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Sample records for zhe qian jialin

  1. Sima Qian and His Historical Records

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    <正> Sima Qian (145-86 BC), a native of Xiayang (now Hancheng, Shaanxi Province), is regarded as China’s greatest historiographer. He is best known for his history book, Historical Records (Shi Ji).Son of Sima Tan, who held the post of the Grand Historian (Tai Shi Ling ) of the Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 25), Sima

  2. ZHE: [Noun] Undefined--An Interview with Performers Antonia Kemi Coker and Tonderai Munyevu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaskan, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    In February 2012, London-based theatre company Collective Artistes previewed "ZHE: [noun] Undefined," a new play created by director Chuck Mike and performers Tonderai Munyevu and Antonia Kemi Coker. The play follows the true life stories of the two performers, both British Africans, living at the intersections of culture, nationality, gender and…

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of ZHE1, a hatching enzyme from the zebrafish Danio rerio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Akitoshi; Nagata, Koji; Sano, Kaori; Yasumasu, Shigeki; Kubota, Keiko; Ohtsuka, Jun; Iuchi, Ichiro; Tanokura, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    The hatching enzyme of zebrafish, ZHE1, was expressed, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 and diffracted X-rays to a resolution of 1.14 Å. The hatching enzyme of the zebrafish, ZHE1 (29.3 kDa), is a zinc metalloprotease that catalyzes digestion of the egg envelope (chorion). ZHE1 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant. Two diffraction data sets with resolution ranges 50.0–1.80 and 50.0–1.14 Å were independently collected from two crystals and were merged to give a highly complete data set over the full resolution range 50.0–1.14 Å. The space group was assigned as primitive orthorhombic P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 32.9, b = 62.5, c = 87.4 Å. The crystal contained one ZHE1 molecule in the asymmetric unit

  4. [Distribution Characteristics of Sedimentary Pigments in the Changjiang Estuary and Zhe-Min Coast and its Implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Yao, Peng; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Jin-peng; Pan, Hui-hui

    2015-08-01

    Compositions and contents of sedimentary pigments were examined using high performance liquid chromatography in order to discuss the spatial distributions of phytoplankton primary production, phytoplankton functional type and the preservation efficiency of phytoplankton pigments and their influencing factors. The results showed that: chloropigments [Chlorins, including chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and pheopigments (Pheo-a), such as pheophytin-a (PHtin-a), pheophorbide-a (PHide-a), pPheophytin-a (pPHtin-a), sterol chlorin esters (SCEs) and carotenol chlorin esters (CCEs)] were the major type of sedimentary pigments. The nutrients inputs from Changjiang Diluted Water and upwelling in the Zhe-Min coastal mud area were the major cause for the patchy distribution with high sedimentary chloropigment contents. Carotenoid contents showed no trending changes and exhibited high values in the Changjiang Estuary and Zhe-Min Coasts. Based on the relative proportions of each diagnostic carotenoid to the total diagnostic carotenoids in the sediments, the relative contributions of diatoms, dinoflagellates, prymnesiophytes, prasinophytes, cryptophytes and cyanobacterias in the phytoplankton fuctional types were 48.8% +/- 17.4%, 10.7% +/- 11.5%, 8.1% +/- 7.2%, 18.6% +/- 8.2%, 9.4% +/- 6.4% and 4.3% +/- 3.2%, respectively. The preference for external environmental conditions (e.g., nutrient level and water salinity) was the main cause for the decreasing trends of diatoms and dinoflagellates proportions and the increasing trends of prasinophytes, cryptophytes and cyanobacterias seawards. Based on the spatial distribution of Chl-a/Pheo-a ratios, the higher preservation efficiencies of sedimentary pigments in the coastal regions (e.g., outer edge of maximum turbidity zone in the Changjiang Estuary, mouth of the Hangzhou Bay and upwelling region in the Zhe-Min Coast) were mainly due to the higher sedimentation rate and seasonal occurrences of hypoxia in bottom water, and these regions with

  5. Stamatina Dimakopoulou onMing-QianMa’s Poetry as Re-Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ming-Qian Ma. Poetry as Re-Reading: American Avant-Garde Poetry and the Poetics of Counter-Method. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2008. Pp. 301. ISBN 978-0810124851In the Preface to the 1979 Enlarging the Temple: New Directions in American Poetry during the 1960s – Charles Altieri formulated a re-alignment that defined much criticism of postwar and contemporary American poetry to come. Altieri set “the work of Heidegger and the later Wittgenstein,” in resonance with the “i...

  6. Da-Bu-Yin-Wan and Qian-Zheng-San to Neuroprotect the Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Gang Gong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Da-Bu-Yin-Wan (DBYW and Qian-Zheng-San (QZS, two classic traditional Chinese medicinal formulas, were clinically employed to treat Parkinson’s disease (PD. Our previous studies demonstrated neuroprotective effects of them on mitochondrial function in PD mice induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP. The purpose of this research was to investigate their possible mechanisms in the light of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoKATP channels. The neuroprotective effect of DBYW and QZS on dopamine (DA neurons in substantia nigra (SN in the MPTP-induced PD mice was investigated by behavioral test (pole test and immunohistochemistry. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP level in the midbrain tissue was detected by firefly luciferase method. MitoKATP channel subunits SUR1 and Kir6.2 mRNA and protein expressions were tested by real-time PCR (RT-PCR and Western blot. It was observed that DBYW and/or QZS served to ameliorate MPTP-induced behavioral impairment and prevent the loss of substantia nigra dopamine neurons, as well as increase ATP level in the midbrain tissue and downregulate SUR1 expression at mRNA and protein levels with no marked influence on Kir6.2. We concluded that DBYW and QZS exhibit neuroprotective effects probably through the regulation of ATP level and mitoKATP channel subunit expressions.

  7. Epigenetic battle of the sexes. Comment on: ;Epigenetic game theory: How to compute the epigenetic control of maternal-to-zygotic transition; by Qian Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Song

    2017-03-01

    Qian Wang et al. present an interesting framework, named epigenetic game theory, for modeling sex-based epigenetic dynamics during embryogenesis from a new viewpoint of evolutionary game theory [1]. That is, epigenomes of sperms and oocytes may coordinate through either cooperation or competition, or both, to affect the fitness of embryos. The work uses a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to describe longitudinal trajectories of DNA methylation levels in both parental and maternal gametes and their dependence on each other. The insights gained from this review, i.e. dynamic methylation profiles and their interaction are potentially important to many fields, such as biomedicine and agriculture.

  8. Deformation styles and exhumation patterns in the Northern Iranian Plateau: New results from integrated balanced cross sections and low-temperature thermochronology (AHe and ZHe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Philipp; Ballato, Paolo; Dunkl, István; Zeillinger, Gerold; Heidarzadeh, Ghasem; Ghasemi, Mohammad; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2014-05-01

    The Iranian Plateau is situated in the collision zone between the Arabian and Eurasian plates and forms a NW-SE elongated, 40- to 50-km-thick crustal block, delimited to the north by the Urmieh Dokhtar Volcanic Zone and to south by the High Zagros Mountains. The plateau is characterized by a series of basins and mountain ranges bounded by reverse and transpressive faults. These mountain ranges reflect a history of strong collisional deformation, with intensely faulted and folded Pre-Cambrian (basement) to Miocene (terrestrial sediments of the Upper Red Formation) rocks. Based on the structural evolution, high mean elevation of 2 km, and a crustal thickness of up to 56 km, the realm of the present-day plateau must have absorbed a significant fraction of past plate convergence between Eurasia and Arabia. However, according to seismic and GPS data active deformation is rather limited. In addition, the exact timing and style of deformation, the extent of crustal shortening and thickening on the northern Iranian Plateau during continental collision remain unclear. To address these issues we collected structural data and modeled deformation scenarios cross four mountain ranges that constitute the northern margin of the Iranian Plateau (NW Iran). The Tarom, Mah Neshan and Sultanije mountain ranges are NW-SE oriented, while the northernmost (Bozgosh) is E-W aligned. Due to the lack of subsurface data, several forward and backward models were generated with MOVE (Midland Valley, structural modelling software). The model with the simplest and most robust geological explanation of the field data was chosen. In addition, we combined our structural work with an apatite (U-Th)/He study (AHe) along two transects (Bozgosh, Mah Neshan) and Zircon (U-Th)/He data (ZHe) on higher exhumed locations. In the northern sector of the plateau late Cretaceous (or Paleocene?) rocks had been deposited unconformably onto older, deformed rocks. This suggests that the Arabia-Eurasia collision was

  9. A mathematical view for ordinary differential equation models. Comment on ;Epigenetic game theory: How to compute the epigenetic control of maternal-to-zygotic transition; by Qian Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guifang

    2017-03-01

    Qian Wang et al. have written an interesting article to propose a modeling framework named epiGame in this issue of Physics of Life Reviews [1]. The epiGame framework models how the methylation state of paternal and maternal genomes regulates the embryogenesis as an ecological system in which two highly distinct and specialized gametes coordinate through either cooperation or competition, or both, to maximize the fitness of embryos. Qian Wang et al. also provide solid simulation studies and real data analysis to validate the correctness of their epiGame framework. The importance of embryo development and fertility mechanism cannot be overemphasized, hence, I think that the present review by Qian Wang et al. will stand as a useful modeling guide for practicing biologists or researchers in fertility health to quantify how sperms and oocytes interact through epigenetic process to determine embryo development. In addition, it will serve as a source of many important references to work in the reproductive biology field.

  10. Rates and fluxes of centennial-scale carbon storage in the fine-grained sediments from the central South Yellow Sea and Min-Zhe belt, East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianghai; Xiao, Xi; Zhou, Qianzhi; Xu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chenxi; Liu, Jinzhong; Yuan, Dongliang

    2018-01-01

    The global carbon cycle has played a key role in mitigating global warming and climate change. Long-term natural and anthropogenic processes influence the composition, sources, burial rates, and fluxes of carbon in sediments on the continental shelf of China. In this study, the rates, fluxes, and amounts of carbon storage at the centennial scale were estimated and demonstrated using the case study of three fine-grained sediment cores from the central South Yellow Sea area (SYSA) and Min-Zhe belt (MZB), East China Sea. Based on the high-resolution temporal sequences of total carbon (TC) and total organic carbon (TOC) contents, we reconstructed the annual variations of historical marine carbon storage, and explored the influence of terrestrial and marine sources on carbon burial at the centennial scale. The estimated TC storage over 100 years was 1.18×108 t in the SYSA and 1.45×109 t in the MZB. The corrected TOC storage fluxes at the centennial scale ranged from 17 to 28 t/(km2·a)in the SYSA and from 56 to 148 t/(km2·a) in the MZB. The decrease of terrestrial materials and the increase of marine primary production suggest that the TOC buried in the sediments in the SYSA and MZB was mainly derived from the marine autogenetic source. In the MZB, two depletion events occurred in TC and TOC storage from 1985 to 1987 and 2003 to 2006, which were coeval with the water impoundment in the Gezhouba and Three Gorges dams, respectively. The high-resolution records of the carbon storage rates and fluxes in the SYSA and MZB reflect the synchronous responses to human activities and provide an important reference for assessing the carbon sequestration capacity of the marginal seas of China.

  11. Therapeutic effects of Qian-Yu decoction and its three extracts on carrageenan-induced chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Keda; Zeng, Xiaobin; Chen, Yonggang; Zhao, Rong; Wang, Hui; Wu, Jinhu

    2017-01-25

    Qian-Yu decoction (QYD) is a traditional Chinese medicinal recipe composed of Radix astragali (Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge var. mongholicus (Bunge) P.K. Hsiao, Fabaceae ), Herba epimedii (Epimedium brevicornum Maxim., Berberidaceae), Herba leonuri (Leonurus japonicus Houtt., Lamiaceae), Cortex phellodendri (Phellodendron chinense Schneid., Rutaceae) and Radix achyranthis bidentatae (Achyranthes bidentata Bl., Amaranthaceae). This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic activity of QYD against carrageenan-induced chronic prostatic/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) in rats and further elucidate its effective components. Three types of components, total polysaccharides, total flavonoids and total saponins were separately extracted from QYD. Carrageenan-induced CP/CPPS rats were intragastrically administered with lyophilized product of QYD, individual extracts and all the combined forms of extracts for three weeks. Prostatic index (PI) was determined and histopathological analysis was performed. The levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PEG2) in rat prostate tissues were measured using ELISA. The production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was evaluated by an enzymatic activity assay, and the release of nitric oxide (NO) was determined by a nitrate/nitrite assay. Treatment with QYD significantly ameliorated the histological changes of CP/CPPS rats and reduced the PI by 44.3%, with a marked downregulation of TNF-α (42.8% reduction), IL-1β (45.3%), COX-2 (36.6%), PGE2 (44.2%), iNOS (54.1%) and NO (46.0%). Each of three extracts attenuated the symptom of CP/CPPS, but much more weakly than QYD. The combined administration of three extracts showed efficacy comparable to that of QYD while better than that of any combination of two extracts. A principal component analysis of the six inflammatory mediators as variables indicated that the effects of TS on CP

  12. 从钱乙五脏辨证论治抽动障碍理论探讨%Theoretical Discussion of Treating Tic Disorder with Five-Zang Syndrome Differentiation of QIAN Yi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾慧; 钞建峰

    2017-01-01

    Five-zang syndrome differentiation of QIAN Yi has important value for the diagnosis and treat-ment of tic disorder in children. Tic disorder involves more than one zang organ ,and it usually affects five zang organs at the same time. Liver wind is the core of disease mechanism ,usually with lung deficiency at-tacked by external leading to internal wind,or with spleen deficiency leading to wood over inhibiting earth, or heart heat with wind fire,or with yin deficiency failing to nourish wood. The treatment should follow the principle of tonfiying and purging five zang organs,that extinguishing liver wind is the essential method,in combination with clearing and dispersing lung qi,or with tonifying earth and suppressing wood,or with clear-ing heart fire,or with nourishing yin and tonifying kidneys.%钱乙五脏辨证对儿童抽动障碍的辨治具有重要的价值.抽动障碍非一脏之病,而是"五脏同病",肝风为病机之核心,或兼肺虚受邪、外风引动内风,或兼脾虚土衰、木乘脾土,或兼心热火旺、风火相搏,或兼肾阴亏虚、水不涵木.治疗尊五脏补泻的原则,以调肝熄风为本,针对不同的病机,或清宣肺气,或扶土抑木,或清心泻火,或养阴补肾.

  13. Qian Yang Yu Yin Granule-containing serum inhibits angiotensin II-induced proliferation, reactive oxygen species production, and inflammation in human mesangial cells via an NADPH oxidase 4-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kang; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Weimin; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Hongping; Fang, Zhuyuan

    2015-03-25

    Qian Yang Yu Yin Granule (QYYYG), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been indicated for renal damage in hypertension for decades in China, but little remains known regarding its underlying molecular mechanism. Therefore, we performed the current study in order to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of QYYYG in the treatment of hypertensive renal damage. We hypothesize that QYYYG relieves hypertensive renal injury through an angiotensin II (Ang II)-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAPDH)-oxidase (NOX)-reactive oxygen species (ROS) pathway. In this study, we investigated the effects of QYYYG-containing serum (QYGS) in human mesangial cells (HMCs) against Ang II-induced cell proliferation, ROS production, and inflammation through the seropharmacological method. We found that QYGS could inhibit cell proliferation in Ang II-treated HMCs. In addition, QYGS considerably suppressed production of ROS, decreased mRNA and protein expression of NAPDH-oxidase 4 (NOX4), p22 (phox) , and activated Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (GTP-Rac1); as well as counteracted the up-regulation of inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, and interleukin 6 (IL-6). These effects were further confirmed in HMCs transfected with specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting NOX4. Taken together, these results suggest that a NOX4-dependent pathway plays an important role in regulating the inhibitory effect of QYGS. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of QYYYG and their role in the treatment of hypertensive nephropathy.

  14. The analysis of Stability reliability of Qian Tang River seawall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Xiong

    2017-11-01

    Qiantang River seawall due to high water soaking pond by foreshore scour, encountered during the low tide prone slope overall instability. Considering the seawall beach scour in front of random change, using the simplified Bishop method, combined with the variability of soil mechanics parameters, calculation and analysis of Qiantang River Xiasha seawall segments of the overall stability.

  15. Color in packaging design : Case: ZheJiang JinSheng packaging Co,Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Cuicui

    2010-01-01

    Color occupies an important position in packaging design, with the improvement of living standard, the higher requirement of color design in packaging. The aim of this thesis was to discuss key issues concerning aesthetics of packaging design. Topics will include an overview of the packaging design, the influence factor of packaging design, and introduce the aesthetics from packaging aspect. This thesis will also identify common problems of the production process, and list the phases of ho...

  16. Research on Foreign Background and Musical Thought of Teng Gu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available TENG Gu is a famous art historian in Republic of China. Together with early Chinese scholars studying abroad like ZONG Bai-hua, ZHU Guang-qian, DENG Yi-zhe, MA Cai and FU Bao-shi, he constructed a framework of early Chinese Art. We still know his influence after a century. In his artistic thought, the essential music idea occupies 1/3.He had given music the highest position among all arts and cultures. In his view, culture won’t have any value if art is removed. And all arts follow the rhythm of music.

  17. Response to Ridgeway, Dunston, and Qian: On Methodological Rigor: Has Rigor Mortis Set In?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, R. Scott; Vaughn, Sharon

    1993-01-01

    Responds to an article in the same issue of the journal presenting a meta-analysis of reading research. Expresses concern that the authors' conclusions will promote a slavish adherence to a methodology and a rigidity of thought that reading researchers can ill afford. (RS)

  18. Millal riigid finantskriisidest välja kasvavad? / Carmen M. Reinhart, Rong Qian, Kenneth Rogoff

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinhart, Carmen M.

    2010-01-01

    Artiklis kirjutatakse pangandus-, välisvõla- ja inflatsioonikriiside esinemissagedusest ja kestvusest ning jõutakse järeldusele, et arenenud riikide panganduskriisidest väljakasvamisest pole praegu mingit põhjust rääkida. Skeem

  19. Qian et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2016) 13(4):145 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SD was a double of normal dose (28 ml/kg • d) and the low concentration SD constituted half of ... the animals were anesthetized with 1% chloral hydrate, and blood was drawn sterilely from the ... verapamil,which is an inhibitor of ABCG-2.

  20. Qian et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2015) 12(6):77-89 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proff.Adewunmi

    As can be see in Figure 3, compared with the normal saline group (control group) at corresponding time point, four demolition party serum treatments inhibited cell .... 1.95±1.50*#. Note: * p < 0.05 compared with corresponding cell cycle phase in control group; # p < 0.05 in same drug serum group, cell cycle phases in 48 h.

  1. Belaja shkola, Dom ofitserov i notshnoi klub v raznoje vremja razmeshtshalis pod odnoi i toi zhe krõshei / Olaf Esna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Esna, Olaf, 1934-

    2005-01-01

    Pärnu Tütarlaste Gümnaasiumi hoone ehitusest Rüütli tänavale (1866). Ehitasid eesti külamehed eesotsas Jaan Tammanniga Šveitsi arhitekti Rudolf Maagi järelvalve all. Alates 1902. a. tegutsesid nn. "valges majas" mitmed asutused, ka linnaapteek, millele projekteeris unikaalse mööbli Olev Siinmaa

  2. Evaluation of the antioxidant and endothelial protective effects of Lysimachia christinae Hance (Jin Qian Cao) extract fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ning-Hua; Ke, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Shan; Yang, Xiao-Song; Chen, Qing-Jie; Huang, Sheng-Tang; Liu, Chao

    2018-04-10

    Lysimachia christinae Hance is a traditional Chinese medicine with diuretic, detumescent, and detoxifying effects. Our aimed to optimize the extraction protocol to maximize the yield of flavonoids from Lysimachia christinae Hance, and evaluate the pharmacological activities of four fractions, namely, petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (NB), and aqueous (AQ) fractions, of the ethanolic extract of Lysimachia christinae Hance. The flavonoid monomers in the crude extract were characterized via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were used as markers for extract quality control and standardization. The total flavonoid, total phenolic, and total polysaccharide contents of each fraction were determined by spectrophotometry. Further, the in vitro free radical (diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals) scavenging activities, and antioxidant capacity in endothelial cells were evaluated for each fraction. After optimizing the extraction protocol to maximize the total flavonoid yield from L. christinae Hance, the NB fractions had the highest total flavonoid (39.4 ± 4.55 mg RE/g), total phenolic (41.1 ± 3.07 mg GAE/g) and total polysaccharide (168.1 ± 7.07 mg GE/g); In addition, the NB fraction of the ethanolic extract of L. christinae Hance reveal the strongest radical-scavenging activity, antioxidant activity and protective effects against H 2 O 2 -induced injury in HUVECs. Among the four fractions of L. christinae Hance, the NB fraction showed the most potent antioxidant and endothelial protective effects, which may be attributed to its high flavonoid, phenolic contents and optimal portfolio of different active ingredients of NB fractions of the ethanolic extract of L. christinae Hance. This study might improve our understanding of the pharmacological activities of L. christinae Hance, thereby facilitating its use in disease prevention and treatment.

  3. Game theory in epigenetic reprogramming. Comment on: ;Epigenetic game theory: How to compute the epigenetic control of maternal-to-zygotic transition; by Qian Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Fei-Man; Chen, Pao-Yang

    2017-03-01

    Von Neumann and Morgenstern published the Theory of Games and Economic Behavior in 1944, describing game theory as a model in which intelligent rational decision-makers manage to find their best strategies in conflict, cooperative or other mutualistic relationships to acquire the greatest benefit [1]. This model was subsequently incorporated in ecology to simulate the ;fitness; of a species during natural selection, designated evolutionary game theory (EGT) [2]. Wang et al. proposed ;epiGame;, taking paternal and maternal genomes as ;intelligent; players that compete, cooperate or both during embryogenesis to maximize the fitness of the embryo [3]. They further extended game theory to an individual or single cell environment. During early zygote development, DNA methylation is reprogrammed such that the paternal genome is demethylated before the maternal genome. After the reset, the blastocyst is re-methylated during embryogenesis. At that time, the paternal and maternal genomes have a conflict of interest related to the expression of their own genes. The proposed epiGame models such interactive regulation between the parental genomes to reach a balance for embryo development (equation (2)).

  4. Racism of prohibition and destruction of novels in QianLong dynasty%论乾隆朝小说禁毁的种族主义倾向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海义; 程国赋

    2006-01-01

    乾隆朝禁毁小说颇具特色.乾隆从狭隘的民族主义立场出发,为了维护满族旧习,以免其被汉族文化习俗所同化,专注于禁毁政治违碍小说,对淫秽小说却并不关注,企图以此泯灭汉人的民族意识,把汉族文化与满族旧习隔离,表现出鲜明的种族主义倾向.

  5. A new concept: Epigenetic game theory. Comment on: ;Epigenetic game theory: How to compute the epigenetic control of maternal-to-zygotic transition; by Qian Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiu-Deng; Tao, Yi

    2017-03-01

    The evolutionary significance of the interaction between paternal and maternal genomes in fertilized zygotes is a very interesting and challenging question. Wang et al. developed the concept of epigenetic game theory, and they try to use this concept to explain the interaction between paternal and maternal genomes in fertilized zygotes [1]. They emphasize that the embryogenesis can be considered as an ecological system in which two highly distinct and specialized gametes coordinate through either cooperation or competition, or both, to maximize the fitness of embryos under Darwinian selection. More specifically, they integrate game theory to model the pattern of coordination of paternal genome and maternal genomes mediated by DNA methylation dynamics, and they called this epigenetic game theory.

  6. Sulfonate-modified phenylboronic acid-rich nanoparticles as a novel mucoadhesive drug delivery system for vaginal administration of protein therapeutics: improved stability, mucin-dependent release and effective intravaginal placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li CY

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ChunYan Li,1 ZhiGang Huang,2 ZheShuo Liu,1 LiQian Ci,3 ZhePeng Liu,3 Yu Liu,2 XueYing Yan,1 WeiYue Lu2 1School of Pharmacy, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education, Fudan University, 3School of Medical Instrument and Food Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Effective interaction between mucoadhesive drug delivery systems and mucin is the basis of effective local placement of drugs to play its therapeutic role after mucosal administration including vaginal use, which especially requires prolonged drug presence for the treatment of gynecological infectious diseases. Our previous report on phenylboronic acid-rich nanoparticles (PBNPs demonstrated their strong interaction with mucin and mucin-sensitive release profiles of the model protein therapeutics interferon (IFN in vitro, but their poor stability and obvious tendency to aggregate over time severely limited future application. In this study, sulfonate-modified PBNPs (PBNP-S were designed as a stable mucoadhesive drug delivery system where the negative charges conferred by sulfonate groups prevented aggregation of nanoparticles and the phenylboronic acid groups ensured effective interaction with mucin over a wide pH range. Results suggested that PBNP-S were of spherical morphology with narrow size distribution (123.5 nm, polydispersity index 0.050, good stability over a wide pH range and 3-month storage and considerable in vitro mucoadhesion capability at vaginal pH as shown by mucin adsorption determination. IFN could be loaded to PBNP-S by physical adsorption with high encapsulation efficiency and released in a mucin-dependent manner in vitro. In vivo near-infrared fluorescent whole animal imaging and quantitative vaginal lavage followed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA assay of

  7. Integrating evolutionary game theory into epigenetic study of embryonic development. Comment on ;Epigenetic game theory: How to compute the epigenetic control of maternal-to-zygotic transition; by Qian Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoheng

    2017-03-01

    DNA methylation is an essential component in the epigenetic regulation of embryonic development, and plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including repression of gene transcription, parent-of-origin genomic imprinting, and X-chromosome inactivation [1-5]. Understanding the epigenetic processes in different stages of embryo development has become an important research topic in the field. It has potential to offer new insight into reproductive medicine and contribute to the improvement of long-term health outcomes.

  8. Using game theory to investigate the epigenetic control mechanisms of embryo development: Comment on: "Epigenetic game theory: How to compute the epigenetic control of maternal-to-zygotic transition" by Qian Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Zhang, Shaoxiang

    2017-03-01

    A body of research [1-7] has already shown that epigenetic reprogramming plays a critical role in maintaining the normal development of embryos. However, the mechanistic quantitation of the epigenetic interactions between sperms and oocytes and the related impact on embryo development are still not clear [6,7]. In this study, Wang et al., [8] develop a modeling framework that addresses this question by integrating game theory and the latest discoveries of the epigenetic control of embryo development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Applications and extensions of epigenetic game theory. Comment on: ;Epigenetic game theory: How to compute the epigenetic control of maternal-to-zygotic transition; by Qian Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqun

    2017-03-01

    The authors are to be congratulated for a thought-provoking article [1], which reviews the epigenetic game theory (epiGame) that utilizes differential equations to study the epigenetic control of embryo development. It is a novel application of evolutionary game theory and provides biology researchers with useful methodologies to address scientific questions related to biological coordination of competition and cooperation.

  10. Epigenetic information in gametes: Gaming from before fertilization. Comment on ;Epigenetic game theory: How to compute the epigenetic control of maternal-to-zygotic transition; by Qian Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junchao; Zhang, Xudong; Liu, Ying; Chen, Qi

    2017-03-01

    In their interesting article [1] Wang et al. proposed a mathematical model based on evolutionary game theory [2] to tackle the fundamental question in embryo development, that how sperm and egg interact with each other, through epigenetic processes, to form a zygote and direct successful embryo development. This work is based on the premise that epigenetic reprogramming (referring to the erasure and reconstruction of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications) after fertilization might be of paramount importance to maintain the normal development of embryos, a premise we fully agree, given the compelling experimental evidence reported [3]. Wang et al. have specifically chosen to employ the well-studied DNA methylation reprogramming process during mammalian early embryo development, as a basis to develop their mathematical model, namely epigenetic game theory (epiGame). They concluded that the DNA methylation pattern in mammalian early embryo could be formulated and quantified, and their model can be further used to quantify the interactions, such as competition and/or cooperation of expressed genes that maximize the fitness of embryos. The efforts by Wang et al. in quantitatively and systematically analyzing the beginning of life apparently hold value and represent a novel direction for future embryo development research from both theoretical and experimental biologists. On the other hand, we see their theory still at its infancy, because there are plenty more parameters to consider and there are spaces for debates, such as the cases of haploid embryo development [4]. Here, we briefly comment on the dynamic process of epigenetic reprogramming that goes beyond DNA methylation, a dynamic interplay that involves histone modifications, non-coding RNAs, transposable elements et al., as well as the potential input of the various types of 'hereditary' epigenetic information in the gametes - a game that has started before the fertilization.

  11. Epigenetic game theory and its application in plants. Comment on: ;Epigenetic game theory: How to compute the epigenetic control of maternal-to-zygotic transition; by Qian Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Yinghao; Guo, Mingyue

    2017-03-01

    Wang's et al. article [1] is the first to integrate game theory (especially evolutionary game theory) with epigenetic modification of zygotic genomes. They described and assessed a modeling framework based on evolutionary game theory to quantify, how sperms and oocytes interact through epigenetic processes, to determine embryo development. They also studied the internal mechanisms for normal embryo development: 1) evolutionary interactions between DNA methylation of the paternal and maternal genomes, and 2) the application of game theory to formulate and quantify how different genes compete or cooperate to regulate embryogenesis through methylation. Although it is not very comprehensive and profound regarding game theory modeling, this article bridges the gap between evolutionary game theory and the epigenetic control of embryo development by powerful ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The epiGame framework includes four aspects: 1) characterizing how epigenetic game theory works by the strategy matrix, in which the pattern and relative magnitude of the methylation effects on embryogenesis, are described by the cooperation and competition mechanisms, 2) quantifying the game that the direction and degree of P-M interactions over embryo development can be explained by the sign and magnitude of interaction parameters in model (2), 3) modeling epigenetic interactions within the morula, especially for two coupled nonlinear ODEs, with explicit functions in model (4), which provide a good fit to the observed data for the two sexes (adjusted R2 = 0.956), and 4) revealing multifactorial interactions in embryogenesis from the coupled ODEs in model (2) to triplet ODEs in model (6). Clearly, this article extends game theory from evolutionary game theory to epigenetic game theory.

