-response relationships. The order of compound potency based on EC 50 values for a reduction in normal development was as follows: TBT L.anamesus > OCT > TBT S. p urpuratus >> E 2 > EE 2 > DDD >> BisA > P 4 > E 1 >> E 3 . The effect of TBT was pronounced even at concentrations substantially lower than those commonly reported in heavily contaminated areas, but the response was significantly different in the two model species. Sea urchin embryos were generally more sensitive to estrogenic EDCs and TBT than most other invertebrate larvae. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted to determine the most sensitive developmental periods using blastula, gastrula and post-gastrula (pluteus) stages. The stage most sensitive to E 2 , OCT and TBT was the blastula stage with less overall sensitivity in the gastrula stage, regardless of concentration. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) were added to the experiments individually and in combination with estrogenic EDCs to interfere with potential receptor-mediated actions. Tamoxifen, a partial ER agonist, alone inhibited development at

  17. The sensitivity of the electron transport within bulk zinc-blende gallium nitride to variations in the crystal temperature, the doping concentration, and the non-parabolicity coefficient associated with the lowest energy conduction band valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqua, Poppy; O' Leary, Stephen K., E-mail: stephen.oleary@ubc.ca [School of Engineering, The University of British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Within the framework of a semi-classical three-valley Monte Carlo simulation approach, we analyze the steady-state and transient electron transport that occurs within bulk zinc-blende gallium nitride. In particular, we examine how the steady-state and transient electron transport that occurs within this material changes in response to variations in the crystal temperature, the doping concentration, and the non-parabolicity coefficient associated with the lowest energy conduction band valley. These results are then contrasted with those corresponding to a number of other compound semiconductors of interest.

  18. Transport of trace metals in the Magela Creek system, Northern Territory. I. Concentrations and loads of iron, manganese, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc during flood periods in the 1978-1979 wet season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, B.T.; Davies, S.H.R.; Thomas, P.A.

    1981-12-01

    In order that realistic effluent standards may be established for the Ranger uranium operations at Jabiru, Northern Territory, it is necessary that there be a clear and detailed knowledge of the pre-mining levels of trace metals and their behaviour within the Magela Creek system. During the wet season, floodwaters were sampled for conductivity, suspended solids and the trace metals, iron, manganese, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc. All concentrations were found to be very low, as were the denudation rates for the trace metals and suspended materials

  19. The zinc-myoglobin relationships in porcine muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogd Joergensen, P.; Wegger, I.

    1976-01-01

    Zinc and myoglobin content in muscles from pigs were studied under various conditions. Zinc concentration was considerably higher in red than in white muscles. In muscles, where the metabolic pattern changes from glycolytic to oxidative during the period from birth to weaning, a simultaneous increase in zinc content was seen. A significant positive correlation exists between myoglobin and zinc content under normal conditions. However, while myoglobin concentration decreases due to iron deficiency anaemia no changes occur in zinc content. It is concluded that no functional link seems to exist between zinc metabolism and myoglobin synthesis in porcine muscles. (author)

  20. An analysis of factors affecting the high radon concentration in different types of houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulan Ljiljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of indoor radon measurements carried out in municipality of Zubin Potok, northwestern part of Kosovo and Metohija. Annual measurements in two rooms of each house were performed by solid state nuclear track detectors commercially known as Gammadata. Average indoor radon concentration in different type of houses varied from 29-326 Bq/m3. A different year of house's construction including various types of building materials were selected for survey. A detail analysis showed that the differences in radon concentration occur between various building materials used for construction, flooring level, type of room and behavior of inhabitants. It was found that building materials in some houses contribute additionally to indoor radon.

  1. Organic farming methods affect the concentration of phenolic compounds in sea buckthorn leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Heinäaho, Merja; Pusenius, Jyrki; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2006-01-01

    - Berries, juice and other products of organically cultivated sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., Eleagnaceae) are in great demand because of their beneficial health effects. The availability of berries is not sufficient especially for locally growing market. However no research has been done on the effects of farming methods on the quality of sea buckthorn tissues before. We established a field experiment to study the effects of organic farming methods on the concentra-tions of phenolic ...

  2. Elevated CO2 concentration affects vertical distribution of photosynthetic activity in Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klem, Karel; Holub, Petr; Urban, Otmar

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, 1-2 (2017), s. 67-74 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : chlorophyll * CO2 assimilation * elevated CO2 * concentration * transpiration * vertical gradient * water-use efficiency Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) https://beskydy.mendelu.cz/10/1/0067/

  3. Ubiquitous Working: Do Work Versus Non-work Environments Affect Decision-Making and Concentration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin P. Burmeister

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available New communication technologies and mobile devices have enabled knowledge workers to work independently of location and in more than one fixed environment (ubiquitous working. Previous research shows that physical environments can influence cognition and work performance. We manipulated environment (i.e., a virtual office as a typical work environment compared to a virtual garden as a non-work environment and time pressure (i.e., inducing time pressure vs. no time pressure in order to investigate whether the environment influences decision-making and concentration. N = 109 students participated in this laboratory experiment. We posited (a that a work environment would activate a work-related schema which in turn would enhance concentration performance and make decisions more risky compared to non-work environments and (b that the environmental effect is more pronounced if time pressure is present compared to conditions where no time pressure is present. We found modest hypothesis-confirming main effects of environment on decision-making and concentration but no interaction effect with time pressure. As we used an innovative methodology that entails several limitations, future research is needed to give insights into the process and to investigate whether results hold true for all types of work settings, work demands, or work activities.

  4. Sensory evaluation of orange juice concentrate as affected by irradiation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoto, M.H.F.; Domarco, R.E.; Walder, J.M.M.; Scarminio, I.S.; Bruns, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of storage temperature and time on orange juice concentrates were studied for samples irradiated with 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy doses from a gamma-ray source as well as for untreated samples. Samples were stored at 0, 5 and 25C for periods of 1, 30, 60 and 90 days. ''Quantitative Descriptive Analysis'' was used to measure concentrate juice quality. Samples stored for more than one day lost quality as indicated by increases in ratings for ''bitterness'', ''medicinal'' and ''cooked'' attributes. Storage at 0 and 5C seemed to have lesser effect on ''sweetness'', ''oily'', ''acidic'' and ''medicinal'' characteristic than those evaluated for samples stores at 25C. Effect of radiation dose on flavor and aroma attributes depended on storage temperature and time. In most cases, higher doses resulted in lower ''orange'' and higher ''bitter'', ''medicinal'' and ''cooked'' ratings. These results indicated that 2.5 kGy combined with 0 and 5C of storage conditions, provided a feasible approach for preserving juice concentrate

  5. Tomato yield and potassium concentrations in soil and in plant petioles as affected by potassium fertirrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FONTES PAULO CEZAR REZENDE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Santa Clara was grown on a silt clay soil with 46 mg dm-3 Mehlich 1 extractable K, to evaluate the effects of trickle-applied K rates on fruit yield and to establish K critical concentrations in soil and in plant petioles. Six potassium rates (0, 48, 119, 189, 259 and 400 kg ha-1 K were applied in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Soil and plant K critical levels were determined at two plant growth stages (at the beginning of the second and fourth cluster flowering. Total, marketable and weighted yields increased with K rates, reaching their maximum of 86.4, 73.4, and 54.9 ton ha-1 at 198, 194, and 125 kg ha-1 K , respectively. At the first soil sampling date K critical concentrations in the soil associated with K rates for maximum marketable and weighted yields were 92 and 68 mg dm-3, respectively. Potassium critical concentrations in the dry matter of the petioles sampled by the beginning of the second and fourth cluster flowering time, associated with maximum weighted yield, were 10.30 and 7.30 dag kg-1, respectively.

  6. Ubiquitous Working: Do Work Versus Non-work Environments Affect Decision-Making and Concentration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Carolin P; Moskaliuk, Johannes; Cress, Ulrike

    2018-01-01

    New communication technologies and mobile devices have enabled knowledge workers to work independently of location and in more than one fixed environment (ubiquitous working). Previous research shows that physical environments can influence cognition and work performance. We manipulated environment (i.e., a virtual office as a typical work environment compared to a virtual garden as a non-work environment ) and time pressure (i.e., inducing time pressure vs. no time pressure ) in order to investigate whether the environment influences decision-making and concentration. N = 109 students participated in this laboratory experiment. We posited (a) that a work environment would activate a work-related schema which in turn would enhance concentration performance and make decisions more risky compared to non-work environments and (b) that the environmental effect is more pronounced if time pressure is present compared to conditions where no time pressure is present. We found modest hypothesis-confirming main effects of environment on decision-making and concentration but no interaction effect with time pressure. As we used an innovative methodology that entails several limitations, future research is needed to give insights into the process and to investigate whether results hold true for all types of work settings, work demands, or work activities.

  7. Maternal hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit values may affect fetus development by influencing placental angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangret, Aleksandra; Wnuk, Anna; Szewczyk, Grzegorz; Pyzlak, Michał; Szukiewicz, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Vasculogenesis and angiogenesis are crucial for maintaining proper placental perfusion and optimal fetal development. Among other physical and chemical factors, hypoxia is known to stimulate angiogenic processes. Preplacental type of hypoxia is often associated with maternal anemia and is thought to enhance vascularization within the fetoplacental unit. The goal of this study was to establish the correlation between the local expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placenta growth factor (PlGF) receptors (flt-1, flk-1) with maternal hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, hematocrit (Ht) values and the infant birthweight. In total, 43 specimens of term placentas obtained from normal course pregnancies delivered at term were included in the study. The expression of flt-1 and flk-1 receptors was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining. Vascular/extravascular tissular index (V/EVTI) was measured by assessing a total vascular area. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test and Spearman's rank correlation were used to compare the various parameters and their differences between the groups. Among the patients with low Hb concentration, nearly 2-fold greater expression of the flt-1 receptor was positively correlated with infants birthweight (p = 0.028). Increased placental vascular density (increased flt-1 expression), during a physiological course of gestation, may be an adaptive response to lowered maternal Hb concentration and Ht values encountered during pregnancy.

  8. Analysis of queuing mine-cars affecting shaft station radon concentrations in Quzhou uranium mine, eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changshou Hong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Shaft stations of underground uranium mines in China are not only utilized as waiting space for loaded mine-cars queuing to be hoisted but also as the principal channel for fresh air taken to working places. Therefore, assessment of how mine-car queuing processes affect shaft station radon concentration was carried out. Queuing network of mine-cars has been analyzed in an underground uranium mine, located in Quzhou, Zhejiang province of Eastern China. On the basis of mathematical analysis of the queue network, a MATLAB-based quasi-random number generating program utilizing Monte-Carlo methods was worked out. Extensive simulations were then implemented via MATALB operating on a DELL PC. Thereafter, theoretical calculations and field measurements of shaft station radon concentrations for several working conditions were performed. The queuing performance measures of interest, like average queuing length and waiting time, were found to be significantly affected by the utilization rate (positively correlated. However, even with respect to the “worst case”, the shaft station radon concentration was always lower than 200 Bq/m3. The model predictions were compared with the measuring results, and a satisfactory agreement was noted. Under current working conditions, queuing-induced variations of shaft station radon concentration of the study mine are not remarkable. Keywords: Hoist and Transport Systems, Mine-cars, Queuing Simulation, Radon Concentration, Underground Uranium Mine

  9. Low Dose Gamma Irradiation Does Not Affect the Quality or Total Ascorbic Acid Concentration of "Sweetheart" Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, John B; Blades, Barbara L; Satyan, Shashirekha; Spohr, Lorraine J; Harris, Anne; Jessup, Andrew J; Archer, John R; Davies, Justin B; Banos, Connie

    2015-08-26

    Passionfruit ( Passiflora edulis , Sims, cultivar "Sweetheart") were subject to gamma irradiation at levels suitable for phytosanitary purposes (0, 150, 400 and 1000 Gy) then stored at 8 °C and assessed for fruit quality and total ascorbic acid concentration after one and fourteen days. Irradiation at any dose (≤1000 Gy) did not affect passionfruit quality (overall fruit quality, colour, firmness, fruit shrivel, stem condition, weight loss, total soluble solids level (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) level, TSS/TA ratio, juice pH and rot development), nor the total ascorbic acid concentration. The length of time in storage affected some fruit quality parameters and total ascorbic acid concentration, with longer storage periods resulting in lower quality fruit and lower total ascorbic acid concentration, irrespective of irradiation. There was no interaction between irradiation treatment and storage time, indicating that irradiation did not influence the effect of storage on passionfruit quality. The results showed that the application of 150, 400 and 1000 Gy gamma irradiation to "Sweetheart" purple passionfruit did not produce any deleterious effects on fruit quality or total ascorbic acid concentration during cold storage, thus supporting the use of low dose irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests in purple passionfruit.

  10. Nicotine affects hydrogen sulfide concentrations in mouse kidney and heart but not in brain and liver tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiliński, Jerzy; Wiliński, Bogdan; Somogyi, Eugeniusz; Piotrowska, Joanna; Kameczura, Tomasz; Zygmunt, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Nicotine, a potent parasympathomimetic alkaloid with stimulant effects, is contributing to addictive properties of tobacco smoking and is though used in the smoking cessation therapy. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in physiology and pathophysiology of various systems in mammals. The interactions between nicotine and H2S are not fully recognized. The aim of the study is to assess the influence of nicotine on the H2S tissue concentrations in different mouse organs. Adult CBA male mice were administered intraperitoneally 1.5 mg/kg b.w. per day of nicotine (group D1, n = 10) or 3 mg/ kg b.w. per day of nicotine (group D2, n = 10). The control group (n = 10) received physiological saline. The measurements of the free and acid-labile H2S tissue concentrations were performed with the Siegel spectrophotometric modi ed method. ere was a significant increase in H2S concentrations in both nicotine doses groups in the kidney (D1 by 54.2%, D2 by 40.0%). In the heart the higher nicotine dose caused a marked decrease in H2S tissue level (by 65.4%), while the lower dose did not affect H2S content. Nicotine administration had no effect on H2S concentrations in the brain and liver. In conclusion, nicotine affects H2S tissue concentrations in kidney and heart but not in the liver and brain tissues.

  11. Symptomatic zinc deficiency in experimental zinc deprivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, C M; Goode, H F; Aggett, P J; Bremner, I; Walker, B E; Kelleher, J

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of indices of poor zinc status was undertaken in five male subjects in whom dietary zinc intake was reduced from 85 mumol d-1 in an initial phase of the study to 14 mumol d-1. One of the subjects developed features consistent with zinc deficiency after receiving the low zinc diet for 12 days. These features included retroauricular acneform macullo-papular lesions on the face, neck, and shoulders and reductions in plasma zinc, red blood cell zinc, neutrophil zinc and plasma alkal...

  12. Antepartum/postpartum depressive symptoms and serum zinc and magnesium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Jacek; Dudek, Dominika; Schlegel-Zawadzka, Małgorzata; Grabowska, Mariola; Marcinek, Antoni; Florek, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Nowak, Rafał J; Opoka, Włodzimierz; Nowak, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship between depressive symptoms and serum zinc and magnesium level in antepartum and postpartum women. All women received standard vitamin, zinc and magnesium supplementation. Sixty-six pregnant women in the Czerwiakowski Hospital in Kraków were assessed for prepartum depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Sixty-two and fifty-eight women were also assessed for postpartum depressive symptoms (using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Rating Scale, EPDRS) at 3 and 30 days after delivery, respectively. Serum zinc and magnesium levels were also determined at these time points, however, the number of examined subjects were diminished. A significantly higher EPDRS score (by 45%), indicating severity of depressive symptoms, was found on the 3rd day after childbirth compared with the 30th postpartum day. Moreover, the early post-delivery period (3rd day) was characterized by a 24% lower serum zinc concentration than that found on the 30th day after childbirth. BDI scores assessed a month before childbirth revealed mild depressive symptoms, which was accompanied by a serum zinc concentration similar to that found on the 3rd day after delivery. No significant alterations were found in the magnesium levels between these time points. The present results demonstrated a relationship between severity of depressive symptoms and decreased serum zinc (but not magnesium) concentration in a very specific type of affective disorder, the postpartum depression.

  13. Severe zinc responsive dermatosis in a litter of Pharaoh Hounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Gregory A; Crow, Dennis

    2010-07-01

    A litter of 3-month-old Pharaoh Hound puppies presented to the referring veterinarian with severe generalized erythematous-crusted papules with pruritus, accompanied by exfoliation and erythema of footpads, inappetence, lethargy, and retarded growth. Three of 5 puppies (2 male and 1 female) were affected. Representative areas were biopsied from 1 affected male puppy and were routinely processed. Histologically, there was marked epidermal hyperplasia with a disorganized appearance of the epidermis and massive parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, compatible with zinc-responsive dermatosis. Low serum zinc concentrations were documented, and the affected animals partially responded to intravenous zinc supplementation but did not respond to oral supplementation. One male puppy died as a result of unrelated causes and was necropsied. The remaining 4 puppies were followed over 2 years. Growth was stunted, and enamel hypoplasia of permanent dentition developed compared with unaffected littermates. Intravenous zinc supplementation at 3-4 week intervals was required to prevent further skin lesion development. One dog died at 3 years of age of renal failure.

