John Wiley & Sons
"Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.
Sova, Oleg; Romanjuk, Valeriy; Bunin, Sergey; Zhuk, Pavlo
In this article intellectualization of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks resources management is offered. It was proposed decomposition of the primary goal of MANET functioning into easy subgoals, and fragment of the MANET node target structure is presented.
Full Text Available The apps consist of advertisements to promote their products. Not all of them are appropriate to resume. Therefore various algorithms have been used in order to block those apps from existence but none of them is completely successful. In our app we are using an antivirus which can by default block those spy apps and remove them from the web page. The algorithm which has been used makes use of various ant viruses in the background which detect irrelevant and intimate apps and then our algorithm will demolish them. Certain apps are non-trustworthy where one click can spy all the mobile data. They block those apps and works on security. We are working on secure ads for mobile apps. It can also work as a basic antivirus where it detects the viruses like malwares in any of your installed apps or downloads. It will create a popup of discarding or keeping it. Mobile applications can be downloaded from anywhere like amazon, googleplay, apps store etc. There is no rigorous verification of an application when it is uploaded to the market. One can easily develop a malicious application and upload it to the app market. The user itself is responsible for accepting the risk of an app available from secondary markets. Therefore, we have decided to develop this app to make the market more secure and bounded. In future, It will take the mobile market while consuming minimal additional resources and preserving user privacy.
In the last few years, there has been extensive research activity in the emerging area of Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (ICMANs). By considering the nature of intermittent connectivity in most real word mobile environments without any restrictions placed on users' behavior, ICMANs are eventually formed without any assumption with regard to the existence of a end-to-end path between two nodes wishing to communicate. It is different from the conventional Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs), which have been implicitly viewed as a connected graph with established complete paths betwe
Dorronsoro, Bernabé; Danoy, Grégoire; Pigné, Yoann; Bouvry, Pascal
Describes how evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be used to identify, model, and minimize day-to-day problems that arise for researchers in optimization and mobile networking. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), vehicular networks (VANETs), sensor networks (SNs), and hybrid networks—each of these require a designer’s keen sense and knowledge of evolutionary algorithms in order to help with the common issues that plague professionals involved in optimization and mobile networking. This book introduces readers to both mobile ad hoc networks and evolutionary algorithms, presenting basic concepts as well as detailed descriptions of each. It demonstrates how metaheuristics and evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be used to help provide low-cost operations in the optimization process—allowing designers to put some “intelligence” or sophistication into the design. It also offers efficient and accurate information on dissemination algorithms topology management, and mobility models to address challenges in the ...
Aldabbas, Hamza; Janicke, Helge; Al-Bayatti, Ali; 10.5121/ijwmn.2012.4117
Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are self-configuring infrastructure-less networks comprised of mobile nodes that communicate over wireless links without any central control on a peer-to-peer basis. These individual nodes act as routers to forward both their own data and also their neighbours' data by sending and receiving packets to and from other nodes in the network. The relatively easy configuration and the quick deployment make ad hoc networks suitable the emergency situations (such as human or natural disasters) and for military units in enemy territory. Securing data dissemination between these nodes in such networks, however, is a very challenging task. Exposing such information to anyone else other than the intended nodes could cause a privacy and confidentiality breach, particularly in military scenarios. In this paper we present a novel framework to enhance the privacy and data confidentiality in mobile ad hoc networks by attaching the originator policies to the messages as they are sent between nod...
Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs are self-configuring infrastructure-less networks comprised of mobile nodes that communicate over wireless links without any central control on a peer-to-peer basis.These individual nodes act as routers to forward both their own data and also their neighbours’ data by sending and receiving packets to and from other nodes in the network. The relatively easy configuration and the quick deployment make ad hoc networks suitable the emergency situations (such as human or natural disasters and for military units in enemy territory. Securing data dissemination between these nodes in such networks, however, is a very challenging task. Exposing such information to anyone else other than the intended nodes could cause a privacy and confidentiality breach, particularly in military scenarios. In this paper we present a novel framework to enhance the privacy and data confidentiality in mobile ad hoc networks by attaching the originator policies to the messages as they are sent between nodes. We evaluate our framework using the Network Simulator (NS-2 to check whether the privacy and confidentiality of the originator are met. For this we implemented the Policy Enforcement Points (PEPs, as NS-2 agents that manage and enforce the policies attached to packets at every node in the MANET.
Huang, Kaibin; Chen, Bin; Yang, Xia; Lau, Vincent K N
In cellular systems using frequency division duplex, growing Internet services cause unbalance of uplink and downlink traffic, resulting in poor uplink spectrum utilization. Addressing this issue, this paper considers overlaying an ad hoc network onto a cellular uplink network for improving spectrum utilization and spatial reuse efficiency. Transmission capacities of the overlaid networks are analyzed, which are defined as the maximum densities of the ad hoc nodes and mobile users under an outage constraint. Using tools from stochastic geometry, the capacity tradeoff curves for the overlaid networks are shown to be linear. Deploying overlaid networks based on frequency separation is proved to achieve higher network capacities than that based on spatial separation. Furthermore, spatial diversity is shown to enhance network capacities.
Lacuesta, Raquel; Lloret, Jaime; Sendra, Sandra; Peñalver, Lourdes
Cloud computing helps users and companies to share computing resources instead of having local servers or personal devices to handle the applications. Smart devices are becoming one of the main information processing devices. Their computing features are reaching levels that let them create a mobile cloud computing network. But sometimes they are not able to create it and collaborate actively in the cloud because it is difficult for them to build easily a spontaneous network and configure its parameters. For this reason, in this paper, we are going to present the design and deployment of a spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network. In order to perform it, we have developed a trusted algorithm that is able to manage the activity of the nodes when they join and leave the network. The paper shows the network procedures and classes that have been designed. Our simulation results using Castalia show that our proposal presents a good efficiency and network performance even by using high number of nodes.
Kock, B.A.; Schmidt, J.R.
This paper describes a concept combining mobile IP and ad hoc routing to create a robust mobile network. In this network all nodes are mobile and globally and locally reachable under the same IP address. Essential for implementing this network are the dynamic mobile IP routers. They act as gateways
Kock, B.A.; Schmidt, J.R.
This paper describes a concept combining mobile IP and ad hoc routing to create a robust mobile network. In this network all nodes are mobile and globally and locally reachable under the same IP address. Essential for implementing this network are the dynamic mobile IP routers. They act as gateways
Sarkar, Subir Kumar
The military, the research community, emergency services, and industrial environments all rely on ad hoc mobile wireless networks because of their simple infrastructure and minimal central administration. Now in its second edition, Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols, and Applications explains the concepts, mechanism, design, and performance of these highly valued systems. Following an overview of wireless network fundamentals, the book explores MAC layer, routing, multicast, and transport layer protocols for ad hoc mobile wireless networks. Next, it examines quality of serv
Modeling Terrain Impact on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks ( MANET ) Connectivity Lance Joneckis Corinne Kramer David Sparrow David Tate I N S T I T U T E F...SUBTITLE Modeling Terrain Impact on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks ( MANET ) Connectivity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...1882 firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract—Terrain affects connectivity in mobile ad hoc net- works ( MANET ). Both average pairwise link closure and the rate
Wireless mobile ad-hoc networks are formed by mobile devices that set up a possibly short-lived network for communication needs of the moment. Ad-hoc networks are decentralized, self-organizing networks capable of forming a communication network without relying on any fixed infrastructure. Each nod
Mobility prediction allows estimating the stability of paths in a mobile wireless Ad Hoc networks. Identifying stable paths helps to improve routing by reducing the overhead and the number of connection interruptions. In this paper, we introduce a neural network based method for mobility prediction in Ad Hoc networks. This method consists of a multi-layer and recurrent neural network using back propagation through time algorithm for training.
Sarkar, Subir Kumar; Puttamadappa, C
Ad hoc mobile wireless networks have seen increased adaptation in a variety of disciplines because they can be deployed with simple infrastructures and virtually no central administration. In particular, the development of ad hoc wireless and sensor networks provides tremendous opportunities in areas including disaster recovery, defense, health care, and industrial environments. Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols and Applications explains the concepts, mechanisms, design, and performance of these systems. It presents in-depth explanations of the latest wireless technologies
Dhananjay S. Gaikwad; Mahesh Lagad; Prashant Suryawanshi; Vaibhav Maske
Mobility models or the movement patterns of nodes communicating wirelessely, play a vital role in the simulation-based evaluation of vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs). Even though recent research has developed models that better corresponds to real world mobility, we still have a limited understanding of the level of the required level of mobility details for modeling and simulating VANETs. In this paper, we propose a new mobility model for VANETs that works on the city area and map the topo...
Jiang, Hai; Poor, H Vincent; Zhuang, Weihua
Mobile ad hoc networks are expected to support voice traffic. The requirement for small delay and jitter of voice traffic poses a significant challenge for medium access control (MAC) in such networks. User mobility makes it more complex due to the associated dynamic path attenuation. In this paper, a MAC scheme for mobile ad hoc networks supporting voice traffic is proposed. With the aid of a low-power probe prior to DATA transmissions, resource reservation is achieved in a distributed manner, thus leading to small delay and jitter. The proposed scheme can automatically adapt to dynamic path attenuation in a mobile environment. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
DR. N. SATYANARAYANA
Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks will often be deployed in environments where the nodes of the networks are unattended and have little or no physical protection against tampering. The nodes of mobile ad hoc networks are thus susceptible to compromise. The networks are particularly vulnerable to denial of service (DOS attacks launched through compromised nodes or intruders. In this paper, we present a new DOS attack and its defense in ad hoc networks. The new DOS attack, called Ad Hoc Flooding Attack (AHFA, can result in denial of service when used against on-demand routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, such as AODV, DSR. The intruder broadcasts mass Route Request packets to exhaust the communication bandwidth and node resource so that the valid communication cannot be kept. After analyzed Ad Hoc Flooding Attack, we develop Flooding Attack Prevention (FAP, a generic defense against the Ad Hoc Flooding Attack in mobile ad hoc networks. When the intruder broadcasts exceeding packets of Route Request, the immediate neighbors of the intruder record the rate of Route Request. Once the threshold is exceeded, nodes deny any future request packets from the intruder. The results of our implementation show FAP can prevent the Ad Hoc Flooding attack efficiently.
Forcada, Ignasi; Strauss, Adi
Reliable global networking is essential for a rapidly growing mobile and interactive communication. Satellite communication plays already a significant role in this subject. However, the classical space-based data transmission requires an appropriate infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. This paper discusses the potential of a self-organising distributed satellite system in Low Earth Orbits (LEO) to achieve a seamless integration in already existing infrastructures. The communication approach is based on dynamic Inter Satellite Links (ISL) not controlled nor coordinated on an individual basis from the ground-based stations.
Guiding readers through the basics of these rapidly emerging networks to more advanced concepts and future expectations, Mobile Ad hoc Networks: Current Status and Future Trends identifies and examines the most pressing research issues in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). Containing the contributions of leading researchers, industry professionals, and academics, this forward-looking reference provides an authoritative perspective of the state of the art in MANETs. The book includes surveys of recent publications that investigate key areas of interest such as limited resources and the mobility o
Grandhomme, Florian; Guette, Gilles; Ksentini, Adlen; Plesse, Thierry
International audience; New generation radio equipment, used by soldiers and vehicles on the battlefield, constitute ad hoc networks and specifically, Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANET). The battlefield where these equipment are deployed includes a majority of coalition communication. Each group on the battleground may communicate with other members of the coalition and establish inter-MANETs links. Operational communications tend to provide tactical ad hoc networks some capacities. There is a be...
Ahmed, Foez; Islam, Nayeema; Debnath, Sumon Kumar
With the proliferation of mobile computing devices, the demand for continuous network connectivity regardless of physical location has spurred interest in the use of mobile ad hoc networks. Since Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the standard network protocol for communication in the internet, any wireless network with Internet service need to be compatible with TCP. TCP is tuned to perform well in traditional wired networks, where packet losses occur mostly because of congestion. However, TCP connections in Ad-hoc mobile networks are plagued by problems such as high bit error rates, frequent route changes, multipath routing and temporary network partitions. The throughput of TCP over such connection is not satisfactory, because TCP misinterprets the packet loss or delay as congestion and invokes congestion control and avoidance algorithm. In this research, the performance of TCP in Adhoc mobile network with high Bit Error rate (BER) and mobility is studied and investigated. Simulation model is implement...
Full Text Available Indonesia is one of developing countries with high land traffic density. This traffic density could cause traffic jam, traffic accidents and other disturbances. This research had developed a simulator that could calculate the traffic density of roads in urban areas. With the use of this simulator, the researcher could calculate the time needed if the source node transports the message to the destination node by using the ad hoc network communication facility. In this research, every vehicle utilizes multi-hop communication in a communication network. The vehicle sends the message through flooding message and passes on the received message to other vehicles. Based on the simulation done on map size 10 km x 10 km with a total of 20 vehicles on the road, it was calculated that the simulator could transmit the message to its destination on the 106th second from node 3 and with the total of 200 vehicles on the road, the simulator could transmit the message to its destination on the 22nd second from node 5.
Akay, Hilal; Tugcu, Tuna
Simulations used for evaluating the performance of routing protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) are mostly based on random mobility and fail to consider individual behaviors of the vehicles. Unrealistic assumptions about mobility produce misleading results about the behavior of routing protocols in real deployments. In this paper, a realistic mobility modeling tool, Mobility for Vehicles (MOVE), which considers the basic mobility behaviors of vehicles, is proposed for a more accurate evaluation. The proposed model is tested against the Random Waypoint (RWP) model using AODV and OLSR protocols. The results show that the mobility model significantly affects the number of nodes within the transmission range of a node, the volume of control traffic, and the number of collisions. It is shown that number of intersections, grid size, and node density are important parameters when dealing with VANET performance.
A novel scheme is presented to integrate mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) with the Internet and support mobility across wireless local area networks (WLANs) and MANETs. The mobile nodes, connected as a MANET, employ the optimize d link state routing (OLSR) protocol for routing within the MANET. Mobility management across WLANs and MANETs is achieved through the hierarchical mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) protocol. The performance is evaluated on a HMIPv6 based test-bed composed of WLANs and MANETs. The efficiency gain obtained from using HMIPv6 in such a hybrid network is investigated. The investigation result shows that the use of HMIPv6 can achieve up to 27% gain on reducing the handoff latency when a mobile roams within a domain. Concerning the reduction of the signaling load on the Internet, the use of HMIPv6 can achieve at least a 54% gain and converges to 69%.
Santosh Kumar S
Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network is collection of self configuring and adaption of wireless link between communicating devices (mobile devices to form an arbitrary topology and multihop wireless connectivity without the use of existing infrastructure. It requires efficient dynamic routing protocol to determine the routes subsequent to a set of rules that enables two or more devices to communicate with each others. This paper basically classifies and evaluates the mobility metrics into two categories- direct mobility metrics and derived mobility metrics. These two mobility metrics has been used to measure different mobility models, this paper considers some of mobility models i.e Random Waypoint Model, Reference Point Group Mobility Model, Random Direction Mobility Model, Random Walk Mobility Model, Probabilistic Random Walk, Gauss Markov, Column Mobility Model, Nomadic Community Mobility Model and Manhattan Grid Model.
Villalba, Luis Javier García; Matesanz, Julián García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Díaz, José Duván Márquez
The TCP/IP protocol allows the different nodes in a network to communicate by associating a different IP address to each node. In wired or wireless networks with infrastructure, we have a server or node acting as such which correctly assigns IP addresses, but in mobile ad hoc networks there is no such centralized entity capable of carrying out this function. Therefore, a protocol is needed to perform the network configuration automatically and in a dynamic way, which will use all nodes in the network (or part thereof) as if they were servers that manage IP addresses. This article reviews the major proposed auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, with particular emphasis on one of the most recent: D2HCP. This work also includes a comparison of auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks by specifying the most relevant metrics, such as a guarantee of uniqueness, overhead, latency, dependency on the routing protocol and uniformity.
Er. Rakesh Kumar,
Full Text Available hoc networks are self configuring network and by a random and quickly changing network topology; thus the need for a robust dynamic routing protocol can accommodate such an environment. Different protocols govern the mobile ad hoc networks and to improve the packet delivery ratio of Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks with high mobility, a message exchange scheme for its invalid route reconstruction is being used. Three protocols AODV, DSDV and I-DSDV were simulated using NS-2 package and were compared in terms of packet delivery ratio, end to end delay routing overhead in different environment; varying number of nodes, speed and pause time. Simulation results show that IDSDVcompared with DSDV, it reduces the number of dropped data packets with little increased overhead at higher rates of node mobility but still compete with AODV in higher node speed and number of node.
Liu, Jinshan; Issarny, Valérie
International audience; Interactions between entities unknown to each other are inevitable in the ambient intelligence vision of service access anytime, anywhere. Trust management through a reputation mechanism to facilitate such interactions is recognized as a vital part of mobile ad hoc networks, which features lack of infrastructure, autonomy, mobility and resource scarcity of composing light-weight terminals. However, the design of a reputation mechanism is faced by challenges of how to e...
Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks(MANET represent complex distributed systems that comprise wireless mobile nodes that can freely and dynamically self organize into arbitrary and temporary ad-hoc network topologies, allowing people and devices to seamlessly internet work in areas with no preexisting communication infrastructure e.g., disaster recovery environments. An ad-hoc network is not a new one, having been around in various forms for over 20 years. Traditionally, tactical networks have been the only communication networking application that followed the ad-hoc paradigm. Recently the introduction of new technologies such as Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11 and hyperlan are helping enable eventual commercial MANET deployments outside the military domain. These recent revolutions have been generating a renewed and growing interest in the research and development of MANET. To facilitate communication within the network a routing protocol is used to discover routes between nodes. The goal of the routing protocol is to have an efficient route establishment between a pair of nodes, so that messages can be delivered in a timely manner. Bandwidth and power constraints are the important factors to be considered in current wireless network because multi-hop ad-hoc wireless relies on each node in the network to act as a router and packet forwarder. This dependency places bandwidth, power computation demands on mobile host to be taken into account while choosing the protocol. Routing protocols used in wired network cannot be used for mobile ad-hoc networks because of node mobility. The ad-hoc routing protocols are divided into two classes: table driven and demand based. This paper reviews and discusses routing protocol belonging to each category.
Yu Ziyue; Gong Bo; He Xingui
For wireless ad hoc networks simulation.node's mobility pattern and traffic pattern are two key elements.A new simulation model is presented based on the virtual reality collision detection algorithm in obstacle environment,and the model uses the path planning method to avoid obstacles and to compute the node's moving path.Obstacles also affect node's signal propagation.Considering these factors,this study implements the mobility model for wireless ad hoc networks.Simulation results show that the model has a significant impact on the performance of protocols.
Full Text Available We develop a timed calculus for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks embodying the peculiarities of local broadcast, node mobility and communication interference. We present a Reduction Semantics and a Labelled Transition Semantics and prove the equivalence between them. We then apply our calculus to model and study some MAC-layer protocols with special emphasis on node mobility and communication interference. A main purpose of the semantics is to describe the various forms of interference while nodes change their locations in the network. Such interference only occurs when a node is simultaneously reached by more than one ongoing transmission over the same channel.
Sun Xuebin; Zhou Zheng
Ad Hoc networks are prone to link failures due to mobility. In this letter, a link perdurability based routing scheme is proposed to try dealing with this problem. This scheme uses signal strength measurements to estimate the route life time and hence chooses a stable route, and is implemented in two typical ad hoc routing protocols to evaluate its performance. The simulation results have shown that this scheme can improve these protocols' packet delivery ratio in cases where there are frequent link failures.
Gisbergen, M.S. van; Khan, V.J.; Ketelaar, P.E.; Huhn, A.E.
We report on two studies researching the effect of mobile location-based ads to perceived intrusiveness of those ads. For the reported studies, shoppers received an ad on a smartphone in a simulated 3D supermarket (projected in 4 rear-projection screens each 3.6 meters wide by 2.6 meters high). Part
Augsburg, Christel; Hedman, Jonas
In this paper, we investigate the role of Value Added Services (VAS) in consumers’ adoption of mobile payments. VAS are supplementary digital services offered in connection with mobile payments; in this study exemplified by receipts, loyalty cards, and coupons. A research model is derived from ex...... that intention to adopt mobile payments increases as VAS are introduced and that this increase comes from a positive change in Perceived Usefulness, compatibility, and Convenience.......In this paper, we investigate the role of Value Added Services (VAS) in consumers’ adoption of mobile payments. VAS are supplementary digital services offered in connection with mobile payments; in this study exemplified by receipts, loyalty cards, and coupons. A research model is derived from...... existing literature and empirically tested through an experimental design survey, in which the experimental group is exposed to a mobile payment solution with VAS, including receipts, loyalty cards, and coupons, and the control group is exposed to a mobile payment solution without VAS. Our findings show...
Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is an autonomous collection of mobile nodes that form a temporary network without of any existing network infrastructure or central access point. The popularity of these networks created security challenges as an important issue. The traditional routing protocols perform well with dynamically changing topology but are not designed to defense against security challenges. In this paper we discuss about current challenges in an ad hoc environment which includes the different types of potential attacks that are possible in the Mobile Ad hoc Networks that can harm its working and operation. We have done literature study and gathered information relating to various types of attacks. In our study, we have found that there is no general algorithm that suits well against the most commonly known attacks. But the complete security solution requires the prevention, detection and reaction mechanisms applied in MANET. To develop suitable security solutions for such environments, we must first understand how MANETs can be attacked. This paper provides a comprehensive study of attacks against mobile ad hoc networks. We present a detailed classification of the attacks against MANETs.
Dr. Kamaljit I. Lakhtaria
Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET is an autonomous mobile nodes forming network in an infrastructure less environment and has dynamic topology. MANET reactive protocols always not have low control overhead. The control overhead for reactive protocols is more sensitive to the traffic load, in terms of the number of traffic rows, and mobility, in terms of link connectivity change rates, than other protocols. Therefore, reactive protocols may only be suitable for MANETs with small number of traffic loads and small link connectivity change rates. It is already proved that, it is more feasible to maintain full network topology in a MANET with low control overhead. In this Research Paper through simulations that were carried out by using Network Simulator-2 (NS-2 we had analyze Reactive/ On-demand protocols such as Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV, Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA, and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR,
Full Text Available The research on various issues in Mobile ad hoc networks is getting popular because of its challenging nature and all time connectivity to communicate. Network simulators provide the platform to analyse and imitate the working of the nodes in the networks along with the traffic and other entities. The current work proposes the design of a simulator for the mobile ad hoc networks that provides a test bed for the energy efficient clustering in the dynamic network. Node parameters like degree of connectivity and average transmission power are considered for calculating the energy consumption of the mobile devices. Nodes that consume minimum energy among their 1-hop neighbours are selected as the cluster heads.
Full Text Available The Wireless and the Mobile Networks appear to provide a wide range of applications. Following these, the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET aid in wide development of many applications. The achievement of the real world applications are attained through effective routing. The Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad hoc Network (ICMANET is a sparse network where a full connectivity is never possible. ICMANET is a disconnected MANET and is also a Delay Tolerant Network (DTN that sustains for higher delays. The routing in a disseminated network is a difficult task. A new routing scheme called Bee Colony Routing (BCR is been proposed with a motto of achieving optimal result in delivering the data packet towards the destined node. BCR is proposed with the basis of Bee Colony Optimization technique (BCO. The routing in ICMNAET is done by means of Bee routing protocol. This paper enchants a novel routing methodology for data transmission in ICMANET.
Muneer Bani Yassein
Full Text Available Flying Ad-Hoc Networks (FANETs is a group of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs which completed their work without human intervention. There are some problems in this kind of networks: the first one is the communication between (UAVs. Various routing protocols introduced classified into three categories, static, proactive, reactive routing protocols in order to solve this problem. The second problem is the network design, which depends on the network mobility, in which is the process of cooperation and collaboration between the UAV. Mobility model of FANET is introduced in order to solve this problem. In Mobility Model, the path and speed variations of the UAV and represents their position are defined. As of today, Random Way Point Model is utilized as manufactured one for Mobility in the greater part of recreation situations. The Arbitrary Way Point model is not relevant for the UAV in light of the fact that UAV do not alter their course and versatility, speed quickly at one time because of this reason, we consider more practical models, called Semi-Random Circular Movement (SRCM Mobility Model. Also, we consider different portability models, Mission Plan-Based (MPB Mobility Model, Pheromone-Based Model. Moreover, Paparazzi Mobility Model (PPRZM. This paper presented and discussed the main routing protocols and main mobility models used to solve the communication, cooperation, and collaboration in FANET networks.
Verma, Samant; Jain, Sweta
Routing in ad hoc network is a great problematic, since a good routing protocol must ensure fast and efficient packet forwarding, which isn't evident in ad hoc networks. In literature there exists lot of routing protocols however they don't include all the aspects of ad hoc networks as mobility, device and medium constraints which make these protocols not efficient for some configuration and categories of ad hoc networks. Thus in this paper we propose an improvement of Weight Based DSR in order to include some of the aspects of ad hoc networks as stability, remaining battery power, load and trust factor and proposing a new approach Enhanced Weight Based DSR.
I. M. B. Nogales
Full Text Available Bluetooth is a cutting-edge technology used for implementing wireless ad hoc networks. In order to provide an overall scheme for mobile ad hoc networks, this paper deals with scatternet topology formation and routing algorithm to form larger ad hoc wireless Networks. Scatternet topology starts by forming a robust network, which is less susceptible to the problems posed by node mobility. Mobile topology relies on the presence of free nodes that create multiple connections with the network and on their subsequently rejoining the network. Our routing protocol is a proactive routing protocol, which is tailor made for the Bluetooth ad hoc network. The connection establishment connects nodes in a structure that simplifies packet routing and scheduling. The design allows nodes to arrive and leave arbitrarily, incrementally building the topology and healing partitions when they occur. We present simulation results that show that the algorithm presents low formation latency and also generates an efficient topology for forwarding packets along ad-hoc wireless networks.
It is difficult for researchers of AD HOC network to conduct actual deployment during experimental stage as the network topology is changeable and location of nodes is unfixed. Thus simulation still remains the main research method of the network. Mobility model is an important component of AD HOC network simulation. It is used to describe the movement pattern of nodes in AD HOC network (including location and velocity, etc.) and decides the movement trail of nodes, playing as the abstraction of the movement modes of nodes. Therefore, mobility model which simulates node movement is an important foundation for simulation research. In AD HOC network research, mobility model shall reflect the movement law of nodes as truly as possible. In this paper, node generally refers to the wireless equipment people carry. The main research contents include how nodes avoid obstacles during movement process and the impacts of obstacles on the mutual relation among nodes, based on which a Node Self Avoiding Obstacle, i.e. NASO model is established in AD HOC network.
Security issues are always difficult to deal with in mobile ad hoc networks. People seldom studied the costs of those security schemes respectively and for some security methods designed and adopted beforehand, their effects are often investigated one by one. In fact, when facing certain attacks, different methods would respond individually and result in waste of resources.Making use of the cost management idea, we analyze the costs of security measures in mobile ad hoc networks and introduce a security framework based on security mechanisms cost management. Under the framework, the network system's own tasks can be finished in time and the whole network's security costs can be decreased. We discuss the process of security costs computation at each mobile node and in certain nodes groups. To show how to use the proposed security framework in certain applications, we give examples of DoS attacks and costs computation of defense methods. The results showed that more secure environment can be achieved based on the security framework in mobile ad hoc networks.
Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a self-organizing wireless communication network in which mobile devices are based on no infrastructure like base stations or access points. Minimal configuration and quick deployment make ad hoc networks suitable for emergency situations like disaster recovery or military conflict. Since node mobility may cause links to be broken frequently, a very important issue for routing in MANETs is how to set reliable paths which can last as long as possible. To solve this problem, non-random behaviors for the mobility patterns that mobile users exhibit are exploited. This paper introduces a scheme to improve On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP performances by using mobility prediction.
Full Text Available An ad-hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any standalone infrastructure or centralized administration. Routing in Ad hoc networks is a challenging problem because nodes are mobile and links are continuously being created and broken.In this model we not only improves the reputation of the network but also provide a routing approach for reliable data transmission and also avoid the loop occurs in the communication. The mobile network is the dynamicnetwork that provides the solution for the inclusion and exclusion of dynamic nodes in the network. AODV and DSR are the two most popular routing protocols for ad-hoc network that we discussed here. In this paper we describe the way to find the node having packet loss and to perform the elimination of node from the network withoutperforming the rerouting and provide the reliable data transfer over the network. In this paper, we design and evaluate cooperative caching techniques to efficiently support data access in the ad-hoc network.
Full Text Available Problem statement: An inherent feature of mobile ad hoc networks is the frequent change of network topology leading to stability and reliability problems of the network. Highly dynamic and dense network have to maintain acceptable level of service to data packets and limit the network control overheads. This capability is closely related as how quickly the network protocol control overhead is managed as a function of increased link changes. Dynamically limiting the routing control overheads based on the network topology improves the throughput of the network. Approach: In this study we propose Varying Overhead - Ad hoc on Demand Vector routing protocol (VO-AODV for highly dynamic mobile Ad hoc network. The VO-AODV routing protocol proposed dynamically modifies the active route time based on the network topology. Results and Conclusion: Simulation results prove that the proposed model decreases the control overheads without decreasing the QOS of the network.
Manickam, P; Girija, M; Manimegalai, Dr D; 10.5121/ijwmn.2011.3109
Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically form a network temporarily without any support of central administration. Moreover, Every node in MANET moves arbitrarily making the multi-hop network topology to change randomly at unpredictable times. There are several familiar routing protocols like DSDV, AODV, DSR, etc...which have been proposed for providing communication among all the nodes in the network. This paper presents a performance comparison of proactive and reactive protocols DSDV, AODV and DSR based on metrics such as throughput, packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay by using the NS-2 simulator.
Malik Nasereldin Ahmed
Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM is the physical layer in emerging wireless local area networks that are also being targeted for ad hoc networking. OFDM can be also exploited in ad hoc networks to improve the energy performance of mobile devices. It is important in wireless networks because it can be used adaptively in a dynamically changing channel. This study gives a detailed view about OFDM and how it is useful to increase the bandwidth. This paper also gives an idea about how OFDM can be a promising technology for high capacity wireless communication.
PRADIP M. JAWANDHIYA,
Full Text Available Security is an essential requirement in mobile ad hoc network (MANETs. Compared to wired networks, MANETs are more vulnerable to security attacks due to the lack of a trusted centralized authority and limited resources. Attacks on ad hoc networks can be classified as passive and active attacks, depending on whether the normal operation of the network is disrupted or not. In this paper, we are describing the all prominent attacks described in literature in a consistent manner to provide a concise comparison on attack types. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that studies all the existing attacks on MANETs.
Full Text Available In this paper we presents bandwidth estimation scheme for MANET, which uses some components of the two methods for the bandwidth estimation: 'Hello Bandwidth Estimation 'Listen Bandwidth Estimation. This paper also gives the advantages of the proposed method. The proposed method is based on the comparison of these two methods. Bandwidth estimation is an important issue in the Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET because bandwidth estimation in MANET is difficult, because each host has imprecise knowledge of the network status and links change dynamically. Therefore, an effective bandwidth estimation scheme for MANET is highly desirable. Ad hoc networks present unique advanced challenges, including the design of protocols for mobility management, effective routing, data transport, security, power management, and quality-of-service (QoS provisioning. Once these problems are solved, the practical use of MANETs will be realizable.
Power control gives us many advantages including power saving, lower interference, and efficient channel utilization. We proposed two clustering algorithms with power control for multl-cluster mobile ad hoc networks in this paper. They improve the network throughput and the network stability as compared to other ad hoc networks in which all mobile nodes use the same transmission power. Furthermore, they help in reducing the system power consumption. We compared the performances of the two approaches. Simulation results show that the DCAP (Distributed clustering algorithm with power control) would achieve a better throughput performance and lower power consumption than the CCAP (Centralized clustering algorithm with power control), but it is complicated and liable to be affected by node velocity.
Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a collection of mobile users without any support of fixed infrastructure. The nodes in these networks have several constraints such as transmission power, bandwidth and processing capability. In addition to it an important parameter of interest is the residual battery power of the nodes. Conventional routing schemes do not take this aspect into consideration. Therefore this paper proposes a routing strategy that takes this aspect into consideration by modifying the Route Request (RREQ packet of the Ad hoc On demand Distance Vector (AODV routing protocol. The protocol chooses a threshold below which a node is not allowed to relay data/control packets. The results show a remarkable improvement in the value of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR, throughput and at the same time the network lifetime is not affected.
Muneer Bani Yassein; “Nour Alhuda” Damer
Flying Ad-Hoc Networks (FANETs) is a group of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) which completed their work without human intervention. There are some problems in this kind of networks: the first one is the communication between (UAVs). Various routing protocols introduced classified into three categories, static, proactive, reactive routing protocols in order to solve this problem. The second problem is the network design, which depends on the network mobility, in which is the process of cooperati...
done to take advantage of High Performance Computer ( HPC ) resources seeded within the mobile ad-hoc network. Having access to HPC resources allows the...are provided by the device manufacturers . Because of this, we could enable IBSS with the same modified kernel. Unfortunately, using the same chipset and...source project called MANET Manager (9), which ports the OLSR daemon to Android devices. With this additional software we were able to successfully
Due to the wide use of communicating mobile devices, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have gained in popularity in recent years. In order that the devices communicate properly, many protocols have been proposed working at different levels. Devices in an MANET are not stationary but may keep moving......, thus the network topology may undergo constant changes. Moreover the devices in an MANET are loosely connected not depending on pre-installed infrastructure or central control components, they exchange messages via wireless connections which are less reliable compared to wired connections. Therefore...... issues in MANETs e.g. mobility and unreliable connections. Specially speaking, 1. We first propose a discrete probabilistic process calculus with which we can model in an MANET that the wireless connection is not reliable, and the network topology may undergo changes. We equip each wireless connection...
Full Text Available We propose a distributed mutual exclusion algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks. This algorithm requires a ring of cluster coordinators as the underlying topology. The topology is built by first providing clusters of mobile nodes in the first step and then forming a backbone consisting of the cluster heads in a ring as the second step. The modified version of the Ricart-Agrawala Algorithm on top of this topologyprovides analytically and experimentally an order of decrease in message complexity with respect to the original algorithm. We analyze the algorithm, provide performance results of the implementation, discuss the fault tolerance and the other algorithmic extensions, and show that this architecture can be used for other middleware functions in mobile networks.
Villalba, Luis Javier García; Matesanz, Julián García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Díaz, José Duván Márquez
The TCP/IP protocol allows the different nodes in a network to communicate by associating a different IP address to each node. In wired or wireless networks with infrastructure, we have a server or node acting as such which correctly assigns IP addresses, but in mobile ad hoc networks there is no such centralized entity capable of carrying out this function. Therefore, a protocol is needed to perform the network configuration automatically and in a dynamic way, which will use all nodes in the network (or part thereof) as if they were servers that manage IP addresses. This article reviews the major proposed auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, with particular emphasis on one of the most recent: D2HCP. This work also includes a comparison of auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks by specifying the most relevant metrics, such as a guarantee of uniqueness, overhead, latency, dependency on the routing protocol and uniformity. PMID:22163814
Julián García Matesanz
Full Text Available The TCP/IP protocol allows the different nodes in a network to communicate by associating a different IP address to each node. In wired or wireless networks with infrastructure, we have a server or node acting as such which correctly assigns IP addresses, but in mobile ad hoc networks there is no such centralized entity capable of carrying out this function. Therefore, a protocol is needed to perform the network configuration automatically and in a dynamic way, which will use all nodes in the network (or part thereof as if they were servers that manage IP addresses. This article reviews the major proposed auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, with particular emphasis on one of the most recent: D2HCP. This work also includes a comparison of auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks by specifying the most relevant metrics, such as a guarantee of uniqueness, overhead, latency, dependency on the routing protocol and uniformity.
Full Text Available Many crucial applications of MANETs like the battlefield, conference and disaster recovery defines the needs for group communications either one-to-many or many-to-many form. Multicast plays an important role in bandwidth scarce multihop mobile ad hoc networks comprise of limited battery power mobile nodes. Multicast protocols in MANETs generate many controls overhead for maintenance of multicast routingstructures due to frequent changes of network topology. Bigger multicast tables for the maintenance of network structures resultsin inefficient consumption of bandwidth of wireless links andbattery power of anemic mobile nodes, which in turn, pose thescalability problems as the network size is scaled up. However,many MANET applications demands scalability from time to time. Multicasting for MANETs, therefore, needs to reduce the state maintenance. As a remedy to these shortcomings, this paper roposes an overlay multicast protocol on application layer. In the proposed protocol titled “Scalable Overlay Multicasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (SOM” the network nodes construct overlay hierarchical framework to reduce the protocols states and constrain their distribution within limited scope. Based on zone around each node, it constructs a virtual structure at application layer mapped with the physical topology at network layer, thus formed two levels of hierarchy. The concept of two level hierarchies reduces the protocol state maintenance and hence supports the vertical scalability. Protocol depends on the location information obtained using a distributed location service, which effectively reduces the overhead for route searching and updating the source based multicast tree.
Muhammad Nawaz Khan
Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc network resource restrictions on bandwidth, processing capabilities, battery life and memory of mobile devices lead tradeoff between security and resources consumption. Due to some unique properties of MANETs, proactive security mechanism like authentication, confidentiality, access control and non-repudiation are hard to put into practice. While some additional security requirements are also needed, like cooperation fairness, location confidentiality, data freshness and absence of traffic diversion. Traditional security mechanism i.e. authentication and encryption, provide a security beach to MANETs. But some reactive security mechanism is required who analyze the routing packets and also check the overall network behavior of MANETs. Here we propose a local-distributed intrusion detection system for ad hoc mobile networks. In the proposed distributed-ID, each mobile node works as a smart agent. Data collect by node locally and it analyze that data for malicious activity. If any abnormal activity discover, it informs the surrounding nodes as well as the base station. It works like a Client-Server model, each node works in collaboration with server, updating its database each time by server using Markov process. The proposed local distributed- IDS shows a balance between false positive and false negative rate. Re-active security mechanism is very useful in finding abnormal activities although proactive security mechanism present there. Distributed local-IDS useful for deep level inspection and is suited with the varying nature of the MANETs.
Binod Kumar Pattanayak
Full Text Available Applications of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs have become extensively popular over the years among the researchers. However, the dynamic nature of MANETs imposes a set of challenges to its efficient implementation in practice. One of such challenges represents intrusion detection and prevention procedures that are intended to provide secured performance of ad hoc applications. In this study, we introduce a mobile agent based intrusion detection and prevention architecture for a clustered MANET. Here, a mobile agent resides in each cluster of the ad hoc network and each cluster runs a specific application at any point of time. This application specific approach makes the network more robust to external intrusions directed at the nodes in an ad hoc network.
SHENZhong; CHANGYilin; ZHANGXin
The dynamic topology of mobile ad hoc networks makes network management significantly more challenging than wireline networks. The traditional Client/Server (Manager/Agent) management paradigm could not work well in such a dynamic environment, while the hierarchical network management architecture based on clustering is more feasible. Although the movement of nodes makes the cluster structure changeable and introduces new challenges for network management, the mobility is a relative concept. A node with high relative mobility is more prone to unstable behavior than a node with less relative mobility, thus the relative mobility of a node can be used to predict future node behavior. This paper presents the cluster availability which provides a quantitative measurement of cluster stability. Furthermore, a cluster maintenance algorithm based on cluster availability is proposed. The simulation results show that, compared to the Minimum ID clustering algorithm, our algorithm successfully alleviates the influence caused by node mobility and make the network management more efficient.
Full Text Available Source privacy plays a key role in communication infrastructure protection. It is a critical security requirement for many mission critical communications. This is especially true for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs due to node mobility and lack of physical protection. Existing cryptosystem-based techniques and broadcasting-based techniques cannot be easily adapted to MANET because of their extensive cryptographic computation and/or large communication overhead. In this paper, we first propose a novel unconditionally secure source anonymous message authentication scheme (SAMAS. This scheme enables message sender to transmit messages without relying on any trusted third parties. While providing source privacy, the proposed scheme can also provide message content authenticity. We then propose a novel communication protocol for MANET that can ensure communication privacy for both message sender and message recipient. This protocol can also protect end-to-end routing privacy. Our security analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is secure against various attacks. The theoretical analysis and simulation show that the proposed scheme is efficient and can provide high message delivery ratio. The proposed protocol can be used for critical infrastructure protection and secure file sharing in mobile ad hoc networks where dynamic groups can be formed.
Mahdi Abdulkader Salem
Full Text Available The mobile ad hoc network (MANET is nothing but the wireless connection of mobile nodes which provides the communication and mobility among wireless nodes without the need of any physical infrastructure or centralized devices such as access point or base station. The communication in MANET is done by routing protocols. There are different categories of routing protocols introduced with different goals and objectives for MANETs such as proactive routing protocols (e.g. DSDV, reactive routing protocols (e.g. ADOV, geographic routing protocols (e.g. GRP, hybrid routing protocols etc. There are two important research problems with such routing protocols to address such as efficient load balancing and energy efficiency. In this paper, we are focusing on evaluation and analysis of efficient load balancing protocol design for MANET. Inefficient load balancing technique results in increasing routing overhead, poor packet delivery ratio, and other Quality of Service (QoS parameters. In literature, there are a number of different methods proposed for improving the performance of routing protocols by efficient load balancing among mobile nodes communication. However, most of the methods suffer from various limitations. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for improved the QoS performance of load balancing approach as well as increasing the network lifetime. Evaluation of Network lifetime is out of scope of this paper.
Şen, Sevil; Clark, John A.; Tapiador, Juan E.
Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a highly promising new form of networking. However they are more vulnerable to attacks than wired networks. In addition, conventional intrusion detection systems (IDS) are ineffective and inefficient for highly dynamic and resource-constrained environments. Achieving an effective operational MANET requires tradeoffs to be made between functional and non-functional criteria. In this paper we show how Genetic Programming (GP) together with a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA) can be used to synthesise intrusion detection programs that make optimal tradeoffs between security criteria and the power they consume.
McClary, Dan; Syrotiuk, Violet; Kulahci, Murat
We present a framework to optimize the performance of a mobile ad hoc network over a wide range of operating conditions. It includes screening experiments to quantify the parameters and interactions among parameters influential to throughput. Profile-driven regression is applied to obtain a model...... of the non-linear behaviour of throughput. The intermediate models obtained in this modelling effort are used to adapt the parameters as the network conditions change, in order to maximize throughput. The improvements in throughput range from 10-26 times the use of the default parameter settings...
JI Xiao-jun; TIAN Chang; ZHANG Yu-sen
Wormhole attack is a serious threat against MANET (mobile ad hoc network) and its routing protocols.A new approach-tunnel key node identification (TKNI) was proposed. Based on tunnel-key-node identification and priority-based route discovery, TKNI can rapidly rebuild the communications that have been blocked by wormhole attack. Compared to previous approaches, the proposed approach aims at both static and dynamic topology environment, involves addressing visible and invisible wormhole attack modes, requires no extra hardware, has a low overhead, and can be easily applied to MANET.
Supriya Kulkarni P
Full Text Available As the necessity of exchanging and sharing data increases, users demand easy connectivity, and fast networks whether they are at work, at home, or on the move. Nowadays, users are interested in interconnecting all their personal electronic devices (PEDs in an ad hoc fashion on the move. This type of network is referred to as Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET. When in such network a smart antenna System (SAS is implemented then we can achieve maximum capacity and improve the quality and coverage. So we are intended to implement such a SAS in the MANET. In this paper we have shown significance of Throughput and Bit Error Rate by implementing SAS in MANET using MATLABR2010a.
Broadcast is an important operation in many network protocols. It is utilized to discover routes to unknown nodes in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and is the key factor in scaling on-demand routing protocols to large networks. This paper presents the Ad Hoc Broadcast Protocol (AHBP) and its performance is discussed. In the protocol, messages are only rebroadcast by broadcast relay gateways that constitute a connected dominating set of the network. AHBP can efficiently reduce the redundant messages which make flooding-like protocols perform badly in large dense networks. Simulations are conducted to determine the performance characteristics of the protocol. The simulation results have shown excellent reduction of broadcast redundancy with AHBP. It also contributes to a reduced level of broadcast collision and congestion.
Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha
Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013
Full Text Available Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV, which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV.
Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha
Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV.
Full Text Available Battery energy limitation has become a performance bottleneck for mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE 802.11 has been adopted as the current standard MAC protocol for ad hoc networks. However, it was developed without considering energy efficiency. To solve this problem, many modifications on IEEE 802.11 to incorporate power control have been proposed in the literature. The main idea of these power control schemes is to use a maximum possible power level for transmitting RTS/CTS and the lowest acceptable power for sending DATA/ACK. However, these schemes may degrade network throughput and reduce the overall energy efficiency of the network. This paper proposes autonomous power control MAC protocol (APCMP, which allows mobile nodes dynamically adjusting power level for transmitting DATA/ACK according to the distances between the transmitter and its neighbors. In addition, the power level for transmitting RTS/CTS is also adjustable according to the power level for DATA/ACK packets. In this paper, the performance of APCMP protocol is evaluated by simulation and is compared with that of other protocols.
Mandeep Kaur Gulati
Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET is an infrastructure less and decentralized network which need a robust dynamic routing protocol. Many routing protocols for such networks have been proposed so far to find optimized routes from source to the destination and prominent among them are Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV, and Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV routing protocols. The performance comparison of these protocols should be considered as the primary step towards the invention of a new routing protocol. This paper presents a performance comparison of proactive and reactive routing protocols DSDV, AODV and DSR based on QoS metrics (packet delivery ratio, average end-to-end delay, throughput, jitter, normalized routing overhead and normalized MAC overhead by using the NS-2 simulator. The performance comparison is conducted by varying mobility speed, number of nodes and data rate. The comparison results show that AODV performs optimally well not the best among all the studied protocols.