  12. Two new species of genus Rhopalopsole (Insecta, Plecoptera, Leuctridae from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yuhan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Rhopalopsole Klapálek from China are described: R. exiguspina Du & Qian, sp. n. and R. ampulla Du & Qian, sp. n., which were collected in Guizhou province, China.

  13. Two new species of genus Rhopalopsole (Insecta, Plecoptera, Leuctridae) from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Han, Qian; Yu-Zhou, Du

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Rhopalopsole Klapálek from China are described: Rhopalopsole exiguspina Du & Qian, sp. n. and Rhopalopsole ampulla Du & Qian, sp. n., which were collected in Guizhou province, China. PMID:22287913

  14. Study on the Pauropoda from Tibet, China. Part I. The genera Decapauropus and Hemipauropus (Myriapoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yuan Qian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of family Pauropodidae: Decapauropus biconjugarus Qian & Bu, sp. n., D. tibeticus Qian & Bu, sp. n. and Hemipauropus quadrangulus Qian & Bu, sp. n. are described and illustrated from southeastern Tibet, China. The genus Hemipauropus is recorded for the first time from China. This is the second report of pauropods from Tibet.

  15. Investigating the origin of the Chinese name for alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Q. Z.; Xu, L. J.; Tang, X. J.; Ma, J. T.; Wang, D.; Li, D.; Liu, Q.; Tao, Y.; Li, F.

    2017-02-01

    It is assured that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was introduced in Han dynasty. There are cognitive differences on whether Zhang Qian introduced alfalfa. Based on the previous studies, research inductive method was used. The relationship between Zhang Qian and alfalfa introduction was analyzed from the motivation, experience and influence of Zhang Qian to the Western Regions and the image generation of Zhang Qian brought back alfalfa’s seeds. Till to now, there are four opinions about Zhang Qian introducing Alfalfa seeds, including : (1) Zhang Qian introduced alfalfa seeds;(2) Zhang Qian did not introduce alfalfa seeds;(3) the information of Zhang Qian transferring alfalfa;(4)for commemoration Zhang Qian to the Western Regions. Although there are not direct historical materials to support Zhang Qian brought alfalfa seed to Han dynasty, it believes and confirms that the introducing of alfalfa is inextricably interwoven with Zhang Qian’s western travel. Zhangqian brought relative information from western regions during the introduction, which was the basis of non-native theory, and after that, Chinese began to plant alfalfa in Han dynasty., According to historical literatures, it is clear that the Chinese diplomat brought alfalfa seeds back to China. Alfalfa, as the favorite forage to Ferghana horse, have been already planted in Dawan in Han dynasty. Despite the debate, Zhangqian played an important pioneering role in introducing alfalfa.

  16. Power, identity and antiquarian approaches in modern Chinese art’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ling Yang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of antiquity was important for scholarly artists in constructing their knowledge of history and cultural identity in late Imperial China. Following various publications by Bi Yuan 畢沅 (1730-1797, Wu Yi 武億 (1745-1799 and Qian Daxin 錢大昕 (1728-1804 in the 18th century, the study and collecting of rubbings of Northern Wei stone inscriptions and steles was popular. Such spread of interest in jinshi, inscriptions on metal and stone, also formed a base for studying seal carving, epigraphy and archaic painting. While traditional antiquarians would cherish inscriptions which enabled them to correct mistakes in the transmitted historical texts and the Classics, however, much of the antiquarian activity was adapted to mere literary exercise or connoisseurship, for instance, to supplying materials which could provide models for seal-carving and calligraphy. Examples could be seen in the calligraphy works and seal carvings of the Xiling bajia 西泠八家 (Eight Masters of Xiling, i.e. Hangzhou, also known as Zhe School of Calligraphy and Carving. Their keen interest in seeking inspiration from steles for their artistic presentations has been recorded in their writing and painting. In addition, the way the scholar-collector of the 19th and early 20th centuries mounted the rubbings, seals, inscriptions, paintings, letters and textual evidence studies into one album shows a changing ideology: rubbings were not only for scholarly study in classical learning, but were regarded as part of the art form and were appreciated on various social occasions. The antiquarian movement ultimately served as a tool for re-writing art historiography in modern China. This paper aims to address the phenomenon and formation of the jinshi painting that dominated in late Imperial and early modern China. Through case studies of three important jinshi societies in Shanghai, I will investigate in what way literary taste from the southern region gradually

  17. Ballistic Phosphorene Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-19

    IEEE Electron Devices Letters 35 (7): 795-797, 2014. 2. Yexin Deng, Zhe Luo, Nathan J. Conrad, Han Liu, Yongji Gong, Sina Najmaei, Pulickel M...IEEE Electron Devices Letters 35 (7): 795-797, 2014. 2. Yexin Deng, Zhe Luo, Nathan J. Conrad, Han Liu, Yongji Gong, Sina Najmaei, Pulickel M

  18. Iz perevodov : [tõlkevalimik] / Svetlan Semenenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Semenenko, Svetlan, 1938-2007

    1998-01-01

    Sisu: Traat, Mats. Samoje lutshsheje vremja; Suuman, Aleksander. 'Voronu ne popast domoi...'; Viiding, Juhan. 'Vo sadu vo zeljonom...'; Kurg, Kalle. 'I zdes to Zhe samoje zdes to zhe samoje...'; Rummo, Paul-Eerik. Uteshenje; Nitshja; Alver, Betti. Mezhdu Jõgeva i Pedja : iz poemõ; S dikim krikom

  19. Quantitative analysis of oyster larval proteome provides new insights into the effects of multiple climate change stressors, supplement to: Dineshram, R; Chandramouli, K; Ko, W K Ginger; Zhang, Huoming; Qian, Pei Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen (2016): Quantitative analysis of oyster larval proteome provides new insights into the effects of multiple climate change stressors. Global Change Biology, 22(6), 2054-2068

    KAUST Repository

    Dineshram, R; Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli; Ko, W K Ginger; Zhang, Huoming; Qian, Pei Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2016-01-01

    survival bottleneck, which will be pressured by different anthropogenically induced climate change-related variables. Therefore, it is important to understand how metamorphosing larvae interact with emerging climate change stressors. To predict how larvae

  20. Quantitative analysis of oyster larval proteome provides new insights into the effects of multiple climate change stressors, supplement to: Dineshram, R; Chandramouli, K; Ko, W K Ginger; Zhang, Huoming; Qian, Pei Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen (2016): Quantitative analysis of oyster larval proteome provides new insights into the effects of multiple climate change stressors. Global Change Biology, 22(6), 2054-2068

    KAUST Repository

    Dineshram, R

    2016-01-01

    The metamorphosis of planktonic larvae of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) underpins their complex life-history strategy by switching on the molecular machinery required for sessile life and building calcite shells. Metamorphosis becomes a survival bottleneck, which will be pressured by different anthropogenically induced climate change-related variables. Therefore, it is important to understand how metamorphosing larvae interact with emerging climate change stressors. To predict how larvae might be affected in a future ocean, we examined changes in the proteome of metamorphosing larvae under multiple stressors: decreased pH (pH 7.4), increased temperature (30 °C), and reduced salinity (15 psu). Quantitative protein expression profiling using iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS identified more than 1300 proteins. Decreased pH had a negative effect on metamorphosis by down-regulating several proteins involved in energy production, metabolism, and protein synthesis. However, warming switched on these down-regulated pathways at pH 7.4. Under multiple stressors, cell signaling, energy production, growth, and developmental pathways were up-regulated, although metamorphosis was still reduced. Despite the lack of lethal effects, significant physiological responses to both individual and interacting climate change related stressors were observed at proteome level. The metamorphosing larvae of the C. gigas population in the Yellow Sea appear to have adequate phenotypic plasticity at the proteome level to survive in future coastal oceans, but with developmental and physiological costs.

  1. Two new species of Rhopalopsole (Plecoptera: Leuctridae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yu-Han; DU, Yu-Zhou

    2017-06-02

    Two new species of the genus Rhopalopsole, R. brevidigitata Qian & Du, sp. nov. and R. faciursina Qian & Du, sp. nov. are described and illustrated from Yunnan Province of southwestern China. The new species are compared to similar taxa in the R. vietnamica and R. shaanxiensis groups, respectively.

  2. Comparison of broiler performance, carcass yields and intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of broiler performance, carcass yields and intestinal microflora when fed diets containing transgenic (Mon-40-3-2) and conventional soybean meal. Jianzhuang Tan, Shasha Liu, Zhe Sun, Hongfu Zhang, Yongwei wang, Dan Liu ...

  3. Istorija mojei semi / Aleksandr Stahhovitsh ; per. s frantsuzskogo: Aleksei Gluhhov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stahhovitsh, Aleksandr

    1998-01-01

    Vene emigrandi poja, prantsuse diplomaadi mälestused oma suguvõsast, kirjutatud Luxembourgis 1967. a. augustis. Vt. ka Aleksei Gluhhovi artiklit 'S tem zhe dostoinstvom i veroi' (Võshgorod 1998, nr. 4, lk. 6-8)

  4. Investigation of the Antiasthmatic Properties of Ethanol Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of the Antiasthmatic Properties of Ethanol Extract of Callophyllis japonica in Mice. WS Park, KS Lee, JH Chun, SH Urm, DS Lee, DY Lee, SG Park, SK Seo, SJ Heo, ZJ Qian, WK Jung, IW Choi ...

  5. Physiological responses and tolerance of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) exposed to chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Han; Wang, Guodong; Lou, Lili; Lv, Jinyin

    2016-11-01

    Selection of kenaf species with chromium (Cr) tolerance and exploring the physiological mechanisms involved in Cr tolerance are crucial for application of these species to phyto-remediation. In the present study, a hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the variation in two kenaf cultivars, K39-2 and Zhe50-3 under Cr stress. At the same Cr concentration, the tolerance index (TI) of K39-2 was higher than that of Zhe50-3, indicating that K39-2 may be more tolerant to Cr than Zhe50-3. It was also observed that high concentration of chromium was accumulated both in the shoots and the roots of Hibiscus cannabinus L. The leaves of K39-2 accumulated 4760.28mgkg(-1) of dry weight under 1.50mM Cr stress, and the roots accumulated 11,958.33mgkg(-1). Physiological response shows that the antioxidant enzymes' superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activity (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities increased in the leaves and decreased in roots of the Cr-stressed plants nearly compared to the control. Moreover, the variation of antioxidant enzymes activities indicated Zhe50-3 was more vulnerable than K39-2, and the contents of the non-protein thiol pool (GSH, NPT and PCs) were higher in K39-2 than Zhe50-3 with the increased Cr concentration. Based on the observations above, it can be concluded that the well-coordinated physiological changes confer a greater Cr tolerance to K39-2 than Zhe50-3 under Cr exposure, and Hibiscus cannabinus L. has a great accumulation capacity for chromium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrical Transport Properties of Polycrystalline Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-14

    Lou, Sina Najmaei, Matin Amani, Matthew L. Chin, Zheng Se. TASK NUMBER Liu Sf. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 8...Transport Properties of Polycrystalline Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide Sina Najmaei,t.§ Matin Ama ni,M Matthew L. Chin,* Zhe ng liu/ ·"·v: A. Gle n

  7. Republic of Korea Army Aviation Study Group after Action Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-27

    8217 a 1.. *Oj a 1 g, everyone attoncilag is invited to cont.rib𔃻,re to zhe r-ozolutioa .If the problema (s). E. Af Ler the WAIC announcement, if all...HMSELF IF nEEDS HAVE CHANGE, IF THE SOCIAL AND MORAL STANDARDS OF SOCIETY HAVE SHIFTED, IF THE OBJECTIVES HE HAS SET ARE ATTAINABLE. THE TEST OF THE

  8. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei 230031, China, 3Department of Clinical of Pharmacy, Lishui People's Hospital, Zhe Jiang. 323000, China ... Conclusion: XJEK therapy in the 2K1C hypertensive rats affects the rise in blood pressure and ameliorates the severity of kidney injury. The protective effect is ...

  9. (Brassicaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 93; Issue 2. Phylogeny and biogeography of Alyssum (Brassicaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequences. Yan Li Yan Kong Zhe Zhang Yanqiang Yin Bin Liu Guanghui Lv Xiyong Wang. Research Article Volume 93 Issue 2 August 2014 pp 313-323 ...

  10. TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN THE UPPER HUMAN RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN THE UPPER HUMAN RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS. Zhe Zhang*, Huawei Shi, Clement Kleinstreuer, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910; Chong S. Kim, National Health and En...

  11. Reducing arsenic accumulation in rice grain through iron oxide amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this research, we investigated the accumulation of arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), and cadmium (Cd) in rice grain under different soil conditions in standard straighthead-resistant and straighthead-susceptible cultivars, Zhe 733 and Cocodrie, respectively. Results demonstrated that,...

  12. Assessment of toxicity of heavy metal contaminated soils for Collembola in the field and laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jie; Krogh, Paul Henning; Luo, Yongming

    2008-01-01

    We present a field and laboratory investigation of effects of increasing levels of heavy metal contamination on the biodiversity and performance of collembolans. A 40 year old pollution with Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd pollution due to Cu smelting over 40 years was investigated in a paddy field area of Zhe...

  13. Thirty-seven transcription factor genes differentially respond to a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plant transcription factors and insect defence si. Thirty-seven transcription factor genes differentially respond to a harpin protein and affect resistance to the green peach aphid in Arabidopsis. HUNLIN. PIN. RUOXUE LIŲ, BEIBEI LÜ, XIAOMENG WANG, CHUNLING ZHANG, SHUPING ZHANG, JUN QIAN, LEI CHEN,.

  14. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 6. Triflic Anhydride-Mediated Beckmann Rearrangement Reaction of Β-Oximyl Amides: Access to 5-Iminooxazolines. MANGFEI YU QIAN ZHANG JIA WANG PENG HUANG PENGFEI YAN RUI ZHANG DEWEN DONG. Regular Article Volume 128 Issue 6 ...

  15. Dangjia Village: Holding Its Ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUZHONGMIN

    2005-01-01

    THE Yellow River, the second longest in China, billows through the Shanxi-Shaanxi canyons. On its west bank in Shaanxi is an historical city - Hancheng, birthplace of Sima Qian, author of the Records of the Historian and inaugurator of Chinese biography. Within the city limits is a village with a 670-year history - Dangjia.

  16. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research - Vol 15, No 3 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wan Wu, Wei Chen, Qiong Jin, 447-451 ... Chung-Shih Chen, Mei-Lin Wang, Rosa Huang Liu, Shih-Pin Chen, Tsong-Ming Lu, Wei-Yu Tsai, Chien-Fu Huang, ... Yan-Qiong Li, Rui Hu, Li-Hui Zhong, Qian Sun, You-Ping Yan, 527-533.

  17. Assessing the Depth and Breadth of Vocabulary Knowledge with Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Feng

    2014-01-01

    This study was inspired by Qian (1999) and Staehr (2009) and researched 88 Chinese learners who had already passed the College English Test 4 (CET). These learners volunteered to participate in the study regarding the depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge and its relationship with listening comprehension, which was assessed by analyzing the…

  18. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 129; Issue 8. Three coordination compounds based on benzene tetracarboxylate ligand: syntheses, structures, thermal behaviors and luminescence properties. YUNLONG WU CHANGKUN XIA JUN QIAN JIMIN XIE. REGULAR ARTICLE Volume 129 Issue 8 August ...

  19. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimensional coupled double-distribution-function lattice Boltzmann models for compressible Navier–Stokes equations. RUO-FAN QIU YAN-CHENG YOU CHENG-XIANG ZHU RONG-QIAN CHEN JIAN-FENG ZHU. Research Article Volume 89 Issue ...

  20. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Hai-Liang Zhu. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 121 Issue 4 July 2009 pp 463-470. Synthesis, antimicrobial activity of lamotrigine and its ammonium derivatives · Yong Qian Peng-Cheng Lv Lei Shi Rui-Qin Fang Zhong-Cheng Song Hai-Liang Zhu.

  1. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHEN AI-HUA1 MENG SU-CI2 ZHOU KAI1 WANG CONG-CONG1 ZHAO WEI2 WANG AI-JIAN2 QIAN JUN2. School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051, People's Republic of China; School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang ...

  2. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 10, No 37 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7130 ... G Lu, Y Shen, W Qian, L Shen, Q Qiao, M Li, Z Wang, 7136-7142 ... LN Zhen, K Wang, YJ Zhang, H Zhou, 7161-7165 ... Effect of cadmium hyperaccumulation on antioxidative defense and proline accumulation of Solanum nigrumL.

  3. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and genealogy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... Pang CY, Du XM, Ma ZY (2006). Evaluation of the introgressed lines and screening for elite germplasm in Gossypium, Chin. Sci. Bull. 51(1):. 304-312. Pieter V, Rene H, Marjo B (1995). AFLP: a new technique for DNA fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Res. 23(21): 4407-4414. Qian SY, Huang JQ, Zhou BL, Peng ...

  4. Does Mandarin spatial metaphor for time influence Chinese deaf signers’ spatio-temporal reasoning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Yan; Zheng, Yeqiu; Swerts, Marc; Gunzelmann, G.; Howes, A.; Tenbrink, T.; Davelaar, E. J.

    2017-01-01

    In Mandarin Chinese, the space-time word “前/qian” is used to express both the spatial concept of front/forward and the temporal concept of early/before (e.g., “前天/qian-tian”, literally front day, meaning the day before yesterday). This is consistent with the fact that Mandarin speakers can gesture

  5. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 5. Combinative effects of a bacterial type-III effector and a biocontrol bacterium on rice growth and disease resistance. Haiying Ren Ganyu Gu Juying Long Qian Yin Tingquan Wu Tao Song Shujian Zhang Zhiyi Chen Hansong Dong. Reviews Volume 31 Issue 5 ...

  6. Isolation and characterization of sixty sequences of cot-1 DNA from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-11-06

    Nov 6, 2012 ... this study were from U. t. ussuricus animals raised in the Beijing. Zoo. ..... Collins F, Guyer MS, Peterson J, Felsenfeld A, Wetterstrand KA,. Patrinos A ... B, Ni P, Lin R, Qian W, Wang G, Yu C, Nie W, Wang J, Wu Z, Liang.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    16 oct. 2017 ... Hong Jiang, Xu Qian, Guillermo Carroli and Paul Garner. Selective versus routine use of episiotomy for vaginal birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 February 8; 2: CD000081. Google Scholar. 17. Louis Kuhne. L'origine de la méthode Bain Detox in Bain de · désintoxication. Consulté le 15 avril 2017.

  8. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v10i4.6

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v10i4.6. 36. CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC ACTIVITIES OF CARTHAMI FLOS AND ITS REVERSAL EFFECT ON. MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE IN CANCER CELLS. Jimmy Yiu-Cheong Wu*a, Zhi-Ling Yub, Wang-Fun Fongb, Yi-Qian Shia. aZhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310053, ...

  9. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Ruoxue Liu1 Beibei Lü1 Xiaomeng Wang1 Chunling Zhang1 Shuping Zhang1 Jun Qian1 Lei Chen1 Haojie Shi1 Hansong Dong1. State Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Monitoring and Management of Crop Pathogens and Insect Pests, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China ...

  10. Optimization of wind speed on dispersion of pollutants using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, ... The classical approaches of dispersion model (Qian & Venkatram 2001; ..... of ambient fine organic carbon particles and source apportionment of PM2.5 in Indian ... matrix factorization and chemical mass balance applied to receptor modeling.

  11. Treatment with metformin and a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor elevates apelin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan YJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Yujuan Fan,* Yu Zhang,* Xuesong Li,* Hui Zheng, Yuping Song, Ning Zhang, Chunfang Shen, Xiaofang Fan, Fengdong Ren, Jiayi Shen, Guoguang Ren, Jialin Yang Department of Endocrinology, Central Hospital of Minhang District, Minhang Hospital affiliated to Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The objective of this study was to assess the effects of metformin monotherapy or combined treatment with a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (vildagliptin on apelin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Twenty-five patients with poor glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin >6.5% [48 mmol/mol] taking 1,000 mg of metformin daily and 25 healthy controls matched for age and body mass index were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric parameters, glycemic and lipid profile, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, and apelin levels were measured at baseline and at 12-week and 24-week visits. Results: At baseline, apelin levels were higher in the T2DM patients than in the controls (1.93±1.81 ng/mL versus 6.09±4.90 ng/mL; P<0.05. After 12 weeks, when vildagliptin was added, fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin decreased, and apelin levels increased further (from 6.09±4.90 ng/mL to 24.23±12.59 ng/mL; P<0.05. Follow-up at 24 weeks showed no further improvement in the glycemic profile and no further increase in apelin levels. Conclusion: Both metformin and vildagliptin favorably changed glycemic indices and apelin levels. For patients inadequately controlled on a low dose of metformin, addition of vildagliptin may be helpful. Keywords: glucagon-like peptides, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, antidiabetic drug, adipocytokine

  12. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Rear Underslung Fuselage Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-09-01

    corolltiy, thk thihker and morp depleted the boundary “layer,,the grea$er Is the.tende~o#. toward “abp~btion tinder slight adverse press~re &rmbd~n$a. “ 9he...stream than from outlets A or B. Zhe results of the tests show that an approx~mately linear relationship exists between the total and the stattc

  13. O tom, tshto ushlo : [luuletused] / Aleksander Suuman ; Lühibiograafia: T. L. [Toomas Liiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suuman, Aleksander, 1927-2003

    1999-01-01

    Sisu: O tom, tshto ushlo ; "Gde-to dolzhno zhe bõt stshastje..." ; "Serõje lessa..." ; Zholtogolovõ ; "Teh iv serebristõh nelzja oboiti..." ; "Vzroslõje vkladtshinu pili..." ; "U nas tut, za Giperborejem..." / tlk. Svetlan Semenenko ; Odno hotshu skazat ; Los idjot / tlk. Boris Baljasnõi.Orig.: "Kusagil peab olema õnn..." ; Kullerkupud ; "Ei hõbepajust ma mööduda saand..." ; "Meil siin Hüperboreas..." ;

  14. Building a Global Responsive Organization:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xinbo; Cao, Yi; Li, Suxiu

    2017-01-01

    This chapter outlines the philosophic underpinnings of the self-management paradigm developed over the past three decades by China’s Haier Group, a global leader in white goods. The successful transformation of Haier from a small resource-poor firm to a dominant global giant is often attributed...... to the self-management culture established in the company by its legendary leader Zhang Ruimin. This management paradigm is a function of the humbleness displayed by Mr. Zhang Ruimin and rooted in his strong belief in the traditional Chinese philosophy of I-Ching and Daoism. We show how the hexagram of Qian...... (“qian”: humbleness, modesty) from I-Ching is linked to Mr. Zhang’s humble approach and analyze how the six parts of the hexagram of Qian are related to the six development stages of the Haier Group. These insights are used to give some thoughts to the leadership challenge associated with the creation...

  15. Land-total and Ocean-total Precipitation and Evaporation from a Community Atmosphere Model version 5 Perturbed Parameter Ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covey, Curt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lucas, Donald D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Trenberth, Kevin E. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-03-02

    This document presents the large scale water budget statistics of a perturbed input-parameter ensemble of atmospheric model runs. The model is Version 5.1.02 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). These runs are the “C-Ensemble” described by Qian et al., “Parametric Sensitivity Analysis of Precipitation at Global and Local Scales in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5” (Journal of Advances in Modeling the Earth System, 2015). As noted by Qian et al., the simulations are “AMIP type” with temperature and sea ice boundary conditions chosen to match surface observations for the five year period 2000-2004. There are 1100 ensemble members in addition to one run with default inputparameter values.

  16. Response to 'Comment on 'Ultrafast electron optics: Propagation dynamics of femtosecond electron packets'' [J. Appl. Phys. 94, 803 (2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwick, Bradley J.; Dwyer, Jason R.; Jordan, Robert E.; Miller, R. J. Dwayne

    2003-01-01

    In this reply, we address the main issues raised by Qian et al. regarding our recent article [J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1643 (2002)]. In particular, we reiterate the approximations used in the development of the mean-field model and demonstrate how the form used for the on-axis potential is applicable to the study of femtosecond electron packet propagation and is not in need of correction. We also repeat our assertion that the one-dimensional (1-D) fluid model developed by Qian et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 91, 462 (2002)] overestimates space-charge-induced pulse broadening and is in qualitative disagreement with femtosecond electron packet propagation dynamics. The key differences between the mean-field and 1-D fluid model are discussed and their range of applicability is clarified

  17. The Genesis of Cyberscience and its Mathematical Models (CYBERSCIENCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    October 1996. [Gas01] G. Gaskell. An Analysis of BS7799 and Requirements for eCommerce . In Proceedings of the 1st Symposium on Requirements Engineering for...identifying potential vulnerabilities in software. In 1998 IEEE Symposium 70 on Security and Privacy (SSP ’98), pages 104–114, Washington – Brussels...X. Qian, R. Riemenschneider, and L. Gong. Secure Software Architecture. In Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy , pages 84–93

  18. Maritime Issues between Pakistan and India: Seeking Cooperation and Regional Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    avoidance of double taxation & cultural cooperation. 1991 Air Space Violation agreement signed and ratified in August 1992, stipulates that no combat...On July 18, 1994, Foreign Minister Qian Qichen signed another trade agreement on avoidance of double taxation to encourage business, scientific...position that it lacked jurisdiction to entertain the case, because India had filed an exemption in 1974, concerning disputes between India and

  19. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 36; Issue 4. Investigation of localization effect in GaN-rich InGaN alloys and modified band-tail model. Chuan-Zhen Zhao Bin Liu De-Yi Fu Hui Chen Ming Li Xiang-Qian Xiu Zi-Li Xie Shu-Lin Gu You-Dou Zheng. Volume 36 Issue 4 August 2013 pp 619-622 ...

  20. Properties of Aerosols during a Dust Storm over the Beijing Area,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-12

    THE BEIJING AREA by Zhou Mingyu , Qu Shaohou, et al DTIC S ELECTE JAN 04 1984 N Lum E Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 84 01 04 015...STORM OVER THE BEIJING AREA By: Zhou Mingyu , Qu Shaohou, et al. English~ pages: 22 Source: Huanjing Kexue Xuebao, Vol. 1, Nr. 3, September 1981, pp... Mingyu , Qu Shaohou, Song Ximing, Li Yuying, Yang Shaojin and Qian Qinfang Zhou, Qu, Song and Li of Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy

  1. Distributed Learning, Extremum Seeking, and Model-Free Optimization for the Resilient Coordination of Multi-Agent Adversarial Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-07

    and Technology, UK) OTHER MAJOR RECOGNITIONS 2016 Qian Ren Professor, Northeastern University, China 2015 Invitation Fellow, Japan Society for...Foroush and S. Martı́nez. On triggering control of single-input linear systems under pulse- width modulated DoS jamming attacks. SIAM Journal on...controllable linear systems under unknown periodic DoS jamming attacks. In SIAM Conference on Control and Its Applications (CT), pages 222–229, San Diego, CA

  2. Interactions of bacteria with diatoms: Influence on natural marine biofilms.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; DeCosta, P.M.; Anil, A.C.; Sawant, S.S.

    therein). In fact, biofilms are considered a reservoir and source of dissemination for V. cholerae (Shikuma & Hadfield 2010). Nutrient concentrations in the surrounding waters also affect the progression of the biofilm community (Qian et al. 2007... to render diatom monocultures near axenic (Patil & Anil 2005c). The following diluents were used – Aged Sea Water (ASW; unenriched control), ASW+streptomycin (ASW+S), ASW+chloramphenicol (ASW+C), f/2 medium (Guillard and Ryther, 1962) prepared in ASW [f...

  3. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-16

    the dual fermentation method, tech- nology to reclaim sugar residue, technology to make glucose from rice, fructose and dextrose syrup and other...Hu Wenjun [5170 2429 0689], Su Mingkun [5685 2494 0981], Wang Qian [3769 0241] and other conrades to suc- cessfully trial-produce an oral glucose of...company, the comrades praise in unison his high sense of responsibility toward the enterprise and say that old friend Hong is now like a fish in water

  4. Computer Aided Detection of Breast Masses in Digital Tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    of unknown pathology , all other ROIs generated from that specific subject’s reconstructed volumes were excluded from the KB. For scheme B, all the FPs...query ROI of unknown pathology , all other ROIs generated from that specific subject’s reconstructed volumes were excluded from the KB. For scheme B...Qian, L. Li, and L.P. Clarke, "Image feature extraction for mass detection in digital mammography: Influence of wavelet analysis." Med. Phys. 26

  5. Creative Strategic Intelligence Analysis and Decision Making Within the Elements of National Power. Proteus Futures Workshop, held Carlise, PA on 14-16 Aug 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    since WWI. The emergence of quantitative MOR in China can be traced to a single person, Qian Xuesen. He was born in 1911 and came to the U.S. in 1935...model. A foreign- born student from a nation known to be unfriendly to the United States would receive a higher threat rating than one from a...Kunstler has published numerous journal articles and book chapters on technology, leadership, creatiity, eCommerce , and education and has

  6. EMBROIDERING GUIZHOU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUSAN; TRIMBLE

    2004-01-01

    GUIZHOU,known as Qian, is a beautiful province covered in karst formations, primitive forest, numerous sparkling rivers, forests of bamboo, China fir, rung, tea oil, and raw lacquer trees, and intermittently patched with buckwheat fields, rice paddies, vegetable gardens, luscious fruit trees and scented flowering plants and shrubs. Home to waterfalls and canyons, exotic animals, reptiles and birds, and many culturally rich and colorful minority tribes

  7. The Impact of an Entrepreneur's Knowledge - A Case of Nokia's Spinoff

    OpenAIRE

    Olkkonen, Juulia; Tuovinen, Annastina

    2018-01-01

    In recent years the study of entrepreneurial spinoffs has focused on how knowledge spillover leads to new knowledge and entrepreneurial activity. This study aims to explore the effect of a founder’s knowledge inherited from an incumbent parent company in the formation of a spinoff in the ICT sector. As a theoretical framework, the study uses An Absorptive Capacity Theory of Knowledge Spillover Entrepreneurship (Qian and Acs, 2013). Using a qualitative approach through interviews with the foun...