  14. Zinc-zincate electrochemical behaviour in NaOH medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessine, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    The reaction mechanism of zinc/NaOH-zincate system was investigated with the rotating disk electrode technique, using both the surfaces of mercury film and zinc in 1M NaOH concentration and 25 0 C temperature. It was found that, at the mercury surface, the zincate ion deposition reaction occurs by two steps with one electron each, with comparable rates, with b sup(-) sub(K1) = (132+ -20)mV/decade and b sup(-) sub(K2) = (74 + - 9)mV/decade cathodic Tafel slopes. At the zinc surface the mechanism of the anodic and cathodic reactions is the same and is by two steps with one electron each. The rate-determining step is the first reaction in the cathodic direction. The exchange current density was found to be between 1.00 and 6.00mA/cm 2 , with b sup(-) sub(K) = (95+ -3)mV/decade cathodic and b sup(-) sub(a) = (61+ -5)mV/decade anodic Tafel slopes. The mechanism of passivation of zinc occurs as a result of the two reactions, the adsorption of the dissolved species of zinc II and the precipitation of the zincate ions over the electrode active sites. It has been verified that of all the chemical species studied namely the zincate, chloride, benzoate, silicate ions and the benzotriazole that affect the zinc anodic reaction the silicate ion is the one that change the reaction rate. However, for all the species studied we have the same anodic reaction mechanism (active dissolution). The deposition reaction mechanism of the zincate ion on zinc electrode is the same with NaOH plus benzoate or chloride. The diffusion coefficient found for the diffusion of the zincate ion in 1M NaOH with the mercury film RDE is D sup(-) = (4,90+ -0,20) x 10 -6 cm 2 s -1 . (Author) [pt

  15. 65Zinc and endogenous zinc content and distribution in islets in relationship to insulin content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figlewicz, D.P.; Forhan, S.E.; Hodgson, A.T.; Grodsky, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Uptake of 65 Zn and distribution of 65 Zn, total zinc, and insulin were measured in rat islets and islet granules under different conditions of islet culture. Specific activity of islet zinc ( 65 Zn/zinc) was less than 15% that of extracellular zinc even after 48 h. In contrast, once in the islet, 65 Zn approached 70% of equilibrium with granular zinc in 24 h and apparent equilibrium by 48 h. During a 24-h culture, at either high or low glucose, reduction of both islet zinc and insulin occurred. However, zinc depletion was greater than that predicted if zinc loss was proportional to insulin depletion and occurred only from the granular compartment, which represents only one third of the total islet zinc. Extension of culture to 48 h caused additional insulin depletion, but islet zinc was unchanged. Omission of calcium during the 48-h culture caused a predicted increase in insulin retention, presumably by inhibiting secretion; however, zinc retention was not increased proportionately. Pretreatment of rats with tolbutamide caused a massive depletion of insulin stored in isolated islets, with little change in total islet zinc; subsequent culture of these islets resulted in a greater loss of granular zinc than predicted from the small loss of granular insulin. None of the conditions tested affected the percentage of either 65 Zn or total zinc that was distributed in the islet granules. Results show that zinc exists in a metabolically labile islet compartment(s) as well as in secretory granules; and extra-granular zinc, although not directly associated with insulin storage, may act as a reservoir for granular zinc and may regulate insulin synthesis, storage, and secretion in ways as yet unknown

  16. Estradiol and endocrine disrupting compounds adversely affect development of sea urchin embryos at environmentally relevant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepke, Troy A. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California, Davis, POB 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Snyder, Mark J. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California, Davis, POB 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Cherr, Gary N. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California, Davis, POB 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States) and Departments of Environmental Toxicology and Nutrition, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: gncherr@ucdavis.edu

    2005-01-26

    Environmental endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a wide variety of chemicals that typically exert effects, either directly or indirectly, through receptor-mediated processes, thus mimicking endogenous hormones and/or inhibiting normal hormone activities and metabolism. Little is known about the effects of EDCs on echinoderm physiology, reproduction and development. We exposed developing sea urchin embryos (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus anamesus) to two known EDCs (4-octylphenol (OCT), bisphenol A (BisA)) and to natural and synthetic reproductive hormones (17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}), estrone (E{sub 1}), estriol (E{sub 3}), progesterone (P{sub 4}) and 17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol (EE{sub 2})). In addition, we studied two non-estrogenic EDCs, tributyltin (TBT) and o,p-DDD. Successful development to the pluteus larval stage (96 h post-fertilization) was used to define EDC concentration-response relationships. The order of compound potency based on EC{sub 50} values for a reduction in normal development was as follows: TBT {sub L.anamesus} > OCT > TBT {sub S.{sub p}}{sub urpuratus} >> E{sub 2} > EE{sub 2} > DDD >> BisA > P{sub 4} > E{sub 1} >> E{sub 3}. The effect of TBT was pronounced even at concentrations substantially lower than those commonly reported in heavily contaminated areas, but the response was significantly different in the two model species. Sea urchin embryos were generally more sensitive to estrogenic EDCs and TBT than most other invertebrate larvae. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted to determine the most sensitive developmental periods using blastula, gastrula and post-gastrula (pluteus) stages. The stage most sensitive to E{sub 2}, OCT and TBT was the blastula stage with less overall sensitivity in the gastrula stage, regardless of concentration. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) were added to the experiments individually and in combination with estrogenic EDCs to interfere with potential receptor

  17. Cathodic hydrogen charging of zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulos, C.N.; Georgiou, E.P.; Chaliampalias, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Incorporation of hydrogen into zinc and formation of zinc hydrides. •Investigation of surface residual stresses due to hydrogen diffusion. •Effect of hydrogen diffusion and hydride formation on mechanical properties of Zn. •Hydrogen embrittlement phenomena in zinc. -- Abstract: The effect of cathodic hydrogen charging on the structural and mechanical characteristics of zinc was investigated. Hardening of the surface layers of zinc, due to hydrogen incorporation and possible formation of ZnH 2 , was observed. In addition, the residual stresses brought about by the incorporation of hydrogen atoms into the metallic matrix, were calculated by analyzing the obtained X-ray diffraction patterns. Tensile testing of the as-received and hydrogen charged specimens revealed that the ductility of zinc decreased significantly with increasing hydrogen charging time, for a constant value of charging current density, and with increasing charging current density, for a constant value of charging time. However, the ultimate tensile strength of this material was slightly affected by the hydrogen charging procedure. The cathodically charged zinc exhibited brittle transgranular fracture at the surface layers and ductile intergranular fracture at the deeper layers of the material

  18. Nicotine at clinically relevant concentrations affects atrial inward rectifier potassium current sensitive to acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bébarová, Markéta; Matejovič, Peter; Švecová, Olga; Kula, Roman; Šimurdová, Milena; Šimurda, Jiří

    2017-05-01

    Nicotine abuse is associated with variety of diseases including arrhythmias, most often atrial fibrillation (AF). Altered inward rectifier potassium currents including acetylcholine-sensitive current I K(Ach) are known to be related to AF pathogenesis. Since relevant data are missing, we aimed to investigate I K(Ach) changes at clinically relevant concentrations of nicotine. Experiments were performed by the whole cell patch clamp technique at 23 ± 1 °C on isolated rat atrial myocytes. Nicotine was applied at following concentrations: 4, 40 and 400 nM; ethanol at 20 mM (∼0.09%). Nicotine at 40 and 400 nM significantly activated constitutively active component of I K(Ach) with the maximum effect at 40 nM (an increase by ∼100%); similar effect was observed at -110 and -50 mV. Changes at 4 nM nicotine were negligible on average. Coapplication of 40 nM nicotine and 20 mM ethanol (which is also known to activate this current) did not show cumulative effect. In the case of acetylcholine-induced component of I K(Ach) , a dual effect of nicotine and its correlation with the current magnitude in control were apparent: the current was increased by nicotine in the cells showing small current in control and vice versa. The effect of 40 and 400 nM nicotine on acetylcholine-induced component of I K(Ach) was significantly different at -110 and -50 mV. We conclude that nicotine at clinically relevant concentrations significantly increased constitutively active component of I K(Ach) and showed a dual effect on its acetylcholine-induced component, similarly as ethanol. Synchronous application of nicotine and ethanol did not cause additive effect.

  19. Biochar and manure affect calcareous soil and corn silage nutrient concentrations and uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, R D; Ippolito, J A

    2012-01-01

    Carbon-rich biochar derived from the pyrolysis of biomass can sequester atmospheric CO, mitigate climate change, and potentially increase crop productivity. However, research is needed to confirm the suitability and sustainability of biochar application to different soils. To an irrigated calcareous soil, we applied stockpiled dairy manure (42 Mg ha dry wt) and hardwood-derived biochar (22.4 Mg ha), singly and in combination with manure, along with a control, yielding four treatments. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied when needed (based on preseason soil test N and crop requirements) in all plots and years, with N mineralized from added manure included in this determination. Available soil nutrients (NH-N; NO-N; Olsen P; and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-extractable K, Mg, Na, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe), total C (TC), total N (TN), total organic C (TOC), and pH were evaluated annually, and silage corn nutrient concentration, yield, and uptake were measured over two growing seasons. Biochar treatment resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in available soil Mn and a 1.4-fold increase in TC and TOC, whereas manure produced a 1.2- to 1.7-fold increase in available nutrients (except Fe), compared with controls. In 2009 biochar increased corn silage B concentration but produced no yield increase; in 2010 biochar decreased corn silage TN (33%), S (7%) concentrations, and yield (36%) relative to controls. Manure produced a 1.3-fold increase in corn silage Cu, Mn, S, Mg, K, and TN concentrations and yield compared with the control in 2010. The combined biochar-manure effects were not synergistic except in the case of available soil Mn. In these calcareous soils, biochar did not alter pH or availability of P and cations, as is typically observed for acidic soils. If the second year results are representative, they suggest that biochar applications to calcareous soils may lead to reduced N availability, requiring additional soil N inputs to maintain yield targets. Copyright © by the

  20. Zinc and immunity: An essential interrelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maares, Maria; Haase, Hajo

    2016-12-01

    The significance of the essential trace element zinc for immune function has been known for several decades. Zinc deficiency affects immune cells, resulting in altered host defense, increased risk of inflammation, and even death. The micronutrient zinc is important for maintenance and development of immune cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system. A disrupted zinc homeostasis affects these cells, leading to impaired formation, activation, and maturation of lymphocytes, disturbed intercellular communication via cytokines, and weakened innate host defense via phagocytosis and oxidative burst. This review outlines the connection between zinc and immunity by giving a survey on the major roles of zinc in immune cell function, and their potential consequences in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Extraction of fullerenes from environmental matrices as affected by solvent characteristics and analyte concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Benjamin J; Kleber, Markus; Field, Jennifer A

    2013-03-01

    Fullerenes possess unique chemical properties that make the isolation of these compounds from heterogeneous environmental matrices difficult. For example, previous reports indicate that toluene-based extraction techniques vary in their ability to extract C60, especially from highly carbonaceous solid matrices. Here, we examined the effects of (i) solvent type (toluene alone versus an 80:20 v/v mixture of toluene and 1-methylnaphthalene) and (ii) analyte concentration on the extraction efficiency of an isotopically labeled surrogate compound, (13)C60. The toluene/1-methylnaphthalene mixture increased fullerene extraction efficiency from carbon lampblack by a factor of five, but was not significantly different from 100% toluene when applied to wood stove soot or montmorillonite. Recovery of the (13)C60 surrogate declined with decreasing analyte concentration. The usefulness of isotopically labeled surrogate is demonstrated and the study provides a quantitative assessment regarding the dependence of fullerene extraction efficiencies on the geochemical characteristics of solid matrices. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Fabric tensile strength as affected by different anti pilling agents at various concentration and ph levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusief, M.Q.; Mahmood, N.; Saleem, M.

    2013-01-01

    Pilling is a phenomenon that has a long cause trouble in textile industry. It is the formation of pills or knops on the surface of woven or knitted fabrics caused by friction and abrasion. If fabric has a pronounced tendency to pilling, their appearances suffer severely after a short period of use. The pilling of fabrics is a serious problem for the apparel industry. The use of anti pilling finishes is one of the best techniques to control the pilling of the fabric. In this method fabric is treated with special anti pilling agents to prevent pilling that promote adhesion of the fibres in the yarn or the fabric. This paper endeavors to optimize the application of different anti pilling agents at different concentration and pH levels on the Tensile Strength of P/C fabric for best results. The results exposed that different anti pilling finishes have significant effects on the Tensile Strength of fabric at different concentration level however different pH levels have no considerable effects. (author)

  3. Factors Affecting Element Concentrations in Eggshells of Three Sympatrically Nesting Waterbirds in Northern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitowski, Ignacy; Jakubas, Dariusz; Indykiewicz, Piotr; Wiącek, Dariusz

    2018-02-01

    Avian eggshells are convenient samples in biomonitoring studies, because they are easily accessible, especially from colonially or semicolonially breeding birds. In the present study, concentrations of 17 elements, including heavy metals and essential elements in post-hatch eggshells, were compared among three species of waterbirds of differing strategies for gaining reserves for egg production and diet: mallard, Anas platyrhynchos (ML, a capital breeder, mainly herbivorous), common tern, Sterna hirundo (CT, an income breeder, piscivorous) and black-headed gull, Chroicocephalus ridibundus (BHG, mixed strategy, omnivorous) and breeding sympatrically in three sites in North Poland. Analyses revealed that Fe, Zn, and Cu levels differed the most in the studied species, which may be explained by various contributions of fish, aquatic plants, and soil invertebrates in their diets. Generally, the studied species' eggshells accumulated amounts of elements comparable to those reported for other waterbirds without putting the growth and development of the embryo at risk. The only exception was very high levels of Cr in ML and CT, which may be explained by their foraging on aquatic organisms in waterbodies polluted by this element. Intersite differences in eggshell concentrations of Ni, Sr, Hg and Cr in CT (an income breeder) may be explained by the influence of local pollution sources (small factories, polluted river).

  4. Genetic factors affecting statin concentrations and subsequent myopathy: a HuGENet systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canestaro, William J.; Austin, Melissa A.; Thummel, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, have proven efficacy in both lowering low-density-lipoprotein levels and preventing major coronary events, making them one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in the United States. Statins exhibit a class-wide side effect of muscle toxicity and weakness, which has led regulators to impose both dosage limitations and a recall. This review focuses on the best-characterized genetic factors associated with increased statin muscle concentrations, including the genes encoding cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5), a mitochondrial enzyme (GATM), an influx transporter (SLCO1B1), and efflux transporters (ABCB1 and ABCG2). A systematic literature review was conducted to identify relevant research evaluating the significance of genetic variants predictive of altered statin concentrations and subsequent statin-related myopathy. Studies eligible for inclusion must have incorporated genotype information and must have associated it with some measure of myopathy, either creatine kinase levels or self-reported muscle aches and pains. After an initial review, focus was placed on seven genes that were adequately characterized to provide a substantive review: CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, GATM, SLCO1B1, ABCB1, and ABCG2. All statins were included in this review. Among the genetic factors evaluated, statin-related myopathy appears to be most strongly associated with variants in SLCO1B1. PMID:24810685

  5. A study on surveillance of environmental factors affecting the variation of indoor radon concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Shin Ae; Kim, Ok Ja; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Cho, Eun Ok; Choi, Yun Sun; Choi, Jin Kyeong; Park, Seon Hye; Han, Hyeon Sun [Hankook Research, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    Before the main survey, a preliminary survey was carried out to decide the most suitable type of a radon detector the most appropriate places to install such a radon detector. To this end, three types of detectors were set up in 108 locations, approximately 3% of 3,000 to measure the radon levels, and 102 detectors(94%) were collected. As a result of the preliminary survey, Radtrack was chosen as a radon detector for the main survey, and bedrooms on the first floor of houses and the first floor of public buildings were decided to be the places for the first installment of detectors. It is most desirable to survey the radon concentrations in all houses nationwide. Considering the survey period and budgets, however, 3,000 spots were targeted for the main survey at the recommendation of the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety in charge of this study. As it is important to maintain the same panels for a year to measure the radon concentrations at 3,000 locations, a total of 3,237 panels, 10% more than the target sample number, were surveyed considering the possible loss of panels during the survey period. The first radon detector was installed in each of 3,237 spots in December 1999, and collected three months later in March 2000, followed by the installment of the second detector.

  6. Genetic Variations as Modifying Factors to Dietary Zinc Requirements—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin J. Day

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to reduced cost and accessibility, the use of genetic testing has appealed to health professionals for personalising nutrition advice. However, translation of the evidence linking polymorphisms, dietary requirements, and pathology risk proves to be challenging for nutrition and dietetic practitioners. Zinc status and polymorphisms of genes coding for zinc-transporters have been associated with chronic diseases. The present study aimed to systematically review the literature to assess whether recommendations for zinc intake could be made according to genotype. Eighteen studies investigating 31 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in relation to zinc intake and/or status were identified. Five studies examined type 2 diabetes; zinc intake was found to interact independently with two polymorphisms in the zinc-transporter gene SLC30A8 to affect glucose metabolism indicators. While the outcomes were statistically significant, the small size of the effect and lack of replication raises issues regarding translation into nutrition and dietetic practice. Two studies assessed the relationship of polymorphisms and cognitive performance; seven studies assessed the association between a range of outcomes linked to chronic conditions in aging population; two papers described the analysis of the genetic contribution in determining zinc concentration in human milk; and two papers assessed zinc concentration in plasma without linking to clinical outcomes. The data extracted confirmed a connection between genetics and zinc requirements, although the direction and magnitude of the dietary modification for carriers of specific genotypes could not be defined. This study highlights the need to summarise nutrigenetics studies to enable health professionals to translate scientific evidence into dietary recommendations.

  7. Zinc Deficiency‐Like Syndrome in Fleckvieh Calves: Clinical and Pathological Findings and Differentiation from Bovine Hereditary Zinc Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S.; Majzoub‐Altweck, M.; Trefz, F.M.; Seifert, C.; Knubben‐Schweizer, G.; Fries, R.; Hermanns, W.; Gollnick, N.S.