Jubin Sebastian E
Full Text Available : Most existing ad hoc routing protocols are susceptible to node mobility, especially for large-scale networks. This paper proposes a Location Based Opportunistic Routing Protocol (LOR to addresses the problem of delivering data packets for highly dynamic mobile ad hoc networks in a reliable and timely manner.This protocol takes advantage of the stateless property of geographic routing and the broadcast nature of wireless medium. When a data packet is sent out, some of the neighbor nodes that have overheard the transmission will serve as forwarding candidates, and take turn to forward the packet if it is not relayed by the specific best forwarder within a certain period of time. By utilizing such in-the-air backup, communication is maintained without being interrupted. The additional latency incurred by local route recovery is greatly reduced and the duplicate relaying caused by packet reroute is also decreased. Simulation results on NS2 verified the effectiveness of the proposed protocol with improvement in throughput by 28%.
Full Text Available In recent years, the use of mobile ad hoc network (MANETs has been widespread in many applications.Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The absolute security in the mobile ad hoc network is very hard to achieve because of its fundamental characteristics, such as dynamic topology, open medium, absence of infrastructure, limited power and limited bandwidth. The Prevention methods like authentication and cryptography techniques alone are not able to provide the security to these types of networks. However, these techniques have a limitation on the effects of prevention techniques in general and they are designed for a set of known attacks. They are unlikely to prevent newer attacks that are designed for circumventing the existing security measures. For this reason, there is a need of second mechanism to “detect and response” these newer attacks. Therefore, efficient intrusion detection must be deployed to facilitate the identification and isolation of attacks. In this article we classify the architecture for IDS that have so far been introduced for MANETs, and then existing intrusion detection techniques in MANETs presented and compared. We then provide some directions for future researches.
Yi Ping; Jiang Xinghao; Wu Yue; Liu Ning
Mobile ad hoc networking(MANET)has become an exciting and important technology in recent years,because of the rapid proliferation of wireless devices.Mobile ad hoc networks is highly vulnerable to attacks due to the open medium,dynamically changing network topology,cooperative algorithms,and lack of centralized monitoring and management point.The traditional way of protecting networks with firewalls and encryption software is no longer sufficient and effective for those features.A distributed intrusion detection approach based on timed automata is given.A cluster-based detection scheme is presented,where periodically a node is elected as the monitor node for a cluster.These monitor nodes can not only make local intrusion detection decisions,but also cooperatively take part in global intrusion detection.And then the timed automata is constructed by the way of manually abstracting the correct behaviours of the node according to the routing protocol of dynamic source routing(DSR).The monitor nodes can verify the behaviour of every nodes by timed automata,and validly detect real-time attacks without signatures of intrusion or trained data.Compared with the architecture where each node is its own IDS agent,the approach is much more efficient while maintaining the same level of effectiveness.Finally,the intrusion detection method is evaluated through simulation experiments.
Wei-Qiang Xu; Tie-Jun Wu
Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a kind of very complex distributed communication systems with wireless mobile nodes that can be freely and dynamically self-organized into arbitrary and temporary network topologies. MANETs inherit several limitations of wireless networks, meanwhile make new challenges arising from the specificity of MANETs, such as route failures, hidden terminals and exposed terminals. When TCP is applied in a MANET environment, a number of tough problems have to be dealt with. In this paper, a comprehensive survey on this dynamic field is given. Specifically, for the first time all factors impairing TCP performance are identified based on network protocol hierarchy, I.e., lossy wireless channel at the physical layer; excessive contention and unfair access at the MAC layer; frail routing protocol at the network layer, the MAC layer and the network layer related mobile node; unfit congestion window size at the transport layer and the transport layer related asymmetric path. How these factors degrade TCP performance is clearly explained. Then, based on how to alleviate the impact of each of these factors listed above, the existing solutions are collected as comprehensively as possible and classified into a number of categories, and their advantages and limitations are discussed. Based on the limitations of these solutions, a set of open problems for designing more robust solutions is suggested.
Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs have inherently dynamic topologies. Under these difficult circumstances, it is essential to have some dependable way of determining the reliability of communication paths. Mobility metrics are well suited to this purpose. Several mobility metrics have been proposed in the literature, including link persistence, link duration, link availability, link residual time, and their path equivalents. However, no method has been provided for their exact calculation. Instead, only statistical approximations have been given. In this paper, exact expressions are derived for each of the aforementioned metrics, applicable to both links and paths. We further show relationships between the different metrics, where they exist. Such exact expressions constitute precise mathematical relationships between network connectivity and node mobility. These expressions can, therefore, be employed in a number of ways to improve performance of MANETs such as in the development of efficient algorithms for routing, in route caching, proactive routing, and clustering schemes.
JingZheng; JinshuSu; KanYang
In mobile ad hoc networks (MANET), nodes move freely and the distribution of access requests changes dynamically. Replica allocation in such a dynamic environment is a significant challenge. In this paoer, a dynamic adaptive replica allocation algorithm that can adapt to the nodes motion is proposed to minimize the communication cost of object access. When changes occur in the access requests of the object or the network topology, each replica node collects access requests from its neighbors and makes decisions locally to expand replica to neighbors or to relinquish the replica. The algorithm dynamically adapts the replica allocation scheme to a local optimal one. Simulation results show that our algorithms efficiently reduce the communication cost of object access in MANET environment.
Benkaouha, Haroun; Abdelli, Abdelkrim; Bouyahia, Karima; Kaloune, Yasmina
This work deals with fault tolerance in distributed MANET (Mobile Ad hoc Networks) systems. However, the major issue for a failure detection protocol is to confound between a fault and a voluntary or an involuntary disconnection of nodes, and therefore to suspect correct nodes to be failing and conversely. Within this context, we propose in this paper a failure detection protocol that copes with MANET systems constraints. The aim of this work is to allow to the system to launch recovery process. For this effect, our protocol, called FDAN, is based on the class of heartbeat protocols. It takes into account: no preliminary knowledge of the network, the nodes disconnection and reconnection, resources limitation...Hence, we show that by using temporary lists and different timeout levels, we achieve to reduce sensibly the number of false suspicions.
Mobile Advertisement is a location-aware dissemination solution built on top of a vehicular ad-hoc network. We envision a network of WiFi access points that dynamically disseminate data to clients running on the car's smart device. The approach can be considered an alternative to the static advertisement billboards and can be useful to business companies wanting to dynamically advertise their products and offers to people driving their car. The clients can subscribe to information based on specific topics. We present design solutions that use access points as emitters for transmitting messages to wireless-enabled devices equipped on vehicles. We also present implementation details for the evaluation of the proposed solution using a simulator designed for VANET application. The results show that the application can be used for transferring a significant amount of data even under difficult conditions, such as when cars are moving at increased speeds, or the congested Wi-Fi network causes significant packet loss...
Day, Khaled; Arafeh, Bassel; Alzeidi, Nasser; 10.5121/ijcnc.2011.3506
This paper proposes and evaluates a new position-based Parallel Routing Protocol (PRP) for simultaneously routing multiple data packets over disjoint paths in a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) for higher reliability and reduced communication delays. PRP views the geographical region where the MANET is located as a virtual 2-dimensional grid of cells. Cell-disjoint (parallel) paths between grid cells are constructed and used for building pre-computed routing tables. A single gateway node in each grid cell handles routing through that grid cell reducing routing overheads. Each node maintains updated information about its own location in the virtual grid using GPS. Nodes also keep track of the location of other nodes using a new proposed cell-based broadcasting algorithm. Nodes exchange energy level information with neighbors allowing energy-aware selection of the gateway nodes. Performance evaluation results have been derived showing the attractiveness of the proposed parallel routing protocol from different resp...
Full Text Available Ad hoc networks are widely used in military and other scientific area. There are various kind of routing protocols are available to establish the route, with the proper analyzation one can choose the routing protocol to form their own network with respect to number of nodes and security considerations. The mobility of nodes makes the environment infrastructure less. It also has a certain number of characteristics which makes the security difficult. A trust recommendation mechanism has designed to keep track of node’s behavior to establish the trustworthiness of the network. Meanwhile with this trustworthiness a node can make objective judgment among another node’s trustworthiness to maintain whole system at a certain security level. The motivation of the work is to understanding the behavior or routing protocol and the trustworthiness.
In this work, we report on one aspect of an autonomous robot-based digital evidence acquisition system that we are developing. When forensic investigators operate within a hostile environment they may use remotely operated unmanned devices to gather digital evidence. These systems periodically upload the evidence to a remote central server using a mobile ad hoc network. In such cases, large pieces of information need to be fragmented and transmitted in an appropriate manner. To support proper forensic analysis, certain properties must ensured for each fragment of evidence — confidentiality during communication, authenticity and integrity of the data, and, most importantly, strong evidence of membership for fragments. This paper describes a framework to provide these properties for the robot-based evidence acquisition system under development.
Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks are formed spontaneously to use the wireless medium for communication among nodes. Each node in this type of network is its own authority and has an unpredictable behaviour. These features involve a cooperation challenge that has been addressed in previous proposals with methods based on virtual currencies. In this work, those methods have been simulated in NS-2 and the results have been analyzed, showing several weaknesses. In particular, it has been concluded that existent methods do not provide significant advances compared with networks without any mechanism for promoting cooperation. Consequently, this work presents three new proposals that try to solve those problems. The obtained results show that the new proposals offer significant improvements over previous schemes based on virtual currencies.
Borch, Ole; Madsen, Per Printz; Broberg, Jacob Honor´e
In many applications multiple robots in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks are required to collaborate in order to solve a task. This paper shows by proof of concept that a Collaboration Layer can be modelled and designed to handle the collaborative communication, which enables robots in small to medium size...... networks to solve tasks collaboratively. In this proposal the Collaboration Layer is modelled to handle service and position discovery, group management, and synchronisation among robots, but the layer is also designed to be extendable. Based on this model of the Collaboration Layer, generic services....... A prototype of the Collaboration Layer has been developed to run in a simulated environment and tested in an evaluation scenario. In the scenario five robots solve the tasks of vacuum cleaning and entrance guarding, which involves the ability to discover potential co-workers, form groups, shift from one group...
A network model is proposed to support service differentiation for mobile Ad Hoc networks by combining a fully distributed admission control approach and the DIFS based differentiation mechanism of IEEE802.11. It can provide different kinds of QoS (Quality of Service) for various applications. Admission controllers determine a committed bandwidth based on the reserved bandwidth of flows and the source utilization of networks. Packets are marked when entering into networks by markers according to the committed rate. By the mark in the packet header, intermediate nodes handle the Received packets in different manners to provide applications with the QoS corresponding to the pre-negotiated profile.Extensive simulation experiments showed that the proposed mechanism can provide QoS guarantee to assured service traffic and increase the channel utilization of networks.
Waleed S. Alnumay
Full Text Available In this paper, we present an identity (ID based protocol that secures AODV and TCP so that it can be used in dynamic and attack prone environments of mobile ad hoc networks. The proposed protocol protects AODV using Sequential Aggregate Signatures (SAS based on RSA. It also generates a session key for each pair of source-destination nodes of a MANET for securing the end-to-end transmitted data. Here each node has an ID which is evaluated from its public key and the messages that are sent are authenticated with a signature/ MAC. The proposed scheme does not allow a node to change its ID throughout the network lifetime. Thus it makes the network secure against attacks that target AODV and TCP in MANET. We present performance analysis to validate our claim.
Full Text Available MANET is a kind of Ad Hoc network with mobile, wireless nodes. Because of its special characteristics like dynamic topology, hop-by-hop communications and easy and quick setup, MANET faced lots of challenges allegorically routing, security and clustering. The security challenges arise due to MANET’s selfconfiguration and self-maintenance capabilities. In this paper, we present an elaborate view of issues in MANET security. Based on MANET’s special characteristics, we define three security parameters for MANET. In addition we divided MANET security into two different aspects and discussed each one in details. A comprehensive analysis in security aspects of MANET and defeating approaches is presented. In addition, defeating approaches against attacks have been evaluated in some important metrics. After analyses and evaluations, future scopes of work have been presented.
A network model is proposed to support service differentiation for mobile Ad Hoc networks by combining a fully distributed admission control approach and the DIFS based differentiation mechanism of IEEE802.11. It can provide different kinds of QoS (Quality of Service) for various applications. Admission controllers determine a committed bandwidth based on the reserved bandwidth of flows and the source utilization of networks. Packets are marked when entering into networks by markers according to the committed rate. By the mark in the packet header, intermediate nodes handle the received packets in different manners to provide applications with the QoS corresponding to the pre-negotiated profile. Extensive simulation experiments showed that the proposed mechanism can provide QoS guarantee to assured service traffic and increase the channel utilization of networks.
Full Text Available In this paper we present a new algorithm for clustering MANET by considering several parameters. This is a new adaptive load balancing technique for clustering out Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET. MANET is special kind of wireless networks where no central management exits and the nodes in the network cooperatively manage itself and maintains connectivity. The algorithm takes into account the local capabilities of each node, the remaining battery power, degree of connectivity and finally the power consumption based on the average distance between nodes and candidate cluster head. The proposed algorithm efficiently decreases the overhead in the network that enhances the overall MANET performance. Reducing the maintenance time of broken routes makes the network more stable, reliable. Saving the power of the nodes also guarantee consistent and reliable network.
Chauhan, Kamal Kumar; 10.5121/ijans.2012.2207
Secure communication between two nodes in a network depends on reliable key management systems that generate and distribute keys between communicating nodes and a secure routing protocol that establishes a route between them. But due to lack of central server and infrastructure in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), this is major problem to manage the keys in the network. Dynamically changes in network's topology causes weak trust relationship among the nodes in the network. In MANETs a mobile node operates as not only end terminal but also as an intermediate router. Therefore, a multi-hop scenario occurs for communication in MANETs; where there may be one or more malicious nodes in between source and destination. A routing protocol is said to be secure that detects the detrimental effects of malicious node(s in the path from source to destination). In this paper, we proposed a key management scheme and a secure routing protocol that secures on demand routing protocol such as DSR and AODV. We assume that MANETs ...
Suman, Patel, R. B.; Singh, Parvinder
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self-organizing network of mobile routers and associated hosts connected by wireless links. MANETs are highly flexible and adaptable but at the same time are highly prone to security risks due to the open medium, dynamically changing network topology, cooperative algorithms, and lack of centralized control. Firewall is an effective means of protecting a local network from network-based security threats and forms a key component in MANET security architecture. This paper presents a review of firewall implementation techniques in MANETs and their relative merits and demerits. A new approach is proposed to select MANET nodes at random for firewall implementation. This approach randomly select a new node as firewall after fixed time and based on critical value of certain parameters like power backup. This approach effectively balances power and resource utilization of entire MANET because responsibility of implementing firewall is equally shared among all the nodes. At the same time it ensures improved security for MANETs from outside attacks as intruder will not be able to find out the entry point in MANET due to the random selection of nodes for firewall implementation.
Wang, Junfang; Xie, Bin; Agrawal, Dharma P.
A wireless mesh network (WMN) is a particular type of mobile ad hoc network (MANET), which aims to provide ubiquitous high bandwidth access for a large number of users. A pure MANET is dynamically formed by mobile devices without the requirement of any existing infrastructure or prior network configuration. Similar to MANETs, a WMN also has the ability of self-organization, self-discovering, self-healing, and self-configuration. However, a WMN is typically a collection of stationary mesh routers (MRs) with each employing multiple radios. Some MRs have wired connections and act as the Internet gateways (IGWs) to provide Internet connectivity for other MRs. These new features of WMNs over MANETs enable them to be a promising alternative for high broadband Internet access. In this chapter, we elaborate on the evolution from MANETs to WMNs and provide a comprehensive understanding of WMNs from theoretical aspects to practical protocols, while comparing it with MANETs. In particular, we focus on the following critical issues with respect to WMN deployment: Network Capacity, Positioning Technique, Fairness Transmission and Multiradio Routing Protocols. We end this chapter with some open problems and future directions in WMNs.
Full Text Available Providing efficient and scalable service provisioning in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET is a big research challenge. In adaptive service provisioning mechanism an adaptive election procedure is used to select a coordinator node. The role of a service coordinator is crucial in any distributed directory based service provisioning scheme. The existing coordinator election schemes use either the nodeID or a hash function to choose the coordinator. In these schemes, the leader changes are more frequent due to node mobility. We propose an adaptive scheme that makes use of an eligibility factor that is calculated based on the distance to the zone center, remaining battery power and average speed to elect a core node that change according to the network dynamics. We also retain the node with the second highest priority as a backup node. Our algorithm is compared with the existing solution by simulation and the result shows that the core node selected by us is more stable and hence reduces the number of handoffs. This in turn improves the service delivery performance by increasing the packet delivery ratio and decreasing the delay, the overhead and the forwarding cost.
Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of deafness problem in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs using directional antennas. Directional antennas arebeneficial for wireless ad hoc networks consisting of a collection of wireless hosts. A suitable Medium Access Control (MAC protocol must be designed to best utilize directional antennas. Deafness is caused whentwo nodes are in ongoing transmission and a third node (Deaf Node wants to communicate with one of that node. But it get no response because transmission of two nodes are in process. Though directional antennas offer better spatial reuse, but this problem can have a serious impact on network performance. A New DMAC (Directional Medium Access Control protocol uses flags in DNAV (Directional Network Allocation Vector tables to maintain information regarding the transmissionbetween the nodes in the network and their neighbor’s location. Two performance matrices have been used to show the impact of New DMAC algorithm on Deafness problem using simulator. These are RTS Failure Ratio and RTS Retransmission due to timeout
Khyati Choure , Sanjay Sharma
Full Text Available In present scenario, in ad-hoc network, the behavior of nodes are not very stable. They do not work properly and satisfactory. They are not cooperative and acting selfishly. They show their selfishness to share their resources like bandwidth to save life of battery, they are not hasitate to block thepackets sent by others for forwarding and transmit their own packets. Due to higher Mobility of the different nodes makes the situation even more complicated. Multiple routing protocols especially for these conditions have been developed during the last few years, to find optimized routes from a source to some destination.But it is still difficult to know the actual shortest path without attackers or bad nodes. Ad-hoc network suffer from the lot of issues i.e. congestion, Throughput, delay, security, network overhead. Packet delivery ratio is the issues of ongoing research. Cause of node failure may be either natural failure of node links or it may be due to act of an attacker or bad node which may degrade performance of network slowly or drastically, which also need to identify or determined. In this paper, we identify the good and bad nodes. A simulation has been performed to achieve better performance of modified AODV. Good result has been obtained in terms of Throughout, Packet Delivery Ratio.
Eduardo da Silva
Full Text Available As a consequence of the particularities of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs, such as dynamic topology and self-organization, the implementation of complex and flexible applications is a challenge. To enable the deployment of these applications, several middleware solutions were proposed. However, these solutions do not completely consider the security requirements of these networks. Based on the limitations of the existing solutions, this paper presents a new secure middleware, called Secure Middleware for Ad Hoc Networks (SEMAN, which provides a set of basic and secure services to MANETs aiming to facilitate the development of distributed, complex, and flexible applications. SEMAN considers the context of applications and organizes nodes into groups, also based on these contexts. The middleware includes three modules: service, processing, and security. Security module is the main part of the middleware. It has the following components: key management, trust management, and group management. All these components were developed and are described in this paper. They are supported by a cryptographic core and behave according to security rules and policies. The integration of these components provides security guarantees against attacks to the applications that usethe middleware services.
Kumar, Sumit; Mehfuz, Shabana
In mobile ad-hoc network (MANETs) flooding method is used for broadcasting route request (RREQ) packet from one node to another node for route discovery. This is the simplest method of broadcasting of RREQ packets but it often results in broadcast storm problem, originating collisions and congestion of packets in the network. A probabilistic broadcasting is one of the widely used broadcasting scheme for route discovery in MANETs and provides solution for broadcasting storm problem. But it does not consider limited energy of the battery of the nodes. In this paper, a new energy efficient probabilistic broadcasting (EEPB) is proposed in which probability of broadcasting RREQs is calculated with respect to remaining energy of nodes. The analysis of simulation results clearly indicate that an EEPB route discovery scheme in ad-hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) can increase the network lifetime with a decrease in the average power consumption and RREQ packet overhead. It also decreases the number of dropped packets in the network, in comparison to other EEPB schemes like energy constraint gossip (ECG), energy aware gossip (EAG), energy based gossip (EBG) and network lifetime through energy efficient broadcast gossip (NEBG).
Rizvi, Syed S
The performance of Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANET) depends on the cooperation of all active nodes. However, supporting a MANET is a cost-intensive activity for a mobile node. From a single mobile node perspective, the detection of routes as well as forwarding packets consume local CPU time, memory, network-bandwidth, and last but not least energy. We believe that this is one of the main factors that strongly motivate a mobile node to deny packet forwarding for others, while at the same time use their services to deliver its own data. This behavior of an independent mobile node is commonly known as misbehaving or selfishness. A vast amount of research has already been done for minimizing malicious behavior of mobile nodes. However, most of them focused on the methods/techniques/algorithms to remove such nodes from the MANET. We believe that the frequent elimination of such miss-behaving nodes never allowed a free and faster growth of MANET. This paper provides a critical analysis of the recent research wok and ...
XULi; ZHENGBaoyu; YANGZhen
MANET (Mobile ad hoc network) is characterized by a highly dynamic network topology. This makes routing discovery and maintenance challenging for routing protocol design. On the other hand, energy efficient routing may be another important design criterion for MANET since most of nodes are usually powered by battery with limited capacity. With optimization of DSR (Dynamic source routing) protocol, this paper proposes Power and mobility-aware adaptive dynamic source routing (PMADSR). The new routing protocol can be aware of the mobility and remaining battery capacity of nodes. Performance simulation results show that the proposed PMADSR protocol can dynamically balance the traffic load inside the whole network, so as to prolong the network lifetime, as well as achieve higher throughput.
Hossain, M. Julius; Dewan, M. Ali Akber; Chae, Oksam
This paper presents a new routing approach to extend the effective lifetime of mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) considering both residual battery energy of the participating nodes and routing cost. As the nodes in ad hoc networks are limited in power, a power failure occurs if a node has insufficient remaining energy to send, receive or forward a message. So, it is important to minimize the energy expenditure as well as to balance the remaining battery power among the nodes. Cost effective routing algorithms attempt to minimize the total power needed to transmit a packet which causes a large number of nodes to loose energy quickly and die. On the other hand, lifetime prediction based routing algorithms try to balance the remaining energies among the nodes in the networks and ignore the transmission cost. These approaches extend the lifetime of first few individual nodes. But as nodes spend more energy for packet transfer, power failures occurs, within short interval resulting more number of total dead node earlier. This reduces the effective lifetime of the network, as at this stage successful communication is not possible due to the lack of forwarding node. The proposed method keeps the transmission power in modest range and at the same time tries to reduce the variance of the residual energy of the nodes more effectively to obtain the highest useful lifetime of the networks in the long run. Nonetheless, movement of nodes frequently creates network topology changes via link breaks and link creation and thus effects on the stability of the network. So, the pattern of the node movement is also incorporated in our route selection procedure.
mobile ad hoc networks ( MANETs ) is that routes consisting of multiple hops will be available to connect those nodes that lack line-of- sight connectivity...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT One of the assumptions behind tactical mobile ad hoc networks ( MANETs ) is that routes consisting of multiple hops will be...Network Size and Connectivity in Mobile and Stationary Ad Hoc Networks Lance Joneckis Corinne Kramer David Sparrow David Tate I N S T I T U T E
Full Text Available The Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs has gain an essential part of the attention of researchers and become very well-liked in last few years. MANETs can operate with no fixed communications and can live rapid changes in the network topology. They can be studied officially as graphs in which the set of boundaries varies in time. One of the main methods to determine the presentation of MANETs is simulation. This study proposes Enhanced Probabilistic Adhoc on Demand Distance Vector (EPAODV routing protocol, which solves the broadcast storm problem of Adhoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV. Our evaluation of MANETs is based on the evaluation of the throughput, end to end delay and packet delivery ratio. We evaluated the end to end delay as it is one of the most important characteristic evaluation metric in computer networks. In our proposed algorithm, using a queueing model M/M/C: ∞/FIFO, we are able to enhance that better results are obtained in the case EPAODV protocol such as increasing throughput, data delivery ratio and then decreasing the end delay compare to the existing protocols.
D Jinil Persis
Full Text Available Routing in Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET is a contemporary graph problem that is solved using various shortest path search techniques. The routing algorithms employed in modern routers use deterministic algorithms that extract an exact non-dominated set of solutions from the search space. The search efficiency of these algorithms is found to have an exponential time complexity in the worst case. Moreover this problem is a multi-objective optimization problem in nature for MANET and it is required to consider changing topology layout. This study attempts to employ a formulation incorporating objectives viz., delay, hop-distance, load, cost and reliability that has significant impact on network performance. Simulation with different random topologies has been carried out to illustrate the implementation of an exhaustive search algorithm and it is observed that the algorithm could handle small-scale networks limited to 15 nodes. A random search meta-heuristic that adopts the nature of firefly swarm has been proposed for larger networks to yield an approximated non-dominated path set. Firefly Algorithm is found to perform better than the exact algorithm in terms of scalability and computational time.
S. Kami Makki
Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET have been a research interest over the past few years, yet, node cooperation has continually been a recognized issue for researchers. Because of their lack of infrastructure, MANETS depend on the cooperation of intermediate nodes in order to forward or send packets of their own to other nodes in the network. Therefore, nodes located in the central area of the network are used more frequently than the nodes located on the outer boundary. The inner nodes have to forward the packets of other nodes and if there is no payoff for forwarding the packets, the nodes may start to refrain from forwarding the packets of others to save their energy. The Community Enforcement Mechanism has been proposed to force the cooperation of among the nodes and reduce their misbehavior. Although, it provides cooperation among the nodes, it does not essentially increase the network life. In this paper, we present an efficient algorithm to improve the longevity of a MANET based upon more structured nodes cooperation.
Amjad, Ali; Wang, Huiqiang; Chen, Xiaoming
Cognition capability has been seen by researchers as the way forward for the design of next generation of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). The reason why a cognitive paradigm would be more suited to a MANET is because MANETs are highly dynamic networks. The topology may change very frequently during the operation of a MANET. Traffic patterns in MANETs can vary from time to time depending on the need of the users. The size of a MANET and node density is also very dynamic and may change without any predictable pattern. In a MANET environment, most of these parameters may change very rapidly and keeping track of them manually would be very difficult. Previous studies have shown that the performance of a certain routing approach in MANETs is dependent on the size of the network and node density. The choice of whether to use a reactive or proactive routing approach comes down to the network size parameter. Static or offline approaches to fine tune a MANET to achieve certain performance goals is hence not very productive as a lot of these parameters keep changing during the course of operation of MANETs. Similarly, the performance of MANETs would improve greatly if the MAC layer entity could operate in a more flexible manner. In this paper we propose a cognitive MANET design that will ensure that all these dynamic parameters are automatically monitored and decisions are based on the current status of these parameters.
Research on mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) has become a hot research topic since the middle 1990’s. Over the first decade, most research focused on networking techniques, ignoring data management issues. We, however, realized early the importance of data management in MANETs, and have been conducting studies in this area for 15 years. In this review, we summarize some key technical issues related to data management in MANETs, and the studies we have done in addressing these issues, which include placement of data replicas, update management, and query processing with security management. The techniques proposed in our studies have been designed with deep considerations of MANET features including network partitioning, node participation/disappearance, limited network bandwidth, and energy efficiency. Our studies published in early 2000’s have developed a new research field as data management in MANETs. Also, our recent studies are expected to be significant guidelines of new research directions. We conclude the review by discussing some future directions for research. PMID:28496052
王建新; 邓曙光; 陈松乔; 陈建二
A QoS routing protocol based on mobility prediction is proposed. The protocol selects the steadiest path based on mobility prediction and QoS requirements on bandwidth, delay, and so forth. The main properties of the protocol as follows. (1) Each node just broadcasts its own information, so the packet is very small and can get to the destination in a very short time. (2)When another path is built for the same QoS requirements, the original path has higher priority.(3) The update messages are reduced by using mobility prediction. (4) Data packets carry the information of link change using piggyback, which is helpful for forecasting the link status more accurately. (5) When source node gets Resource-Reserve and reconnect packets at the same time, it selects reconnect packet over Resource-Reserve packet. The results of simulation show that the protocol has good network performance with low control overload, and efficiently supports transmitting multimedia with QoS requirements in mobile ad hoc networks.
Full Text Available The use of mobile ad hoc network varies from collaborative computing to time critical applications in indoor and outdoor environment. Mobility of ad hoc network makes very attractive in all areas of mobile applications. Connection sustainability is the main problem in wireless ad hoc network. This paper analyse straight up, flat topologies of mobile ad hoc traffic in indoor and outdoor environment in real time campus network and evaluate the scenarios based on performance metrics. The results show that the mobiles nodes in straight up and flat topologies are affected by connection, mobility and obstacles with all other topologies. It is also observed that straight up static topology for indoor shows better performance in all metrics.
Al Hanbali, A.M.; Ibrahim, M.; Simon, V.; Varga, E.; Carreras, I.
For the last twenty years, mobile communications have experienced an explosive growth. In particular, one area of mobile communication, the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), has attracted significant attention due to its multiple applications and its challenging research problems. On the other hand,
Today's modern mobile devices (such as smartphones and tablets) present great potential for growth of many novel, powerful, but also highly demanding applications. However, most mobile devices/users operate in isolation from one another, i.e., they are not aware of the presence of other devices in their proximity. There are numerous situations…
Today's modern mobile devices (such as smartphones and tablets) present great potential for growth of many novel, powerful, but also highly demanding applications. However, most mobile devices/users operate in isolation from one another, i.e., they are not aware of the presence of other devices in their proximity. There are numerous situations…
移动Ad Hoc网络，它是Mobile Ad Hoc Networks的简称，它不会受到空间与时间的制约，更加快捷和方便，不但能够在危险环境、远距离、战场、会议和救援等环境当中应用，而且还能够扩展末端网络，它的应用具有普遍性。为此，本文论述了移动Ad Hoc网络的基本概念和特点，接着分析了移动Ad Hoc网络设计面临的挑战，最后讨论了它的应用。%It would not be space and time constraints,more efficient and convenient,not only in hazardous environments,remote battlefield,conferences and rescue environment in which applications,but also to extend the end of the network,its application is universal.Therefore,this article discusses the basic concepts and features of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,and then analyzes the challenges faced by mobile Ad Hoc network design, it is best to discuss its applications.
Full Text Available The high-level contribution of this paper is an exhaustive simulation-based comparison study of three categories (density, node id and stability-based of algorithms to determine connected dominating sets (CDS for mobile ad hoc networks and evaluate their performance under two categories (random node mobility and grid-based vehicular ad hoc network of mobility models. The CDS algorithms studied are the maximum density-based (MaxD-CDS, node ID-based (ID-CDS and the minimum velocity-based (MinV-CDS algorithms representing the density, node id and stability categories respectively. The node mobility models used are the Random Waypoint model (representing random node mobility and the City Section and Manhattan mobility models (representing the grid-based vehicular ad hoc networks. The three CDS algorithms under the three mobility models are evaluated with respect to two critical performance metrics: the effective CDS lifetime (calculated taking into consideration the CDS connectivity and absolute CDS lifetime and the CDS node size. Simulations are conducted under a diverse set of conditions representing low, moderate and high network density, coupled with low, moderate and high node mobility scenarios. For each CDS, the paper identifies the mobility model that can be employed to simultaneously maximize the lifetime and minimize the node size with minimal tradeoff. For the two VANET mobility models, the impact of the grid block length on the CDS lifetime and node size is also evaluated.
Li, Jian-ning; Su, Hong-ye; Wu, Zheng-guang; Chu, Jian
A new stochastic switched linear model is established to describe the Zigbee-based wireless networked control system (WNCS) with both network-induced delay and packet dropout. The network-induced delay can be less or longer than one sampling period. A sufficient condition is presented for the exponentially mean square stability of the closed-loop WNCS, and corresponding state feedback controller is designed by using the augmenting technique and multi-Lyapunov approach. Then, combined with carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA-CA) algorithm, a method is given to choose proper parameter values. Finally, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Goldsby, Michael E.; Johnson, Michael M.; Kilman, Dominique Marie (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Bierbaum, Neal Robert; Chen, Helen Y.; Ammerlahn, Heidi R.; Tsang, Rose P.; Nicol, David M. (University of Illinois, Urbana, IL)
This report describes the results of research targeting improvements in the robustness of message transport in wireless ad hoc networks. The first section of the report provides an analysis of throughput and latency in the wireless medium access control (MAC) layer and relates the analysis to the commonly used 802.11 protocol. The second section describes enhancements made to several existing models of wireless MAC and ad hoc routing protocols; the models were used in support of the work described in the following section. The third section of the report presents a lightweight transport layer protocol that is superior to TCP for use in wireless networks. In addition, it introduces techniques that improve the performance of any ad hoc source routing protocol. The fourth section presents a novel, highly scalable ad hoc routing protocol that is based on geographic principles but requires no localization hardware.
Himadri Nath Saha
Full Text Available Many security schemes for mobile ad-hoc network(MANET have been proposed so far but none of them has been successful in combating the different types of attacks that a mobile ad-hoc network often faces. This paper is providing one way of mitigating attacks in mobile ad-hoc networks by authenticating the node who tries to access this network .This scheme has been applied by using cellular automata (CA. Our simulation results show how cellular automata(CA is implemented for user authentication and secure transmission in MANET.
Full Text Available In MANET, Clustering is the most significant research area now days. Clustering offers several advantages like it improves stability of network, enhances routing in network, efficient resource allocation among mobile nodes in network and hierarchical routing structure. This survey paper analyzes number of clustering approaches which are widely used for partitioning mobile nodes into different virtual groups. Each clustering algorithm considers different parameters for selection of Cluster Head in Cluster. Cluster Head election is invoked on demand and it is aimed to decrease the computation and communication cost in MANET. Each approach has its own pros and cons.
Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc Networks consist of wireless host that communicate with each other. The routes in a Mobile Ad-hoc Network may consist of many hops through other hosts between source and destination. The hosts are not fixed in a Mobile Adhoc Network; due to host mobility topology can change any time. Mobile Ad-hoc Networks are much more vulnerable to security attacks. Current research works on securing Mobile Adhoc Networks mainly focus on confidentiality, integrity,authentication, availability, and fairness. Design of routingprotocols is very much crucial in Mobile Ad-hoc Network. There are various techniques for securing Mobile Ad-hoc Network i.e. cryptography. Cryptography provides efficient mechanism to provide security, but it creates very much overhead. So, an approach is used which is analogous to Biological Immune System, known as Artificial Immune System (AIS. There is a reason of AIS to be used for security purposes because the Human Immune System (HIS protects the body against damage from an extremely large number of harmfulbacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi, termed pathogens. It doesthis largely without prior knowledge of the structure of thesepathogens. AIS provide security by determining non-trusted nodes and eliminate all non-trusted nodes from the network.
Full Text Available The characteristics of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs require special care in the handling of service advertisement and discovery (Ad/D. In this paper, we propose a noble service Ad/D technique for MANETs. Our scheme avoids redundant flooding and reduces the system overhead by integrating Ad/D with routing layer. It also tracks changing conditions, such as traffic and service popularity levels. Based on a variable zone radius, we have combined push-based Ad/D with a pull-based Ad/D strategy.
Full Text Available The characteristics of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs require special care in the handling of service advertisement and discovery (Ad/D. In this paper, we propose a noble service Ad/D technique for MANETs. Our scheme avoids redundant flooding and reduces the system overhead by integrating Ad/D with routing layer. It also tracks changing conditions, such as traffic and service popularity levels. Based on a variable zone radius, we have combined push-based Ad/D with a pull-based Ad/D strategy.
移动自组网(Mobile Ad HoC Network)是一种无基础设施的无线网络由于它具有开放的媒质、分布式的合作、动态的拓扑结构和受限的网络能力等特点,所以特别容易受到攻击.为此文章结合移动Ad Hoc网络的特点分析了移动Ad Hoc网络面临的安全威胁,并对移动Ad Hoc网络的安全路由和安全报文传送问题进行了详细讨论.
Shah, Rutuja; Subramaniam, Sumathy; Lekala Dasarathan, Dhinesh Babu
Mobile ad hoc Networks (MANET), being infrastructureless and dynamic in nature, are predominantly susceptible to attacks such as black hole, worm hole, cunning gray hole attack at source or destination...
Yi-Hung Chen; Hui-Nien Hung; Yi-Bing Lin; Nan-Fu Peng
This paper investigates a mobile telecommunications system that supports both ad hoc and infrastructure mode operations. Based on analytic and simulation models, our study investigates how base station (BS) and ad hoc channel capacity, and the mobility and locality of mobile stations affect the performance of a dual mode system. We show that a dual mode system can significantly outperform a single mode (infrastructure) system when the degree of locality is high. Furthermore, a dual mode system can support much faster mobile users with less BS channels in comparison to an infrastructure mode system. Our study quantitatively identifies the threshold value for the number of ad hoc channels such that beyond this threshold, increasing ad hoc channel capacity will not improve the performance of a dual mode system.
Full Text Available Due to the advancement in wireless technologies, many of new paradigms have opened for communications. Among these technologies, mobile ad hoc networks play a prominent role for providing communication in many areas because of its independent nature of predefined infrastructure. But in terms of security, these networks are more vulnerable than the conventional networks because firewall and gateway based security mechanisms cannot be applied on it. That’s why intrusion detection systems are used as keystone in these networks. Many number of intrusion detection systems have been discovered to handle the uncertain activity in mobile ad hoc networks. This paper emphasized on proposed fuzzy based intrusion detection systems in mobile ad hoc networks and presented their effectiveness to identify the intrusions. This paper also examines the drawbacks of fuzzy based intrusion detection systems and discussed the future directions in the field of intrusion detection for mobile ad hoc networks.
Zafoune, Youcef; kanawati, Rushed; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2213
This paper presents a new approach in the management of mobile ad hoc networks. Our alternative, based on mobile agent technology, allows the design of mobile centralized server in ad hoc network, where it is not obvious to think about a centralized management, due to the absence of any administration or fixed infrastructure in these networks. The aim of this centralized approach is to provide permanent availability of services in ad hoc networks which are characterized by a distributed management. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, we apply it to solve the problem of mobile code localization in ad hoc networks. A comparative study, based upon a simulation, of centralized and distributed localization protocols in terms of messages number exchanged and response time shows that the centralized approach in a distributed form is more interesting than a totally centralized approach.
Mobility Models for Next Generation Wireless Networks: Ad Hoc, Vehicular and Mesh Networks provides the reader with an overview of mobility modelling, encompassing both theoretical and practical aspects related to the challenging mobility modelling task. It also: Provides up-to-date coverage of mobility models for next generation wireless networksOffers an in-depth discussion of the most representative mobility models for major next generation wireless network application scenarios, including WLAN/mesh networks, vehicular networks, wireless sensor networks, and
Voulgaris, Spyros; Dobson, Matthew; Steen, van Maarten
Energy is the scarcest resource in ad hoc wireless networks, particularly in wireless sensor networks requiring a long lifetime. Intermittently switching the radio on and off is widely adopted as the most effective way to keep energy consumption low. This, however, prevents the very goal of communic
The study of vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) requires efficient and accurate simulation tools. As the mobility of vehicles and driver behavior can be affected by network messages, these tools must include a vehicle mobility model integrated with a quality network simulator. We present the first implementation of a well-known vehicle mobility model to ns-3, the next generation of the popular ns-2 networking simulator. Vehicle mobility and network communication are integrated through events. User-created event handlers can send network messages or alter vehicle mobility each time a network message is received and each time vehicle mobility is updated by the model. To aid in creating simulations, we have implemented a straight highway model that manages vehicle mobility, while allowing for various user customizations. We show that the results of our implementation of the mobility model matches that of the model's author and provide an example of using our implementation in ns-3.
hoc networks ( MANETS ) under practical assumptions. Several problems were posed and solved that provide insight into when and how interference alignment...REPORT High Throughput via Cross-Layer Interference Alignment for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Recent...investigations into the fundamental limits of mobile ad hoc networks have produced a physical layer method for approaching their capacity. This strategy, known
The emergent notion of ubiquitous computing makes it possible for mobile devices to communicate and provide services via networks connected in an ad-hoc manner. These have resulted in the proliferation of wireless technologies such as Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANets), which offer attractive solutions for services that need flexible setup as well as dynamic and low cost wireless connectivity. However, the growing trend outlined above also raises serious concerns over Identity Management (IM) du...
ON-DEMAND KEY DISTRIBUTION FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS THESIS Mr. Daniel F . Graham AFIT...for the Degree of Master of Science in Computer Science Mr. Daniel F . Graham, BS March 2007 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION...UNLIMITED AFIT/GCS/ENG/07-12 ON-DEMAND KEY DISTRIBUTION FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS Mr. Daniel F . Graham, BS
移动Ad Hoc网络移动通信领域具有十分广泛的应用，本文主要分析其通信原理及应用前景。%Mobile Ad Hoc network has the extremely widespread application in mobile communication ifeld. This paper mainly analyzes the communication principle and application prospect of mobile Ad Hoc Network.
Pousttchi, Key; Weizmann, Moritz; Turowski, Klaus
In this contribution we propose to apply the theory of informational added values (IAV) on electronic commerce (EC) and mobile commerce (MC). We state that for the success of electronic and mobile offers it is not sufficient to merely make a conventional offer available with new media. Instead, the use of electronic and mobile communication technology is only remunerative if it results in obtaining distinct supplementary IAV. This depends on the exploitation of certain faculties of the use...
Irshad, Ehtsham; Noshairwan, Wajahat; Shafiq, Muhammad; Khurram, Shahzada; Irshad, Azeem; Usman, Muhammad
Mobility of nodes is an important issue in mobile adhoc networks (MANET). Nodes in MANET move from one network to another individually and in the form of group. In single node mobility scheme every node performs registration individually in new MANET whereas in group mobility scheme only one node in a group i.e group representative (GR) performs registration on behalf of all other nodes in the group and is assigned Care of Address (CoA). Internet protocol (IP) of all other nodes in the group remains same. Our simulated results prove that group mobility scheme reduces number of messages and consumes less time for registration of nodes as compared to single node mobility scheme. Thus network load is reduced in group mobility scheme. This research paper evaluates the performance of group mobility with single node mobility scheme. Test bed for this evaluation is based on Network Simulator 2 (NS-2) environment.
Abdeldime Mohamed Salih Abdelgader
Full Text Available There are a number of volunteer and statutory organizations who are capable of conducting an emergency response using helicopters. Rescue operations require a rapidly deployable high bandwidth network to coordinate necessary relief efforts between rescue teams on the ground and helicopters. Due to massive destruction and loss of services, ordinary communication infrastructures may collapse in these situations. Consequently, information exchange becomes one of the major challenges in these circumstances. Helicopters can be also employed for providing many services in rugged environments, military applications, and aerial photography. Ad hoc network can be used to provide alternative communication link between a set of helicopters, particularly in case of significant amount of data required to be shared. This paper addresses the ability of using ad hoc networks to support the communication between a set of helicopters. A simplified network structure model is presented and extensively discussed. Furthermore, a streamlined routing algorithm is proposed. Comprehensive simulations are conducted to evaluate the proposed routing algorithm.
Kim, Sangkyung; Park, Noyeul; Kim, Changhwa; Choi, Seung-Sik
In case of link failures, many ad hoc routing protocols recover a route by employing source-initiated route re-discovery, but this approach can degrade system performance. Some use localized route recovery, which may yield non-optimal paths. Our proposal provides a mechanism that can enhance the overall routing performance by initiating route recovery at the destination node. We elucidate the effects through simulations including comparisons with AODV and AODV with local repair.
CHEN Ai-bin; CAI Zi-xing; HU De-wen
An on-demand distributed clustering algorithm based on neural network was proposed. The system parameters and the combined weight for each node were computed, and cluster-heads were chosen using the weighted clustering algorithm, then a training set was created and a neural network was trained. In this algorithm, several system parameters were taken into account, such as the ideal node-degree, the transmission power, the mobility and the battery power of the nodes. The algorithm can be used directly to test whether a node is a cluster-head or not. Moreover, the clusters recreation can be speeded up.
Full Text Available The provision of efficient broadcast containment schemes that can dynamically cope with frequent topology changes and limited shared channel bandwidth, is one of the most challenging research topics in MANETs, and is crucial to the basic operations of networks serving fully mobile devices within areas having no fixed communication infrastructure. This problem particularly impacts the design of dynamic routing protocol that can efficiently establish routes to deliver data packets among mobile nodes with minimum communication overhead, and at the same time, ensure high throughput and low end-to-end delay. Accordingly, this work exploits and analyzes an adaptive probabilistic broadcast containment technique based on a particular condensation phenomenon borrowed from Quantum Mechanics and transposed in self-organizing random networks, that has the potential to effectively drive the on-demand route discovery process. Simulation-based performance analysis has shown that the proposed technique can introduce significant benefits on the general performance of broadcast-based reactive routing protocols in MANETs.
Basagni, Stefano; Giordano, Silvia; Stojmenovic, Ivan
""An excellent book for those who are interested in learning the current status of research and development . . . [and] who want to get a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art.""-E-Streams This book provides up-to-date information on research and development in the rapidly growing area of networks based on the multihop ad hoc networking paradigm. It reviews all classes of networks that have successfully adopted this paradigm, pointing out how they penetrated the mass market and sparked breakthrough research. Covering both physical issues and applica
Rosendahl, Andreas; Hampe, Felix J.; Botterweck, Goetz
non-peer-reviewed In this paper we study mobile home automation, a field that emerges from an integration of mobile application platforms and home automation technologies. In a conceptual introduction we first illustrate the need for such applications by introducing a two-dimensional conceptual model of mobility. Subsequently we suggest an architecture and discuss different options of how a user might access a mobile home automation service and the controlled devices. As another contrib...