  8. Interoperable Communications for Hierarchical Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    International Conference on Advanced Networks and Telecommuncations Systems (ANTS). 14-DEC-13, Kattankulathur, India. : , Husheng Li, Qi Zeng , Lijun Qian. GPS...correlation in space is too large, which implies that the correlation is overestimated. Other methods may be more accurate, faster or less memory ...limited, an intelligent mechanism is needed for the information selection and signaling design of the cross-network communication for collaborative

  9. El multilateralismo estratégico en la política exterior de China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Rubiolo.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1991, Qian Chen, then Minister of Foreign Relations of the People's Republic of China, attended the ASEAN Ministerial Meeting. This event set the beginning of China's opening to multilateralism in the region. After the financial crisis of 1997, this trend became accentu-ated when Beijing took on a role that involved more leadership and initiative in multilateral bodies. In this article we are interested in exploring the role China plays in strategic multilateral regional initiatives.

  10. Changing patient safety culture in China: a case study of an experimental Chinese hospital from a comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Xu XP; Deng DN; Gu YH; Ng CS; Cai X; Xu J; Zhang XS; Ke DG; Yu QH; Chan CK

    2018-01-01

    Xiao Ping Xu,* Dong Ning Deng,* Yong Hong Gu, Chui Shan Ng, Xiao Cai, Jun Xu, Xin Shi Zhang, Dong Ge Ke, Qian Hui Yu, Chi Kuen Chan Clinical Service Department, The University of Hong Kong - Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The World Health Organization highlights that patient safety interventions are not lacking but that the local context affects their successful implementation. Increasing att...

  11. Physicochemical Properties and Lipophilicity of Polydatin-Lecithin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yang Liu, Baogang Wang, Qian Zhang, Kunfeng Liu, Quanxi Wu ... HPLC analysis found that the solubility of polydatin in n-octanol at 25 °C was enhanced from 0.41 mg/mL to 21.98 mg/mL by complexing with lecithin, indicating that the lipophilicity of polydatin was significantly improved. Conclusion: Polydatin and lecithin in ...

  12. Enabling the intestinal absorption of highly polar antiviral agents: ion-pair facilitated membrane permeation of zanamivir heptyl ester and guanidino oseltamivir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan M; Dahan, Arik; Gupta, Deepak; Varghese, Sheeba; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-08-02

    Antiviral drugs often suffer from poor intestinal permeability, preventing their delivery via the oral route. The goal of this work was to enhance the intestinal absorption of the low-permeability antiviral agents zanamivir heptyl ester (ZHE) and guanidino oseltamivir (GO) utilizing an ion-pairing approach, as a critical step toward making them oral drugs. The counterion 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (HNAP) was utilized to enhance the lipophilicity and permeability of the highly polar drugs. HNAP substantially increased the log P of the drugs by up to 3.7 log units. Binding constants (K(11(aq))) of 388 M(-1) for ZHE-HNAP and 2.91 M(-1) for GO-HNAP were obtained by applying a quasi-equilibrium transport model to double-reciprocal plots of apparent octanol-buffer distribution coefficients versus HNAP concentration. HNAP enhanced the apparent permeability (P(app)) of both compounds across Caco-2 cell monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner, as substantial P(app) (0.8-3.0 x 10(-6) cm/s) was observed in the presence of 6-24 mM HNAP, whereas no detectable transport was observed without counterion. Consistent with a quasi-equilibrium transport model, a linear relationship with slope near 1 was obtained from a log-log plot of Caco-2 P(app) versus HNAP concentration, supporting the ion-pair mechanism behind the permeability enhancement. In the rat jejunal perfusion assay, the addition of HNAP failed to increase the effective permeability (P(eff)) of GO. However, the rat jejunal permeability of ZHE was significantly enhanced by the addition of HNAP in a concentration-dependent manner, from essentially zero without HNAP to 4.0 x 10(-5) cm/s with 10 mM HNAP, matching the P(eff) of the high-permeability standard metoprolol. The success of ZHE-HNAP was explained by its >100-fold stronger K(11(aq)) versus GO-HNAP, making ZHE-HNAP less prone to dissociation and ion-exchange with competing endogenous anions and able to remain intact during membrane permeation. Overall, this

  13. Chinese herbal dose in ancient and modern times: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shimin

    2013-04-01

    Appropriate dose guarantees Chinese herb's safety and effectiveness. There are adult dose criteria for Chinese herbs in decoction in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2010 Edition) at present. But Chinese herbs have been frequently used in much higher doses than the dose criteria. This study has been conducted to test the dependability of the dose criteria. Twenty Chinese herbs were selected as representatives and their adult doses in decoction in Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang, a famous ancient literature, have been reviewed and compared with those in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2010 Edition). The adult dose criteria for all these 20 Chinese herbs in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2010 Edition) haven't covered those in Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang. Furthermore, maximal adult doses in the dose criteria are much lower than those in Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang. The dose criteria in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2010 Edition) are not comprehensive enough. Studying ancient literatures is an effective method to gain precious Chinese herbs' dose data and helps for new dose criteria's establishment in the future.

  14. Late Eocene Uplift of the Al Hajar Mountains, Oman, Supported by Stratigraphy and Low-Temperature Thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansman, Reuben J.; Ring, Uwe; Thomson, Stuart N.; den Brok, Bas; Stübner, Konstanze

    2017-12-01

    Uplift of the Al Hajar Mountains in Oman has been related to either Late Cretaceous ophiolite obduction or the Neogene Zagros collision. To test these hypotheses, the cooling of the central Al Hajar Mountains is constrained by 10 apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe), 15 fission track (AFT), and four zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) sample ages. These data show differential cooling between the two major structural culminations of the mountains. In the 3 km high Jabal Akhdar culmination AHe single-grain ages range between 39 ± 2 Ma and 10 ± 1 Ma (2σ errors), AFT ages range from 51 ± 8 Ma to 32 ± 4 Ma, and ZHe single-grain ages range from 62 ± 3 Ma to 39 ± 2 Ma. In the 2 km high Saih Hatat culmination AHe ages range from 26 ± 4 to 12 ± 4 Ma, AFT ages from 73 ± 19 Ma to 57 ± 8 Ma, and ZHe single-grain ages from 81 ± 4 Ma to 58 ± 3 Ma. Thermal modeling demonstrates that cooling associated with uplift and erosion initiated at 40 Ma, indicating that uplift occurred 30 Myr after ophiolite obduction and at least 10 Myr before the Zagros collision. Therefore, this uplift cannot be related to either event. We propose that crustal thickening supporting the topography of the Al Hajar Mountains was caused by a slowdown of Makran subduction and that north Oman took up the residual fraction of N-S convergence between Arabia and Eurasia.

  15. Induction of dominant male sterility by using 60Co γ-rays irradiation in rice oryza sativa L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu Qingyao; Wu Dianxing; Xia Yingwu; Gao Mingwei

    2000-01-01

    The fertility of M 1 plants, which developed from dried rice (c.v. Zhe9248) seeds treated with γ-rays at the dosage of 300 Gy, decreased dramatically, and some of the M 1 plants showed completely male sterile. There were still fertile and sterile plants in the M 2 F 1 population of artificially emasculated high sterile Zhe9248 M 1 plants crossed to normal variety G93-89, and consequently, Zhe9248 was back crossed to the sterile plants successively as recurrent parent. In all the above back cross populations, fertile and sterile plants segregated in a 1 : 1 ratio. The M 4 BC 2 male sterile plants were crossed to various rice materials, e.g. early season indica rice (Zhefu 504, H416), middle season indica rice (Chuan-si-ran-zhan, Yu-Zhan), maintainer lines (Fu-Nan B, 351 B) and restorer lines (IR36, 20964). In all the above F 1 populations, male sterile and fertile plants again segregated in a 1 : 1 ratio. In addition, sib-crossing were made in the back crosses and hybrid crosses between male sterile and fertile plants, male sterile and fertile plants appeared in a similar fashion as in test crosses. However, no male sterile plants were recovered from fertile plants either of back crosses or test crosses. The anthers of male sterile plants appeared small and poorly developed, the pollen showed typical abortion or round abortion, the seed set in bagged panicles was very low. The experimental data showed that this male sterile rice mutant was inherited in a single-gene mode

  16. A New Stonefly Species, Rhopalopsole tricuspis (Leuctridae: Plecoptera), and Three New Records of Stoneflies from the Qinling Mountains of Shaanxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yu-Han; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Plecopteran species (Leuctridae) were collected from the Qinling Mountains in southern Shaanxi Province, China. This mountain range is home to nine species of Leuctridae belonging to two genera, and the species identified in this work include one new species and three new records for the Qinling Mountains, all belonging to the genus Rhopalopsole. The new species is named R. tricuspis Qian and Du, sp. nov. A redescription of R. basinigra Yang and Yang 1995 is supplemented. A key is provided for the adult males of Leuctridae from the Qinling Mountains. PMID:22957649

  17. Antifouling sesquiterpene from the Indian soft coral, Sinularia kavarattiensis Alderslade and Prita

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LimnaMol, V.P.; Raveendran, T.V.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Kunnath, R.J.; Sathyan, N.

    analysis of preference data, Appl Entomol Zool, 33 (1998) 339-347. 16 Williams D H & Faulkner D J, Two practical syntheses of an anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene furoic acid from Sinularia spp. Tetrahedron, 52 (1996) 4245-4256. 17 Rittschof D, Lai C H..., Kok L M & Teo S L M, Pharmaceuticals as antifoulants: Concept and principles, Biofouling, 19 (2003) 207-212. 18 Kwong T F N, Miao L, Li X & Qian P Y, Novel Antifouling and Antimicrobial Compound from a Marine-Derived Fungus Ampelomyces sp., Mar...

  18. Stabilization of Gold Nanorods (GNRs) in Aqueous and Organic Environments by Select Surface Functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    for up to 1 month (the solution was brought to room temperature prior to use). Stock solutions of silver nitrate (AgNO3) were kept at 4 °C and...Qian W, El-Sayed MA. Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods. J Am Chem Soc. 2006;128(6...distribution is unlimited. 16 List of Symbols, Abbreviations, and Acronyms AgNO3 silver nitrate λLSPR wavelength ARL US Army Research Laboratory Au

  19. Power, identity and antiquarian approaches in modern Chinese art

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chia-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of antiquity was important for scholarly artists in constructing their knowledge of history and cultural identity in late Imperial China. Following various publications by Bi Yuan 畢沅 (1730-1797), Wu Yi 武億 (1745-1799) and Qian Daxin 錢大昕 (1728-1804) in the 18th century, the study and collecting of rubbings of Northern Wei stone inscriptions and steles was popular. Such spread of interest in jinshi, inscriptions on metal and stone, also formed a base for studying seal carving, epigra...

  20. An experimental evaluation of the Gerdemann–Jablonski compaction equation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Machaka, R

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available properties of the material being compacted’ falls short on Denny’s criterion[12] of an ideal multi-stage compaction equation. Thus, the underlying mechanisms driving the compaction process seemingly cannot be described completely in terms of a one...–101. 11. D. Jeyasimman, K. Sivaprasad, S. Sivasankaran, and R. Narayanasamy: Powder Technol., 2014, vol. 258, pp. 189–97. 12. P.J. Denny: Powder Technol., 2002, vol. 127 (2), pp. 162–72. 13. M. Qian: Int. J. Powder Metall., 2010, vol. 46 (5), pp. 29–44. 14...

  1. Influence of pH on the Transport of Silver Nanoparticles in Saturated Porous Media: Laboratory Experiments and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    the potential toxic effects of AgNPs (USEPA 2010). Recent in vitro and in vivo studies using various cell lines, algae , zooplankton, fish, rats and... TiO2 in Saturated Porous Media: Effects of pH, Surfactants and Flow Velocity.” Water Research, 45(2), 839-851. He, F., Zhang, M., Qian, T., and Zhao...of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), the largest and fastest growing category of nanomaterials, and their potential for toxic effects to both humans

  2. Porous and Phase Change Nanomaterials For Photonic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-28

    Y. Han , M. S. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets. Athermal silicon-on-insulator ring resonators by overlaying a polymer cladding on narrowed waveguides...integrated photonics. Advanced Materials, 22(23):2561, 2010. [152] T. Sondergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. H. Han , K...726, 2011. [181] N. N. Feng, D. Z. Feng, S. R. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C. C. Kung , W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V

  3. Identifying Core Herbal Treatments for Children with Asthma: Implication from a Chinese Herbal Medicine Database in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Yu Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most common allergic respiratory diseases around the world and places great burden on medical payment. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM is commonly used for Taiwanese children to control diseases. The aim of this study is to analyze the CHM prescriptions for asthmatic children by using a nationwide clinical database. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD was used to perform this study. Medical records from 1997 to 2009 with diagnosis with asthma made for children aged 6 to 18 were included into the analysis. Association rule mining and social network analysis were used to analyze the prevalence of single CHM and its combinations. Ma-Xing-Gan-Shi-Tang (MXGST was the most commonly used herbal formula (HF (20.2% of all prescriptions, followed by Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang (13.1% and Xing-Su-San (12.8%. Zhe Bei Mu is the most frequently used single herb (SH (14.6%, followed by Xing Ren (10.7%. MXGST was commonly used with Zhe Bei Mu (3.5% and other single herbs capable of dispelling phlegm. Besides, MXGST was the core formula to relieve asthma. Further studies about efficacy and drug safety are needed for the CHM commonly used for asthma based on the result of this study.

  4. Identifying core herbal treatments for children with asthma: implication from a chinese herbal medicine database in taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Thien, Peck-Foong; Chang, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Yu-Chun; Lo, Su-Shun; Yang, Sien-Hung; Chen, Jiun-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common allergic respiratory diseases around the world and places great burden on medical payment. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is commonly used for Taiwanese children to control diseases. The aim of this study is to analyze the CHM prescriptions for asthmatic children by using a nationwide clinical database. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was used to perform this study. Medical records from 1997 to 2009 with diagnosis with asthma made for children aged 6 to 18 were included into the analysis. Association rule mining and social network analysis were used to analyze the prevalence of single CHM and its combinations. Ma-Xing-Gan-Shi-Tang (MXGST) was the most commonly used herbal formula (HF) (20.2% of all prescriptions), followed by Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang (13.1%) and Xing-Su-San (12.8%). Zhe Bei Mu is the most frequently used single herb (SH) (14.6%), followed by Xing Ren (10.7%). MXGST was commonly used with Zhe Bei Mu (3.5%) and other single herbs capable of dispelling phlegm. Besides, MXGST was the core formula to relieve asthma. Further studies about efficacy and drug safety are needed for the CHM commonly used for asthma based on the result of this study.

  5. Thermochronometrically constrained anatomy and evolution of a Miocene extensional accommodation zone and tilt domain boundary: The southern Wassuk Range, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorynski, Kyle E.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Douglas Walker, J.

    2013-06-01

    (AHe) and Zircon (ZHe) (U-Th)/He thermochronometric data from the southern Wassuk Range (WR) coupled with 40Ar/39Ar age data from the overlying tilted Tertiary section are used to constrain the thermal evolution of an extensional accommodation zone and tilt-domain boundary. AHe and ZHe data record two episodes of rapid cooling related to the tectonic exhumation of the WR fault block beginning at ~15 and ~4 Ma. Extension was accommodated through fault-block rotation and variably tilted the southern WR to the west from ~60°-70° in the central WR to ~15°-35° in the southernmost WR and Pine Grove Hills, and minimal tilting in the Anchorite Hills and along the Mina Deflection to the south. Middle Miocene geothermal gradient estimates record heating immediately prior to large-magnitude extension that was likely coeval with the extrusion of the Lincoln Flat andesite at ~14.8 Ma. Geothermal gradients increase from ~19° ± 4°C/km to ≥ 65° ± 20°C/km toward the Mina Deflection, suggesting that it was the focus of Middle Miocene arc magmatism in the upper crust. The decreasing thickness of tilt blocks toward the south resulted from a shallowing brittle/ductile transition zone. Postmagmatic Middle Miocene extension and fault-block advection were focused in the northern and central WR and coincidentally moderated the large lateral thermal gradient within the uppermost crust.

  6. Improving treatment outcome assessment in a mouse tuberculosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourik, Bas C; Svensson, Robin J; de Knegt, Gerjo J; Bax, Hannelore I; Verbon, Annelies; Simonsson, Ulrika S H; de Steenwinkel, Jurriaan E M

    2018-04-09

    Preclinical treatment outcome evaluation of tuberculosis (TB) occurs primarily in mice. Current designs compare relapse rates of different regimens at selected time points, but lack information about the correlation between treatment length and treatment outcome, which is required to efficiently estimate a regimens' treatment-shortening potential. Therefore we developed a new approach. BALB/c mice were infected with a Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype strain and were treated with rifapentine-pyrazinamide-isoniazid-ethambutol (R p ZHE), rifampicin-pyrazinamide-moxifloxacin-ethambutol (RZME) or rifampicin-pyrazinamide-moxifloxacin-isoniazid (RZMH). Treatment outcome was assessed in n = 3 mice after 9 different treatment lengths between 2-6 months. Next, we created a mathematical model that best fitted the observational data and used this for inter-regimen comparison. The observed data were best described by a sigmoidal E max model in favor over linear or conventional E max models. Estimating regimen-specific parameters showed significantly higher curative potentials for RZME and R p ZHE compared to RZMH. In conclusion, we provide a new design for treatment outcome evaluation in a mouse TB model, which (i) provides accurate tools for assessment of the relationship between treatment length and predicted cure, (ii) allows for efficient comparison between regimens and (iii) adheres to the reduction and refinement principles of laboratory animal use.

  7. Gnomon shadow lengths recorded in the Zhoubi Suanjing: the earliest meridian observations in China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yong; Sun Xiaochun

    2009-01-01

    The Zhoubi Suanjing, one of the most important ancient Chinese books on mathematical astronomy, was compiled about 100 BC in the Western Han dynasty (BC 206 - AD 23). We study the gnomon shadow lengths for the 24 solar terms as recorded in the book. Special attention is paid to the so-called law of 'cun qian li', which says the shadow length of a gnomon of 8 chi (about 1.96 m) high will increase (or decrease) 1 cun (1/10 chi) for every 1000 li (roughly 400 km) the gnomon moves northward (or southward). From these data, one can derive the time and location of the observations. The results, however, do not fit historical facts. We suggest that compilers of the Zhoubi Suanjing must have modified the original data according to the law of 'cun qian li'. Through reversing the situation, we recovered the original data, our analysis of which reveals the best possible observation time as 564 BC and the location of observation as 35.78 deg. N latitude. We conclude that this must be the earliest records of solar meridian observations in China. In the meantime, we give the errors of solar altitudes for the 24 solar terms. The average deviation is 5.22 deg., and the mean absolute deviation is 5.52 deg., signifying the accuracy of astronomical calculations from that time.

  8. 15th International Conference on Man–Machine–Environment System Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, Balbir

    2015-01-01

    This research topic was first established in China by Professor ShengZhao Long in 1981, with direct support from one of the greatest modern Chinese scientists, XueSen Qian. In a letter to ShengZhao Long from October 22nd, 1993, XueSen Qian wrote: “You have created a very important modern science subject and technology in China!” MMESE primarily focuses on the relationship between Man, Machine and Environment, studying the optimum combination of man-machine-environment systems. In this system, “Man” refers to working people as the subject in the workplace (e.g. operators, decision-makers); “Machine” is the general name for any object controlled by Man (including tools, machinery, computers, systems and technologies), and “Environment” describes the specific working conditions under which Man and Machine interact (e.g. temperature, noise, vibration, hazardous gases etc.). The three goals of optimization are to ensure safety, efficiency and economy. These proceedings are an academic showcase of t...

  9. 13th International Conference on Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, Balbir

    2014-01-01

    The integrated and advanced science research topic Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering (MMESE) was first established in China by Professor Shengzhao Long in 1981, with direct support from one of the greatest modern Chinese scientists, Xuesen Qian. In a letter to Shengzhao Long from October 22nd, 1993, Xuesen Qian wrote: “You have created a very important modern science and technology in China!”   MMESE primarily focuses on the relationship between man, machines and the environment, studying the optimum combination of man-machine-environment systems. In this system, “man” refers to people in the workplace (e.g. operators, decision-makers); “ machine” is the general name for any object controlled by man (including tools, machinery, computers, systems and technologies), and “environment” describes the specific working conditions under which man and machine interact (e.g. temperature, noise, vibration, hazardous gases etc.). The three goals of optimization of Man-Machine-Environment system...

  10. 16th International Conference on Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, Balbir

    2016-01-01

    This research topic was first established in China by Professor Shengzhao Long in 1981, with direct support from one of the greatest modern Chinese scientists, Xuesen Qian. In a letter to Shengzhao Long from October 22nd, 1993, Xuesen Qian wrote: “You have created a very important modern science subject and technology in China!” MMESE primarily focuses on the relationship between Man, Machine and Environment, studying the optimum combination of man-machine-environment systems. In this system, “Man” refers to working people as the subject in the workplace (e.g. operators, decision-makers); “Machine” is the general name for any object controlled by Man (including tools, machinery, computers, systems and technologies), and “Environment” describes the specific working conditions under which Man and Machine interact (e.g. temperature, noise, vibration, hazardous gases etc.). The three goals of optimization are to ensure "Safety, High efficiency and Economy" of man-machine-environment systems. These...

  11. 14th International Conference on Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, Balbir

    2015-01-01

    The integrated and advanced science research topic man-machine-environment system engineering (MMESE) was first established in China by Professor Shengzhao Long in 1981, with direct support from one of the greatest modern Chinese scientists, Xuesen Qian. In a letter to Shengzhao Long from October 22nd, 1993, Xuesen Qian wrote: “You have created a very important modern science and technology in China!”   MMESE primarily focuses on the relationship between man, machines and the environment, studying the optimum combination of man-machine-environment systems. In this system, “man” refers to people in the workplace (e.g. operators, decision-makers); “ machine” is the general name for any object controlled by man (including tools, machinery, computers, systems and technologies), and “environment” describes the specific working conditions under which man and machine interact (e.g. temperature, noise, vibration, hazardous gases etc.). The three goals of optimization of man-machine-environment system...

  12. Molecular cloning, polymorphisms, and expression analysis of the RERG gene in indigenous Chinese goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, M X; Wang, H H; Wang, Z W

    2015-11-24

    The current study aimed to investigate the coding sequence, polymorphisms, and expression of the RERG gene in indigenous Chinese goats. cDNA of RERG, obtained through reverse transcription PCR was analyzed using bioinformatic techniques. Polymorphisms in the exon regions of the RERG gene were identified and their associations with growth traits in three varieties of indigenous Chinese goats were investigated. Expression of the RERG gene in three goat breeds of the same age was detected using real-time quantitative PCR. The results revealed that the cDNA of RERG, which contained a complete open reading frame of 20-620 bp, was 629 bp in length. The associated accession numbers in GenBank are JN672576, JQ917222, and JN580309 for the QianBei Ma goat, the GuiZhou white goat, and the GuiZhou black goat, respectively. Four consistent SNP sites were found in the exon regions of the RERG gene for the three goat breeds. mRNA expression of the RERG gene differed between different tissues in adult goats of same age. The highest expression was observed in lung and spleen tissues, while the lowest expression was recorded in thymus gland tissue. In addition, the expression of the RERG gene in the muscle of Guizhou white goat, GuiZhou black goat, and QianBei Ma goat decreased sequentially. Our results lay the foundations for further investigation into the role of the RERG gene in goat growth traits.

  13. Medical irradiation technique saves lives of victims of Lima inferno

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nearly 400 people died when fire swept through a crowded market place in the old centre of Lima, Peru, as the city readied for New Year's Eve, 2001. Yet the lives of more than 60 severely burned people were saved because Peru belongs to a programme, initiated and supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), that permits developing countries to maintain their own tissue banks. 'Tissue grafts are routine treatment in developed countries, said Qian Jihui, Deputy Director General and head of the IAEA Department of Technical Cooperation. 'This programme is saving lives and improving significantly the quality of lives for patients in developing countries.' More than 1600 radiation sterilized tissue packs were provided by Peru's atomic energy institute to eight Lima hospitals and clinics, where nurses and doctors battled to help the fire victims, many of them poor market traders. Peru and six other countries in the IAEA Latin America programme offer patients irradiated sterile human skin and bone from 37 tissue banks for transplant use. IAEA support of tissue banking began in 1983, since when the agency has contributed US $5,313,335 to the programme, resulting in the establishment of 66 tissue banks in the Asia Pacific region, seven in Africa, while the number is growing. Tissue grafts increase the odds for burn patients' survival by reducing the risk of infection. They are also used to treat victims of leprosy. A bone transplant can save a limb. The IAEA has helped develop a system - used in 28 countries - that disinfects tissue grafts in the final package with ionising radiation without damaging them, dramatically lowering the risk of contamination. Now medical authorities in the United States are considering adoption of similar irradiation techniques, following a number of cases of contamination of medical tissue used for transplant. The issue will be among items to be discussed in Vienna, December 2-4, at IAEA headquarters, at a meeting of

  14. Early myocardial damage assessment in dystrophinopathies using 99Tcm-MIBI gated myocardial perfusion imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Li Zhang,1,* Zhe Liu,2,* Ke-You Hu,3 Qing-Bao Tian,3 Ling-Ge Wei,4 Zhe Zhao,5 Hong-Rui Shen,5 Jing Hu5 1Department of Cardiovascular Disorders, 2Department of Geriatrics, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 3The Public Health Department, Hebei Medical University, 4Department of Nuclear Medicine, 5Department of Neuromuscular Disorders, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of China *Li Zhang and Zhe Liu are first coauthors of this paper Background: Early detection of muscular dystrophy (MD-associated cardiomyopathy is important because early medical treatment may slow cardiac remodeling and attenuate symptoms of cardiac dysfunction; however, no sensitive and standard diagnostic method for MD at an earlier stage has been well-recognized. Thus, the aim of this study was to test the early diagnostic value of technetium 99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99Tcm-MIBI gated myocardial perfusion imaging (G-MPI for MD.Methods and results: Ninety-one patients underwent 99Tcm-MIBI G-MPI examinations when they were diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD (n=77 or Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD; n=14. 99Tcm-MIBI G-MPI examinations were repeated in 43 DMD patients who received steroid treatments for 2 years as a follow-up examination. Myocardial defects were observed in nearly every segment of the left ventricular wall in both DMD and BMD patients compared with controls, especially in the inferior walls and the apices by using 99Tcm-MIBI G-MPI. Cardiac wall movement impairment significantly correlated with age in the DMD and BMD groups (rs=0.534 [P<0.05] and rs=0.784 [P<0.05], respectively. Intermittent intravenous doses of glucocorticoids and continuation with oral steroid treatments significantly improved myocardial function in DMD patients (P<0.05, but not in BMD patients.Conclusion: 99Tcm-MIBI G-MPI is a sensitive and safe approach for early evaluation of cardiomyopathy in patients with DMD or BMD

  15. Effect of the Ionosphere on Radiowave Systems (Based on Ionospheric Effects Symposium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-30

    expressed as + 2 K(i) 7 e V 3 where the + and - signs correspond to the polarization of the ordinary (0) and extra -ordinary (X) mode, and we is Zhe plasma...and 0 represent the extra - ordinary and ordinary modes of propagation. k 20 - "t t I t ? .& I % • I " r"V0N,/, I V, / ’ :• O •’ •~~ .. . 4’~"r’t...Luhmann, W.A. Kolasinski, and J.B. Blake, J. Ceophys. Res., 83, 5573, 1978. Renda , G. and J. Lowrence, JPL SP43-21, 91, 0975. Rugge, H.R., D.L

  16. Erratum: Erratum to: Realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics and encounter-delayed-choice experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, GuiLu; Qin, Wei; Yang, Zhe; Li, Jun-Lin

    2018-06-01

    The article Realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics and encounter-delayed-choice experiment, written by GuiLu Long, Wei Qin, Zhe Yang, and Jun-Lin Li, was originally published online without open access. After publication in volume 61, issue 3: 030311 the author decided to opt for Open Choice and to make the article an open access publication. Therefore, the copyright of the article has been changed to The Author(s) 2017 and the article is forthwith distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The original article has been corrected.

  17. Cuisine: the concept and its health and nutrition implications--a Hangzhou perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AiZhen, Zhang; YuHong, Wu; MacLennan, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Cuisine is an activity that meets human physical and psychological needs. With the development of civilization, cuisine is an important component of culture and includes the dietary profession. However, each nation or each area has its own characteristic cuisine. There are eight major styles of Chinese cuisine, Hangzhou style is an important part of Zhe style. It was divided into two branches named 'Lake branch' and 'Town branch'. An ideal Chinese dish should satisfy in terms of colour, aroma, taste, shape, texture and sustenance. But nowadays, people pay more attention to other aspects of dishes than sustenance. It is estimated that food and beverages will cost up to 570 billion RMB (about 69 billion US dollars) in China this year. The incidence of chronic diseases also increases year after year. There are 40 million diabetic and 70 million obese persons in China. Hence it is important to make efforts to promote in-depth knowledge of cooking and nutrition.

  18. Thermochronological constraints on the Cambrian to recent geological evolution of the Argentina passive continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollenz, Sebastian; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Rossello, Eduardo A.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Schad, Sabrina; Pereyra, Ricardo E.