    2018-01-01

    Background Zinc deficiency‐like (ZDL) syndrome is an inherited defect of Fleckvieh calves, with striking similarity to bovine hereditary zinc deficiency (BHZD). However, the causative mutation in a phospholipase D4 encoding gene (PLD4) shows no connection to zinc metabolism. Objectives To describe clinical signs, laboratory variables, and pathological findings of ZDL syndrome and their utility to differentiate ZDL from BHZD and infectious diseases with similar phenotype. Animals Nine hospitalized calves with crusting dermatitis and confirmed mutation in PLD4 and medical records from 25 calves with crusting dermatitis or suspected zinc deficiency. Methods Prospective and retrospective case series. Results The 9 calves (age: 5–53 weeks) displayed a moderate to severe crusting dermatitis mainly on the head, ventrum, and joints. Respiratory and digestive tract inflammations were frequently observed. Zinc supplementation did not lead to remission of clinical signs in 4 calves. Laboratory variables revealed slight anemia in 8 calves, hypoalbuminemia in 6 calves, but reduced serum zinc concentrations in only 3 calves. Mucosal erosions/ulcerations were present in 7 calves and thymus atrophy or reduced thymic weights in 8 calves. Histologically, skin lesions were indistinguishable from BHZD. Retrospective analysis of medical records revealed the presence of this phenotype since 1988 and pedigree analysis revealed a common ancestor of several affected calves. Conclusions and Clinical Importance ZDL syndrome should be suspected in Fleckvieh calves with crusting dermatitis together with diarrhea or respiratory tract inflammations without response to oral zinc supplementation. Definite diagnosis requires molecular genetic confirmation of the PLD4 mutation. PMID:29424482

  8. Zinc Deficiency-Like Syndrome in Fleckvieh Calves: Clinical and Pathological Findings and Differentiation from Bovine Hereditary Zinc Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenmayer, M C; Jung, S; Majzoub-Altweck, M; Trefz, F M; Seifert, C; Knubben-Schweizer, G; Fries, R; Hermanns, W; Gollnick, N S

    2018-03-01

    Zinc deficiency-like (ZDL) syndrome is an inherited defect of Fleckvieh calves, with striking similarity to bovine hereditary zinc deficiency (BHZD). However, the causative mutation in a phospholipase D4 encoding gene (PLD4) shows no connection to zinc metabolism. To describe clinical signs, laboratory variables, and pathological findings of ZDL syndrome and their utility to differentiate ZDL from BHZD and infectious diseases with similar phenotype. Nine hospitalized calves with crusting dermatitis and confirmed mutation in PLD4 and medical records from 25 calves with crusting dermatitis or suspected zinc deficiency. Prospective and retrospective case series. The 9 calves (age: 5-53 weeks) displayed a moderate to severe crusting dermatitis mainly on the head, ventrum, and joints. Respiratory and digestive tract inflammations were frequently observed. Zinc supplementation did not lead to remission of clinical signs in 4 calves. Laboratory variables revealed slight anemia in 8 calves, hypoalbuminemia in 6 calves, but reduced serum zinc concentrations in only 3 calves. Mucosal erosions/ulcerations were present in 7 calves and thymus atrophy or reduced thymic weights in 8 calves. Histologically, skin lesions were indistinguishable from BHZD. Retrospective analysis of medical records revealed the presence of this phenotype since 1988 and pedigree analysis revealed a common ancestor of several affected calves. ZDL syndrome should be suspected in Fleckvieh calves with crusting dermatitis together with diarrhea or respiratory tract inflammations without response to oral zinc supplementation. Definite diagnosis requires molecular genetic confirmation of the PLD4 mutation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. FENOFIBRATE ADMINISTRATION DOES NOT AFFECT MUSCLE TRIGLYCERIDE CONCENTRATION OR INSULIN SENSITIVITY IN HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Leigh; Bergman, Bryan C.; Hunerdosse, Devon M.; Howard, David J.; Eckel, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Animal data suggest that males, in particular, rely on PPAR-α activity to maintain normal muscle triglyceride metabolism. We sought to examine whether this was also true in men vs. women and its relationship to insulin sensitivity. Materials/Methods Normolipidemic obese men (n=9) and women (n=9) underwent an assessment of insulin sensitivity (IVGTT) and intramuscular triglyceride metabolism (GC/MS and GC/C/IRMS from plasma and muscle biopsies taken after infusion of [U-13C]palmitate) before and after 12 weeks of fenofibrate treatment. Results Women were more insulin sensitive (Si; 5.2(0.7 vs. 2.4(0.4 ×10−4/uU/ml, W vs. M, ptriglyceride (IMTG) concentration (41.9(15.5 vs. 30.8(5.1 ug/mg dry weight, W vs. M, p=0.43), and IMTG fractional synthesis rate (FSR; 0.27(0.07 vs. 0.35(0.06/hr, W vs. M, p=0.41) as men. Fenofibrate enhanced FSR in men (0.35(0.06 to 0.54(0.06, p=0.05), with no such change seen in women (0.27(0.07 to 0.32(0.13, p=0.73), and no change in IMTG concentration in either group (23.0(3.9 in M, p=0.26 vs. baseline; 36.3(12.0 in W, p=0.79 vs. baseline). Insulin sensitivity was unaffected by fenofibrate (p>0.68). Lower percent saturation of IMTG in women vs. men before (29.1(2.3 vs. 35.2(1.7%, p=0.06) and after (27.3(2.8 vs. 35.1(1.9%, p=0.04) fenofibrate most closely related to their greater insulin sensitivity (R2=0.34, p=0.10), and was largely unchanged by the drug. Conclusions PPAR-α agonist therapy had little effect on IMTG metabolism in men or women. IMTG saturation, rather than IMTG concentration or FSR, most closely (but not significantly) related to insulin sensitivity and was unchanged by fenofibrate administration. PMID:21306746

  10. Minor milk constituents are affected by protein concentration and forage digestibility in the feed ration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to investigate if selected minor milk components would be indicative for the nutritional situation of the cow. Forty-eight dairy cows were offered a high digestible ration vs. a lower digestible ration combined with 2 protein levels in a 4 × 4 Latin square...... design. Milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAG), uric acid and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured and correlated mutually and towards other milking parameters (yield, h since last milking, days in milk (DIM), urea, etc). The variation range of the suggested variables...... were broad, a fact that may support their utilisation as predictive parameters. The content of milk metabolites was significantly affected by the change in rations as milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, uric acid, and the ratio cholesterol: triacylglycerides increased with higher energy intake while...

  11. Simulation, Experimental and Analitical Study of Deflection at End Curved Beam Affected by Single Concentrated Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Ngakan Ketut Putra Negara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Deflection has an important role in order to design structure or machine component, beside consideration of stresscalculation. This is due to although stress is still smaller then stress allowed by material strength, but probably happen thatdeflection exceeds limit allowed. That condition affects serious hazard on machine elements or structure due to it can affectof component deviate from its main function. One of element which is often experience of deflection is beam. Beams playsignificant roles in many engineering applications, including buildings, bridges, automobiles, and airplane structures. In thisresearch, material to be used was Steel ASTM 1060, with specimen in the form of curved beam. Physical condition of beamwas modeled use of BEAM3 2D. Variation of loads to be applied were W = 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, and550 gr in vertical direction. The result of simulation was verificated by analytical and experimental data. Evaluation wascarried out by statistical test (t-test. The result of simulation is categorized to be good if the result of simulation is samewith analytical and experimental data. The result of research shows that loading has a significant effect on the deflection.The higher load affect the higher of deflection Modeling use of BEAM3 2D gave good result of deflection. This is showedfrom t-test have done, where the result of simulation was same with analytical and experimental data. Other advantage ofsimulation was deflection result obtained was not limited only at the end of beam, but it can predict of deflection at eachnode or point desired

  12. Glia and zinc in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease: A mechanism for cognitive decline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eHancock

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal ageing is characterised by cognitive decline across a range of neurological functions, which are further impaired in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Recently, alterations in zinc concentrations, particularly at the synapse, have emerged as a potential mechanism underlying the cognitive changes that occur in both ageing and AD. Zinc is now accepted as a potent neuromodulator, affecting a variety of signalling pathways at the synapse that are critical to normal cognition. While the focus has principally been on the neuron: zinc interaction, there is a growing literature suggesting that glia may also play a modulatory role in maintaining both zinc ion homeostasis and the normal function of the synapse. Indeed, zinc transporters have been demonstrated in glial cells where zinc has also been shown to have a role in signalling. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that the pathogenesis of AD critically involves glial cells (such as astrocytes, which have been reported to contribute to amyloid-beta neurotoxicity. This review discusses the current evidence supporting a complex interplay of glia, zinc dyshomeostasis and synaptic function in ageing and AD.

  13. Urban legacies and soil management affect the concentration and speciation of trace metals in Los Angeles community garden soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Lorraine Weller; Jenerette, G. Darrel; Bain, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals in urban soils can compromise human health, especially in urban gardens, where gardeners may ingest contaminated dust or crops. To identify patterns of urban garden metal contamination, we measured concentrations and bioavailability of Pb, As, and Cd in soils associated with twelve community gardens in Los Angeles County, CA. This included sequential extractions to partition metals among exchangeable, reducible, organic, or residual fractions. Proximity to road increased all metal concentrations, suggesting vehicle emissions sources. Reducible Pb increased with neighborhood age, suggesting leaded paint as a likely pollutant source. Exchangeable Cd and As both increased with road proximity. Only cultivated soils showed an increase in exchangeable As with road proximity, potentially due to reducing humic acid interactions while Cd bioavailability was mitigated by organic matter. Understanding the geochemical phases and metal bioavailability allows incorporation of contamination patterns into urban planning. - Highlights: • Road proximity, legacies, and management affect garden soil metal concentrations. • Soil near old houses had high reducible Pb, likely due to lead paint. • Pb, As, and Cd all increased with proximity to road. • As and Cd reacted with organic matter to become more or less bioavailable to crops. - Road proximity, legacies, and management affect garden soil metal concentrations. Soil near old houses had high reducible Pb due to lead paint, while all metals increased near the road

  14. Short communication: Factors affecting vitamin B12 concentration in milk of commercial dairy herds: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessis, M; Pellerin, D; Cue, R I; Girard, C L

    2016-06-01

    Only bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12, and this requires adequate Co supply. The natural source of vitamin B12 in human diets comes from animal products, especially those from ruminants. This study aimed to describe variability regarding vitamin B12 concentration in milk among and within commercial dairy herds in early lactation. A secondary objective was to explore potential causes for this variability such as genetic variation and diet characteristics. In total, 399 dairy cows (135 primiparous and 264 multiparous; 386 Holstein and 13 Jersey cows) in 15 commercial herds were involved. Milk samples were taken at 27.4±4.1 and 55.4±4.1d in milk. Neither parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) nor sampling time affected milk concentrations of vitamin B12. Nevertheless, vitamin B12 concentration in milk was highly variable among and within dairy herds. The lowest vitamin B12 concentration in milk of cows was observed in the Jersey herd. Among herds, vitamin B12 concentration in milk ranged from 2,309 to 3,878 pg/mL; one glass (250mL) of milk from those herds would provide between 23 and 40% of the vitamin B12 recommended daily allowance. Among individual cows, however, this provision varied between 16 and 57% of the recommendation. In spite of the limited size of the studied population, the heritability value was 0.23, suggesting that genetic selection could modify milk vitamin B12 concentration. We observed a positive relationship between milk vitamin B12 concentration and dietary acid detergent fiber content and a negative relationship between milk concentration of vitamin B12 and dietary crude protein content. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ruminal nitrogen metabolism in steers as affected by feed intake and dietary urea concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firkins, J.L.; Berger, L.L.; Merchen, N.R.; Fahey, G.C. Jr.; Mulvaney, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Four multiple-cannulated steers (340 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Steers were fed a diet of 50% ground hay and 50% concentrate at two intakes (1.4 and 2.1% of BW), with urea and 15 N-enriched ammonium sulfate infused continuously into the rumen at .4 or 1.2% of diet DM. Ratios of purines and diaminopimelic acid-N to N in fluid-associated and particulate-associated bacteria and in protozoa were similar among treatments but were lower for protozoa than for bacteria. Diaminopimelic acid-N:N was higher for fluid-associated vs. particulate-associated bacteria. Enrichment of 15 N was similar between bacteria among treatments and was 30% lower for protozoa. Turnover rates of 15 N in bacteria, NH 3 N, and non-HN 3 N pools were faster for steers infused with 1.2 than those infused with .4% urea, indicating less efficient usage of ammonia with higher urea. A method is described to estimate the proportion of duodenal nitrogen comprising bacterial and protozoal nitrogen

  16. Environmental factors affecting the concentration of phenolic compounds in Myrcia tomentosa leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo L. Borges

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Myrcia tomentosa (Aubl. DC., Myrtaceae, found in Central Brazilian Cerrado and popularly known as "goiaba-brava", belongs to the Myrcia genus, which has several species with medicinal properties such as: hypoglycemic, diuretic, hypotensive, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial and antitumor. The present study aimed to analyzed the environmental influence on concentrations of phenolic metabolites in M. tomentosa leaves. Compounds assayed in the leaves were: total phenols, tannins by protein precipitation, hydrolysable tannins and total flavonoids and mineral nutrients, while soil fertility was also analyzed, all over during one year. The results were submitted to Pearson Correlation Analysis and stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis to investigate the relationship between phenolics and environment data. Analysis of variance and Cluster Analysis allowed indicated a high variability in samples from different sites. The results obtained suggests that content of phenolics from M. tomentosa leaves are influenced by environmental factors, particularly some foliar nutrients (N1, Ca1 and Mn1, soil nutrients (Ca s and Ks and Rainfall.

  17. Environmental factors affecting the concentration of phenolic compounds in Myrcia tomentosa leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo L. Borges

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Myrcia tomentosa (Aubl. DC., Myrtaceae, found in Central Brazilian Cerrado and popularly known as "goiaba-brava", belongs to the Myrcia genus, which has several species with medicinal properties such as: hypoglycemic, diuretic, hypotensive, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial and antitumor. The present study aimed to analyzed the environmental influence on concentrations of phenolic metabolites in M. tomentosa leaves. Compounds assayed in the leaves were: total phenols, tannins by protein precipitation, hydrolysable tannins and total flavonoids and mineral nutrients, while soil fertility was also analyzed, all over during one year. The results were submitted to Pearson Correlation Analysis and stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis to investigate the relationship between phenolics and environment data. Analysis of variance and Cluster Analysis allowed indicated a high variability in samples from different sites. The results obtained suggests that content of phenolics from M. tomentosa leaves are influenced by environmental factors, particularly some foliar nutrients (N1, Ca1 and Mn1, soil nutrients (Ca s and Ks and Rainfall.

  18. Chlorophyll-a Concentrations Affected by Discharge and Climate Conditions in Galveston Bay, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X.; Gao, H.; Zhang, S.

    2017-12-01

    As the transition zones between river and ocean, estuaries face increasing pressure on their ecosystem health due to changes of freshwater quantity and quality—especially under the impacts of population growth, land use/land cover change, and climate change. Located at the northeast of Houston, Galveston Bay is of particular social economic importance for the State of Texas. Its freshwater inflow primarily arises from two rivers, the San Jacinto and the Trinity. While it is well recognized that Chlorophyll a (chla) concentration—an indicator of ecosystem health—is closely linked to river inflows and other environmental factors, no quantitative relationships have been established. The objectives of this study are to identify the spatial-temporal variations of chla, and to investigate the impacts of freshwater inflow and climatic factors on chla variability—so that prediction models can be developed for chla forecasting to provide scientific support for ecological management (in Galveston Bay). A 10-year validated remote sensing dataset is used in this analysis. The results show that chla has higher concentrations near the shoreline, as compared to the center of the bay. Temporally, chla tends to be higher in wet years than in dry years. Similarly, the seasonal fluctuations of chla are more significant during the wet months (from February to May) than the dry months (especially from August to December). Chla in the bay is primarily determined by discharge from the Trinity River in AMJ (April, May, June) and JAS (July, August, September). However, the driving factor is mainly water temperature in OND (October, November, December). In JFM (January, February, March), almost all of the factors (except discharge from the San Jacinto River) show significant correlation with chla. Based on these analyses, a chla prediction model is developed and tested. This result can provide scientific support for coastal environmental management in Galveston Bay, maintaining the

  19. Effect of neonatal hemoglobin concentration on long-term outcome of infants affected by fetomaternal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadooka, Mizuho; Kato, Hiromi; Kato, Akihiko; Ibara, Satoshi; Minakami, Hisanori; Maruyama, Yuko

    2014-09-01

    Fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) can cause severe morbidity. However, perinatal risk factors for long-term poor outcome due to FMH have not been extensively studied. To determine which FMH infants are likely to have neurological sequelae. A single-center retrospective observational study. Perinatal factors, including demographic characteristics, Kleihauer-Betke test, blood gas analysis, and neonatal blood hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), were analyzed in association with long-term outcomes. All 18 neonates referred to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Kagoshima City Hospital and diagnosed with FMH during a 15-year study period. All had a neonatal [Hb] neonates tested had Kleihauer-Betke test result >4.0%. Poor long-term outcome was defined as any of the following determined at 12 month old or more: cerebral palsy, mental retardation, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and epilepsy. Nine of the 18 neonates exhibited poor outcomes. Among demographic characteristics and blood variables compared between two groups with poor and favorable outcomes, significant differences were observed in [Hb] (3.6±1.4 vs. 5.4±1.1g/dL, P=0.01), pH (7.09±0.11 vs. 7.25±0.13, P=0.02) and base deficits (17.5±5.4 vs. 10.4±6.0mmol/L, P=0.02) in neonatal blood, and a number of infants with [Hb]≤4.5g/dL (78%[7/9] vs. 22%[2/9], P=0.03), respectively. The base deficit in neonatal arterial blood increased significantly with decreasing neonatal [Hb]. Severe anemia causing severe base deficit is associated with neurological sequelae in FMH infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Combined cadmium and elevated ozone affect concentrations of cadmium and antioxidant systems in wheat under fully open-air conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hongyan; Tian, Ran; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhou, Hui; Pei, Daping; Wang, Xiaorong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Combined effect of elevated O 3 and Cd levels on wheat was studied using the free-air concentration enrichment system. ► Elevated O 3 levels result in an increased concentration of Cd in wheat plants grown on Cd-contaminated soils. ► Combined cadmium and elevated O 3 have a significantly synergic effect on oxidative stress in wheat shoots. - Abstract: Pollution of the environment with both ozone (O 3 ) and heavy metals has been steadily increasing. An understanding of their combined effects on plants, especially crops, is limited. Here we studied the effects of elevated O 3 on oxidative stress and bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd) in wheat under Cd stress using a free-air concentration enrichment (FACE) system. In this field experiment in Jiangdu (Jiangsu Province, China), wheat plants were grown in pots containing soil with various concentrations of cadmium (0, 2, and 10 mg kg −1 Cd was added to the soil) under ambient conditions and under elevated O 3 levels (50% higher than the ambient O 3 ). Present results showed that elevated O 3 led to higher concentrations of Cd in wheat tissues (shoots, husk and grains) with respect to contaminated soil. Combined exposure to Cd and elevated O 3 levels strongly affected the antioxidant isoenzymes POD, APX and CAT and accelerated oxidative stress in wheat leaves. Our results suggest that elevated O 3 levels cause a reduction in food quality and safety.