Vasileios Karyotis; Anastasios Kakalis; Symeon Papavassiliou
In this paper, the spreading of malicious software over ad hoe networks, where legitimate nodes are prone to propagate the infections they receive from either an attacker or their already infected neighbors, is analyzed. Considering the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) node infection paradigm we propose a probabilistic model, on the basis of the theory of closed queuing networks, that aims at describing the aggregated behavior of the system when attacked by malicious nodes. Because of its nature, the model is also able to deal more effectively with the stochastic behavior of attackers and the inherent probabilistic nature of the wireless environment. The proposed model is able to describe accurately the asymptotic behavior of malware-propagative large scale ad hoc networking environments. Using the Norton equivalent of the closed queuing network, we obtain analytical results for its steady state behavior, which in turn is used for identifying the critical parameters affecting the operation of the network. Finally, through modeling and simulation, some additional numerical results are obtained with respect to the behavior of the system when multiple attackers are present, and regarding the time-dependent evolution and impact of an attack.
Full Text Available A mobile ad-hoc network is a mobile, multi-hop wireless network which is capable of autonomous operation whose primary role is to provide a reliable end to end communication between nodes in the network.However achieving reliable transmission in mobile wireless network is crucial due to change in the network topology caused by node mobility. Modern communication network is becoming increasing & diverse. This is the consequence of an increasing array of devices & services both wired & wireless. There are various protocols to facilitate communication in ad hoc network like DSR and TORA. However these approaches end up in the inefficient utilization of resources after link failure and congestion. This paper proposes an approach to get over this problem .We have added some static nodes which only keeps information related to the current working path and also helps in quick recovery in case of link failure .
QUO Jianli; LIU Hongwei; DONG Jian; YANG Xiaozong
Mobile ad hoc networks rely on the cooperation of nodes for routing and forwarding. However, it may not be advantageous for individual nodes to cooperate. In order to make the mobile ad hoc network more robust, we propose a scheme called HEAD (a hybrid mechanism to enforce node cooperation in mobile ad hoc networks) to make the misbehavior unattractive. HEAD is an improvement to OCEAN (observation-based cooperation enforcement in ad hoc networks). It employs only first hand information and works on the top of DSR (dynamic source routing) protocol. By interacting with the DSR, HEAD can detect the misbehavior nodes in the packet forwarding process and isolate them in the route discovery process. In order to detect the misbehavior nodes quickly, HEAD introduces the warning message. In this paper, we also classify the misbehavior nodes into three types: malicious nodes, misleading nodes, and selfish nodes. They all can be detected by HEAD, and isolated from the network.
Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network is a collection of nodes in mobility that communicate to one another forming a network through wireless links, in which each node acts a router and forward packets to destinations. The dynamic topology and self-organizing of the nodes make them more vulnerable to the network. In MANET, the major challenging task is to provide security during the routing of data packets. Various kinds of attacks have been studied in ad hoc networks, but no proper solution found for these attacks. So, preventing the malicious nodes from destroying the network plays vital role in ad hoc networks. In this paper, a novel technique has been proposed to provide node authentication while a new node joining into the network and before initiating route discovery process in mobile ad hoc networks. Also shown how the proposed technique mitigates the impact of attacks on nodes.
Mehta, Neil; Wang, Wenye
Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are self-configuring wireless networks that lack permanent infrastructure and are formed among mobile nodes on demand. Rapid node mobility results in dramatic channel variation, or fading, that degrades MANET performance. Employing channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter can improve the throughput of routing and medium access control (MAC) protocols for mobile ad hoc networks. Several routing algorithms in the literature explicitly incorporate the fading signal strength into the routing metric, thus selecting the routes with strong channel conditions. While these studies show that adaptation to the time-variant channel gain is beneficial in MANETs, they do not address the effect of the outdated fading CSI at the transmitter. For realistic mobile node speeds, the channel gain is rapidly varying, and becomes quickly outdated due the feedback delay. We analyze the link throughput of joint rate adaptation and adaptive relay selection in the presence of imperfect CSI. Mor...
Full Text Available Abstract With the growth up of internet in mobile commerce, researchers have reproduced various mobile applications that vary from entertainment and commercial services to diagnostic and safety tools. Mobility management has widely been recognized as one of the most challenging problems for seamless access to wireless networks. In this paper, a novel link enhancement mechanism is proposed to deal with mobility management problem in vehicular ad hoc networks. Two machine learning techniques, namely, particle swarm optimization and fuzzy logic systems, are incorporated into the proposed schemes to enhance the accuracy of prediction of link break and congestion occurrence. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed schemes.
Full Text Available With the growth up of internet in mobile commerce, researchers have reproduced various mobile applications that vary from entertainment and commercial services to diagnostic and safety tools. Mobility management has widely been recognized as one of the most challenging problems for seamless access to wireless networks. In this paper, a novel link enhancement mechanism is proposed to deal with mobility management problem in vehicular ad hoc networks. Two machine learning techniques, namely, particle swarm optimization and fuzzy logic systems, are incorporated into the proposed schemes to enhance the accuracy of prediction of link break and congestion occurrence. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed schemes.
Byoungjip Kim; Seungwoo Kang; Jin-Young Ha; Junehwa Song
In this paper, we introduce a novel smartphone framework called VisitSense that automatically detects and predicts a smartphone user’s place visits from ambient radio to enable behavioral targeting for mobile ads in large shopping malls. VisitSense enables mobile app developers to adopt visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising for shopping mall visitors in their apps. It also benefits mobile users by allowing them to receive highly relevant mobile ads that are aware of their place visit pattern...
Full Text Available The desire to be connected anytime and anywhere has led to the development of wireless networks, opening new vista of research in pervasive and ubiquitous computing. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs use portable devices such as mobile phones, laptops or personal digital assistants (PDAs for spontaneous establishment of communication. Most existing research in the area of mobile Ad Hoc Networks is limited to stand-alone isolated networks. But connectivity of a mobile Ad Hoc network to the Internet is also desirable as more and more applications and services in our society now depend on fixed infrastructure networks. It is therefore important that dynamically deployed wireless Ad Hoc networks should also gain access to these fixed networks and their services. The integration of MANETs into Internet increases the networking flexibility and coverage of existing infrastructure networks. Although researchers have proposed many solutions, but it is still unclear which one offer the best performance compared to the others. When an Ad Hoc network is connected to Internet, it is important for the mobile nodes to detect efficiently available Internet gateways providing access to the Internet. Internet gateway discovery time and handover delay have strong influence on packet delay and throughput. The key challenge in providing connectivity is to minimize the overhead of mobile IP and Ad Hoc routing protocol between Internet and Ad Hoc networks. There, this paper focuses on proposed technical solutions on Internet gateway discovery and also we briefly describe different ways to provide global Internet access for MANETs. Finally, some challenges are also mentioned which need in depth investigation.
Full Text Available in this paper, a quality of service (QoS multicast routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs by using directional antennas has been presented. Many important applications, such as audio/video conferencing, require the quality of service guarantee. Directional antenna technology provides the capability for considerable increase in spatial reuse, which increases the efficiency of communication. This paper studies TDMA-based timeslot allocation and directional antennas, and presents an effective algorithm for calculating bandwidth of a multicast tree. We also propose a novel on-demand QoS multicasting routing algorithm in TDMA-based mobile ad hoc networks using directional antennas. The simulation result shows the performance of this QoS multicast routing algorithm in TDMA-based mobile ad hoc networks using directional antennas.
Full Text Available MANET is an autonomous system of mobile nodes attached by wireless links. It represents a complex and dynamic distributed systems that consist of mobile wireless nodes that can freely self organize into an ad-hoc network topology. The devices in the network may have limited transmission range therefore multiple hops may be needed by one node to transfer data to another node in network. This leads to the need for an effective routing protocol. In this paper we study various classifications of routing protocols and their types for wireless mobile ad-hoc networks like DSDV, GSR, AODV, DSR, ZRP, FSR, CGSR, LAR, and Geocast Protocols. In this paper we also compare different routing protocols on based on a given set of parameters Scalability, Latency, Bandwidth, Control-overhead, Mobility impact.
Guo, Shanzeng; Tang, Helen
Future military wireless communication in a battlefield will be mobile ad hoc in nature. The ability to geolocate and track both friendly forces and enemies is very important in military command and control operations. However, current mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) have no capabilities to geolocate radio emitters that belong to enemy mobile ad hoc networks. This paper presents a distributed geolocation algorithm using received signal strength differences to geolocate enemy radio emitters by leveraging friendly force MANET infrastructure, and proposes a communication protocol for radio emitter geolocation applications. An enemy's radio emitter signal is detected, and its signal strength is measured by the nodes in a friendly mobile ad hoc network. The identity of the enemy radio emitter is extracted from the decoded message header of the medium access control layer. By correlating and associating the enemy's radio emitter identity with its received signal strength, the enemy radio emitter is identified. The enemy's radio emitter identity and its received signal strength are distributed and shared among friendly mobile ad hoc nodes. Using received signal strength differences, a master friendly node can calculate the enemy's radio emitter geolocation, and build a recognized MANET picture (RMP). This MANET picture is then distributed to all friendly nodes for effective command and control operations. An advantage of this method is that mobile ad hoc nodes do not need special RF antennas to geolocate the enemy radio emitter as conventional electronic warfare techniques do. MATLAB-based simulations are presented to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the proposed distributed geolocation algorithm under different MANET placements.
Kristensen, Lars Michael; Jensen, Kurt
We present an industrial project at Ericsson Telebit A/S where Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPNs) have been used for the design and specification of an edge router discovery protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. The Edge Router Discovery Protocol (ERDP) supports an edge router in a stationary...... core network in assigning network address prefixes to gateways in mobile ad-hoc networks. This paper focuses on how CP-nets and the CPN computer tools have been applied in the development of ERDP. A CPN model has been constructed that constitutes a formal executable specification of ERDP. Simulation...
S. R. Biradar
Full Text Available We describe a variant of TCP (Tahoe, Vegas, TCP is most widely used transport protocol in both wired and wireless networks. In mobile ad hoc networks, the topology changes frequently due to mobile nodes, this leads to significant packet losses and network throughput degradation. This is due to the fact that TCP fails to distinguish the path failure and network congestion. In this paper, the performances of TCP over different routing (DSR, AODV and DSDV protocols in ad hoc networks wasstudied by simulation experiments and results are reported.
Full Text Available We present a generic mobility and traffic generation framework that can be incorporated into a tool for modeling and simulating large scale ad~hoc networks. Three components of this framework, namely a mobility data generator (MDG, a graph structure generator (GSG and an occlusion modification tool (OMT allow a variety of mobility models to be incorporated into the tool. The MDG module generates positions of transceivers at specified time instants. The GSG module constructs the graph corresponding to the ad hoc network from the mobility data provided by MDG. The OMT module modifies the connectivity of the graph produced by GSG to allow for occlusion effects. With two other modules, namely an activity data generator (ADG which generates packet transmission activities for transceivers and a packet activity simulator (PAS which simulates the movement and interaction of packets among the transceivers, the framework allows the modeling and simulation of ad hoc communication networks. The design of the framework allows a user to incorporate various realistic parameters crucial in the simulation. We illustrate the utility of our framework through a comparative study of three mobility models. Two of these are synthetic models (random waypoint and exponentially correlated mobility proposed in the literature. The third model is based on an urban population mobility modeling tool (TRANSIMS developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This tool is capable of providing comprehensive information about the demographics, mobility and interactions of members of a large urban population. A comparison of these models is carried out by computing a variety of parameters associated with the graph structures generated by the models. There has recently been interest in the structural properties of graphs that arise in real world systems. We examine two aspects of this for the graphs created by the mobility models: change associated with power control (range of
Kashkouli Nejad, Keyvan; Shawish, Ahmed; Jiang, Xiaohong; Horiguchi, Susumu
Ad-Hoc networks are collections of mobile nodes communicating using wireless media without any fixed infrastructure. Minimal configuration and quick deployment make Ad-Hoc networks suitable for emergency situations like natural disasters or military conflicts. The current Ad-Hoc networks can only support either high mobility or high transmission rate at a time because they employ static approaches in their routing schemes. However, due to the continuous expansion of the Ad-Hoc network size, node-mobility and transmission rate, the development of new adaptive and dynamic routing schemes has become crucial. In this paper we propose a new routing scheme to support high transmission rates and high node-mobility simultaneously in a big Ad-Hoc network, by combining a new proposed packet-pheromone-based approach with the Hint Based Probabilistic Protocol (HBPP) for congestion avoidance with dynamic path selection in packet forwarding process. Because of using the available feedback information, the proposed algorithm does not introduce any additional overhead. The extensive simulation-based analysis conducted in this paper indicates that the proposed algorithm offers small packet-latency and achieves a significantly higher delivery probability in comparison with the available Hint-Based Probabilistic Protocol (HBPP).
The neighbor knowledge in mobile ad hoc networks is important information. However, the accuracy of neighbor knowledge is paid in terms of energy consumption. In traditional schemes for neighbor discovery, a mobile node uses fixed period to send HELLO messages to notify its existence. An adaptive scheme was proposed.The objective is that when mobile nodes are distributed sparsely or move slowly, fewer HELLO messages are needed to achieve reasonable accuracy, while in a mutable network where nodes are dense or move quickly, they can adaptively send more HELLO messages to ensure the accuracy. Simulation results show that the adaptive scheme achieves the objective and performs effectively.
Networks with Beamforming Antennas.” Proceedings of the 2nd ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking & Computing (pp. 95–105). October...4–5, Long Beach, CA. ACM . 19. Choudhury, R. R., X. Yang, R. Ramanathan, and N. H. Vaidya. 2002. “Using Directional Antennas for Medium Access...Atlanta, GA. ACM . 20. Ramanathan, R., J. Redi, J., C. Santivanez, D. Wiggins, and S. Polit. 2005. “Ad Hoc Networking with Directional Antennas: A
Full Text Available Key management and authentication is important to security of Mobile Ad Hoc network (MANET. Based on the (t, n threshold cryptography, this paper introduced mobile agents to exchange private key and network topological information with nodes in the network. This method avoids a centralized certification authority to distribute the public keys and the certificates, thus enhances security. Carrying private key and some state variables, mobile agents navigate in the network according to visitsbalance policy, namely, node with the least visits would be first visited by mobile agent. Any t nodes in the network can cooperate to perform an authentication upon a new node wanting to join the network. Experimental results show that the mobile agent performs very well for improving the success ratio of authentication and enhance security while reducing the communication overhead and resource consumption.
Full Text Available The mobile nodes reputation in the Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET identifies its trust worthiness for secured multiple data communication. Unknown nature of the nodes communication status for initial period has great impact in the effective data transfer as MANET is self-organized and distributed. Problem statement: The functional operation of the mobile network relies on the trusty cooperation between the nodes. The major factor in securing the MANET is based on the quantification of nodes reputation and trustworthiness. The previous literatures provided uncertainty model to reflect a nodes confidence in sufficiency of its past experience and effect of collecting trust information from the unknown node status. With node mobility characteristic, it reduces unknown nature and speed up trust convergence. Approach: Mobility-assisted uncertainty reduction schemes comprised of, proactive schemes, that achieve trust convergence and reactive schemes provide node authentication and their reputation. They provide an acceptable trade-off between delay and uncertainty. The mobility based node reputation scheme presented in this study, identifies and monitor the nodes trustworthiness in sharing the information within the ad hoc network. Mobile nodes information uncertainty is handled with the mobility characteristics and its reputation is evaluated to trust or discard the nodes communication. Results: Simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of mobility based node reputation scheme by measuring the nodes consistency behavior, neighboring communication rate and path diversity. Conclusion: The average nodes neighboring communication rate is high for the proposed mobility based reputation scheme compared to the reactive routing protocols.
K. Venkata Subbaiah
Full Text Available The nodes in the mobile ad hoc networks act as router and host, the routing protocol is the primary issue and has to be supported before any applications can be deployed for mobile ad hoc networks. In recent many research protocols are proposed for finding an efficient route between the nodes. But most of the protocol’s that uses conventional techniques in routing; CBRP is a routing protocol that has a hierarchical-based design. This protocol divides the network area into several smaller areas called cluster. We propose a fuzzy logic based cluster head election using energy concept forcluster head routing protocol in MANET’S. Selecting an appropriate cluster head can save power for the whole mobile ad hoc network. Generally, Cluster Head election for mobile ad hoc network is based on the distance to the centroid of a cluster, and the closest one is elected as the cluster head'; or pick a node with the maximum battery capacity as the cluster head. In this paper, we present a cluster head election scheme using fuzzy logic system (FLS for mobile ad hoc networks. Three descriptors are used: distance of a node to the cluster centroid, its remaining battery capacity, and its degree of mobility. The linguistic knowledge of cluster head election based on these three descriptors is obtained from a group of network experts. 27 FLS rules are set up based on the linguistic knowledge. The output of the FLS provides a cluster head possibility, and node with the highest possibility is elected as the cluster head. The performance of fuzzy cluster head selection is evaluated using simulation, and is compared to LEACH protocol with out fuzzy cluster head election procedures and showed the proposed work is efficient than the previous one.
Technical Document 3276 September 2013 A Prototype System for using Multiple Radios in Directional MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Network) A...point, it is difficult to employ directional antennas in a mobile ad hoc network ( MANET ) as most current radio and wireless networking protocols were...September 2013 Final A Prototype System for Using Multiple Radios in Directional MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Network) A NISE funded Applied Research
Varun G Menon
Full Text Available Recent advances in wireless networks have enabled us to deploy and use mobile ad hoc networks for communication between the rescue officers in disaster recovery and reconstruction operations. This highly dynamic network does not require any infrastructure or centralized control. As the topology of the network remain dynamic, severe performance limitations incur with traditional routing strategies. Recently a new routing paradigm known as opportunistic routing protocols have been proposed to overcome these limitations and to provide efficient delivery of data in these highly dynamic ad hoc networks. Using the broadcasting nature of the wireless medium, this latest routing technique tries to address two major issues of varying link quality and unpredictable node mobility in ad hoc networks. Unlike conventional IP forwarding, where an intermediate node looks up a forwarding table for a suitable next hop, opportunistic routing brings in opportunistic data forwarding that allows multiple candidate nodes in the forwarding area to act on the broadcasted data packet. This increases the reliability of data delivery in the network with reduced delay. One of the most important issues that have not been studied so far is the varying performance of opportunistic routing protocols in wireless networks with highly mobile nodes. This research paper analyses and compares the various advantages, disadvantages and the performance of the latest opportunistic routing protocols in wireless ad hoc networks with highly mobile nodes.
Pawar, Pravin; Boros, Hanga; Liu, Fei; Heijenk, Geert; Beijnum, van Bert-Jan
The pervasive computing world in which the context-aware applications are aimed at is constituted of multiple network environments, e.g. ad hoc, mobile and fixed. There exist specialized Context Management Systems (CMSs) addressing context management needs of every network environment and the existe
Reliability and Maintainability Symposium, Anaheim, California , USA, 1994, pp. 442–448.  I.R. Chen, F.B. Bastani, T.W. Tsao, On the reliability of AI...Cunha, O.C. Duarte , G. Pujolle, Trust management in mobile ad hoc networks using a scalable maturity- based model, IEEE Trans. Netw. Serv. Manage. 7
Askoxylakis, Ioannis G.; Markantonakis, Konstantinos; Tryfonas, Theo; May, John; Traganitis, Apostolos
Mobile ad hoc networking is an operating mode for rapid mobile node networking. Each node relies on adjacent nodes in order to achieve and maintain connectivity and functionality. Security is considered among the main issues for the successful deployment of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). In this paper we introduce a weak to strong authentication mechanism associated with a multiparty contributory key establishment method. The latter is designed for MANETs with dynamic changing topologies, due to continuous flow of incoming and departing nodes. We introduce a new cube algorithm based on the face-centered cubic (FCC) structure. The proposed architecture employs elliptic curve cryptography, which is considered more efficient for thin clients where processing power and energy consumption are significant constraints.
S. K. Srivatsa
Full Text Available Problem statement: In mobile ad hoc networks, frequent mobility during the transmission of data causes route failure which results in route rediscovery. In this, we propose multipath routing protocol for effective local route recovery in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET. In this protocol, each source and destination pair establishes multiple paths in the single route discovery and they are cached in their route caches. Approach: The cached routes are sorted on the basis of their bandwidth availability. In case of route failure in the primary route, a recovery node which is an overhearing neighbor, detects it and establishes a local recovery path with maximum bandwidth from its route cache. Results: By simulation results, we show that the proposed approach improves network performance. Conclusion: The proposed route recovery management technique prevents the frequent collision and degradation in the network performance.
JIANGHai; CHENGShixin; HEYongming
In consideration that current mesh-based multicast routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks don't tend to form energy-efficient multicast infrastruc-ture, we propose a new Energy-efficient multicast rout-ing protocol (E2MRP) for mobile ad hoc networks. The two main characteristics of E2MRP are: (1) using in turn the criteria for minimum energy consumed per packet and minimum maximum node cost during the course of relaying group (RG) creation and maintenance; (2)forming a graph-based multicast infrastructure instead of a tree-based one. Compared to multicast incremen-tal power (MIP) and on-demand multicast routing pro-tocol (ODMRP), as the simulation results show, E2MRP tremendously reduces the energy consumption rate of nodes and hence prolongs the lifetime of nodes and net-works, especially when the size of multicast group is small and node mobility is low.
A mobile ad hoc network (MANETs) is a self-organizing system of mobile nodes that communicate with each other via wireless links with no fixed infrastructure or centralized administration such as base station or access points. Nodes in a MANETs operate both as host as well as routers to forward packets for each other in a multihop fashion. For many applications in wireless networks, multicasting is an important and frequent communication service. By multicasting, since a single message can be delivered to multiple receivers simultaneously. It greatly reduces the transmission cost when sending the same packet to multiple recipients. The security issue of MANETs in group communications is even more challenging because of involvement of multiple senders and multiple receivers. At that time of multicasting, mobile ad hoc network are unprotected by the attacks of malicious nodes because of vulnerabilities of routing protocols. Some of the attacks are Rushing attack, Blackhole attack, Sybil attack, Neighbor attack ...
Martinez, L.; Sholander, P.; Tolendino, L.
This contribution extends the Outside Nodal Hierarchy List (ONHL) procedures described in ATM Form Contribution 97-0766. These extensions allow multiple mobile networks to form either an ad hoc network or an extension of a fixed PNNI infrastructure. This contribution covers the simplest case where the top-most Logical Group Nodes (LGNs), in those mobile networks, all reside at the same level in a PNNI hierarchy. Future contributions will cover the general case where those top-most LGNs reside at different hierarchy levels. This contribution considers a flat ad hoc network architecture--in the sense that each mobile network always participates in the PNNI hierarchy at the preconfigured level of its top-most LGN.
Martinez, L.; Sholander, P.; Tolendino, L.
This contribution extends the Outside Nodal Hierarchy List (ONHL) procedures described in ATM Forum Contributions 97-0766 and 97-0933. These extensions allow multiple mobile networks to form either an ad hoc network or an extension of a fixed PNNI infrastructure. A previous contribution (97-1073) covered the simplest case where the top-most Logical Group Nodes (LGNs), in those mobile networks, all resided at the same level in a PNNI hierarchy. This contribution covers the more general case wherein those top-most LGNs may reside at different PNNI hierarchy levels. Both of the SNL contributions consider flat ad hoc network architectures in the sense that each mobile network always participates in the PNNI hierarchy at the pre-configured level of its top-most LGN.
Tapan Kumar Godder
Full Text Available Ad-hoc network is set up with multiple wireless devices without any infrastructure. Its employment is favored in many environments. Quality of Service (QoS is one of the main issues for any network and due to bandwidth constraint and dynamic topology of mobile ad hoc networks, supporting Quality of Service (QoS is extremely a challenging task. It is modeled as a multi-layer problem and is considered in both Medium Access Control (MAC and routing layers for ad hoc networks. Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV routing protocol is one of the most used and popular reactive routing protocols in ad-hoc networks. This paper proposed a new protocol QoS based AODV (QAODV which is a modified version of AODV.
Full Text Available In MANET multicasting, forward and backward secrecy result in increased packet drop rate owing to mobility. Frequent rekeying causes large message overhead which increases energy consumption and end-to-end delay. Particularly, the prevailing group key management techniques cause frequent mobility and disconnections. So there is a need to design a multicast key management technique to overcome these problems. In this paper, we propose the mobility based key management technique for multicast security in MANET. Initially, the nodes are categorized according to their stability index which is estimated based on the link availability and mobility. A multicast tree is constructed such that for every weak node, there is a strong parent node. A session key-based encryption technique is utilized to transmit a multicast data. The rekeying process is performed periodically by the initiator node. The rekeying interval is fixed depending on the node category so that this technique greatly minimizes the rekeying overhead. By simulation results, we show that our proposed approach reduces the packet drop rate and improves the data confidentiality.
Madhusudhanan, B; Chitra, S; Rajan, C
In MANET multicasting, forward and backward secrecy result in increased packet drop rate owing to mobility. Frequent rekeying causes large message overhead which increases energy consumption and end-to-end delay. Particularly, the prevailing group key management techniques cause frequent mobility and disconnections. So there is a need to design a multicast key management technique to overcome these problems. In this paper, we propose the mobility based key management technique for multicast security in MANET. Initially, the nodes are categorized according to their stability index which is estimated based on the link availability and mobility. A multicast tree is constructed such that for every weak node, there is a strong parent node. A session key-based encryption technique is utilized to transmit a multicast data. The rekeying process is performed periodically by the initiator node. The rekeying interval is fixed depending on the node category so that this technique greatly minimizes the rekeying overhead. By simulation results, we show that our proposed approach reduces the packet drop rate and improves the data confidentiality.
Bhagyashree S kayarkar
Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks (MANET congestion can take place between the two intermediate nodes, when the packet is transferred from the source to the destination. The congestion in MANET is mainly due to frequent change to topology and high mobility of nodes, which lead to high loss of packet. In ad hoc network the congestion control techniques with TCP becomes difficult to handle since in ad hoc network there is high density of nodes in the network and there is frequent change to topology in the network. In this paper to control the congestion in proactive source routing protocol an error message is generated by the receiver to reduce the packet sending rate. We are using a new control message i.e., Packet Error Announcing Message called (PEAM messages.
Full Text Available Today, many people carry numerous portable devices, such as laptops, mobile phones, PDAs and mp3 players, for use in their professional and private lives. For the most part, these devices are used separately-that is, their applications do not interact. Imagine, however, if they could interact directly: participants at a meeting could share documents or presentations; all communication could automatically be routed through the wireless corporate campus network. These examples of spontaneous, ad hoc wireless communication between devices might be loosely defined as a scheme, often referred to as ad hoc networking, which allows devices to establish communication, anytime and anywhere without the aid of a central infrastructure. This paper describes the concept of mobile ad hoc networking (MANET and points out some of its applications that can be envisioned for future. Also, the paper presents two of the technical challenges MANET poses, which include Geocasting and QoS.
Bhagyashree S kayarkar
Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks (MANET congestion can take place between the two intermediate nodes, when the packet is transferred from the source to the destination. The congestion in MANET is mainly due to frequent change to topology and high mobility of nodes, which lead to high loss of packet. In ad hoc network the congestion control techniques with TCP becomes difficult to handle since in ad hoc network there is high density of nodes in the network and there is frequent change to topology in the network. In this paper to control the congestion in proactive source routing protocol an error message is generated by the receiver to reduce the packet sending rate. We are using a new control message i.e., Packet Error Announcing Message called (PEAM messages.
HU Zhi-gang; MA Hao; WANG Guo-jun; LIAO Lin
A novel reliable routing algorithm in mobile ad hoc networks using fuzzy Petri net with its reasoning mechanism was proposed to increase the reliability during the routing selection. The algorithm allows the structured representation of network topology, which has a fuzzy reasoning mechanism for finding the routing sprouting tree from the source node to the destination node in the mobile ad hoc environment. Finally, by comparing the degree of reliability in the routing sprouting tree, the most reliable route can be computed. The algorithm not only offers the local reliability between each neighboring node, but also provides global reliability for the whole selected route. The algorithm can be applied to most existing on-demand routing protocols, and the simulation results show that the routing reliability is increased by more than 80% when applying the proposed algorithm to the ad hoc on demand distance vector routing protocol.
YAO Jun; ZENG Gui-hua
Identity authentication plays an important role in ad hoc networks as a part of the secure mechanism. On the basis of GQ signature scheme, a new GQ threshold group signature scheme was presented, by which a novel distributed algorithm was proposed to achieve the multi-hop authentication for mobile ad hoc networks. In addition, a protocol verifying the identity with zero knowledge proofs was designed so that the reuse of certificates comes into truth. Moreover, the security of this algorithm was proved through the random oracle model. With the lower cost of computation and communication, this algorithm is efficient, secure and especially suitable for mobile ad hoc networks characterized by distributed computing, dynamic topology and multi-hop communications.
An ad hoc network is a group of wireless mobile computers (or nodes), in which individual nodes cooperate by forwarding packets for each other to allow nodes to communicate beyond direct wireless transmission range. Because of node mobility and power limitations, the network topology changes frequently. Routing protocol plays an important role in the ad hoc network. A recent trend in ad hoc network routing is the reactive on-demand philosophy where routes are established only when required. As an optimization for the current Dynamic Source Routing Protocol, a secure and pragmatic routes selection scheme based on Reputation Systems was proposed. We design the Secure and Pragmatic Routing protocol and implement simulation models using GloMoSim. Simulation results show that the Secure and Pragmatic Routing protocol provides better experimental results on packet delivery ratio, power consumption and system throughput than Dynamic Source Routing Protocol.
Full Text Available A MANET is an autonomous collection of mobile users that communicate over relatively bandwidth constrained wireless links. When designing mobile ad hoc networks, several interesting and difficult problems arise because of the shared nature of the wireless medium, limited transmission power (range of wireless devices, node mobility, and battery limitations. This paper aims at providing a new schema to improve Dynamic Source Routing (DSR Protocol. The aim behind the proposed enhancement is to find the best route in acceptable time limit without having broadcast storm. Moreover, O-DSR enables network not only to overcome congestion but also maximize the lifetime of mobile nodes. Some simulations results show that the Route Request (RREQ and the Control Packet Overhead decrease by 15% when O-DSR is used, consequently. Also the global energy consumption in O-DSR is lower until to 60 % , which leads to a long lifetime of the network.
In a cognitive radio (CR) network, CR users intend to operate over the same spectrum band licensed to legacy networks. A tradeoff exists between protecting the communications in legacy networks and maximizing the throughput of CR transmissions, especially when CR links are unstable due to the mobility of CR users. Because of the non-zero probability of false detection and implementation complexity of spectrum sensing, in this paper, we investigate a sensing-free spectrum sharing scenario for mobile CR ad hoc networks to improve the frequency reuse by incorporating the location awareness capability in CR networks. We propose an optimal power control algorithm for the CR transmitter to maximize the concurrent transmission region of CR users especially in mobile scenarios. Under the proposed power control algorithm, the mobile CR network achieves maximized throughput without causing harmful interference to primary users in the legacy network. Simulation results show that the proposed optimal power control algori...
Amnai, Mohamed; Abouchabaka, Jaafar
Mobile Ad-Hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes in communication without using infrastructure. As the real-time applications used in today's wireless network grow, we need some schemes to provide more suitable service for them. We know that most of actual schemes do not perform well on traffic which is not strictly CBR. Therefore, in this paper we have studied the impact, respectively, of mobility models and the density of nodes on the performances (End-to-End Delay, Throughput and Packet Delivery ratio) of routing protocol (Optimized Link State Routing) OLSR by using in the first a real-time VBR (MPEG-4) and secondly the Constant Bit Rate (CBR) traffic. Finally we compare the performance on both cases. Experimentally, we considered the three mobility models as follows Random Waypoint, Random Direction and Mobgen Steady State. The experimental results illustrate that the behavior of OLSR change according to the model and the used traffics.
Senthil Murugan Tamilarasan
Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Network is one of the wireless network in which mobile nodes are communicate with each other and have no infrastructure because no access point. The MANET protocols can be classified as proactive and reactive routing protocol. The proactive routing protocols, all nodes which participated in network have routing table. This table updated periodically and is used to find the path between source and destination. The reactive routing protocol, nodes are initiate route discovery procedure when on-demand routes. In order to find the better route in MANET, many routing protocols are designed in the recent years. But those protocols are not concentrating about communication links and battery energy. Communication links between nodes and energy of nodes are very important factor for improving quality of routing protocols. This study presents innovative Link Stability with Energy Aware (LSEA multipath routing protocol. The key idea of the protocol is find the link quality, maximum remaining energy and lower delay. Reflections of these factors are increasing the qualities like packet delivery ratio, throughputs and reduce end-to-end delay. The LSEAMRP was simulated on NS-2 and evaluation results also shown.
Harsh Pratap Singh
Full Text Available A mobile ad-hoc network is an autonomous network that consists of nodes which communicate with each other with wireless channel. Due to its dynamic nature and mobility of nodes, mobile ad hoc networks are more vulnerable to security attack than conventional wired and wireless networks. One of the principal routing protocols AODV used in MANETs. The security of AODV protocol is influence by the particular type of attack called Black Hole attack. In a black hole attack, a malicious node injects a faked route reply claiming to havethe shortest and freshest route to the destination. However, when the data packets arrive, the malicious node discards them. To preventing black hole attack, this paper presents RBS (Reference Broadcast Synchronization & Relative velocity distance method for clock synchronization process in Mobile ad-hoc Network for removal of cooperative black hole node. This paper evaluates the performance in NS2 network simulator and our analysis indicates that this method is very suitable to remove black hole attack.
Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is now days become very famous due to their fixed infrastructure-less quality and dynamic nature. They contain a large number of nodes which are connected and communicated to each other in wireless nature. Mobile ad hoc network is a wireless technology that contains high mobility of nodes and does not depend on the background administrator for central authority, because they do not contain any infrastructure. Nodes of the MANET use radio wave for communication and having limited resources and limited computational power. The Topology of this network is changing very frequently because they are distributed in nature and self-configurable. Due to its wireless nature and lack of any central authority in the background, Mobile ad hoc networks are always vulnerable to some security issues and performance issues. The security imposes a huge impact on the performance of any network. Some of the security issues are black hole attack, flooding, wormhole attack etc. In this paper, we will discuss issues regarding low performance of Watchdog protocol used in the MANET and proposed an improved Watchdog mechanism, which is called by I-Watchdog protocol that overcomes the limitations of Watchdog protocol and gives high performance in terms of throughput, delay.
Zahra Zandieh Shirazi
Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic K-means algorithm to improve the routing process in Mobile Ad-Hoc networks (MANETs is presented. Mobile ad-hoc networks are a collocation of mobile wireless nodes that can operate without using focal access points, pre-existing infrastructures, or a centralized management point. In MANETs, the quick motion of nodes modifies the topology of network. This feature of MANETS is lead to various problems in the routing process such as increase of the overhead massages and inefficient routing between nodes of network. A large variety of clustering methods have been developed for establishing an efficient routing process in MANETs. Routing is one of the crucial topics which are having significant impact on MANETs performance. The K-means algorithm is one of the effective clustering methods aimed to reduce routing difficulties related to bandwidth, throughput and power consumption. This paper proposed a new K-means clustering algorithm to find out optimal path from source node to destinations node in MANETs. The main goal of proposed approach which is called the dynamic K-means clustering methods is to solve the limitation of basic K-means method like permanent cluster head and fixed cluster members. The experimental results demonstrate that using dynamic K-means scheme enhance the performance of routing process in Mobile ad-hoc networks.
B. M. Reshmi
Full Text Available Intrusion detection has over the last few years, assumed paramount importance within the broad realm of network security, more so in case of wireless mobile ad hoc networks. The inherently vulnerable characteristics of wireless mobile ad hoc networks make them susceptible to attacks in-spite of some security measures, and it may be too late before any counter action can take effect. As such, there is a need to complement traditional security mechanisms with efficient intrusion detection and response systems. This paper proposes an agent-based model to address the aspect of intrusion detection in cluster based mobile wireless ad hoc network environment. The model comprises of a set of static and mobile agents, which are used to detect intrusions, respond to intrusions, and distribute selected and aggregated intrusion information to all other nodes in the network in an intelligent manner. The model is simulated to test its operation effectiveness by considering the performance parameters such as, detection rate, false positives, agent overheads, and intrusion information distribution time. Agent based approach facilitates flexible and adaptable security services. Also, it supports component based software engineering components such as maintainability, reachability, reusability, adaptability, flexibility, and customization.
Khan, Jahangir; Hayder, Syed Irfan
Mobile ad hoc network is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. Each node operates not only as an end system, but also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves on a fly. In this paper we focus on the performance of the on-demand routing protocols such as DSR and AODV in ad-hoc networks. We have observed the performance change of each protocol through simulation with varying the data in intermediate nodes and to compare data throughput in each mobile modes of each protocol to analyze the packet fraction for application data. The objective of this work is to evaluate two routing protocols such as On-demand behavior, namely, Ad hoc Demand Distance vector (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), for wireless ad hoc networks based on performance of intermediate nodes for the delivery of data form source to destination and vice versa in order to compare the efficiency of throughput in the neighbors nodes. To overcome we have proposed OPNET simulator for performance comparison of hop to hop delivery of data packet in autonomous system.
Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network is infrastructure less type of network. In this paper we present the prevention mechanism for black hole in mobile ad hoc network. The routing algorithms are analyzed and discrete properties of routing protocols are defined. The discrete properties support in distributed routing efficiently. The protocol is distributed and not dependent upon the centralized controlling node. Important features of Ad hoc on demand vector routing (AODV are inherited and new mechanism is combined with it to get the multipath routing protocol for Mobile ad hoc network (MANET to prevent the black hole attack. When the routing path is discovered and entered into the routing table, the next step is taken by combined protocol to search the new path with certain time interval. The old entered path is refreshed into the routing table. The simulation is taken on 50 moving nodes in the area of 1000 x 1000 square meter and the maximum speed of nodes are 5m/sec. The result is calculated for throughput verses number of black hole nodes with pause time of 0 sec. to 40 sec., 120 sec. and 160 sec. when the threshold value is 1.0.
Full Text Available It is quite a challenging task to achieve security in a mobile ad hoc network because of its open nature,dynamically changing topology, lack of infrastructure and central management. A particular harmfulattack that takes the advantage of these characteristics is the Sybil attack, in which a malicious nodeillegitimately claims multiple identities. This attack can exceedingly disrupt various operations of themobile ad hoc networks such as data aggregation, voting, fair resource allocation scheme, misbehaviordetection and routing mechanisms etc. Two routing mechanisms known to be vulnerable to the Sybilattack in the mobile ad hoc networks are multi-path routing and geographic routing. In addition to theserouting protocols, we show in this paper that the Sybil attack can also disrupt the head selectionmechanism of the lowest ID cluster-based routing protocol. To the best of our knowledge, this is for thefirst time that a Sybil attack is shown to disrupt this cluster based routing protocol. To achieve this, weillustrate to have introduced a category of Sybil attack in which the malicious node varies itstransmission power to create a number of virtual illegitimate nodes called Sybil nodes, for the purpose ofcommunication with legitimate nodes of the Mobile Ad Hoc Network. The variation in the transmissionpower makes the Sybil attack more deadly and difficult to be detected.
Full Text Available Ambient Intelligence (AmI joins together the fields of ubiquitous computing and communications, context awareness, and intelligent user interfaces. Energy, fault-tolerance, and mobility are newly added dimensions of AmI. Within the context of AmI the concept of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs for “anytime and anywhere” is likely to play larger roles in the future in which people are surrounded and supported by small context-aware, cooperative, and nonobtrusive devices that will aid our everyday life. The connection between knowledge generation and communication ad hoc networking is symbiotic—knowledge generation utilizes ad hoc networking to perform their communication needs, and MANETs will utilize the knowledge generation to enhance their network services. The contribution of the present study is a distributed evolving fuzzy modeling framework (EFMF to observe and categorize relationships and activities in the user and application level and based on that social context to take intelligent decisions about MANETs service management. EFMF employs unsupervised online one-pass fuzzy clustering method to recognize nodes' mobility context from social scenario traces and ubiquitously learn “friends” and “strangers” indirectly and anonymously.
Full Text Available A MANET (Mobile Ad hoc NETwork is an interconnection of mobile devices by wireless links forming a dynamic topology without much physical network infrastructure such as routers, servers, access points/cables or centralized administration. Routing is a mechanism of exchanging data between the source node and the destination node. Several protocols are used to perform routing the information from the source node to the destination node. The main aim of this paper is to explore the working principles of each unipath routing protocol. The unipath routing protocols are divided into Table-Driven (Proactive, On-demand (Reactive, Hybrid routing protocols.
VAN LEEUWEN, BRIAN P.; TORGERSON, MARK D.
In high consequence systems, all layers of the protocol stack need security features. If network and data-link layer control messages are not secured, a network may be open to adversarial manipulation. The open nature of the wireless channel makes mobile wireless mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) especially vulnerable to control plane manipulation. The objective of this research is to investigate MANET performance issues when cryptographic processing delays are applied at the data-link layer. The results of analysis are combined with modeling and simulation experiments to show that network performance in MANETs is highly sensitive to the cryptographic overhead.
Full Text Available mobile nodes without an underlying infrastructure. In this network, the occurrences of misbehavior nodes are a main problem that degrades the network performance. In previous technique watchdog is used to detect nodes misbehaviors in the mobile ad-hoc network, but it contains some of potential issues. To avoid these issues we propose a novel algorithm named as Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA particularly designed for increases the security in network.
Papadimitratos, P.; Poturalski, M.; Schaller, P.
) - the discovery of devices directly reachable for communication or in physical proximity - becomes a fundamental requirement and building block for various applications. However, the very nature of wireless mobile networks makes it easy to abuse ND and thereby compromise the overlying protocols and applications......Pervasive computing systems will likely be deployed in the near future, with the proliferation of wireless devices and the emergence of ad hoc networking as key enablers. Coping with mobility and the volatility of wireless communications in such systems is critical. Neighborhood discovery (ND...
Vehicular traffic is a foremost problem in modern cities. Huge amount of time and resources are wasted while traveling due to traffic congestion. With the introduction of sophisticated traffic management systems, such as those incorporating dynamic traffic assignments, more stringent demands are being placed upon the available real time traffic data. In this paper we have proposed mobile agent as a mechanism to handle the traffic problem on road. Mobile software agents can be used to provide the better QoS (Quality of Service) in vehicular ad hoc network to improve the safety application and driver comfort.
Full Text Available Multimedia data are becoming popular in wireless ad hoc environments. However, the traditional content-based retrieval techniques are inefficient in ad hoc networks due to the multiple limitations such as node mobility, computation capability, memory space, network bandwidth, and data heterogeneity. To provide an efficient platform for multimedia retrieval, we propose to cluster ad hoc multimedia databases based on their semantic contents, and construct a virtual hierarchical indexing infrastructure overlaid on the mobile databases. This content-aware clustering scheme uses a semantic-aware framework as the theoretical foundation for data organization. Several novel techniques are presented to facilitate the representation and manipulation of multimedia data in ad hoc networks: 1 using concise distribution expressions to represent the semantic similarity of multimedia data, 2 constructing clusters based on the semantic relationships between multimedia entities, 3 reducing the cost of content-based multimedia retrieval through the restriction of semantic distances, and 4 employing a self-adaptive mechanism that dynamically adjusts to the content and topology changes of the ad hoc networks. The proposed scheme is scalable, fault-tolerant, and efficient in performing content-based multimedia retrieval as demonstrated in our combination of theoretical analysis and extensive experimental studies.
ZHOU Zhong; MAO Yu-ming; JIANG Zhi-qong
Jitter is one of the most important issues for multimedia real time services in future mobile ad hoc networks(MANET). A thorough theoretical analysis of the destination buffer for smoothing the jitter of the real time service in MANET is given. The theoretical results are applied in moderate populated ad hoc networks in our simulation, the simulation results show that by predicting and adjusting destination buffer in our way, Jitter will be alleviated in large part and this will contribute much to the quality of service (QOS) in MANET.
Full Text Available In recent years, the use of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs has been widespread in many applications, The lack of infrastructures in MANETs makes the detection and control of security hazards allthe more difficult. The security issue is becoming a major concern and bottle neck in the application of MANET. In this paper, an attempt has been made to thoroughly study the blackhole attack which is one ofthe possible attacks in ad hoc networks in routing protocol AODV with possible solution to blackhole attack detection.
Alicherry, Mansoor; Keromytis, Angelos D.; Stavrou, Angelos
Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are increasingly employed in tactical military and civil rapid-deployment networks, including emergency rescue operations and ad hoc disaster-relief networks. However, this flexibility of MANETs comes at a price, when compared to wired and base station-based wireless networks: MANETs are susceptible to both insider and outsider attacks. This is mainly because of the lack of a well-defined defense perimeter preventing the effective use of wired defenses including firewalls and intrusion detection systems.
Yu, Yang; Liang, Mangui; Liu, Zhiyu
In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), link failures are caused frequently because of node’s mobility and use of unreliable wireless channels for data transmission. Multipath routing strategy can cope with the problem of the traffic overloads while balancing the network resource consumption. In the paper, an optimized node-disjoint multipath routing (ONMR) protocol based on ad hoc on-demand vector (AODV) is proposed to establish effective multipath to enhance the network reliability and robustness. The scheme combines the characteristics of reverse AODV (R-AODV) strategy and on-demand node-disjoint multipath routing protocol to determine available node-disjoint routes with minimum routing control overhead. Meanwhile, it adds the backup routing strategy to make the process of data salvation more efficient in case of link failure. The results obtained through various simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in terms of route availability, control overhead and packet delivery ratio.
Security remains as a major concern in the mobile ad hoc networks. This paper presents a new protocol SD-AODV, which is an extension of the exiting protocol AODV. The proposed protocol is made secure and dynamic against three main types of routing attacks- wormhole attack, byzantine attack and blackhole attack. SD-AODV protocol was evaluated through simulation experiments done on Glomosim and performance of the network was measured in terms of packet delivery fraction, average end-to-end delay, global throughput and route errors of a mobile ad hoc network where a defined percentage of nodes behave maliciously. Experimentally it was found that the performance of the network did not degrade in the presence of the above said attacks indicating that the proposed protocol was secure against these attacks.