    2017-10-01

    Passive continental margins are geo-archives that store information from the interplay of endogenous and exogenous forces related to continental rifting, post-breakup history, and climate changes. The recent South Atlantic passive continental margins (SAPCMs) in Brazil, Namibia, and South Africa are partly high-elevated margins ( 2000 m a.s.l.), and the recent N-S-trending SAPCM in Argentina and Uruguay is of low elevation. In Argentina, an exception in elevation is arising from the higher topography (> 1000 m a.s.l.) of the two NW-SE-trending mountain ranges Sierras Septentrionales and Sierras Australes. Precambrian metamorphic and intrusive rocks, and siliciclastic rocks of Ordovician to Permian age represent the geological evolution of both areas. The Sierras Australes have been deformed and metamorphosed (incipient - greenschist) during the Gondwanides Orogeny. The low-temperature thermochronological (LTT) data (history of the Gondwanides and the Mesozoic and Cenozoic South Atlantic geological evolution. Upper Carboniferous zircon (U-Th/He)-ages (ZHe) indicate the earliest cooling below 180 °C/1 Ma. Most of the ZHe-ages are of Upper Triassic to Jurassic age. The apatite fission-track ages (AFT) of Sierras Septentrionales and the eastern part of Sierras Australes indicate the South Atlantic rifting and, thereafter. AFT-ages of Middle to Upper Triassic on the western side of the Sierras Australes are in contrast, indicating a Triassic exhumation caused by the eastward thrusting along the Sauce Grande wrench. The corresponding t-T models report a complex subsidence and exhumation history with variable rates since the Ordovician. Based on the LTT-data and the numerical modelling we assume that the NW-SE-trending mountain ranges received their geographic NW-SE orientation during the syn- to post-orogenic history of the Gondwanides.

  19. The Exhumation of the Central Lhasa, Tibet: Evidence from the Low-temperature Thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, G.; Xiumian, H.; Sinclair, H. D.; Stuart, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    The modern Tibetan Plateau has an average elevation of 4500 m above the sea level. But its early growth history still remains debate, despite its significance to the global climate system. In common, the early growth of the Tibetan Plateau has been attributed to the India-Asia collision in the early Paleocene. However, the structural reconstruction, Late Cretaceous sedimentation, and petrology studies, imply there would be a paleo-plateau or the high-elevation gain in the Lhasa terrane prior to the India-Asia collision. In order to examine this model, the zircon/apatite U-Th-He (ZHe and AHe) and apatite fission track (AFT) are employed to the mid-Cretaceous granites in Coqen area, central Lhasa. Eight samples from the plateau surface yield ZHe ages ranging from 88 to 54 Ma, while the AHe ages ranging from 70 to 45 Ma. Five samples from the above have been conducted the AFT analysis and yielded AFT ages ranging between 73 and 62 Ma, showing the similar age ranges with the corresponding AHe ages. Single-sample inverse thermal kinetic modeling reveal that these intrusive rocks have undergone the rapid cooling history since 85 Ma, after when, the relatively slow cooling process has been established at 45 Ma. Inverse thermal-kinetic modeling of these data, recorded in the context of the Late Cretaceous rapid cooling history, is best interpreted by the early plateau growth in the central Lhasa. In consideration of the substantial crustal thickening and shortening in the Lhasa terrane during the Cretaceous, this Late Cretaceous-Early Paleogene rapid cooling history reveal that the exhumation of the central Lhasa has initiated before the India-Asia collision. This scenario is consistent with a 30 Ma ( 90-60 Ma) sedimentation hiatus since the Late Cretaceous terrestrial conglomerate deposition in the central Lhasa terrane.

  20. Zhouyi's Influence to the Shape of Characters of Records of the Historian%《周易》对《史记》人物形象塑造的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴章燕

    2012-01-01

    司马迁创作《史记》的思想深受《易》理的影响,《史记》的人物形象塑造是其《易》理思想的具体体现。本文从人物典型化手法、含蓄化手法、互见法、悲剧人物、传奇色彩五个方面展开论述,说明《周易》与《史记》二者之间存在密切关系。%Sima-qian works, Records of the Historian, had been influenced deeply by Zhouyi. The characters' shape in Records of the Historian is specific embodiment of Zhouyi. This paper will discuss relationship between Records of the Historian and Zhouyi from five aspects such as character typical technique, the implicit technique, the apparent method, tragic, and legendary characters.

  1. Between the Living and the Dead: Trauma Medicine and Forensic Medicine in the Mid-Qing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Li

    2015-03-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of forensic medicine on therapeutic medicine through a case study of Qian Xiuchang and Hu Tingguang, two Chinese doctors who specialized in treating traumatic injuries. During the early nineteenth century, both men compiled medical treatises that sought to improve on a scholarly model of "rectifying bones" articulated in 1742 by the Imperially-Compiled Golden Mirror of the Medical Lineage . Both texts also incorporated information from forensic medicine, including official inquest diagrams and checklists promulgated by the Qing government. I show that they drew on these forensic materials to help address two interlinked medical issues: understanding the effects of injury on different parts of the body, and clarifying the location and form of the body's bones. Overall, I suggest that the exchange of ideas between the realm of therapeutic medicine and forensic medicine was an important epistemological strategy that doctors and officials alike employed to improve their knowledge of the material body.

  2. Interactive effects of gallic/ferulic/caffeic acids and anthocyanins on pigment thermal stabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Bing-Jun; Liu, Jian-Hua; Zhao, Shu-Juan; Cai, Jian-Xiong; Jing, Pu

    2017-06-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "The effects of gallic/ferulic/caffeic acids on colour intensification and anthocyanin stability" (Qian et al., 2017) [1]. This paper described preparation and isolation of anthocyanins from purple sweet potatoes (PSP) and the time-course of anthocyanin profiles treated with gallic, ferulic, or caffeic acids at 95 °C. The color appearance of PSPanthocyanins alone, or with gallic, ferulic, or caffeic acids was described after the 15 h of thermal treatment. The high resolution mass spectrographs of PSP anthocyanins were determined using UPLC-ESI-HRMS. The spatial interaction of peonidin 3-O-(2-O-β-D-glucopyranocyl-β-D-glucopyranoide)-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and gallic/ferulic/caffeic acids was illustrated by molecular dynamic simulation.

  3. 26th Conference of Spacecraft TT&C Technology in China

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 26th Conference of Spacecraft TT&C Technology in China collects selected papers from the 26th Conference of Spacecraft TT&C Technology in China held in Nanjing on October 16-19, 2012. The book features state-of-the-art studies on spacecraft TT&C in China with the theme of “Shared and Flexible TT&C Systems”. The selected works can help  promote development of spacecraft TT&C technology towards interconnectivity, resource sharing, flexibility and high efficiency. Researchers and engineers in the field of aerospace engineering and communication engineering can benefit from the book. Rongjun Shen is the Academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering; Weiping Qian is the Director General of Beijing Institute of Tracking and Telecommunications Technology.

  4. [The modern TCM education of Tianjin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J

    2016-11-28

    School education had gradually become the mainstream of medical education at the turn of the Qing Dynasty and Republican period. In Tianjin, there were western medical education, including the Peiyang Medical College, Army Medical College, and Lu's Medical School, whereas, there was no traditional medical school at all. To check this defect, two private TCM medical schools, the Learning School of TCM, and the Tianjin TCM Institution were set up by Chen Zedong and Gu Jinren respectively through persistent endeavor. Meanwhile, correspondence school of TCM were established by Zhang Xichun, Wei Jiaqian, and Ma Leshan. Though more TCM schools were planned, including Tianjin Private School of TCM by Lu Zongren and Qian Boquan, North China Professional TCM School by Zhang Yinqi and other colleagues, TCM Professional School by Zhang Dianju and the Tianjin Private Acu-Moxibustion School by Zhang Lihui, etc. All these did make their contributions to the training of TCM talents in modern times.

  5. Vulnerabilities Classification for Safe Development on Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luis D. M. Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The global sales market is currently led by devices with the Android operating system. In 2015, more than 1 billion smartphones were sold, of which 81.5% were operated by the Android platform. In 2017, it is estimated that 267.78 billion applications will be downloaded from Google Play. According to Qian, 90% of applications are vulnerable, despite the recommendations of rules and standards for the safe software development. This study presents a classification of vulnerabilities, indicating the vulnerability, the safety aspect defined by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - ABNT norm NBR ISO/IEC 27002 which will be violated, which lines of code generate the vulnerability and what should be done to avoid it, and the threat agent used by each of them. This classification allows the identification of possible points of vulnerability, allowing the developer to correct the identified gaps.

  6. ACCORDING TO HWC ON TURKISH WORDS ADOPTED FROM CHINE LANGUAGE / HANYU WAILAICI CIDIAN’a (HWC GÖRE ÇİNCEYE GEÇEN TÜRKÇE KELİMELER ÜZERİNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr. Alimcan İNAYET

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, there exist thousands of loan words in Chinese language. Chinese linguists -Liu Zheng-yan, Gao Ming-kai, Mai Yong-qian and Shi You-wei- have determined ten thousand loan-words (with the different versions of the same word adopted by Chinese from various languages and published them in “A Dictionary of Loan Words and Hybrid Words in Chinese” in 1984. Among the considered words of this dictionary, there are also hundreds of words which were directly and indirectly adopted from Turkish language and Turkic dialects in various eras. Additionally, some of them are still be in use in Chinese language today. In this article, we have listed those Turkish words determined in this dictionary with the necessary explanations attached.

  7. Learning Matlab a problem solving approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gander, Walter

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and stimulating introduction to Matlab, a computer language now widely used for technical computing, is based on an introductory course held at Qian Weichang College, Shanghai University, in the fall of 2014.  Teaching and learning a substantial programming language aren’t always straightforward tasks. Accordingly, this textbook is not meant to cover the whole range of this high-performance technical programming environment, but to motivate first- and second-year undergraduate students in mathematics and computer science to learn Matlab by studying representative problems, developing algorithms and programming them in Matlab. While several topics are taken from the field of scientific computing, the main emphasis is on programming. A wealth of examples are completely discussed and solved, allowing students to learn Matlab by doing: by solving problems, comparing approaches and assessing the proposed solutions.

  8. Issues surrounding end-of-life decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejwani V

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vickram Tejwani,1,* YiFan Wu,1,* Sabrina Serrano,2 Luis Segura,2 Michael Bannon,3 Qi Qian1 1Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, 2Mayo Graduate School, 3Department of Trauma, Critical Care, and General Surgery, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: End-of-life decision-making is a complex process that can be extremely challenging. We describe a 42-year-old woman in an irreversible coma without an advance directive. The case serves to illustrate the complications that can occur in end-of-life decision-making and challenges in resolving difficult futility disputes. We review the role of advance directives in planning end-of-life care, the responsibility and historical performance of patient surrogates, the genesis of futility disputes, and approaches to resolving disputes. Keywords: end-of-life care, advance directive, surrogate, futility dispute, conflict resolution

  9. Self-sustained oscillations of complex genomic regulatory networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Weiming; Huang Xiaodong; Huang Xuhui; Li Pengfei; Xia Qinzhi; Hu Gang

    2010-01-01

    Recently, self-sustained oscillations in complex networks consisting of non-oscillatory nodes have attracted great interest in diverse natural and social fields. Oscillatory genomic regulatory networks are one of the most typical examples of this kind. Given an oscillatory genomic network, it is important to reveal the central structure generating the oscillation. However, if the network consists of large numbers of genes and interactions, the oscillation generator is deeply hidden in the complicated interactions. We apply the dominant phase-advanced driving path method proposed in Qian et al. (2010) to reduce complex genomic regulatory networks to one-dimensional and unidirectionally linked network graphs where negative regulatory loops are explored to play as the central generators of the oscillations, and oscillation propagation pathways in the complex networks are clearly shown by tree branches radiating from the loops. Based on the above understanding we can control oscillations of genomic networks with high efficiency.

  10. Age as a risk factor for acute mountain sickness upon rapid ascent to 3,700 m among young adult Chinese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang XG

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Xu-gang Tang,1 Ji-hang Zhang,1 Jun Qin,1 Xu-bin Gao,1 Qian-ning Li,2 Jie Yu,1 Xiao-han Ding,1 Lan Huang1 1Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, 2Department of Neurology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between age and acute mountain sickness (AMS when subjects are exposed suddenly to high altitude.Methods: A total of 856 young adult men were recruited. Before and after acute altitude exposure, the Athens Insomnia Scale score (AISS was used to evaluate the subjective sleep quality of subjects. AMS was assessed using the Lake Louise scoring system. Heart rate (HR and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 were measured.Results: Results showed that, at 500 m, AISS and insomnia prevalence were higher in older individuals. After acute exposure to altitude, the HR, AISS, and insomnia prevalence increased sharply, and the increase in older individuals was more marked. The opposite trend was observed for SaO2. At 3,700 m, the prevalence of AMS increased with age, as did severe AMS, and AMS symptoms (except gastrointestinal symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age was a risk factor for AMS (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.13, P<0.05, as well as AISS (adjusted OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.28–1.51, P<0.001.Conclusion: The present study is the first to demonstrate that older age is an independent risk factor for AMS upon rapid ascent to high altitude among young adult Chinese men, and pre-existing poor subjective sleep quality may be a contributor to increased AMS prevalence in older subjects. Keywords: acute mountain sickness, age, Athens Insomnia Scale, rapid ascent, sleep

  11. Human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles combined with low-dose irradiation: a new approach to enhance drug targeting in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Lianru Zhang, Rutian Li, Hong Chen, Jia Wei, Hanqing Qian, Shu Su, Jie Shao, Lifeng Wang, Xiaoping Qian, Baorui Liu The Comprehensive Cancer Centre of Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University and Clinical Cancer Institute of Nanjing University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Cell membrane-derived nanoparticles are becoming more attractive because of their ability to mimic many features of their source cells. This study reports on a biomimetic delivery platform based on human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte membranes. In this system, the surface of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles was camouflaged using T-lymphocyte membranes, and local low-dose irradiation (LDI was used as a chemoattractant for nanoparticle targeting. The T-lymphocyte membrane coating was verified using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. This new platform reduced nanoparticle phagocytosis by macrophages to 23.99% (P=0.002. Systemic administration of paclitaxel-loaded T-lymphocyte membrane-coated nanoparticles inhibited the growth of human gastric cancer by 56.68% in Balb/c nude mice. Application of LDI at the tumor site significantly increased the tumor growth inhibition rate to 88.50%, and two mice achieved complete remission. Furthermore, LDI could upregulate the expression of adhesion molecules in tumor vessels, which is important in the process of leukocyte adhesion and might contribute to the localization of T-lymphocyte membrane-encapsulated nanoparticles in tumors. Therefore, this new drug-delivery platform retained both the long circulation time and tumor site accumulation ability of human cytotoxic T lymphocytes, while local LDI could significantly enhance tumor localization. Keywords: cell membrane, drug delivery system, gastric cancer, low-dose irradiation, nanoparticles

  12. Gambogic acid-loaded biomimetic nanoparticles in colorectal cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Z

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Zhen Zhang,1 Hanqing Qian,2 Mi Yang,2 Rutian Li,2 Jing Hu,1 Li Li,1 Lixia Yu,2 Baorui Liu,1,2 Xiaoping Qian1,2 1Comprehensive Cancer Center, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Clinical College of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2Comprehensive Cancer Center, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Clinical Cancer Institute, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China Abstract: Gambogic acid (GA is expected to be a potential new antitumor drug, but its poor aqueous solubility and inevitable side effects limit its clinical application. Despite these inhe­rent defects, various nanocarriers can be used to promote the solubility and tumor targeting of GA, improving antitumor efficiency. In addition, a cell membrane-coated nanoparticle platform that was reported recently, unites the customizability and flexibility of a synthetic copolymer, as well as the functionality and complexity of natural membrane, and is a new synthetic biomimetic nanocarrier with improved stability and biocompatibility. Here, we combined poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA with red blood-cell membrane (RBCm, and evaluated whether GA-loaded RBCm nanoparticles can retain and improve the antitumor efficacy of GA with relatively lower toxicity in colorectal cancer treatment compared with free GA. We also confirmed the stability, biocompatibility, passive targeting, and few side effects of RBCm-GA/PLGA nanoparticles. We expect to provide a new drug carrier in the treatment of colorectal cancer, which has strong clinical application prospects. In addition, the potential antitumor drug GA and other similar drugs could achieve broader clinical applications via this biomimetic nanocarrier. Keywords: gambogic acid, nanocarriers, RBCm-GA/PLGA nanoparticles, colorectal cancer

  13. The compressibility and the capacitance coefficient of helium-oxygen atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, G; Dejours, P; Hildwein, G

    1982-12-01

    The capacitance coefficient beta of an ideal gas mixture depends only on its temperature T, and its value is derived from the ideal gas law (i.e., beta = 1/RT, R being the ideal gas constant). But real gases behave as ideal gases only at low pressures, and this would not be the case in deep diving. High pressures of helium-oxygen are used in human and animal experimental dives (up to 7 or 12 MPa or more, respectively). At such pressures deviations from the ideal gas law cannot be neglected in hyperbaric atmospheres with respect to current accuracy of measuring instruments. As shown both theoretically and experimentally by this study, the non-ideal nature of helium-oxygen has a significant effect on the capacitance coefficient of hyperbaric atmospheres. The theoretical study is based on interaction energy in either homogeneous (He-He and O2-O2) or heterogeneous (He-O2) molecular pairs, and on the virial equation of state for gas mixtures. The experimental study is based on weight determination of samples of known volume of binary helium-oxygen mixtures, which are prepared in well-controlled pressure and temperature conditions. Our experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. 1) The helium compressibility factor ZHe increases linearly with pressure [ZHe = 1 + 0.0045 P (in MPa) at 30 degrees C]; and 2) in same temperature and pressure conditions (T = 303 K and P = 0.1 to 15 MPa), the same value for Z is valid for a helium-oxygen binary mixture and for pure helium. As derived from the equation of state of real gases, the capacitance coefficient is inversely related to Z (beta = 1/ZRT); therefore, for helium-oxygen mixtures, this coefficient would decrease with increasing pressure. A table is given for theoretical values of helium-oxygen capacitance coefficient, at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 15.0 MPa and at temperatures ranging from 25 degrees C to 37 degrees C.

  14. Exhumation History of the North Queensland Segment of Australia's Elevated Passive Margin Escarpment as Revealed by (U-Th)/He Analysis of Apatite and Zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, L. D.; Glass, J.; Flowers, R. M.; Metcalf, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Australia's east coast constitutes an elevated passive continental margin that developed in response to Cretaceous-Paleogene rifting during opening of the Tasman and Coral seas. Typical of elevated passive margins around the world, Australia's east coast consists of a high plateau bounded by an abrupt escarpment, known as the Great Escarpment. We employed the apatite (AHe) and zircon (ZHe) (U-Th)/He low temperature thermochronometers to explore the exhumation history of the North Queensland segment of the Great Escarpment. Our 1500m vertical transect was conducted up the southeast flank of Mount Bartle Frere, which exposes the Bartle Frere pluton of the ca. 280 Ma Bellenden Ker Batholith. A previous apatite fission track (AFT) study determined that an outcrop of the Bartle Frere pluton at Josephine Falls, which constitutes the base of our transect, cooled through 110 °C at 142.3 ±9.9Ma. Our preliminary ZHe analysis of the same outcrop reveals that it passed through 180 °C at ca. 155 Ma. These data point to an episode of relatively rapid exhumation during the latest Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous, which brought the Bartle Frere pluton from approximately 6 km burial depth to 3.5 km depth (assuming a 30 °C/km geothermal gradient). Samples throughout our entire transect yield AHe dates that range between 72Ma and 182Ma, with no apparent elevation-date relationship. These data suggest that the pluton cooled below 65 °C during the Cretaceous, indicating unroofing to less than 2 km depth by that time. The data scatter makes it difficult to resolve the details of this Cretaceous cooling episode. However, the fact that we obtain Cretaceous AHe dates across the entire 1500 m height of the transect suggests that the Great Escarpment in North Queensland has existed at approximately its current location and height since at least the Late Cretaceous. The Cretaceous age for this segment of the Great Escarpment is similar to the age determined by other AHe workers for the

  15. Review and Reflection on the Religious Studies of the Qiang during the Past One Hundred Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Linrong

    2014-01-01

    religious life in the Taoping community of Lixian .In looking at the content , the author did not provide a description of the collective religious activities .Moreover , the book did not mention an-ything about the stability and change of the reli-gious activities after the 1950s, nor did it explain how much or what part of traditional religious fea-tures were still preserved by the Qiang . 4 ) Commercialization of white stone worship The Review of Qiang Religious Studies by Ma Ning and Qian Yongping considers the many tourism companies that hire Qiang shamans to engage in the religious activities in order to attract tourists in the 21st century .Although the income of the shamans increased , their social prestige was reduced .Wang Mingke gives another interpretation on this phenom-enon by using functionalism in his book titled the Qiang between the Han and Tibetan. 5 ) Investigating and sorting out religious scriptures The most prominent research on Qiang reli-gion during this period was made by Qian Anjing from Sichuan University .Based on the foundation built by Hu Jianming , Qian restarted collecting and sorting out the Qiang ’ s primitive religious scriptures and rituals, and, in doing so, he made a lot of contributions in this field .

  16. [Characteristics of non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual transmission of HIV infection in Miao-Dong Autonomous prefecture of Qiandongnan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q Y; Wang, F L; Xu, P; Wen, H J; Xiong, Y X; Yang, J; Long, Y; He, H J; Shi, J; Lyu, P

    2017-11-06

    Objective: The goal of this research was to understand the demographic distribution and related factors of non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual transmission (non-commercial transmission) for HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Methods: Data related to HIV/AIDS infected by non-marital heterosexual transmission and whose present address was in Qian Dongnan, were collected from Information System on the HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control. Information included demographic characteristics, the members of non-marital sex partners, transmission path, detection source, CD4(+)T lymphocyte level, et al. cases belong to homosexual history, injective drug use or non-classified non-marital heterosexuality transmission were excluded, totally collect HIV/AIDS 919 cases. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyze potential factors associated with non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual transmission. In addition, in March and June 2017, using a convenience sampling, we conducted one-to-one interviews among 10 HIV/AIDS who were infected by non-marital heterosexuality and had non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual experience in Kaili Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The content of the interview included basic information, sexual orientation, the main place of making friends and sexual behavior, attitude to commercial heterosexuality and non-martial and non-commercial heterosexuality and so on. Results: Out of the 919 cases, 645 (70.2%) were male, the proportion of non-commercial transmission was 55.06% (506). The proportion of female HIV/AIDS with non-commercial transmission was 84.7% (232), which was higher than male (42.5%(274)) (χ(2)=138.35, Pcommercial transmission was 61.5% (275), which was higher than other religion (52.2%(412)) (χ(2)=6.32, P= 0.012). The proportion of HIV/AIDS with non-commercial transmission who had 0-5 non-marital sexual partners was 58.8% (498), which was higher than who had>5 non

  17. Capsaicin-loaded nanolipoidal carriers for topical application: design, characterization, and in vitro/in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang XR

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Xia-Rong Wang,1 Si-Qian Gao,1 Xiao-Qian Niu,1 Long-Jian Li,2 Xiao-Ying Ying,1 Zhong-Jie Hu,2 Jian-Qing Gao1,3 1Institute of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 2Zhejiang Provincial Corps Hospital of Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces, Jiaxing, Zhejiang, 3Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for New-Type External and Transdermal Preparations, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Capsaicin has been used in clinical applications for the treatment of pain disorders and inflammatory diseases. Given the strong pungency and high oil/water partition coefficient of capsaicin, capsaicin-loaded nanolipoidal carriers (NLCs were designed to increase permeation and achieve the analgesic, anti-inflammatory effect with lower skin irritation. Capsaicin-loaded NLCs were prepared and later optimized by the Box–Behnken design. The physicochemical characterizations, morphology, and encapsulation of the capsaicin-loaded NLCs were subsequently confirmed. Capsaicin-loaded NLCs and capsaicin-loaded NLCs gel exhibited sustained release and no cytotoxicity properties. Also, they could significantly enhance the penetration amount, permeation flux, and skin retention amounts of capsaicin due to the application of NLCs. To study the topical permeation mechanism of capsaicin, 3,3'-dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate (Dio was used as a fluorescent dye. Dio-loaded NLCs and Dio-loaded NLCs gel could effectively deliver Dio up to a skin depth of 260 and 210 µm, respectively, primarily through the appendage route on the basis of version skin sections compared with Dio solution, which only delivered Dio up to 150 µm. In vivo therapeutic experiments demonstrated that capsaicin-loaded NLCs and capsaicin-loaded NLCs gel could improve the pain threshold in a dose-dependent manner and inhibit inflammation, primarily by reducing the prostaglandin E2 levels in the tissue compared with capsaicin cream and capsaicin solution

  18. ASPECTUAL INFLUENCE ON TEMPORAL RELATIONS: A CASE STUDY OF THE EXPERIENTIAL GUO IN MANDARINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Shiung Wu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the temporal relation between a clause containing the experiential guo and an adjacent clause is determined. Mandarin is a language not morphologically marked for tenses (e.g., Lin 2006, and therefore, tenses cannot help in determining temporal relations in Mandarin. However, Mandarin has a rich aspectual system. This paper argues that the experiential guo indirectly influences temporal relations via rhetorical relations by either specifying a default rhetorical relation, or by constraining the circumstances under which a certain rhetorical relation can connect a clause with guo to an adjacent clause. This paper also argues that the default rhetorical relation and the constraints are determined by the aspectual properties of the experiential marker. Other information, such as discourse connectors, lexical information, etc., can override the default rhetorical relation indicated by guo and specifies a rhetorical relation. Therefore, this paper concludes that in Mandarin aspect markers can indirectly affect temporal relations by means of rhetorical relations, a result consistent with Wu’s (2005b paper on the perfective marker le in Mandarin, and Wu’s (2007b, 2004 work on the progressive marker zai and the durative marker zhe.

  19. Fossil Fuel-Derived Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Taiwan Strait, China, and Fluxes across the Air-Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya, Miaolei; Xu, Li; Wu, Yuling; Li, Yongyu; Zhao, Songhe; Wang, Xinhong

    2018-06-14

    On the basis of the application of compound-specific radiocarbon analysis (CSRA) and air-water exchange models, the contributions of fossil fuel and biomass burning derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as their air-water transport were elucidated. The results showed that fossil fuel-derived PAHs (an average contribution of 89%) presented the net volatilization process at the air-water interface of the Taiwan Strait in summer. Net volatile fluxes of the dominant fluorene and phenanthrene (>58% of the total PAHs) were 27 ± 2.8 μg m -2 day -1 , significantly higher than the dry deposition fluxes (average 0.43 μg m -2 day -1 ). The Δ 14 C contents of selected PAHs (fluorene, phenanthrene plus anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene) determined by CSRA in the dissolved seawater ranged from -997 ± 4‰ to -873 ± 6‰, indicating that 89-100% (95 ± 4%) of PAHs were supplied by fossil fuels. The South China Sea warm current originating from the southwest China in summer (98%) and the Min-Zhe coastal current originating from the north China in winter (97%) input more fossil fuel PAHs than the Jiulong River estuary (90%) and Xiamen harbor water (93%). The more radioactive decayed 14 C of fluoranthene (a 4-ring PAH) than that of phenanthrene and anthracene (3-ring PAHs) represented a greater fossil fuel contribution to the former in dissolved seawater.

  20. A comprehensive sediment dynamics study of a major mud belt system on the inner shelf along an energetic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, James T; Hsu, Ray T; Yang, Rick J; Wang, Ya Ping; Wu, Hui; Du, Xiaoqin; Li, Anchun; Chien, Steven C; Lee, Jay; Yang, Shouye; Zhu, Jianrong; Su, Chih-Chieh; Chang, Yi; Huh, Chih-An

    2018-03-09

    Globally mud areas on continental shelves are conduits for the dispersal of fluvial-sourced sediment. We address fundamental issues in sediment dynamics focusing on how mud is retained on the seabed on shallow inner shelves and what are the sources of mud. Through a process-based comprehensive study that integrates dynamics, provenance, and sedimentology, here we show that the key mechanism to keep mud on the seabed is the water-column stratification that forms a dynamic barrier in the vertical that restricts the upward mixing of suspended sediment. We studied the 1000 km-long mud belt that extends from the mouth of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River along the coast of Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces of China and ends on the west coast of Taiwan. This mud belt system is dynamically attached to the fluvial sources, of which the Changjiang River is the primary source. Winter is the constructive phase when active deposition takes place of fine-grained sediment carried mainly by the Changjiang plume driven by Zhe-Min Coastal Currents southwestward along the coast.

  1. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for stimuli-responsive controlled drug delivery: advances, challenges, and outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Y

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yuanhui Song, Yihong Li, Qien Xu, Zhe Liu Wenzhou Institute of Biomaterials and Engineering (WIBE, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: With the development of nanotechnology, the application of nanomaterials in the field of drug delivery has attracted much attention in the past decades. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles as promising drug nanocarriers have become a new area of interest in recent years due to their unique properties and capabilities to efficiently entrap cargo molecules. This review describes the latest advances on the application of mesoporous silica nanoparticles in drug delivery. In particular, we focus on the stimuli-responsive controlled release systems that are able to respond to intracellular environmental changes, such as pH, ATP, GSH, enzyme, glucose, and H2O2. Moreover, drug delivery induced by exogenous stimuli including temperature, light, magnetic field, ultrasound, and electricity is also summarized. These advanced technologies demonstrate current challenges, and provide a bright future for precision diagnosis and treatment. Keywords: mesoporous silica nanoparticle, drug delivery system, controlled release, stimuli-responsive, chemotherapy

  2. Implementation of an object oriented track reconstruction model into multiple LHC experiments*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Irwin; Gonzalez, Saul; Qian, Sijin

    2001-10-01

    An Object Oriented (OO) model (Gaines et al., 1996; 1997; Gaines and Qian, 1998; 1999) for track reconstruction by the Kalman filtering method has been designed for high energy physics experiments at high luminosity hadron colliders. The model has been coded in the C++ programming language and has been successfully implemented into the OO computing environments of both the CMS (1994) and ATLAS (1994) experiments at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. We shall report: how the OO model was adapted, with largely the same code, to different scenarios and serves the different reconstruction aims in different experiments (i.e. the level-2 trigger software for ATLAS and the offline software for CMS); how the OO model has been incorporated into different OO environments with a similar integration structure (demonstrating the ease of re-use of OO program); what are the OO model's performance, including execution time, memory usage, track finding efficiency and ghost rate, etc.; and additional physics performance based on use of the OO tracking model. We shall also mention the experience and lessons learned from the implementation of the OO model into the general OO software framework of the experiments. In summary, our practice shows that the OO technology really makes the software development and the integration issues straightforward and convenient; this may be particularly beneficial for the general non-computer-professional physicists.