  1. In situ analysis of foliar zinc absorption and short-distance movement in fresh and hydrated leaves of tomato and citrus using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yumei; Kopittke, Peter M.; Noller, Barry N.; James, Simon A.; Harris, Hugh H.; Xu, Zhi Ping; Li, Peng; Mulligan, David R.; Huang, Longbin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Globally, zinc deficiency is one of the most important nutritional factors limiting crop yield and quality. Despite widespread use of foliar-applied zinc fertilizers, much remains unknown regarding the movement of zinc from the foliar surface into the vascular structure for translocation into other tissues and the key factors affecting this diffusion. Methods Using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (µ-XRF), absorption of foliar-applied zinc nitrate or zinc hydroxide nitrate was examined in fresh leaves of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and citrus (Citrus reticulatus). Key Results The foliar absorption of zinc increased concentrations in the underlying tissues by up to 600-fold in tomato but only up to 5-fold in citrus. The magnitude of this absorption was influenced by the form of zinc applied, the zinc status of the treated leaf and the leaf surface to which it was applied (abaxial or adaxial). Once the zinc had moved through the leaf surface it appeared to bind strongly, with limited further redistribution. Regardless of this, in these underlying tissues zinc moved into the lower-order veins, with concentrations 2- to 10-fold higher than in the adjacent tissues. However, even once in higher-order veins, the movement of zinc was still comparatively limited, with concentrations decreasing to levels similar to the background within 1–10 mm. Conclusions The results advance our understanding of the factors that influence the efficacy of foliar zinc fertilizers and demonstrate the merits of an innovative methodology for studying foliar zinc translocation mechanisms. PMID:25399024

  2. Sources and processes affecting the distribution of dissolved Nd isotopes and concentrations in the West Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Melanie K.; Pahnke, Katharina; Schnetger, Bernhard; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen

    2018-02-01

    In the Atlantic, where deep circulation is vigorous, the dissolved neodymium (Nd) isotopic composition (expressed as ɛNd) is largely controlled by water mass mixing. In contrast, the factors influencing the ɛNd distribution in the Pacific, marked by sluggish circulation, is not clear yet. Indication for regional overprints in the Pacific is given based on its bordering volcanic islands. Our study aims to clarify the impact and relative importance of different Nd sources (rivers, volcanic islands), vertical (bio)geochemical processes and lateral water mass transport in controlling dissolved ɛNd and Nd concentration ([Nd]) distributions in the West Pacific between South Korea and Fiji. We find indication for unradiogenic continental input from South Korean and Chinese rivers to the East China Sea. In the tropical West Pacific, volcanic islands supply Nd to surface and subsurface waters and modify their ɛNd to radiogenic values of up to +0.7. These radiogenic signatures allow detailed tracing of currents flowing to the east and differentiation from westward currents with open ocean Pacific ɛNd composition in the complex tropical Pacific zonal current system. Modified radiogenic ɛNd of West Pacific intermediate to bottom waters upstream or within our section also indicates non-conservative behavior of ɛNd due to boundary exchange at volcanic island margins, submarine ridges, and with hydrothermal particles. Only subsurface to deep waters (3000 m) in the open Northwest Pacific show conservative behavior of ɛNd. In contrast, we find a striking correlation of extremely low (down to 2.77 pmol/kg Nd) and laterally constant [Nd] with the high-salinity North and South Pacific Tropical Water, indicating lateral transport of preformed [Nd] from the North and South Pacific subtropical gyres into the study area. This observation also explains the previously observed low subsurface [Nd] in the tropical West Pacific. Similarly, Western South Pacific Central Water, Antarctic

  3. Cleaning the Soil from Zinc Using Red Clovers “Arimaičiai”

    OpenAIRE

    Audronė Mikalajūnė; Giedrė Jasulaitytė

    2011-01-01

    Zinc as a nutrition element is required to plants in small quantities to maintain normal functions of metabolism mechanisms. Our work analyses the efficiency of red clovers “Arimaičiai” for cleaning zinc from the soil contaminated with zinc under laboratory conditions. Seeds were sown in three differently polluted soils: clean soil, once contaminated with zinc and periodically contaminated with zinc soil. Zinc concentration in one time contaminated soil was 45 mg/kg. After 6 months of phytore...

  4. Non-Chromate Passivation of Zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Bech-Nielsen, G.

    1993-01-01

    Phos). The treatments are within the same concentration region, and they have a mutual pat-ent pending. Although some tests still need to be conducted, the following aspects are clear at the present time: The general appearance of the passivated zinc surface is very similar to a standard yellow chromate treatment...... successfully. The corrosion resistance against white rust on zinc and zinc alloys is just as good as that of yellow chromate, although the result de-pends on the corrosion test method as well as on the nature of the zinc substrate pas-sivated. The passivation procedure is simply a dip for approxi-mately 2...

  5. Studies of micromorphology and current efficiency of zinc electrodeposited from flowing chloride electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Vay, Laura [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Muller, Rolf H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tobias, Charles W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Results of a study of the micromorphology and current efficiency of zinc electrodeposited from flowing, acidic chloride solutions are reported. The effects of six variables were examined: flow rate, current density, zinc and hydrogen ion concentration, concentrations of nickel, iron and cadmium impurity ions, and the nature of the substrate. The development of micromorphology was studied in-situ by means of videomicrography and ex-situ by means of scanning electron microscopy. This investigation focused on the formation of grooved deposits, which are found under a wide range of deposition conditions. The major conclusions of this study are: the most important variable determining whether grooved deposits form is the interfacial concentration; large protrusions orient themselves parallel to the flow direction with the orientation starting upstream and progressing downstream; large protrusions become ridges due to growth of the highest current density portions of the electrode under mass transport control. The current efficiency was measured using EDTA titration and weight measurements. The fraction of the current taken by zinc deposition increased with zinc concentration, ranging up to 100%, and decreased with pH. The efficiency of zinc deposition was affected by the flow rate and the substrate employed. Impurities lowered the current efficiency.

  6. BWR radiation buildup control with ionic zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marble, W.J.; Wood, C.J.; Leighty, C.E.; Green, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    In 1983 a hypothesis was disclosed which suggested that the presence of ionic zinc in the reactor water of the BWR could reduce radiation buildup. This hypothesis was developed from correlations of plant data, and subsequently, from laboratory experiments which demonstrated clearly that ionic zinc inhibits the corrosion of stainless steel. The benefits of zinc addition have been measured at the Vallecitos Nuclear Center under and EPRI/GE project. Experimentation and analyses have been performed to evaluate the impact of intentional zinc addition on the IGSCC characteristics of primary system materials and on the performance of the nuclear fuel. It has been concluded that no negative effects are expected. The author conclude that the intentional addition of ionic zinc to the BWR reactor water at a concentration of approximately 10 ppb will provide major benefits in controlling the Co-60 buildup on primary system stainless steel surfaces. The intentional addition of zinc is now a qualified technique for use in BWRs

  7. Alcohol-to-acid ratio and substrate concentration affect product structure in chain elongation reactions initiated by unacclimatized inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhao; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether the ratio of ethanol to acetate affects yield and product structure in chain elongation initiated by unacclimatized mixed cultures. The effect of varying the substrate concentration, while maintaining the same ratio of alcohol to acid, was also investigated. With a high substrate concentration, an alcohol to acid ratio >2:1 provided sufficient electron donor capacity for the chain elongation reaction. With an ethanol to acetate ratio of 3:1 (300mM total carbon), the highest n-caproate concentration (3033±98mg/L) was achieved during the stable phase of the reaction. A lower substrate concentration (150mM total carbon) gave a lower yield of products and led to reduced carbon transformation efficiency compared with other reaction conditions. The use of unacclimatized inoculum in chain elongation can produce significant amounts of odd-carbon-number carboxylates as a result of protein hydrolysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Decrease of non-point zinc runoff using porous concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Shigeki; Komuro, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    The use of porous concrete columns to decrease the amount of zinc in stormwater runoff is examined. The concentration of zinc in a simulated stormwater fluid (zinc acetate solution), fed through concrete columns (slashed circle10x10cm) decreased by 50-81%, suggesting physical adsorption of zinc by the porous concrete. We propose the use of porous concrete columns (slashed circle50x10cm) as the base of sewage traps. Longer-term, high-zinc concentration monitoring revealed that porous concrete blocks adsorb 38.6mgcm(-3) of zinc. A period of no significant zinc runoff (with an acceptable concentration of zinc in runoff of 0.03mgL(-1), a zinc concentration equal to the Japanese Environmental Standard) is estimated for 41years using a 1-ha catchment area with 20 porous concrete sewage traps. Scanning electron microscopy of the porous concrete used in this study indicates that the needle-like particles formed by hydration action significantly increase zinc adsorption. Evidence suggests that the hydrant is ettringite and has an important role in zinc adsorption, the resulting immobilization of zinc and the subsequent effects on groundwater quality. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Zinc injection method and device in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maehara, Kazumi; Negishi, Itaru; Deguchi, Tatsuya; Ino, Takao; Sasaki, Noriyuki; Yotsuyanagi, Tadashi; Tobara, Hirotaka.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of injecting zinc into reactor water, and it can supply a solution of zinc at a high concentration by improving the solubility of zinc. Namely, zinc is used as a solute and is dissolved in an aqueous solution containing an electrolyte such as carbonic acid. The resultant zinc solution at a high concentration is injected to reactor water. In the device of the present invention, (1) a dissolution vessel for dissolving zinc comprises a zinc supply means at an upper portion thereof and a carbonic acid gas supply means at a lower portion, (2) an injection means supplies the solution in which zinc is dissolved at a high concentration to reactor water. An aqueous solution saturated with a carbonic acid gas is used as a solvent for dissolving zinc into reactor water at a high concentration. The dissolution vessel has a gas diffusion pipe at the bottom for introducing the carbonic acid gas and has a stirrer in the inside. Zinc is supplied continuously or discontinuously. Raw material zinc may be in the form of a plate, rod, granule, or powder, however, powdery zinc is preferably used. (I.S.)

  10. Effects of zinc and nitrogen application on agronomic traits and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among yield components only number of seed per silique was affected by zinc and increased in the first year. Oil percentage decreased due to nitrogen, zinc and salinity in the first year but zinc had no significant effect on oil in the second year. Salinity stress increased glucosinolate and protein content. Other treatments had ...

  11. The immune system and the impact of zinc during aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haase Hajo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The trace element zinc is essential for the immune system, and zinc deficiency affects multiple aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. There are remarkable parallels in the immunological changes during aging and zinc deficiency, including a reduction in the activity of the thymus and thymic hormones, a shift of the T helper cell balance toward T helper type 2 cells, decreased response to vaccination, and impaired functions of innate immune cells. Many studies confirm a decline of zinc levels with age. Most of these studies do not classify the majority of elderly as zinc deficient, but even marginal zinc deprivation can affect immune function. Consequently, oral zinc supplementation demonstrates the potential to improve immunity and efficiently downregulates chronic inflammatory responses in the elderly. These data indicate that a wide prevalence of marginal zinc deficiency in elderly people may contribute to immunosenescence.

  12. Groundwater Depth Affects Phosphorus But Not Carbon and Nitrogen Concentrations of a Desert Phreatophyte in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Gao, Xiaopeng; Li, Lei; Lu, Yan; Shareef, Muhammad; Huang, Caibian; Liu, Guojun; Gui, Dongwei; Zeng, Fanjiang

    2018-01-01

    Ecological stoichiometry is an important aspect in the analysis of the changes in ecological system composition, structure, and function and understanding of plant adaptation in habitats. Leaf carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) concentrations in desert phreatophytes can be affected by different depths of groundwater through its effect on the adsorption and utilization of nutrient and plant biomass. We examined the biomass, soil organic C, available (mineral) N, and available P, and leaf C, N, and P concentrations of Alhagi sparsifolia grown at varying groundwater depths of 2.5, 4.5, and 11.0 m in 2015 and 2016 growing seasons in a desert-oasis ecotone in northwest China. The biomass of A. sparsifolia and the C, N, and P concentrations in soil and A. sparsifolia showed different responses to various groundwater depths. The leaf P concentration of A. sparsifolia was lower at 4.5 m than at 2.5 and 11.0 m likely because of a biomass dilution effect. By contrast, leaf C and N concentrations were generally unaffected by groundwater depth, thereby confirming that C and N accumulations in A. sparsifolia were predominantly determined by C fixation through the photosynthesis and biological fixation of atmospheric N 2 , respectively. Soil C, N, and P concentrations at 4.5 m were significantly lower than those at 11.0 m. Leaf P concentration was significantly and positively correlated with soil N concentration at all of the groundwater depths. The C:N and C:P mass ratios of A. sparsifolia at 4.5 m were higher than those at the other groundwater depths, suggesting a defensive life history strategy. Conversely, A. sparsifolia likely adopted a competitive strategy at 2.5 and 11.0 m as indicated by the low C:N and C:P mass ratios. To our knowledge, this study is the first to elucidate the variation in the C, N, and P stoichiometry of a desert phreatophyte at different groundwater depths in an arid ecosystem.

  13. Zinc deficiency among a healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Timimi, D.; Al-Najjar, F.; Al-Sharbatti, Shatha S.