Full Text Available Nowadays there are a large variety of wireless access networks. One of these networksis Digital Ubiquitous Mobile Broadband OLSR (DUMBO which has been stronglymotivated by the fact that large scale natural disasters can wipe out terrestrialcommunication infrastructure. DUMBO routers can automatically form one or more selfconfiguring,self-healing networks called Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET. VehicleAd hoc Network (VANETs is an advanced version of MANETs. VANETs is offered tobe used by network service providers for managing connection to get a high performanceat real time, high bandwidth and high availability in networks such as WLAN, UMTS,Wi-MAX and etc. In this paper surveying DUMBONET Routers with relevant algorithm,approaches and solutions from the literature, will be consider.
A. Sarfaraz Ahmed
Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks, communication among mobile nodes occurs through wireless medium The design of ad hoc network protocol, generally based on a traditional “layered approach”, has been found ineffective to deal with receiving signal strength (RSS-related problems, affecting the physical layer, the network layer and transport layer. This paper proposes a design approach, deviating from the traditional network design, toward enhancing the cross-layer interaction among different layers, namely physical, MAC and network. The Cross-Layer design approach for Power control (CLPC would help to enhance the transmission power by averaging the RSS values and to find an effective route between the source and the destination. This cross-layer design approach was tested by simulation (NS2 simulator and its performance over AODV was found to be better.
Full Text Available A network is a group of two or more computer systems linked together. There are many types of computer networks which are categorized based on topology, protocol and architecture. A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a self-configuring infrastructure less network of mobile devices connected by wireless. Ad hoc networks maintain an unfair behavior in flow control especially when considered in the case of IEEE 802.11 Mac layer. Introducing efficiency in 802.11 is not an easy task. It reduces the overall global throughput. The network is to be designed in such a way that it deals with the fairness and throughput by maximizing aggregate throughput. Such kind of network design can be efficiently implemented on an evolving simulation tool named OMNet++.
Li, Lixin; Dai, Guanzhong; Mu, Dejun; Zhang, Huisheng
A very large number of simulation models have been developed to study ad hoc network architectures and protocols under many network scenarios, number of nodes, mobility rates, etc. However, fidelity of simulation results has always been a concern, especially when the protocols being studied are affected by the propagation and interference characteristics of the radio channels. This paper describes our experience in designing and implementing a MANET prototype system, Experimental Wireless Mobile Ad hoc Networks Testbed (EWMANT), in order to perform largescale, reproducible experiments. EWMANT aims at assessing several different protocols in a real-world environment instead of by simulation. It assists us with finding and evaluating a proper solution, showing the clear advantage of realworld implementations compared to simulations.
Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; Michalski, John T.; Anderson, William Erik
Mobile wireless ad hoc networks that are resistant to adversarial manipulation are necessary for distributed systems used in military and security applications. Critical to the successful operation of these networks, which operate in the presence of adversarial stressors, are robust and efficient information assurance methods. In this report we describe necessary enhancements for a distributed certificate authority (CA) used in secure wireless network architectures. Necessary cryptographic algorithms used in distributed CAs are described and implementation enhancements of these algorithms in mobile wireless ad hoc networks are developed. The enhancements support a network's ability to detect compromised nodes and facilitate distributed CA services. We provide insights to the impacts the enhancements will have on network performance with timing diagrams and preliminary network simulation studies.
Debnath, Sumon Kumar; Islam, Nayeema
Efficient routing mechanism is a challenging issue for group oriented computing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). The ability of MANETs to support adequate Quality of Service (QoS) for group communication is limited by the ability of the underlying ad-hoc routing protocols to provide consistent behavior despite the dynamic properties of mobile computing devices. In MANET QoS requirements can be quantified in terms of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Data Latency, Packet Loss Probability, Routing Overhead, Medium Access Control (MAC) Overhead and Data Throughput etc. This paper presents an in depth study of one to many and many to many communications in MANETs and provides a comparative performance evaluation of unicast and broadcast routing protocols. Dynamic Source Routing protocol (DSR) is used as unicast protocol and BCAST is used to represent broadcast protocol. The performance differentials are analyzed using ns2 network simulator varying multicast group size (number of data senders and data receivers). Bo...
Erika Rosas; Nicolas Hidalgo; Veronica Gil-Costa; Carolina Bonacic; Mauricio Marin; Hermes Senger; Luciana Arantes; Cesar Marcondes; Olivier Marin
Mobile ad-hoc communication is a demonstrated solution to mitigate the impact of infrastructure failures during large-scale disasters. A very complex issue in this domain is the design validation of software applications that support decision-making and communication during natural disasters. Such disasters are irreproducible, highly unpredictable, and impossible to scale down, and thus extensive assessments cannot be led in situ. In this context, simulation constitutes the best approach towards the testing of software solutions for natural disaster responses. The present survey reviews mobility models, ad-hoc network architectures, routing protocols and network simulators. Our aim is to provide guidelines for software developers with regards to the performance evaluation of their applications by means of simulation.
Full Text Available Security remains as a major concern in the mobile ad hoc networks. This paper presents a new protocol SD-AODV, which is an extension of the exiting protocol AODV. The proposed protocol is made secure and dynamic against three main types of routing attacks-wormhole attack, byzantine attack and blackhole attack. SD-AODV protocol was evaluated through simulation experiments done on Glomosim and performance of the network was measured in terms of packet delivery fraction, average end-to-end delay, global throughput and route errors of a mobile ad hoc network where a defined percentage of nodes behave maliciously. Experimentally it was found that the performance of the network did not degrade in the presence of the above said attacks indicating that the proposed protocol was secure against these attacks.
Sen, Jaydip; Balamuralidhar, P; G., Harihara S; Reddy, Harish
In multi-hop mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs),mobile nodes cooperate with each other without using any infrastructure such as access points or base stations. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due to their features of open medium, dynamically changing topologies, reliance on cooperative algorithms, absence of centralized monitoring points, and lack of clear lines of defense. Among the various attacks to which MANETs are vulnerable, malicious packet dropping attack is very common where a malicious node can partially degrade or completely disrupt communication in the network by consistently dropping packets. In this paper, a mechanism for detection of packet dropping attack is presented based on cooperative participation of the nodes in a MANET. The redundancy of routing information in an ad hoc network is utilized to make the scheme robust so that it works effectively even in presence of transient network partitioning and Byzantine failure of nodes. The proposed scheme is fully cooperative an...
Full Text Available In Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs, security is one of the most important concerns because a MANETs system is much more vulnerable to attacks than a wired or infrastructure-based wireless network. Designing an effective security protocol for MANET is a very challenging task. This is mainlydue to the unique characteristics of MANETs, namely shared broadcast radio channel, insecure operatingenvironment, lack of central authority, lack of association among users, limited availability of resources, and physical vulnerability. In this paper we present simulation based study of the impact of neighbor attack on mesh-based Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET. And also we study the number of attackers and position affects the performance metrics such as packet delivery ratio and throughput. The study enables us to propose a secure neighbor detection mechanism (SNDM. A generic detection mechanism against neighbor attack for On Demand Routing Protocols is simulated on GlomoSim environment.
Based on cutting-edge research projects in the field, this book (part of a comprehensive 4-volume series) provides the latest details and covers the most impactful aspects of mobile, wireless, and broadband communications development. These books present key systems and enabling technologies in a clear and accessible manner, offering you a detailed roadmap the future evolution of next generation communications. Other volumes cover Networks, Services and Applications; Reconfigurability; and Ad Hoc Networks.
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a dynamicdistributed system of wireless nodes that moveindependently of each other. The operating transmissionrange of the nodes is limited and as a result, MANETroutes are often multi-hop in nature. Any node in aMANET can become a source or destination, and eachnode can function as a router, forwarding data for its peers.MANET routing protocols are either proactive or reactivein nature. Proactive routing protocols determine andmaintain routes between any pa...
Kioumourtzis, Georgios A.
Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) are of much interest to both the research community and the military because of the potential to establish a communication network in any situation that involves emergencies. Examples are search-and-rescue operations, military deployment in hostile environment, and several types of police operations. One critical open issue is how to route messages considering the characteristics of these networks. The nodes act as routers in an environment without a fixed...
Udayachandran Ramasamy; Sankaranarayanan, K.
Security has become a primary concern for providing protected communication between mobile nodes in a hostile environment. The characteristics of Ad-hoc networks (dynamic topology, infrastructure less, variable capacity links, etc) are origin of many issues. Limited bandwidth, energy constraints, high cost security are the encountered problems. This type of networks pose particular challenges in terms of Quality of Service (QoS) and performance. In this paper, the issues of multipath routing ...
YU Genjian; ZHENG Baoyu
Firstly, a multilevel trust algorithm for MANET(mobile ad hoc networks) is presented in this paper and the trust level is defined as a three-tuple type in this multilevel trust algorithm. The paper introduces the multilevel trust into MANET, thereby controlling restricted classified information flows among nodes that have different trust levels. Secondly, the infrastructure of MANET that suit to our multi-level trust is presented. Some conclusions are given at lastly.
LIU Bing; TANG Shou-lian
This article provides a framework e within which the revenue-sharing in mobile value-added services can be analyzed.It shows that the revenue-sharing ratio between a network operator and a content provider (CP) has no significant effect on prices, market shares or social welfare in the case of nonstandardization. This implies that the revenue-sharing ratio cannot be used as a policy variable.
Nallusamy, R; Duraiswamy, K
Mobile ad hoc networking (MANET) has become an exciting and important technology in recent years because of the rapid proliferation of wireless devices. MANETs are highly vulnerable to attacks due to the open medium, dynamically changing network topology and lack of centralized monitoring point. It is important to search new architecture and mechanisms to protect the wireless networks and mobile computing application. IDS analyze the network activities by means of audit data and use patterns of well-known attacks or normal profile to detect potential attacks. There are two methods to analyze: misuse detection and anomaly detection. Misuse detection is not effective against unknown attacks and therefore, anomaly detection method is used. In this approach, the audit data is collected from each mobile node after simulating the attack and compared with the normal behavior of the system. If there is any deviation from normal behavior then the event is considered as an attack. Some of the features of collected audi...
Gavalas, Damianos; Konstantopoulos, Charalampos; Mamalis, Basilis
Clustering is a promising approach for building hierarchies and simplifying the routing process in mobile ad-hoc network environments. The main objective of clustering is to identify suitable node representatives, i.e. cluster heads (CHs), to store routing and topology information and maximize clusters stability. Traditional clustering algorithms suggest CH election exclusively based on node IDs or location information and involve frequent broadcasting of control packets, even when network topology remains unchanged. More recent works take into account additional metrics (such as energy and mobility) and optimize initial clustering. However, in many situations (e.g. in relatively static topologies) re-clustering procedure is hardly ever invoked; hence initially elected CHs soon reach battery exhaustion. Herein, we introduce an efficient distributed clustering algorithm that uses both mobility and energy metrics to provide stable cluster formations. CHs are initially elected based on the time and cost-efficien...
Agarwal, Ratish; Gupta, Roopam; Motwani, Mahesh
Mobile ad hoc networks are self-organised, infrastructure-less networks in which each mobile host works as a router to provide connectivity within the network. Nodes out of reach to each other can communicate with the help of intermediate routers (nodes). Routing protocols are the rules which determine the way in which these routing activities are to be performed. In cluster-based architecture, some selected nodes (clusterheads) are identified to bear the extra burden of network activities like routing. Selection of clusterheads is a critical issue which significantly affects the performance of the network. This paper proposes an enhanced performance and trusted weight-based clustering approach in which a number of performance factors such as trust, load balancing, energy consumption, mobility and battery power are considered for the selection of clusterheads. Moreover, the performance of the proposed scheme is compared with other existing approaches to demonstrate the effectiveness of the work.
Umesh Kumar Singh
Full Text Available Wireless or Mobile Networks emerged to replace the wired networks. The new generation of wireless network is relatively different than the comparisons of traditional wired network in many aspects like resource sharing, power usage, reliability, efficient, ease to handle, network infrastructure and routing protocols, etc. Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs are autonomous and decentralized wireless systems. MANETs consist of mobile nodes that are free in moving in and out in the network. There is an increasing threat of attacks on the MANET. Thus, in MANET black hole attack are mostly serious security attacks. In this paper, we have examined certain black hole attacks prevention routing protocols. Finally, we have compared some routing protocols using some important parameters and then addressed major issues related to this.
Full Text Available In the typical Ad Hoc networks application, the network hosts usually perform the given task according to groups, e.g. the command and control over staff and accruement in military affairs, traffic management, etc. Therefore, it is very significant for the study of multicast routing protocols of the Ad Hoc networks. Multicast protocols in MANETs must consider control overhead for maintenance, energy efficiency of nodes and routing trees managements to frequent changes of network topology. Now-a days Multicast protocols extended with Cluster based approach. Cluster based multicast tree formation is still research issues. The mobility of nodes will always increase the communication delay because of re-clustering and cluster head selections. For this issue we evaluate Adaptive Fuzzy System (AFS to multicast communication in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. To evaluate the performance of AFS, we simulate the fuzzy clustering in a variety of mobile network topologies in NS-2 and compare it with Cluster-based On Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (CODMRP and Cluster-based routing protocol (CBRP. Our simulation result shows the effectiveness and efficiency of AFMR: high packet delivery ratio is achieved while the delay and overhead are the lowest.
Full Text Available Today Mobile Ad-hoc Networks have wide spread use in normal as well as mission critical applications. Mobile ad hoc networks are more likely to be attacked due to lack of infrastructure and no central management. To secure Manets many traditional security solutions like encryption are used but not find to be promising. Intrusion detection system is one of the technologies that provide some goodsecurity solutions. IDS provide monitoring and auditing capabilities to detect any abnormality in security of the system. IDS can be used with clustering algorithms to protect entire cluster from malicious code. Existing clustering algorithms have a drawback of consuming more power and they are associated with routes. The routeestablishment and route renewal affects the clusters and asa consequence, the processing and traffic overhead increases due to instability of clusters. The ad hoc networks are battery and power constraint, and therefore IDS cannot be run on all the nodes. A trusted monitoring node can be deployed to detect and respond against intrusions in time. The proposed simplified clustering scheme has been used to detect intrusions, resulting in high detection rates and low processing and memory overhead irrespective of the routes, connections, traffic types and mobility of nodes inthe network.
Mucchi, Lorenzo; Chisci, Luigi; Fabbrini, Luca; Giovannetti, Giulio
In a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) where Mobile Nodes (MNs) self-organize to ensure the communication over radio links, routing protocols clearly play a significant role. In future MANETs, protocols should provide routing under full mobility, power constraints, fast time-varying channels, and nodes subject to high loading. In this article, a novel robust routing protocol, named distributed X-layer fastest path (DXFP), is proposed. The protocol is based on a cross-layer metric which is robust against the time-variations of the network as far as topology (mobility), congestion of the nodes and channel quality (fading, power constraints) are concerned. All these features are integrated in a single physical cost, i.e., the network crossing time, which has to be minimized. Furthermore, several routes from source to destination are stored for a given data flow to efficiently face the disconnections which frequently occur in MANETs. It is shown that the DXFP protocol, though locally operating in a fully distributed way within the MNs, provides, for each data flow, the optimum routes according to the considered metric. The DXFP protocol has been compared with two of the most commonly used routing protocols for MANETs, i.e., dynamic source routing and ad hoc on-demand distance vector, showing significant improvements in performance and robustness.
Amin Ziagham Ahwazi
Full Text Available As a new branch of Mobile ad hoc networks, Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have significant attention in academic and industry researches. Because of high dynamic nature of VANET, the topology will be changed frequently and quickly, and this condition is causing some difficulties in maintaining topology of these kinds of networks. Clustering is one of the controlling mechanism that able to grouping vehicles in same categories based upon some predefined metrics such as density, geographical locations, direction and velocity of vehicles. Using of clustering can make network’s global topology less dynamic and improve the scalability of it. Many of the VANET clustering algorithms are taken from MANET that has been shown that these algorithms are not suitable for VANET. Hence, in this paper we proposed a new clustering scheme that use Gauss Markov mobility (GMM model for mobility predication that make vehicle able to prognosticate its mobility relative to its neighbors. The proposed clustering scheme’s goal is forming stable clusters by increasing the cluster head lifetime and less cluster head changes number. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has better performance than existing clustering approach, in terms of cluster head duration, cluster member duration, cluster head changes rate and control overhead.
M. Isabel Vara
Full Text Available Service discovery plays an important role in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. The lack of central infrastructure, limited resources and high mobility make service discovery a challenging issue for this kind of network. This article proposes a new service discovery mechanism for discovering and advertising services integrated into the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2 (OLSRv2. In previous studies, we demonstrated the validity of a similar service discovery mechanism integrated into the previous version of OLSR (OLSRv1. In order to advertise services, we have added a new type-length-value structure (TLV to the OLSRv2 protocol, called service discovery message (SDM, according to the Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format defined in Request For Comments (RFC 5444. Each node in the ad hoc network only advertises its own services. The advertisement frequency is a user-configurable parameter, so that it can be modified depending on the user requirements. Each node maintains two service tables, one to store information about its own services and another one to store information about the services it discovers in the network. We present simulation results, that compare our service discovery integrated into OLSRv2 with the one defined for OLSRv1 and with the integration of service discovery in Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol, in terms of service discovery ratio, service latency and network overhead.
V S JANANI; M S K MANIKANDAN
The wireless and dynamic nature of mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) render them more vulnerable to security attacks. However, providing a security mechanism implicitly has been a major challenge in such an ad-hoc environment. Certificate management plays an important role in securing an ad-hoc network.Certificate assignment, verification, and revocation complexity associated with the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) framework is significantly large. Smaller the size of the network lesser will be the certificate management complexity. However, smaller the size, large will be the overall infrastructural cost, and also larger will be the overall redundant certificates due to multiple certificate assignment at the boundary regions, that in turn affects the prompt and accurate certificate revocation. By taking these conflicting requirements into consideration, we propose the trust-based hexagonal clustering for an efficient certificate management (THCM) scheme, to bear an absolutely protected MANET Disparate to the existing clustering techniques, we present a hexagonal geographicclustering model with Voronoi technique where trust is accomplished. In particular, to compete against attackers, we initiate a certificate management strategy in which certificate assignment, verification, and revocation are carried out efficiently. The performance of THCM is evaluated by both simulation and empirical analysis in terms of effectiveness of revocation scheme (with respect to revocation rate and time), security, and communication cost. Besides, we conduct a mathematical analysis of measuring the parameters obtained from the two platforms in multiple times. Relevant results demonstrate that our design is efficient to guarantee a secured mobile ad hoc network.
Full Text Available Problem statement: Network wide broadcasting is a fundamental operation in ad hoc networks. In broadcasting, a source node sends a message to all the other nodes in the network. Unlike in a wired network, a packet transmitted by a node in ad hoc wireless network can reach all neighbors. Therefore, the total number of transmissions (Forwarding nodes used as the cost criterion for broadcasting. Approach: This study proposes a reliable and efficient broadcasting algorithm using minimized forward node list algorithm which uses 2-hop neighborhood information more effectively to reduce redundant transmissions in asymmetric Mobile Ad hoc networks that guarantees full delivery. Among the 1-hop neighbors of the sender, only selected forwarding nodes retransmit the broadcast message. Forwarding nodes are selected such a way that to cover the uncovered 2-hop neighbors. Results: Simulation results show that the proposed broadcasting algorithm provides high delivery ratio, low broadcast forward ratio, low overhead and minimized delay. Conclusion: In this study, reliable and efficient broadcasting algorithm in asymmetric Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using minimized forward node list algorithm has been proposed which provides low forward ratio, high delivery ratio while suppressing broadcast redundancy.
Vara, M Isabel; Campo, Celeste
Service discovery plays an important role in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The lack of central infrastructure, limited resources and high mobility make service discovery a challenging issue for this kind of network. This article proposes a new service discovery mechanism for discovering and advertising services integrated into the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2 (OLSRv2). In previous studies, we demonstrated the validity of a similar service discovery mechanism integrated into the previous version of OLSR (OLSRv1). In order to advertise services, we have added a new type-length-value structure (TLV) to the OLSRv2 protocol, called service discovery message (SDM), according to the Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format defined in Request For Comments (RFC) 5444. Each node in the ad hoc network only advertises its own services. The advertisement frequency is a user-configurable parameter, so that it can be modified depending on the user requirements. Each node maintains two service tables, one to store information about its own services and another one to store information about the services it discovers in the network. We present simulation results, that compare our service discovery integrated into OLSRv2 with the one defined for OLSRv1 and with the integration of service discovery in Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol, in terms of service discovery ratio, service latency and network overhead.
Soo, Ai Luang; Tan, Chong Eng; Tay, Kai Meng
In this work, we investigate on the use of Sugeno fuzzy inference system (FIS) in route selection for mobile Ad-Hoc networks (MANETs). Sugeno FIS is introduced into Ad-Hoc On Demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV) routing protocol, which is derived from its predecessor, Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV). Instead of using the conventional way that considering only a single metric to choose the best route, our proposed fuzzy decision making model considers up to three metrics. In the model, the crisp inputs of the three parameters are fed into an FIS and being processed in stages, i.e., fuzzification, inference, and defuzzification. Finally, after experiencing all the stages, a single value score is generated from the combination metrics, which will be used to measure all the discovered routes credibility. Results obtained from simulations show a promising improvement as compared to AOMDV and AODV.
Fujita, Sho; Shima, Keiichi; Uo, Yojiro; Esaki, Hiroshi
We present a decentralized VPN service that can be built over generalized mobile ad-hoc networks (Generalized MANETs), in which topologies can be represented as a time-varying directed multigraph. We address wireless ad-hoc networks and overlay ad-hoc networks as instances of Generalized MANETs. We first propose an architecture to operate on various kinds of networks through a single set of operations. Then, we design and implement a decentralized VPN service on the proposed architecture. Through the development and operation of a prototype system we implemented, we found that the proposed architecture makes the VPN service applicable to each instance of Generalized MANETs, and that the VPN service makes it possible for unmodified applications to operate on the networks.
Full Text Available In wireless Ad-hoc network, power consumption becomes an important issue due to limited battery power. One of the reasons for energy expenditure in this network is irregularly distributed node pattern, which impose large interference range in certain area. To maximize the lifetime of ad-hoc mobile network, the power consumption rate of each node must be evenly distributed and the over all transmission range of each node must be minimized. Our protocol, Location based throughput maximization routing in energy constrained Ad-hoc network finds routing paths, which maximize the lifetime of individual nodes and minimize the total transmission energy consumption. The life of the entire network is increased and the network throughput is also increased. The reliability of the path is also increased. Location based energy constrained routing finds the distance between the nodes. Based on the distance the transmission power required is calculated and dynamically reduces the total transmission energy.
Kuscu, Murat; Akan, Ozgur B
Nanonetworks refer to a group of nanosized machines with very basic operational capabilities communicating to each other in order to accomplish more complex tasks such as in-body drug delivery, or chemical defense. Realizing reliable and high-rate communication between these nanomachines is a fundamental problem for the practicality of these nanonetworks. Recently, we have proposed a molecular communication method based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) which is a nonradiative excited state energy transfer phenomenon observed among fluorescent molecules, i.e., fluorophores. We have modeled the FRET-based communication channel considering the fluorophores as single-molecular immobile nanomachines, and shown its reliability at high rates, and practicality at the current stage of nanotechnology. In this study, for the first time in the literature, we investigate the network of mobile nanomachines communicating through FRET. We introduce two novel mobile molecular nanonetworks: FRET-based mobile molecular sensor/actor nanonetwork (FRET-MSAN) which is a distributed system of mobile fluorophores acting as sensor or actor node; and FRET-based mobile ad hoc molecular nanonetwork (FRET-MAMNET) which consists of fluorophore-based nanotransmitter, nanoreceivers and nanorelays. We model the single message propagation based on birth-death processes with continuous time Markov chains. We evaluate the performance of FRET-MSAN and FRET-MAMNET in terms of successful transmission probability and mean extinction time of the messages, system throughput, channel capacity and achievable communication rates.
Full Text Available The efficient design and implementation of WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks has become an emerging area of research in recent years. In this paper a wireless remote sensing and controlling system for real time dynamics has been proposed. Variation in the temperature is recorded in the GUI window and proper controlling action is taken accordingly. The choice of automatic as well as manual control has been added to the design. An 8- bit AVR microcontroller has been used to interface the temperature sensor using the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, ZigBee protocol. ZigBee has the characteristics of low power consumption, low cost and self organizing features. A new approach of communication re-link algorithm has been used to ensure reliable transmission of data.
Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a kind of wireless ad-hoc network, and is a self-configuring network of mobile routers (and associated hosts connected by wireless links – the union of which forms an arbitrary topology. The routers are free to move randomly and organize themselves arbitrarily, thus the network's wireless topology may change rapidly and unpredictably. Such a network may operate in a standalone fashion, or may be connected to the larger Internet. There are various routing protocols available for MANETs. The most popular ones are DSR, AODV and DSDV. This paper examines two routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks– the Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV and the Ad hoc On- Demand Distance Vector routing (AODV. Generally, the routing algorithms can be classified into Reactive and Proactive. A Hybrid algorithm combines the basic properties of reactive and proactive into one. The proposed approach is a novel routing pattern based on Ant Colony Optimization and Multi Agent System. This pattern integrates two different algorithms together and helps to get optimum routes for a particular radio range. The approaches used here are Ant Colony Optimization (ACO and Multi Agent System (MAS. The proposed integrated approach has a relatively short route establishment time while using a small number of control messages which makes it a scalable routing approach. The overhead of this routing approach will be inexpensive and also will enable to have an alternate route during route failure. This proposed route finding scheme in order to provide high connectivity of nodes, will minimize the route discovery latency and the end-to-end delay.
Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. Each node operates not only as an end system, but also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves into a network. These nodes change position frequently. The main classes of routing protocols are Proactive, Reactive and Hybrid. A Reactive (on-demand routing strategy is a popular routing category for wireless ad hoc routing. It is a relatively new routing philosophy that provides a scalable solution to relatively large network topologies. The design follows the idea that each node tries to reduce routing overhead by sending routing packets whenever a communication is requested. In this paper an attempt has been made to compare the performance of two prominent on demand reactive routing protocols for MANETs: Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR protocols. This subjected the protocols to identical loads and environmental conditions and evaluates their relative performance with respect to quantitative metrics; throughput, average delay, packet delivery ratio and routing load. From the detailed simulation results and analysis of presented, we use NS-2 simulator for simulation of DSR and TORA protocol and variation occurs in mobility of packets, time interval between the packets sent and packet size of packets sent in throughout the protocols.
Sato, Kenya; Matsui, Yosuke; Koita, Takahiro
As sensor network applications to monitor and control the physical environment from remote locations, a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) has been the focus of many recent research and development efforts. A MANET, autonomous system of mobile hosts, is characterized by multi-hop wireless links, absence of any cellular infrastructure, and frequent host mobility. Many kinds of routing protocols for ad-hoc network have been proposed and still actively updated, because each application has different characteristics and requirements. Since the current studies show it is almost impossible to design an efficient routing protocol to be adapted for all kinds of applications. We, therefore, have focused a certain application, inter-vehicle communication for ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems), to evaluate the routing protocols. In our experiment, we defined several traffic flow models for inter-vehicle communication applications. By using simulation, we evaluated end-to-end delay and throughput performance of data transmission for inter-vehicle communications with the existing routing protocols. The result confirms the feasibility of using some routing protocols for inter-vehicle communication services.
Full Text Available Today’s wireless networks are vulnerable in many ways including illegal use, unauthorized access, denial of service attacks, eavesdropping so called war chalking. These problems are one of the main issues for wider uses of wireless network. On wired network intruder can access by wire but in wireless it has possibilities to access the computer anywhere in neighborhood. However, securing MANETs is highly challenging issue due to their inherent characteristics. Intrusion detection is an important security mechanism, but little effort has been directed towards efficient and effective architectures for Intrusion Detection System in the context of MANETs. We investigate existing Intrusion Detection Architecture design Issues, challenges and proposed a novel architecture based on a conceptual model for an IDS agent that lead to a secure collaboration environment integrating mobile ad hoc network and the wired backbone. In wireless/mobile ad hoc network, the limited power, weak computation capabilities of mobile nodes, and restricted bandwidth of the open media impede the establishment of a secure collaborative environment.
Full Text Available Ad-hoc network is a network which consists of nodes that use a wireless interface to send packet data. Since the nodes in a network of this kind can serve as routers and hosts, they can forward packets on behalf of other nodes and run user application. A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET is probably the most well-known example of this networking paradigm have been around for over twenty years, mainly exploited to design tactical networks. Furthermore, the multi-hop ad-hoc networking paradigm is often used for building sensor networks to study, control, monitor events and phenomena. To exploit these potentialities, modeling, simulation and theoretical analyses have to be complemented by real experiences, which provide both a direct evaluation of ad-hoc networks and at the same time precious information for a realistic modeling of these systems. Different routing protocols namely Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR protocol and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV protocol in MANET are compared and the performance are evaluated based on various metrics like Packet Delivery ratio, Avg. end-to-end delay, throughput, etc. For this purpose, a discrete event simulator known as NS2 is used.
ZHANG Xu; CHENG Sheng; FENG Mei-yu; DING Wei
Considering the characters of dynamic topology and the imprecise state information in mobile ad hoc network,we propose a Fuzzy Logic QoS Dynamic Source Routing (FLQDSR) algorithm based on Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)protocol while adopting fuzzy logic to select the appropriate QoS routing in multiple paths which are searched in parallel.This scheme considers not only the bandwidth and end-to-end delay of routing, but also the cost of the path. On the other hand the merit of using fuzzy logic is that it can be implemented by hardware. This makes the realization of the scheme easier and faster. However our algorithm is based on DSR, the maximal hop count should be less than 10, i.e., the scale of mobile ad hoc network should not be very large. Simulation results show that FLQDSR can tolerate a high degree of information imprecision by adding the fuzzy logic module which integrates the QoS requirements of application and the routing QoS parameters to determine the most qualified one in every node.
Seyed Javad Mirabedini
Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is considered as an autonomous network, which consists of mobile nodes, which communicate with each other over wireless links. When there is no fixed infrastructure, nodes have to cooperate in order to incorporate the necessary network functionality. Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol is one of the primary principal routing protocols implemented in Ad hoc networks. The security of the AODV protocol is threaded by a specific kind of attack called ‘Black Hole’ attack. This paper presents a technique to prevent the Black hole attack by implementing negotiation with neighbors who claim to maintain a route to destination. Negotiation process is strengthen by apriori method to judge about suspicious node. Apriori algorithm is an effective association rule mining method with relatively low complexity, which is proper for MANETs. To achieve more improvement, fuzzy version of ADOV is used. The simulation results indicate that the proposed protocol provides more securable routing and also more efficiency in terms of packet delivery, overhead and detection rate than the conventional AODV and fuzzy AODV in the presence of Black hole attacks.
Joilson Alves Junior
Full Text Available The vehicular ad hoc network (VANET for intelligent transportation systems is an emerging concept to improve transportation security, reliability, and management. The network behavior can be totally different in topological aspects because of the mobility of vehicular nodes. The topology can be fully connected when the flow of vehicles is high and may have low connectivity or be invalid when the flow of vehicles is low or unbalanced. In big cities, the metropolitan buses that travel on exclusive lanes may be used to set up a metropolitan vehicular data network (backbone, raising the connectivity among the vehicles. Therefore, this paper proposes the implementation of a living mobile backbone, totally ad hoc (MOB-NET, which will provide infrastructure and raise the network connectivity. In order to show the viability of MOB-NET, statistical analyses were made with real data of express buses that travel through exclusive lanes, besides evaluations through simulations and analytic models. The statistic, analytic, and simulation results prove that the buses that travel through exclusive lanes can be used to build a communication network totally ad hoc and provide connectivity in more than 99% of the time, besides raising the delivery rate up to 95%.
Parmeet Kaur Jaggi
Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs have significantly enhanced the wireless networks by eliminating the need for any fixed infrastructure. Hence, these are increasingly being used for expanding the computing capacity of existing networks or for implementation of autonomous mobile computing Grids. However, the fragile nature of MANETs makes the constituent nodes susceptible to failures and the computing potential of these networks can be utilized only if they are fault tolerant. The technique of checkpointing based rollback recovery has been used effectively for fault tolerance in static and cellular mobile systems; yet, the implementation of existing protocols for MANETs is not straightforward. The paper presents a novel rollback recovery protocol for handling the failures of mobile nodes in a MANET using checkpointing and sender based message logging. The proposed protocol utilizes the routing protocol existing in the network for implementing a low overhead recovery mechanism. The presented recovery procedure at a node is completely domino-free and asynchronous. The protocol is resilient to the dynamic characteristics of the MANET; allowing a distributed application to be executed independently without access to any wired Grid or cellular network access points. We also present an algorithm to record a consistent global snapshot of the MANET.
Users are pushing for greater physical mobility with their network and Internet access. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) can provide an efficient mobile network architecture, but security is a key concern. A figure summarizes differences in the state of network security for MANET and fixed networks. MANETs require the ability to distinguish trusted peers, and tolerate the ingress/egress of nodes on an unscheduled basis. Because the networks by their very nature are mobile and self-organizing, use of a Public Key Infra structure (PKI), X.509 certificates, RSA, and nonce ex changes becomes problematic if the ideal of MANET is to be achieved. Molecular biology models such as DNA evolution can provide a basis for a proprietary security architecture that achieves high degrees of diffusion and confusion, and resistance to cryptanalysis. A proprietary encryption mechanism was developed that uses the principles of DNA replication and steganography (hidden word cryptography) for confidentiality and authentication. The foundation of the approach includes organization of coded words and messages using base pairs organized into genes, an expandable genome consisting of DNA-based chromosome keys, and a DNA-based message encoding, replication, and evolution and fitness. In evolutionary computing, a fitness algorithm determines whether candidate solutions, in this case encrypted messages, are sufficiently encrypted to be transmitted. The technology provides a mechanism for confidential electronic traffic over a MANET without a PKI for authenticating users.
Panaousis, Emmanouil A; Millar, Grant P; Ramrekha, Tipu A; Politis, Christos
Contemporary personal computing devices are increasingly required to be portable and mobile enabling userâs wireless access, to wired network infrastructures and services. This approach to mobile computing and communication is only appropriate in situations where a coherent infrastructure is available. There are many situations where these requirements are not fulfilled such as; developing nations, rural areas, natural disasters, and military conflicts to name but a few. A practical solution is to use mobile devices interconnected via a wireless medium to form a network, known as a Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET), and provide the services normally found in wired networks. Security in MANETs is an issue of paramount importance due to the wireless nature of the communication links. Additionally due to the lack of central administration security issues are different from conventional networks. For the purposes of this article we have used the âWMN test-bedâ to enable secure routing in MANETs. The us...
Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks are type of wireless networks in which any kind of infrastructure is not used, i.e. there are no infrastructures such as routers or switches or anything else on the network that can be used to support the network structure and the nodes has mobility. The purpose of this paper is to provide a better quality of the package delivery rate and the throughput, that is in need of powerful routing protocol standards, which can guarantee delivering of the packages to destinations, and the throughput on a network. For achieving this purpose, we use OLSR routing protocol that is a responsive protocol and is currently covered under the IETF standard (RFC 3626. At this paper, we improved the OLSR routing protocol by eliminating the unnecessary loops, and simulation results demonstrated a significant improvement in the criteria of package delivery rate and throughput.
Kang, Byung-Seok; Ko, In-Young
This study proposes a location-based hybrid routing protocol to improve data packet delivery and to reduce control message overhead in mobile ad hoc networks. In mobile environments, where nodes move continuously at a high speed, it is generally difficult to maintain and restore route paths. Therefore, this study suggests a new flooding mechanism to control route paths. The essence of the proposed scheme is its effective tracking of the destination's location based on the beacon messages of the main route nodes. Through experiments based on an NS-2 simulator, the proposed scheme shows improvements in the data packet delivery ratio and reduces the amount of routing control message overhead compared with existing routing protocols such as AODV, LAR, ZRP and AODV-DFR.
Espensen, Kristian Asbjørn Leth; Kjeldsen, Mads Keblov; Kristensen, Lars Michael
A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is an infrastructureless network established by a set of mobile devices using wireless communication. The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) protocol is a routing protocol for multi-hop communication in MANETs currently under development by the Internet Engineering Task...... Force (IETF). This paper presents a Coloured Petri Net (CPN) model of the mandatory parts of the DYMO protocol, and shows how scenario-based state space exploration has been used to validate key properties of the protocol. Our CPN modelling and verification work has spanned two revisions of the DYMO...... protocol specification and have had direct impact on the most recent version of the protocol specification....
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes that communicate with each other by forming a multi-hop radio network. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due to their features of open medium, dynamically changing topologies, reliance on cooperative algorithms, absence of centralized monitoring points, and lack of clear lines of defense. Design of an efficient and reliable node authentication protocol for such networks is a particularly challenging task since the nodes are battery-driven and resource constrained. This paper presents a robust and efficient key exchange protocol for nodes authentication in a MANET based on multi-path communication. Simulation results demonstrate that the protocol is effective even in presence of large fraction of malicious nodes in the network. Moreover, it has a minimal computation and communication overhead that makes it ideally suitable for MANETs.
Khan, Md Nazmul Islam; Aziz, Md Tariq
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is often preferred to be implemented at the transport layer of a Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) because of its wide range of applications, which enjoys the advantage of reliable data transmission in the Internet. However, because of some unique characteristics of MANET, TCP cannot offer reliable services while using e-mail, internet search and file transmission in such a network. The research investigates how well the different versions of TCP respond to various performance differentials when subjected to different network stresses and topology changes, aside from identifying the most efficient and robust TCP version(s) for different MANET scenarios. Among several TCP variants, three types are considered important for the analysis, namely TCP Reno, TCP New Reno and TCP Selective Acknowledgment (SACK). In most cases, the TCP performance is found in our study to decrease when the node size and mobility rate is increased in the network. There is, however, exception to this. As ...
Agrawal, Sudhir; Sharma, Sanjeev
Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a set of mobile nodes which are self-configuring and connected by wireless links automatically as per the defined routing protocol. The absence of a central management agency or a fixed infrastructure is a key feature of MANETs. These nodes communicate with each other by interchange of packets, which for those nodes not in wireless range goes hop by hop. Due to lack of a defined central authority, securitizing the routing process becomes a challenging task thereby leaving MANETs vulnerable to attacks, which results in deterioration in the performance characteristics as well as raises a serious question mark about the reliability of such networks. In this paper we have attempted to present an overview of the routing protocols, the known routing attacks and the proposed countermeasures to these attacks in various works.
Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET consists of a group of mobile nodes that can communicate with each other without the need of infrastructure. The movement of nodes in MANET is random; therefore MANETs have a dynamic topology. Because of this dynamic topology, the link breakages in these networks are something common. This problem causes high data loss and delay. In order to decrease these problems, the idea of link breakage prediction has appeared. In link breakage prediction, the availability of a link is evaluated, and a warning is issued if there is a possibility of soon link breakage. In this paper a new approach of link breakage prediction in MANETs is proposed. This approach has been implemented on the well known Dynamic Source Routing protocol (DSR. This new mechanism was able to decrease the packet loss and delay that occur in the original protocol.
Kim, J C; Kim, D Y; Jung, S M; Lee, M H; Kim, K S; Lee, C K; Nah, J Y; Lee, S H; Kim, J H; Choi, W J; Yoo, S K
So far we have developed Emergency Telemedicine System (ETS) which is a robust system using heterogeneous networks. In disaster areas, however, ETS cannot be used if the primary network channel is disabled due to damages on the network infrastructures. Thus we designed network management software for disaster communication network by combination of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) and Wireless LAN (WLAN). This software maintains routes to a Backbone Gateway Node in dynamic network topologies. In this paper, we introduce the proposed disaster communication network with management software, and evaluate its performance using ETS between Medical Center and simulated disaster areas. We also present the results of network performance analysis which identifies the possibility of actual Telemedicine Service in disaster areas via MANET and mobile network (e.g. HSDPA, WiBro).
Setiawan, Fudhiyanto Pranata; Bouk, Safdar H.; Sasase, Iwao
This paper proposes a scheme to select an appropriate gateway based on multiple metrics such as remaining energy, mobility or speed, and number of hops in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) and the infrastructure network integration. The Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method called Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) is used to rank and to select the gateway node. SAW method calculates the weights of gateway node candidates by considering these three metrics. The node with the highest weight will be selected as the gateway. Simulation results show that our scheme can reduce the average energy consumption of MANET nodes, and improve throughput performance, gateway lifetime, Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) of the MANET and the infrastructure network.
Medidi, Sirisha; Wang, Jiong
Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a radio packet network without dedicated infrastructures. In recent years it has received tremendous attention because of its self-configuration and self-maintenance capabilities. However, because of node mobility and shared wireless links, its routing protocol design presents nontrivial challenges such as broadcast storm, stale route and delay. This paper proposes a location-based route self-recovery technique for source-initiated routing protocols. The purpose of route self-recovery is to reduce overhead and delay during route maintenance as well as allowing continuous packet forwarding for fault resilience. The ns-2 based simulation shows throughput and overhead improvements of source-initiated routing with route self-recovery and in the case of highly dynamic environments and heavy traffic loads, it is more robust and scalable than other protocols.
Gonzalez Boix, Elisa; van Cutsem, Tom; Vallejos, Jorge; de Meuter, Wolfgang; D'Hondt, Theo
In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) many partial failures are the result of temporary network partitions due to the intermittent connectivity of mobile devices. Some of these failures will be permanent and require application-level failure handling. However, it is impossible to distinguish a permanent from a transient failure. Leasing provides a solution to this problem based on the temporal restriction of resources. But to date no leasing model has been designed specifically for MANETs. In this paper, we identify three characteristics required for a leasing model to be usable in a MANET, discuss the issues with existing leasing models and then propose the leased object references model, which integrates leasing with remote object references. In addition, we describe an implementation of the model in the programming language AmbientTalk. Leased object references provide an extensible framework that allows programmers to express their own leasing patterns and enables both lease holders (clients) and lease grantors (services) to deal with permanent failures.
Xie Xiaochuan; Wei Gang; Wu Keping; Wang Gang; Jia Shilou
Tactical mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes forming a temporary network,without the aid of pre-established network infrastructure. The routing protocol has a crucial impact on the networkperformance in battlefields. Link reliability based hybrid routing (LRHR) is proposed, which is a novel hybrid routing protocol, for tactical MANET. Contrary to the traditional single path routing strategy, multiple paths are established between a pair of source-destination nodes. In the hybrid routing strategy, the rate of topological change provides a natural mechanism for switching dynamically between table-driven and on-demand routing. The simulation results indicate that the performances of the protocol in packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and average end-to-end delay are better than the conventional routing protocol.
Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is termed as a set of wireless nodes which could be built with infrastructure less environment where network services are afforded by the nodes themselves. In such a situation, if a node refuses to co-operate with other nodes, then it will lead to a considerable diminution in throughput and the network operation decreases to low optimum value. Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs rely on the collaboration of nodes for packet routing ahead. Nevertheless, much of the existing work in MANETs imagines that mobile nodes (probably possessed by selfish users will pursue prearranged protocols without variation. Therefore, implementing the co-operation between the nodes turn out to be an significant issue. The previous work described a secured key model for ad hoc network with efficient node clustering based on reputation and ranking model. But the downside is that the co-operation with the nodes is less results in a communication error. To enhance the security in MANET, in this work, we present a hybrid approach, build a node co-operation among the nodes in MANET by evaluating the weightage of cooperativeness of each node in MANET. With the estimation of normal co-operative nodes, nodes are restructured on its own (self. Then clustering is made with the reorganized nodes to form a secured communication among the nodes in the MANET environment. The Simulation of the proposed Hybrid Approach for Node Cooperation based Clustering (HANCC work is done for varying topology, node size, attack type and intensity with different pause time settings and the performance evaluations are carried over in terms of node cooperativeness, clustering efficiency, communication overhead and compared with an existing secured key model. Compared to an existing secured key model, the proposed HANCC performance is 80-90% high.
张顺亮; 叶澄清; 李方敏
A review of current research about routing protocols for mobile Ad Hoc networks is made. Based on classifying of them, the characteristic, the strength and the weakness of these protocols are evaluated respectively. Then some crucial strategies to improve the existing routing protocols are proposed. Besides, a frame of new routing protocol for Ad Hoc networks is put forward. Finally, open issues that still need investigation are listed.
Blazevic, Ljubica; Buttyan, Levente; Capkun, Srdjan; Giordano, Silvia; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre; Le Boudec, Jean-Yves
The Terminodes project is designing a wide area, mobile ad-hoc network, which is meant to be used in a public environment, in our approach, the network is run by users themselves. We give a global description of the building blocks used by the basic operation of the network, they all rely on various concepts of self-organization. Routing uses a combination of geography-based information and local, MANET-like protocols. Terminode positioning is obtained either by GPS, or by a relative positio...
Full Text Available We propose a hierarchical backbone construction protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. Our protocol is based on the idea of using an efficient extrema finding method to create clusters comprising the nodes that are within certain prespecified wireless hop distance. Afterward, we apply our ‘diameter’ algorithm among clusters to identify the dominating nodes that are, finally, connected via multi-hop virtual links to construct the backbone. We present the analytic as well as simulation study of our algorithm and also a method for the dynamic maintenance of constructed backbone. In the end, we illustrate the use of the virtual backbone with the help of an interesting application.
Han-xing Wang; Xi Hu; Qin Zhang
In this paper,we present a random graph model with spatial reuse for a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) based on the dynamic source routing protocol.Many important performance parameters of the MANET are obtained,such as the average flooding distance (AFD),the probability generating function of the flooding distance,and the probability of a flooding route to be symmetric.Compared with the random graph model without spatial reuse,this model is much more effective because it has a smaller value of AFD and a larger probability for finding a symmetric valid route.
YANG Jie; AN Jian-ping; LIU Heng
For the research of mobile Ad hoc network (MANET), hardware in the loop simulation (HILS) is introduced to improve simulation fidelity. The architectures and frameworks of HILS system are discussed. Based on HILS and QualNet network simulator, two kinds of simulation frameworks for MANET multicast emergency communicati on network are proposed. By running simulation under this configuration and doing experiments with on-demand multicast routing protocol (ODMRP), unicast and multicast functions of this protocol are tested. Research results indicate that HILS method can effectively reduce the difficulty of system modeling and improve precision of simulation, and can further accelerate transition from design to system deployment.