  3. Distribution of Total and Organic Mercury in Superficial Soils in the Upper Manzanares River Watershed, Sucre State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahsé Rojas Challa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Total and organic mercury contents were determined from samples of surface soils (0-5 cm, sieved at ≤ 63µm, collected from 10 different locations in the upper Manzanares River watershed, using cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. Methylmercury was determined using a HPLC-UV detector. The mean total mercury concentration was 1.3 μg.g-1, a value permitted by the Canadian environment quality guidelines for farming soils, but high for European standards. Using certified reference materials, we verified that a modification of the method described by Qian et al. (2000 was effective for organic mercury extraction, with a recovery of 92.17% for DORM-2 and 92.11% for TORT-2. This modified method was applied to soil samples, obtaining concentrations of 0.5-1.0 μg.g-1 of organic mercury. The parameters for determining methylmercury using HPLC-UV were optimized; the best results were obtained with a 4.6 mm x 25 cm Zorbax CN column, with a mobile phase of 70/30 V/V of methanol: ammonium acetate 0.05 mol.l-1, with a flow rate of 0.5 ml.min-1; the methylmercury was detected at 4.99 min retention time. Methylmercury was not found in the soil samples. Using the certified reference material we proved that the method used produced reliable results. The analysis confirmed the existence of mercury in this farming area.

  4. Seroprevalence of Measles Antibodies and Predictors for Seropositivity among Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Ma, Mei; Hui, Zhaozhao; Terry, Paul D; Zhang, Yue; Su, Rui; Wang, Mingxu; Gu, Wei; Li, Ling

    2017-06-06

    Background : Supplementary measles immunization has been implemented since 2010 throughout China, yet few studies have reported its effect in the northwest regions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among children aged 2 to 4 years old ( n = 755) from February to September 2014 in 25 towns of Qian County, Shaanxi Province. Blood samples were analyzed for measles antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent immunoglobulin G (IgG) assays. Socio-demographic factors were assessed by questionnaire. Data on vaccine dose were collected from town medical records. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with measles antibody seropositivity. Results : Measles antibody seroprevalence was 91.13% (95% CI: 89.52-92.83) in our sample. Compared with children whose mother's highest education was primary school, seroprevalence was higher in children whose maternal education was middle school (adjusted OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 0.7-2.8), high school (adjusted OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3-7.7), and college/university (adjusted OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.2-9.3). Vaccine dose was positively associated with seropositivity. Conclusions : Measles seroprevalence is high in China and is associated with the mother's education and vaccine dose.

  5. Lung cancer with concurrent EGFR mutation and ROS1 rearrangement: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu YC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available You-cai Zhu,1,2,* Chun-wei Xu,3,* Xiao-qian Ye,4 Man-xiang Yin,4 Jin-xian Zhang,2 Kai-qi Du,2 Zhi-hao Zhang,2 Jian Hu1 1Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 2Department of Thoracic Surgery, Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Zhejiang Corps Hospital, Jiaxing, Zhejiang, 3Department of Pathology, Affiliated Hospital of Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing, 4Department of Pathology, Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Zhejiang Corps Hospital, Jiaxing, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: ROS1 rearrangement has recently emerged as a new molecular subtype in non-small cell lung cancer, and is predominantly found in lung adenocarcinomas compared with other oncogenes such as EGFR, KRAS, or ALK. Patients who have both mutations are extremely rare. Here we report a 50-year-old female diagnosed with adenocarcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation, who was shown to have EGFR and ROS1 mutations. The patient was treated surgically and received three cycles of adjuvant postoperative chemotherapy. In addition, we reviewed the previously reported cases and related literature. This presentation will provide further understanding of the underlying molecular biology and optimal treatment for non-small cell lung cancer patients with more than one driver mutation. Keywords: non-small cell lung cancer, EGFR gene mutation, ROS1 fusion gene

  6. CERN honours its guides

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    At the end of January, CERN's guides were rewarded for their devotion to the Laboratory. They have a passion for their work, know CERN inside-out and for 40 years have shown people of all ages and nationalities, from all walks of life, around the Laboratory. Who are they? Why, the CERN guides, of course. On 27 January, ten of CERN's 180 guides received special honours for their impressive number of guided tours in 2003. Presenting the awards in the Microcosm hall, CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar congratulated the winners on the key role they play with respect to the general public. "CERN would be nothing without you who show them its activities," he stressed. CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar congratulates Alberto Ribon for his tally of over 40 visits in the course of 2003.One of the prizes was the book «The Particle Odyssey». Here the book's co-author Christine Sutton dedicates it for Sijin Qian. Tzanko Spassoff (PH) and retired staff members Klaus Batzner and Antonio Francano wo...

  7. Environmental impact analysis of mine tailing reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Under certain conditions landscape topography which utilizes mine tailing reservoir construction using is likely to increase lateral recharge source regions, resulting in dramatic changes to the local hydrological dynamic field and recharge of downstream areas initiated by runoff, excretion state, elevated groundwater depth, shallow groundwater, rainfall direct communication, and thinning of the vadose zone. Corrosive leaching of topsoil over many years of exposure to chemical fertilizers and pesticides may result in their dissolution into the groundwater system, which may lead to excessive amounts of many harmful chemicals, therby affecting the physical and mental health of human residents and increase environmental vulnerability and risk associated with the water and soil. According to field survey data from Yujiakan, Qian'an City, and Hebei provinces, this paper analyzes the hydrogeological environmental mechanisms of areas adjacent to mine tailing reservoirs and establishes a conceptual model of the local groundwater system and the concentration-response function between NO3 - content in groundwater and the incidence of cancer in local residents.

  8. Radiation effects on the immiscible polymer blend of nylon1010 and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) I: Gel/dose curves, mathematical expectation theorem and thermal behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, W.; Zhang, W.; Chen, G.; Liu, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies the radiation properties of the immiscible blend of nylon1010 and HIPS. The gel fraction increased with increasing radiation dose. The network was found mostly in nylon1010, the networks were also found in both nylon1010 and HIPS when the dose reaches 0.85 MGy or more. We used the equation and the modified Zhang-Sun-Qian equation to simulate the relationship with the dose and the sol fraction. The latter equation fits well with these polymer blends and the relationship used by it showed better linearity than the one by the equation. We also studied the conditions of formation of the network by the mathematical expectation theorem for the binary system. Thermal properties of polymer blend were observed by DSC curves. The crystallization temperature decreases with increasing dose because the cross-linking reaction inhibited the crystallization procession and destroyed the crystals. The melting temperature also reduced with increasing radiation dose. The dual melting peak gradually shifted to single peak and the high melting peak disappeared at high radiation dose. However, the radiation-induced crystallization was observed by the heat of fusion increasing at low radiation dose. On the other hand, the crystal will be damaged by radiation. A similar conclusion may be drawn by the DSC traces when the polymer blends were crystallized. When the radiation dose increases, the heat of fusion reduces dramatically and so does the heat of crystallization. (author)

  9. Spectral Envelopes and Additive + Residual Analysis/Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodet, Xavier; Schwarz, Diemo

    The subject of this chapter is the estimation, representation, modification, and use of spectral envelopes in the context of sinusoidal-additive-plus-residual analysis/synthesis. A spectral envelope is an amplitude-vs-frequency function, which may be obtained from the envelope of a short-time spectrum (Rodet et al., 1987; Schwarz, 1998). [Precise definitions of such an envelope and short-time spectrum (STS) are given in Section 2.] The additive-plus-residual analysis/synthesis method is based on a representation of signals in terms of a sum of time-varying sinusoids and of a non-sinusoidal residual signal [e.g., see Serra (1989), Laroche et al. (1993), McAulay and Quatieri (1995), and Ding and Qian (1997)]. Many musical sound signals may be described as a combination of a nearly periodic waveform and colored noise. The nearly periodic part of the signal can be viewed as a sum of sinusoidal components, called partials, with time-varying frequency and amplitude. Such sinusoidal components are easily observed on a spectral analysis display (Fig. 5.1) as obtained, for instance, from a discrete Fourier transform.

  10. Laser Theory for Optomechanics: Limit Cycles in the Quantum Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Lörch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optomechanical systems can exhibit self-sustained limit cycles where the quantum state of the mechanical resonator possesses nonclassical characteristics such as a strongly negative Wigner density, as was shown recently in a numerical study by Qian et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 253601 (2012]. Here, we derive a Fokker-Planck equation describing mechanical limit cycles in the quantum regime that correctly reproduces the numerically observed nonclassical features. The derivation starts from the standard optomechanical master equation and is based on techniques borrowed from the laser theory due to Haake and Lewenstein. We compare our analytical model with numerical solutions of the master equation based on Monte Carlo simulations and find very good agreement over a wide and so far unexplored regime of system parameters. As one main conclusion, we predict negative Wigner functions to be observable even for surprisingly classical parameters, i.e., outside the single-photon strong-coupling regime, for strong cavity drive and rather large limit-cycle amplitudes. The approach taken here provides a natural starting point for further studies of quantum effects in optomechanics.

  11. Stepwise encapsulation and controlled two-stage release system for cis-Diamminediiodoplatinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Y

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Yun Chen,1,* Qian Li,1,2,* Qingsheng Wu1 1Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai; 2Shanghai Institute of Quality Inspection and Technical Research, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: cis-Diamminediiodoplatinum (cis-DIDP is a cisplatin-like anticancer drug with higher anticancer activity, but lower stability and price than cisplatin. In this study, a cis-DIDP carrier system based on micro-sized stearic acid was prepared by an emulsion solvent evaporation method. The maximum drug loading capacity of cis-DIDP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was 22.03%, and their encapsulation efficiency was 97.24%. In vitro drug release in phosphate-buffered saline (pH =7.4 at 37.5°C exhibited a unique two-stage process, which could prove beneficial for patients with tumors and malignancies. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay results showed that cis-DIDP released from cis-DIDP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles had better inhibition activity than cis-DIDP that had not been loaded. Keywords: stearic acid, emulsion solvent evaporation method, drug delivery, cis-DIDP, in vitro

  12. Targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for tumor imaging and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Hong Peng

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Xiang-Hong Peng1,4, Ximei Qian2,4, Hui Mao3,4, Andrew Y Wang5, Zhuo (Georgia Chen1,4, Shuming Nie2,4, Dong M Shin1,4*1Department of Medical Oncology/Hematology; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering; 3Department of Radiology; 4Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 5Ocean Nanotech, LLC, Fayetteville, AR, USAAbstract: Magnetic iron oxide (IO nanoparticles with a long blood retention time, biodegradability and low toxicity have emerged as one of the primary nanomaterials for biomedical applications in vitro and in vivo. IO nanoparticles have a large surface area and can be engineered to provide a large number of functional groups for cross-linking to tumor-targeting ligands such as monoclonal antibodies, peptides, or small molecules for diagnostic imaging or delivery of therapeutic agents. IO nanoparticles possess unique paramagnetic properties, which generate significant susceptibility effects resulting in strong T2 and T*2 contrast, as well as T1 effects at very low concentrations for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which is widely used for clinical oncology imaging. We review recent advances in the development of targeted IO nanoparticles for tumor imaging and therapy.Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles, tumor imaging, MRI, therapy

  13. Diversity and distribution of eukaryotic microbes in and around a brine pool adjacent to the Thuwal cold seeps in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong

    2014-02-04

    A hypoxic/suboxic brine pool at a depth of about 850 m was discovered near the Thuwal cold seeps in the Red Sea. Filled with high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and ammonia, such a brine pool might limit the spread of eukaryotic organisms. Here, we compared the communities of the eukaryotic microbes in a microbial mat, sediments and water samples distributed in 7 sites within and adjacent to the brine pool. Taxonomic classification of the pyrosequenced 18S rRNA amplicon reads showed that fungi highly similar to the species identified along the Arabic coast were almost ubiquitous in the water and sediment samples, supporting their wide distribution in various environments. The microbial mat displayed the highest species diversity and contained grazers and a considerable percentage of unclassified species. Phylogeny-based methods revealed novel lineages representing a majority of the reads from the interface between the sea water and brine pool. Phylogenetic relationships with more reference sequences suggest that the lineages were affiliated with novel Alveolata and Euglenozoa inhabiting the interface where chemosynthetic prokaryotes are highly proliferative due to the strong chemocline and halocline. The brine sediments harbored abundant species highly similar to invertebrate gregarine parasites identified in different oxygen-depleted sediments. Therefore, the present findings support the uniqueness of some microbial eukaryotic groups in this cold seep brine system. 2014 Wang, Zhang, Cao, Shek, Tian, Wong, Batang, Al-suwailem and Qian.

  14. Orbital Period Variations in the NY Vir System, Revisited in the Light of New Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baştürk Özgür

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available NY Virginis is an eclipsing binary system with a subdwarf B primary and an M type dwarf secondary. Recent studies (Qian et al. 2012; Lee et al. 2014 suggested the presence of two circumbinary planets with a few Jovian masses within the system. Lee et al. (2014 examined the orbital stabilities of the suggested planets, using the best-fit parameters derived from their eclipse timing variation analysis. They found that the outer companion should be ejected from the system in about 800 000 years. An observational report from Pulley et al. (2016 pointed out that the recent mideclipse times of the binary deviate significantly from the models suggested by Lee et al. (2014. In fact, variations in the orbital period of the system had already been recognized by many authors, but the parameters of these variations vary significantly as new data accumulate. Here, we analyze the eclipse timing variations of the NY Vir system, using new mid-eclipse times that we have obtained together with earlier published measurements in order to understand the nature of the system and constrain its parameters.

  15. Boosting ATM activity alleviates aging and extends lifespan in a mouse model of progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Minxian; Liu, Zuojun; Peng, Linyuan; Tang, Xiaolong; Meng, Fanbiao; Ao, Ying; Zhou, Mingyan; Wang, Ming; Cao, Xinyue; Qin, Baoming; Wang, Zimei; Zhou, Zhongjun; Wang, Guangming; Gao, Zhengliang; Xu, Jun; Liu, Baohua

    2018-05-02

    DNA damage accumulates with age (Lombard et al., 2005). However, whether and how robust DNA repair machinery promotes longevity is elusive. Here, we demonstrate that ATM-centered DNA damage response (DDR) progressively declines with senescence and age, while low dose of chloroquine (CQ) activates ATM, promotes DNA damage clearance, rescues age-related metabolic shift, and prolongs replicative lifespan. Molecularly, ATM phosphorylates SIRT6 deacetylase and thus prevents MDM2-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Extra copies of Sirt6 extend lifespan in Atm-/- mice, with restored metabolic homeostasis. Moreover, the treatment with CQ remarkably extends lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans , but not the ATM-1 mutants. In a progeria mouse model with low DNA repair capacity, long-term administration of CQ ameliorates premature aging features and extends lifespan. Thus, our data highlights a pro-longevity role of ATM, for the first time establishing direct causal links between robust DNA repair machinery and longevity, and providing therapeutic strategy for progeria and age-related metabolic diseases. © 2018, Qian et al.

  16. A hybrid parallel architecture for electrostatic interactions in the simulation of dissipative particle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Chun; Lu, Zhong-Yuan; Qian, Hu-Jun; Wang, Yong-Lei; Han, Jie-Ping

    2017-11-01

    , which approximately take up most of the total simulation time. Although the parallel method CU-ENUF (Yang et al., 2016) based on GPU has achieved a qualitative leap compared with previous methods in electrostatic interactions computation, the computation capability is limited to the throughput capacity of a single GPU for super-scale simulation system. Therefore, we should look for an effective method to handle the calculation of electrostatic interactions efficiently for a simulation system with super-scale size. Solution method: We constructed a hybrid parallel architecture, in which CPU and GPU are combined to accelerate the electrostatic computation effectively. Firstly, the simulation system is divided into many subtasks via domain-decomposition method. Then MPI (Message Passing Interface) is used to implement the CPU-parallel computation with each computer node corresponding to a particular subtask, and furthermore each subtask in one computer node will be executed in GPU in parallel efficiently. In this hybrid parallel method, the most critical technical problem is how to parallelize a CUNFFT (nonequispaced fast Fourier transform based on CUDA) in the parallel strategy, which is conquered effectively by deep-seated research of basic principles and some algorithm skills. Restrictions: The HP-ENUF is mainly oriented to super-scale system simulations, in which the performance superiority is shown adequately. However, for a small simulation system containing less than 106 particles, the mode of multiple computer nodes has no apparent efficiency advantage or even lower efficiency due to the serious network delay among computer nodes, than the mode of single computer node. References: (1) S.-C. Yang, H.-J. Qian, Z.-Y. Lu, Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acha.2016.04.009. (2) S.-C. Yang, Y.-L. Wang, G.-S. Jiao, H.-J. Qian, Z.-Y. Lu, J. Comput. Chem. 37 (2016) 378. (3) S.-C. Yang, Y.-L. Zhu, H.-J. Qian, Z.-Y. Lu, Appl. Chem. Res. Chin. Univ

  17. Adenocarcinoma of the lung with EGFR gene mutation and subsequent resistance mechanisms exploration: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu L

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Li Xu,1,2 Qian Z Wang,1,2 Lin Wu1,2 1Department of the Second Chest Medicine, Hunan Cancer Hospital, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of the Second Chest Medicine, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The treatment of lung cancer has made paradigm-shift advancements in the past decade with the development of therapies directed at specific genetic alterations, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. Here, we present a rare case of lung adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR activating mutation and ALK overexpression. During the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors treatment, next-generation sequencing revealed phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway amplifications in tumor specimen and subsequent T790M mutation via plasma circulating tumor DNA. In conclusion, this case illustrates the existence of concomitant resistance mechanisms and demonstrates that circulating tumor DNA can reflect tumor heterogeneity. Keywords: epidermal growth factor receptor, PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, T790M, next-generation sequencing, circulating tumor DNA

  18. Seroprevalence of Measles Antibodies and Predictors for Seropositivity among Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supplementary measles immunization has been implemented since 2010 throughout China, yet few studies have reported its effect in the northwest regions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among children aged 2 to 4 years old (n = 755 from February to September 2014 in 25 towns of Qian County, Shaanxi Province. Blood samples were analyzed for measles antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent immunoglobulin G (IgG assays. Socio-demographic factors were assessed by questionnaire. Data on vaccine dose were collected from town medical records. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with measles antibody seropositivity. Results: Measles antibody seroprevalence was 91.13% (95% CI: 89.52–92.83 in our sample. Compared with children whose mother’s highest education was primary school, seroprevalence was higher in children whose maternal education was middle school (adjusted OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 0.7–2.8, high school (adjusted OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3–7.7, and college/university (adjusted OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.2–9.3. Vaccine dose was positively associated with seropositivity. Conclusions: Measles seroprevalence is high in China and is associated with the mother’s education and vaccine dose.

  19. Indirubin inhibits cell proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis in tumor-derived endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Z

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhuohong Li, Chaofu Zhu, Baiping An, Yu Chen, Xiuyun He, Lin Qian, Lan Lan, Shijie Li Department of Oncology, The Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan, China Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most predominant malignancies with high fatality rate and its incidence is rising at an alarming rate because of its resistance to radio- and chemotherapy. Indirubin is the major active anti-tumor ingredient of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. The present study aimed to analyze the effects of indirubin on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis of tumor-derived endothelial cells (Td-EC. Methods: Td-EC were derived from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC by treating HUVEC with the conditioned medium of human liver cancer cell line HepG2. Cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis were assessed by MTT, wound healing, in vitro cell invasion, and in vitro tube formation assay. Results: Td-EC were successfully obtained from HUVEC cultured with 50% culture supernatant from serum-starved HepG2 cells. Indirubin significantly inhibited Td-EC proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Indirubin also inhibited Td-EC migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. However, indirubin’s effects were weaker on HUVEC than Td-EC. Conclusion: Indirubin significantly inhibited Td-EC proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. Keywords: indirubin, Td-EC, proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis

  20. Environmental Applications of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Arturo A.

    2014-07-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are currently used in many applications including agriculture (Gruère, 2012; Khot et al. 2012; Lopez-Moreno et al. 2010; Peralta-Videa et al. 2011; Zhao et al. 2012), aerogels (Bigall et al. 2009), aerospace (Baur and Silverman, 2007), automotive (Coelho et al. 2012; Presting and König, 2003; Salonitis et al. 2010), catalysts (Zhou et al. 2011), coatings, paints and pigments (Dhoke et al. 2009; Gopalakrishnan et al. 2011; Khanna, 2008), composites (Borchardt, 2003; Khanna and Bakshi, 2009; Petrov and Georgiev, 2012; Sahoo et al. 2010), construction (Lee et al. 2010), cosmetics (Musee, 2011; Sabitha et al. 2012; Singh and Nanda, 2012), electronics and optics (Alda et al. 2005; Avasthi et al. 2007; Song et al. 2012; Subramanian and Takhee, 2012), energy (Serrano et al. 2009), environmental remediation (Dionysiou 2004; Khin et al. 2012), filtration and purification (Dhakras, 2011; Savage and Diallo, 2005), food products (Blasco and Picó, 2011; Weiss et al. 2006), medical (Boisseau and Loubaton, 2011; Farokhzad and Langer, 2006), packaging (Silvestre et al. 2011), paper and board (Kharisov and Kharissova, 2010), plastics, security (Marín and Merkoçi, 2012), sensors (Ding et al. 2010; Duncan et al. 2012; Su et al. 2012; Tan et al. 2012), and textiles (Qian and Hinestroza, 2004; Wong et al. 2006), and research is underway on many new applications...

  1. [A study of the sexual art of having intercourse with several young virgins in traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shanzhao

    2002-06-01

    The emergency treatments for the damage and bleeding of the vagina, and the sharp pubic pain of young virgins which were caused occurred by the sexual art, were recorded in traditional medicine books, such as the "Ji yan fang" and others. It is a fact that in ancient China some people used the sexual art of having intercourse with several young virgins at the same time in order to increase their health and keep perpetual youth and longevity. The famous traditional general-medical book, "qian jin yao fang" recommended that method to rich persons too. It is supposed that the beginning of the sexual art of having intercourse with several young virgins traces back to the times of Emperor Hanwu , but it seems to have disappeared from the historical stage in the Song period. On the other hand, the criticisms from the traditional medicine books and the secret languages of internal alchemy used for the Taoist sacred books show that the sexual art of having intercourse with several young virgins was still going on behind the scene in the Ming and Qing periods. Even if we consider the historical changes of ethics and mortality, we now cannot but criticize this behavior of abusing juveniles for the sexual art.

  2. 論戴震 (1723–1777 之考證哲學及其反思/On Dai Zhen’s (1723–1777 Philosophy of Evidential Research and Its Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jer-shiarn LEE

    2012-09-01

    Dai Zhen was known as a leading proponent of the evidential research (kaozheng school during the Qian Jia Era. However, he regarded kaozheng as primarily a means of revealing the truth. Moreover, he was regarded as a philosopher rather than as merely a kaozheng, or textual, scholar. In this respect, his philosophical writings reflect an attempt to substitute his own philosophy for the Song Philosophy of Principle (lixue. Dai Zhen’s philosophical writings indicate the impact philology had on philosophical issues. The methodology Dai Zhen adopted was essentially linguistic, that is, xungu (etymology, lit., “glossing”. The merit of this methodology was that it would trace back the original meanings of key terms in the Classics, and this in turn, would benefit the understanding of the Confucian tradition. The aim of this paper is to explore Dai Zhen’s attempt to reconstruct the Confucian tradition, and to assess his philosophy of evidential research in order to manifest its value and limitation.

  3. Image simulation and surface reconstruction of undercut features in atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoping; Villarrubia, John; Tian, Fenglei; Dixson, Ronald

    2007-03-01

    CD-AFMs (critical dimension atomic force microscopes) are instruments with servo-control of the tip in more than one direction. With appropriately "boot-shaped" or flared tips, such instruments can image vertical or even undercut features. As with any AFM, the image is a dilation of the sample shape with the tip shape. Accurate extraction of the CD requires a correction for the tip effect. Analytical methods to correct images for the tip shape have been available for some time for the traditional (vertical feedback only) AFMs, but were until recently unavailable for instruments with multi-dimensional feedback. Dahlen et al. [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B23, pp. 2297-2303, (2005)] recently introduced a swept-volume approach, implemented for 2-dimensional (2D) feedback. It permits image simulation and sample reconstruction, techniques previously developed for the traditional instruments, to be extended for the newer tools. We have introduced [X. Qian and J. S. Villarrubia, Ultramicroscopy, in press] an alternative dexel-based method, that does the same in either 2D or 3D. This paper describes the application of this method to sample shapes of interest in semiconductor manufacturing. When the tip shape is known (e.g., by prior measurement using a tip characterizer) a 3D sample surface may be reconstructed from its 3D image. Basing the CD measurement upon such a reconstruction is shown here to remove some measurement artifacts that are not removed (or are incompletely removed) by the existing measurement procedures.

  4. Conservative fragments in bacterial 16S rRNA genes and primer design for 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons in metagenomic studies

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong

    2009-10-09

    Bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplicons have been widely used in the classification of uncultured bacteria inhabiting environmental niches. Primers targeting conservative regions of the rDNAs are used to generate amplicons of variant regions that are informative in taxonomic assignment. One problem is that the percentage coverage and application scope of the primers used in previous studies are largely unknown. In this study, conservative fragments of available rDNA sequences were first mined and then used to search for candidate primers within the fragments by measuring the coverage rate defined as the percentage of bacterial sequences containing the target. Thirty predicted primers with a high coverage rate (>90%) were identified, which were basically located in the same conservative regions as known primers in previous reports, whereas 30% of the known primers were associated with a coverage rate of <90%. The application scope of the primers was also examined by calculating the percentages of failed detections in bacterial phyla. Primers A519-539, E969- 983, E1063-1081, U515 and E517, are highly recommended because of their high coverage in almost all phyla. As expected, the three predominant phyla, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes and Proteobacteria, are best covered by the predicted primers. The primers recommended in this report shall facilitate a comprehensive and reliable survey of bacterial diversity in metagenomic studies. © 2009 Wang, Qian.

  5. A simple theory of motor protein kinetics and energetics. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, H

    2000-01-10

    A three-state stochastic model of motor protein [Qian, Biophys. Chem. 67 (1997) pp. 263-267] is further developed to illustrate the relationship between the external load on an individual motor protein in aqueous solution with various ATP concentrations and its steady-state velocity. A wide variety of dynamic motor behavior are obtained from this simple model. For the particular case of free-load translocation being the most unfavorable step within the hydrolysis cycle, the load-velocity curve is quasi-linear, V/Vmax = (cF/Fmax-c)/(1-c), in contrast to the hyperbolic relationship proposed by A.V. Hill for macroscopic muscle. Significant deviation from the linearity is expected when the velocity is less than 10% of its maximal (free-load) value--a situation under which the processivity of motor diminishes and experimental observations are less certain. We then investigate the dependence of load-velocity curve on ATP (ADP) concentration. It is shown that the free load Vmax exhibits a Michaelis-Menten like behavior, and the isometric Fmax increases linearly with ln([ATP]/[ADP]). However, the quasi-linear region is independent of the ATP concentration, yielding an apparently ATP-independent maximal force below the true isometric force. Finally, the heat production as a function of ATP concentration and external load are calculated. In simple terms and solved with elementary algebra, the present model provides an integrated picture of biochemical kinetics and mechanical energetics of motor proteins.

  6. In vitro production of huperzine A, a promising drug candidate for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoqiang; Gang, David R

    2008-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is growing in impact on human health. With no known cure, AD is one of the most expensive diseases in the world to treat. Huperzine A (HupA), a anti-AD drug candidate from the traditional Chinese medicine Qian Ceng Ta (Huperzia serrata), has been shown to be a powerful and selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and has attracted widespread attention because of its unique pharmacological activities and low toxicity. As a result, HupA is becoming an important lead compound for drugs to treat AD. HupA is obtained naturally from very limited and slowly growing natural resources, members of the Huperziaceae. Unfortunately, the content of HupA is very low in the raw plant material. This has led to strong interest in developing sources of HupA. We have developed a method to propagate in vitro tissues of Phlegmariurus squarrosus, a member of the Huperziaceae, that produce high levels of HupA. The in vitro propagated tissues produce even higher levels of HupA than the natural plant, and may represent an excellent source for HupA.

  7. Huperzine A: Is it an Effective Disease-Modifying Drug for Alzheimer's Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhong Ming; Ke, Ya

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which there is no cure. Huperzine A (HupA) is a natural inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) derived from the Chinese folk medicine Huperzia serrata (Qian Ceng Ta). It is a licensed anti-AD drug in China and is available as a nutraceutical in the US. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that HupA has multifaceted pharmacological effects. In addition to the symptomatic, cognitive-enhancing effect via inhibition of AChE, a number of recent studies have reported that this drug has "non-cholinergic" effects on AD. Most important among these is the protective effect of HupA on neurons against amyloid beta-induced oxidative injury and mitochondrial dysfunction as well as via the up-regulation of nerve growth factor and antagonizing N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. The most recent discovery that HupA may reduce brain iron accumulation lends further support to the argument that HupA could serve as a potential disease-modifying agent for AD and also other neurodegenerative disorders by significantly slowing down the course of neuronal death.