    2005-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency and the current zinc status among a sample selected from the healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq. We carried out a community-based study in Baghdad City, Iraq from November through June 2002. We selected a sample of 2090 healthy subjects (aged 1 month to 85 years). We used a pre-tested questionnaire, designed to obtain information on gender, birth dates, height, weight, residence, habitual food consumption patterns, and social status. We performed laboratory assessment of serum zinc level, dietary assessment of food frequency and usual zinc intake. We considered subjects with serum zinc concentration of /-7.7 to 12.3 umol/l mild to moderately zinc deficient. The prevalence of zinc deficiency among the studied sample was 2.7%. We found mild to moderate zinc deficiency among 55.7% of the study sample. Dietary zinc intake assessment showed that 74.8% of the studied sample consumed less than the recommended intake, and in 62.3%, the intakes were deficient and grossly deficient. Mean daily zinc ranged from 5.2 mg in children to 8.5 mg in adults. We observed a high prevalence of mild to moderate zinc deficiency, with inadequate dietary zinc intake among a considerable proportion of the studied sample. Zinc supplementation may be an effective public health intervention means to improve the zinc status of the population. (author)

  14. Zinc and Regulation of Inflammatory Cytokines: Implications for Cardiometabolic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Meika; Samman, Samir

    2012-01-01

    In atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus, the concomitant presence of low-grade systemic inflammation and mild zinc deficiency highlights a role for zinc nutrition in the management of chronic disease. This review aims to evaluate the literature that reports on the interactions of zinc and cytokines. In humans, inflammatory cytokines have been shown both to up- and down-regulate the expression of specific cellular zinc transporters in response to an increased demand for zinc in inflammatory conditions. The acute phase response includes a rapid decline in the plasma zinc concentration as a result of the redistribution of zinc into cellular compartments. Zinc deficiency influences the generation of cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α, and in response to zinc supplementation plasma cytokines exhibit a dose-dependent response. The mechanism of action may reflect the ability of zinc to either induce or inhibit the activation of NF-κB. Confounders in understanding the zinc-cytokine relationship on the basis of in vitro experimentation include methodological issues such as the cell type and the means of activating cells in culture. Impaired zinc homeostasis and chronic inflammation feature prominently in a number of cardiometabolic diseases. Given the high prevalence of zinc deficiency and chronic disease globally, the interplay of zinc and inflammation warrants further examination. PMID:22852057

  15. Visual food cues decrease postprandial glucose concentrations in lean and obese men without affecting food intake and related endocrine parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, Swantje; Sputh, Annika; Hartmann, Ann-Christin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Lehnert, Hendrik; Klement, Johanna

    2017-10-01

    The abundance of highly palatable food items in our environment represents a possible cause of overconsumption. Neuroimaging studies in humans have demonstrated that watching pictures of food increases activation in brain areas involved in homeostatic and hedonic food cue processing. Nevertheless, the impact of food cues on actual food intake and metabolic parameters has not been systematically investigated. We tested the hypothesis that watching high-calorie food cues increases food intake and modifies anticipatory blood parameters in lean and especially in obese men. In 20 normal-weight and 20 obese healthy fasted men, we assessed the effects of watching pictures of high-calorie food items versus neutral contents on food intake measured during a standardized test buffet and subsequent snacking as well as on glucose homeostasis and endocrine parameters. Compared to neutral pictures, viewing food pictures reduced postprandial blood glucose concentrations in lean (p = 0.016) and obese (p = 0.044) subjects, without any differences in insulin or C-peptide concentrations (all p > 0.4). Viewing food pictures did not affect total calorie intake during the buffet (all p > 0.5) and snack consumption (all p > 0.4). Concentrations of ghrelin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and glucagon also remained unaffected (all p > 0.08). These data indicate that preprandial processing of food cues curbs postprandial blood glucose excursions, without immediately affecting eating behavior in normal-weight and obese men. Findings indicate that exposure to food cues does not acutely trigger calorie overconsumption but rather improves the glucoregulatory response to food intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in the salinity tolerance of sweet pepper plants as affected by nitrogen form and high CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, María C; Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; López-Marín, Josefa; Del Amor, Francisco M

    2016-08-01

    The assimilation and availability of nitrogen in its different forms can significantly affect the response of primary productivity under the current atmospheric alteration and soil degradation. An elevated CO2 concentration (e[CO2]) triggers changes in the efficiency and efficacy of photosynthetic processes, water use and product yield, the plant response to stress being altered with respect to ambient CO2 conditions (a[CO2]). Additionally, NH4(+) has been related to improved plant responses to stress, considering both energy efficiency in N-assimilation and the overcoming of the inhibition of photorespiration at e[CO2]. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the response of sweet pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) receiving an additional supply of NH4(+) (90/10 NO3(-)/NH4(+)) to salinity stress (60mM NaCl) under a[CO2] (400μmolmol(-1)) or e[CO2] (800μmolmol(-1)). Salt-stressed plants grown at e[CO2] showed DW accumulation similar to that of the non-stressed plants at a[CO2]. The supply of NH4(+) reduced growth at e[CO2] when salinity was imposed. Moreover, NH4(+) differentially affected the stomatal conductance and water use efficiency and the leaf Cl(-), K(+), and Na(+) concentrations, but the extent of the effects was influenced by the [CO2]. An antioxidant-related response was prompted by salinity, the total phenolics and proline concentrations being reduced by NH4(+) at e[CO2]. Our results show that the effect of NH4(+) on plant salinity tolerance should be globally re-evaluated as e[CO2] can significantly alter the response, when compared with previous studies at a[CO2]. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. The importance of biological factors affecting trace metal concentration as revealed from accumulation patterns in co-occurring terrestrial invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickx, Frederik; Maelfait, Jean-Pierre; Bogaert, Nicolas; Tojal, Catarina; Du Laing, Gijs; Tack, Filip M.G.; Verloo, Marc G

    2004-02-01

    As physicochemical properties of the soil highly influence the bioavailable fraction of a particular trace metal, measured metal body burdens in a particular species are often assumed to be more reliable estimators of the contamination of the biota. To test this we compared the Cd, Cu and Zn content of three spiders (generalist predators) and two amphipods (detritivores), co-occurring in seven tidal marshes along the river Schelde, between each other and with the total metal concentrations and the concentrations of four sequential extractions of the soils. Correlations were significant in only one case and significant sitexspecies interactions for all metals demonstrate that factors affecting metal concentration were species and site specific and not solely determined by site specific characteristics. These results emphasize that site and species specific biological factors might be of the utmost importance in determining the contamination of the biota, at least for higher trophic levels. A hypothetical example clarifies these findings. - Site and species specific biological factors are important in determining contamination of biota.

  18. Influence of usual zinc intake and zinc in a meal on 65Zn retention and turnover in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.R.; Johnson, P.E.; Swan, P.B.

    1987-01-01

    The influences of zinc in a meal and usual zinc intake on zinc retention and turnover were investigated in 7-wk-old male rats fed diets containing 12-151 mg Zn/kg for 3 wk before and after consuming a 65 Zn-labeled meal containing ZnCl 2 . Retention corrected to zero time and turnover rate were determined by whole-body counting. Percent zinc retention was inversely proportional to the natural logarithm of the meal zinc, between 0.09 and 26 mumol. In comparison to lower doses, higher doses resulted in lower percent retention but greater amounts of zinc retained. Although the latter relationship was slightly curvilinear, there was no indication of a limited capacity for zinc retention with high doses. However, doses above 4 mumol resulted in higher turnover rates in rats accustomed to lower zinc intakes. Percent retention and the reciprocal of the turnover rate were proportional to the reciprocal of the dietary zinc concentration. The greatest differences in retention and turnover occurred between 12 and 26 mg Zn/kg diet. The zinc dose in a meal and the usual dietary zinc separately influenced percent zinc retention. These factors also interacted, such that greater dose effects were observed at lower zinc intakes and greater dietary zinc effects were observed at lower doses

  19. Production of zinc pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  20. Zinc absorption in inflammatory bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Kertesz, A.; Bondy, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    Zinc absorption was measured in 29 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and a wide spectrum of disease activity to determine its relationship to disease activity, general nutritional state, and zinc status. Patients with severe disease requiring either supplementary oral or parenteral nutrition were excluded. The mean 65ZnCl2 absorption, in the patients, determined using a 65Zn and 51Cr stool-counting test, 45 +/- 17% (SD), was significantly lower than the values, 54 +/- 16%, in 30 healthy controls, P less than 0.05. Low 65ZnCl2 absorption was related to undernutrition, but not to disease activity in the absence of undernutrition or to zinc status estimated by leukocyte zinc measurements. Mean plasma zinc or leukocyte zinc concentrations in patients did not differ significantly from controls, and only two patients with moderate disease had leukocyte zinc values below the 5th percentile of normal. In another group of nine patients with inflammatory bowel disease of mild-to-moderate severity and minimal nutritional impairment, 65Zn absorption from an extrinsically labeled turkey test meal was 31 +/- 10% compared to 33 +/- 7% in 17 healthy controls, P greater than 0.1. Thus, impairment in 65ZnCl2 absorption in the patients selected for this study was only evident in undernourished persons with moderate or severe disease activity, but biochemical evidence of zinc deficiency was uncommon, and clinical features of zinc depletion were not encountered

  1. Impact of soil properties on critical concentrations of cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, and mercury in soil and soil solution in view of ecotoxicological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Wim; Lofts, Steve; Tipping, Ed; Meili, Markus; Groenenberg, Jan E; Schütze, Gudrun

    2007-01-01

    Risk assessment for metals in terrestrial ecosystems, including assessments of critical loads, requires appropriate critical limits for metal concentrations in soil and soil solution. This chapter presents an overview of methodologies used to derive critical (i) reactive and total metal concentrations in soils and (ii) free metal ion and total metal concentrations in soil solution for Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Hg, taking into account the effect of soil properties related to ecotoxicological effects. Most emphasis is given to the derivation of critical free and total metal concentrations in soil solution, using available NOEC soil data and transfer functions relating solid-phase and dissolved metal concentrations. This approach is based on the assumption that impacts on test organisms (plants, microorganisms, and soil invertebrates) are mainly related to the soil solution concentration (activity) and not to the soil solid-phase content. Critical Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Hg concentrations in soil solution vary with pH and DOC level. The results obtained are generally comparable to those derived for surface waters based on impacts to aquatic organisms. Critical soil metal concentrations, related to the derived soil solution limits, can be described as a function of pH and organic matter and clay content, and varying about one order of magnitude between different soil types.

  2. Tracing of Zinc Nanocrystals in the Anterior Pituitary of Zinc-Deficient Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldeep, Anjana; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, Ranveer Singh

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to trace zinc nanocrystals in the anterior pituitary of zinc-deficient Wistar rats by using autometallographic technique. Male Wistar rats (30-40 days of age, pre-pubertal period) of 40-50 g body weight were divided into the following: the ZC (zinc control) group-fed with 100 ppm zinc in diet, the ZD (zinc-deficient) group-fed with zinc-deficient (1.00 ppm) diet and the PF (pair-fed) group-received 100 ppm zinc in diet. The experiments were set for 2 and 4 weeks. Pituitary was removed and processed for the autometallographic technique. The control and pair-fed groups retained their normal morphological features. However, male Wistar rats fed on zinc-deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks displayed a wide range of symptoms such as significant (P zinc nanocrystals in the nuclei. The present findings suggest that the dietary zinc deficiency causes decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals localization and their distribution in the pituitary thereby contributing to the dysfunction of the pituitary of the male Wistar rats. The severity of zinc deficiency symptoms progressed after the second week of the experiment. Decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals attenuates the pituitary function which would exert its affect on other endocrine organs impairing their functions indicating that the metabolic regulation of pituitary is mediated to a certain extent by zinc and/or hypothalamus-hypophysial system which also reflects its essentiality during the period of growth.

  3. Activity incorporation into zinc doped PWR oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, Kari

    1998-01-01

    Activity incorporation into the oxide layers of PWR primary circuit constructional materials has been studied in Halden since 1993. The first zinc injection tests showed that zinc addition resulted in thinner oxide layers on new metal surfaces and reduced further incorporation of activity into already existing oxides. These tests were continued to find out the effects of previous zinc additions on the pickup of activity onto the surface oxides which were subsequently exposed to zinc-free coolant. The results showed that previous zinc addition will continue to reduce the rate of Co-60 build-up on out-of-core surfaces in subsequent exposure to zinc-free coolants. However, the previous Zn free test was performed for a relatively short period of time and the water chemistry programme was continued to find out the long term effects for extended periods without zinc. The activity incorporation into the stainless steel oxides started to increase as soon as zinc dosing to the coolant was stopped. The Co-60 concentration was lowest on all of the coupons which were first oxidised in Zn containing primary coolant. After the zinc injection period the thickness of the oxides increased, but activity in the oxide films did not increase at the same rate. This could indicate that zinc in the oxide blocks the adsorption sites for Co-60 incorporation. The Co-60 incorporation rate into the oxides on Inconel 600 seemed to be linear whether the oxide was pre-oxidised with or without Zn. The results indicate that zinc can either replace or prevent cobalt transport in the oxides. The results show that for zinc injection to be effective it should be carried out continuously. Furthermore the actual mechanism by which Zn inhibits the activity incorporation into the oxides is still not clear. Therefore, additional work has to follow with specified materials to verify the conclusions drawn in this work. (author)

  4. Level of zinc in maize seeds and maize growing soils of central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia is one of the world countries with reported zinc deficiency or high probability of zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency is an important soil constraint to crop production, food quality and human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the zinc concentration of different cultivars of maize seeds and soil samples in central ...

  5. The role of zinc in the interplay between pathogenic streptococci and their hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafeeq, Sulman; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kloosterman, Tomas G.

    Recent studies on pathogenic streptococci have revealed that zinc is a pivotal metal ion in their interaction with the host. In these streptococci, systems exist that ensure optimal use of zinc from the surrounding milieu, as well as export of zinc when concentrations exceed tolerance levels. Zinc

  6. Concentrations of hormones, pharmaceuticals and other micropollutants in groundwater affected by septic systems in New England and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Schubert, Christopher E.; Argue, Denise M.; Fisher, Irene J.; Furlong, Edward T.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; Chalmers, Ann T.

    2015-01-01

    Septic-system discharges can be an important source of micropollutants (including pharmaceuticals and endocrine active compounds) to adjacent groundwater and surface water systems. Groundwater samples were collected from well networks tapping glacial till in New England (NE) and sandy surficial aquifer New York (NY) during one sampling round in 2011. The NE network assesses the effect of a single large septic system that receives discharge from an extended health care facility for the elderly. The NY network assesses the effect of many small septic systems used seasonally on a densely populated portion of Fire Island. The data collected from these two networks indicate that hydrogeologic and demographic factors affect micropollutant concentrations in these systems.

  7. The effect of postoperative radiotherapy on leukocyte zinc, serum trace elements and nutritional status of breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antila, H.M.J.; Salo, M.S.; Kirvelae, O.; Nikkanen, V.

    1992-01-01

    Mononuclear (MNC) and polymorphonuclear cell (PMNC) zinc content was determined together with serum zinc, copper, selenium and iron concentrations in 24 operable breast cancer patients during and after postoperative radiotherapy. Anthropometric and biochemical indices of nutritional status were measured as background data. The measurements were carried out in the years 1987-1988. Nine patients used unconventional multivitamin or trace element preparations. A steady but statistically insignificant decrease in PMNC zinc was seen during treatment. No changes occurred in MNC zinc. Serum copper levels increased in five patients possibly due to tamoxifen treatment, but no other alterations occurred in serum trace element levels. Appetite was well maintained and nutritional status remained unaltered. Postoperative radiotherapy for breast carcinoma had thus no effect on either trace element or nutritional status. Patient-initiated alternative treatments did not significantly affect their trace element levels. This was probably due to small supplementation doses or irregular use of the preparations. (orig.)

  8. Microwave Synthesis of Zinc Hydroxy Sulfate Nanoplates and Zinc Oxide Nanorods in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Rafal M.; Gillian-Daniel, Anne Lynn; Peterson, Greta M.; Martínez-Herna´ndez, Kermin J.

    2014-01-01

    In this hands-on, inquiry-based lab, high school and undergraduate students learn about nanotechnology by synthesizing their own nanoparticles in a single class period. This simple synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods and zinc hydroxy sulfate nanoplates can be done in 15 min using a household microwave oven. Reagent concentration, reaction…

  9. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOURCES AND CONCENTRATIONS OF ZINC IN THE MINERAL MIXTURE ON PERFORMANCE AND SEMINAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GRAZING YOUNG BULLS EFEITO DE DIFERENTES FONTES E CONCENTRAÇÕES DE ZINCO NA MISTURA MINERAL SOBRE DESEMPENHO E CARACTERÍSTICAS SEMINAIS DE TOUROS JOVENS CRIADOS EM CAMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Vinhas Ítavo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Sixteen young Nellore bulls with approximately 26 months of age  maintained o pasture were submitted to four different supplementations of zinc in the mineral mixture: Zn-0 (without zinc; Zn 30FO (30 mg of organic Zn/Kg; Zn 30FI (30 mg of inorganic Zn/Kg and Zn 60FI (60 mg of inorganic Zn/Kg. Mineral mixture intake was measured and it was verified that the animals of Zn-0 had higher mi-neral mixture intake than the animals of other treatments, differing statistically (P <0,05 of Zn-30FO, Zn-30FI and Zn-60FI and that the animals of Zn-60FI had the lowest intake. Animals were weighted, blood and semen were collected and complete andrological analyses were done. No statistical differences were observed (P>0,05 among treatments for weight gain. Bulls of Zn-0 showed sperma-tozoids with less motility and vigor and higher chances of having spermatozoids with head, middle piece and proximal citoplasmatic drop defects. Animals supplemented with 60 mg of inorganic Zn/Kg showed higher chances of not having head, intermediate piece and proximal citoplasmatic drop defects on spermatozoids. Different sources and concentra-tions of zinc in the mineral mixture of young bulls didn’t affect the performance on experimental conditions, but did in the seminal characteristics.

    KEY-WORDS: Growth, spermatozoids, inorganic zinc, organic zinc.