Luo, Yan; Wolfson, Ouri; Xu, Bo
In this chapter, we introduce the mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) database by discussing its definition, historical background and scientific fundamentals. Existing related projects are presented and classified into two main categories, pedestrian and vehicular projects based on their target users. Two main paradigms (i.e., report pulling and report pushing) for answering queries in MANET databases are discussed in details. Then we present the MOBIDIK approach to searching in MANET databases and compare it with alternatives. Finally, the key applications and the future research directions are addressed.
Kai Caihong; Yu Nenghai; Chen Yuzhong
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) optimization in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) is a challenging issue because of some unique characteristics of MANETs. In this paper,a new end-to-end mechanism based on multiple metrics measurement is proposed to improve TCP performance in MANETs. Multi-metric Measurement based Enhancement of TCP (MME-TCP)designs the metrics and the identification algorithm according to the characteristics of MANETs and the experiment results. Furthermore, these metrics are measured at the sender node to reduce the overhead of control information over networks. Simulation results show that MME-TCP mechanism achieves a significant performance improvement over standard TCP in MANETs.
SHIMinghong; YAOYinxiong; BAIYingcai
QoS routing in wireless ad hoc networks faces many technical challenges due to time varying link and random mobility of nodes in these dynamic networks.In this paper, we design a QoS-aware dynamic source routing protocol (QDSR), based on DSR . QDSR uses minimum cost as the constraint, modifies route discovery, route reply and route maintenance mechanisms in DSR, adds the capability of path testing and initial resource reservation.The results of robustness and stability and performances imulations demonstrate that it suits the fluctuation of dynamic environment very well.
This letter presents the design and performance of a multi-channel MAC protocol that supports multiple traffics for IEEE 802.11 mobile ad-hoc networks.The dynamic channel selection scheme by receiver decision is implemented and the number of the data channel is independent of the network topology.The priority for real-time traffic is assured by the proposed adaptive back off algorithm and different IFS.The protocol is evaluated by simulation and the results have shown that it can support multiple traffics and the performance is better than the performance that IEEE 802.11 standard provides.
Tian Hui; Li Yingyang; Hu Jiandong; Zhang Ping
This letter presents the design and performance of a multi-channel MAC protocol that supports multiple traffics for IEEE 802.11 mobile ad-hoc networks. The dynamic channel selection scheme by receiver decision is implemented and the number of the data channel is independent of the network topology. The priority for real-time traffic is assured by the proposed adaptive back off algorithm and different IFS. The protocol is evaluated by simulation and the results have shown that it can support multiple traffics and the performance is better than the performance that IEEE 802.11 standard provides.
Vikas Kumar Upadhyay
Full Text Available Now these day Mobile Ad hoc networks vulnerable from number of security threats like black hole attack, DOS attack, Byzantine attack and wormhole attack. Wormhole attack is one of most important attack and having great attention in recent year. Wormhole attack, demonstrate a illusion over the network that show two far away node to be an neighbor node and attracted all traffic by presenting an greediness of shortest path over the network. This paper presents a bird eye over different existing wormhole deduction mechanism and their problem.
HAN Song-qiao; ZHANG Shen-sheng; ZHANG Yong; CAO Jian
A novel decentralized service composition protocol was presented based on quality of service (QoS) for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). A service composition in MANETs is considered as a service path discovery in a service network. Based on the concept of source routing, the protocol integrates route discovery, service discovery and service composition and utilizes a constrained flooding approach to discover the optimal service path. A service path maintenance mechanism was exploited to recover broken service paths. Simulation experiments demonstrate that the proposed protocol outperforms existing service composition protocols.
Full Text Available A new class of applications can now be envisaged with the emergence of both mobile ad hoc computing and ubiquitous computing, which imposes a number of new unsolved challenges. Examples of such applications include automatic car control systems and air traffic control systems. Applications of such kind have real-time constraints and are characterised by being highly mobile and proactive, i.e. able to operate without human intervention. Moreover, this kind of applications requires multiple-source multicasting. However, current approaches mainly focus on offering support for continuous flows in low mobile environments where single-source multicasting is assumed. In this paper, we present the QoSMMANET (QoS Management in Mobile Ad hoc Networks framework, which offers QoS support for real-time event systems in highly mobile ad hoc environments. Our approach is validated by a number of experiments carried out in the ns-2 network simulator.
Sanyal, Sugata; Gogri, Rajat; Rathod, Punit; Dedhia, Zalak; Mody, Nirali
In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET), various types of Denial of Service Attacks (DoS) are possible because of the inherent limitations of its routing protocols. Considering the Ad Hoc On Demand Vector (AODV) routing protocol as the base protocol it is possible to find a suitable solution to over-come the attack of initiating / forwarding fake Route Requests (RREQs) that lead to hogging of network resources and hence denial of service to genuine nodes. In this paper, a proactive scheme is proposed that could prevent a specific kind of DoS attack and identify the misbehaving node. Since the proposed scheme is distributed in nature it has the capability to prevent Distributed DoS (DDoS) as well. The performance of the proposed algorithm in a series of simulations reveal that the proposed scheme provides a better solution than existing approaches with no extra overhead.
S. P. Manikandan
Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET due to its unpredictable topology and bandwidth limitations are vulnerable to attacks. Establishing security measures and finding secure routes are the major challenges faced by MANET. Security issues faced by ad hoc networks are node authentication, insider attack and intrusion detection. Implementing security measures is challenging due to the presence of limited resources in the hardware device and the network. Routing protocols attempt to mitigate the attacks by isolating the malicious nodes. In this study, a survey of various kinds of attacks against MANET is studied. It is also proposed to study modification of AODV and DSR routing protocol implementation with regard to mitigating attacks and intrusion detection. This study studied various approaches to predict and mitigate attacks in MANET."
Ahmed, Izhar; Tepe, K. E.; Singh, B. K.
This paper presents a new routing metric for mobile ad hoc networks. It considers both coverage area as well as link expiration information, which in turn requires position, speed and direction information of nodes in the network. With this new metric, a routing protocol obtains routes that last longer with as few hops as possible. The proposed routing metric is implemented with Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) protocol. Thus, the performance of the proposed routing metric is tested against the minimum hop metric of AODV. Simulation results show that the AODV protocol with the new routing metric significantly improves delivery ratio and reduces routing overhead. The delay performance of AODV with the new metric is comparable to its minimum hop metric implementation.
Li Yanping; Wang Xin; Xue Xiangyang; C.K. Toh
Although clustering is a convenient framework to enable traffic control and service support in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs), it is seldom adopted in practice due to the additional traffic overhead it leads to for the resource limited ad hoc network. In order to address this problem, we proposed a loop-based approach to combine clustering and routing. By employing loop topologies, topology information is disseminated with a loop instead of a single node, which provides better robustness, and the nature of a loop that there are two paths between each pair of nodes within a loop suggests smart route recovery strategy. Our approach is composed of setup procedure, regular procedure and recovery procedure to achieve clustering, routing and emergent route recovering.
Abdel Ilah Alshbatat
Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs have the potential of creating an ad hoc communication network in the air. Most UAVs used in communication networks are equipped with wireless transceivers using omnidirectional antennas. In this paper, we consider a collection of UAVs that communicate through wireless links as a mobile ad-hoc network using directional antennas. The network design goal is to maximize the throughput and minimize the end-to-end delay. In this respect, we propose a new medium access control protocol for a network of UAVs with directional antennas. We analyze the communication channel between the UAVs and the effect of aircraft attitude on the network performance. Using the optimized network engineering tool (OPNET, we compare our protocol with the IEEE 802.11 protocol for omnidirectional antennas. The simulation results show performance improvement in end-to-end delay as well as throughput.
Panaousis, Emmanouil A; Millar, Grant P; Politis, Christos; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2205
The nature of Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) makes them suitable to be utilized in the context of an extreme emergency for all involved rescue teams. We use the term emergency MANETs (eMANETs) in order to describe next generation IP-based networks, which are deployed in emergency cases such as forest fires and terrorist attacks. The main goal within the realm of eMANETs is to provide emergency workers with intelligent devices such as smart phones and PDAs. This technology allows communication "islets" to be established between the members of the same or different emergency teams (policemen, firemen, paramedics). In this article, we discuss an adaptive and secure routing protocol developed for the purposes of eMANETs. We evaluate the performance of the protocol by comparing it with other widely used routing protocols for MANETs. We finally show that the overhead introduced due to security considerations is affordable to support secure ad-hoc communications among lightweight devices.
Emmanouil A. Panaousis
Full Text Available The nature of Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs makes them suitable to be utilized in the context of anextreme emergency for all involved rescue teams. We use the term emergency MANETs (eMANETs inorder to describe next generation IP-based networks, which are deployed in emergency cases such asforest fires and terrorist attacks. The main goal within the realm of eMANETs is to provide emergencyworkers with intelligent devices such as smart phones and PDAs. This technology allows communication”islets” to be established between the members of the same or different emergency teams (policemen,firemen, paramedics. In this article, we discuss an adaptive and secure routing protocol developed forthe purposes of eMANETs. We evaluate the performance of the protocol by comparing it with otherwidely used routing protocols for MANETs. We finally show that the overhead introduced due to securityconsiderations is affordable to support secure ad-hoc communications among lightweight devices.
Full Text Available Providing security in Mobile Ad Hoc Network is crucial problem due to its open shared wireless medium, multi-hop and dynamic nature, constrained resources, lack of administration and cooperation. Traditionally routing protocols are designed to cope with routing operation but in practice they may be affected by misbehaving nodes so that they try to disturb the normal routing operations by launching different attacks with the intention to minimize or collapse the overall network performance. Therefore detecting a trusted node means ensuring authentication and securing routing can be expected. In this article we have proposed a Trust and Q-learning based Security (TQS model to detect the misbehaving nodes over Ad Hoc On Demand Distance-Vector (AODV routing protocol. Here we avoid the misbehaving nodes by calculating an aggregated reward, based on the Q-learning mechanism by using their historical forwarding and responding behaviour by the way misbehaving nodes can be isolated.
Full Text Available The self-organizing nature of the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs provide a communication channel anywhere, anytime without any pre-existing network infrastructure. However, it is exposed to various vulnerabilities that may be exploited by the malicious nodes. One such malicious behavior is introduced by blackhole nodes, which can be easily introduced in the network and, in turn, such nodes try to crumble the working of the network by dropping the maximum data under transmission. In this paper, a new protocol is proposed which is based on the widely used Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol, Enhanced Secure Trusted AODV (ESTA, which makes use of multiple paths along with use of trust and asymmetric cryptography to ensure data security. The results, based on NS-3 simulation, reveal that the proposed protocol is effectively able to counter the blackhole nodes in three different scenarios.
Full Text Available Abstract Several techniques of theoretical digital investigation are presented in the literature but most of them are unsuitable to cope with attacks in wireless networks, especially in Mobile Ad hoc and Sensor Networks (MASNets. In this article, we propose a formal approach for digital investigation of security attacks in wireless networks. We provide a model for describing attack scenarios in a wireless environment, and system and network evidence generated consequently. The use of formal approaches is motivated by the need to avoid ad hoc generation of results that impedes the accuracy of analysis and integrity of investigation. We develop an inference system that integrates the two types of evidence, handles incompleteness and duplication of information in them, and allows possible and provable actions and attack scenarios to be generated. To illustrate the proposal, we consider a case study dealing with the investigation of a remote buffer overflow attack.
of the information technology developments that the Marine Corps is currently studying. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks ( MANETs ) are infrastructureless, highly...supports Marine Corps tactical units will continuously undergo changes based on developments in information technology. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is one...edge. There are many challenges to MANET implementation however, including management of the dynamic physical topology, and the efficient use of limited
Sandberg, J.; Maris, M.; Hoogendoorn, P.
Two groups participated in a study on the added value of a gaming context and intelligent adaptation for a mobile learning application. The control group worked at home for a fortnight with the original Mobile English Learning application (MEL-original) developed in a previous project. The experimen
Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network is a compilation of wireless mobile terminals that are in contact with each other in the absence of a permanent infrastructure network. This gives a irregular formation. Many resources like power, energy, reliable data delivery and end to end delay plays a significant role in the network. But due to the dynamic movement of nodes, power management and energy conservation stands as a critical area. This is also due to the limited battery power and the maximum utilization of power by the nodes in the network .The responsibility of saving power has increased and it is possible byminimizing the consumption during the routing process. It is done in order to expand the lifetime of the network. In view of such a vital position, we introduce a new algorithm using an MAODV( Modified AdHoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol protocol which exactly concentrates on power awareness at the time of route selection. Power status of each and every node is observed to avoid excess consumption. It also makes sure that there is a rise in the speed of route selection and discovery process. Route Patch-Up scheme used in this algorithm results in optimum utilization of power using an Modified AODV (MAODV protocol. Thus the idea proposed provides better performance through simulation over NS2.
Full Text Available In a mobile ad hoc network, temporary link failures and route changes occur frequently. With theassumption that all packet losses are due to congestion, TCP performs poorly in such an environment.There are many versions of TCP which modified time to time as per need. In this paper modificationsintroduced on TCP New Reno over mobile ad-hoc networks using calculation of New RetransmissionTime out (RTO, to improve performance in term of congestion control. To calculate New RTO, adaptivebackoff response approach (ABRA in TCP New Reno was applied which suggest ABRA New Reno. Itutilizes an ABRA by which congestion window and slow start threshold values were decreased wheneveran acknowledgement is received and new backoff value calculate from smoothed round trip time.Evaluation based on comparative study of ABRA New Reno with other TCP Variants like New Reno andReno was done using realistic parameters like TCP Packet Received, Packet Drop, Packets Retransmitted,Throughput, and Packet Delivery Ratio calculated by varying attributes of Node Speed, Number of Nodesand Pause Time. Implementation and simulations were performed in QualNet 4.0 simulator.
Robinson, Y Harold; Rajaram, M
Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous mobile nodes forming an ad hoc network without fixed infrastructure. Dynamic topology property of MANET may degrade the performance of the network. However, multipath selection is a great challenging task to improve the network lifetime. We proposed an energy-aware multipath routing scheme based on particle swarm optimization (EMPSO) that uses continuous time recurrent neural network (CTRNN) to solve optimization problems. CTRNN finds the optimal loop-free paths to solve link disjoint paths in a MANET. The CTRNN is used as an optimum path selection technique that produces a set of optimal paths between source and destination. In CTRNN, particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is primly used for training the RNN. The proposed scheme uses the reliability measures such as transmission cost, energy factor, and the optimal traffic ratio between source and destination to increase routing performance. In this scheme, optimal loop-free paths can be found using PSO to seek better link quality nodes in route discovery phase. PSO optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to get a better solution with regard to a measure of quality. The proposed scheme discovers multiple loop-free paths by using PSO technique.
Full Text Available The mobile ad hoc network may be partially connected or it may be disconnected in nature and these forms of networks are termed intermittently connected mobile ad hoc network (ICMANET. The routing in such disconnected network is commonly an arduous task. Many routing protocols have been proposed for routing in ICMANET since decades. The routing techniques in existence for ICMANET are, namely, flooding, epidemic, probabilistic, copy case, spray and wait, and so forth. These techniques achieve an effective routing with minimum latency, higher delivery ratio, lesser overhead, and so forth. Though these techniques generate effective results, in this paper, we propose novel routing algorithms grounded on agent and cryptographic techniques, namely, location dissemination service (LoDiS routing with agent AES, A-LoDiS with agent AES routing, and B-LoDiS with agent AES routing, ensuring optimal results with respect to various network routing parameters. The algorithm along with efficient routing ensures higher degree of security. The security level is cited testing with respect to possibility of malicious nodes into the network. This paper also aids, with the comparative results of proposed algorithms, for secure routing in ICMANET.
Sekaran, Ramesh; Parasuraman, Ganesh Kumar
The mobile ad hoc network may be partially connected or it may be disconnected in nature and these forms of networks are termed intermittently connected mobile ad hoc network (ICMANET). The routing in such disconnected network is commonly an arduous task. Many routing protocols have been proposed for routing in ICMANET since decades. The routing techniques in existence for ICMANET are, namely, flooding, epidemic, probabilistic, copy case, spray and wait, and so forth. These techniques achieve an effective routing with minimum latency, higher delivery ratio, lesser overhead, and so forth. Though these techniques generate effective results, in this paper, we propose novel routing algorithms grounded on agent and cryptographic techniques, namely, location dissemination service (LoDiS) routing with agent AES, A-LoDiS with agent AES routing, and B-LoDiS with agent AES routing, ensuring optimal results with respect to various network routing parameters. The algorithm along with efficient routing ensures higher degree of security. The security level is cited testing with respect to possibility of malicious nodes into the network. This paper also aids, with the comparative results of proposed algorithms, for secure routing in ICMANET.
In a mobile ad hoc network, temporary link failures and route changes occur frequently. With the assumption that all packet losses are due to congestion, TCP performs poorly in such an environment. There are many versions of TCP which modified time to time as per need. In this paper modifications introduced on TCP New Reno over mobile ad-hoc networks using calculation of New Retransmission Time out (RTO), to improve performance in term of congestion control. To calculate New RTO, adaptive backoff response approach (ABRA) in TCP New Reno was applied which suggest ABRA New Reno. It utilizes an ABRA by which congestion window and slow start threshold values were decreased whenever an acknowledgement is received and new backoff value calculate from smoothed round trip time. Evaluation based on comparative study of ABRA New Reno with other TCP Variants like New Reno and Reno was done using realistic parameters like TCP Packet Received, Packet Drop, Packets Retransmitted, Throughput, and Packet Delivery Ratio calcu...
Al-Omari, Saleh Ali K; 10.5121/jgraphhoc.2010.2107
Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of two or more devices or nodes or terminals with wireless communications and networking capability that communicate with each other without the aid of any centralized administrator also the wireless nodes that can dynamically form a network to exchange information without using any existing fixed network infrastructure. And it's an autonomous system in which mobile hosts connected by wireless links are free to be dynamically and some time act as routers at the same time, and we discuss in this paper the distinct characteristics of traditional wired networks, including network configuration may change at any time, there is no direction or limit the movement and so on, and thus needed a new optional path Agreement (Routing Protocol) to identify nodes for these actions communicate with each other path, An ideal choice way the agreement should not only be able to find the right path, and the Ad Hoc Network must be able to adapt to changing network of this type at any...
ZHU Chen-Ping; WANG Li; LIU Xiao-Ting; YAN Zhi-Jun
We investigate the worm spreading process in mobile ad hoc networks with a susceptible-infected-recovered model on a two-dimensional plane.A medium access control mechanism operates within it,inhibiting transmission and relaying a message by using other nodes inside the node's transmitting circle during speaking.We measure the rewiring probability p with the transmitting range r and the average relative velocity (v) of the moving nodes,and map the problem into a directed dynamic small-world network.A new scaling relation for the recovered portion of the nodes reveals the effect caused by geometric distance,which has been ignored by previous models.%We investigate the worm spreading process in mobile ad hoc networks with a susceptible-infected-recovered model on a two-dimensional plane. A medium access control mechanism operates within it, inhibiting transmission and relaying a message by using other nodes inside the node's transmitting circle during speaking. We measure the rewiring probability p with the transmitting range r and the average relative velocity (v) of the moving nodes, and map the problem into a directed dynamic small-world network. A new scaling relation for the recovered portion of the nodes reveals the effect caused by geometric distance, which has been ignored by previous models.
Y. Harold Robinson
Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a collection of autonomous mobile nodes forming an ad hoc network without fixed infrastructure. Dynamic topology property of MANET may degrade the performance of the network. However, multipath selection is a great challenging task to improve the network lifetime. We proposed an energy-aware multipath routing scheme based on particle swarm optimization (EMPSO that uses continuous time recurrent neural network (CTRNN to solve optimization problems. CTRNN finds the optimal loop-free paths to solve link disjoint paths in a MANET. The CTRNN is used as an optimum path selection technique that produces a set of optimal paths between source and destination. In CTRNN, particle swarm optimization (PSO method is primly used for training the RNN. The proposed scheme uses the reliability measures such as transmission cost, energy factor, and the optimal traffic ratio between source and destination to increase routing performance. In this scheme, optimal loop-free paths can be found using PSO to seek better link quality nodes in route discovery phase. PSO optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to get a better solution with regard to a measure of quality. The proposed scheme discovers multiple loop-free paths by using PSO technique.
针对移动Ad Hoc网络中移动节点的自由移动和拓扑结构的动态变化所造成的已经建立的QoS(Quality of Service)路径断开致使通信中断、时延、抖动等问题,对可支持Ad Hoc网络的QoS信令机制进行深入的探讨,结合Ad Hoc网络拓扑结构动态改变、传输带宽有限以及能量受限等问题,讨论了现存计算机网络综合服务和区分服务应用于Ad Hoc网络的优劣,提出了Ad Hoc网络QoS信令设计需要考虑的问题.研究表明:MRSVP(Mobile Resource ReSerVation Protocol)和DRSVP(Dynami Resource ReSerVation Protocol)较RSVP(Resource ReSerVation Protocol)在协议功能上有很大的增强;而FQMM(Flexible Quality of Service Model for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks)则结合了IntServ和DifServ的优点;三者对提高Ad Hoc网络的QoS,均起到很大的作用.
A main shortcoming of mobile Ad-hoc network's reactive routing protocols is the large volume of far-reaching control traffic required to support the route discovery (RD) and route repair (RR) mechanism. Using a random mobility model, this paper derives the probability equation of the relative distance (RDIS) between any two mobile hosts in an ad-hoc network. Consequently, combining with average equivalent hop distance (AEHD), a host can estimate the routing hops between itself and any destination host each timethe RD/RR procedure is triggered, and reduce the flooding area of RD/RR messages. Simulation results show that this optimized route repair (ORR) algorithm can significantly decrease the communication overhead of RR process by about 35%.
Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of a danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm called the mobile dendritic cell algorithm (MDCA to detect flooding-based attacks in MANETs. The MDCA applies the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA to secure the MANET with additional improvements. The MDCA is tested and validated using Qualnet v7.1 simulation tool. This work also introduces a new simulation module for a flooding attack called the resource consumption attack (RCA using Qualnet v7.1. The results highlight the high efficiency of the MDCA in detecting RCAs in MANETs.
Abdelhaq, Maha; Alsaqour, Raed; Abdelhaq, Shawkat
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of a danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm called the mobile dendritic cell algorithm (MDCA) to detect flooding-based attacks in MANETs. The MDCA applies the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA) to secure the MANET with additional improvements. The MDCA is tested and validated using Qualnet v7.1 simulation tool. This work also introduces a new simulation module for a flooding attack called the resource consumption attack (RCA) using Qualnet v7.1. The results highlight the high efficiency of the MDCA in detecting RCAs in MANETs.
In a multi-hop mobile ad hoc network (MANET), mobile nodes cooperate to form a network without using any infrastructure such as access points or base stations. The mobility of the nodes and the fundamentally limited capacity of the wireless medium, together with wireless transmission effects such as attenuation, multi-path propagation, and interference combine to create sig-nificant challenges for security in MANETs. Traditional cryptographic mecha-nisms such as authentication and encryption are not capable of handling some kinds of attacks such as packet dropping by malicious nodes in MANETs. This paper presents a mechanism for detecting malicious packet dropping attacks in MANETs. The mechanism is depends on a trust module on each node, which is based on the reputation value computed for that node by its neighbors. The reputation value of a node is computed based on its packet forwarding behavior in the network. The reputation information is gathered, stored and exchanged between the nodes, and computed und...
Dhirendra Kumar Sharma
Full Text Available Low cost energy-efficient (power based routing protocols of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs increase the lifetime of static networks by using received signal strength (RSS and battery power status (PS. They require GPS service to find the exact location of mobile nodes. The GPS devices themselves consume power because they need excessive updates to find the stationary nodes for efficient routing. To overcome this, RSS is being used as a metric, followed by, residual battery power. The recent protocols, based on these concepts, provide energy efficient routes during the route discovery phase only. Topological changes make these routes weak in due course of time. To update routes, HELLO process can be used, which however creates unnecessary overhead, delay and consumes power. Hence, these protocols do not update the routes. We propose an energy-efficient reactive routing protocol that uses the RSS and PS of mobile nodes. Proposed Link Failure Prediction (LFP algorithm uses the link-layer feedback system to update active routes. We use ns2 for simulation of the proposed algorithm. Comparing the results of proposed scheme and existing scheme, in terms of energy consumption, link failure probability, and retransmission of packets, we observe that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing one.
Takialddin A. Al Smadi
Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Networks are wireless infrastructure less networks can beeasily formed or deployed due to its simple infrastructure. Security has become a primary concern in order to provide protected communication between mobile nodes in a hostile environment. The main objective of this work is to enhance the performance of the network by securing the data and to minimize the malicious nodes which disturb the stream of the network. Securing data is a critical task which can be achieved by cryptographic algorithms and disturbance detection plays as a crucial ingredient in any comprehensive security solution to address the threats.Hence a Novel Cryptographic Algorithm with a new Disturbance Detection System (DDS has been proposed for Mobile Adhoc Networks. This method prevents the outside attacks to obtain any information from any data exchange in network and also use promiscuous mode of working along with rating and collaborative decision making based on multiple threshold values.The proposed algorithm was implemented and simulated in the Glomosim and the result analysis proved that the performance of the network is increased.
Md Nazmul Islam Khan
Full Text Available Transmission Control Protocol (TCP is often preferred to be implemented at the transport layer of a Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET because of its wide range of applications, which enjoys the advantage of reliable data transmission in the Internet. However, because of some unique characteristics of MANET, TCP cannot offer reliable services while using e-mail, internet search and file transmission insuch a network. The research investigates how well the different versions of TCP respond to various performance differentials when subjected to different network stresses and topology changes, aside from identifying the most efficient and robust TCP version(s for different MANET scenarios. Among several TCP variants, three types are considered important for the analysis, namely TCP Reno, TCP New Reno and TCP Selective Acknowledgment (SACK. In most cases, the TCP performance is found in our study to decrease when the node size and mobility rate is increased in the network. There is, however, exception to this. As our simulation results demonstrate, the increases in the node velocity sometimes help the TCP to attain a better performance. The study also reveals that out of the three variants, TCP SACK can adaptrelatively well to the changing network sizes while TCP Reno performs most robustly in the presence ofdifferent mobility rates within MANET.
Full Text Available We compare the probability of k-Connectivity of an ad hoc network under Random Way Point (RWP,City Section and Manhattan mobility models. A Network is said to be k-Connected if there exists at least kedge disjoint paths between any pair of nodes in that network at any given time and velocity. Initially, foreach of the three mobility models, the movement of the each node in the ad hoc network at a givenvelocity and time are captured and stored in the Node Movement Database (NMDB. Using themovements in the NMDB, the location of the node at a given time is computed and stored in the NodeLocation Database (NLDB. A weighted graph is created using the location of the nodes from NLDB,which is converted into a residual graph. The k-Connectivity of this residual graph is obtained by runningFord-Fulkerson’s algorithm on it. Ford Fulkerson’s algorithm computes the maximum flow of a networkby recording the flows assigned to different routes from each node to all the other nodes in the network.When run for a particular source-destination pair (s, d pair on a residual network graph with unit edgeweights as capacity, the maximum flow determined by Ford-Fulkerson’ algorithm is the number of edgedisjoint s-d paths on the network graph. Simulations show that the RWP model yields the highestprobability of k-Connectivity compared to City Section and Manhattan mobility models for a majority ofdifferent node densities and velocities considered. Simulation results also show that, for all the threemobility models, as the k value increases, the probability of k-Connectivity decreases for a given densityand velocity and as the density increases the probability of k-Connectivity increases.
介绍了Ad Hoc网络的发展、特点和应用领域.对Ad Hoc网络的体系结构进行了研究.深入分析了Ad Hoc网络面临的特殊问题,并讨论了这些问题的影响及引发的研究方向.
Full Text Available A mobile Ad-Hoc network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Each node operates not only as an end system but, also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves into a network. These nodes change position frequently. A node can get compromised during the route discovery process. Attackers from inside or outside can easily exploit the network. Several secure routing protocols are proposed for MANETs by researchers. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compare the performance of two prominent secure routing protocols for MANETs: Secure Efficient Ad-Hoc Distance Vector Protocol i.e. SEAD (a proactive or table driven protocol and Ariadne (a reactive or on demand protocol.Compared to the proactive routing protocols, less control overhead is a distinct advantage of the reactive protocols. Thus, reactive routing protocols have better scalability than proactive routing protocols. However, when using reactive routing protocols, source nodes may suffer from long delays for route searching before they can forward data packets. Hence these protocols are not suitable for real-time applications. As per our findings the difference in the protocols mechanics leads to significant performance differentials for both of these protocols. The performance differentials are analyzed using varying simulation time. These simulations are carried out using the NS-2 network simulator. The results presented in this work illustrate the importance in carefully evaluating and implementing routing protocols in an ad hoc environment.
Full Text Available Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs are autonomous and decentralized wireless systems. Mobile Ad hoc Network is a collection of mobile nodes in which the wireless links are frequently broken down due to mobility and dynamic infrastructure. Routing is a significant issue and challenge in ad hoc networks. Many Routing protocols have been proposed so far to improve the routing performance and reliability. This research paper describes the characteristics of ad hoc routing protocols Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV, Optimized link State Routing (OLSR, Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV based on the performance metrics like packet delivery fraction, Average delay, Normalized Routing load, Throughput and Jitter under low mobility and low traffic network as well as under high mobility and high traffic network. Results show that AODV has maximum throughput under low traffic and DSDV has maximum throughput under high traffic. As network becomes dense OLSR, DSR and DSDV perform well in terms of Throughput than AODV and TORA. TORA performs well in dense networks in terms of packet delivery fraction but at the same time Normalized Routing load of TORA is maximum among all the protocols in both the networks. DSDV has least Normalized Routing load in both low and high traffic. OLSR and DSDV give the least Jitter and Average Delay in both networks.
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to change the routing strategy of AODV protocol (Ad hoc On Demand Vector inorder to improve the energy consumption in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET. The purpose is tominimize the regular period of HELLO messages generated by the AODV protocol used for the research,development and maintenance of routes. This information is useful to have an idea about battery powerlevels of different network hosts. After storing this information, the node elect the shortest path followingthe classical model used this information to elect safest path (make a compromise in terms of energy.Transmitter node does not select another node as its battery will be exhausted soon.Any node of the network can have the same information’s about the neighborhoods as well as otherinformation about the energy level of the different terminal to avoid routing using a link that will be lostdue to an exhausted battery of a node in this link.Analytical study and simulations by Jist/SWANS have been conducted to note that no divergencerelatively to the classical AODV, a node can have this type of information that improves the energyefficiency in ad hoc networks.
Full Text Available Cognitive radio, an upcoming technology gives the solution for the scarcity of spectrum where the transmitter acts as a sensible device which behaves as per the surrounding environment. A group of devices, which follows this technology, forms a temporary network called mobile cognitive radio ad hoc networks. The widely known ad hoc networks are always in moving fashion and there is no need for central abstraction in collecting the data. In such networks, formation of route(s to the destination becomes a leading problem. In Cognitive Radio ad hoc Networks (CRAHNs a challenging problem is to design the routing metric and also to reduce the packet drop. This problem arrives due to the usage of traditional routing in CRAHNs. Opportunistic routing - a new routing paradigm has been used as an alternate for maximizing the packet delivery ratio. The paper discusses about the routing protocol called CRCN CORMEN discusses about packet delivery ratio, reduces delay in a cooperative way among the nodes, when compared to the traditional Cooperative communications. The proposed protocol is evaluated and compared through NS2 simulation. The result indicates a high performance due to opportunistic routing and the evaluation is shown through by using xgraph.
Full Text Available Problem statement: A mobile ad hoc network is a self-configuring network of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. As the nodes are free to move randomly, topology of the network may change rapidly and unpredictably. As a result, intermediate nodes in the communication routes tend to lose connection with each other during the communication process. In order to repair a broken link, an end-to-end (from source to destination route discovery is typically performed to establish a new route for communication. The mechanism results in huge communication overhead and long delay in completion of the communication. So, it is rational to locally repair a link, as much as possible, than to discover a whole new route. Approach: In the present article, we proposed a Link Stability and Node Energy Conscious (LSNEC local route repair scheme for mobile ad hoc networks. In case of breakage of a link from node na to another node nb in between a communication session, LSNEC instructs na to broadcast a ROUTE-REPAIR message within its radio-range specifying nb or any successor of nb in the broken route, as a desirable destination. If any node residing within the radio-range of na has an already established single/multi-hop path to any one of those destinations mentioned in the ROUTE-REPAIR message, it sends a REPAIR-ACK message back to na. Attributes of REPAIR-ACK include the identification number (s of the destination (s as well as identification numbers, geographical positions (in terms of latitude and longitude, radio-ranges and residual energies of nodes present in the associated path to that destination along with the intuitively computed stability of links between the consecutive nodes. The stability is computed depending upon relative velocities of the involved nodes, distance between them and the history of survival of the link. The optimal path is chosen depending upon the residual energy of nodes, stability of links and number of hops in that path
郑博; 黄国策; 张衡阳
3维移动Ad hoc网络(3-D MANET)是一种网络场景分布于3维空间的移动Ad hoc网络.链路动态性分析是研究3-D MANET的一项基础性工作,其结论可作为网络协议设计的基础.该文基于CV(Constant Velocity)移动模型,从概率模型的角度推导出了链路寿命期望和分布的数学表达式,并通过仿真实验进行了验证,表明了理论计算结果的正确性.结论对3-D MANET的研究和应用具有一定的参考价值.%3-Dimensional Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (3-D MANET) is a case of mobile Ad hoc network which is distributed on the 3-Dimensional space. Analysis of link dynamics is a fundamental issue in the studies of 3-D MANET, the conclusion of which can be the basis of the design of network protocol. Based on the Constant Velocity (CV) mobility model, analytical expressions of expected link lifetime and its distributions are derived from a probability model. Simulation results verify the accuracy of the analytical expressions. The conclusion is valuable for the research and application of 3-D MANET.
Ad hoc网络是由一些移动节点组成的一个多跳的临时性无线自治系统，这种新型的通信网络具有动态变化的拓扑结构和分布控制的网络机制。文中针对Ad hoc网络作了简单的介绍并重点介绍了针对Ad hoc网络特性而提出的路由协议。
王继志; 王英龙; 王美琴
随着Ad Hoc移动网络的发展和UWB技术的逐步成熟,研究采用UWB技术对Ad Hoc移动网络协议带来的影响,就变得非常迫切而且很有意义.本文简单介绍了UWB技术,探讨了采用UWB技术的Ad Hoc移动网络在网络协议方面需要做的改动和目前的研究成果,并描述了其应用前景.
Ad Hoc网络是一种特殊的多跳移动无线网络,它不需要任何预先设置的固定设施就可组网.由于其组网方式的灵活,使得其存在着较大的安全隐患.根据Ad Hoc网络的特点,分析其面临的各种安全漏洞,并提出了几种Ad Hoc网络的安全策略.
Full Text Available We propose an algorithm to determine stable connected dominating sets (CDS for mobile ad hoc networks using the notion of strong neighborhood (SN. The SN-CDS algorithm takes an input parameter called the Threshold Neighborhood Distance Ratio (TNDR; for an edge to be part of a strong neighborhood-based topology, the ratio of the physical Euclidean distance between the end nodes of the edge to that of the transmission range per node has to be less than or equal to the TNDR. The algorithm prefers to include nodes (into the SN-CDS in the decreasing order of the number of uncovered strong neighbors until all nodes in the network are covered. We observe the SN-CDS (TNDR < 1 to have a significantly longer lifetime than a maximum density-based CDS (MaxD-CDS with TNDR = 1.0; the tradeoff being a slightly larger CDS Node Size and hop count per path.
Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc Networks (MANET, being infrastructureless and dynamic in nature, are predominantly susceptible to attacks such as black hole, worm hole, cunning gray hole attack at source or destination. Various solutions have been put forth so far in literature in order to mitigate the effects of these attacks on the network performance and to improve the reliability of the network. However, these attacks are still prominently a serious threat in MANET. Hence, a trust based routing strategy termed Secure-BEFORE routing (Best FOrwarding Route Estimation is proposed to ensure optimal route estimation in computing the trust value and hop counts using the dummy packets inside the network at 1-hop level. It is observed that the overall performance of the network is improved in providing one-hop level security by maintaining the packet equivalence ratio. Malicious and suspicious nodes are isolated and eliminated from the network, based on their behavior.
Schiøler, Henrik; Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Schwefel, Hans-Peter
In this paper the dynamics of broadcasting wireless ad-hoc networks is studied through probabilistic modelling. A randomized transmission discipline is assumed in accordance with existing MAC definitions such as WLAN with Decentralized Coordination or IEEE-802.15.4. Message reception is assumed...... to be governed by node power-down policies and is equivalently assumed to be randomized. Altogether randomization facilitates a probabilistic model in the shape of an integro-differential equation governing the propagation of information, where brownian node mobility may be accounted for by including an extra...... diffusion term. The established model is analyzed for transient behaviour and a travelling wave solution facilitates expressions for propagation speed as well as parametrized analysis of network reliability and node power consumption. Applications of the developed models for node localization and network...
Full Text Available There are several services that build on the availability of closest node location information like geographic routing in spontaneous networks, data gathering in sensor networks, movement coordination among autonomous robotic nodes, location specific services for hand held devices and danger warning or traffic monitoring in vehicular networks. Ad hoc networking protocols and location-aware services require that mobile nodes identify the location of their closest nodes. Such a process can be easily misuses or stop by opposed nodes. In absence of a priori trusted nodes, the spotting and identifying of closest node position presents challenges that have been scarcely investigated in the literature. Node can also send message from one to many nodes in a broadcasting manner here.
Full Text Available Efficient routing between nodes is the most important challenge in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET. A Connected Dominating Set (CDS acts as a virtual backbone for routing in a MANET. Hence, the construction of CDS based on the need and its application plays a vital role in the applications of MANET. The PipeLined Strategic CDS (PLS-CDS is constructed based on strategy, dynamic diameter and transmission range. The strategy used for selecting the starting node is, any source node in the network, which has its entire destination within a virtual pipelined coverage, instead of the node with maximum connectivity. The other nodes are then selected based on density and velocity. The proposed CDS also utilizes the energy of the nodes in the network in an optimized manner. Simulation results showed that the proposed algorithm is better in terms of size of the CDS and average hop per path length.
ZHOU BoSheng(周伯生); WU JieYi(吴介一); FEI Xiang(费翔); ZHAO Jian(赵键)
Broadcasting operations are of great importance in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks(MANETs) since they are frequently executed. A straightforward broadcasting by flooding willproduce serious redundancy, contention and collision, and furthermore it will result in the perfor-mance degradation of the networks. PCBA, a Priority-based Competitive Broadcasting Algorithm,is proposed in this paper to solve the above problem. In this algorithm, hosts with larger PriorityIndex (PI) have higher probability to rebroadcast relevant messages while some other hosts will beprevented from rebroadcasting according to the competing policy. PCBA is a distributed algorithmand will not increase communication overhead. Through the analyses and extensive simulations,the authors demonstrate that PCBA has advantages in availability and scalability. It can signif-icantly reduce the rebroadcast redundancy. In addition, PCBA can also be further used in otherapplications such as routing discovery schemes, enhancing the performance.
Tan Xuezhi; Wu Shaochuan; Jia Shilou
This paper theoretically analyzes a deficiency of the existing scheme, and proposes a distributed multi-hop certification authority scheme for mobile Ad Hoc networks. In our design, we distribute the certification authority functions through a threshold secret sharing mechanism, in which each node holds a secret share and multiple nodes jointly provide complete services. Certification authority is not limited in a local neighborhood but can be completed within multi-hop location. In addition, we replace broadcast by multicast to improve system performance and reduce communication overhead. This paper resolves some technical problems of ubiquitous certification authority services, and presents a wieldy multi-hop certification authority algorithm. Simulation results confirm the availability and effectiveness of our design.
Yu, F Richard; Huang, Minyi; Mason, Peter; Li, Zhiqiang
In cognitive radio mobile ad hoc networks (CR-MANETs), secondary users can cooperatively sense the spectrum to detect the presence of primary users. In this chapter, we propose a fully distributed and scalable cooperative spectrum sensing scheme based on recent advances in consensus algorithms. In the proposed scheme, the secondary users can maintain coordination based on only local information exchange without a centralized common receiver. We use the consensus of secondary users to make the final decision. The proposed scheme is essentially based on recent advances in consensus algorithms that have taken inspiration from complex natural phenomena including flocking of birds, schooling of fish, swarming of ants and honeybees. Unlike the existing cooperative spectrum sensing schemes, there is no need for a centralized receiver in the proposed schemes, which make them suitable in distributed CR-MANETs. Simulation results show that the proposed consensus schemes can have significant lower missing detection prob...
A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a peer-to-peer wireless network where nodes can communicate with each other without the use of infrastructure such as access points or base stations. These networks are self-configuring, capable of self-directed operation and hastily deployable. Nodes cooperate to provide connectivity, operates without centralized administration. Nodes are itinerant, topology can be very dynamic and nodes must be able to relay traffic since communicating nodes might be out of range. The dynamic nature of MANET makes network open to attacks and unreliability. Routing is always the most significant part for any networks. Each node should not only work for itself, but should be cooperative with other nodes. Node misbehaviour due to selfish or malicious intention could significantly degrade the performance of MANET. The Qos parameters like PDR, throughput and delay are affected directly due to such misbehaving nodes. We focus on trust management framework, which is intended to cope with misbehav...
Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a dynamicdistributed system of wireless nodes that moveindependently of each other. The operating transmissionrange of the nodes is limited and as a result, MANETroutes are often multi-hop in nature. Any node in aMANET can become a source or destination, and eachnode can function as a router, forwarding data for its peers.MANET routing protocols are either proactive or reactivein nature. Proactive routing protocols determine andmaintain routes between any pair of nodes irrespective oftheir requirement. The reactive on-demand routingprotocols determine a route only when required. As thenetwork topology changes dynamically, reactive ondemandrouting has been preferred over proactive routing.In this Paper, we will review the routing protocol in theMANET.
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous nodes that communicate with each other by forming a multi-hop radio network and maintaining connections in a decentralized manner. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due to their features of open medium, dynamically changing topologies, reliance on cooperative algorithms, absence of centralized monitoring points, and lack of clear lines of defense. Most of the routing protocols for MANETs are thus vulnerable to various types of attacks. For security, these protocols are highly dependent on cryptographic key exchange operations. This paper presents a multi-path certification protocol for efficient and reliable key exchange among the nodes in a MANET. Simulation results have shown the effectiveness and efficiency of the protocol.
Fard, Mohammad Amin Kheirandish; Aflaki, Mohammad
Standard congestion control cannot detect link failure losses which occur due to mobility and power scarcity in multi-hop Ad-Hoc network (MANET). Moreover, successive executions of Back-off algorithm deficiently grow Retransmission Timeout (RTO) exponentially for new route. The importance of detecting and responding link failure losses is to prevent sender from remaining idle unnecessarily and manage number of packet retransmission overhead. In contrast to Cross-layer approaches which require feedback information from lower layers, this paper operates purely in Transport layer. This paper explores an end-to-end threshold-based algorithm which enhances congestion control to address link failure loss in MANET. It consists of two phases. First, threshold-based loss classification algorithm distinguishes losses due to link failure by estimating queue usage based on Relative One-way Trip Time (ROTT). Second phase adjusts RTO for new route by comparing capabilities of new route to the broken route using available i...
Huang Jingbo; Hong Peilin; Li Jinsheng
Energy consumption is a crucial design concern in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs)since nodes are powered by batteries with limited energy, whereas Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)protocol does not take the energy limitation of MANET nodes into account. This paper proposes an energy-saving routing algorithm based on DSR: Power Aware Routing protocol based on DSR (PAR-DSR). The design objective of PAR-DSR is to select energy-efficient paths. The main features of PAR-DSR are: (1) Nodes use the Signal Attenuation Rate (SAR) to conduct power control operations;(2) Minimum path cost as metric to balance the traffic and energy consumption of wireless nodes. The simulation results show that PAR-DSR can greatly reduce the energy consumption of MANET nodes.The average node lifetime of PAR-DSR is 50%-77% longer than that of DSR.
Wei, Zhexiong; Tang, Helen; Yu, F. Richard; Wang, Maoyu
Some features of Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), including dynamic membership, topology, and open wireless medium, introduce a variety of security risks. Malicious nodes can drop or modify packets that are received from other nodes. These malicious activities may seriously affect the availability of services in MANETs. Therefore, secure routing in MANETs has emerged as an important MANET research area. In this paper, we propose a scheme that enhances the security of Optimal Link State Routing version 2 (OLSRv2) in MANETs based on trust. In the proposed scheme, more accurate trust can be obtained by considering different types of packets and other important factors that may cause dropping packets in friendly nodes, such as buffer overflows and unreliable wireless connections. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Full Text Available In content-based communication, information flows towards interested hosts rather than towards specifically set destinations. This new style of communication perfectly fits the needs of applications dedicated to information sharing, news distribution, service advertisement and discovery, etc. In this paper we address the problem of supporting content-based communication in partially or intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. The protocol we designed leverages on the concepts of opportunistic networking and delay-tolerant networking in order to account for the absence of end-to-end connectivity in disconnected MANETs. The paper provides an overview of the protocol, as well as simulation results that show how this protocol can perform in realistic conditions.
Full Text Available Thanks to improvements in wireless communication technologies and increasing computing power in hand-held devices, mobile ad hoc networks are becoming an ever-more present reality. Coordination languages are expected to become important means in supporting this type of interaction. To this extent we argue the interest of the Bach coordination language as a middleware that can handle and react to context changes as well as cope with unpredictable physical interruptions that occur in opportunistic network connections. More concretely, our proposal is based on blackboard rules that model declaratively the actions to be taken once the blackboard content reaches a predefined state, but also that manage the engagement and disengagement of hosts and transient sharing of blackboards. The idea of reactiveness has already been introduced in previous work, but as will be appreciated by the reader, this article presents a new perspective, more focused on a declarative setting.