  8. Huperzine A: Is it an Effective Disease-Modifying Drug for Alzheimer’s Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhong Ming; Ke, Ya

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which there is no cure. Huperzine A (HupA) is a natural inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) derived from the Chinese folk medicine Huperzia serrata (Qian Ceng Ta). It is a licensed anti-AD drug in China and is available as a nutraceutical in the US. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that HupA has multifaceted pharmacological effects. In addition to the symptomatic, cognitive-enhancing effect via inhibition of AChE, a number of recent studies have reported that this drug has “non-cholinergic” effects on AD. Most important among these is the protective effect of HupA on neurons against amyloid beta-induced oxidative injury and mitochondrial dysfunction as well as via the up-regulation of nerve growth factor and antagonizing N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. The most recent discovery that HupA may reduce brain iron accumulation lends further support to the argument that HupA could serve as a potential disease-modifying agent for AD and also other neurodegenerative disorders by significantly slowing down the course of neuronal death. PMID:25191267

  9. Huperzine A: is it an effective disease-modifying drug for Alzheimer’s disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Ming eQian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which there is no cure. Huperzine A (HupA is a natural inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE derived from the Chinese folk medicine Huperzia serrata (Qian Ceng Ta. It is a licensed anti-AD drug in China and is available as a nutraceutical in the US. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that HupA has multifaceted pharmacological effects. In addition to the symptomatic, cognitive-enhancing effect via inhibition of AChE, a number of recent studies have reported that this drug has non-cholinergic effects on AD. Most important among these is the protective effect of HupA on neurons against amyloid beta-induced oxidative injury and mitochondrial dysfunction as well as via the up-regulation of nerve growth factor and antagonizing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. The most recent discovery that HupA may reduce brain iron accumulation lends further support to the argument that HupA could serve as a potential disease-modifying agent for AD and also other neurodegenerative disorders by significantly slowing down the course of neuronal death.

  10. Elastocaloric cooling materials and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2015-03-01

    We are actively pursuing applications of thermoelastic (elastocaloric) cooling using shape memory alloys. Latent heat associated with martensitic transformation of shape memory alloys can be used to run cooling cycles with stress-inducing mechanical drives. The coefficient of performance of thermoelastic cooling materials can be as high as 11 with the directly measured DT of around 17 °C. Depending on the stress application mode, the number of cycles to fatigue can be as large as of the order of 105. Efforts to design and develop thermoelastic alloys with long fatigue life will be discussed. The current project at the University of Maryland is focused on development of building air-conditioners, and at Maryland Energy and Sensor Technologies, smaller scale commercial applications are being pursued. This work is carried out in collaboration with Jun Cui, Yiming Wu, Suxin Qian, Yunho Hwang, Jan Muehlbauer, and Reinhard Radermacher, and it is funded by the ARPA-E BEETIT program and the State of Maryland.

  11. Evidence of topological insulator state in the semimetal LaBi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, R.; Fu, B.-B.; Xu, Q. N.; Guo, P.-J.; Kong, L.-Y.; Zeng, L.-K.; Ma, J.-Z.; Richard, P.; Fang, C.; Huang, Y.-B.; Sun, S.-S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, L.; Shi, Y.-G.; Lei, H. C.; Liu, K.; Weng, H. M.; Qian, T.; Ding, H.; Wang, S.-C.

    2017-03-01

    By employing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy combined with first-principles calculations, we performed a systematic investigation on the electronic structure of LaBi, which exhibits extremely large magnetoresistance (XMR), and is theoretically predicted to possess band anticrossing with nontrivial topological properties. Here, the observations of the Fermi-surface topology and band dispersions are similar to previous studies on LaSb [L.-K. Zeng, R. Lou, D.-S. Wu, Q. N. Xu, P.-J. Guo, L.-Y. Kong, Y.-G. Zhong, J.-Z. Ma, B.-B. Fu, P. Richard, P. Wang, G. T. Liu, L. Lu, Y.-B. Huang, C. Fang, S.-S. Sun, Q. Wang, L. Wang, Y.-G. Shi, H. M. Weng, H.-C. Lei, K. Liu, S.-C. Wang, T. Qian, J.-L. Luo, and H. Ding, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 127204 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.127204], a topologically trivial XMR semimetal, except the existence of a band inversion along the Γ -X direction, with one massless and one gapped Dirac-like surface state at the X and Γ points, respectively. The odd number of massless Dirac cones suggests that LaBi is analogous to the time-reversal Z2 nontrivial topological insulator. These findings open up a new series for exploring novel topological states and investigating their evolution from the perspective of topological phase transition within the family of rare-earth monopnictides.

  12. Determinations of its Absolute Dimensions and Distance by the Analyses of Light and Radial-Velocity Curves of the Contact Binary -I. V417 Aquilae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Woo Lee

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available New photometric and spectroscopic solutions of W-type overcontact binary V417 Aql were obtained by solving the UBV light curves of Samec et al. (1997 and radial-velocity ones of Lu & Rucinski (1999 with the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney binary code. In the light curve synthesis the light of a third-body, which Qian (2003 proposed, was considered and obtained about 2.7%, 2.2%, and 0.4% for U, B, and V bandpasses, respectively. The model with third-light is better fitted to eclipse parts than that with no third-light. Absolute dimensions of V417 Aql are determined from our solution as M1=0.53 M⊙, M2=1.45 M⊙, R1=0.84 R⊙ and R2=1.31 M⊙, and the distance to it is deduced as about 216pc. Our distance is well consistent with that (204pc derived from Rucinski & Duerbeck's (1997 relation, MV=MV(log P, B-V, but is more distant than that (131±40pc determined by the Hipparcos trigonometric parallax. The difference may result from the relatively large error of Hipparcos parallax for V417 Aql.

  13. Visual Search for Motion-Form Conjunctions: Selective Attention to Movement Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Mühlenen, Adrian; Müller, Hermann J

    1999-07-01

    In 2 experiments requiring visual search for conjunctions of motion and form, the authors reinvestigated whether motion-based filtering (e.g., P. McLeod, J. Driver, Z. Dienes, & J. Crisp, 1991) is direction selective and whether cuing of the target direction promotes efficient search performance. In both experiments, the authors varied the number of movement directions in the display and the predictability of the target direction. Search was less efficient when items moved in multiple (2, 3, and 4) directions as compared with just 1 direction. Furthermore, precuing of the target direction facilitated the search, even with "wrap-around" displays, relatively more when items moved in multiple directions. The authors proposed 2 principles to explain that pattern of effects: (a) interference on direction computation between items moving in different directions (e.g., N. Qian & R. A. Andersen, 1994) and (b) selective direction tuning of motion detectors involving a receptive-field contraction (cf. J. Moran & R. Desimone, 1985; S. Treue & J. H. R. Maunsell, 1996).

  14. Heterogeneous Cenozoic cooling of central Britain: insights into the complex evolution of the North Atlantic passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuszczak, Katarzyna; Persano, Cristina; Stuart, Finlay

    2015-04-01

    The western flank of the North Atlantic passive margin has experienced multiple episodes of rock uplift and denudation during the Cenozoic that have been locally variable in scale. Two regional scale exhumation events have been identified: early Palaeogene and Neogene [see 1 for review]. The former has been identified both onshore and offshore and it appears to be temporally coincident with basaltic magmatism related to the arrival of the proto-Iceland mantle plume beneath thinned continental lithosphere, which may have cause long wavelength, low amplitude dynamic uplift. Quantifying the amount of early Palaeogene exhumation using mineral thermochronometers may be complicated by elevated heat flow. The magnitude and timing of exhumation during the Neogene is even less clear, as is the driving mechanism. Quantifying the amount of early Palaeogene exhumation, determining the precise timing as well as the amount of uplift and erosion in the Neogene, require detailed application of low temperature thermochronometers. Here we present the first multiple low temperature thermochronometer study from S Scotland, N England and N Wales. New apatite fission track (AFT) data are integrated with apatite and zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe and ZHe, respectively) ages to establish regional rock cooling history from 200°C to 30°C. To precisely constrain the early Palaeogene cooling history, and to better define the possible Neogene cooling event, >20 single grain AHe ages have been produced on key samples and modelled using the newly codified HelFrag technique. The new AFT and AHe ages confirm earlier studies that show the Lake District and North Pennines experienced rapid cooling from >120°C in the Palaeogene. The amount of cooling/exhumation gradually decreases northwards into S Scotland and southwards in N Wales; there is no evidence for the rapid Palaeogene event in areas ~70 km from the Lake District centre. Inverse modelling of the AHe and AFT data suggest that the rapid cooling

  15. The Enhanced Radiocaesium Levels of People in Northern Sweden; Charge Corporelle de Radiocesium Relativement Elevie chez les Habitants de la Suede Septentrionale; 041f 041e 0414 0 ; Cargas de Radiocesio Anormalmente Elevadas en los Habitantes del Norte de Suecia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liden, K.; Naversten, Y. [Radiation Physics Department, University of Lund (Sweden)

    1964-11-15

    recuento en abril de 1962 a un grupo de 157 personas. Eri esta ocasion la carga de cesio-137 oscilo entre 30 y 740 nc. En el curso de una expedicion que en cinco semanas visito a siete centros de Suecia septentrional en abril de 1963, se examinaron en total 458 personas con el-mismo contador montado en un omnibus. Esta vez, la carga de cesio-137 de los lapones de la zona antes mencionada estuvo comprendida entre 50 y 900 nc. La carga media de cesio-137 en todos los criadores de renos (78 hombres adultos), medida en abril de 1963, fue de 461 nc. La carga corporal maxima observada fue de 1340 nc de cesio-137. Se facilitan detalles sobre la variacion de la carga de cesio-137 en funcion de la edad, el sexo, el tipo de ocupacion y el regimen alimenticio, asi como sobre las, variaciones estacionales y geograficas observadas. De 1961 a 1963 se ha advertido un aumento de la carga corporal media de cesio-137. Con fines comparativos, se sometio tambien a recuento a individuos noilapones. En casi todos ellos se observo una carga, de cesio-137, muy elevada en comparacion con la de los habitantes del sur de Suecia. La dosis de irradiacion debida al cesio-137 suele ser dos o tres vepes mayor que la debida al potasio-40, siendo el maximo observado 8 veces mayor. (author) [Russian] Posle obnaruzhenija vysokogo soderzhanija cezija-13? v organizme u shvedskih loparej v nachale 1961 goda bylo provedeno obsledovanie bol'shih grupp loparej i drugih zhitelej Shvecii, poluchajushhih takuju zhe dietu. V sentjabre 1961 goda obsledovali 162 cheloveka iz rajona, primykajushhego v Arkticheskomu krugu; izmerenija proizvodilis' s pomoshh'ju poluperenosnogo schetchika dlja izmerenija radioaktivnosti vsego organizma. V gruppe loparej soderzhanie cezija-137 nahodilos' v predelah ot 15 do 690 mmkkjuri. V jetom zhe rajone v aprele 1962 goda byla obsledovana gruppa iz 157 chelovek. V jeto vremja uroven' cezija-137 sostavljal 30-740 mmkkjuri. Vo vremja 5-nedel'noj jekspedicii v 7 razlichnyh centrah severnoj

  16. Portulaca oleracea L. alleviates liver injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng G

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Guoyin Zheng,1,* Fengfeng Mo,2,* Chen Ling,3,* Hao Peng,1 Wei Gu,1 Min Li,2 Zhe Chen1 1Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changhai Hospital, 2Department of Military Hygiene, Second Military Medical University, 3Department of Biology, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Purslane is a widespread succulent herb that exhibits various pharmacological effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Portulaca oleracea L. (purslane on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice. Oral glucose-tolerance tests were carried out to assess blood glucose levels and body weight and food intake were recorded. The biochemical parameters anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα were also measured. The pathological condition of liver tissues were examined by hematoxylin–eosin staining. Rho, ROCK1, ROCK2, NFκBp65, p-NFκBp65, IκBα, and p-IκBα expression in liver tissue were analyzed by Western blot. Purslane increased body weight and decreased food intake. Purslane also significantly reduced concentrations of glucose, anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine ­aminotransferase, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα in serum. Serum insulin was elevated with purslane treatment. In addition, pathologic liver changes in diabetic mice were also alleviated by purslane. Obtained data revealed that purslane restored the levels of Rho–NFκB signaling-related proteins in comparison with those of diabetic mice. Above all, it can be assumed that purslane might play a positive role in regulating streptozotocin-induced liver injury through suppressing the Rho–NFκB pathway. Keywords: Portulaca oleracea L., diabetes, liver injury, Rho–NFκB

  17. Promoting adherence to nebulized therapy in cystic fibrosis: poster development and a qualitative exploration of adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Jones,1 Nathan Babiker,2 Emma Gardner,2,3 Jane Royle,2 Rachael Curley,3,4 Zhe Hui Hoo,3,4 Martin J Wildman3,4 1Psychology Department, University of Sheffield, 2Psychological Services, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, 3Adult Cystic Fibrosis Unit, Northern General Hospital, 4School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF health care professionals recognize the need to motivate people with CF to adhere to nebulizer treatments, yet little is known about how best to achieve this. We aimed to produce motivational posters to support nebulizer adherence by using social marketing involving people with CF in the development of those posters. Methods: The Sheffield CF multidisciplinary team produced preliminary ideas that were elaborated upon with semi-structured interviews among people with CF to explore barriers and facilitators to the use of nebulized therapy. Initial themes and poster designs were refined using an online focus group to finalize the poster designs. Results: People with CF preferred aspirational posters describing what could be achieved through adherence in contrast to posters that highlighted the adverse consequences of nonadherence. A total of 14 posters were produced through this process. Conclusion: People with CF can be engaged to develop promotional material to support adherence, providing a unique perspective differing from that of the CF multidisciplinary team. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these posters to support nebulizer adherence. Keywords: behavior change, social marketing, patient participation, nebulizers, medication adherence

  18. Clay mineralogy and source-to-sink transport processes of Changjiang River sediments in the estuarine and inner shelf areas of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yifei; Zou, Xinqing; Gao, Jianhua; Wang, Chenglong; Li, Yali; Yao, Yulong; Zhao, Wancang; Xu, Min

    2018-02-01

    We examined the source-to-sink sediment transport processes from the Changjiang River to the estuarine coastal shelf area by analyzing the clay mineral assemblages in suspended sediment samples from the Changjiang River catchment and surface samples from the estuarine coastal shelf area following the impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003. The results indicate that the clay mineral compositions throughout the study area are dominated by illite, with less abundant kaolinite and chlorite and scarce smectite. The clay minerals display distinct differences in the tributaries and exhibit obvious changes in the trunk stream compared with the periods before 2003, and the source of sediment has largely shifted to the mid- to lower reaches of the river after 2003. Spatially, the clay mineral assemblages in the estuarine area define two compositionally distinct provinces. Province I covers the mud area of the Changjiang River estuary and the Zhe-Min coastal region, where sediment is primarily supplied by the Changjiang River. Province II includes part of the Changjiang River estuary and the southeastern portion of the study area, where the sediment is composed of terrestrial material from the Changjiang River and re-suspended material from the Huanghe River carried by the Jiangsu coastal current. Moreover, the other smaller rivers in China (including the Oujiang and Minjiang rivers of mainland China and the rivers of West Taiwan) also contribut sediments to the estuarine and inner shelf areas. In general, the clay mineral assemblages in the Changjiang River estuarine area are have mainly been controlled by sediment supplied from upstream of the Changjiang River tributaries. However, since the completion of the TGD in 2003, the mid- to downstream tributaries have become the main source of sediments from the Changjiang catchment into the East China Sea. These analyses further demonstrate that the coastal currents and the decrease in the sediment load of the river

  19. Identifying candidate agents for lung adenocarcinoma by walking the human interactome

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    Sun Y

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Yajiao Sun,1 Ranran Zhang,2 Zhe Jiang,1 Rongyao Xia,1 Jingwen Zhang,1 Jing Liu,1 Fuhui Chen1 1Department of Respiratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 2Department of Respiratory, Harbin First Hospital, Harbin, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Despite recent advances in therapeutic strategies for lung cancer, mortality is still increasing. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify effective novel drugs. In the present study, we implement drug repositioning for lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD by a bioinformatics method followed by experimental validation. We first identified differentially expressed genes between LUAD tissues and nontumor tissues from RNA sequencing data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Then, candidate small molecular drugs were ranked according to the effect of their targets on differentially expressed genes of LUAD by a random walk with restart algorithm in protein–protein interaction networks. Our method identified some potentially novel agents for LUAD besides those that had been previously reported (eg, hesperidin. Finally, we experimentally verified that atracurium, one of the potential agents, could induce A549 cells death in non-small-cell lung cancer-derived A549 cells by an MTT assay, acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, and electron microscopy. Furthermore, Western blot assays demonstrated that atracurium upregulated the proapoptotic Bad and Bax proteins, downregulated the antiapoptotic p-Bad and Bcl-2 proteins, and enhanced caspase-3 activity. It could also reduce the expression of p53 and p21Cip1/Waf1 in A549 cells. In brief, the candidate agents identified by our approach may provide greater insights into improving the therapeutic status of LUAD. Keywords: lung adenocarcinoma, drug repositioning, bioinformatics, protein–protein interaction network, atracurium

  20. Efficacy of atorvastatin on the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury: a meta-analysis

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    Liu L

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ling-Yun Liu,1 Yang Liu,2 Mei-Yan Wu,2 Yan-Yan Sun,3 Fu-Zhe Ma2 1Department of Andrology, 2Department of Nephrology, the First Hospital of Jilin University, 3Department of Nephrology, the Fourth Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China Background: Results of studies on the efficacy of atorvastatin pretreatment on reducing the prevalence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI have been controversial.Objective: We undertook a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of atorvastatin on contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN after CAG or PCI.Materials and methods: We undertook a systematic search of electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library up to June 2017. A meta-analysis was carried out including randomized controlled trials (RCTs that compared atorvastatin pretreatment with pretreatment with a low-dose statin or placebo for CIAKI prevention in patients undergoing CAG. The main endpoint was CIN prevalence.Results: Nine RCTs were included in our meta-analysis. Atorvastatin pretreatment reduced the prevalence of CIN significantly (odds ratio [OR] 0.46; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.27–0.79; p=0.004. The benefit of high-dose atorvastatin pretreatment was consistent when compared with the control group (OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.21–0.95; p=0.04.Conclusion: At high doses, atorvastatin pretreatment was associated with a significant reduction in the prevalence of CIAKI in patients undergoing CAG. Pretreatment with high-dose atorvastatin could be employed to prevent CIAKI. Keywords: atorvastatin, contrast-induced acute kidney injury, coronary angiography, percutaneous coronary intervention, contrast-induced nephropathy, meta-analysis

  1. River Network Reorganization along the Upper Yangzte, Eastern Tibet: Insights from Thermochronology and Sedimentology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourbet, L.; Yang, R.; Fellin, M. G.; Maden, C.; Gong, J.; Jean-Louis, P.

    2017-12-01

    The high relief and high elevation of the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau are related to tectonic uplift and the fluvial incision of the Salween, Mekong, and Yangtze rivers. The upper Yangtze is the subject of numerous debates on the evolution of its drainage area, particularly in regards to the timing and geodynamic processes, and therefore has an impact on models of the Tibetan plateau evolution. Today, portions of the course of the Yangtze are controlled by active strike-slip faults. In order to study the evolution of the Cenozoic paleoriver network, we use low-temperature thermochronometry to estimate fluvial incision and palaeoenvironmental information derived from the detrital record. The Jianchuan basin, between the Yangtze and the Red River, contains late Eocene fluvial sediments that may correspond to an ancient connection between these rivers. Sediments located further north (DongWang formation, Yunnan-Sichuan boundary) consist of unsorted conglomerates and sandstones. They are exposed on the flanks of deep valleys. These sediments do not correspond to a large riverbed such as the Yangtze but rather indicate an episode of intense sedimentation with a significant contribution from talus, followed by a >1.2 km incision by a tributary of the upper Yangtze. In the same area, we performed apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He dating on a granitic pluton that is offset by an active sinistral strike-slip fault. Mean ZHe cooling ages range from 50 to 70 Ma. Samples located above 3870 m yield mean apatite (U-Th)/He ages ranging from 30 to 40 Ma. AHe ages for samples at lower elevation range from 8 to 15 Ma. Given the crystallization age of the pluton (83 Ma, U/Pb, zircon), cooling ages reflect exhumation, not post-intrusion cooling. Further research will use thermal modeling to infer incision rates and compare results with published data.

  2. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro/vivo studies of oleanolic acid-loaded lactoferrin nanoparticles

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    Xia X

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Xiaojing Xia,1,2 Haowei Liu,1 Huixia Lv,1 Jing Zhang,1 Jianping Zhou,1 Zhiying Zhao3 1Department of Pharmaceutics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, ZheJiang Pharmaceutical College, Ningbo, 3Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Oleanolic acid (OA, a pentacyclic triterpene, is used to safely and economically treat hepatopathy. However, OA, a Biopharmaceutics Classification System IV category drug, has low bioavailability owing to low solubility (<1 µg/mL and biomembrane permeability. We developed a novel OA nanoparticle (OA-NP-loaded lactoferrin (Lf nanodelivery system with enhanced in vitro OA dissolution and improved oral absorption and bioavailability. The OA-NPs were prepared using NP albumin-bound technology and characterized using dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and in vitro dissolution test. The in vivo pharmacokinetics was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. OA-NPs (OA:Lf =1:6, w/w% exhibited spherical morphology, 202.2±8.3 nm particle size, +(27.1±0.32 mV ζ potential, 92.59%±3.24% encapsulation efficiency, and desirable in vitro release profiles. An effective in vivo bioavailability (340.59% was achieved compared to the free drug following oral administration to rats. The Lf novel nanodelivery vehicle enhanced the dissolution rate, intestinal absorption, and bioavailability of OA. These results demonstrate that Lf NPs are a new strategy for improving oral absorption and bioavailability of poorly soluble and poorly absorbed drugs. Keywords: oleanolic acid, nanoparticle, lactoferrin nanodelivery system, drug absorption, bioavailability

  3. Determination of the binding mode for anti-inflammatory natural product xanthohumol with myeloid differentiation protein 2

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    Fu W

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weitao Fu,1,* Lingfeng Chen,1,* Zhe Wang,1 Chengwei Zhao,1 Gaozhi Chen,1 Xing Liu,1 Yuanrong Dai,2 Yuepiao Cai,1 Chenglong Li,1,3 Jianmin Zhou,1 Guang Liang1 1Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 3Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: It is recognized that myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2, a coreceptor of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 for innate immunity, plays an essential role in activation of the lipopolysaccharide signaling pathway. MD-2 is known as a neoteric and suitable therapeutical target. Therefore, there is great interest in the development of a potent MD-2 inhibitor for anti-inflammatory therapeutics. Several studies have reported that xanthohumol (XN, an anti-inflammatory natural product from hops and beer, can block the TLR4 signaling by binding to MD-2 directly. However, the interaction between MD-2 and XN remains unknown. Herein, our work aims at characterizing interactions between MD-2 and XN. Using a combination of experimental and theoretical modeling analysis, we found that XN can embed into the hydrophobic pocket of MD-2 and form two stable hydrogen bonds with residues ARG-90 and TYR-102 of MD-2. Moreover, we confirmed that ARG-90 and TYR-102 were two necessary residues during the recognition process of XN binding to MD-2. Results from this study identified the atomic interactions between the MD-2 and XN, which will contribute to future structural design of novel MD-2-targeting molecules for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Keywords: myeloid differentiation 2, xanthohumol, binding mode, inflammation, molecular dynamics simulation 

  4. Numerical Simulation of Floating Bodies in Extreme Free Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zheng Zheng; Causon, Derek; Mingham, Clive; Qiang, Ling

    2010-05-01

    and efficient. Firstly, extreme design wave conditions are generated in an empty NWT and compared with physical experiments as a precursor to calculations to investigate the survivability of the Bobber device operating in a challenging wave climate. Secondly, we consider a bench-mark test case involving in a first order regular wave maker acting on a fixed cylinder and Pelamis. Finally, a floating Bobber has been simulated under extreme wave conditions. These results will be reported at the meeting. Causon D.M., Ingram D.M., Mingham C.G., Yang G. Pearson R.V. (2000). Calculation of shallow water flows using a Cartesian cut cell approach. Advances in Water resources, 23: 545-562. Causon D.M., Ingram D.M., Mingham C.G. (2000). A Cartesian cut cell method for shallow water flows with moving boundaries. Advances in Water resources, 24: 899-911. Dalzell J.F. 1999 A note on finite depth second-order wave-wave interactions. Appl. Ocean Res. 21, 105-111. Ning D.Z., Zang J., Liu S.X. Eatock Taylor R. Teng B. & Taylor P.H. 2009 Free surface and wave kinematics for nonlinear focused wave groups. J. Ocean Engineering. Accepted. Hu Z.Z., Causon D.M., Mingham C.M. and Qian L.(2009). Numerical wave tank study of a wave energy converter in heave. Proceedlings 19th ISOPE conference, Osaka, Japan Qian L., Causon D.M. & Mingham C.G., Ingram D.M. 2006 A free-surface capturing method for two fluid flows with moving bodies. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, Vol. A 462 21-42.

  5. 气相中双液滴正碰过程数值模拟研究%Numerical simulation of head-on binary collision of droplets in gas phase environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽军; 张超; 武丽丽; 吴建军

    2015-01-01

    液滴碰撞现象普遍存在于动力装置燃烧室喷嘴的下游区域,影响燃料的雾化性能。为了揭示相同直径的双液滴中心碰撞机理,求解了轴对称坐标系下的 N-S 方程,采用 VOF(Volume of Fluid)方法捕捉液滴碰撞过程中气液自由表面的演化规律。利用 Qian 等提供的实验结果对计算模型进行数值校验,验证了模型的准确性。在此基础上,研究了环境压强对液滴碰撞反弹后不同结果(分离和融合)的影响,分析了环境压强和 Weber 数对液滴碰撞分离的影响。结果表明,液滴在碰撞反弹后的状态(分离或融合)是由液滴间气膜压强与环境气动阻力共同作用的结果,环境压强对液滴碰撞分离过程基本没有影响;Weber 数越大,碰撞过程中变形的幅度越大。%The phenomena of droplet collision not only exist widely in the downstream region of ejection nozzles in the combustion chambers of power equipments,but also they will affect the atomization characteristics of fuel.In order to reveal the binary collision mechanism of droplets with equal diameters, the Navier-Stokes equations are firstly solved in the axisymmetric coordinates and the method of VOF (Volume of Fluid)is utilized to track the evolution disciplines of the gas-liquid free surface during the process of droplet collision.Then,veracity of the numerical models is validated with the experimental results of Qian.Effects of ambient pressure on different results (separation and coalescence)after drop-let bouncing are investigated,and effects of ambient pressure and Weber number on separation of two droplets after collision are also analyzed.Results show that states (separation and coalescence)of drop-lets after collision and rebound are determined by the pressure of gaseous film between droplets and gas-eous dynamic resistance together.Moreover,the separation process of two droplets after collision is inde-pendent of the ambient pressure

  6. Anti-EGFR-iRGD recombinant protein conjugated silk fibroin nanoparticles for enhanced tumor targeting and antitumor efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bian X

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Xinyu Bian,* Puyuan Wu,* Huizi Sha, Hanqing Qian, Qing Wang, Lei Cheng, Yang Yang, Mi Yang, Baorui LiuComprehensive Cancer Center of Drum-Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Clinical Cancer Institute of Nanjing University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: In this study, we report a novel kind of targeting with paclitaxel (PTX-loaded silk fibroin nanoparticles conjugated with iRGD–EGFR nanobody recombinant protein (anti-EGFR-iRGD. The new nanoparticles (called A-PTX-SF-NPs were prepared using the carbodiimide-mediated coupling procedure and their characteristics were evaluated. The cellular cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of A-PTX-SF-NPs were also investigated. The results in vivo suggested that NPs conjugated with the recombinant protein exhibited more targeting and anti-neoplastic property in cells with high EGFR expression. In the in vivo antitumor efficacy assay, the A-PTX-SF-NPs group showed slower tumor growth and smaller tumor volumes than PTX-SF-NPs in a HeLa xenograft mouse model. A real-time near-infrared fluorescence imaging study showed that A-PTX-SF-NPs could target the tumor more effectively. These results suggest that the anticancer activity and tumor targeting of A-PTX-SF-NPs were superior to those of PTX-SF-NPs and may have the potential to be used for targeted delivery for tumor therapies. Keywords: EGFR, nanobody, iRGD, recombinant protein, targeting drug carriers, antitumor efficiency

  7. Enhanced photocytotoxicity of curcumin delivered by solid lipid nanoparticles

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    Jiang S

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shan Jiang,1 Rongrong Zhu,1 Xiaolie He,1 Jiao Wang,1 Mei Wang,1 Yechang Qian,2 Shilong Wang1 1Tenth People’s Hospital, School of Life Science and Technology, Tongji University, 2Department of Respiratory Disease, Baoshan District Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Curcumin (Cur is a promising photosensitizer that could be used in photodynamic therapy. However, its poor solubility and hydrolytic instability limit its clinical use. The aim of the present study was to encapsulate Cur into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs in order to improve its therapeutic activity. The Cur-loaded SLNs (Cur-SLNs were prepared using an emulsification and low-temperature solidification method. The functions of Cur and Cur-SLNs were studied on the non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells for photodynamic therapy. The results revealed that Cur-SLNs induced ~2.27-fold toxicity higher than free Cur at a low concentration of 15 µM under light excitation, stocking more cell cycle at G2/M phase. Cur-SLNs could act as an efficient drug delivery system to increase the intracellular concentration of Cur and its accumulation in mitochondria; meanwhile, the hydrolytic stability of free Cur could be improved. Furthermore, Cur-SLNs exposed to 430 nm light could produce more reactive oxygen species to induce the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Western blot analysis revealed that Cur-SLNs increased the expression of caspase-3, caspase-9 proteins and promoted the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Overall, the results from these studies demonstrated that the SLNs could enhance the phototoxic effects of Cur. Keywords: photodynamic therapy, curcumin, solid lipid nanoparticles, drug delivery, reactive oxygen species

  8. FIRST PHOTOMETRIC INVESTIGATION OF THE NEWLY DISCOVERED W UMa-TYPE BINARY STAR MR Com

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, S.-B.; Liu, N.-P.; Liao, W.-P.; He, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Wang, J.-J.; Zhao, E.-G., E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China)

    2013-08-01

    By analyzing multi-color light curves of the newly discovered W UMa-type binary, MR Com, we discovered that it is a shallow-contact binary with a degree of contact factor of f = 10.0% {+-} 2.1%. Photometric solutions reveal that MR Com is a W-type system with a mass ratio of q = 3.9 where the less massive component is about 90 K hotter than the more massive one. By investigating all of the available times of minimum light, we found that the general trend of the Observed-Calculated (O - C) curve shows a downward parabolic variation while it undergoes a cyclic variation with a small amplitude of 0.0031 days and a period of 10.1 yr. The downward parabolic change corresponds to a long-term decrease in the orbital period at a rate of P-dot = -5.3 x 10{sup -7} days yr{sup -1} that may be caused by a combination of a mass transfer and an angular momentum loss (AML) via magnetic braking. Among the 16 shallow-contact systems with a decreasing orbital period, MR Com has the lowest mass ratio (e.g., 1/q = 0.26). The shallow-contact configuration, the low-mass ratio, and the long-term period decrease all suggest that systems similar to MR Com are on the AML-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian. They will oscillate around a critical mass ratio and evolve into a deep contact with a higher mass ratio. The small-amplitude cyclic change in the O - C curve was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of an extremely cool stellar companion.