    Dezesseis tourinhos Nelore de aproximadamente 26 meses de idade mantidos em pasto foram submetidos a qua-tro diferentes suplementações de zinco na mistura mineral: Zn–0 (sem zinco; Zn 30FO (30 mg de Zn orgânico/Kg; Zn 30FI (30 mg de Zn inorgânico/Kg e Zn 60FI (60 mg de Zn inorgânico/Kg. Mediu-se o consumo da mistura mineral e verificou-se que os animais do Zn–0 consumiram mais do que os animais dos demais tratamentos, diferindo estatis-ticamente (P<0,05 de Zn-30FO, Zn-30FI e Zn-60FI e que os animais do Zn-60FI consumiram menos. Procedeu-se à pesagem dos animais, coletaram-se sangue e realizaram-se an

  10. A multi-platform metabolomics approach demonstrates changes in energy metabolism and the transsulfuration pathway in Chironomus tepperi following exposure to zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Sara M.; Tull, Dedreia L.; Jeppe, Katherine J.; De Souza, David P.; Dayalan, Saravanan; Pettigrove, Vincent J.; McConville, Malcolm J.; Hoffmann, Ary A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated metabolomics approach was applied to examine zinc exposure in midges. • Changes in carbohydrate and energy metabolism were observed using GC–MS. • Transsulfuration pathway is affected by zinc exposure. • Heavy metals other than zinc affect the transsulfuration pathways differently. - Abstract: Measuring biological responses in resident biota is a commonly used approach to monitoring polluted habitats. The challenge is to choose sensitive and, ideally, stressor-specific endpoints that reflect the responses of the ecosystem. Metabolomics is a potentially useful approach for identifying sensitive and consistent responses since it provides a holistic view to understanding the effects of exposure to chemicals upon the physiological functioning of organisms. In this study, we exposed the aquatic non-biting midge, Chironomus tepperi, to two concentrations of zinc chloride and measured global changes in polar metabolite levels using an untargeted gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis and a targeted liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) analysis of amine-containing metabolites. These data were correlated with changes in the expression of a number of target genes. Zinc exposure resulted in a reduction in levels of intermediates in carbohydrate metabolism (i.e., glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate and disaccharides) and an increase in a number of TCA cycle intermediates. Zinc exposure also resulted in decreases in concentrations of the amine containing metabolites, lanthionine, methionine and cystathionine, and an increase in metallothionein gene expression. Methionine and cystathionine are intermediates in the transsulfuration pathway which is involved in the conversion of methionine to cysteine. These responses provide an understanding of the pathways affected by zinc toxicity, and how these effects are different to other heavy metals such as cadmium and copper. The use of complementary

  11. A multi-platform metabolomics approach demonstrates changes in energy metabolism and the transsulfuration pathway in Chironomus tepperi following exposure to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Sara M., E-mail: hoskins@unimelb.edu.au [Centre for Aquatic Pollution, Identification and Management (CAPIM), School of BioSciences, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, The University of Melbourne, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052 (Australia); Tull, Dedreia L., E-mail: dedreia@unimelb.edu.au [Metabolomics Australia, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052 (Australia); Jeppe, Katherine J., E-mail: k.jeppe@unimelb.edu.au [Centre for Aquatic Pollution, Identification and Management (CAPIM), School of BioSciences, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, The University of Melbourne, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052 (Australia); Centre for Aquatic Pollution, Identification and Management (CAPIM), School of BioSciences, The University of Melbourne, 3010 (Australia); De Souza, David P., E-mail: desouzad@unimelb.edu.au [Metabolomics Australia, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052 (Australia); Dayalan, Saravanan, E-mail: sdayalan@unimelb.edu.au [Metabolomics Australia, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052 (Australia); Pettigrove, Vincent J., E-mail: vpet@unimelb.edu.au [Centre for Aquatic Pollution, Identification and Management (CAPIM), School of BioSciences, The University of Melbourne, 3010 (Australia); McConville, Malcolm J., E-mail: malcolmm@unimelb.edu.au [Metabolomics Australia, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052 (Australia); Hoffmann, Ary A., E-mail: ary@unimelb.edu.au [Centre for Aquatic Pollution, Identification and Management (CAPIM), School of BioSciences, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, The University of Melbourne, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052 (Australia); School of BioSciences, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, The University of Melbourne, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, 3052 (Australia)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • An integrated metabolomics approach was applied to examine zinc exposure in midges. • Changes in carbohydrate and energy metabolism were observed using GC–MS. • Transsulfuration pathway is affected by zinc exposure. • Heavy metals other than zinc affect the transsulfuration pathways differently. - Abstract: Measuring biological responses in resident biota is a commonly used approach to monitoring polluted habitats. The challenge is to choose sensitive and, ideally, stressor-specific endpoints that reflect the responses of the ecosystem. Metabolomics is a potentially useful approach for identifying sensitive and consistent responses since it provides a holistic view to understanding the effects of exposure to chemicals upon the physiological functioning of organisms. In this study, we exposed the aquatic non-biting midge, Chironomus tepperi, to two concentrations of zinc chloride and measured global changes in polar metabolite levels using an untargeted gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis and a targeted liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) analysis of amine-containing metabolites. These data were correlated with changes in the expression of a number of target genes. Zinc exposure resulted in a reduction in levels of intermediates in carbohydrate metabolism (i.e., glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate and disaccharides) and an increase in a number of TCA cycle intermediates. Zinc exposure also resulted in decreases in concentrations of the amine containing metabolites, lanthionine, methionine and cystathionine, and an increase in metallothionein gene expression. Methionine and cystathionine are intermediates in the transsulfuration pathway which is involved in the conversion of methionine to cysteine. These responses provide an understanding of the pathways affected by zinc toxicity, and how these effects are different to other heavy metals such as cadmium and copper. The use of complementary

  12. Cadmium and zinc activate adaptive mechanisms in Nicotiana tabacum similar to those observed in metal tolerant plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Gómez-Méndez, María F; Amezcua-Romero, Julio C; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Rosas-Santiago, Paul; Pantoja, Omar

    2017-09-01

    Tobacco germinated and grew in the presence of high concentrations of cadmium and zinc without toxic symptoms. Evidence suggests that these ions are sequestered into the vacuole by heavy metal/H + exchanger mechanisms. Heavy metal hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance are traits shared by a small set of plants which show specialized physiological and molecular adaptations allowing them to accumulate and sequester toxic metal ions. Nicotiana tabacum was used to test its potential as a metal-accumulator in a glass house experiment. Seed germination was not affected in the presence of increasing concentrations of zinc and cadmium. Juvenile and adult plants could concentrate CdCl 2 and ZnSO 4 to levels exceeding those in the hydroponic growth medium and maintained or increased their leaf dry weight when treated with 0.5- or 1-mM CdCl 2 or 1-mM ZnSO 4 for 5 days. Accumulation of heavy metals did not affect the chlorophyll and carotenoid levels, while variable effects were observed in cell sap osmolarity. Heavy metal-dependent H + transport across the vacuole membrane was monitored using quinacrine fluorescence quenching. Cadmium- or zinc-dependent fluorescence recovery revealed that increasing concentrations of heavy metals stimulated the activities of the tonoplast Cd 2+ or Zn 2+ /H + exchangers. Immunodetection of the V-ATPase subunits showed that the increased proton transport by zinc was not due to changes in protein amount. MTP1 and MTP4 immunodetection and semiquantitative RT-PCR of NtMTP1, NtNRAMP1, and NtZIP1 helped to identify the genes that are likely involved in sequestration of cadmium and zinc in the leaf and root tissue. Finally, we demonstrated that cadmium and zinc treatments induced an accumulation of zinc in leaf tissues. This study shows that N. tabacum possesses a hyperaccumulation response, and thus could be used for phytoremediation purposes.

  13. BWR zinc addition Sourcebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Susan E.; Giannelli, Joseph F.; Jarvis, Alfred J.

    2014-01-01

    Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) have been injecting zinc into the primary coolant via the reactor feedwater system for over 25 years for the purpose of controlling primary system radiation fields. The BWR zinc injection process has evolved since the initial application at the Hope Creek Nuclear Station in 1986. Key transitions were from the original natural zinc oxide (NZO) to depleted zinc oxide (DZO), and from active zinc injection of a powdered zinc oxide slurry (pumped systems) to passive injection systems (zinc pellet beds). Zinc addition has continued through various chemistry regimes changes, from normal water chemistry (NWC) to hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) and HWC with noble metals (NobleChem™) for mitigation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of reactor internals and primary system piping. While past reports published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) document specific industry experience related to these topics, the Zinc Sourcebook was prepared to consolidate all of the experience gained over the past 25 years. The Zinc Sourcebook will benefit experienced BWR Chemistry, Operations, Radiation Protection and Engineering personnel as well as new people entering the nuclear power industry. While all North American BWRs implement feedwater zinc injection, a number of other BWRs do not inject zinc. This Sourcebook will also be a valuable resource to plants considering the benefits of zinc addition process implementation, and to gain insights on industry experience related to zinc process control and best practices. This paper presents some of the highlights from the Sourcebook. (author)

  14. Leptin, NPY, Melatonin and Zinc Levels in Experimental Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism: The Relation to Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasım; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2017-06-01

    Since zinc mediates the effects of many hormones or is found in the structure of numerous hormone receptors, zinc deficiency leads to various functional impairments in the hormone balance. And also thyroid hormones have important activity on metabolism and feeding. NPY and leptin are affective on food intake and regulation of appetite. The present study is conducted to determine how zinc supplementation and deficiency affect thyroid hormones (free and total T3 and T4), melatonin, leptin, and NPY levels in thyroid dysfunction in rats. The experiment groups in the study were formed as follows: Control (C); Hypothyroidism (PTU); Hypothyroidism+Zinc (PTU+Zn); Hypothyroidism+Zinc deficient; Hyperthyroidism (H); Hyperthyroidism+Zinc (H+Zn); and Hyperthyroidism+Zinc deficient. Thyroid hormone parameters (FT 3 , FT 4 , TT 3 , and TT 4 ) were found to be reduced in hypothyroidism groups and elevated in the hyperthyroidism groups. Melatonin values increased in hyperthyroidism and decreased in hypothyroidism. Leptin and NPY levels both increased in hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Zinc levels, on the other hand, decreased in hypothyroidism and increased in hyperthyroidism. Zinc supplementation, particularly when thyroid function is impaired, has been demonstrated to markedly prevent these changes.

  15. Method of capturing or trapping zinc using zinc getter materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-07-11

    A method of trapping or capturing zinc is disclosed. In particular, the method comprises a step of contacting a zinc vapor with a zinc getter material. The zinc getter material comprises nanoparticles and a metal substrate.

  16. Research and application of zinc injection in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lei

    2012-01-01

    In the middle 1990s, some PWRs in USA and Germany started to inject Zinc into the reactor coolant system for reducing both radiation fields and primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). Based on data from the labs and experience in the demonstration pants, Zinc injection obviously reduced radiation fields, and effectively mitigated PWSCC. Plants in USA injected high concentration zinc that is 15 ppb to 40 ppb to restrained PWSCC. Whereas, plants in Germany injected low concentration zinc that is 5 ppb to 10 ppb to reduce radiation fields. There are more than ten years at aspect of zinc rejection in overseas PWR, but domestic plants don't add zinc. The building PWR in Zhejiang Sanmen is the first AP1000 unit in the world, according to requirement of designers, it will start to inject zinc in the initial fuel cycle. (author)

  17. Does pretransplant soluble CD30 serum concentration affect deceased-donor kidney graft function 3 years after transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, J; Arnol, M; Vidan-Jeras, B; Bren, A F; Kandus, A

    2008-06-01

    Elevated serum concentrations of soluble CD30 molecule (sCD30) have been related to acute cellular rejection and poor graft outcomes in kidney transplantation. This historical cohort study investigated the association of pretransplant sCD30 serum concentrations with kidney graft function expressed as estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at 3 years after transplantation. Pretransplant sera from 176 adult deceased-donor kidney graft recipients were tested for sCD30 content using a commercially available automated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The immunosuppression consisted of induction therapy with monoclonal anti-CD25 antibodies and a maintenance regimen of cyclosporine (CsA)-based therapy. GFR was estimated (eGFR) by the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation. According to the distribution of pretransplant sCD30 levels (median 66.7 U/mL; interquartile range, 46.6 to 98.6 U/mL), a concentration of 66 U/mL or higher was defined as high (n = 89) and below 66 U/mL as low (n = 87). Three years after transplantation, eGFR was not significantly different among recipients in high versus low sCD30 groups (69 +/- 23 mL/min/1.73m2 vs 66 +/- 21 mL/min/1.73m2; P = .327) and there was no correlation between eGFR and pretransplant sCD30 levels (r2 = 0.001; P = .73). Upon multivariate regression analysis, donor age, recipient body mass index at transplantation, and acute rejection episodes were independent variables affecting eGFR at 3 years after transplantation. This study showed that pretransplant sCD30 serum concentrations were not associated with deceased-donor kidney graft function at 3 years after transplantation. The immunosuppression with anti-CD25 antibodies and a triple CsA-based maintenance regimen could possibly be decisive for our findings.

  18. Determination of the Optimum Conditions for Leaching of Zinc Cathode Melting Furnace Slag in Ammonium Chloride Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnajady, Bahram; Babaeidehkordi, Amin; Moghaddam, Javad

    2014-04-01

    This research is part of a continuing effort to leach zinc from zinc cathode melting furnace slags (ZCMFSs) to produce zinc oxide. The slag with an assay of 68.05 pct Zn was used in ammonium chloride leaching for zinc extraction. In this paper, the effects of influential factors on extraction efficiency of Zn from a ZCMFS were investigated. The Taguchi's method based on orthogonal array (OA) design has been used to arrange the experimental runs in order to maximize zinc extraction from a slag. The softwares named Excel and Design-Expert 7 have been used to design experiments and subsequent analysis. OA L 25 (55) consisting of five parameters, each with five levels, was employed to evaluate the effects of reaction time ( t = 10, 30, 50, 70, 90 minutes), reaction temperature [ T = 313, 323, 333, 343, 353 (40, 50, 60, 70, 80) K (°C)], pulp density ( S/ L = 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 g/L), stirring speed ( R = 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 rpm), and ammonium chloride concentration ( C = 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 pctwt), on zinc extraction percent. Statistical analysis, ANOVA, was also employed to determine the relationship between experimental conditions and yield levels. The results showed that the significant parameters affecting leaching of slag were ammonium chloride concentration and pulp density, and increasing pulp density reduced leaching efficiency of zinc. However, increasing ammonium chloride concentration promoted the extraction of zinc. The optimum conditions for this study were found to be t 4: 70 minutes, T 5: 353 K (80 °C), ( S/ L)2: 40 g/L, R 3: 500 rpm, and C 4: 25 pctwt. Under these conditions, the dissolution percentage of Zn in ammonium chloride media was 94.61 pct.

  19. Prediction of Serum Zinc Levels in Mexican Children at 2 Years of Age Using a Food Frequency Questionnaire and Different Zinc Bioavailability Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoral, Alejandra; Téllez-Rojo, Martha; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Schnaas, Lourdes; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Peterson, Karen E; Ettinger, Adrienne S

    2015-06-01

    The 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey documented a prevalence of zinc deficiency of almost 30% in children under 2 years of age. We sought to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for quantifying dietary bioavailable zinc intake in 2-year-old Mexican children accounting for phytic acid intake and using serum zinc as a reference. This cross-sectional study was nested within a longitudinal birth cohort of 333 young children in Mexico City. Nonfasting serum zinc concentration was measured and dietary zinc intake was calculated on the basis of a semiquantitative FFQ administered to their mothers. The relationship between dietary zinc intake and serum zinc was assessed using linear regression, adjusting for phytic acid intake, and analyzed according to two distinct international criteria to estimate bioavailable zinc. Models were stratified by zinc deficiency status. Dietary zinc, adjusted for phytic acid intake, explained the greatest proportion of the variance of serum zinc. For each milligram of dietary zinc intake, serum zinc increased on average by 0.95 μg/dL (0.15 μmol/L) (p = .06). When stratified by zinc status, this increase was 0.74 μg/dL (p = .12) for each milligram of zinc consumed among children with adequate serum zinc (n = 276), whereas among those children with zinc deficiency (n = 57), serum zinc increased by only 0.11 μg/dL (p = .82). A semiquantitative FFQ can be used for predicting serum zinc in relation to dietary intake in young children, particularly among those who are zinc-replete, and when phytic acid or phytate intake is considered. Future studies should be conducted accounting for both zinc status and dietary zinc inhibitors to further elucidate and validate these findings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Seasonal variation of copper and zinc concentrations in the oyster Saccostrea cuccullata from the Dampier Archipelago, Western Australia: implications for pollution monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, V

    1986-12-01

    The intertidal rock oyster Saccostrea cuccullata, sampled at eight sites on eight occasions over a 1-year period, contained mean Cu and Zn concentrations ranging between 34 and 267 and 206 and 4078 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. In the study area, Cu and Zn emanate from sewage and boat slips (antifouling paints), while Zn probably also originates from coolant water from an electricity power generating station and iron ore exporting facilities. Highest oyster wet weight, Cu and Zn concentrations and loads occurred in January (spawning period), indicating that metal variation was not reciprocating wet weight. Lowest metal concentrations and loads occurred in October (period of onset of gametogenesis), while lowest wet weight occurred in April (post-spawning period). No significant (P less than 0.001) variation in the wet to dry weight ratio was noted temporally. However, significant, though slight, variation was noted between polluted and unpolluted oysters. Results of this study indicate that pollution control monitoring programs should consider: seasonal variation of metal concentrations; portion of the year during which standards are exceeded; oyster size and availability for human consumption; suitability of standards where shellfish are not consumed as a staple diet; appropriate size indicies which can be used for selecting specimens for intersite comparisons; wet to dry weight calculations: techniques, spatial and temporal variations; and the physical dynamics of sites used.

  1. The impact of tertiary wastewater treatment on copper and zinc complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, C; Gardner, M; Comber, S D W; Scrimshaw, M D; Ellor, B

    2015-01-01

    Tightening quality standards for European waters has seen a move towards enhanced wastewater treatment technologies such as granulated organic carbon treatment and ozonation. Although these technologies are likely to be successful in degrading certain micro-organic contaminants, these may also destroy compounds which would otherwise complex and render metals significantly less toxic. This study examined the impact of enhanced tertiary treatment on the capacity of organic compounds within sewage effluents to complex copper and zinc. The data show that granulated organic carbon treatment removes a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fraction that is unimportant to complexation such that no detrimental impact on complexation or metal bioavailability is likely to occur from this treatment type. High concentrations of ozone (>1 mg O3/mg DOC) are, however, likely to impact the complexation capacity for copper although this is unlikely to be important at the concentrations of copper typically found in effluent discharges or in rivers. Ozone treatment did not affect zinc complexation capacity. The complexation profiles of the sewage effluents show these to contain a category of non-humic ligand that appears unaffected by tertiary treatment and which displays a high affinity for zinc, suggesting these may substantially reduce the bioavailability of zinc in effluent discharges. The implication is that traditional metal bioavailability assessment approaches such as the biotic ligand model may overestimate zinc bioavailability in sewage effluents and effluent-impacted waters.