Seth, D. D.; Patnaik, S.; Pal, S.
To reduce interference and to save a significant amount of energy, a control of transmission power is employed in Mobile Ad hoc Network. Many researchers have reported numerous transmission power control schemes to achieve the objective. Some of those techniques use higher transmission power for control packets (Request To Send/Clear To Send) and lesser power for Data and ACK packets. These schemes, though save some amount of energy, achieve least aggregate throughput due to poor spatial reuse and hidden terminal interference. In this paper, an efficient Power Controlled Medium Access Control (EPCM) scheme is evinced, which uses uniform interference aware and minimum transmission power for both Control and Data packet. The performance of EPCM is evaluated and compared with three reported Medium Access Control protocols which are based on transmission power control schemes and is observed that the proposed protocol achieves better throughput and minimal energy consumption while avoiding the hidden terminal problem.
Full Text Available The use of wireless technologies is gradually increasing and risks related to the use of these technologies are considerable. Due to their dynamically changing topology and open environment without a centralized policy control of a traditional network, a mobile ad hoc network (MANET is vulnerable to the presence of malicious nodes and attacks. The ideal solution to overcome a myriad of security concerns in MANET’s is the use of reliable authentication architecture. In this paper we propose a new key management scheme based on threshold cryptography in kerberos for MANET’s, the proposed scheme uses the elliptic curve cryptography method that consumes fewer resources well adapted to the wireless environment. Our approach shows a strength and effectiveness against attacks.
Full Text Available Abstract Certificate authorities (CAs are the main components of PKI that enable us for providing basic security services in wired networks and Internet. But, we cannot use centralized CAs, in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. So, many efforts have been made to adapt CA to the special characteristics of MANETs and new concepts such as distributed CAs (DCAs have been proposed that distribute the functionality of CA between MANET nodes. In this article, we study various proposed DCA schemes for MANET and then classify these schemes according to their internal structures and techniques. Finally, we propose the characteristics of an ideal DCA system that can be used to verify the completeness of any DCA scheme. This classification and taxonomy identify the weakness and constraints of each scheme, and are very important for designing more secure, scalable, and high performance DCA systems for MANETs and other networks.
An ants-based on-demand routing algorithm (AORA) specialized for mobile ad hoc networks is proposed. AORA measures the network's traffic information including delivery time,route energy etc. by the continuous delivery of data packets,then calculates the compositive parameter for each route which can be seen as the stigmity and uses it to choose the comparatively optimal route in real time.To adjust the weight of each traffic information,the algorithm can meet the different demand of the network's user. Multipath source self repair routing (MSSRR) algorithm and dynamic source routing (DSR) can be seen as the special samples of AORA. The routing overhead is not increased in this algorithm. By using simulation, it can be seen that the performance of AORA is better than that of DSR in all scenarios obviously,especially the delivery fraction is increased by more than 100%.
The emerging need for mobile ad hoc networks and secured data transmission phase is of crucial importance depending upon the environments like military. In this paper, a new way to improve the reliability of message transmission is presented. In the open collaborative MANET environment, any node can maliciously or selfishly disrupt and deny communication of other nodes. Dynamic changing topology makes it hard to determine the adversary nodes that affect the communication in MANET. An SMT protocol provides a way to secure message transmission by dispersing the message among several paths with minimal redundancy. The multiple routes selected are known as APS -Active Path Set. This paper describes a technique for fault discovery process to identify Byzantine failures which include nodes that drop, modify, or mis-route packets in an attempt to disrupt the routing service. An adaptive probing technique detects a malicious link through binary search and according to the nodes behavior, these links are avoided in th...
Guan, Quansheng; Jiang, Shengming
Cognitive radio (CR) technology will have significant impacts on upper layer performance in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). In this paper, we study topology control and routing in CR-MANETs. We propose a distributed Prediction-based Cognitive Topology Control (PCTC) scheme to provision cognition capability to routing in CR-MANETs. PCTC is a midware-like cross-layer module residing between CR module and routing. The proposed PCTC scheme uses cognitive link availability prediction, which is aware of the interference to primary users, to predict the available duration of links in CR-MANETs. Based on the link prediction, PCTC constructs an efficient and reliable topology, which is aimed at mitigating re-routing frequency and improving end-to-end network performance such as throughput and delay. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Kalaiarasi, R; Pari, S Neelavathy; Sridharan, D
Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of nodes that can be rapidly deployed as a multi-hop network without the aid of any centralized administration. Misbehavior is challenged by bandwidth and energy efficient medium access control and fair share of throughput. Node misbehavior plays an important role in MANET. In this survey, few of the contention window misbehavior is reviewed and compared. The contention window cheating either minimizes the active communication of the network or reduces bandwidth utilization of a particular node. The classification presented is in no case unique but summarizes the chief characteristics of many published proposals for contention window cheating. After getting insight into the different contention window misbehavior, few of the enhancements that can be done to improve the existing contention window are suggested. The purpose of this paper is to facilitate the research efforts in combining the existing solutions to offer more efficient methods to reduce contention win...
Sen, Jaydip; G., Harihara S; Reddy, Harish; Balamuralidhar, P
Protecting the network layer from malicious attacks is an important and challenging security issue in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). In this paper, a security mechanism is proposed to defend against a cooperative gray hole attack on the well known AODV routing protocol in MANETs. A gray hole is a node that selectively drops and forwards data packets after it advertises itself as having the shortest path to the destination node in response to a route request message from a source node. The proposed mechanism does not apply any cryptographic primitives on the routing messages. Instead, it protects the network by detecting and reacting to malicious activities of any node. Simulation results show that the scheme has a significantly high detection rate with moderate network traffic overhead.
Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs, it is easy to launch wormhole, man-in-the-middle and denial of service (DoS attacks, or to impersonate another node. Trust based cross layer approach established a network consisting confidentiality and authentication of packets in both routing and link layers., in this paper, we propose to develop an enhanced distributed certificate authority scheme to provide data integrity, thus making the network more secure from both inside and outside attacks. The proposed scheme makes use of Shamir's secret sharing scheme along with a redundancy technique to support certificate renewal and revocation. The malicious nodes are detected by the trusting mechanism by monitoring the behavior hop by hop. By simulation results, we show that the proposed scheme achieves more packet delivery ratio while attaining less delay and overhead, compared with the trust based cross layer approach.
SUNIL K. PARYANI,
Full Text Available Intrusion Prevention is first line of defense against attacks in MANET. Intrusion Detection and response presents a second line of defense. New vulnerabilities will continue to invent new attack methods so new technology such as MANET, we focus on developing effective detection approaches In this paper, we present an intrusion detection system for detection of malicious node in mobile ad hoc network. The technique is designed for detection of malicious nodes in a neighborhood in which each pair of nodes are within radio range of each other. Such a neighborhood of nodes is known as a clique.  This technique is aimed to reduce the computation and communication costs to select a monitor node and reduces the message passing between the nodes to detect a malicious node from the cluster hence there very less traffic and less chances of a collision.
This paper focuses on investigating immunological principles in designing a multi-agent security architecture for intrusion detection and response in mobile ad hoc networks. In this approach, the immunity-based agents monitor the situation in the network. These agents can take appropriate actions according to the underlying security policies. Specifically, their activities are coordinated in a hierarchical fashion while sensing,communicating, decision and generating responses. Such an agent can learn and adapt to its environment dynamically and can detect both known and unknown intrusions. The proposed intrusion detection architecture is designed to be flexible, extendible, and adaptable that can perform real-time monitoring. This paper provides the conceptual view and a general framework of the proposed system. In the end, the architecture is illustrated by an example to show it can prevent the attack efficiently.
Full Text Available An important issue in ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV routing protocols is route failure caused by node mobility in the MANETs. The AODV requires a new route discovery procedure whenever a route breaks and these frequent route discoveries increase transmission delays and routing overhead. The present study proposes a new method for AODVs using a genetic algorithm to improve the route recovery mechanism. When failure occurs in a route, the proposed method (GAAODV makes decisions regarding the QOS parameter to select source or local repair. The task of the genetic algorithm is to find an appropriate combination of weights to optimize end-to-end delay. This paper evaluates the metrics of routing overhead, average end-to-end delay, and packet delivery ratio. Comparison of the new algorithm and AODV (RFC 3561 using a NS-2 simulator shows that GAAODV obtains better results for the QOS parameters.
Ako Muhammad Abdullah
Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET is the collection of mobile nodes without requiring of any infrastructure. Mobile nodes in MANET are operating as a router and MANET network topology can change quickly. Due to nodes in the network are mobile and thus can move randomly and organize arbitrarily regardless of the directions that generate great complexity in routing traffic from source to destination. To communicate with other nodes MANET nodes contain multiple applications and it needs the different level of data traffic. While data communicate different routing protocols require whereas every node must act as a router. Nowadays, different routing protocols have available for MANET. MANET protocols designed and implemented at the network layer have vital roles that affect the application running at the application layer. In this paper, the performance of On Demand Distance Vector (AODV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR and Geographic Routing Protocol (GRP will be evaluated. The main purpose of this research is to analyze the performance of MANET routing protocols to identify “Which routing protocol has ability to provide the best performance to transfer FTP Application in high mobility case under low, medium and high density scenario?”. The performance analyze with respect to Average End-to-End Delay, Media Access Delay, Network Load, Retransmission Attempt and Throughput. All simulations have been done using OPNET. On the basis of results show that the GRP gives better performance in End-to-End Delay, Media Access Delay, and Retransmission Attempt when varying network size and provide the best Throughput in small and medium network size. Simulation results verify that AODV gives better Throughput in a large network and lower Network Load in small and medium network size compared to GRP. DSR produces low Average Network load as compared to other protocols. The overall study of the FTP application shows that the performance of theses routing protocols
Forsmann, J. Hope; Hiromoto, Robert E.; Svoboda, John
Successful deployment of Unmanned Vehicle Systems (UVS) in military operations has increased their popularity and utility. The ability to sustain reliable mobile ad hoc formations dramatically enhances the usefulness and performance of UVS. Formation movement increases the amount of ground coverage in less time, decreases fuel consumption of the individual nodes, and provides an avenue for mission expansion through cooperative maneuvers such as refueling. In this paper, we study the wireless communication demands that arise from formation and maintenance of UVS within the context of a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). A MANET in formation is typically characterized by tradeoffs between network congestion and the ability to maintain useable communication bandwidth. Maintenance of UVS formations requires each node in the network to be peer-aware, which places a heavy demand on inner node communication. In order to mitigate the inner node network congestion, we introduce a time-slotted communication protocol. The protocol assigns time-slots and allows the designated nodes to communicate directly with other peer-nodes. This approach has been introduced within the context of the Time-Slotted Aloha protocol for station-to-station communication. The approach taken here is to embed the time-slotted reservation protocol into a standard on-demand routing protocol to also address the need to reactively and proactively respond to formation maintenance. The time-slotted on-demand routing protocol is shown to eliminate collisions due to route determination and, therefore, enhance quality of service as well as ensure necessary support for formation movement. A worst-case scenario is described and simulations performed to comparatively demonstrate the advantages of the new protocol.
WANG Han-xing; HU Xi; FANG Jian-chao; JIA Wei-jia
Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have become a hot issue in the area of wireless networks for their non-infrastructure and mobile features. In this paper, a MANET is modeled so that the length of each link in the network is considered as a birthdeath process and the space is reused for n times in the flooding process, which is named as an n-spatial reuse birth-death model (n-SRBDM). We analyze the performance of the network under the dynamic source routing protocol (DSR) which is a famous reactive routing protocol. Some performance parameters of the route discovery are studied such as the probability distribution and the expectation of the flooding distance, the probability that a route is discovered by a query packet with a hop limit, the probability that a request packet finds a τ-time-valid route or a symmetric-valid route, and the average time needed to discover a valid route. For the route maintenance, some parameters are introduced and studied such as the average frequency of route recovery and the average time of a route to be valid. We compare the two models with spatial reuse and without spatial reuse by evaluating these parameters. It is shown that the spatial reuse model is much more effective in routing.
San-Cheng Peng; Wei-Jia Jia; Guo-Jun Wang
Survivability refers to the ability of a network system to fulfill critical services in a timely manner to end users in the presence of failures and/or attacks. In order to establish a highly survivable system, it is necessary to measure its survivability to evaluate the performance of the system's services under adverse conditions. According to survivability requirements of large-scale mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs), we propose a novel model for quantitative evaluation on survivability. The proposed model considers various types of faults and connection states of mobile hosts, and uses the continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) to describe the survivability of MANETs in a precise manner. We introduce the reliability theory to perform quantitative analysis and survivability evaluation of segment-by-segment routing (SSR), multipath-based segment-by-segment routing (MP-SSR), and segment-by-segment-based multipath routing (SS-MPR) in large-scale MANETs. The proposed model can be used to analyze the network performance much more easily than a simulation-based approach. Numerical validation shows that the proposed model can be used to obtain a better evaluation result on the survivability of large-scale MANETs.
Full Text Available Autonomous networks of sensor platforms can be designed to interact in dynamic and noisy environments to determine the occurrence of specified transient events that define the dynamic process of interest. For example, a sensor network may be used for battlefield surveillance with the purpose of detecting, identifying, and tracking enemy activity. When the number of nodes is large, human oversight and control of low-level operations is not feasible. Coordination and self-organization of multiple autonomous nodes is necessary to maintain connectivity and sensor coverage and to combine information for better understanding the dynamics of the environment. Resource conservation requires adaptive clustering in the vicinity of the event. This paper presents methods for dynamic distributed signal processing using an ad hoc mobile network of microsensors to detect, identify, and track targets in noisy environments. They seamlessly integrate data from fixed and mobile platforms and dynamically organize platforms into clusters to process local data along the trajectory of the targets. Local analysis of sensor data is used to determine a set of target attribute values and classify the target. Sensor data from a field test in the Marine base at Twentynine Palms, Calif, was analyzed using the techniques described in this paper. The results were compared to "ground truth" data obtained from GPS receivers on the vehicles.
Iyengar, N Ch Sriman Narayana; Nagar, Piyush; Sharma, Siddharth; Atrey, Akshay; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2303
Efficiency and simplicity of random algorithms have made them a lucrative alternative for solving complex problems in the domain of communication networks. This paper presents a random algorithm for handling the routing problem in Mobile Ad hoc Networks [MANETS].The performance of most existing routing protocols for MANETS degrades in terms of packet delay and congestion caused as the number of mobile nodes increases beyond a certain level or their speed passes a certain level. As the network becomes more and more dynamic, congestion in network increases due to control packets generated by the routing protocols in the process of route discovery and route maintenance. Most of this congestion is due to flooding mechanism used in protocols like AODV and DSDV for the purpose of route discovery and route maintenance or for route discovery as in the case of DSR protocol. This paper introduces the concept of random routing algorithm that neither maintains a routing table nor floods the entire network as done by vari...
Colagrosso Michael D
Full Text Available Because adaptability greatly improves the performance of a broadcast protocol, we identify three ways in which machine learning can be applied to broadcasting in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET. We chose broadcasting because it functions as a foundation of MANET communication. Unicast, multicast, and geocast protocols utilize broadcasting as a building block, providing important control and route establishment functionality. Therefore, any improvements to the process of broadcasting can be immediately realized by higher-level MANET functionality and applications. While efficient broadcast protocols have been proposed, no single broadcasting protocol works well in all possible MANET conditions. Furthermore, protocols tend to fail catastrophically in severe network environments. Our three classes of adaptive protocols are pure machine learning, intra-protocol learning, and inter-protocol learning. In the pure machine learning approach, we exhibit a new approach to the design of a broadcast protocol: the decision of whether to rebroadcast a packet is cast as a classification problem. Each mobile node (MN builds a classifier and trains it on data collected from the network environment. Using intra-protocol learning, each MN consults a simple machine model for the optimal value of one of its free parameters. Lastly, in inter-protocol learning, MNs learn to switch between different broadcasting protocols based on network conditions. For each class of learning method, we create a prototypical protocol and examine its performance in simulation.
There has been recently a growing trend of using live video feeds in mission-critical applications. Real-time video streaming from front-end personnel or mobile agents is believed to substantially improve situational awareness in mission-critical operations such as disaster relief, law enforcement, and emergency response. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) is a natural contender in such contexts. However, classical MANET routing schemes fall short in terms of scalability, bandwidth and latency; all three metrics being quite essential for mission-critical applications. As such, autonomous cooperative routing (ACR) has gained traction as the most viable MANET proposition. Nonetheless, ACR is also associated with a few implementation challenges. If they go unaddressed, will deem ACR practically useless. In this paper, efficient and low-complexity remedies to those issues are presented, analyzed, and validated. The validation is based on field experiments carried out using software-defined radio (SDR) platforms. Compared to classical MANET routing schemes, ACR was shown to offer up to 2X better throughput, more than 4X reduction in end-to-end latency, while observing a given target of transport rate normalized to energy consumption.
Imad Jawhar; Jie Wu
Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are gaining a lot of attention in research lately due to their importance in enabling mobile wireless nodes to communicate without any existing wired or predetermined infrastructures. Furthermore,in order to support the growing need for multimedia and realtime applications, quality of service (QoS) support by the networking protocol is required. Several important QoS parameters that are needed by such applications can be identified.They include bandwidth, end-to-end delay, delay jitter, and bit error rate. A good amount of research has been developed in this area covering different issues and challenges such as developing routing protocols that support bandwidth reservation and delay management. In this paper, the current state of research for QoS support in TDMA-based MANETs at different layers of the networking model is presented and categorized. In addition, the current issues and future challenges involved in this exciting area of research are also included.
Paramasivan, B.; Kaliappan, M.
Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are wireless networks consisting of number of autonomous mobile devices temporarily interconnected into a network by wireless media. MANETs become one of the most prevalent areas of research in the recent years. Resource limitations, energy efficiency, scalability, and security are the great challenging issues in MANETs. Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The secure routing protocols perform very basic security related functions which are not sufficient to protect the network. In this paper, a secure and fair cluster head selection protocol (SFCP) is proposed which integrates security factors into the clustering approach for achieving attacker identification and classification. Byzantine agreement based cooperative technique is used for attacker identification and classification to make the network more attack resistant. SFCP used to solve this issue by making the nodes that are totally surrounded by malicious neighbors adjust dynamically their belief and disbelief thresholds. The proposed protocol selects the secure and energy efficient cluster head which acts as a local detector without imposing overhead to the clustering performance. SFCP is simulated in network simulator 2 and compared with two protocols including AODV and CBRP. PMID:25143986
Castro, Marcel C.; Kassler, Andreas J.; Chiasserini, Carla-Fabiana; Casetti, Claudio; Korpeoglu, Ibrahim
Wireless multi-hop networks such as mobile ad-hoc (MANET) or wireless mesh networks (WMN) have attracted big research efforts during the last years as they have huge potential in several areas such as military communications, fast infrastructure replacement during emergency operations, extension of hotspots or as an alternative communication system. Due to various reasons, such as characteristics of wireless links, multi-hop forwarding operation, and mobility of nodes, performance of traditional peer-to-peer applications is rather low in such networks. In this book chapter, we provide a comprehensive and in-depth survey on recent research on various approaches to provide peer-to-peer services in wireless multi-hop networks. The causes and problems for low performance of traditional approaches are discussed. Various representative alternative approaches to couple interactions between the peer-to-peer overlay and the network layer are examined and compared. Some open questions are discussed to stimulate further research in this area.
Full Text Available Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET is a new communications system for moving vehicles at high speed, which are equipped with wireless communication devices, together with additional wireless roadside units, enabling communications among nearby vehicles (vehicle-to-vehicle communication as well as between vehicles and nearby fixed equipment (vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. Inter-vehicular communications aim to improve road traffic safety and provide multimedia services. VANET has become an important communication infrastructure for the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. In this work we have studied the impact of vehicle mobility on the quality of service in VANET based on IEEE 1609.4. The performance of this network is evaluated through exhaustive simulations using the VanetMobiSim and Network Simulator-NS2 under different parameters like delay, packet delivery ratio, packet loss and throughput. The simulation results are obtained when vehicles are moving according to a freeway mobility model is significantly different from results based on Manhattan model. When the Manhattan model is used, there is an increase in the average end-to-end delay and packet loss.
Full Text Available Cooperative caching, which allows sharing and coordination of cached data among clients, is a potential technique to improve the data access performance and availability in mobile ad hoc networks. However, variable data sizes, frequent data updates, limited client resources, insufficient wireless bandwidth and client's mobility make cache management a challenge. In this paper, we propose a utility based cache replacement policy, least utility value (LUV, to improve the data availability and reduce the local cache miss ratio. LUV considers several factors that affect cache performance, namely access probability, distance between the requester and data source/cache, coherency and data size. A cooperative cache management strategy, Zone Cooperative (ZC, is developed that employs LUV as replacement policy. In ZC one-hop neighbors of a client form a cooperation zone since the cost for communication with them is low both in terms of energy consumption and message exchange. Simulation experiments have been conducted to evaluate the performance of LUV based ZC caching strategy. The simulation results show that, LUV replacement policy substantially outperforms the LRU policy.
Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile hosts dynamically forming a temporary network without the aid of any existing established infrastructure. Quality of service (QoS is a set of service requirements that needs to be met by the network while transporting a packet stream from a source to its destination. QoS support MANETs is a challenging task due to the dynamic topology and limited resources. The main objective of this paper is to enhance the QoS routing for MANET using temporally ordered routing algorithm (TORA with self-healing and optimized routing techniques (SHORT. SHORT improves routing optimality by monitoring routing paths continuously and redirecting the path whenever a shortcut path is available. In this paper, the performance comparison of TORA and TORA with SHORT has been analyzed using network simulator for various parameters. TORA with SHORT enhances performance of TORA in terms of throughput, packet loss, end-to-end delay, and energy.
Michael D. Colagrosso
Full Text Available Because adaptability greatly improves the performance of a broadcast protocol, we identify three ways in which machine learning can be applied to broadcasting in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET. We chose broadcasting because it functions as a foundation of MANET communication. Unicast, multicast, and geocast protocols utilize broadcasting as a building block, providing important control and route establishment functionality. Therefore, any improvements to the process of broadcasting can be immediately realized by higher-level MANET functionality and applications. While efficient broadcast protocols have been proposed, no single broadcasting protocol works well in all possible MANET conditions. Furthermore, protocols tend to fail catastrophically in severe network environments. Our three classes of adaptive protocols are pure machine learning, intra-protocol learning, and inter-protocol learning. In the pure machine learning approach, we exhibit a new approach to the design of a broadcast protocol: the decision of whether to rebroadcast a packet is cast as a classification problem. Each mobile node (MN builds a classifier and trains it on data collected from the network environment. Using intra-protocol learning, each MN consults a simple machine model for the optimal value of one of its free parameters. Lastly, in inter-protocol learning, MNs learn to switch between different broadcasting protocols based on network conditions. For each class of learning method, we create a prototypical protocol and examine its performance in simulation.
Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a collection of mobile nodes that dynamically form a temporary network without using any existing network infrastructure. MANET selects a path with minimal number of intermediate nodes to reach the destination node. As the distance between each node increases, the quantity of transmission power increases. The power level of nodes affects the simplicity with which a route is constituted between a couple of nodes. This study utilizes the swarm intelligence technique through the artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm to optimize the energy consumption in a dynamic source routing (DSR protocol in MANET. The proposed algorithm is called bee DSR (BEEDSR. The ABC algorithm is used to identify the optimal path from the source to the destination to overcome energy problems. The performance of the BEEDSR algorithm is compared with DSR and bee-inspired protocols (BeeIP. The comparison was conducted based on average energy consumption, average throughput, average end-to-end delay, routing overhead, and packet delivery ratio performance metrics, varying the node speed and packet size. The BEEDSR algorithm is superior in performance than other protocols in terms of energy conservation and delay degradation relating to node speed and packet size.
Paramasivan, B; Kaliappan, M
Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are wireless networks consisting of number of autonomous mobile devices temporarily interconnected into a network by wireless media. MANETs become one of the most prevalent areas of research in the recent years. Resource limitations, energy efficiency, scalability, and security are the great challenging issues in MANETs. Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The secure routing protocols perform very basic security related functions which are not sufficient to protect the network. In this paper, a secure and fair cluster head selection protocol (SFCP) is proposed which integrates security factors into the clustering approach for achieving attacker identification and classification. Byzantine agreement based cooperative technique is used for attacker identification and classification to make the network more attack resistant. SFCP used to solve this issue by making the nodes that are totally surrounded by malicious neighbors adjust dynamically their belief and disbelief thresholds. The proposed protocol selects the secure and energy efficient cluster head which acts as a local detector without imposing overhead to the clustering performance. SFCP is simulated in network simulator 2 and compared with two protocols including AODV and CBRP.
Full Text Available The migration from wired network to wireless network has been a global trend in the past few decades because they provide anytime-anywhere networking services. The wireless networks are rapidly deployed in the future, secure wireless environment will be mandatory. As well, The mobility and scalability brought by wireless network made it possible in many applications. Among all the contemporary wireless networks,Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET is one of the most important and unique applications. MANET is a collection of autonomous nodes or terminals which communicate with each other by forming a multihop radio network and maintaining connectivity in a decentralized manner. Due to the nature of unreliable wireless medium data transfer is a major problem in MANET and it lacks security and reliability of data. The most suitable solution to provide the expected level of security to these services is the provision of a key management protocol. A Key management is vital part of security. This issue is even bigger in wireless network compared to wired network. The distribution of keys in an authenticated manner is a difficult task in MANET. When a member leaves or joins the group, it needs to generate a new key to maintain forward and backward secrecy. In this paper, we propose a new group key management schemes namely a Hierarchical, Simple, Efficient and Scalable Group Key (HSESGK based on clustering management scheme for MANETs and different other schemes are classified. Group members deduce the group key in a distributed manner.
Full Text Available In past few decades, the migration of communication takes place from wired networks to wireless networks because of its mobility and scalability and Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a unique and significant application in recent years which does not necessitates any pre-existing network infrastructure. Each node can act as both transmitters as well as receivers that are communicating with each other when they are in same communication/transmission range. Otherwise, these nodes depend on neighbor nodes to transmit their packets and they possess self-configuring ability which makes MANETs popular in various critical mission applications such as military and other emergency applications. In general, MANETs are open medium network and their nodes are widely distributed which makes the network more vulnerable to various attackers. Some times, the transmitted packets are viewed or modified or corrupted by the attackers through the way to reach destination and the destination could not find such type of packets. So, the receiver can deliver modified packets with wrong information. Thus, it is essential to present an efficient secure routing protocol to preserve MANET from several attacks. In this study, we are going to propose and implement a novel routing protocol named Secure Routing for Attacker Identification (SRAI protocol that executes at receiver/destination side to discover the modified packets in delivered nodes and generate misbehaviour report to the source. Compared to modern approaches, SRAI protocol establishes higher attacker identification rates in certain considerations.
Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (often referred to as MANETs consist of wireless hosts that communicate with each other in the absence of a fixed infrastructure. This technique can be used effectively in disaster management, intellectualconference and also in the battlefield environments. It has the significant attention in the recent years. This research paper depicts the remuneration of using suggestion tracking for selecting energy-conserving routes in delay-tolerant applications and it sends Variable Bit Rate delivery. The previous investigation set up from earlier period surveillance that delay can be traded for energy efficiency in selecting a path. The Prior objective is to find an experiential upper bound on the energy savings by assuming that each node accurately knows or predicts its future path. It examines the effect of varying the amount of future information on routing. Such a bound may prove useful in deciding how far to look in advance, and thus how much convolution to provide in mobility tracking.
Full Text Available This paper presents two new route update strategies for performing proactive route discovery in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. The first strategy is referred to as minimum displacement update routing (MDUR. In this strategy, the rate at which route updates are sent into the network is controlled by how often a node changes its location by a required distance. The second strategy is called minimum topology change update (MTCU. In this strategy, the route updating rate is proportional to the level of topology change each node experiences. We implemented MDUR and MTCU on top of the fisheye state routing (FSR protocol and investigated their performance by simulation. The simulations were performed in a number of different scenarios, with varied network mobility, density, traffic, and boundary. Our results indicate that both MDUR and MTCU produce significantly lower levels of control overhead than FSR and achieve higher levels of throughput as the density and the level of traffic in the network are increased.
Vishnu Kumar Sharma,
Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs, inefficient resource allocation causes heavy losses to the service providers and results in inadequate user proficiency. For improving and automating the quality of service of MANETs, efficient resource allocation techniques are required. In this paper, we propose an agent based bandwidth reservation technique for MANET. The mobile agent from the source starts forwarding the data packets through the path which has minimum cost, congestion and bandwidth. The status of every node is collected which includes the bottleneck bandwidth field and the intermediate node computes the available bandwidth on the link. At the destination, after updating the new bottleneck bandwidth field, the data packet is feedback to the source. In resource reservation technique, if the available bandwidth is greater than bottleneck bandwidth, then bandwidth reservation for the flow is done. Using rate monitoring and adjustment methodologies, rate control is performed for the congested flows. By simulation results, we show that the resource allocation technique reduces the losses and improves the network performance.
Full Text Available Multicast routing is an effective way to transmit messages to multiple hosts in a network. However, it is vulnerable to intermittent connectivity property in mobile ad hoc network (MANET especially for multimedia applications, which have some quality of service (QoS requirements. The goal of QoS provisioning is to well organize network resources to satisfy the QoS requirement and achieve good network delivery services. However, there remains a challenge to provide QoS solutions and maintain end-to-end QoS with user mobility. In this paper, a novel penalty adjustment method based on the rough set theory is proposed to deal with path-delay constraints for multicast routing problems in MANETs. We formulate the problem as a constrained optimization problem, where the objective function is to minimize the total cost of the multicast tree subject to QoS constraints. The RPGA is evaluated on three multicast scenarios and compared with two state-of-the-art methods in terms of cost, success rate, and time complexity. The performance analyses show that this approach is a self-adaptive method for penalty adjustment. Remarkably, the method can address a variety of constrained multicast routing problems even though the initial routes do not satisfy all QoS requirements.
Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs are wireless networks consisting of number of autonomous mobile devices temporarily interconnected into a network by wireless media. MANETs become one of the most prevalent areas of research in the recent years. Resource limitations, energy efficiency, scalability, and security are the great challenging issues in MANETs. Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The secure routing protocols perform very basic security related functions which are not sufficient to protect the network. In this paper, a secure and fair cluster head selection protocol (SFCP is proposed which integrates security factors into the clustering approach for achieving attacker identification and classification. Byzantine agreement based cooperative technique is used for attacker identification and classification to make the network more attack resistant. SFCP used to solve this issue by making the nodes that are totally surrounded by malicious neighbors adjust dynamically their belief and disbelief thresholds. The proposed protocol selects the secure and energy efficient cluster head which acts as a local detector without imposing overhead to the clustering performance. SFCP is simulated in network simulator 2 and compared with two protocols including AODV and CBRP.
Lee, Chongdeuk; Jeong, Taegwon
Clustering is an important mechanism that efficiently provides information for mobile nodes and improves the processing capacity of routing, bandwidth allocation, and resource management and sharing. Clustering algorithms can be based on such criteria as the battery power of nodes, mobility, network size, distance, speed and direction. Above all, in order to achieve good clustering performance, overhead should be minimized, allowing mobile nodes to join and leave without perturbing the membership of the cluster while preserving current cluster structure as much as possible. This paper proposes a Fuzzy Relevance-based Cluster head selection Algorithm (FRCA) to solve problems found in existing wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks, such as the node distribution found in dynamic properties due to mobility and flat structures and disturbance of the cluster formation. The proposed mechanism uses fuzzy relevance to select the cluster head for clustering in wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks. In the simulation implemented on the NS-2 simulator, the proposed FRCA is compared with algorithms such as the Cluster-based Routing Protocol (CBRP), the Weighted-based Adaptive Clustering Algorithm (WACA), and the Scenario-based Clustering Algorithm for Mobile ad hoc networks (SCAM). The simulation results showed that the proposed FRCA achieves better performance than that of the other existing mechanisms.
The aim of this work is to change the routing strategy of AODV protocol (Ad hoc On Demand Vector) in order to improve the energy consumption in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). The purpose is to minimize the regular period of HELLO messages generated by the AODV protocol used for the research, development and maintenance of routes. This information is useful to have an idea about battery power levels of different network hosts. After storing this information, the node elect the shortest path following the classical model used this information to elect safest path (make a compromise) in terms of energy. Transmitter node does not select another node as its battery will be exhausted soon. Any node of the network can have the same information's about the neighborhoods as well as other information about the energy level of the different terminal to avoid routing using a link that will be lost due to an exhausted battery of a node in this link. Analytical study and simulations by Jist/SWANS have been conducted to no...
Peng, Sancheng; Jia, Weijia; Wang, Guojun; Wu, Jie; Guo, Minyi
Due to the distributed nature, mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) are vulnerable to various attacks, resulting in distrusted communications. To achieve trusted communications, it is important to build trusted routes in routing algorithms in a self-organizing and decentralized fashion. This paper proposes a trusted routing to locate and to preserve trusted routes in MANETs. Instead of using a hard security mechanism, we employ a new dynamic trust mechanism based on multiple constraints and collaborative filtering. The dynamic trust mechanism can effectively evaluate the trust and obtain the precise trust value among nodes, and can also be integrated into existing routing protocols for MANETs, such as ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing (AODV) and dynamic source routing (DSR). As an example, we present a trusted routing protocol, based on dynamic trust mechanism, by extending DSR, in which a node makes a routing decision based on the trust values on its neighboring nodes, and finally, establish a trusted route through the trust values of the nodes along the route in MANETs. The effectiveness of our approach is validated through extensive simulations.
Sen, Jaydip; Ukil, Arijit
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous nodes that communicate with each other by forming a multi-hop radio network and maintaining connections in a decentralized manner. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due to their features of open medium, dynamically changing topologies, reliance on cooperative algorithms,absence of centralized monitoring points, and lack of clear lines of defense. Most of the routing protocols for MANETs are thus vulnerable to various types of attacks. Ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing (AODV) is a very popular routing algorithm. However, it is vulnerable to the well-known black hole attack, where a malicious node falsely advertises good paths to a destination node during the route discovery process. This attack becomes more sever when a group of malicious nodes cooperate each other. In this paper, a defense mechanism is presented against a coordinated attack by multiple black hole nodes in a MANET. The simulation carried out on the propose...
Ding, Jin; Medidi, Sirisha R.
Packet dropping in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks could be a result of wireless link errors, congestion, or malicious packet drop attack. Current techniques for detecting malicious behavior either do not consider congestion in the network or are not able to detect in real time. Further more, they usually work at network layer. In this paper, we propose a TCP-Manet protocol, which reacts to congestion like TCP Reno protocol, and has additional capability to distinguish among congestion, wireless link error, and malicious packet drop attack. It is an end-to-end mechanism that does not require additional modifications to the nodes in the network. Since it is an extension of existing TCP protocol, it is compatible with existing protocols. It works in conjunction with the network layer and an unobtrusive monitor to assist the network in the detection and characterization of the nature of the behavior. Experimental results show that TCP-Manet has the same performance as that of TCP-Reno in wired network, and performs better in wireless ad-hoc networks in terms of throughput while having good detection effectiveness.
Full Text Available Problem statement: In this research, it had been presented a novel Skew Scenario Model that has been developed and implemented for mobile ad hoc networks. There exist several mobility patterns that try to capture the behavior of the mobile devices under different circumstances, whereas in our work, the direction movement of the nodes is significantly specified horizontally, vertically and diagonally in the simulation area. Approach: Our novel Skew Scenario Model and the impact of mobility on MANET protocols had been compared and analyzed. The performance of DSDV and DSR under SSM in terms of packet delivery fraction, routing load and latency for varying source and destination traffic from 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 under 100 nodes environment had been analyzed. Apart from this, our SSM with the existing waypoint model in 100 nodes environment had been compared. A suitable algorithm for SSM has also been developed. Results: Our simulation result showed that the functioning of our SSM had greatly influenced the performance of routing protocols in MANET environment. Simulation experiments confirm that for DSR under SSM, the PDF is highest between 93.56-99.43%, routing load is lowest between 1.005-1.068 and Latency is very less between 0.0163-0.049 sec, in the case of DSDV under SSM, the PDF is 63.22-79.104%, routing load is 1.20-1.58 and latency is 0.018-0.050 sec. The result revealed the fact that the reactive routing protocol DSR outperforms much more than the Proactive routing protocol DSDV. Our Novel Model has performed well when we compared it with existing waypoint mobility model while setting many source-destination connections. In DSR under SSM and waypoint model, PDF is between 93.56-99.43% in SSM and in waypoint 94.20-98.88%. Routing load in SSM is 1.0056-1.068, waypoint 1.01-1.06 seconds. Latency is between 0.026-0.063 in SSM and in waypoint 0.026-0.1235 sec. Conclusion: This study revealed the fact that the DSR discovers new routes faster
柳楠; 韩芳溪; 张维勇; 程玉松
目前关于移动Ad hoc网络的研究大多集中在路由协议的提出和改进方面,但随着移动Ad hoc网络的广泛应用,其固有的特性和安全漏洞带来了极大的安全隐患,各种类型的攻击越来越威胁正常的网络运行,安全问题日益成为这一领域的研究热点.针对移动Ad hoc网络的弱点,介绍了4种特殊攻击及相应的处理方法.
Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a dynamic wireless network that can be formed infrastructure less connections in which each node can act as a router. The nodes in MANET themselves are responsible for dynamically discovering other nodes to communicate. Although the ongoing trend is to adopt ad hoc networks for commercial uses due to their certain unique properties, the main challenge is the vulnerability to security attacks. In the presence of malicious nodes, one of the main challenges in MANET is to design the robust security solution that can protect MANET from various routing attacks. Different mechanisms have been proposed using various cryptographic techniques to countermeasure the routing attacks against MANET. As a result, attacks with malicious intent have been and will be devised to exploit these vulnerabilities and to cripple the MANET operations. Attack prevention measures, such as authentication and encryption, can be used as the first line of defense for reducing the possibilities of attacks. However, these mechanisms are not suitable for MANET resource constraints, i.e., limited bandwidth and battery power, because they introduce heavy traffic load to exchange and verifying keys. In this paper, we identify the existent security threats an ad hoc network faces, the security services required to be achieved and the countermeasures for attacks in routing protocols. To accomplish our goal, we have done literature survey in gathering information related to various types of attacks and solutions. Finally, we have identified the challenges and proposed solutions to overcome them. In our survey, we focus on the findings and related works from which to provide secure protocols for MANETs. However, in short, we can say that the complete security solution requires the prevention, detection and reaction mechanisms applied in MANET.
S Mamatha; A.Damodaram
Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) are the new generation of networks that offer unrestricted mobility without any underlying infrastructure. It relies on the cooperation of all the participating nodes. Due to their open nature and lack of infrastructure, security for MANETS has become an intricate problem than the security in other networks. The conventional security mechanisms of protecting a wired network are not sufficient for these networks. Hence a second level of defense to detect and res...
Full Text Available In Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs, mobile devices are equipped with power (energy. In order to utilize this energy equipped devices efficiently for transmission of data packets, many energy aware routing strategies are followed. As a key note to these routing strategies, the energy aware performance metrics are analyzed on two routing protocols like Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector Protocol (AODV and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Routing Protocol (DSDV. The comparison results prove that AODV protocol can be adopted for any routing strategy, in order to increase the performance of the network lifetime in comparison with DSDV.
Jean-Daniel Medjo Me Biomo
Full Text Available An unmanned aerial ad hoc network (UAANET is a special type of mobile ad hoc network (MANET. For these networks, researchers rely mostly on simulations to evaluate their proposed networking protocols. Hence, it is of great importance that the simulation environment of a UAANET replicates as much as possible the reality of UAVs. One major component of that environment is the movement pattern of the UAVs. This means that the mobility model used in simulations has to be thoroughly understood in terms of its impact on the performance of the network. In this paper, we investigate how mobility models affect the performance of UAANET in simulations in order to come up with conclusions/recommendations that provide a benchmark for future UAANET simulations. To that end, we first propose a few metrics to evaluate the mobility models. Then, we present five random entity mobility models that allow nodes to move almost freely and independently from one another and evaluate four carefully-chosen MANET/UAANET routing protocols: ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV, optimized link state routing (OLSR, reactive-geographic hybrid routing (RGR and geographic routing protocol (GRP. In addition, flooding is also evaluated. The results show a wide variation of the protocol performance over different mobility models. These performance differences can be explained by the mobility model characteristics, and we discuss these effects. The results of our analysis show that: (i the enhanced Gauss–Markov (EGM mobility model is best suited for UAANET; (ii OLSR, a table-driven proactive routing protocol, and GRP, a position-based geographic protocol, are the protocols most sensitive to the change of mobility models; (iii RGR, a reactive-geographic hybrid routing protocol, is best suited for UAANET.
Full Text Available Transmission video over ad hoc networks has become one of the most important and interesting subjects of study for researchers and programmers because of the strong relationship between video applications and frequent users of various mobile devices, such as laptops, PDAs, and mobile phones in all aspects of life. However, many challenges, such as packet loss, congestion (i.e., impairments at the network layer, multipath fading (i.e., impairments at the physical layer , and link failure, exist in transferring video over ad hoc networks; these challenges negatively affect the quality of the perceived video .This study has investigated video transfer over ad hoc networks. The main challenges of transferring video over ad hoc networks as well as types of errors that may occur during video transmission, various types of video mechanisms, error correction methods, and different Quality of Service (QoS parameters that affect the quality of the received video are also investigated.
Ad Hoc是特定的无线网络结构，它强调多跳、自组织、无中心的概念。MANET(mobile ad hoc network)被认为是最有希望的下一代Ad Hoc解决方案。MANET网络是具备相互通信能力无线移动节点的集合，这些节点没有固定的网络结构，也没有限定到类似基站或移动交换中心这样的中心控制部
and on-demand protocols like the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) , Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector ( AODV ) routing , Location-aided Routing (LAR...minimum residual battery power of a node in the route . MMBCR can be implemented on the top of any on-demand routing protocol like DSR, AODV and etc...Comparison of Stability, Load-Balancing and Power-Aware Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Natarajan Meghanathan1 and Leslie C. Milton2
Abdusy Syarif; Riri Fitri Sari
In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), routing protocol plays the most important role. In the last decade, Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol becomes the attention of focussed research on MANETs world wide. A lot of protocols had been proposed to improve and optimize AODV routing protocol to achieve the best in quest of reliable protocol. In this paper, we present some improvement suggestion to AODV routing protocol. Our proposed protocol, called AODV-UI, improved AODV in g...
Emmanouil A. Panaousis
Full Text Available Contemporary personal computing devices are increasingly required to be portable and mobileenabling user’s wireless access, to wired network infrastructures and services. This approach tomobile computing and communication is only appropriate in situations where a coherentinfrastructure is available. There are many situations where these requirements are not fulfilledsuch as; developing nations, rural areas, natural disasters, and military conflicts to name but a few.A practical solution is to use mobile devices interconnected via a wireless medium to form anetwork, known as a Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET, and provide the services normally found inwired networks. Security in MANETs is an issue of paramount importance due to the wireless natureof the communication links. Additionally due to the lack of central administration security issues aredifferent from conventional networks. For the purposes of this article we have used the “WMN testbed”to enable secure routing in MANETs. The use of cryptography is an efficient proven way ofsecuring data in communications, but some cryptographic algorithms are not as efficient as othersand require more processing power, which is detrimental to MANETs. In this article we haveassessed different cryptographic approaches to securing the OLSR (Optimised Link State Routingprotocol to provide a basis for research. We conclude the paper with a series of performanceevaluation results regarding different cryptographic and hashing schemes. Our findings clearlyshow that the most efficient combination of algorithms used for authentication and encryption areSHA-1 (Secure Hash Algorithm-1 and AES (Advanced Encryption Standard respectively. Usingthis combination over their counterparts will lead to a considerable reduction in processing timeand delay on the network, creating an efficient transaction moving towards satisfying resourceconstraints and security requirements.
Kuhlmann, Anne Sebert; Galavotti, Christine; Hastings, Philip; Narayanan, Pradeep; Saggurti, Niranjan
Community mobilization often requires greater time and resource investments than typical interventions, yet few evaluations exist to justify these investments. We evaluated the added benefit of community mobilization on HIV prevention outcomes among female sex workers (FSWs) using a composite measure of volunteer participation in program committees by FSWs. After adjusting for treatment propensity, we used multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) to test our program theory. We hypothesized that stronger community mobilization would be associated with increased levels of consistent condom use and with increased levels of perceived fairness, mediated by psychosocial processes. Community mobilization had an indirect effect on consistent condom use mediated through social cohesion and an indirect effect on perceived fairness mediated by collective efficacy. Our results suggest higher levels of community mobilization help improve condom use and reduce perceived discrimination beyond the effects of the core HIV intervention program. We recommend further testing of this model.
Kim, Byoungjip; Kang, Seungwoo; Ha, Jin-Young; Song, Junehwa
In this paper, we introduce a novel smartphone framework called VisitSense that automatically detects and predicts a smartphone user's place visits from ambient radio to enable behavioral targeting for mobile ads in large shopping malls. VisitSense enables mobile app developers to adopt visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising for shopping mall visitors in their apps. It also benefits mobile users by allowing them to receive highly relevant mobile ads that are aware of their place visit patterns in shopping malls. To achieve the goal, VisitSense employs accurate visit detection and prediction methods. For accurate visit detection, we develop a change-based detection method to take into consideration the stability change of ambient radio and the mobility change of users. It performs well in large shopping malls where ambient radio is quite noisy and causes existing algorithms to easily fail. In addition, we proposed a causality-based visit prediction model to capture the causality in the sequential visit patterns for effective prediction. We have developed a VisitSense prototype system, and a visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising application that is based on it. Furthermore, we deploy the system in the COEX Mall, one of the largest shopping malls in Korea, and conduct diverse experiments to show the effectiveness of VisitSense.
Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a novel smartphone framework called VisitSense that automatically detects and predicts a smartphone user’s place visits from ambient radio to enable behavioral targeting for mobile ads in large shopping malls. VisitSense enables mobile app developers to adopt visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising for shopping mall visitors in their apps. It also benefits mobile users by allowing them to receive highly relevant mobile ads that are aware of their place visit patterns in shopping malls. To achieve the goal, VisitSense employs accurate visit detection and prediction methods. For accurate visit detection, we develop a change-based detection method to take into consideration the stability change of ambient radio and the mobility change of users. It performs well in large shopping malls where ambient radio is quite noisy and causes existing algorithms to easily fail. In addition, we proposed a causality-based visit prediction model to capture the causality in the sequential visit patterns for effective prediction. We have developed a VisitSense prototype system, and a visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising application that is based on it. Furthermore, we deploy the system in the COEX Mall, one of the largest shopping malls in Korea, and conduct diverse experiments to show the effectiveness of VisitSense.
Wang, Yi; Dong, Liang; Liang, Taotao; Yang, Xinyu; Zhang, Deyun
Routing algorithms with low overhead, stable link and independence of the total number of nodes in the network are essential for the design and operation of the large-scale wireless mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). In this paper, we develop and analyze the Cluster Based Location-Aided Routing Protocol for MANET (C-LAR), a scalable and effective routing algorithm for MANET. C-LAR runs on top of an adaptive cluster cover of the MANET, which can be created and maintained using, for instance, the weight-based distributed algorithm. This algorithm takes into consideration the node degree, mobility, relative distance, battery power and link stability of mobile nodes. The hierarchical structure stabilizes the end-to-end communication paths and improves the networks' scalability such that the routing overhead does not become tremendous in large scale MANET. The clusterheads form a connected virtual backbone in the network, determine the network's topology and stability, and provide an efficient approach to minimizing the flooding traffic during route discovery and speeding up this process as well. Furthermore, it is fascinating and important to investigate how to control the total number of nodes participating in a routing establishment process so as to improve the network layer performance of MANET. C-LAR is to use geographical location information provided by Global Position System to assist routing. The location information of destination node is used to predict a smaller rectangle, isosceles triangle, or circle request zone, which is selected according to the relative location of the source and the destination, that covers the estimated region in which the destination may be located. Thus, instead of searching the route in the entire network blindly, C-LAR confines the route searching space into a much smaller estimated range. Simulation results have shown that C-LAR outperforms other protocols significantly in route set up time, routing overhead, mean delay and packet
Basile L. AGBA
Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET are very difficult to design in terms of scenarios specification and propagation modeling. All these aspects must be taken into account when designing MANET. For cost-effective designing, powerful and accurate simulation tools are needed. Our first contribution in this paper is to provide a global approach process (GAP in channel modeling combining scenarios and propagation in order to have a better analysis of the physical layer, and finally to improve performances of the whole network. The GAP is implemented in an integrated simulation tool, Ad-SMPro. Moreover, channel statistics, throughput and delay are some key points to be considered when studying a mobile wireless networks. A carefully analysis of mobility effects over second order channel statistics and system performances is made based on our optimized simulation tool, Ad-SMProl. The channel is modeled by large scale fading and small scale fading including Doppler spectrum due to the double mobility of the nodes. Level Cross Rate and Average Duration of Fade are simulated as function of double mobility degree, a defined to be the ratio of the nodes' speeds. These results are compared to the theoretical predictions. We demonstrate that, in mobile ad hoc networks, flat fading channels and frequency-selective fading channels are differently affected. In addition, Bit Error rate is analysed as function of the ratio of the average bit energy to thermal noise density. Other performances (such as throughput, delay and routing traffic are analysed and conclusions related to the proposed simulation model and the mobility effects are drawn.
Full Text Available Problem statement: For any node in a Mobile Ad hoc Network conservation of battery power and bandwidth are the priority. Hence, they try to reduce the overload they would otherwise incur when they forward packets. This selfish behavior of a node affects the throughput of the network. The nodes may also choose a back off value of shorter duration. These problems are handled effectively by the methodology proposed in this study. A conscious effort has been made keeping the constraints of the MANETs in mind. Approach: Misbehavior is best identified at the lower levels as the upper levels of the OSI standard primarily deals with the data the packets carry and less about how, so the network and the MAC layers is where the primary focus lies. Thus, keeping these points in mind, we propose algorithms that work along with the 802.11 MAC protocol to monitor the behavior of neighboring nodes by listening to the channel, specifically monitoring parameters like back off values sent by the nodes. A counter is maintained which is incremented every time node misconduct is detected, subsequently after a particular value is cross the node is labeled as misbehaving and the information is broadcast over the network. Results: Performance parameters like throughput, packet delivery ratio were monitored with traffic of the magnitude 10 to 60 nodes. Also the performance of the network based on the percentage of selfish nodes present in the network was monitored and a graph was generated based on the statistics. Conclusion: An algorithmic approach for misbehaving node detection and isolation in ad hoc networks by modifying the protocol being used in the lower layers which consequently improves performance of the network had been proposed. Simulation results show considerable performance increase upon implementing the proposed algorithm. Further research can confirm the practicality of the proposed idea.
A. M. Murad
Full Text Available This paper described how to discover routes that can satisfy QoS service requirements by using extensions to the Enhanced Associativity Bases Routing Protocol (EABR. These extensions were added to the messages used during route discovery. These extensions specify the service requirements, which must be met by nodes re-broadcasting a route request or returning a route reply for a destination. The performance analysis of EABR with QoS support showed that more overhead was incurred when the intermediate node discover that it cannot support the level of the QoS requested.
Jiang, Hong; Jin, WenPing; Yang, GyoYing; Li, LeiMin
Maintaining communication link in mobile robot networks between task robots and a control center is very important in some urgent application occasions such as remote danger detections. To offer a reliable multi-hop communication link, a link maintaining scheme based on artificial potential field is presented. The scheme is achieved by a task robot and communication relay ones. The task robot performs predefined tasks, and relay ones are simple robots which form a communication relay chain. When robots move towards destination in formation, a kind of attractive force created by communication quality is added to traditional potential field, and relay robots follow the task robot and automatically stop at adequate locations to form a relay chain from the control station to the task robot. In order to increase relay usage efficiency, when some relays are replaced by other short cut relays, the redundant relays can be reused by initiating another moving toward specified location. Simulation results show that the scheme can provide a reliable multi-hop communication link, and that the communication connection can be obtained through minimal number of relays.
Vasudevan, Rangarajan A
In this paper, we present a novel encryption-less algorithm to enhance security in transmission of data packets across mobile ad hoc networks. The paper hinges on the paradigm of multipath routing and exploits the properties of polynomials. The first step in the algorithm is to transform the data such that it is impossible to obtain any information without possessing the entire transformed data. The algorithm then uses an intuitively simple idea of a jigsaw puzzle to break the transformed data into multiple packets where these packets form the pieces of the puzzle. Then these packets are sent along disjoint paths to reach the receiver. A secure and efficient mechanism is provided to convey the information that is necessary for obtaining the original data at the receiver-end from its fragments in the packets, that is, for solving the jigsaw puzzle. The algorithm is designed to be secure so that no intermediate or unintended node can obtain the entire data. An authentication code is also used to ensure authenti...
Full Text Available Nodes in a mobile ad hoc network have limited battery power for their operation. Energy efficient routing protocol such as Min-Max Battery Cost Routing (MMBCR selects a path with nodes having maximum battery capacity for transmission of data packets from source to destination. Though MMBCR considers individual node battery power during route discovery process, the route selected does not change unless any node in that route is exhausted completely resulting in link failure. This paper proposes a new dynamic route discovery mechanism which adapts a new route periodically resulting in decreasing the probability of link failure and increasing the lifetime of the network. The proposed routing protocol is named Dynamic Route Discovery (DRD protocol. In this DRD protocol, the energy and cost function of each node is computed periodically by initializing route discovery process at regular intervals. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm not only increases the lifetime of the network but also gives better throughput, packet delivery ratio and delay performance at the cost of increased routing overhead and normalized routing load compared to the existing MMBCR protocol.
Md. Mahbubur Rahman
Full Text Available In this paper we introduced an efficient scheme based on a weighted metric of remaining battery power, speed and distance of nodes for determining routes in wireless Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET. For the cases where significant difference in the velocities of the communicating nodes or the battery power of the intermediate nodes is low, traditional schemes fail to establish the communication among nodes with reliable QoS. We proposed a new algorithm that uses weighted combination of metrics of distance, velocity and battery power in selecting the route over earlier MFR (Most Forward within Radius method. The proposed scheme encompasses the load balancing issues and eventually it increases the network lifetime and network performance. Simulation experiment showed that the proposed algorithm reduces the packet loss than that of existing MFR algorithm. Experimental results also revealed that besides packet loss, the proposed strategy achieves higher throughput (14.35% rate than that of existing MFR. Furthermore, usages of these new metrics ensure the higher mean time to node failure.
Kurt Derr; Milos Manic
A mobile ad hoc network is a collection of independent nodes that communicate wirelessly with one another. This paper investigates nodes that are swarm robots with communications and sensing capabilities. Each robot in the swarm may operate in a distributed and decentralized manner to achieve some goal. This paper presents a novel approach to dynamically adapting control parameters to achieve mesh configuration stability. The presented approach to robot interaction is based on spring force laws (attraction and repulsion laws) to create near-optimal mesh like configurations. In prior work, we presented the extended virtual spring mesh (EVSM) algorithm for the dispersion of robot swarms. This paper extends the EVSM framework by providing the first known study on the effects of adaptive versus static control parameters on robot swarm stability. The EVSM algorithm provides the following novelties: 1) improved performance with adaptive control parameters and 2) accelerated convergence with high formation effectiveness. Simulation results show that 120 robots reach convergence using adaptive control parameters more than twice as fast as with static control parameters in a multiple obstacle environment.
Tsai, Hsiao-Chien; Lo, Nai-Wei; Wu, Tzong-Chen
In recent years huge potential benefits from novel applications in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) have been discussed extensively. However, without robust security mechanisms and systems to provide safety shell through the MANET infrastructure, MANET applications can be vulnerable and hammered by malicious attackers easily. In order to detect misbehaved message routing and identify malicious attackers in MANET, schemes based on reputation concept have shown their advantages in this area in terms of good scalability and simple threshold-based detection strategy. We observed that previous reputation schemes generally use predefined thresholds which do not take into account the effect of behavior dynamics between nodes in a period of time. In this paper, we propose a Threshold-Adaptive Reputation System (TARS) to overcome the shortcomings of static threshold strategy and improve the overall MANET performance under misbehaved routing attack. A fuzzy-based inference engine is introduced to evaluate the trustiness of a node's one-hop neighbors. Malicious nodes whose trust values are lower than the adaptive threshold, will be detected and filtered out by their honest neighbors during trustiness evaluation process. The results of network simulation show that the TARS outperforms other compared schemes under security attacks in most cases and at the same time reduces the decrease of total packet delivery ratio by 67% in comparison with MANET without reputation system.
Wu, Bin; Kuo, Geng-Sheng
The main purpose of this paper is to propose a novel bandwidth allocation scheme for facilitating quality of service (QoS) routing in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). In a MANET using time division multiple access (TDMA), each node communicates with its neighbors in the same time slot. In general, finding a route with the maximum end-to-end bandwidth subject to the constraint of collision-free transmission is an NP-complete problem. This paper proposed a sub-optimal solution to this problem. The solution is based on a centrally controlled bandwidth allocation scheme to properly assign the available time slots to each intermediate link. The advantage of our proposed scheme is that the resource utilization of MANET is maximized and the end-to-end QoS is guaranteed during the route establishment period. Performance analyses show that when using the proposed scheme with AODV to perform QoS routing, it achieves about 25% throughput higher than its best-effort counterpart if the node is moving at 5mps speed.
Khan, Ashiq; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Motonari; Takita, Wataru; Yamazaki, Kenichi
In Mobile AD-hoc Networks (MANET), transportation capability of wireless links' varies according to the size of the packets they transport. This instability, which is more acute in long links, has received little attention in the stabilizing schemes proposed so far for MANET. A lot of research has been carried out to utilize more reliable links in making end-to-end routes to avoid frequent route failures and realize higher packet delivery ratio. However, these approaches mainly consider the availability of a link over time and depend on link history which is difficult to acquire in highly dynamic systems. In this paper, we present an easy-to-implement but efficient method to find suitable end-to-end routes that are capable of transporting different sizes of the application data packets. Our scheme is stateless and does not rely on the underlying data link and physical layers. An extensive simulation shows the validity of our concept and highlights the improvement achieved by our proposal.
Farach-Colton, Martin; Milani, Alessia; Mosteiro, Miguel A; Zaks, Shmuel
In this paper the problem of information dissemination in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET) is studied. The problem is to disseminate a piece of information, initially held by a distinguished source node, to all nodes in a set defined by some predicate. We use a model of MANETs that is well suited for dynamic networks and opportunistic communication. In this model nodes are placed in a plane, in which they can move with bounded speed, and communication between nodes occurs over a collision-prone single channel. In this setup informed and uninformed nodes can be disconnected for some time (bounded by a parameter alpha), but eventually some uninformed node must become neighbor of an informed node and remain so for some time (bounded by a parameter beta). In addition, nodes can start at different times, and they can crash and recover. Under the above framework, we show negative and positive results for different types of randomized protocols, and we put those results in perspective with respect to previous determin...
Kashihara, Shigeru; Hayashi, Takuma; Taenaka, Yuzo; Okuda, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Suguru
This paper proposes a data delivery method based on neighbor nodes' information to achieve reliable communication in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). In a MANET, it is difficult to deliver data reliably due to instabilities in network topology and wireless network condition which result from node movement. To overcome such unstable communication, opportunistic routing and network coding schemes have lately attracted considerable attention. Although an existing method that employs such schemes, MAC-independent opportunistic routing and encoding (MORE), Chachulski et al. (2007), improves the efficiency of data delivery in an unstable wireless mesh network, it does not address node movement. To efficiently deliver data in a MANET, the method proposed in this paper thus first employs the same opportunistic routing and network coding used in MORE and also uses the location information and transmission probabilities of neighbor nodes to adapt to changeable network topology and wireless network condition. The simulation experiments showed that the proposed method can achieve efficient data delivery with low network load when the movement speed is relatively slow.
Wang, Yanwei; Tang, Helen; Yu, F. Richard; Huang, Minyi
Game theory can provide a useful tool to study the security problem in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). Most existing work on applying game theories to security only considers two players in the security game model: an attacker and a defender. While this assumption is valid for a network with centralized administration, it may not be realistic in MANETs, where centralized administration is not available. Consequently, each individual node in a MANET should be treated separately in the security game model. In this paper, using recent advances in mean field game theory, we propose a novel game theoretic approach for security in MANETs. Mean field game theory provides a powerful mathematical tool for problems with a large number of players. Since security defence mechanisms consume precious system resources (e.g., energy), the proposed scheme considers not only the security requirement of MANETs but also the system resources. In addition, each node only needs to know its own state information and the aggregate effect of the other nodes in the MANET. Therefore, the proposed scheme is a fully distributed scheme. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Full Text Available The nodes in mobile ad-hoc network depend on battery for its power. Therefore, effective utilization of energy is necessary for efficient transfer of data between the persons involved in rescue without connection termination in disaster situation. An Optimal Path Selection Model (OPSM is proposed to achieve this. First, routes are identified with the links having high power ratio and link duration. The path selection aims at reducing the number of node failures which in turn obtains energy saving. Then, the source will select a node-disjoint path based on energy and hop for data transfer and store the remaining paths in cache. Priority based path maintenance is also proposed for the selection of routes from cache based on remaining energy if the primary selection fails. Path selection and maintenance extend the network lifetime by reducing the energy usage in transmission. Simulation results revealed that OPSM achieves 64% and 50% reduction in energy consumption compared to Dynamic Source Routing (DSR and Multipath DSR (MDSR. The number of path breakages is also 11 times and 5.5 times lesser than DSR and MDSR. Thus, it can be said that OPSM is a better choice for optimal path selection for performance enhancement by saving energy and improving lifetime.
Full Text Available Se propone aplicar la teoría del valor informacional agregado (Theory of Informational Added Values, IAV al Electronic Commerce (EC y al Mobile Commerce (MC. El trabajo presentado es una propuesta para acercarse a modelos de negocio, con el foco de criterios típicos de evaluación para modelos de negocio de Internet y del MC. Es también conveniente para comparar modelos de negocio distintos y para poner el valor añadido para los participantes en un contexto. De esta manera, se establecen criterios objetivos que reducen la subjetividad y permiten hacer ciertas predicciones. El artículo termina con un análisis crítico del estado del arte y un comentario sobre las perspectivas futuras.
Se propone aplicar la teoría del valor informacional agregado (Theory of Informational Added Values, IAV al Electronic Commerce (EC y al Mobile Commerce (MC. El trabajo presentado es una propuesta para acercarse a modelos de negocio, con el foco de criterios típicos de evaluación para modelos de negocio de Internet y del MC. Es también conveniente para comparar modelos de negocio distintos y para poner el valor añadido para los participantes en un contexto. De esta manera, se establecen criterios objetivos que reducen la subjetividad y permiten hacer ciertas predicciones. El artículo termina con un análisis crítico del estado del arte y un comentario sobre las perspectivas futuras.
Full Text Available This paper proposed a new Distributed Score Based Clustering Algorithm (DSBCA for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs.In MANETs, select suitable nodes in clusters as cluster heads are so important. The proposed Clustering Algorithm considers the Battery Remaining, Number of Neighbors, Number of Members, and Stability in order to calculate the node's score with a linear algorithm. After each node calculates its score independently, the neighbors of the node must be notified about it. Also each node selects one of its neighbors with the highest score to be its cluster head and, therefore the selection of cluster heads is performed in a distributed manner with most recent information about current status of neighbor nodes. The proposed algorithm was compared with Weighted Clustering Algorithm and Distributed Weighted Clustering Algorithm in terms of number of clusters, number of re-affiliations, lifespan of nodes in the system, end-to-end throughput and overhead. The simulation results proved that the proposed algorithm has achieved the goals.
Reijo M. Savola
Full Text Available We propose an integrated security measurement architecture and framework for a dynamic self-organizing monitoring system based on mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs, structured according to currently known security challenges. The aim is to predict, as well as to monitor, the security performance, concentrating on the principal effects contributing to it. We introduce an on-thefly security level estimation mechanism for MANETs. The mechanism can be used to support node-level, network segment-level and network-level decision making. At the node level, it is possible to constantly estimate the security level when choosing applications and communication mechanisms. At the network level, democratic voting among independent estimates originating from different nodes is used to increase the level of security. Furthermore, we introduce a generic security evaluation framework based on definition and decomposition of security requirements, behaviour modelling, evidence collection, and decision making. The goal of the decision making process is to make an assessment of and form conclusions about the information security level or performance of the system under investigation.
Full Text Available Problem statement: In Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET, both the routing layer and the Medium Access Control (MAC layer are vulnerable to several attacks. There are very few techniques to detect and isolate the attacks of both these layers simultaneously. In this study, we developed a combined solution for routing and MAC layer attacks. Approach: Our approach, makes use of three techniques simultaneously which consists of a cumulative frequency based detection technique for detecting MAC layers attacks, data forwarding behavior based detection technique for detecting packet drops and message authentication code based technique for packet modification. Results: Our combined solution presents a reputation value for detecting the malicious nodes and isolates them from further network participation till its revocation. Our approach periodically checks all nodes, including the isolated nodes, at regular time period λ. A node which recovers from its misbehaving condition is revoked to its normal condition after the time period λ. Conclusion/Recommendations: By simulation results, we show that our combined solution provides more security by increased packet delivery ratio and reduced packet drops. We also shown that our approach has less overhead compared to the existing technique.
Full Text Available Traditional mobile Ad Hoc network routing protocols are mainly based on the Shortest Path, which possibly results in many congestion nodes that incur routing instability and rerouting. To mitigate the side-efforts, this paper proposed a new bioinspired adaptive routing protocol (ATAR based on a mathematics biology model ARAS. This paper improved the ARAS by reducing the randomness and by introducing a new routing-decision metric “the next-hop fitness” which was denoted as the congestion level of node and the length of routing path. In the route maintenance, the nodes decide to forward the data to next node according to a threshold value of the fitness. In the recovery phase, the node will adopt random manner to select the neighbor as the next hop by calculation of the improved ARAS. With this route mechanism, the ATAR could adaptively circumvent the congestion nodes and the rerouting action is taken in advance. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results show that the ATAR protocol outperforms AODV and MARAS in terms of delivery ratio, ETE delay, and the complexity. In particular, ATAR can efficiently mitigate the congestion.
Wei, Yifei; Chang, Lin; Wang, Yali; Wang, Gaoping
This paper proposes an active queue management mechanism, considering the node's own ability and its importance in the network to set the queue threshold. As the network load increases, local congestion of mobile ad hoc network may lead to network performance degradation, hot node's energy consumption increase even failure. If small energy nodes congested because of forwarding data packets, then when it is used as the source node will cause a lot of packet loss. This paper proposes an active queue management mechanism, considering the node's own ability and its importance in the network to set the queue threshold. Controlling nodes buffer queue in different levels of congestion area probability by adjusting the upper limits and lower limits, thus nodes can adjust responsibility of forwarding data packets according to their own situation. The proposed algorithm will slow down the send rate hop by hop along the data package transmission direction from congestion node to source node so that to prevent further congestion from the source node. The simulation results show that, the algorithm can better play the data forwarding ability of strong nodes, protect the weak nodes, can effectively alleviate the network congestion situation.
Yang, Juan; Yang, Dan; Huang, Bin; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Luo, Jian-Lu
In order to analyze the capacity stability of the time-varying-propagation and delay-dependent of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs), in this paper, a novel approach is proposed to explore the capacity asymptotic stability for the delay-dependent of MANETs based on non-cooperative game theory, where the delay-dependent conditions are explicitly taken into consideration. This approach is based on the Lyapunov—Krasovskii stability theory for functional differential equations and the linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique. A corresponding Lyapunov—Krasovskii functional is introduced for the stability analysis of this system with use of the descriptor and “neutral-type” model transformation without producing any additional dynamics. The delay-dependent stability criteria are derived for this system. Conditions are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities, and for the first time referred to neutral systems with the time-varying propagation and delay-dependent stability for capacity analysis of MANETs. The proposed criteria are less conservative since they are based on an equivalent model transformation. Furthermore, we also provide an effective and efficient iterative algorithm to solve the constrained stability control model. Simulation experiments have verified the effectiveness and efficiency of our algorithm.
YANGJun; LIJiandong; ZHOUXiaodong
The approach to employ smart antennas in Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) nodes is presented. An adaptive beamforming-Carrier-Sense multiple access/collison avoidance) (ABF-CSMA/CA) protocol is proposed. In the ABF-CSMA/CA, Request-to-Send/Clear-to-Send (RTS/CTS) dialogue is used to distribute channel reservation information. Training sequences are transmitted just before RTS and CTS packets, so the Temporal reference beamforming (TRB) can be performed by the source node and the destination node.An improved virtual carrier-sense mechanism is also proposed to enhance Collision avoidance (CA) and obtain efficient Space division multiple access (SDMA). In this scheme, every node has two kinds of Network allocation vector (NAV): an oNAV maintains the interval of ongoing transmission of neighbors whose smart antennas operate in omnidirectional mode, and multiple bNAVs maintain those intervals of neighbors whose smart antennas operate in beamforming mode. Theoretical analysis of channel utilization of the proposed protocol is presented. Results show that ABF-CSMA/CA protocol combining with smart antennas can provide higher channel utilization.
Adib M. Monzer Habbal
Full Text Available Transmission Control Protocol (TCP is a fundamental protocol in the TCP/IP Protocol Suite.TCP was well designed and optimized to work over wired networks where most packet loss occurs due to network congestion. In theory, TCP should not care whether it is running over wired networks, WLANs, or Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs. In practice, it does matter because most TCP deployments have been carefully designed based on the assumption that congestion is the main factor of network instability. However, MANETs have other dominating factors that cause network instability. Forgetting the impact of these factors violates some design principles of TCP congestion control and open questions for future research to address. This study aims to introduce a model that shows the impact of MANET factors on TCP congestion control. To achieve this aim, Design Research Methodology (DRM proposed by BLESSING was used as a guide to present this model. The proposed model describes the existing situation of TCP congestion control. Furthermore, it points to the factors that are most suitable to be addressed by researchers in order to improve TCP performance. This research proposes a novel model to present the impact of MANET factors on TCP congestion control. The model is expected to serve as a benchmark for any intended improvement and enhancement of TCP congestion control over MANET.
P. Suresh Varma
Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a collection of autonomous self-organized nodes. They use wireless medium for communication, thus two nodes can communicate directly if and only if they are within each other’s transmission radius in a multi-hop fashion. Many conventional routing algorithms have been proposed for MANETs. An emerging area that has recently captured much attention in network routing researches is Swarm Intelligence (SI. Besides conventional approaches, many new researches have proposed the adoption of Swarm Intelligence for MANET routing. Swarm Intelligence (SI refers to complex behaviors that arise from very simple individual behaviors and interactions, which is often observed in nature, especially among social insects such as ants, bees, fishes etc. Although each individual has little intelligence and simply follows basic rules using local information obtained from the environment. Ants routing resembles basic mechanisms from distributed Swarm Intelligence (SI in biological systems and turns out to become an interesting solution where routing is a problem. Ants based routing is gaining more popularity because of its adaptive and dynamic nature. A number of Swarm Intelligence (SI based algorithms were proposed by researchers. In this paper, we study bio-inspired routing protocols for MANETs.
Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a self-created self-organized and self-administering set of nodes connectedvia wireless links without the aid of any fixed infrastructure or centralized administrator. Protecting the network layer frommalicious attacks is an important and challenging issue in both wired and wireless networks and the issue becomes even morechallenging in the case of MANET. In this paper we propose a solution of umpiring system (US that provides security forrouting and data forwarding operations. Umpiring system consist of three models, are single umpiring system (SUS, doubleumpiring system (DUS, and triple umpiring system (TUS. In our system each node in the path from source to destination hasdual roles to perform: packet forwarding and umpiring.US does not apply any cryptographic techniques on the routing andpacket forwarding message. In the umpiring role, each node in the path closely monitors the behavior of its succeeding nodeand if any misbehavior is noticed immediately flags off the guilty node. For demonstration, we have implemented the umpiringsystem by modifying the popular AODV protocol.
Full Text Available The varieties of studies in the literature have been addressed by the researchers to solve security dilemmas of Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANET. Due to the wireless nature of the channel and specific characteristics of MANETs, the radio interference attacks cannot be defeated through conventional security mechanisms. An adversary can easily override its medium access control protocol (MAC and continually transfer packages on the network channel. The authorized nodes keep sending Request-toSend (RTS frames to the access point node in order to access to shared medium and start data transfer. However, due to jamming attacks on the network, the access point node cannot assign authorization access to shared medium. These attacks cause a significant decrease on overall network throughput, packet transmission rates and delay on the MAC layer since other nodes back-off from the communication. The proposed method applied for preventing and mitigating jamming attacks is implemented at the MAC layer that consist of a combination of different coordination mechanisms. These are a combination of Point Controller Functions (PCF that are used to coordinate entire network activities at the MAC layer and RTS/CTS (Clear-To-Send mechanisms which is a handshaking process that minimizes the occurrence of collisions on the wireless network. The entire network performance and mechanism is simulated through OPNET simulation application.
S. K. Srivatsa
Full Text Available Problem statement: In Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET routing protocols, we require a network-level or link layer security. Since without appropriate security provisions, the MANETs is subjected to attacks like network traffic, replay transmissions, manipulate packet headers and redirect routing messages. In order to address these needs, a policy based network management system that provides the capability to express network requirements is required. Approach: In this study, we propose a policy based scheme for combined data security which focuses mainly on three policies: Integrity, authentication and Confidentiality. For providing security not only to data, but also for routing information, we calculate the trust indexes of the nodes and the route is selected according to the trust value which improves integrity. Then in order to provide authentication, we propose a Distributed Certificate Authority (DCA technique in which multiple DCA is required to construct a certificate. Next we propose an RSA based novel encryption mechanism in order to provide Confidentiality among the nodes. Thus, the desired level of security is provided by the system based on the policy of the user by executing the corresponding security modules. Results: By simulation results, we show that this scheme provides a combined data security in MANETs and can be used efficiently. Conclusion: Our proposed combined data security policy provides complete protection for the data in MANET communications.
CH. V. Raghavendran
Full Text Available Wireless networks, in particular Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs have revolutionized the field of networking with increasing number of their commercial and military applications. Security on the other hand, is now an essential requirement for these applications. However, the limitations of the dynamic, infrastructure-less nature of MANETs impose major difficulties in establishing a secure framework suitable for such services. Security for MANETs is a dynamic area of research. Most of the traditional routing protocols proposed for MANETs are focused on routing only not on the security aspects. As in traditional wired networks, wireless networks also require security. Unlike the wired networks, where dedicated routers, servers control the network, in MANETs nodes act both as terminals and also as routers for other nodes. A popular mechanism to satisfy the security requirements is the Group Key Management in which the group key is to be shared by each group communication participant. But to establish and manage the group key efficiently imposes new challenges – especially in infrastructure less MANETs. The basic needs of such networks require that the group key schemes must demonstrate not only high performance but also fault-tolerance.
传统网络中的入侵阻止和检测等防护方法在网络结构脆弱、节点移动的移动自组网络中无法达到预期效果.将移动代理引入无线自组网络中,设计分布式入侵检测响应系统,通过多种功能的移动代理实现入侵检测功能,并在入侵检测的基础上利用移动代理跟踪、隔离入侵节点,对入侵节点做出及时响应.实验结果表明此方法节省网络节点资源、避免网络的崩溃且达到主动响应隔离入侵节点的效果,有效地检测并阻止了入侵行为.%Many traditional security technologies such as intrusion prevention and intrusion detection are subject to restrictions in the network environment of mobile ad hoc networks can not achieve the desired results. This paper introduces mobile agents in wireless ad hoc network security model, designs a distributed intrusion detection and respond system. Through a variety of functions of mobile agent the system implements the functions of intrusion detection intrusion, and uses mobile agents to track, isolate invasion node to make a timely response. Experimental results show that this method can save the resources of node and avoid the collapse of the network, effective in detecting and preventing intrusions.
R. Prins (Remco)
textabstractIn recent years, the mobile telecommunications market has been very dynamic in terms of innovations. Mobile service providers continuously invest in new technologies and introduce many new mobile services for consumers, such as MMS and web services. However, adoption rates are often not
R. Prins (Remco)
textabstractIn recent years, the mobile telecommunications market has been very dynamic in terms of innovations. Mobile service providers continuously invest in new technologies and introduce many new mobile services for consumers, such as MMS and web services. However, adoption rates are often not
郭显; 冯涛; 袁占亭; 马建峰
Aiming at the features of mobility and wireless broadcast communication of node, in order to model and analyze secure systems for mobile Ad Hoc networks, two constructors, i.e. mobility and broadcast, are introduced in LS2 ( logic of secure systems). So LS2 is extended to be ELS2. In ELS2, the network is modeled as the combination of threads with different physical locations. A thread is a sequentially executing program. The threads execute programs of secure systems. The attacker is also modeled as a thread which runs concurrently with the threads of system participants.The concept of network trace is proposed in this paper. This concept describes the process of the network evolution caused by system behaviors, such as internal computation, external interaction and mobility of nodes. On the network trace, semantic of predicates and modal formulas are defined,and properties of a system can be analyzed. New axioms are designed in ELS2. Intuitive properties of system behaviors can be captured by these axioms. Finally, in ELS2, mobile IP registration protocol is described and its correctness property is analyzed.%针对移动Ad Hoc网络节点移动和无线广播通信特征,引入移动算子和广播算子,扩展形式逻辑LS2,提出了建模和分析移动Ad Hoc网络安全系统的逻辑ELS2.ELS2把网络模型化为不同位置上执行程序的线程复合,把攻击者模型化为与协议参与方并发运行的线程.ELS2中提出网络迹概念,描述网络节点内部计算和外部交互,以及节点移动导致的网络进化过程,并在网络迹上定义谓词公式和模态公式的语义,分析网络协议属性.ELS2证明系统中,设计了捕获程序行为直观属性的新公理.最后,在ELS2逻辑中建模并分析了移动IP注册协议正确性属性.
移动Ad hoc网络在民用设施和国防事业方面得到广泛应用,动态变化的拓扑结构是Ad hoc网络的一大特征,也正是这种动态性使得Ad hoc网络特别容易受到安全方面的攻击.文章剖析了AODV路由协议的工作过程,针对协议中存在的黑洞问题,提出了一种新的解决方案,该方案不仅有效地解决了黑洞问题而且可以消除一些现有解决方案所存在的缺陷.%Mobile ad hoc networks are extensively used in military and civilian application, one typical characteristic of which is the dynamic topological structure. This dynamic nature of topology makes the network vulnerable to security attacks. This paper analyzes the operating process and potential insecurity factors of AODV routing protocol, and proposes a new solution for the black hole problem.The solution can not only solve the black hole problem efficiently, but it can also make up the deficiencies of some solutions in existence.
Peng, Chaorong; Chen, Chang Wen
Malicious nodes are mounting increasingly sophisticated attacking operations on the Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). This is mainly because the IP-based MANETs are vulnerable to attacks by various malicious nodes. However, the defense against malicious attack can be improved when a new layer of network architecture can be developed to separate true IP address from disclosing to the malicious nodes. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to improve the defense against malicious attack (IDMA) that is based on a recently developed Assignment Router Identify Protocol (ARIP) for the clustering-based MANET management. In the ARIP protocol, we design the ARIP architecture based on the new Identity instead of the vulnerable IP addresses to provide the required security that is embedded seamlessly into the overall network architecture. We make full use of ARIP's special property to monitor gateway forward packets by Reply Request Route Packets (RREP) without additional intrusion detection layer. We name this new algorithm IDMA because of its inherent capability to improve the defense against malicious attacks. Through IDMA, a watching algorithm can be established so as to counterattack the malicious node in the routing path when it unusually drops up packets. We provide analysis examples for IDMA for the defense against a malicious node that disrupts the route discovery by impersonating the destination, or by responding with state of corrupted routing information, or by disseminating forged control traffic. The IDMA algorithm is able to counterattack the malicious node in the cases when the node lunch DoS attack by broadcast a large number of route requests, or make Target traffic congestion by delivering huge mount of data; or spoof the IP addresses and send forge packets with a fake ID to the same Target causing traffic congestion at that destination. We have implemented IDMA algorism using the GloMoSim simulator and have demonstrated its performance under a variety of
Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network is stated as a cluster that contains Digital data terminals and they are furnished with the wireless transceivers which are able to communicate with each other with no need of any fixed architecture or concentrated authority. Security is one of the major issues in MANETs because of vast applications such as Military Battlefields, emergency and rescue operations. In order to provide anonymous communications and to identify the malicious nodes in MANETs, many authors have proposed different secure routing protocols but each protocol have their own advantages and disadvantages. In MANTE’s each and every node in the communicating network functions like router and transmits the packets among the networking nodes for the purpose of communication. Sometimes nodes may be attacked by the malicious nodes or the legitimate node will be caught by foemen there by controlling and preventing the nodes to perform the assigned task or nodes may be corrupted due to loss of energy. So, due to these drawbacks securing the network under the presence of adversaries is an important thing. The existing protocols were designed with keeping anonymity and the identification of vicious nodes in the network as the main goal. For providing better security, the anonymity factors such as Unidentifiability and Unlinkability must be fully satisfied. Many anonymous routing schemes that concentrate on achieving anonymity are proposed in the past decade and they provides the security at different levels and also provides the privacy protection that is of different cost. In this paper we consider a protocol called Authenticated Secure Routing Protocol proposed which provides both security & anonymity. Anonymity is achieved in this protocol using Group signature. Over all by using this protocol performance in terms of throughput as well as the packet dropping rate is good compared to the other living protocols.
Full Text Available A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET is a peer-to-peer wireless network where nodes can communicate with each other without the use of infrastructure such as access points or base stations. These networks are self-configuring, capable of self-directed operation and hastily deployable. Nodes cooperate to provide connectivity, operates without centralized administration. Nodes are itinerant, topology can be very dynamic and nodes must be able to relay traffic since communicating nodes might be out of range. The dynamic nature of MANET makes network open to attacks and unreliability. Routing is always the most significant part for any networks. Each node should not only work for itself, but should be cooperative with other nodes. Node misbehaviour due to selfish or malicious intention could significantly degrade the performance of MANET. The Qos parameters like PDR, throughput and delay are affected directly due to such misbehaving nodes. We focus on trust management framework, which is intended to cope with misbehaviour problem of node and increase the performance of MANETs. A trust-based system can be used to track this misbehaving of nodes, spot them and isolate them from routing and provide reliability. In this paper a Trust Based Reliable AODV [TBRAODV] protocol is presented which implements a trust value for each node. For every node trust value is calculated and based trust valuenodes are allowed to participate in routing or else identified to become a misbehaving node. This enhances reliability in AODV routing and results in increase of PDR, decrease in delay and throughput is maintained. This work is implemented and simulated on NS-2. Based on simulation results, the proposed protocol provides more consistent and reliable data transfer compared with general AODV, if there are misbehaving nodes in the MANET.
刘占军; 于芳; 李云; 陈前斌
移动Ad hoc网络中,节点采用电池一类的可耗尽能源来提供电源,很容易因某个节点能量耗完而导致网络分裂.同时,节点在网络中的不断移动可能引起路由失效,从而导致路由重建,降低网络的性能.针对这个问题,从节点能量消耗入手,通过对网络中各节点能量消耗速度的预测,并周期性地监控与节点相关的链路的变化情况,近似获得代表节点移动快慢的移动性参数,提出一种结合节点移动性和节点剩余能量状态预测的路由协议--EMRP.仿真表明EMRP能提高数据传送率,延长整个网络的生存时间.改善网络性能.%In mobile ad hoe networks,the nodes are battery-operated,it is easy to lead to network partition since some node's energy is exhausted.And the mobility of nodes may cause route failure that leads to route rediscovery,which can degrade the performance of networks.To solve this issue,this paper predicts the lifetime of each node in wireless ad hoc networks and also presents a method to get the mobility parameters of a node which represents the node's moving speed by monitoring the change of the node's link status periodically.Based on these,a new muting protocol EMRP by combining the prediction of the node mo-bility and residual energy state is presented.The simulation results show that EMRP can increase the packet delivery ratio and increase evidently the lifetime of the network.
In IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs), network nodes experiencing collisions on the shared channel need to backoff for a random period of time, which is uniformly selected from the Contention Window (CW). This contention window is dynamically controlled by the Backoff algorithm. First step to design a an efficient backoff algorithm for multi-hop ad hoc network is to analysis of the existing backoff algorithms in multi-hop ad hoc networks. Thus, in this paper, we considered two important multi-hop adhoc network scenarios: (a) Node Mobility Scenario and (b) Transmission Range Scenario and analyze and evaluate both the impact of mobility (i.e. node speed) and the impact of transmission range of nodes on the performance of various backoff algorithms
YAOYinxiong; LIUJianxun; TANGXinhuai
MAQF is a newly proposed adaptive QoS provisioning framework for Mobile Ad hoc network (MANET) by the authors. Through modifying the architecture of INSIGNIA and adding some components, MAQF overcomes many disadvantages appearing in related works and supports QoS guarantees for MANET. This paper focuses on the design and implementation of some key techniques in MAQF, including QoS routing, signaling in band, adaptive control mechanism, dynamic resource adaptation algorithm and, etc. Simulation results are presented and have verified the validity of MAQF.
Schmidt Hanbidge, Alice; Sanderson, Nicole; Tin, Tony
Integrating information literacy skills is fundamental to learning in all contexts. The nexus of mobile devices and information literacy lessons to learn these skills is an innovative pedagogy in higher education explored in this Mobile Information Literacy Tool (MIL) project. Currently, the project's second stage of data collection and analysis…
Caleffi, Marcello; Paura, Luigi
Unlike traditional routing procedures that, at the best, single out a unique route, multi-path routing protocols discover proactively several alternative routes. It has been recognized that multi-path routing can be more efficient than traditional one mainly for mobile ad hoc networks, where route failure events are frequent. Most studies in the area of multi-path routing focus on heuristic methods, and the performances of these strategies are commonly evaluated by numerical simulations. The need of a theoretical analysis motivates such a paper, which proposes to resort to the terminal-pair routing reliability as performance metric. This metric allows one to assess the performance gain due to the availability of route diversity. By resorting to graph theory, we propose an analytical framework to evaluate the tolerance of multi-path route discovery processes against route failures for mobile ad hoc networks. Moreover, we derive a useful bound to easily estimate the performance improvements achieved by multi-pa...
A RAJESH; N MOHAN KUMAR
Position based opportunistic routing (POR) is a stateless, robust, and reliable geographic routing protocol in Mobile AdHoc NETwork (MANET). The opportunistic routing embraces broadcast property of wireless channels and utilizes it for opportunistic forwarding. Both the malicious node behavior and the backupnodes’ behavior are equally treated as malicious in the existing misbehavior detection mechanisms. Hence, incorporating a general trust model in POR is not combative with routing attacks. It is necessary to determine whether the misbehavior is likely a result of malicious activity or due to the backup scenario of opportunistic forwarding. On the other hand, if context-sensitive trust information is available on every node, it ensures a fair decision making and also supports secured routing in an opportunistic approach. This work investigates the utilization of context attributes along with generic trust model to allow POR for secure and reliable data forwarding. This paper introduces context-sensitive trust for choosing the data forwarding node in POR (CPOR) to assist opportunistic routing in selecting the trusted optimal data forwarding node and to cope with both security and reliability of communications. The proposed work exercises both coarse- and fine-grained trust evaluation to strengthen the trustworthiness. The coarse-grained trust measure includes positive progress per hop and behavioral attribute of the nodes in terms of routing service. The fine-grained trust evaluation differs the opportunistic routing environment from the adverse scenarios and aids the source node such that it builds a highly trusted positive progress set using contextual attributes. The fine-grained trust evaluation deduces the ideal contextual information such as the link quality, battery energy, and the backup service to determine the accurate trust value of nodes. As a result, it involves optimal routes and enables CPOR to maintain the routingperformance equal to the POR even
Datta, Anwitaman; Quarteroni, Silvia; Aberer, Karl
We introduce autonomous gossiping (A/G), a new genre epidemic algorithm for selective dissemination of information in contrast to previous usage of epidemic algorithms which flood the whole network. A/G is a paradigm which suits well in a mobile ad-hoc networking (MANET) environment because it does not require any infrastructure or middleware like multicast tree and (un)subscription maintenance for publish/subscribe, but uses ecological and economic principles in a self-organizing manner in o...
盛敏; 史琰; 田野; 李建东; 周恩惠
连通性是MANETs(Mobile Ad Hoc Networks)网络进行可靠数据传输的基础.随着通信需求的日益增长,要求MANETs网络具有更加健壮的网络拓扑结构,从而有效地避免网络瓶颈节点并防止网络分割.具有k连通特性的MANETs网络可以很好的满足上述要求,因此本文着重研究了使MANETs网络满足k连通性的最佳传输半径问题,获得的结论普适于节点分布在任何凸形区域MANETs网络,在网络容错性设计方面具有较大的理论和实用价值.
Abbas, Ash Mohammad
Designing a wireless node that supports quality of service (QoS) in a mobile ad hoc network is a challenging task. In this paper, we propose an architecture of a wireless node that may be used to form a mobile ad hoc network that supports QoS. We discuss the core functionalities required for such a node and how those functionalities can be incorporated. A feature of our architecture is that the node has the ability to utilize multiple paths, if available, for the provision of QoS. However, in the absence of multiple paths it can utilize the resources provided by a single path between the source and the destination. We follow a modular approach where each module is expanded iteratively. We compare the features of our architecture with the existing architectures proposed in the literature. Our architecture has provisions of energy and mobility management and it can be customized to design a system-on-chip (SoC).
为了有效评估移动Ad Hoc网络中的DoS攻击效果,文章结合网络安全属性和攻击属性两方面建立了评估指标体系,在此基础上,提出了基于变权灰色模糊的攻击效果评估模型,并给出了量化评估的方法和步骤.最后利用该方法对DoS攻击进行了仿真评估分析,量化评估结果能够较好地反映不同攻击方式的效果.%In order to assess DoS attack effect on Mobile Ad Hoc Network, an attack effect assessment index system was set up considering two aspects of security attribute and attack attribute of network. Based on the system, the changing-weight, grey-fuzzy security assessment model was built up. Then the method and procedure of quantitative assessment was given. Finally,DoS attack was simulated and analyzed ,the result showed the effects of different attack ways.
Full Text Available A wireless ad hoc network is a temporary network set up by wireless nodes usually moving randomly and communicating without a network infrastructure. Due to security vulnerabilities of the routing protocols, however, wireless ad hoc networks may be unprotected against attacks by the malicious nodes. In this study we investigated the effects of Blackhole attacks on the network performance. We simulated Blackhole attacks in Qualnet Simulator and measured the packet loss in the network with and without a blackhole. The simulation is done on AODV (Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol. The network performance in the presence of a blackhole is reduced up to 26%.
Routing Protocol MAODV  is the multicast extension of the well-known Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector ( AODV ...extensions of the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol  or the Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector ( AODV ) routing protocol . The multi-path routing ...Multi-path Distance Vector (AOMDV) routing protocol , an extension of AODV to compute multiple loop-free link- disjoint routes ; (iii) AODV
Christensen, Bent Guldbjerg; Kristensen, Mads Darø; Hansen, Frank Allan
This paper presents LightPeers – a new mobile P2P framework specifically tailored for use in a nomadic learning environment. A set of key requirements for the framework is identified based on nomadic learning, and these requirements are used as outset for designing and implementing the architecture...... and protocols. The main contributions of the LightPeers framework are: a mobile P2P framework including a specialized robust messaging protocol resilient to changes in the network topology, an developers API, and a suite of LightPeers applications supporting nomadic learning prototyping key features of LightPeers....