  9. Facies-succession and architecture of the third-order sequences and their stratigraphic framework of the Devonian in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Mingxiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Caledonian orogeny at the end of the Silurian resulted in great changes in the palaeogeography in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area of South China; the continental area of the Early Paleozoic evolved into the extensive Dian-Qian-Gui Sea in the Late Paleozoic. Early in the Devonian, as a result of a major transgression, seawater encroached gradually from the south to the north and clastic facies were deposited. Carbonate deposition was then established in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, with a palaeogeography marked by attached platforms, isolated platforms and narrow basins. As a result of the Ziyun movement towards the end of the Devonian, the Upper Devonian strata are regressive and thin out from the open-sea to the land areas. A study of the nature and distribution of sedimentary facies in space and time recognises 13 third-order sequences in the Devonian strata in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, and these form two second-order sequences. The strata of the Lower Devonian comprise 5 third-order sequences (SQ1 to SQ5, which are dominated by transgressive clastics. 4 third-order sequences (SQ6 to SQ9 in the Middle Devonian are characterized by alternations of transgressive clastics and highstand carbonates. In the Upper Devonian, carbonates constitute 4 third-order sequences (SQ10 to SQ13, which are generally marked by the transgressive limestones and highstand dolomites. On the basis of earlier biostratigraphic studies, sea-level changes represented by the third-order sequences with their different facies successions are explored, and the sequence stratigraphic framework is established. Therefore, the Devonian strata in the study area provide an example for further understanding of depositional trends within the sequence-stratigraphic framework.

  10. A Variational Model for Two-Phase Immiscible Electroosmotic Flow at Solid Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Sihong

    2012-01-01

    We develop a continuum hydrodynamic model for two-phase immiscible flows that involve electroosmotic effect in an electrolyte and moving contact line at solid surfaces. The model is derived through a variational approach based on the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation. This approach was first presented in the derivation of a continuum hydrodynamic model for moving contact line in neutral two-phase immiscible flows (Qian, Wang, and Sheng, J. Fluid Mech. 564, 333-360 (2006)). Physically, the electroosmotic effect can be formulated by the Onsager principle as well in the linear response regime. Therefore, the same variational approach is applied here to the derivation of the continuum hydrodynamic model for charged two-phase immiscible flows where one fluid component is an electrolyte exhibiting electroosmotic effect on a charged surface. A phase field is employed to model the diffuse interface between two immiscible fluid components, one being the electrolyte and the other a nonconductive fluid, both allowed to slip at solid surfaces. Our model consists of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation for momentum transport, the Nernst-Planck equation for ion transport, the Cahn-Hilliard phase-field equation for interface motion, and the Poisson equation for electric potential, along with all the necessary boundary conditions. In particular, all the dynamic boundary conditions at solid surfaces, including the generalized Navier boundary condition for slip, are derived together with the equations of motion in the bulk region. Numerical examples in two-dimensional space, which involve overlapped electric double layer fields, have been presented to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the model, and a few salient features of the two-phase immiscible electroosmotic flows at solid surface. The wall slip in the vicinity of moving contact line and the Smoluchowski slip in the electric double layer are both investigated. © 2012 Global-Science Press.

  11. Photoresponsive nanocapsulation of cobra neurotoxin and enhancement of its central analgesic effects under red light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Q

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Qian Yang, Chuang Zhao, Jun Zhao, Yong Ye Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Cobra neurotoxin (CNT, a peptide isolated from snake venom of Naja naja atra, shows central analgesic effects in our previous research. In order to help CNT pass through blood–brain barrier (BBB and improve its central analgesic effects, a new kind of CNT nanocapsules were prepared by double emulsification with soybean lecithin and cholesterol as the shell, and pheophorbide as the photosensitizer added to make it photoresponsive. The analgesic effects were evaluated by hot plate test and acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. The CNT nanocapsules had an average particle size of 229.55 nm, zeta potential of -53.00 mV, encapsulation efficiency of 84.81% and drug loading of 2.98%, when the pheophorbide content was 1% of lecithin weight. Pheophorbide was mainly distributed in outer layer of the CNT nanocapsules and increased the release of the CNT nanocapsules after 650 nm illumination. The central analgesic effects were improved after intraperitoneal injection of CNT at 25 and 50 µg·kg-1 under 650 nm irradiation for 30 min in the nasal cavity. Activation of pheophorbide by red light generated reactive oxygen species which opened the nanocapsules and BBB and helped the CNT enter the brain. This research provides a new drug delivery for treatment of central pain. Keywords: cobra neurotoxin, nanocapsules, photoresponsive, central analgesic effects, red light, drug delivery, photosensitizer

  12. Research of combination model for prediction of the trend of outbreak of hepatitis B

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    Yin-ping CHEN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish a combination model of autoregressive integrated moving average model and the grey dynamics (ARIMA-GM of hepatitis B incidence rate (1/100 000 to predict the trend of outbreak of hepatitis B, as to provide a scientific basis for the early discovery of the infectious diseases for the performance of countermeasures of controlling its spread. Methods The monthly incidence of hepatitis B in Qian'an city, Hebei province, was collected from Jan 2004 to Dec 2012, and a model (ARIMA was reproduced with SPSS software. The GM (1,1 model was used to correct the residual sequence with a threshold value, and a combined forecasting model was reproduced. This combination model was used to predict the monthly incidence rate in this city in 2013. Results The model ARIMA(0,1,1(0,1,112 was established successfully and the residual sequence was a white noise sequence. Then the GM (1,1 model with a threshold of 3 was used to correct its residuals and obtain its nonlinear feature extraction of information. The forecasting model met required precision standards (C=0.673, P=0.877, the fitting accuracy of which was basically qualified. The results showed that the MAE, MAPE of the ARIMA-GM combined model were smaller than that of a single model, and the combined model could improve the prediction accuracy. Using the combined model to forecast the incidence of hepatitis B during Jan 2013 to Dec 2013, the overall trend was relatively consistent with the condition of previous years. Conclusion The ARIMA-GM combined model can better fit the incidence rate of hepatitis B with a greater accuracy than the seasonal ARIMA model. The prediction results can provide the reference for the early warning system of HBV. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.01.12

  13. Probiotics protect mice from CoCrMo particles-induced osteolysis

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    Wang Z

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhenheng Wang,* Kaiwen Xue,* Maosheng Bai, Zhantao Deng, Jingjing Gan, Gang Zhou, Hongbo Qian,* Nirong Bao, Jianning Zhao Department of Orthopaedics, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Wear particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis is the primary cause of aseptic loosening, which is the most common reason for total hip arthroplasty (THA failure in the med- and long term. Recent studies have suggested an important role of gut microbiota (GM in modulating the host metabolism and immune system, leading to alterations in bone mass. Probiotic bacteria administered in adequate amounts can alter the composition of GM and confer health benefits to the host. Given the inflammatory osteolysis that occurs in wear debris-induced prosthesis loosening, we examined whether the probiotic Lactobacillus casei could reduce osteolysis in a mouse calvarial resorption model. In this study, L. casei markedly protected mice from CoCrMo particles (CoPs-induced osteolysis. Osteoclast gene markers and the number of osteoclasts were significantly decreased in L. casei-treated mice. Probiotic treatment decreased the M1-like macrophage phenotype indicated by downregulation of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and increased the M2-like macrophage phenotype indicated by upregulation of IL-4, IL-10 and arginase. Collectively, these results indicated that the L. casei treatment modulated the immune status and suppressed wear particle-induced osteolysis in vivo. Thus, probiotic treatment may represent a potential preventive and therapeutic approach to reduced wear debris-induced osteolysis. Keywords: wear particles, gut microbiota, nanotoxicity, macrophage polarization, inflammatory cytokines, aseptic loosening

  14. On employing H216O, H217O, H218O, and D216O lines as frequency standards in the 15-170 cm-1 window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtenbacher, Tibor; Csaszar, Attila G.

    2008-01-01

    The protocol MARVEL, standing for measured active rotational-vibrational energy levels, is used to study high-accuracy measurements of rotational lines of four isotopologues of water, H 2 16 O, H 2 17 O, H 2 18 O, and D 2 16 O, obtained by spectroscopy in the far-infrared (FIR) region of 15-170 cm -1 by Matsushima et al. [Matsushima F, Odashima H, Iwasaki T, Tsunekawa S, Takagi K. Frequency measurement of pure rotational transitions of H 2 O from 0.5 to 5 THz. J Mol Struct 1995; 352/353, 371-8; Matsushima F, Nagase H, Nakauchi T, Odashima H, Takagi K. Frequency measurement of pure rotational transitions of H 2 17 O and H 2 18 O from 0.5 to 5 THz. J Mol Spectrosc 1999;193: 217-23; Matsushima F, Matsunaga M, Qian GY, Ohtaki Y, Wang RL, Takagi K. Frequency measurement of pure rotational transitions of D 2 O from 0.5 to 5 THz. J Mol Spectrosc 2001;206: 41-6; Matsushima F, Tomatsu N, Nagai T, Moriwaki Y, Takagi K. Frequency measurement of pure rotational transitions in the v 2 =1 state of H 2 O. J Mol Spectrosc 2006;235: 190-5]. MARVEL validates the high accuracy of most of the measured line positions. It results in a considerable number of energy levels with an average internal uncertainty of only 40 kHz (2σ). It also supports serious inaccuracy problems when Watson-type A-reduced Hamiltonians are used for predicting the highly accurate rotational measurements for water. Finally, MARVEL suggests a large number of para-water levels, for example 41 for H 2 16 O, which are candidates for becoming frequency standards in the FIR region of 15-170 cm -1 (the 0.5-5 THz window) when an accuracy of about 0.1 MHz is deemed to be sufficient

  15. Silver nanoparticles inhibit the function of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and target genes: insight into the cytotoxicity and antiangiogenesis

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    Yang T

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tieshan Yang,1 Qian Yao,1 Fei Cao,1 Qianqian Liu,1 Binlei Liu,2 Xiu-Hong Wang1 1Laboratory for Biomedical Photonics, Institute of Laser Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, 2Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 is a transcription factor that is activated upon exposure to hypoxic stress. It modulates a number of cellular responses including proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metabolism by activating a panel of target genes in response to hypoxia. The HIF-1 level is often upregulated in the hypoxic microenvironment of solid tumors, which contributes to cancer treatment failure. Here we report that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, which are widely used as an antimicrobial agent, are an effective inhibitor of HIF-1. AgNPs inhibited the activation of a HIF-dependent reporter construct after the cells were exposed to hypoxic conditions or treated with cobalt chloride, a hypoxia mimetic agent. The AgNPs also interfered with the accumulation of HIF-1α protein and the induction of the endogenous HIF target genes, VEGF-A and GLUT1. Since both HIF-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A play an important role in angiogenesis, AgNPs also inhibited angiogenesis in vitro. Our data reveal a new mechanism of how AgNPs act on cellular function, that is, they disrupt HIF signaling pathway. This finding provides a novel insight into how AgNPs can inhibit cancer cell growth and angiogenesis. Keywords: silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, hypoxia-inducible factor, transcriptional activity, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, angiogenesis

  16. Polyethylene glycol–polylactic acid nanoparticles modified with cysteine–arginine–glutamic acid–lysine–alanine fibrin-homing peptide for glioblastoma therapy by enhanced retention effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Junzhu Wu,1,2,* Jingjing Zhao,1,3,* Bo Zhang,1 Yong Qian,1 Huile Gao,1 Yuan Yu,1 Yan Wei,1 Zhi Yang,1 Xinguo Jiang,1 Zhiqing Pang1 1Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, 2School of Pharmacy, Dali University, Xiaguan, 3School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: For a nanoparticulate drug-delivery system, crucial challenges in brain-glioblastoma therapy are its poor penetration and retention in the glioblastoma parenchyma. As a prevailing component in the extracellular matrix of many solid tumors, fibrin plays a critical role in the maintenance of glioblastoma morphology and glioblastoma cell differentiation and proliferation. We developed a new drug-delivery system by conjugating polyethylene glycol–polylactic acid nanoparticles (NPs with cysteine–arginine–glutamic acid–lysine–alanine (CREKA; TNPs, a peptide with special affinity for fibrin, to mediate glioblastoma-homing and prolong NP retention at the tumor site. In vitro binding tests indicated that CREKA significantly enhanced specific binding of NPs with fibrin. In vivo fluorescence imaging of glioblastoma-bearing nude mice, ex vivo brain imaging, and glioblastoma distribution demonstrated that TNPs had higher accumulation and longer retention in the glioblastoma site over unmodified NPs. Furthermore, pharmacodynamic results showed that paclitaxel-loaded TNPs significantly prolonged the median survival time of intracranial U87 glioblastoma-bearing nude mice compared with controls, Taxol, and NPs. These findings suggested that TNPs were able to target the glioblastoma and enhance retention, which is a valuable strategy for tumor therapy. Keywords: CREKA peptide, nanoparticles, retention effect, paclitaxel, glioblastoma

  17. A novel spray-dried nanoparticles-in-microparticles system for formulating scopolamine hydrobromide into orally disintegrating tablets

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    Li FQ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Feng-Qian Li1, Cheng Yan2, Juan Bi1, Wei-Lin Lv3, Rui-Rui Ji3, Xu Chen1, Jia-Can Su3, Jin-Hong Hu31Department of Pharmaceutics, Shanghai Eighth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, Bethune International Peace Hospital, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of China; 3Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Scopolamine hydrobromide (SH-loaded microparticles were prepared from a colloidal fluid containing ionotropic-gelated chitosan nanoparticles using a spray-drying method. The spray-dried microparticles were then formulated into orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs using a wet granulation tablet formation process. A drug entrapment efficiency of about 90% (w/w and loading capacity of 20% (w/w were achieved for the microparticles, which ranged from 2 µm to 8 µm in diameter. Results of disintegration tests showed that the formulated ODTs could be completely dissolved within 45 seconds. Drug dissolution profiles suggested that SH is released more slowly from tablets made using the microencapsulation process compared with tablets containing SH that is free or in the form of nanoparticles. The time it took for 90% of the drug to be released increased significantly from 3 minutes for conventional ODTs to 90 minutes for ODTs with crosslinked microparticles. Compared with ODTs made with noncrosslinked microparticles, it was thus possible to achieve an even lower drug release rate using tablets with appropriate chitosan crosslinking. Results obtained indicate that the development of new ODTs designed with crosslinked microparticles might be a rational way to overcome the unwanted taste of conventional ODTs and the side effects related to SH’s intrinsic characteristics.Keywords: scopolamine hydrobromide, chitosan, nanoparticles-in-microparticles system, spray-drying, orally disintegrating tablets

  18. Biodegradable magnesium nanoparticle-enhanced laser hyperthermia therapy

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    Wang Q

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Qian Wang,1 Liping Xie,1 Zhizhu He,2 Derui Di,2 Jing Liu1,21Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, 2Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Recently, nanoparticles have been demonstrated to have tremendous merit in terms of improving the treatment specificity and thermal ablation effect on tumors. However, the potential toxicity and long-term side effects caused by the introduced nanoparticles and by expelling them out of the body following surgery remain a significant challenge. Here, we propose for the first time to directly adopt magnesium nanoparticles as the heating enhancer in laser thermal ablation to avoid these problems by making full use of the perfect biodegradable properties of this specific material.Methods: To better understand the new nano “green” hyperthermia modality, we evaluated the effects of magnesium nanoparticles on the temperature transients inside the human body subject to laser interstitial heating. Further, we experimentally investigated the heating enhancement effects of magnesium nanoparticles on a group of biological samples: oil, egg white, egg yolk, in vitro pig tissues, and the in vivo hind leg of rabbit when subjected to laser irradiation.Results: Both the theoretical simulations and experimental measurements demonstrated that the target tissues injected with magnesium nanoparticles reached much higher temperatures than tissues without magnesium nanoparticles. This revealed the enhancing behavior of the new nanohyperthermia method.Conclusion: Given the unique features of magnesium nanoparticles – their complete biological safety and ability to enhance heating – which most other advanced metal nanoparticles do not possess, the use of magnesium nanoparticles in hyperthermia therapy offers an important “green” nanomedicine modality for treating tumors

  19. Surrogate Model Application to the Identification of Optimal Groundwater Exploitation Scheme Based on Regression Kriging Method—A Case Study of Western Jilin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkai An

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a surrogate model to identify an optimal exploitation scheme, while the western Jilin province was selected as the study area. A numerical simulation model of groundwater flow was established first, and four exploitation wells were set in the Tongyu county and Qian Gorlos county respectively so as to supply water to Daan county. Second, the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS method was used to collect data in the feasible region for input variables. A surrogate model of the numerical simulation model of groundwater flow was developed using the regression kriging method. An optimization model was established to search an optimal groundwater exploitation scheme using the minimum average drawdown of groundwater table and the minimum cost of groundwater exploitation as multi-objective functions. Finally, the surrogate model was invoked by the optimization model in the process of solving the optimization problem. Results show that the relative error and root mean square error of the groundwater table drawdown between the simulation model and the surrogate model for 10 validation samples are both lower than 5%, which is a high approximation accuracy. The contrast between the surrogate-based simulation optimization model and the conventional simulation optimization model for solving the same optimization problem, shows the former only needs 5.5 hours, and the latter needs 25 days. The above results indicate that the surrogate model developed in this study could not only considerably reduce the computational burden of the simulation optimization process, but also maintain high computational accuracy. This can thus provide an effective method for identifying an optimal groundwater exploitation scheme quickly and accurately.

  20. Efficacy of intraarterial chemoinfusion therapy for locally advanced breast cancer patients: a retrospective analysis of 28 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang W

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wei Zhang,1,* Rong Liu,1,* Yingying Wang,1 Sheng Qian,1 Jianhua Wang,1 Zhiping Yan,1 Hongwei Zhang21Department of Interventional Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Department of General Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of image-guided delivery of intraarterially infused chemotherapeutic drugs for patients with locally advanced breast cancer.Methods: Twenty-eight patients with pathologically proven, locally advanced breast cancer received intraarterial chemoinfusion therapy (chemoinfusion with docetaxel 75 mg/m2 and epirubicin 50 mg/m2. Digital subtraction angiography was performed to determine tumor arterial blood supply and to guide chemotherapy infusion. Patients were evaluated for complete remission (CR and partial remission (PR.Results: Twenty-eight patients received a total of 64 intraarterial chemoinfusions, 20 patients (71.4% received two infusions, and eight patients (28.6% received three infusions. One patient (3.6% had CR and 23 (82.1% had PR. The total effectiveness rate (CR and PR was 85.7% (24/28. All stage 3 patients underwent Phase II surgical resection after chemoinfusion, and the surgical resection participation rate was 100% (26/26. The mean time from the first chemoinfusion to surgery was 2 ± 1.2 months. Two patients with stage 4 cancer died of distant metastasis and cachexia, and the remaining 26 patients were still alive.Conclusion: Intraarterial chemoinfusion is a safe and effective therapy, achieving down-staging in a relatively short period for locally advanced breast cancer.Keywords: advanced breast cancer, intraarterial infusion, chemotherapy, therapeutic effect

  1. Investigation of age-related decline of microfibril-associated glycoprotein-1 in human skin through immunohistochemistry study

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    Zheng Q

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Qian Zheng, Siming Chen, Ying Chen, John Lyga, Russell Wyborski, Uma SanthanamGlobal Research and Development, Avon Products Inc., Suffern, New York, USAAbstract: During aging, the reduction of elastic and collagen fibers in dermis can lead to skin atrophy, fragility, and aged appearance, such as increased facial wrinkling and sagging. Microfibril-associated glycoprotein-1 (MAGP-1 is an extracellular matrix protein critical for elastic fiber assembly. It integrates and stabilizes the microfibril and elastin matrix network that helps the skin to endure mechanical stretch and recoil. However, the observation of MAGP-1 during skin aging and its function in the dermis has not been established. To better understand age-related changes in the dermis, we investigated MAGP-1 during skin aging and photoaging, using a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies. Gene expression by microarray was performed using human skin biopsies from young and aged female donors. In addition, immunofluorescence analysis on the MAGP-1 protein was performed in dermal fibroblast cultures and in human skin biopsies. Specific antibodies against MAGP-1 and fibrillin-1 were used to examine protein expression and extracellular matrix structure in the dermis via biopsies from donors of multiple age groups. A reduction of the MAGP-1 gene and protein levels were observed in human skin with increasing age and photoexposure, indicating a loss of the functional MAGP-1 fiber network and a lack of structural support in the dermis. Loss of MAGP-1 around the hair follicle/pore areas was also observed, suggesting a possible correlation between MAGP-1 loss and enlarged pores in aged skin. Our findings demonstrate that a critical “pre-elasticity” component, MAGP-1, declines with aging and photoaging. Such changes may contribute to age-related loss of dermal integrity and perifollicular structural support, which may lead to skin fragility, sagging, and enlarged pores

  2. Characterization of the Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro

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    Junfang Fan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG is a novel shell vibratory gyroscope, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell. It sensitizes angular velocity through the standing wave precession effect. The bell-shaped resonator is a core component of the BVG and looks like the millimeter-grade Chinese traditional bell, such as QianLong Bell and Yongle Bell. It is made of Ni43CrTi, which is a constant modulus alloy. The exciting element, control element and detection element are uniformly distributed and attached to the resonator, respectively. This work presents the design, analysis and experimentation on the BVG. It is most important to analyze the vibratory character of the bell-shaped resonator. The strain equation, internal force and the resonator's equilibrium differential equation are derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. When the input angular velocity is existent on the sensitive axis, an analysis of the vibratory character is performed using the theory of thin shells. On this basis, the mode shape function and the simplified second order normal vibration mode dynamical equation are obtained. The coriolis coupling relationship about the primary mode and secondary mode is established. The methods of the signal processing and control loop are presented. Analyzing the impact resistance property of the bell-shaped resonator, which is compared with other shell resonators using the Finite Element Method, demonstrates that BVG has the advantage of a better impact resistance property. A reasonable means of installation and a prototypal gyro are designed. The gyroscopic effect of the BVG is characterized through experiments. Experimental results show that the BVG has not only the advantages of low cost, low power, long work life, high sensitivity, and so on, but, also, of a simple structure and a better impact resistance property for low and medium angular velocity measurements.

  3. Effects of Laser Printer–Emitted Engineered Nanoparticles on Cytotoxicity, Chemokine Expression, Reactive Oxygen Species, DNA Methylation, and DNA Damage: A Comprehensive in Vitro Analysis in Human Small Airway Epithelial Cells, Macrophages, and Lymphoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirela, Sandra V.; Miousse, Isabelle R.; Lu, Xiaoyan; Castranova, Vincent; Thomas, Treye; Qian, Yong; Bello, Dhimiter; Kobzik, Lester; Koturbash, Igor; Demokritou, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Background Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) incorporated into toner formulations of printing equipment become airborne during consumer use. Although information on the complex physicochemical and toxicological properties of both toner powders and printer-emitted particles (PEPs) continues to grow, most toxicological studies have not used the actual PEPs but rather have primarily used raw toner powders, which are not representative of current exposures experienced at the consumer level during printing. Objectives We assessed the biological responses of a panel of human cell lines to PEPs. Methods Three physiologically relevant cell lines—small airway epithelial cells (SAECs), macrophages (THP-1 cells), and lymphoblasts (TK6 cells)—were exposed to PEPs at a wide range of doses (0.5–100 μg/mL) corresponding to human inhalation exposure durations at the consumer level of 8 hr or more. Following treatment, toxicological parameters reflecting distinct mechanisms were evaluated. Results PEPs caused significant membrane integrity damage, an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine release in different cell lines at doses equivalent to exposure durations from 7.8 to 1,500 hr. Furthermore, there were differences in methylation patterns that, although not statistically significant, demonstrate the potential effects of PEPs on the overall epigenome following exposure. Conclusions The in vitro findings obtained in this study suggest that laser printer–emitted engineered nanoparticles may be deleterious to lung cells and provide preliminary evidence of epigenetic modifications that might translate to pulmonary disorders. Citation Pirela SV, Miousse IR, Lu X, Castranova V, Thomas T, Qian Y, Bello D, Kobzik L, Koturbash I, Demokritou P. 2016. Effects of laser printer–emitted engineered nanoparticles on cytotoxicity, chemokine expression, reactive oxygen species, DNA methylation, and DNA damage: a comprehensive in

  4. Time associated with intravenous zoledronic acid administration in patients with breast or prostate cancer and bone metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richhariya A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Akshara Richhariya1, Yi Qian2, Yufan Zhao2, Karen Chung11Amgen Inc, Global Health Economics, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA; 2Amgen Inc, Global Biostatistical Sciences, Thousand Oaks, CA, USAPurpose: Intravenous (IV zoledronic acid (ZA is commonly used to delay skeletal complications secondary to bone metastases. However, the time associated with ZA administration may represent a significant burden to healthcare providers and patients. This study assessed the time associated with IV ZA infusion in patients with bone metastases secondary to breast or prostate cancer (BC or PC in the clinic setting.Methods: Eligible BC or PC patients with bone metastases scheduled to receive IV ZA were observed at seven US-based oncology clinics. Trained observers recorded the time for preinfusion tasks, ZA drug preparation, intravenous infusion, and follow-up activities.Results: Data are reported for 39 patients (BC: 24; PC: 15. Mean administration time was 69 (standard deviation [SD] 42 minutes for all patients combined, 72 (SD 47 minutes for BC, and 65 (SD 33 minutes for PC. Activity times were comparable between tumor types. Mean time for preinfusion tasks (eg, assessment of vital signs, blood draw and ZA preparation were 12 (SD 20 minutes and 2 (SD 1 minutes, respectively. Mean time required for intravenous infusion (ZA infusion and hydration, when provided and follow-up activities were 54 (SD 31 minutes and 2 (SD 1 minutes, respectively.Conclusion: Infusion time was the greatest time commitment associated with IV ZA administration, representing 78% of the total time on average. Time for preinfusion activities varied substantially. Overall, the mean time for ZA administration represents a notable time burden for healthcare providers and patients.Keywords: time and motion, bisphosphonates, zoledronic acid, intravenous administration

  5. Measurement of treatment adherence with antipsychotic agents in patients with schizophrenia

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    Xinhua S Ren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Xinhua S Ren1,2,3, Lawrence Herz4,5, Shirley Qian1,2,3, Eric Smith3,4, Lewis E Kazis1,2,31The Center for the Assessment of Pharmaceutical Practices (CAPP, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Health Policy and Management, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 3Center for Health Quality, Outcomes, and Economic Research, Bedford Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Bedford, MA, USA; 4Division of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 5Mental Health Service Line, Bedford VA Medical Center, Bedford, MA, USAAbstract: The importance of medication adherence in sustaining control of schizophrenic symptoms has generated a great deal of interest in comparing levels of treatment adherence with different antipsychotic agents. However, the bulk of the research has yielded results that are often inconsistent. In this prospective, observational study, we assessed the measurement properties of 3 commonly used, pharmacy-based measures of treatment adherence with antipsychotic agents in schizophrenia using data from the Veterans Health Administration during 2000 to 2005. Patients were selected if they were on antipsychotics and diagnosed with schizophrenia (N = 18,425. A gap of ≥30 days (with no filled index medication was used to define discontinuation of treatment as well as medication “episodes,” or the number of times a patient returned to the same index agent after discontinuation of treatment within a 1-year period. The study found that the 3 existing measures differed in their approaches in measuring treatment adherence, suggesting that studies using these different measures would generate different levels of treatment adherence across antipsychotic agents. Considering the measurement problems associated with each existing approach, we offered a new, medication episode-specific approach, which would provide a fairer comparison of the levels of treatment adherence

  6. Antitumor effect of manumycin on colorectal cancer cells by increasing the reactive oxygen species production and blocking PI3K-AKT pathway

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    Zhang JY

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jingyu Zhang,1 Hua Jiang,2 Li Xie,1 Jing Hu,1 Li Li,1 Mi Yang,1 Lei Cheng,1 Baorui Liu,1 Xiaoping Qian1 1Department of the Comprehensive Cancer Center, Affiliated Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 2Department of Oncology, Affiliated Changzhou No 2 People’s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Manumycin is a natural, well-tolerated microbial metabolite and is regarded as a farnesyltransferase inhibitor. Some data suggest that manumycin inhibits proliferation of diverse cancer cells through various pathways. However, the antitumor effect of manumycin on colorectal cancer (CRC remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of manumycin on CRC in vitro and in vivo. The results of cell viability assay revealed that the proliferation of the CRC cells was significantly inhibited by manumycin. Moreover, cell apoptosis induced by manumycin was also found in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, treatment of the CRC cells with manumycin resulted in increased generation of reactive oxygen species. Subsequently, manumycin also decreased the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K and AKT, as well as the expression of caspase-9 and poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in a time-dependent manner. In addition, we found that N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC attenuated the effect of manumycin on the PI3K-AKT pathway, and wortmannin reduced the effect of manumycin on caspase-9 and PARP expression. More importantly, the anticancer effect of manumycin was also observed in established tumor xenografts. Taken together, these findings supported the potential application of manumycin against colorectal carcinoma. Keywords: manumycin, colorectal cancer, PI3K-AKT pathway, ROS