  2. Two C3H Type Zinc Finger Protein Genes, CpCZF1 and CpCZF2, from Chimonanthus praecox Affect Stamen Development in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huamin Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox is a popular garden plant because of its flowering time, sweet fragrance, and ornamental value. However, research into the molecular mechanism that regulates flower development in wintersweet is still limited. In this study, we sought to investigate the molecular characteristics, expression patterns, and potential functions of two C3H-type zinc finger (CZF protein genes, CpCZF1 and CpCZF2, which were isolated from the wintersweet flowers based on the flower developmental transcriptome database. CpCZF1 and CpCZF2 were more highly expressed in flower organs than in vegetative tissues, and during the flower development, their expression profiles were associated with flower primordial differentiation, especially that of petal and stamen primordial differentiation. Overexpression of either CpCZF1 or CpCZF2 caused alterations on stamens in transgenic Arabidopsis. The expression levels of the stamen identity-related genes, such as AGAMOUS (AG, PISTILLATA (PI, SEPALLATA1 (SEP1, SEPALLATA2 (SEP2, SEPALLATA3 (SEP3, APETALA1 (AP1, APETALA2 (AP2, and boundary gene RABBIT EAR (RBE were significantly up-regulated in CpCZF1 overexpression lines. Additionally, the transcripts of AG, PI, APETALA3 SEP1-3, AP1, and RBE were markedly increased in CpCZF2 overexpressed plant inflorescences. Moreover, CpCZF1 and CpCZF2 could interact with each other by using yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. Our results suggest that CpCZF1 and CpCZF2 may be involved in the regulation of stamen development and cause the formation of abnormal flowers in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

  3. Removal of zinc from aqueous solutions by natural bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellah, A.; Chegrouche, S.

    1994-01-01

    The equilibrium isotherms of zinc adsorption onto natural bentonite show that the data correlate well with freundlich and Langmuir's models and that the adsorption is physical in nature. The operating parameters (agitation speed, solid/liquid ratio temperature, particle size and initial zinc concentration) influenced the rate of adsorption. The maximum monomolecular capacity (Q 0 ) according to the Langmuir model is 52.91 mg. g-1 for an initial zinc concentration of 300 mg. litre-1, At 20 0 C

  4. An overview of zinc addition for BWR dose rate control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, W.J. [GE Nuclear Energy, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the BWRs employing feedwater zinc addition to reduce primary system dose rates. It identifies which BWRs are using zinc addition and reviews the mechanical injection and passive addition hardware currently being employed. The impact that zinc has on plant chemistry, including the factor of two to four reduction in reactor water Co-60 concentrations, is discussed. Dose rate results, showing the benefits of implementing zinc on either fresh piping surfaces or on pipes with existing films are reviewed. The advantages of using zinc that is isotopically enhanced by the depletion of the Zn-64 precursor to Zn-65 are identified.

  5. Can the exposure of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apiadae) larvae to a field concentration of thiamethoxam affect newly emerged bees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friol, Priscila Sepúlveda; Catae, Aline Fernanda; Tavares, Daiana Antonia; Malaspina, Osmar; Roat, Thaisa Cristina

    2017-10-01

    The use of insecticides on crops can affect non-target insects, such as bees. In addition to the adult bees, larvae can be exposed to the insecticide through contaminated floral resources. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the possible effects of the exposure of A. mellifera larvae to a field concentration of thiamethoxam (0.001 ng/μL thiamethoxam) on larval and pupal survival and on the percentage of adult emergence. Additionally, its cytotoxic effects on the digestive cells of midgut, Malpighian tubules cells and Kenyon cells of the brain of newly emerged A. mellifera bees were analyzed. The results showed that larval exposure to this concentration of thiamethoxam did not influence larval and pupal survival or the percentage of adult bee emergence. However, this exposure caused ultra-structural alterations in the target and non-target organs of newly emerged bees. The digestive cell of bees that were exposed to the insecticide exhibited a basal labyrinth without long and thin channels and compromised mitochondria. In Malpighian tubules cells, disorganized basal labyrinth, dilated mitochondria with a deformed shape and a loss of cristae, and disorganized microvilli were observed. The results showed that the exposed bees presented Kenyon cells with alterations in the nucleus and mitochondria. These alterations indicate possible tissue degeneration, demonstrating the cytotoxicity of thiamethoxam in the target and non-target organs of newly emerged bees. Such results suggest cellular organelle impairment that can compromise cellular function of the midgut cells, Malpighian tubules cells and Kenyon cells, and, consequently, can compromise the longevity of the bees of the whole colony. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The progestin norethisterone affects thyroid hormone-dependent metamorphosis of Xenopus laevis tadpoles at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Claudia; Krüger, Angela; Schöning, Viola; Lutz, Ilka

    2018-04-15

    Previously, levonorgestrel (LNG) has been shown to be an endocrine disruptor of the amphibian thyroid system. In the present study, we investigated whether anti-thyroidal effects are a common property of progestins other than LNG. Premetamorphic Xenopus laevis tadpoles were exposed to norethisterone (NET) and dienogest DIE (each at 0.1-10nM) and LNG (10nM) until completion of metamorphosis. LNG and NET at all concentrations caused a significant developmental retardation whereas DIE did not impair time to metamorphosis. In LNG and 10nM NET exposed animals, tsh mRNA levels increased considerably later than the developmental delay occurred and thyroid histopathology showed no signs of TSH-hyperstimulation. Instead, thyroid glands from these treatments appeared inactive in producing thyroid hormones. Thyroidal transcript levels of dio2 and dio3 were increased by treatments with LNG and NET at 1nM and 10nM, whereas iyd mRNA was reduced by LNG and 10nM NET. Expression of slc5α5 was not changed by any treatment. Effects of DIE differed from those induced by LNG and NET. No developmental delay was measurable; however, tshβ and dio2 mRNAs were increased in pituitary glands of tadpoles exposed to 1.0nM and 10nM DIE. Thyroid histopathology displayed no abnormalities and thyroidal mRNA expression of the genes analyzed (slc5α5, iyd, dio2, dio3) was not changed by DIE. Overall, our results provide evidence that the anti-thyroidal effects already known from LNG are also present in another progestin, namely NET, even at environmentally relevant concentrations. In conclusion we suggest that progestins do not only pose an environmental risk in terms of their impact on reproductive success of aquatic vertebrates, but also with respect to their anti-thyroidal properties affecting amphibian metamorphosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Amino acid profile of metabolisable protein in lactating dairy cows is affected by dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    Our previous study showed that supply of metabolisable protein (MP) to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage. The aim of this study was to examine how amino acid (AA) profile of MP was affected by silage DM concentration. Eight grass-c...

  8. Cleaning the Soil from Zinc Using Red Clovers “Arimaičiai”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė Mikalajūnė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Zinc as a nutrition element is required to plants in small quantities to maintain normal functions of metabolism mechanisms. Our work analyses the efficiency of red clovers “Arimaičiai” for cleaning zinc from the soil contaminated with zinc under laboratory conditions. Seeds were sown in three differently polluted soils: clean soil, once contaminated with zinc and periodically contaminated with zinc soil. Zinc concentration in one time contaminated soil was 45 mg/kg. After 6 months of phytoremediation, the remained zinc concentration in the soil was 3 times lower comparing with the initial concentration. It was also determined that under such conditions, the uptake of red clovers made approximately 65% of zinc. Permanent soil contamination with zinc increased concentration before phytoremediation up to 80 mg/kg. After 6 months of phytoremediation, zinc concentration was determined to be 1.9 times lower. Otherwise, the soil was permanently contaminated with larger zinc quantities and after application of which reached 300 mg/kg. In this case, following half a year of phytoremediation, zinc concentration in the soil was 1.7 times lower comparing with the initial concentration after contamination. It was determined that the uptake of red clovers made approximately 17% of zinc.Article in Lithuanian

  9. Zinc oxide overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  10. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in t...

  11. Zinc Binding by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Mrvčić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential trace element in all organisms. A common method for the prevention of zinc deficiency is pharmacological supplementation, especially in a highly available form of a metalloprotein complex. The potential of different microbes to bind essential and toxic heavy metals has recently been recognized. In this work, biosorption of zinc by lactic acid bacteria (LAB has been investigated. Specific LAB were assessed for their ability to bind zinc from a water solution. Significant amount of zinc ions was bound, and this binding was found to be LAB species-specific. Differences among the species in binding performance at a concentration range between 10–90 mg/L were evaluated with Langmuir model for biosorption. Binding of zinc was a fast process, strongly influenced by ionic strength, pH, biomass concentration, and temperature. The most effective metal-binding LAB species was Leuconostoc mesenteroides (27.10 mg of Zn2+ per gram of dry mass bound at pH=5 and 32 °C, during 24 h. FT-IR spectroscopy analysis and electron microscopy demonstrated that passive adsorption and active uptake of the zinc ions were involved.

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Trent and zinc homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Corey B; Harrison, Mark D; Huygens, Flavia

    2017-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative pathogen and the major cause of mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis. The mechanisms that P. aeruginosa strains use to regulate intracellular zinc have an effect on infection, antibiotic resistance and the propensity to form biofilms. However, zinc homeostasis in P. aeruginosa strains of variable infectivity has not been compared. In this study, zinc homeostasis in P. aeruginosa Trent, a highly infectious clinical strain, was compared to that of a laboratory P. aeruginosa strain, ATCC27853. Trent was able to tolerate higher concentrations of additional zinc in rich media than ATCC27853. Further, pre-adaptation to additional zinc enhanced the growth of Trent at non-inhibitory concentrations but the impact of pre-adaption on the growth of ATCC27853 under the same conditions was minimal. The results establish clear differences in zinc-induced responses in Trent and ATCC27853, and how zinc homeostasis can be a promising target for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies for P. aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis patients. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Hemimorphite Ores: A Review of Processing Technologies for Zinc Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ailiang; Li, Mengchun; Qian, Zhen; Ma, Yutian; Che, Jianyong; Ma, Yalin

    2016-10-01

    With the gradual depletion of zinc sulfide ores, exploration of zinc oxide ores is becoming more and more important. Hemimorphite is a major zinc oxide ore, attracting much attention in the field of zinc metallurgy although it is not the major zinc mineral. This paper presents a critical review of the treatment for extraction of zinc with emphasis on flotation, pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods based on the properties of hemimorphite. The three-dimensional framework structure of hemimorphite with complex linkage of its structural units lead to difficult desilicification before extracting zinc in the many metallurgical technologies. It is found that the flotation method is generally effective in enriching zinc minerals from hemimorphite ores into a high-grade concentrate for recovery of zinc. Pure zinc can be produced from hemimorphite or/and willemite with a reducing reagent, like methane or carbon. Leaching reagents, such as acid and alkali, can break the complex structure of hemimorphite to release zinc in the leached solution without generation of silica gel in the hydrometallurgical process. For optimal zinc extraction, combing flotation with pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical methods may be required.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Major Factors Affecting Black Carbon Transport and Concentrations in the Unique Atmospheric Structures of Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Marissa Shuang

    Black carbon (BC) from vehicular emission in transportation is a principal component of particulate matters ≤ 2.5 mum (PM2.5). PM2.5 and other diesel emission pollutants (e.g., NOx) are regulated by the Clean Air Act (CAA) according to the National Ambient Air Quality standards (NAAQS). This doctoral dissertation details a study on transport behaviors of black carbon and PM2.5 from transportation routes, their relations with the atmospheric structure of an urban formation, and their relations with the use of biodiesel fuels. The results have implications to near-road risk assessment and to the development of sustainable transportation solutions in urban centers. The first part of study quantified near-roadside black carbon transport as a function of particulate matter (PM) size and composition, as well as microclimatic variables (temperature and wind fields) at the interstate highway I-75 in northern Cincinnati, Ohio. Among variables examined, wind speed and direction significantly affect the roadside transport of black carbon and hence its effective emission factor. Observed non-Gaussian dispersion occurred during low wind and for wind directions at acute angles or upwind to the receptors, mostly occurring in the morning hours. Meandering of air pollutant mass under thermal inversion is likely the driving force. In contrary, Gaussian distribution predominated in daytime of strong downwinds. The roles of urban atmospheric structure, wind fields, and the urban heat island (UHI) effects were further examined on pollutant dispersion and transport. Spatiotemporal variations of traffic flow, atmospheric structure, ambient temperature and PM2.5 concentration data from 14 EPA-certified NAAQS monitoring stations, were analyzed in relation to land-use in the Cincinnati metropolitan area. The results show a decade-long UHI effects with higher interior temperature than that in exurban, and a prominent nocturnal thermal inversion frequent in urban boundary layer. The

  15. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sonja; Skrovanek; Katherine; DiGuilio; Robert; Bailey; William; Huntington; Ryan; Urbas; Barani; Mayilvaganan; Giancarlo; Mercogliano; James; M; Mullin

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases.

  16. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

    OpenAIRE

    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in ...

  17. Spectrophotometric determination of zinc in impure solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Hernandez, B.; Reyes Tamaral, A.

    1972-01-01

    A dithizone colorimetric method is described for determining zinc concentrations of 0.001 to 5 g/l in aqueous solutions from Rio Tinto Mines, containing copper, iron and other impurities. Citrate, cyanide and bis-2hydroxyethyl)-dithiocarbamate are added to the aqueous sample of masking several metals, and zinc is extracted at pH 5 with a solution of dithizone in carbon tetrachloride. Excess of dithizone is removed with sodium sulphide, and optical density of zinc dithionate in organic solution is measured at 5.35 nm. Calibration curves obey Beer's law up to 0.5 micro Zn/ml. (Author) 5 refs

  18. Zinc protects HepG2 cells against the oxidative damage and DNA damage induced by ochratoxin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Juanjuan; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Wentao; Luo, YunBo; Hao, Junran; Shen, Xiao Li; Yang, Xuan; Li, Xiaohong; Huang, Kunlun

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress and DNA damage are the most studied mechanisms by which ochratoxin A (OTA) induces its toxic effects, which include nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity and genotoxicity. Zinc, which is an essential trace element, is considered a potential antioxidant. The aim of this paper was to investigate whether zinc supplement could inhibit OTA-induced oxidative damage and DNA damage in HepG2 cells and the mechanism of inhibition. The results indicated that that exposure of OTA decreased the intracellular zinc concentration; zinc supplement significantly reduced the OTA-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity but did not affect the OTA-induced decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ m ). Meanwhile, the addition of the zinc chelator N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) strongly aggravated the OTA-induced oxidative damage. This study also demonstrated that zinc helped to maintain the integrity of DNA through the reduction of OTA-induced DNA strand breaks, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation and DNA hypomethylation. OTA increased the mRNA expression of metallothionein1-A (MT1A), metallothionein2-A (MT2A) and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Zinc supplement further enhanced the mRNA expression of MT1A and MT2A, but it had no effect on the mRNA expression of SOD1 and catalase (CAT). Zinc was for the first time proven to reduce the cytotoxicity of OTA through inhibiting the oxidative damage and DNA damage, and regulating the expression of zinc-associated genes. Thus, the addition of zinc can potentially be used to reduce the OTA toxicity of contaminated feeds. - Highlights: ► OTA decreased the intracellular zinc concentration. ► OTA induced the formation of 8-OHdG in HepG2 cells. ► It was testified for the first time that OTA induced DNA hypomethylation. ► Zinc protects against the oxidative damage and DNA damage induced by OTA in

  19. Zinc protects HepG2 cells against the oxidative damage and DNA damage induced by ochratoxin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Juanjuan; Zhang, Yu [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, Wentao, E-mail: xuwentaoboy@sina.com [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China); Luo, YunBo [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China); Hao, Junran [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Shen, Xiao Li [The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, Xuan [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Xiaohong [The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China); Huang, Kunlun, E-mail: hkl009@163.com [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Oxidative stress and DNA damage are the most studied mechanisms by which ochratoxin A (OTA) induces its toxic effects, which include nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity and genotoxicity. Zinc, which is an essential trace element, is considered a potential antioxidant. The aim of this paper was to investigate whether zinc supplement could inhibit OTA-induced oxidative damage and DNA damage in HepG2 cells and the mechanism of inhibition. The results indicated that that exposure of OTA decreased the intracellular zinc concentration; zinc supplement significantly reduced the OTA-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity but did not affect the OTA-induced decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ{sub m}). Meanwhile, the addition of the zinc chelator N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) strongly aggravated the OTA-induced oxidative damage. This study also demonstrated that zinc helped to maintain the integrity of DNA through the reduction of OTA-induced DNA strand breaks, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation and DNA hypomethylation. OTA increased the mRNA expression of metallothionein1-A (MT1A), metallothionein2-A (MT2A) and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Zinc supplement further enhanced the mRNA expression of MT1A and MT2A, but it had no effect on the mRNA expression of SOD1 and catalase (CAT). Zinc was for the first time proven to reduce the cytotoxicity of OTA through inhibiting the oxidative damage and DNA damage, and regulating the expression of zinc-associated genes. Thus, the addition of zinc can potentially be used to reduce the OTA toxicity of contaminated feeds. - Highlights: ► OTA decreased the intracellular zinc concentration. ► OTA induced the formation of 8-OHdG in HepG2 cells. ► It was testified for the first time that OTA induced DNA hypomethylation. ► Zinc protects against the oxidative damage and DNA damage induced by

  20. Zinc oxide nanoparticles for water disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emelita Asuncion S. Dimapilis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The world faces a growing challenge for adequate clean water due to threats coming from increasing demand and decreasing supply. Although there are existing technologies for water disinfection, their limitations, particularly the formation of disinfection-by-products, have led to researches on alternative methods. Zinc oxide, an essential chemical in the rubber and pharmaceutical industries, has attracted interest as antimicrobial agent. In nanoscale, zinc oxide has shown antimicrobial properties which make its potential great for various applications. This review discusses the synthesis of zinc oxide with focus on precipitation method, its antimicrobial property and the factors affecting it, disinfection mechanisms, and the potential application to water disinfection.