Full Text Available In Wireless mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET every node functions as transmitter, router and data sink is network without infrastructure. Detecting malicious nodes in an open ad-hoc network in whichparticipating nodes have no previous security associations presents a number of challenges not faced by traditional wired networks. Traffic monitoring in wired networks is usually performed at switches,routers and gateways, but an ad-hoc network does not have these types of network elements where the Intrusion Detection System (IDS can collect and analyse audit data for the entire network. A number ofneighbour-monitoring, trust-building, and cluster-based voting schemes have been proposed in the research to enable the detection and reporting of malicious activity in ad-hoc networks. The resourcesconsumed by ad-hoc network member nodes to monitor, detect, report, and diagnose malicious activity, however, may be greater than simply rerouting packets through a different available path. In this paperwe are trying to protect our network from distributed denial of service attack (DDOS, In this paper we present method for determining intrusion or misbehave in MANET using intrusion detection system and protect the network from distributed denial of service (DDOS and analysis the result on the bases of actual TCP flow monitoring, routing load ,packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay in normal , DDOS attack and IDS time .
H. Parveen Sultana
Full Text Available Abstract: Problem statement: In the previous researches, steps were taken to resolve the problems of multicasting, after several discussions. Actually these issues were raised, while multicasting packets from Internet Protocol (IP to Mobile Nodes (MN. On the other hand, there is very little concern about the problem of packet loss reduction. Sometimes the occurrence of multicast service chaos is ignored during handovers. Therefore in this study it has been tried to explain the optimal multicast technique for Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6 to diminish the required amendment to the existing fast handover. Approach: An alternate method is suggested in Fast handover for MIPv6 (FMIPv6 to lessen the packet losses during handovers, before tunneling. Based on the qualities of the multicast subscription techniques for the Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6, multicast upholds method for FMIPv6. MIPv6 in general comprise two types of multicasting techniques, which are related to Home Agent (HA and Foreign Agent (FA. These techniques help the MN to obtain the packets in roaming location referred as Foreign Network (FN, which is being forwarded by the Core Network (CN. But due to the handover latency problem MN have to experience packet loss while switching between any two Access Routers (AR. A protocol has been designed to conquer the issue of packet loss in MIPv6. Results and Conclusion: This protocol can be used during joining process in MIPv6 before tunneling to eliminate the IP connectivity time. This implementation allows a mobile node to be connected more quickly at a fresh point of connection, when that mobile node moves with less packet losses.
Michalas, Antonis; Komninos, Nikos; Prasad, Neeli R.
in such networks. The second part presents a multiplayer game that takes place between the nodes of an ad hoc network and based on fundamental principles of game theory. By combining computational problems with puzzles, improvement occurs in the efficiency and latency of the communicating nodes and resistance......This paper proposes a technique to defeat Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks in Ad Hoc Networks. The technique is divided into two main parts and with game theory and cryptographic puzzles. Introduced first is a new client puzzle to prevent DoS attacks...... in DoS and DDoS attacks. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the approach for devices with limited resources and for environments like ad hoc networks where nodes must exchange information quickly....
Agueh, Max; Diouris, Jean-François; Diop, Magaye; Devaux, François-Olivier; De Vleeschouwer, Christophe; Macq, Benoit
Based on the analysis of real mobile ad hoc network (MANET) traces, we derive in this paper an optimal wireless JPEG 2000 compliant forward error correction (FEC) rate allocation scheme for a robust streaming of images and videos over MANET. The packet-based proposed scheme has a low complexity and is compliant to JPWL, the 11th part of the JPEG 2000 standard. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated using a wireless Motion JPEG 2000 client/server application; and the ability of the optimal scheme to guarantee quality of service (QoS) to wireless clients is demonstrated.
Full Text Available Based on the analysis of real mobile ad hoc network (MANET traces, we derive in this paper an optimal wireless JPEG 2000 compliant forward error correction (FEC rate allocation scheme for a robust streaming of images and videos over MANET. The packet-based proposed scheme has a low complexity and is compliant to JPWL, the 11th part of the JPEG 2000 standard. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated using a wireless Motion JPEG 2000 client/server application; and the ability of the optimal scheme to guarantee quality of service (QoS to wireless clients is demonstrated.
Oon C. Hsi
Full Text Available Problem statement: A MANET is an autonomous collection of mobile users that communicate over relatively bandwidth constrained wireless links. Since the nodes are mobile, the network topology may change rapidly and unpredictably over time. Approach: A Stable Weight-based On demand Routing Protocol (SWORP that uses the weight-based route strategy to select a stable route was created by Wang. But SWORP only evaluated in a limited setting of simulation, more simulation parameter have to test with SWORP to evaluate how far this protocol can go on. In this project, SWORP was implemented in simulation environment with two other routing protocols, AODV and DSR. Results: These three protocols were implemented in Network Simulator 2 (NS2 and the performance was compare with performance metrics, end-to-end delay, number of packet drop and packet delivery ratio. Conclusion: As expected, SWORP had outperformed AODV and DSR in the overall routing performance.
Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.); Marathe, A. (Achla)
We empirically study the effect of mobility on the performance of protocols designed for wireless adhoc networks. An important ohjective is to study the interaction of the Routing and MAC layer protocols under different mobility parameters. We use three basic mobility models: grid mobility model, random waypoint model, and exponential correlated random model. The performance of protocols was measured in terms of (i) latency, (ii) throughput, (iii) number of packels received, (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Three different commonly studied routing protocols were used: AODV, DSR and LAR1. Similarly three well known MAC protocols were used: MACA, 802.1 1 and CSMA. The inair1 conclusion of our study include the following: 1. 'I'he performance of the: network varies widely with varying mobility models, packet injection rates and speeds; and can ba in fact characterized as fair to poor depending on the specific situation. Nevertheless, in general, it appears that the combination of AODV and 802.1 I is far better than other combination of routing and MAC protocols. 2. MAC layer protocols interact with routing layer protocols. This concept which is formalized using statistics implies that in general it is not meaningful to speak about a MAC or a routing protocol in isolation. Such an interaction leads to trade-offs between the amount of control packets generated by each layer. More interestingly, the results wise the possibility of improving the performance of a particular MAC layer protocol by using a cleverly designed routing protocol or vice-versa. 3. Routing prolocols with distributed knowledge about routes are more suitable for networks with mobility. This is seen by comparing the performance of AODV with DSR or LAR scheme 1. In DSli and IAR scheme 1, information about a computed path is being stored in the route query control packct. 4. MAC layer protocols have varying performance with varying mobility
De Rango, Floriano; Lupia, Andrea
MANETs allow mobile nodes communicating to each other using the wireless medium. A key aspect of these kind of networks is the security, because their setup is done without an infrastructure, so external nodes could interfere in the communication. Mobile nodes could be compromised, misbehaving during the multi-hop transmission of data, or they could have a selfish behavior to save energy, which is another important constraint in MANETs. The detection of these behaviors need a framework that takes into account the latest interactions among nodes, so malicious or selfish nodes could be detected also if their behavior is changed over time. The monitoring activity increases the energy consumption, so our proposal takes into account this issue reducing the energy required by the monitoring system, keeping the effectiveness of the intrusion detection system. The results show an improvement in the saved energy, improving the detection performance too.
altitude aircraft, ships, high alti- tude aircraft, and satellite platforms . Each has different characteristics in mobility, available power, line-of...UAVs . These two features often determine when a tactical UAV will be utilized. Tactical UAVs are lower in cost than larger platforms like...motivated research in behavior grading systems . Peer-to-peer eCommerce appli- cations such as eBay, Amazon, uBid, and Yahoo have performed research that
Full Text Available Secure multicast communication in mobile adhoc networks is challenging due to its inherent characteristics of infrastructure-less architecture with lack of central authority, limited resources such as bandwidth, time and power. Hence key management is the fundamental challenge in achieving secure communication using multicast key distribution in mobile adhoc networks. In many multicast interactions, due to its frequent node mobility, new member can join and current members can leave at a time due to node failure which causes delay in multicast transmission. This paper proposes a new efficient cluster based multicast tree (CBMT algorithm for secure multicast Communication, in which source node uses Multicast version of Destination Sequenced Distance Vector(MDSDV routing protocol to collects its 1 hop neighbors to form cluster and each node which have child node is elected as the Local controllers of the created clusters. It also tolerates the faults that causes due to failure of nodes. Simulation results shows the demonstration of CBMT using MDSDV have better system performance in terms of end to end delay and fault tolerance rate under varying network conditions.
Michalas, Antonis; Komninos, Nikos; Prasad, Neeli R.
This paper proposes a technique to defeat Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks in Ad Hoc Networks. The technique is divided into two main parts and with game theory and cryptographic puzzles. Introduced first is a new client puzzle to prevent DoS attacks...
姚仲敏; 李魁杰; 张裕; 潘飞
To solve the problems of current electrical control system of air compressor station, this paper presents a zigbee-based air compressor station monitor and control system. The air compressors effective management is the foundation of the whole control system, as the control of all electrical actuators, inverters and motors is achieved through PLC. The system uses the pressure sensors and flow sensors to collect data from the air compressor network, by means of the Zigbee technology to transmit data, and apply Labview control software for the monitor and control center host computer. Meanwhile, the joints of ZigBee have low power consumption and high flexibility, easy for networking and maintenance.%针对目前的空压站电气控制系统存在的问题，提出了一种基于无线传感网的空压站监控系统。空压机组的有效管理是整个控制系统的基础，通过PLC实现对电气各执行器、变频器、电机等进行控制；利用压力传感器、流量传感器采集空压管网数据，并应用ZigBee技术进行数据传输；采用Labview设计监控中心上位机控制软件；同时ZigBee节点的低功耗和灵活性的特点，方便组网和维护。
Pattanayak, Binod Kumar; Jagadev, Alok Kumar; Nayak, Manojranjan
An admission control scheme should play the role of a coordinator for flows in a data communication network, to provide the guarantees as the medium is shared. The nodes of a wired network can monitor the medium to know the available bandwidth at any point of time. But, in wireless ad hoc networks, a node must consume the bandwidth of neighboring nodes, during a communication. Hence, the consumption of bandwidth by a flow and the availability of resources to any wireless node strictly depend upon the neighboring nodes within its transmission range. We present a scalable and efficient admission control scheme, Multi-hop Bandwidth Management Protocol (MBMP), to support the QoS requirements in multi-hop ad hoc networks. We simulate several options to design MBMP and compare the performances of these options through mathematical analysis and simulation results, and compare its effectiveness with the existing admission control schemes through extensive simulations. KEYWORDS
Coast, Australia, 21-26 May 2006.  P. Albers , O. Camp, J.-M. Percher, B. Jouga, L. Mé, and R. Puttini, “Security in Ad Hoc Networks: a General...10th Euromicro Workshop on Parallel, Distributed, and Network-based Processing, Canary Islands, Spain, Jan . 2002, pp. 403-410.  S. Buchegger and...DETECTION Albers et al.(2002)  -Direct observation for anomaly detection or misuse detection -General misbehaving nodes No experimental results
Full Text Available This paper presents a review on a major category of coordinated attacks i.e. cooperative blackhole / grayhole attack which are a serious threat to ad ho c network security. In cooperative blackhole attack multiple nodes collude to hide the malicious activi ty of other nodes; hence such attacks are more diff icult to detect. In this paper a survey of various security mechanisms that have been proposed in the literatur e for diction of such attacks is presented.
reverse path formation in AODV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4 Channel selection in CA-AODV...Routing Algorithm ACO Ant Colony Optimization AODV Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector CA-AODV Channel Assignment AODV CAN Content Addressable Network CDS...of MANETs. Most prominently has been the standard IEEE 802.11 protocols ( Wifi ), specifically the a, b, g, and n variations. The 802.11 specification
In Heterogeneous mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) congestion occurs with limited resources. Due to the shared wireless channel and dynamic topology, packet transmissions suffer from interference and fading. In heterogeneous ad hoc networks, throughput via a given route is depending on the minimum data rate of all its links. In a route of links with various data rates, if a high data rate node forwards more traffic to a low data rate node, there is a chance of congestion, which leads to long queuing delays in such routes. Since hop count is used as a routing metric in traditional routing, it do not adapt well to mobile nodes. A congestion-aware routing metric for MANETs should incorporate transmission capability, reliability, and congestion around a link. In this paper, we propose to develop a hop-by-hop congestion aware routing protocol which employs a combined weight value as a routing metric, based on the data rate, queuing delay, link quality and MAC overhead. Among the discovered routes, the route with min...
Fawaz A.M. Masoud
Full Text Available A mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET is wireless network composed of mobile nodes that are dynamically and randomly located in such a manner that the interconnections between nodes are capable of changing on a continual basis. In order to facilitate communication within the network, a routing protocol is used to discover routes between nodes. The primary goal of such an ad-hoc network routing protocol is correct and efficient route establishment between a pair of nodes so that messages may be delivered in a timely manner. Route construction and maintenance should be done with a minimum of overhead and bandwidth consumption. The ABR is a source-initiated protocol and is working on the assumption of stable route from the source to the destination node. Maintenance for the route when the destination node moves will be performed in backtracking scheme starting from the immediate upstream node from the destination. If this process results in backtracking more than halfway to the source, it will discontinue and a new route request will be initiated from the source. In the case if the Source Node moves, then the Source Node will invoke a route reconstruction because the ABR is source-initiated protocol. This study presents an enhanced method for the route re-construction in case the source, the intermediate, or the destination node changes its location by giving more active role to the moving node in maintaining the established route.
Full Text Available Mobile ad-hoc networks are autonomous networks of intelligent mobile nodes. Designing an efficient routing protocol with goal efficient route establishment is still a burning research issue. Routing protocols are broadly classified into proactive and reactive protocols on the basis of their nature of working. In this paper, we present comparative simulation analysis of two proactive protocols namely, Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR and Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV. Simulations have been carried out multiple times using Network Simulator-2.35 (NS-2.35, on random scenario patterns and compared in two environments (OLSR and DSDV by varying the network size and mobility of nodes. We have patched and installed OLSR protocol on NS-2.35 as it's not available as a part of NS-2.35 installation. The simulation results indicate that, OLSR perform better than DSDV protocol for application oriented metrices such as packet delivery fraction, packet loss and end-to-end delay. But, Routing Overheads is significantly consistently higher for OLSR protocol in all the cases considered, which is proven experimentally. Furthermore, based upon the simulation results, work can be done in the direction of improving the performance of the OLSR protocol to make it a choice of proactive protocol for large and denser network.
Full Text Available Multihop mobile wireless networks have drawn a lot of attention in recent years thanks to their wide applicability in civil and military environments. Since the existing IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF standard does not provide satisfactory access to the wireless medium in multihop mobile networks, we have designed a cross-layer protocol, (CroSs-layer noise aware power driven MAC (SNAPdMac, which consists of two parts. The protocol first concentrates on the flexible adjustment of the upper and lower bounds of the contention window (CW to lower the number of collisions. In addition, it uses a power control scheme, triggered by the medium access control (MAC layer, to limit the waste of energy and also to decrease the number of collisions. Thanks to a noticeable energy conservation and decrease of the number of collisions, it prolongs significantly the lifetime of the network and delays the death of the first node while increasing both the throughput performance and the sending bit rate/throughput fairness among contending flows.
Full Text Available Multicast protocols in MANETs must consider control overhead for maintenance, energy efficiency of nodes and routing trees managements to frequent changes of network topology. Now-adaysMulticast protocols extended with Cluster based approach. Cluster based multicast tree formation is still research issues. The tree reconstruction of cluster-based multicast routing protocol will take place if any link of the trees has malfunction or the nodes move out of the link, therefore, its robust performance is unsatisfactory. The mobility of nodes will always increase the communication delay because of re-clustering and cluster head selections. For this issue we proposed the new scheme Adaptive Fuzzy System (AFS, its fuzzy based clustering and predicting the next cluster head (CH based their location updates with clustered group. A new location management scheme is proposed to handle the mobility of cluster members, based on a hybrid strategy that includes location updating and location prediction. In a clustered zone predicts movement of members and CH based on Kalman filtering of previously received updates and based on location updates CH will selected. Here location managements will leads to reduce cluster head selections. We used ns2 for our AFS.We present simulation results that demonstrate a significant reduce the communication delay over the traditional cluster based MANETs deployments.
Full Text Available Problem statement: Many efforts have been implemented towards the Group membership management on multicast routing in MANETs, but the difficulties associated with Group membership management are still existed. Approach: Maintaining endurance of Group Leader (GL in multicasting routing has been a great challenge to all the protocol having been invented so far. Results: This study provides the RDMP algorithm for persistency of Group Leader within the group. Nodes perform very active in exchanging the Data and Control packet when they mobile within the transmission range. Range Detection Multicast Protocol (RDMP focuses on dynamic topology of nodes and uses detection mechanism based on transmission range within the group. Instead of having a separate external node to monitor on Group leadership, a node within the transmission range acts as a Leadership Track Node (LTN, Group Leader manages the group member with the aid provided by LTN and thus control over head shared among them. LTN keeps track of mobility of Group Leader and send alert message when Group Leader moves out of Transmission range and also holds the list of address of all other Group Leader which are adjacent to it. Routing control packet and data packet are regulated with minimum control over head. Conclusion/Recommendations: Our simulation results under increasing group size demonstrate endurance of Group leader for longer period of time, joining delay for multicast group is very low, normalized control over head and minimizing number of hops in maintain average path length.
Bumberger, Jan; Mollenhauer, Hannes; Lapteva, Yulia; Hutschenreuther, Tino; Toepfer, Hannes; Dietrich, Peter
To characterize environmental systems it is necessary to identify and describe processes with suitable methods. Environmental systems are often characterized by their high heterogeneity, so individual measurements for their complete representation are often not sufficient. The application of wireless sensor networks in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems offer significant benefits as a better consideration of the local test conditions becomes possible. This can be essential for the monitoring of heterogeneous environmental systems. Significant advantages in the application of mobile ad-hoc wireless sensor networks are their self-organizing behavior, resulting in a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time. In addition, a point measurement with a sensor is significantly improved by measuring at several points. It is also possible to perform analog and digital signal processing and computation on the basis of the measured data close to the sensor. Hence, a significant reduction of the data to be transmitted can be achieved which leads to a better energy management of sensor nodes. Furthermore, their localization via satellite, the miniaturization of the nodes and long-term energy self-sufficiency are current topics under investigation. The possibilities and limitations of the applicability of wireless sensor networks for long-term and mobile environmental monitoring are presented. A concepts and realization example are given in the field of micrometeorology and soil parameters for the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes .This long term monitoring is part of the Global Change Experimental Facility (GCEF), a large field-based experimental platform to assess the effects of climate change on ecosystem functions and processes under different land-use scenarios. Furthermore a mobile ad-hoc sensor network is presented for the monitoring of water induced mass wasting processes.
Full Text Available In this paper we present a distributed self-organizing trust based clustering framework for securing adhoc networks. The mobile nodes are vulnerable to security attacks, so ensuring the security of thenetwork is essential. To enhance security, it is important to evaluate the trustworthiness of nodes withoutdepending on central authorities. In our proposal the evidence of trustworthiness is captured in anefficient manner and from broader perspectives including direct interactions with neighbors, observinginteractions of neighbors and through recommendations. Our prediction scheme uses a trust evaluationalgorithm at each node to calculate the direct trust rating normalized as a fuzzy value between zero andone. The evidence theory of Dempster-Shafer ,  used in order to combine the evidences collectedby a clusterhead itself and the recommendations from other neighbor nodes. Moreover, in our scheme wedo not restrict to a single gateway node for inter cluster routing.
Edna E. Nallathambi
Full Text Available Problem statement: Network security in Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a major issue. Some of the attacks such as modification, impersonation, Time To Live (TTL and sleep deprivation are due to misbehaviour of malicious nodes, which disrupts the transmission. Some of the existing security protocols such as ARAN, SAODV and SEAD are basically used to detect and eliminate one or two types of attacks. The major requirement of a secure protocol is to prevent and eliminate many attacks simultaneously which will make the MANETs more secured. Approach: We propose the algorithm that can prevent and also eliminate multiple attacks simultaneously, called MIST algorithm (Modification, Impersonation, Sleep deprivation and TTL attacks. This algorithm is written on Node Transition Probability (NTP based protocol which provides maximum utilization of bandwidth during heavy traffic with less overhead. Thus this has been named MIST NTP. Results: The proposed MIST NTP has been compared with NTP without the MIST algorithm, Authenticated Routing for Ad hoc Networks (ARAN and Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV. Extensive packet level simulations show that MIST NTP produces around 10% less end to end delay than ARAN, it even drops 30% fewer packets compared to malicious NTP on an average and around 50-60% fewer packets compared to AODV during multiple attacks. Conclusion: The results ensure that MIST NTP can break the greatest security challenge prevailing in MANETs by securing the MANET against several attacks at once.
Castro, Linda; Lefebvre, Elisabeth; Lefebvre, Louis A
RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology is expected to play a vital role in the healthcare arena, especially in times when cost containments are at the top of the priorities of healthcare management authorities. Medical equipment represents a significant share of yearly healthcare operational costs; hence, ensuring an effective and efficient management of such key assets is critical to promptly and reliably deliver a diversity of clinical services at the patient bedside. Empirical evidence from a phased-out RFID implementation in one European hospital demonstrates that RFID has the potential to transform asset management by improving inventory management, enhancing asset utilization, increasing staff productivity, improving care services, enhancing maintenance compliance, and increasing information visibility. Most importantly, RFID allows the emergence of intelligent asset management processes, which is, undoubtedly, the most important benefit that could be derived from the RFID system. Results show that the added intelligence can be rather basic (auto-status change) or a bit more advanced (personalized automatic triggers). More importantly, adding intelligence improves planning and decision-making processes.
Shah, Kinjal; Sharma, Dharmendar; Mishra, Priyanka; Rakesh, Nitin
Video transmission over mobile ad-hoc networks is becoming important as these networks become more widely used in the wireless networks. We propose a routing-aware multiple description video coding approach to support video transmission over mobile ad-hoc networks with single and multiple path transport. We build a model to estimate the packet loss probability of each packet transmitted over the network based on the standard ad-hoc routing messages and network parameters without losing the RERR message. We then calculate the frame loss probability in order to eliminate error without any loss of data.
移动Ad Hoc网拓扑结构经常变化.自适应后备路由局部修复AODV协议AODV-ABL通过监听RREP包和数据包来产生后备路由,并存于后备路由表中.仅当链路错误时,AODV-ABL才试图利用后备路由表进行局部修复.为提高对网络拓扑变化的自适应性,在AODV-ABL基础上,提出了一种快速自适应后备AODV路由协议AODV-FABL.AODV-FABL合并主路由表和后备路由表,在监听包时同步更新路由,路由能尽快地得到优化.实验结果表明,AODV-FABL取得了比AODV-LR、AODV-ABL更好的包投递率、端对端时延、控制开销和对流量负载变化的适应性.%The network topology changes frequently in mobile Ad Hoc networks. In AODV-Adaptive Backup with Local repair routing (AODV-ABL) protocol, the backup route can be created by overhearing RREP packets and data packets and can be stored in alternate route table. Only when the link error occurs, AODV-ABL tries to start a local repair process by using alternate route table. In order to improve the adaptability to the network topology changing, a Fast AODV-ABL routing (AODV-FABL) protocol, which based on AODV-ABL, is proposed. AODV-FABL merges the primary route table with the alternate route table, and updates routes when overhearing packets, thus the routes can be optimized as soon as possible. Experimental results show that AODV-FABL has better packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay, control overhead and adaptability to the variational traffic load than AODV-LR and AODV-ABL.
Muhammad Arsalan Paracha
Full Text Available In Ad hoc networks every node plays an important part in the transmission of packets from sender to receiver. Most of the time packet delivery ratio of these networks depends on the behavior of intermediate nodes. Sometimes these intermediate nodes cooperate and forward the packets of their neighbor and some time they simply drop their packets and cheat their neighbors. We present a solution that not only detect these selfish nodes but also punish these nodes so that they avoid such misbehavior in future. To this account, we use an agent “Neighbor Monitor”, running on every node, to monitor the traffic of neighbors and assign a value called “Reputation Index”, associated with each node, based on its behavior.
YANG Zhen; ZHENG Bao-yu
Communication Network and Signal Processing are two of the research hotspots in the field of information technology because of their fast development. This paper focuses on the introduction of some research progresses in our National 863 Project based on the combination of technologies in these two areas. We present two new Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols based on so-called Multi-Packets Reception (MPR) in Ad hoc networks. Communication in the first scheme is initiated from senders and from receivers in the second one. Simulation results show that these new MAC protocols, which are based on new signal processing techniques, may raise network capacity and reduce transmission delay of data from end to end.
Amar, Ebtisam; Renault, Éric; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2204
Position-based routing protocols take advantage of location information to perform a stateless and efficient routing. To enable position-based routing, a node must be able to discover the location of the messages' destination node. This task is typically accomplished by a location service. Recently, several location service protocols have been developed for ad hoc networks. In this paper we propose a novel location service called PHLS: Predictive Hierarchical Location Service. In PHLS, the entire network is partitioned into a hierarchy of smaller and smaller regions. For each node, one node in each-level region of the hierarchy is chosen as its local location server. When the network initializes or when a node attaches the network, nodes contact their local location server with their current location information (ie. position and velocity). Then, they only need to update their location server when they move away from their current region. Finally, nodes query their location servers and get the exact or predic...
Mahshid Rahnamay-Naeini; Masoud Sabaei
In wireless ad hoc networks cooperation among nodes cannot always be assumed since nodes with limited resources and different owners are capable of making independent decisions. Cooperation problems in topology control and packet forwarding tasks have been mostly studied separately but these two tasks are not independent. Considering a joint cooperation problem by taking into account dependencies between tasks will result in more reliable and efficient networks. In this paper topology control definition is extended to cover cooperation problem in both packet forwarding and topology control in a single problem. In this definition nodes have to adjust their transmission power and decide on their relay role. This paper models the interactions of nodes as a potential game with two-dimensional utility function. The presented model, named TCFORCE (Topology Control packet FORwarding Cooperation Enforcement), preserves the network connectivity and reduces the energy consumption by providing cooperative paths between all pairs of nodes in the network.
Full Text Available Bandwidth Scarcity is a major drawback in multi-hop ad hoc networks. When a single-interface single-channel (SISC approach is used for both incoming and outgoing traffic the bandwidth contention between nodes along the path has occurred as well as throughput is degraded. This drawback is overwhelmed by using MIMC approach as well as some of the Quality of Service (QoS requirements has been enhanced. In this paper we applied multi-interface muti-channel approach to AODV routing protocol, called AODV-MIMC routing protocol and its performance is compared with AODV routing protocol. The simulation results show the Network Life Time, Throughput, and Packet Delivery Ratio of AODV-MIMC routing protocol has been tremendously improved than the AODV routing protocol.
Roy, Debdutta Barman; Chaki, Nabendu
In multi-hop wireless systems, the need for cooperation among nodes to relay each other's packets exposes them to a wide range of security attacks. A particularly devastating attack is the wormhole attack, where a malicious node records control traffic at one location and tunnels it to another compromised node, possibly far away, which replays it locally. Routing security in ad hoc networks is often equated with strong and feasible node authentication and lightweight cryptography. Unfortunately, the wormhole attack can hardly be defeated by crypto graphical measures, as wormhole attackers do not create separate packets. They simply replay packets already existing on the network, which pass the cryptographic checks. Existing works on wormhole detection have often focused on detection using specialized hardware, such as directional antennas, etc. In this paper, we present a cluster based counter-measure for the wormhole attack, that alleviates these drawbacks and efficiently mitigates the wormhole attack in MAN...
Pin, F.G.; Bender, S.R.
Most fuzzy logic-based reasoning schemes developed for robot control are fully reactive, i.e., the reasoning modules consist of fuzzy rule bases that represent direct mappings from the stimuli provided by the perception systems to the responses implemented by the motion controllers. Due to their totally reactive nature, such reasoning systems can encounter problems such as infinite loops and limit cycles. In this paper, we proposed an approach to remedy these problems by adding a memory and memory-related behaviors to basic reactive systems. Three major types of memory behaviors are addressed: memory creation, memory management, and memory utilization. These are first presented, and examples of their implementation for the recognition of limit cycles during the navigation of an autonomous robot in a priori unknown environments are then discussed.
Warty, Chirag; Yu, Richard Wai; ElMahgoub, Khaled; Spinsante, Susanna
In recent years the technological development has encouraged several applications based on distributed communications network without any fixed infrastructure. The problem of providing a collaborative early warning system for multiple mobile nodes against a fast moving object. The solution is provided subject to system level constraints: motion of nodes, antenna sensitivity and Doppler effect at 2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz. This approach consists of three stages. The first phase consists of detecting the incoming object using a highly directive two element antenna at 5.0 GHz band. The second phase consists of broadcasting the warning message using a low directivity broad antenna beam using 2× 2 antenna array which then in third phase will be detected by receiving nodes by using direction of arrival (DOA) estimation technique. The DOA estimation technique is used to estimate the range and bearing of the incoming nodes. The position of fast arriving object can be estimated using the MUSIC algorithm for warning beam DOA estimation. This paper is mainly intended to demonstrate the feasibility of early detection and warning system using a collaborative node to node communication links. The simulation is performed to show the behavior of detecting and broadcasting antennas as well as performance of the detection algorithm. The idea can be further expanded to implement commercial grade detection and warning system
Mrinal K. Naskar
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose to maintain the topology of a MANET by suitably selecting multiple coordinators among the nodes constituting the MANET. The maintenance of topology in a mobile ad–hoc network is of primary importance because the routing techniques can only work if we have a connected network. Thus of the burning issues at present is to device algorithms which ensure that the network topology is always maintained. The basic philosophy behind our algorithm is to isolate two coordinators amongst the system based on positional data. Once elected, they are entrusted with the responsibility to emit signals of different frequencies while the other nodes individually decide the logic they need to follow in order to maintain the topology, thereby greatly reducing the overhead. As far as our knowledge goes, we are the first ones to introduce the concept of multiple coordinators which not only reduces the workload of the coordinator, but also eliminates the need of different signal ranges thereby ensuring greater efficiency. We have simulated the algorithm with the help of a number of robots using embedded systems. The results we have obtained have been quite encouraging.
S. V.M.G. Bavithiraja
Full Text Available Problem statement: In mobile adhoc network, broadcasting is a common operation for route establishment and for sending control and emergency messages. Most of the existing broadcasting algorithms consider broadcasting from single source node and consider only single message broadcasting. Initiating multiple messages broadcasting from multiple sources is a challenging task which requires minimum number of retransmission made by the forwarding nodes. Approach: Network coding-based broadcasting was proposed which focuses on reducing the number of transmissions each forwarding node performs in the multiple source/multiple message broadcast application, where each forwarding node combines some of the received messages for transmission. We exploit the usage of directional antennas to network coding-based broadcasting to further reduce energy consumption. A node equipped with directional antennas could divided the omni directional transmission range into several sectors and turns some of them on for transmission. In the proposed scheme using a directional antenna, forwarding nodes selected locally only need to transmit broadcast messages, original or coded, to restricted sectors. Results: Simulation results show that the proposed method maximizes packet delivery ratio and throughput with reduced packet drop. Conclusion: The proposed network coding based broadcasting method reduces the total number of retransmissions made by the forwarding nodes compared to broadcasting using the same forwarding nodes without coding. Directional antennas are used to select the forwarding node set to maximize the throughput with minimal packet drop.
T. R. Rangaswamy
Full Text Available Problem statement: Ad hoc Networks are wireless networks without any fixed infrastructure. The network topology changes frequently and unpredictably due to the random movement of the nodes. The ad hoc on Demand Distant Vector Routing (AODV protocol works in a dynamic fashion, by establishing a route on demand and continues that route until it breaks. Due to the changing network topology of ad hoc networks, if other routes with less hop count become available, the network topology is not able to adapt until the route break occurs. Hence in the route shortening scheme is some redundant nodes in the active route is replaced with a node that is not on the active route. When there is any link failure between any two nodes, the alternative route with optimum route to be constructed and not sending RRER message to the source node to initiate the route discovery process again. Approach: This study proposes a new routing protocol called, Dynamic Route Shortening and Repairing mechanism (DRSR. The route shortening is incorporated with route repairing mechanism, to improve the performance of the AODV. The route shortening scheme works by replacing some redundant nodes in the active route, with a node that is not on the active route. If there is a link failure between the two nodes, the route repairing mechanism repairs the route, by using the nodes that are close enough to the route to overhear the message. Whenever the links go down, the DRSR replaces the failed links with the optimum route that is adjacent to the main route and not sending and RRER message to the source node to initiate the route discovery process again. The alternative route construction process could be initiated at any time, not just when a route has failed. The dynamically constructed alternative routeâs information is passed on to the upstream nodes, which then determine by themselves when to direct their packets to the Normal 0 false false false EN-US X
In traditional networks ,the authentication is performed by certificate authoritys(CA),which can't be built in distributed mobile Ad Hoc Networks however. In this paper, we propose a fully self-organized public key management based on bidirectional trust model without any centralized authority that allows users to generate their public-private key pairs, to issue certificates, and the trust relation spreads rationally according to the truly human relations. In contrast with the traditional self-organized public-key management, the average certificates paths get more short,the authentication passing rate gets more high and the most important is that the bidirectional trust based model satisfys the trust requirement of hosts better.
Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Networks are open, shared, dynamic and self-organized networks. These distinct nature lead to efficient use in emergency and recue scenarios where the sharing of information is necessary. In order to share information within the network, a proper routing protocol is required to establish routes between nodes. This article discusses which of the routing protocols such as reactive or proactive has better performance in such scenario. In order to implement the test bed, we choose a real area in Uttarakhand state, India where the disaster occurred recently hence so many civilizations had vanished due to lack of communication and failure in recovery. Our aim is to choose an optimum routing protocol that is correct and used for efficient route establishment between nodes so that message could be delivered on time without loss and it will be implemented and used in future based on the model that we propose.
Raja Gunasekaran; Vaidheyanathan Rhymend Uthariaraj; Uamapathy Yamini; Rajagopalan Sudharsan; Selvaraj Sujitha Priyadarshini
Medium access control (MAC) protocols such as IEEE 802.11 are used in wireless networks for sharing of the wireless medium.. The random nature of the protocol operation together with the inherent difficulty of monitoring in the open poses significant challenges. All nodes are expected to comply with the protocol rules. But, some nodes in order to gain greater benefits misbehave by not complying with the rules. One such selfish misbehavior is waiting for smaller back-off intervals when compared to the other nodes in the same subnet. Such selfish misbehavior is being tackled in this paper. A diagnosis scheme and a penalty scheme are being proposed for overcoming such selfish-misbehavior at MAC layer of mobile ad hoc networks which could be extended to other types of networks also.
S. Nadimi, Esmaeil; Nyholm Jørgensen, Rasmus; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria
Animal welfare is an issue of great importance in modern food production systems. Because animal behavior provides reliable information about animal health and welfare, recent research has aimed at designing monitoring systems capable of measuring behavioral parameters and transforming them...... into their corresponding behavioral modes. However, network unreliability and high-energy consumption have limited the applicability of those systems. In this study, a 2.4-GHz ZigBee-based mobile ad hoc wireless sensor network (MANET) that is able to overcome those problems is presented. The designed MANET showed high...... communication reliability, low energy consumption and low packet loss rate (14.8%) due to the deployment of modern communication protocols (e.g. multi-hop communication and handshaking protocol). The measured behavioral parameters were transformed into the corresponding behavioral modes using a multilayer...
TANIYAMA Kenta; MORII Takeshi; KOIZUMI Shinya; NOGUCHI Kazuhiro; KOTANI Yukihiro; KATTO Jiro
We propose an on-demand multipath routing algorithm in a mobile ad hoc network for video transmission and evaluate its real world performance in video streaming application. There have been a number of multipath routing protocols extended from AODV which is a well-known single path routing protocol. Multipath routing protocols indicate good performance in the reduction of route discovery latency and unnecessary routing packets in simulations. We show that the route establishment using source route lists provided by us (Hu and Johnson, 2002) can reduce the route discovery latency, select stable routes automatically, and work well for live video streaming without limitation of the hop count based approaches. We evaluate this proposed method compared with the original AODV by using eight laptop PCs and demonstrate live streaming experiments.
Nagtilak, S. A.; Mande, U. A.
The operation of MANETs does not depend on preexisting infrastructure or base stations. Network nodes in MANETs are free to move randomly. Therefore, the network topology of a MANET may change rapidly and unpredictably. This paper presents the existing methods to detect misbehavior in MANETs. Routing protocols used in such type of networks generally based on the assumption that, all participating nodes will be fully cooperative. But, due to the open structure node misbehavior may exist and packet loss occurs. Among them one type of misbehavior is that some nodes will take part in routing establishment processes but they do not respond to forward data packets and simply dismiss the packets. The goal of this work is to simulate the 2ACK scheme in ad hoc network. To reduce extra routing overhead, and packet loss, only a few of the received data packets are acknowledged in the 2ACK scheme. It reduces the routing overhead. It has been observed that by using the 2ACK scheme the packet delivery ratio is increased. The results of the 2ACK-OLSR indicates that it reduces the packet loss and increase the routing overhead.
Hope Forsmann; Robert Hiromoto; John Svoboda
The popularity of UAVs has increased dramatically because of their successful deployment in military operations, their ability to preserve human life, and the continual improvements in wireless communication that serves to increase their capabilities. We believe the usefulness of UAVs would be dramatically increased if formation flight were added to the list of capabilities. Currently, sustained formation flight with a cluster of UAVs has only been achieved with two nodes by the Multi-UAV Testbed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (Park, 2004) Formation flight is a complex operation requiring the ability to adjust the flight patterns on the fly and correct for wind gusts, terrain, and differences in node equipment. All of which increases the amount of inner node communication. Since one of the problems with MANET communication is network congestion, we believe a first step towards formation flight can be made through improved inner node communication. We have investigated current communication routing protocols and developed an altered hybrid routing protocol in order to provide communication with less network congestion.
Full Text Available To bring VANET into reality, it is crucial to devise routing protocols that can exploit the inherited characteristics of VANET environment to enhance the performance of the running applications. Previous studies have shown that a certain routing protocol behaves differently under different presumed mobility patterns. Bypass-AODV is a new optimization of the AODV routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. It is proposed as a local recovery mechanism to enhance the performance of the AODV routing protocol. It shows outstanding performance under the Random Waypoint mobility model compared with AODV. However, Random Waypoint is a simple model that may be applicable to some scenarios but it is not sufficient to capture some important mobility characteristics of scenarios where VANETs are deployed. In this paper, we will investigate the performance of Bypass-AODV under a wide range of mobility models including other random mobility models, group mobility models, and vehicular mobility models. Simulation results show an interesting feature that is the insensitivity of Bypass-AODV to the selected random mobility model, and it has a clear performance improvement compared to AODV. For group mobility model, both protocols show a comparable performance, but for vehicular mobility models, Bypass-AODV suffers from performance degradation in high-speed conditions.
Full Text Available Problem statement: With the escalating demand for mobile ad hoc network projects, major challenges to system planners and designers were addressing stability and reliability problems due to frequent change of network topology. Controlling an overhead, which means bandwidth utilization due to control packets, depends on the routing protocol, topology and data traffic. Limiting the network control overheads, of this highly dynamic and dense network to acceptable level, was closely linked to the function of increased link changes. The throughput of the network can be improved with dynamically limiting of the routing control overheads. Approach: We propose a improved AODV mechanism Fuzzy Velocity Biased-Adhoc on Demand Distance Vector (FVB-AODV which dynamically modifies the AODV control overhead parameters based on the relative velocity between two communicating nodes. Conclusion/Recommendation: The proposed algorithm is able to achieve its objectives by increasing the throughput at high node mobility. Dynamically modifying the overheads improved the bandwidth utilization. The additional overheads on the node CPU however needs to be evaluated.
Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs are the new generation of networks that offer unrestricted mobility without any underlying infrastructure. It relies on the cooperation of all the participating nodes. Due to their open nature and lack of infrastructure, security for MANETS has become an intricate problem than the security in other networks. The conventional security mechanisms of protecting a wired network are not sufficient for these networks. Hence a second level of defense to detect and respond to the security problem called an Intrusion detection system is required. Generally the malicious nodes demonstrate a different behavioral pattern of all the other normal nodes. So an Intrusion Detection System based on anomaly based intrusion detection that works by checking the behavior of the nodes was proposed. Here, in this paper to determine the behavior of the nodes as malicious or legitimate a Data Transmission Quality (DTQ function is used. The DTQ function is defined in such a way that it will be close to a constant or keep changing smoothly for genuine nodes and will keep on diminishing for malicious nodes.. The final decision of confirming nodes as malicious is determined by a group consensus method. The evaluation results show that the proposed method increases the detection rate as well as decreases the false positive rate.
Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) are distributed self-organizing networks that can change locations and configure themselves on the fly. This paper focuses on an algorithmic approach for the deployment of a MANET within an enclosed area, such as a building in a disaster scenario, which can provide a robust communication infrastructure for search and rescue operations. While a virtual spring mesh (VSM) algorithm provides scalable, self-organizing, and fault-tolerant capabilities required by aMANET, the VSM lacks the MANET's capabilities of deployment mechanisms for blanket coverage of an area and does not provide an obstacle avoidance mechanism. This paper presents a new technique, an extended VSM (EVSM) algorithm that provides the following novelties: (1) new control laws for exploration and expansion to provide blanket coverage, (2) virtual adaptive springs enabling the mesh to expand as necessary, (3) adapts to communications disturbances by varying the density and movement of mobile nodes, and (4) new metrics to assess the performance of the EVSM algorithm. Simulation results show that EVSM provides up to 16% more coverage and is 3.5 times faster than VSM in environments with eight obstacles.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to understand the flaws of existing solutions to combat the DDoS attack and a novel scheme is being provided with its validation to reduce the effect of DDoS attack in MANET Environment. As Internet users are increasing day by day, it is becoming more prone to attacks and new hacking techniques. People are accessing information and communicating with each other on the move. Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET is responsible for this rapid change in the lives of people. With the emergence of technology, where people communicate or share important documentations on the go with the help of laptops, PDAs, notebooks, smart phones etc., the loopholes in the Internet security have also increased and they are becoming more difficult to handle due to the characteristics of MANET such as dynamic topologies, low battery life, multicast routing, frequency of updates or network overhead, scalability, mobile agent based routing and power aware routing, etc. The network is becoming more prone to attacks like DDoS, byzantine, resource consumption, blackhole, grayhole, etc. Therefore, there is an urgent need to look into the security issues to allow authorized users to access the information available on Internet without any risk. In this study, a novel scheme is proposed which deals with suppressing the influence of the attack. The effectiveness of the approach is validated with simulation in GloMoSim, integrated with parsec compiler, on a windows platform.
张纪忠; 杨浩; 周熙
文章首先简单介绍了无线自组网(Ad Hoc网络),然后分析了Ad Hoc网络与现存的一些通信系统在路由选择上的主要区别,介绍了Ad Hoc网络路由协议的分类以及几类典型的Ad Hoc网络路由协议,最后提出了Ad Hoc网络路由协议今后的主要研究方向.
Naveed Ahmed Sheikh
Full Text Available Providing secure and efficient real-time voice communication in mobile ad hoc network (MANET environment is a challenging problem. Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP has originally been developed over the past two decades for infrastructure-based networks. There are strict timing constraints for acceptable quality VoIP services, in addition to registration and discovery issues in VoIP end-points. In MANETs, ad hoc nature of networks and multi-hop wireless environment with significant packet loss and delays present formidable challenges to the implementation. Providing a secure real-time VoIP service on MANET is the main design objective of this paper. The authors have successfully developed a prototype system that establishes reliable and efficient VoIP communication and provides an extremely flexible method for voice communication in MANETs. The authors’ cooperative mesh-based MANET implementation can be used for rapidly deployable VoIP communication with survivable and efficient dynamic networking using open source software.
移动Ad hoc网络是一种特殊的多跳移动无线网络,具有广泛的应用场合.文中介绍了移动Ad hoc网络的产生、定义、特点和应用,然后在探讨Ad hoc网络的安全需求的基础上,分析了Ad hoc网络易于遭受的攻击,并集中讨论了移动Ad hoc网络的路由安全、密钥管理等关键问题.提出了按移动Ad hoc网络的安全需求进行分级,然后分别实现的解决策略.
首先分析了Ad hoc网络存在的安全问题和安全目标.然后简单介绍了路由协议的安全隐患,接着详细讨论了Ad hoc网络的安全策略,最后说明了Ad hoc网络安全性面临的挑战.
宋建华; 洪帆; 何晓冰
随着移动Ad Hoc网络(MANET)的应用越来越广泛,针对Ad Hoc网络的攻击也越来越多.探讨了移动Ad Hoc网中的典型网络层安全漏洞及可能的攻击,分析了各种解决方案的优缺点,为了移动Ad Hoc网络路由安全的进一步研究,提供了基础.
在介绍移动Ad hoc网络特定管理要求的基础上,分析了SNMP/ANMP、Guerrilla和PBNM三种Ad hoc网络管理架构的机制和特点.研究表明管理框架应适应Ad hoc网络动态拓扑、带宽受限和节点能力有限等特点,而分布式、自适应和智能化的网络管理是未来Ad hoc网络管理发展的方向.
移动Ad hoc网部署迅速,抗毁性强使其应用在战术通信系统和数据链建设中具有极高的价值.本文主要分析了无线Ad hoc网的基本特点和推动Ad hoc网走向实际军事通信应用面临的挑战,最后分析了描述Ad hoc网特性的各种数学模型的特点和不足.
移动自组(Ad hoc)网络是现有网络的一种补充和扩展,它主要应用于缺乏网络基础设施的环境或者现有网络不能满足移动性、机动性等要求的情况.移动Ad hoc网络的特性使得它面临着比现有网络更大的安全挑战.首先介绍了移动Ad hoc网络的概念、特性及应用,接着探讨了移动Ad hoc网络中的安全漏洞以及相应的对策,最后讨论了今后移动Ad hoc网络安全问题的研究方向.
该文提出了一种ad hoc网络的分簇方法,通过相关性来计算节点的相关度值,利用D-tree 算法来对随机分布的移动节点分簇,实现ad hoc网络的层次结构的划分;并对算法进行了分析和模拟计算,得到了ad hoc网络主要技术参数之间的关系.