  1. Bioavailability of Zinc in Wistar Rats Fed with Rice Fortified with Zinc Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Santos, Laura Luiza Menezes; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina da Cruz; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina da Cruz; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2014-01-01

    The study of zinc bioavailability in foods is important because this mineral intake does not meet the recommended doses for some population groups. Also, the presence of dietary factors that reduce zinc absorption contributes to its deficiency. Rice fortified with micronutrients (Ultra Rice®) is a viable alternative for fortification since this cereal is already inserted into the population habit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in rice fortified with zinc oxide. During 42 days, rats were divided into four groups and fed with diets containing two different sources of Zn (test diet: UR® fortified with zinc oxide, or control diet: zinc carbonate (ZnCO3)), supplying 50% or 100%, respectively, of the recommendations of this mineral for animals. Weight gain, food intake, feed efficiency ratio, weight, thickness and length of femur; retention of zinc, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the femur and the concentrations of Zn in femur, plasma and erythrocytes were evaluated. Control diet showed higher weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, retention of Zn and Zn concentration in the femur (p 0.05) for dietary intake, length and thickness of the femur, erythrocyte and plasmatic Zn between groups. Although rice fortified with zinc oxide showed a lower bioavailability compared to ZnCO3, this food can be a viable alternative to be used as a vehicle for fortification. PMID:24932657

  2. Results of zinc injection test for Hamaoka Unit-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kani, K.; Masuda, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Sudo, S.; Yamazaki, K.

    1998-01-01

    A zinc injection test was preformed at Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 for suppressing radiation dose rate on primary coolant recirculation piping after the replacement of piping. Zinc ion was injected by using injection system where Depleted Zinc Oxide was dissolved in carbonated water. Controllability of the system was sufficient to maintain concentration of zinc in primary water. The concentration of zinc in the primary coolant was controlled from 1 ppb to 5 ppb gradually. The increasing trend of concentration of Co-60 in the coolant was suppressed at zinc concentration of 3 ppb. It is evaluated that the deposition coefficient of Co-60 onto the surface of primary coolant recirculation piping was suppressed to one-third of previous cycle in average, and one-fourth of that just before injection start at zinc concentration of 5 ppb. We concluded that zinc injection is effective for suppressing dose rate on the primary coolant piping and no adverse effect occurs by zinc injection up to 5 ppb in the primary coolant. (J.P.N.)

  3. Response of hippocampal mossy fiber zinc to excessive glutamate release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Minami, Akira; Sakurada, Naomi; Nakajima, Satoko; Oku, Naoto

    2007-01-01

    The response of hippocampal mossy fiber zinc to excessive glutamate release was examined to understand the role of the zinc in excessive excitation in the hippocampus. Extracellular zinc and glutamate concentrations during excessive stimulation with high K(+) were compared between the hippocampal CA3 and CA1 by the in vivo microdialysis. Zinc concentration in the CA3 was more increased than that in the CA1, while glutamate concentration in the CA3 was less increased than that in the CA1. It is likely that more increase in extracellular zinc is linked with less increase in extracellular glutamate in the CA3. To see zinc action in mossy fiber synapses during excessive excitation, furthermore, 1mM glutamate was regionally delivered to the stratum lucidum in the presence of zinc or CaEDTA, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator, and intracellular calcium signal was measured in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer. The persistent increase in calcium signal during stimulation with glutamate was significantly attenuated in the presence of 100 microM zinc, while significantly enhanced in the presence of 1mM CaEDTA. These results suggest that zinc released from mossy fibers attenuates the increase in intracellular calcium signal in mossy fiber synapses and postsynaptic CA3 neurons after excessive inputs to dentate granular cells.

  4. Copper, zinc, and cadmium in various fractions of soil and fungi in a Swedish forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinichuk, Mykhailo M

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi profoundly affect forest ecosystems through mediating nutrient uptake and maintaining forest food webs. The accumulation of metals in each transfer step from bulk soil to fungal sporocarps is not well known. The accumulation of three metals copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in bulk soil, rhizosphere, soil-root interface, fungal mycelium and sporocarps of mycorrhizal fungi in a Swedish forest were compared. Concentrations of all three metals increased in the order: bulk soil soil-root interface (or rhizosphere) soil and sporocarps occurred against a concentration gradient. In fungal mycelium, the concentration of all three metals was about three times higher than in bulk soil, and the concentration in sporocarps was about two times higher than in mycelium. In terms of accumulation, fungi (mycelium and sporocarps) preferred Cd to Zn and Cu. Zinc concentration in sporocarps and to a lesser extent in mycelium depended on the concentration in soil, whereas, the uptake of Cu and Cd by both sporocarps and mycelium did not correlate with metal concentration in soil. Heavy metal accumulation within the fungal mycelium biomass in the top forest soil layer (0-5 cm) might account for ca. 5-9% of the total amount of Cu, 5-11% of Zn, and 16-32% of Cd. As the uptake of zinc and copper by fungi may be balanced, this implied similarities in the uptake mechanism.

  5. Heavy Metal Contamination in Urban Soils I Zinc Accumulation Phenomenon in Urban Environments as Clues of Study

    OpenAIRE

    KOMAI, Yutaka

    1981-01-01

    As an introduction of the continuing study on the heavy metal contamination in urban soils, zinc accumulation phenomenon observed in urban areas in south Osaka was reported. The survey of zinc concentration in soybean leaves taken in urban and suburban arable lands indicated its accumulation in a wide area. And a correlation between easy soluble zinc level in soils and leaf zinc content were shown. Zinc concentrations in suspended particles in air, falling dust and some water samples were che...

  6. Concentrations and loads of cadmium, lead, and zinc measured near the peak of the 1999 snowmelt-runoff hydrographs for 42 water-quality stations, Coeur d'Alene River basin, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Paul F.

    2000-01-01

    The Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency within the Spokane River Basin of northern Idaho and eastern Washington included extensive data-collection activities to determine the nature and extent of trace-element contamination within the basin. The U.S. Geological Survey designed and implemented synoptic sampling of the 1999 snowmelt-runoff event at 42 water- quality stations during the 1999 water year. The distribution of the 42 stations was as follows: North Fork Coeur d’Alene River and tributaries, 4 stations; South Fork Coeur d’Alene River, 13 stations; Canyon, Ninemile, and Pine Creeks, 4 stations each; other tributaries to South Fork Coeur d’Alene River, 10 stations; and main stem Coeur d’Alene River, 3 stations. The objective was to synoptically collect discharge and water-quality data in order to significantly improve the estimation of trace-element loads from multiple contributing source areas during the snowmelt-runoff event. Discharge and water-quality data were collected near the peak discharge during late May 1999. Each station was sampled for whole-water recoverable and dissolved concentrations and loads of cadmium, lead, and zinc.

  7. Study on bioavailability of zinc for children's diet by using activable isotopic tracer 70Zn and neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yangmei; Ni Bangfa; Wang Pingsheng; Tian Weizhi; Cao Lei

    2001-01-01

    Bioavailability of zinc for three groups (low amount of diet zinc, balance amount of diet zinc and high amount of diet zinc) of children's diet is studied by using activable isotopic tracer 70 Zn and neutron activation analysis techniques. The results indicate that the fractional absorption of zinc from balance diet zinc group is the highest, up to 33.9%. A procedure of pre-irradiation concentration zinc for fecal samples using anion exchanger is developed, and the enriched 70 Zn with isotopic abundance of 18.3% is used for tracer. The mass ratios between 70 Zn and 68 Zn or 64 Zn and their contents between natural zinc and enriched zinc are used to calculate the bioavailability of zinc. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of 64 Zn of each original fecal samples and pre-irradiation concentrated zinc samples are used to normalize the chemical yield in order to reduce the uncertainty during the chemical separation procedure

  8. Mechanism and efficiency of cell death of type II photosensitizers: effect of zinc chelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavani, Christiane; Iamamoto, Yassuko; Baptista, Maurício S

    2012-01-01

    A series of meso-substituted tetra-cationic porphyrins, which have methyl and octyl substituents, was studied in order to understand the effect of zinc chelation and photosensitizer subcellular localization in the mechanism of cell death. Zinc chelation does not change the photophysical properties of the photosensitizers (all molecules studied are type II photosensitizers) but affects considerably the interaction of the porphyrins with membranes, reducing mitochondrial accumulation. The total amount of intracellular reactive species induced by treating cells with photosensitizer and light is similar for zinc-chelated and free-base porphyrins that have the same alkyl substituent. Zinc-chelated porphyrins, which are poorly accumulated in mitochondria, show higher efficiency of cell death with features of apoptosis (higher MTT response compared with trypan blue staining, specific acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, stronger cytochrome c release and larger sub-G1 cell population), whereas nonchelated porphyrins, which are considerably more concentrated in mitochondria, triggered mainly necrotic cell death. We hypothesized that zinc-chelation protects the photoinduced properties of the porphyrins in the mitochondrial environment. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  9. Relation between Omega 3 Fatty Acid, Iron, Zinc and Treatment of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shalileh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In some studies, it is suggested that a number of dietary factors including essential fatty acid, iron and zinc deficiency, may be linked to attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD. However, the exact mechanism of this relationship is yet unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc, and iron in etiopathology and management of ADHD. For the purpose of this study, Science Direct, PubMed, and Medline databases were explored and thirty-four relevant articles in english language were collected. Eighteen out of twenty-two studies confirmed the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid and ADHD. In addition, the role of insufficient store of iron in developing ADHD symptoms and the positive effect of iron supplement in improvement of ADHD behavioral symptoms have been shown. Also, plasma zinc concentration in children with ADHD was lower than the normal population, and the effect of zinc supplement on reducing on attentive-deficit symptoms was contradictory. Although polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and iron supplements are not suggested as main treatment for ADHD, but if future studies confirm the positive results of that, use of these supplements as complementary treatment will affect ADHD symptoms. Considering the little amount of studies on zinc, more research is necessary.

  10. The effect of Al and Cr additions on pack cementation zinc coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaliampalias, D.; Papazoglou, M.; Tsipas, S.; Pavlidou, E.; Skolianos, S.; Stergioudis, G.; Vourlias, G.

    2010-01-01

    Zinc is widely used as a protective coating material due to its corrosion resistant properties. The structure and oxidation resistance of Al and Cr mixed zinc coatings, deposited by pack cementation process, is thoroughly examined in this work. The morphology and chemical composition of the as-deposited and oxidized samples was accomplished by electron microscopy while the phase identification was performed by XRD diffraction analysis. The experimental results showed that the addition of aluminum or chromium in the pack mixture forms only Al and Cr rich phases on the surface of the specimens without affecting significantly the phase composition of the rest zinc coatings. In the case of Zn-Al coatings, the overlying layer contains high concentrations of Al together with lower amounts of zinc and iron and in Zn-Cr coatings this layer contains Cr, Fe and Zn atoms and has much smaller thickness. The presence of these additional layers promotes significantly the oxidation resistance of the zinc pack coatings and they preserve most of their initial thickness and chemical content when exposed to an aggressive environment while their oxidation mass gain was measured at low levels during the oxidation tests.

  11. Zinc-Containing Hydroxyapatite Enhances Cold-Light-Activated Tooth Bleaching Treatment In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold-light bleaching treatment has grown to be a popular tooth whitening procedure in recent years, but its side effect of dental enamel demineralization is a widespread problem. The aim of this study was to synthesize zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite as an effective biomaterial to inhibit demineralization or increase remineralization. We synthesized zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite containing different zinc concentrations and analysed the product using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS. The biological assessment of Zn-HA was conducted by CCK-8 assay and bacterial inhibition tests. pH cycling was performed to estimate the effect of Zn-HA on the enamel surface after cold-light bleaching treatment. The XRD, FTIR, and EDS results illustrated that zinc ions and hydroxyapatite combined in two forms: (1 Zn2+ absorbed on the surface of HA crystal and (2 Zn2+ incorporated into the lattice of HA. The results indicated that 2% Zn-HA, 4% Zn-HA, and 8% Zn-HA effectively inhibited the growth of bacteria yet showed poor biocompatibility, whereas 1% Zn-HA positively affected osteoblast proliferation. The XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM results showed that the use of Zn-HA in pH cycling is obviously beneficial for enamel remineralization. Zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite could be a promising biomaterial for use in cold-light bleaching to prevent enamel demineralization.

  12. Effect of Zinc Deficiency and Excess on the Growth and Photosynthesis of Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Kaznina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is one of the necessary micronutrients for plants, which performs a number of various functions in their cells. Therefore, the deficiency of this element negatively affects on plants and leads to a significant decrease of their productivity. On the other hand, zinc in high concentrations is toxic to plants, and its accumulation in aerial organs, especially in cereals, represent a real danger to human and animal health. In this investigation the effect of the deficiency (Zn 0 μM and the excess of zinc (Zn 1000 μM on the growth and photosynthesis of the winter wheat (cv. Mironovskaya 39 was studied. As a result, similarities and differences in the response of plants to these two types of stress were revealed. In particular, both with a lack and with an excess of metal in the nutrient solution, shoot growth and photosynthesis rate are inhibited which leads to a decrease in the accumulation of dry biomass. Excess of metal, in contrast to its deficiency, leads to inhibition of root growth, and also a negative impact on pigment content, including light-harvesting complexes, and on maximum quantum yield of PS II. It is assumed that these changes in the photosynthetic apparatus are the main causes of a decrease of photosynthesis rate in plants under these conditions, whereas in the case of zinc deficiency, an inhibition of the process intensity is most likely due to a change in the activity of zinc-containing enzymes involved in the dark reactions of photosynthesis.

  13. Zinc-Containing Hydroxyapatite Enhances Cold-Light-Activated Tooth Bleaching Treatment In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xinchang

    2017-01-01

    Cold-light bleaching treatment has grown to be a popular tooth whitening procedure in recent years, but its side effect of dental enamel demineralization is a widespread problem. The aim of this study was to synthesize zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite as an effective biomaterial to inhibit demineralization or increase remineralization. We synthesized zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite containing different zinc concentrations and analysed the product using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The biological assessment of Zn-HA was conducted by CCK-8 assay and bacterial inhibition tests. pH cycling was performed to estimate the effect of Zn-HA on the enamel surface after cold-light bleaching treatment. The XRD, FTIR, and EDS results illustrated that zinc ions and hydroxyapatite combined in two forms: (1) Zn2+ absorbed on the surface of HA crystal and (2) Zn2+ incorporated into the lattice of HA. The results indicated that 2% Zn-HA, 4% Zn-HA, and 8% Zn-HA effectively inhibited the growth of bacteria yet showed poor biocompatibility, whereas 1% Zn-HA positively affected osteoblast proliferation. The XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that the use of Zn-HA in pH cycling is obviously beneficial for enamel remineralization. Zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite could be a promising biomaterial for use in cold-light bleaching to prevent enamel demineralization. PMID:29159178

  14. ZINC MITIGATION INTERIM REPORT - THERMODYNAMIC STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P.

    2010-12-17

    An experimental program was initiated in order to develop and validate conditions that will effectively trap Zn vapors that are released during extraction. The proposed work is broken down into three tasks. The first task is to determine the effectiveness of various pore sizes of filter elements. The second task is to determine the effect of filter temperature on zinc vapor deposition. The final task is to determine whether the zinc vapors can be chemically bound. The approach for chemically binding the zinc vapors has two subtasks, the first is a review of literature and thermodynamic calculations and the second is an experimental approach using the best candidates. This report details the results of the thermodynamic calculations to determine feasibility of chemically binding the zinc vapors within the furnace module, specifically the lithium trap (1). A review of phase diagrams, literature, and thermodynamic calculations was conducted to determine if there are suitable materials to capture zinc vapor within the lithium trap of the extraction basket. While numerous elements exist that form compounds with zinc, many of these also form compounds with hydrogen or the water that is present in the TPBARs. This relatively comprehensive review of available data indicates that elemental cobalt and copper and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) may have the requisite properties to capture zinc and yet not be adversely affected by the extraction gases and should be considered for testing.

  15. Substoichiometric IDA in determination of zinc present in some spices (Paper No. RA-14)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidya, M M; Ray, M N

    1982-01-01

    Results of separation and determination of zinc present in four spices, viz. Coriander, King's cumin, Fennel and Fenugreek seeds by IDA are presented. It is observed that zinc could be estimated by substoichiometric extraction as dithiozonate followed by IDA, in spices. The substoichiometric extraction results at lower concentrations of zinc also, but better results are obtained by increasing the concentration of zinc. The substoichiometric IDA agrees fairly with the conventional chemical analysis.

  16. Zinc Levels Modulate Lifespan through Multiple Longevity Pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Kumar

    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential trace metal that has integral roles in numerous biological processes, including enzymatic function, protein structure, and cell signaling pathways. Both excess and deficiency of zinc can lead to detrimental effects on development and metabolism, resulting in abnormalities and disease. We altered the zinc balance within Caenorhabditis elegans to examine how changes in zinc burden affect longevity and healthspan in an invertebrate animal model. We found that increasing zinc levels in vivo with excess dietary zinc supplementation decreased the mean and maximum lifespan, whereas reducing zinc levels in vivo with a zinc-selective chelator increased the mean and maximum lifespan in C. elegans. We determined that the lifespan shortening effects of excess zinc required expression of DAF-16, HSF-1 and SKN-1 proteins, whereas the lifespan lengthening effects of the reduced zinc may be partially dependent upon this set of proteins. Furthermore, reducing zinc levels led to greater nuclear localization of DAF-16 and enhanced dauer formation compared to controls, suggesting that the lifespan effects of zinc are mediated in part by the insulin/IGF-1 pathway. Additionally, zinc status correlated with several markers of healthspan in worms, including proteostasis, locomotion and thermotolerance, wi