  7. Supplementary catalogue of the Anthomyiidae (Diptera of China

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    Mengmeng Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present catalogue of Anthomyiidae attempts to list all species (173 described or recorded from mainland China (165 and Taiwan (8 that for various reasons are not treated in “Flies of China” from 1998. The catalogue further lists Chinese species that are presently standing in new generic combinations compared to those of “Flies of China”, species that have changed name because of synonymy or misidentification, and species upgraded from subspecies to species. Regional distribution by province is specified for all species. Literature sources to descriptions or records of anthomyiid species from China are only given for those 173 species not covered by “Flies of China”. Four new combinations are proposed: Enneastigma fulva (Malloch, 1934, Enneastigma henanensis (Ge & Fan, 1982, Enneastigma lengshanensis (Xue, 2001 and Hylemya qinghaiensis (Fan, Chen & Ma, 1989. Eremomyia turbida Huckett, 1951 is revived from synonymy with Chortophila triticiperda Stein, 1900 (current name Eutrichota turbida. One subspecies is upgraded to species: Adia asiatica Fan, 1988. The following eight new synonymies are proposed: Delia pectinator fuscilateralis Fan in Fan & Zheng, 1992 with Delia pectinator Suwa, 1984; Eremomyia pilimana pilimarginata Fan & Qian in Fan, Chen, Ma & Ge, 1982 with Eremomyia turbida Huckett, 1951 (current name Eutrichota turbida; Lopesohylemya Fan, Chen & Ma, 1989 with Hylemya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830; Deliomyia Fan in Fan et al., 1988 with Subhylemyia Ringdahl, 1933; Hydrophoria disticrassa Xue & Bai, 2009 with Hydrophoria pullata Wu, Liu & Wei, 1995 (current name Zaphne pullata; Heteroterma Wei, 2006 with Scathophaga Meigen, 1803; Heteroterma fanjingensis Wei, 2006 with Scathophaga curtipilata Feng, 2002; Scatomyza fansipanicola Ozerov in Ozerov & Krivosheina, 2011 with Scathophaga curtipilata Feng, 2002. The genus Heteroterma Wei, 2006 and species Heteroterma fanjingensis Wei, 2006 are reassigned from Anthomyiidae to

  8. GX1-conjugated poly(lactic acid nanoparticles encapsulating Endostar for improved in vivo anticolorectal cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Y

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Yang Du,1,* Qian Zhang,1,* Lijia Jing,2 Xiaolong Liang,2 Chongwei Chi,1 Yaqian Li,1 Xin Yang,1 Zhifei Dai,2 Jie Tian1 1Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, The State Key Laboratory of Management and Control for Complex Systems, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Tumor angiogenesis plays a key role in tumor growth and metastasis; thus, targeting tumor-associated angiogenesis is an important goal in cancer therapy. However, the efficient delivery of drugs to tumors remains a key issue in antiangiogenesis therapy. GX1, a peptide identified by phage-display technology, is a novel tumor vasculature endothelium-specific ligand and possesses great potential as a targeted vector and antiangiogenic agent in the diagnosis and treatment of human cancers. Endostar, a novel recombinant human endostatin, has been shown to inhibit tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we developed a theranostic agent composed of GX1-conjugated poly(lactic acid nanoparticles encapsulating Endostar (GPENs and labeled with the near-infrared dye IRDye 800CW to improve colorectal tumor targeting and treatment efficacy in vivo. The in vivo fluorescence molecular imaging data showed that GPENs (IRDye 800CW more specifically targeted tumors than free IRDye 800CW in colorectal tumor-bearing mice. Moreover, the antitumor efficacy was evaluated by bioluminescence imaging and immunohistology, revealing that GPENs possessed improved antitumor efficacy on subcutaneous colorectal xenografts compared to other treatment groups. Thus, our study showed that GPENs, a novel GX1 peptide guided form of nanoscale Endostar, can be used as a theranostic agent to facilitate more efficient targeted therapy and enable real-time monitoring of therapeutic efficacy in vivo

  9. Gene therapy for C-26 colon cancer using heparin-polyethyleneimine nanoparticle-mediated survivin T34A

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    Zhang L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ling Zhang1,*, Xiang Gao1,2,*, Ke Men1, BiLan Wang1, Shuang Zhang1, Jinfeng Qiu1, Meijuan Huang1, MaLing Gou1, Ning Huang2, ZhiYong Qian1, Xia Zhao1, YuQuan Wei11State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, 2Department of Pathophysiology, College of Preclinical and Forensic Medical Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Gene therapy provides a novel method for the prevention and treatment of cancer, but the clinical application of gene therapy is restricted, mainly because of the absence of an efficient and safe gene delivery system. Recently, we developed a novel nonviral gene carrier, ie, heparin-polyethyleneimine (HPEI nanoparticles for this purpose.Methods and results: HPEI nanoparticles were used to deliver plasmid-expressing mouse survivin-T34A (ms-T34A to treat C-26 carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. According to the in vitro studies, HPEI nanoparticles could efficiently transfect the pGFP report gene into C-26 cells, with a transfection efficiency of 30.5% ± 2%. Moreover, HPEI nanoparticle-mediated ms-T34A could efficiently inhibit the proliferation of C-26 cells by induction of apoptosis in vitro. Based on the in vivo studies, HPEI nanoparticles could transfect the Lac-Z report gene into C-26 cells in vivo. Intratumoral injection of HPEI nanoparticle-mediated ms-T34A significantly inhibited growth of subcutaneous C-26 carcinoma in vivo by induction of apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis.Conclusion: This research suggests that HPEI nanoparticle-mediated ms-T34A may have a promising role in C-26 colon carcinoma therapy.Keywords: gene therapy, mouse survivin-T34A, colon cancer, polyethyleneimine, nanoparticles, cancer therapy

  10. Improved performance of diatomite-based dental nanocomposite ceramics using layer-by-layer assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu X

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoli Lu1,2, Yang Xia1, Mei Liu1, Yunzhu Qian3, Xuefeng Zhou4, Ning Gu4, Feimin Zhang1,41Institute of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 2Nantong Stomatological Hospital, Nantong, 3Center of Stomatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University, Suzhou, 4Suzhou Institute, Southeast University, Suzhou, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: To fabricate high-strength diatomite-based ceramics for dental applications, the layer-by-layer technique was used to coat diatomite particles with cationic [poly(allylamine hydrochloride] and anionic [poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate] polymers to improve the dispersion and adsorption of positively charged nano-ZrO2 (zirconia as a reinforcing agent. The modified diatomite particles had reduced particle size, narrower size distribution, and were well dispersed, with good adsorption of nano-ZrO2. To determine the optimum addition levels for nano-ZrO2, ceramics containing 0, 20, 25, 30, and 35 wt% nano-ZrO2 were sintered and characterized by the three-point bending test and microhardness test. In addition to scanning electron microscopy, propagation phase-contrast synchrotron X-ray microtomography was used to examine the internal structure of the ceramics. The addition of 30 wt% nano-ZrO2 resulted in the highest flexural strength and fracture toughness with reduced porosity. Shear bond strength between the core and veneer of our diatomite ceramics and the most widely used dental ceramics were compared; the shear bond strength value for the diatomite-based ceramics was found to be significantly higher than for other groups (P < 0.05. Our results show that diatomite-based nanocomposite ceramics are good potential candidates for ceramic-based dental materials.Keywords: layer-by-layer, diatomite, nanoceramics, zirconia (ZrO2, dental materials

  11. Changing patient safety culture in China: a case study of an experimental Chinese hospital from a comparative perspective

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    Xu XP

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Xiao Ping Xu,* Dong Ning Deng,* Yong Hong Gu, Chui Shan Ng, Xiao Cai, Jun Xu, Xin Shi Zhang, Dong Ge Ke, Qian Hui Yu, Chi Kuen Chan Clinical Service Department, The University of Hong Kong - Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The World Health Organization highlights that patient safety interventions are not lacking but that the local context affects their successful implementation. Increasing attention is being paid to patient safety in Mainland China, yet few studies focus on patient safety in organizations with mixed cultures. This paper evaluates the current patient safety culture in an experimental Chinese hospital with a Hong Kong hospital management culture, and it aims to explore the application of Hong Kong’s patient safety strategies in the context of Mainland China. Methods: A quantitative survey of 307 hospital staff members was conducted using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire. The findings were compared with a similar study on general Chinese hospitals and were appraised with reference to the Manchester Patient Safety Framework. Results: Lower scores were observed among participants with the following characteristics: males, doctors, those with more work experience, those with higher education, and those from the general practice and otolaryngology departments. However, the case study hospital achieved better scores in management expectations, actions and support for patient safety, incident reporting and communication, and teamwork within units. Its weaknesses were related to non-punitive responses to errors, teamwork across units, and staffing. Conclusions: The case study hospital contributes to a changing patient safety culture in Mainland China, yet its patient safety culture remains mostly bureaucratic. Further efforts could be made to deepen the staff’s patient safety culture mind-set, to realize a

  12. Recombinant high-density lipoprotein nanoparticles containing gadolinium-labeled cholesterol for morphologic and functional magnetic resonance imaging of the liver

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    Rui M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mengjie Rui,1 Wei Guo,2 Qian Ding,2 Xiaohui Wei,2 Jianrong Xu,3 Yuhong Xu21School of Life Science and Biotechnology, 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital Affiliation with Medical School of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Natural high-density lipoproteins (HDL possess important physiological functions to the transport of cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to the liver for metabolic degradation and excretion in the bile.Methods and results: In this work, we took advantage of this pathway and prepared two different gadolinium (Gd-DTPA-labeled cholesterol-containing recombinant HDL nanoparticles (Gd-chol-HDL and Gd-(chol2-HDL as liver-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents. The reconstituted HDL nanoparticles had structural similarity to native HDL, and could be taken up by HepG2 cells via interaction with HDL receptors in vitro. In vivo MRI studies in rats after intravenous injections of 10 µmol gadolinium per kg of recombinant HDL nanoparticles indicated that both nanoparticles could provide signal enhancement in the liver and related organs. However, different T1-weighted image details suggested that they participated in different cholesterol metabolism and excretion pathways in the liver.Conclusion: Such information could be highly useful to differentiate functional changes as well as anatomic differences in the liver. These cholesterol-derived contrast agents and their recombinant HDL preparations may warrant further development as a new class of contrast agents for MRI of the liver and related organs.Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging, apolipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, contrast agent, gadolinium, liver

  13. A new pulmonary rehabilitation maintenance strategy through home-visiting and phone contact in COPD

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    Li Y

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Yi Li,1,2 Jing Feng,3,4 Yuechuan Li,2 Wei Jia,2 Hongyu Qian2 1Graduate School, Tianjin Medical University, 2Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Tianjin Chest Hospital, 3Respiratory Department, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 4Neuropharmacology Section, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA Background: The benefit of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR for patients with COPD diminishes over time. We investigated a new strategy involving home-visit and phone contact and compared this to usual care in maintenance of PR benefits.Methods: A total of 172 stable COPD patients receiving 8-week PR program were recruited for this prospective study. Patients were allocated into usual care group (UC and PR maintenance group (PRMG randomly. Patients in PRMG participated in maintenance strategy at home under supervision through home-visit and phone contact. The 6-minute walking test (6MWT, COPD assessment test (CAT, and modified Medical Research Council scale (mMRC scores were evaluated every 3 months.Results: Of the total, 151 patients completed 8-week PR program with satisfactory PR results (p<0.001, and 104 patients finished the follow-up. The clinical improvements in 6MWT, CAT, and mMRC scores were maintained (p<0.001 in PRMG. In comparison, the benefit of PR diminished gradually in UC. The differences in 6MWT, CAT, and mMRC scores between groups were observed 6, 9, and 6 months after PR, respectively (p<0.05. Total frequency of exacerbations in PRMG was lower than UC (p=0.021.Conclusion: Maintenance strategy involving home-visit and phone contact is superior to usual care to preserve PR benefits, and reduces the acute COPD exacerbation rate. Keywords: COPD, pulmonary rehabilitation, 6-minute walking test, COPD assessment test, maintenance 

  14. Ranges of Iodine and Bromine Isotopes Produced in the Interaction of High-Energy Protons with Uranium; Isotopes de l'Iode et du Brome Produits par l'Interaction de Protons de Haute Energie avec l'Uranium; 041f 0420 041e 0411 0415 0413 0418 0418 0417 041e 0422 041e 041f 041e 0412 0419 041e 0414 0410 0418 0411 0420 041e 041c 0410 , 041f 041e 041b 0423 0427 0415 041d 041d 042b 0425 041f 0420 0418 0412 0417 0410 0418 041c 041e 0414 0415 0419 0421 0422 0412 0418 0418 041f 0420 041e - 0422 041e 041d 041e 0412 0411 041e 041b 042c 0428 041e 0419 042d 041d 0415 0420 0413 0418 0418 0421 0423 0420 0410 041d 041e 041c ; Alcance de los Isotopos del Yodo y del Bromo Producidos en la Interaccion de Protones de Alta Energia con el Uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, R. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1965-07-15

    la produccion de isotopos deficientes en neutrones vuelve a observarse empleando altas energias de bombardeo. El autor centra su estudio en esos isotopos deficientes en neutrones, que practicamente se producen solo a niveles superiores a 1 GeV; a energias de bombardeo mas elevadas, su alcance esta limitado aproximada mente a la mitad del alcance de los productos de fision normales, lo que indica que se forman en virtud de un proceso distinto del de fision. El autor examina estas conclus iones teniendo en cuenta modelosde 'espalacion ' y de ' fragmentacion '. definiendo de nuevo estos dos terminos. (author) [Russian] Obychnye jeksperimenty po probegam s ispol'zovaniem tolstoj uranovoj fol'gi vmeste s aljuminievymi lovushkami i dozimetrami provodjatsja na dvuh uskoriteljah CERN s protonami, imejushhimi jenergii 0,55 Bjev i 18,2 Bjev. Iod (ili brom) vydeljadtsja himicheshim putem i razdeljaetsja v separatore radioizotopov v CERN. V rezul'tate poluchajut obrazcy bez nositelja, soderzhashhie po sushhestvu tol'ko odin chistyj radioaktivnyj izotop. Opredeljaetsja takzhe vyhod himicheskih produktov. Analiz dannyh pozvoljaet poluchit' neposredstvenno probeg dlja kazhdogo izotopa v urane. Vse izotopy joda imejut odin i tot zhe probeg pri jenergii protonov 0,55 Bjev, t.e. oni vse obrazujutsja v processe delenija. Ranee bylo izvestno, chto izotopy Joda s izbytkom nejtronov imejut priblizitel'no odin i tot zhe probeg, nezavisimo ot togo,prevyshaet li jenergija protonov 1 Bjev ili ona nizhe jetogo urovnja, a takzhe, chto izotopy joda s nedostatkom nejtronov dajut rezkoe sokrashhenie, priblizitel'no na polovinu, pri uvelichenii jenergii protonov svyshe 1 Bjev. Pokazyvaetsja, chto jeto sokrashhenie probega proishodit dovol'no vnezapno, privodja k skachku na krivoj zavisimosti probega ot massy izotopa joda. Izotopy s nedostatkom nejtronov, imeja sokrashhennyj probeg pri jenergii protonov svyshe I Bjev, javljajutsja temi zhe samymi izotopami, v otnoshenii kotoryh nabljudalos' sil

  15. Ambient Air Pollution and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhengmin; Zhang, Bin; Liang, Shengwen; Wang, Jing; Yang, Shaoping; Hu, Ke; Trevathan, Edwin; Yang, Rong; Li, Qijie; Flick, Louise H; Hu, Ronghua; Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Yimin; Hu, Shixiang; Wang, Jing; Shen, Longjiao; Lu, Yuan; Peng, Hui; Yu, Yuzhen; Yang, Li; Chen, Wei; Liu, Wenjin; Zhang, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that maternal exposures to air pollution and temperature extremes might contribute to low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), and other outcomes that can adversely affect infant health. At the time the current study began, most other studies had been conducted in the United States or Europe. Dr. Zhengmin Qian proposed to extend work he had done on ambient particulate air pollution and daily mortality in Wuhan, China (Qian et al. 2010), as part of the HEIsponsored Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia program, to study adverse birth outcomes. Wuhan is the capital city of Hubei province, has a large population of about 6.4 million within the urban study area, experiences temperature extremes, and generally has higher air pollution levels than those observed in the United States and Europe, thus providing a good opportunity to explore questions about air pollution and health. Qian and colleagues planned a cohort and nested case–control design with four specific aims, examining whether increased exposures to air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, and CO) during vulnerable pregnancy periods were associated with increased rates of PTB, LBW (air pollution and daily weather data for August 2010 to June 2013 from nine monitoring stations representing background air pollution sites in seven Wuhan inner-city districts. Only two of these stations provided PM2.5 data. For the cohort study, the investigators assigned exposures to mothers according to the daily mean concentrations from the monitor nearest the residential community in which the mother lived at the time of the birth. For the case–control study, they assigned exposures based on the inverse distance weighted average of daily mean concentrations from the three nearest monitors, for all but PM2.5 for which the method was not specified. They also collected data on various factors that might confound or modify the impact of the pollutants on the adverse outcomes

  16. Efficacy and safety of icotinib as first-line therapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen YW

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Yan-Wei Shen,* Xiao-Man Zhang,* Shu-Ting Li, Meng Lv, Jiao Yang, Fan Wang, Zhe-Ling Chen, Bi-Yuan Wang, Pan Li, Ling Chen, Jin Yang Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and objective: Several clinical trials have proven that icotinib hydrochloride, a novel epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR–tyrosine kinase inhibitor, exhibits encouraging efficacy and tolerability in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC who failed previous chemotherapy. This study was performed to assess the efficacy and toxicity of icotinib as first-line therapy for patients with advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma with EGFR-sensitive mutation.Patients and methods: Thirty-five patients with advanced NSCLC with EGFR-sensitive mutation who were sequentially admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University from March 2012 to March 2014 were enrolled into our retrospective research. All patients were administered icotinib as first-line treatment. The tumor responses were evaluated using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST, version 1.1.Results: Among the 35 patients, the tumor objective response rate (ORR and disease control rate were 62.9% (22/35 and 88.6% (31/35, respectively. The median progression-free survival was 11.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.2–11.8 months, and median overall survival was 21.0 months (95% CI: 20.1–21.9 months. The most common drug-related toxicities were rashes (eleven patients and diarrhea (nine patients, but these were generally manageable and reversible.Conclusion: Icotinib monotherapy is effective and tolerable as first-line treatment for patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR-sensitive mutation. Keywords: lung neoplasms, icotinib hydrochloride, first-line treatment

  17. [Cervugid ovules in cervico-vaginal infections and cervix uteri precancerous conditions treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoschi, Ch; Anton, C; Anton, E; Costăchescu, Gh; Teleman, S; Costăchescu, G; Ciupilan, I; Cărăuleanu, M; Cărăuleanu, A; Leica, V; Pânzaru, C; Grigore, M; Merticaru, I; Huianu, O; Huianu, L; Chifan, M

    2004-01-01

    This medicine was authorized by the National Drug Agency (ANM, Bucureşti) in 2001. To evaluate the effectiveness and the tolerance to Cervugid-ovules, a preparation that combines the polyvalent local antiinflammatory action of chloramphenicol, metronidazole and nystatin with the effect of hydrocortisone acetate, an unspecific anti-inflammatory agent; they all are embedded in a Lipex-403, semisynthetic fat. The evaluation of 500 patients ages between 15 and 85 years with genital infections, registered in the files of "Cl. II Obst. and Gynecology" of the Cuza-Vodă Hospital from Iaşi has been studied. We studied the subjective manifestations (local discomfort and pelvic pains, local burning and dryness,vulvovaginal itching and dyspareunia) and objective manifestations (vaginal and cervical secretion, the cytotest performed and colored though the Papanicolaou method and reported in the Bethesda system). Healing of the subjective symptoms in 98%, healing of the leukorrhea--as a main objective symptom--in 95%; The Bethesda system cytotest was one of the inflammatory type in the most of the cases and there wew found in 85 cases: 6 ASCUS, 41 LSIL, and 37 HSIL. The use of Cervugid had a healing response in most of the cases when used in acute and chronic cervico-vaginal inflammatory processes. Cervugid may be considered as an important agent in the treatment of the precancerous affections af the cervix uteri on the following reasons: zhe cure of the infections caused by chlamydia, involved in the etiology of cervical neoplasms, the cure of the HPV infection under episome form, classified in the Bethesda system within the ASCUS, AGUS or LSIL classes. When the cytotest was in the HSIL class, a conization in the LLETZ method was performed. Cervugid is conceived for those three main categories of pathogenic factors related to the etiology of cervico-vaginitis: microbia germs, protozoa and mycosis. In addition, it is active on chlamydia and mycoplasms, always sensitive to

  18. Clinical and radiological characteristics of central pulmonary adenocarcinoma: a comparison with central squamous cell carcinoma and small cell lung cancer and the impact on treatment response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Z

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhe Wang,1,2 Minghuan Li,2 Yong Huang,3 Li Ma,3 Hui Zhu,2 Li Kong,2 Jinming Yu2 1School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China; 3Department of Radiology, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China Purpose: The proportion of central pulmonary adenocarcinoma (ADC in central-type lung cancer has been gradually increasing due to the overall increasing incidence of pulmonary ADC. But the clinical and radiological characteristics of central ADCs remain unclear. In this study, we compared the clinical and radiological characteristics of central ADCs with those of small cell lung cancers (SCLCs and squamous cell carcinomas (SQCCs and investigated the impact of these characteristics on patients’ treatment response. Patients and methods: The medical records of 302 consecutive patients with central lung cancer from July 2014 to September 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. There were 99 patients with ADC, 95 with SQCC and 108 with SCLC. Computed tomography images were interpreted by two radiologists. Treatment response was determined by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors 1.1. Results: Univariate analyses found that younger age, female sex, no history of smoking, higher levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, contralateral hilum lymphadenopathy, contralateral lung metastasis, pleural nodules and pleural metastasis to the interlobular fissure were significantly correlated with central ADC. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that compared with central SQCC, female sex, younger age, no history of smoking, higher levels of CEA and contralateral hilum lymphadenopathy were the significantly independent indicators of central pulmonary ADC. Furthermore, compared with central SCLC, younger age, higher levels of CEA and cytokeratin 19 fragment (Cyfra21-1, lower

  19. Cross-cultural validation of the educational needs assessment tool into Chinese for use in severe knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao H

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Huiwen Zhao,1,* Zhe Dong,2,* Fei Xie,3,4 Guanxin Wang,2 Zhihua Wen,5 Lixia Zhang,5 Mwidimi Ndosi,6,7 Wen Luo1 1Joint Department, The 2nd Ward of Joint Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin, China; 2Medical Examination Center, No 6 Hospital, Beijing, China; 3Nursing Experimental Teaching Center, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin, China; 4College of Nursing, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China; 5Joint Department, The 1st Ward of Joint Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin, China; 6Department of Nursing, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK; 7Academic Rheumatology Unit, Bristol Teaching Hospitals, Bristol, UK *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Patient education is an integral part of the management of osteoarthritis. The educational needs assessment tool (ENAT was developed in the UK to help direct needs-based patient education in rheumatic diseases. Aim: The aim of the study was to adapt and validate the ENAT into Chinese, for use in severe knee osteoarthritis (KOA. Methods: This cross-cultural validation study took two phases: 1 adaptation of the ENAT into Chinese (CENAT and 2 validation of the CENAT. The Construct validity was determined using factor analysis and criterion-related validity by comparing data from CENAT with data from different self-efficacy scales: patient–physician interactions scale (PEPPI-10, self-efficacy for rehabilitation outcome scale (SER, and the self-efficacy for exercise scale (SEE. Results: The sample comprised 196 patients, with mean age 63.6±8.7 years, disease duration was 11.5 years, and 57.1% were female. The CENAT was found to have high internal consistency. The CENAT had weak correlations with the Chinese versions of PEPPI r=0.40, SER r=0.40, and SEE r=0.39. There were no correlations with age r=-0.03 or disease duration r=-0.11. Conclusion: The ENAT translated well into Chinese and has evidence of validity in KOA. Future studies will further inform its

  20. Heavy metal pollution in reservoirs in the hilly area of southern China: Distribution, source apportionment and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Zhonghua; Cai, Yongjiu

    2018-09-01

    Reservoirs play more and more important role in providing potable water in many developing countries, including the China. In the present study, pollution characteristics, source and health risk of dissolved heavy metals in 19 representative reservoirs in the hilly area of southern China were investigated. The results presented great spatial heterogeneity in heavy metal concentrations among the studied reservoirs due to the disturbances by different anthropogenic activities. Several reservoirs had significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals compared with others, FengTan (FT) reservoir (0.34μg/L in dry season), Cr in reservoirs of HuangShi (HS) and ZheLin (ZL) with values of 4.16μg/L and 3.45μg/L in dry season respectively, and Al in reservoirs of JiaoKou (JK), GuTian (GT) and DouShui (DS) with values of 1011μg/L, 1036μg/L and 1001μg/L in wet season, respectively. Furthermore, there was a great difference in the seasonal variation of heavy metals, especially for Al and Pb in wet season characterized with relatively high values of 643μg/L and 0.67μg/L, respectively. Accordingly, Al was identified with a great health risk to living beings in view of its mean value in wet season, which greatly exceeded the criteria for drinking water of China, WHO and US EPA. Furthermore, As might be the greatest concern of health risk in this region considering its high carcinogenic risk to the local residents around the reservoirs of OuYangHai (OYH), DS, ZhiXi (ZX) and HS. Multivariate statistical analysis suggested that there was great heterogeneity in the sources of these heavy metals in the hilly area of southern China. Therefore, specific measures, such as controls on point source pollution control and tailings, should be taken for maintaining drinking water safety and aquatic ecosystem health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Clay mineralogy indicates the muddy sediment provenance in the estuarine-inner shelf of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yifei; Zou, Xinqing; Liu, Qing; Wang, Chenglong; Ge, Chendong; Xu, Min

    2018-02-01

    The estuarine-inner shelf mud regions of the East China Sea (ECS) are valuable for studying the source-to-sink processes of fluvial sediments deposited since the Holocene. In this study, we present evidence of the provenance and environmental evolution of two cores (S5-2 and JC07) from the estuarine-inner shelf regions of the ECS over the past 100 years based on 210Pb dating, high-resolution grain size measurements and clay mineral analyses. The results indicate that the clay mineral assemblages of cores S5-2 and JC07 are dominated by illite, followed by kaolinite and chlorite, and present scarce amounts of smectite. A comparison of these clay mineral assemblages with several major sources reveals that the fine sediments on the estuarine-inner shelf of the ECS represent a mixture of provenances associated with the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, as well as smaller rivers. However, the contribution of each provenance has varied greatly over the past hundred years, as indicated by the down-core variability due to strong sediment reworking and transport on the inner shelf and the reduction of the sediment load from the Yangtze River basin. In the mud region of the Yangtze River estuary, the sediment from 1930 to 1956 was primarily derived from the Yangtze River, although the Yellow River was also an important influence. From 1956 to 2013, the Yellow River contribution decreased, whereas the Yangtze River contribution correspondingly increased. In the Zhe-Min mud region, the Yangtze River contributed more sediment than did other rivers from 1910 to 1950; however, the Yangtze River contribution gradually decreased from 1950 to 2013. Moreover, the other small rivers accounted for minor contributions, and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) played an important role in the sediment transport process in the ECS. Our results indicate that the weakening/strengthening of the EAWM and a decrease in the sediment load of the Yangtze River influenced the transport and fate of sediment

  2. Syringomyelia presenting with unilateral optic neuropathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoo QZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Qi Zhe Ngoo, Evelyn Li Min Tai, Wan Hazabbah Wan Hitam Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia Purpose: In this case report, we present two cases of syringomyelia with optic neuropathy.Findings: In Case 1, a 36-year-old Malay lady presented to our clinic with acute onset of blurring of vision in her left eye that she experienced since past 1 month. She was diagnosed with syringomyelia 12 years ago and was on conservative management. Her visual acuity was 6/6 in the right eye and counting fingers at 1 m in the left. There was a positive relative afferent pupillary defect in her left eye. Optic nerve functions of her left eye were reduced. Visual field showed a left inferior field defect. Her extraocular muscle movements were full. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine showed syringomyelia at the level of C2–C6 and T2–T9. Both of her optic nerves were normal. Her condition improved with intravenous and oral corticosteroids. In Case 2, a 44-year-old Malay lady presented to our clinic with a progressive central scotoma in her right eye that she experienced since past 1 month. She had previous history of recurrent episodes of weakness in both of her lower limbs from past 8 months. Visual acuity in her right and left eye was 6/9 and 6/6, respectively. The relative afferent pupillary defect in her right eye was positive. Optic nerve functions of her right eye were affected. Visual field showed a central scotoma in her right eye. Her extraocular muscle movements were full. Fundoscopy of her right eye showed a pale optic disc. Her left eye fundus was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine showed syringomyelia at T3–T6. Both of her optic nerves were normal. A diagnosis of syringomyelia with right optic atrophy was performed. Her condition improved with intravenous and oral corticosteroids.Conclusion: Optic neuropathy is a rare neuro

  3. The efficiency and safety of trastuzumab and lapatinib added to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in Her2-positive breast cancer patients: a randomized meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen ZL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhe-Ling Chen, Yan-Wei Shen, Shu-Ting Li, Chun-Li Li, Ling-Xiao Zhang, Jiao Yang, Meng Lv, Ya-Yun Lin, Xin Wang, Jin Yang Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China Background: The addition of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2 therapies to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC during treatment of Her2-positive breast cancer has been proposed as an effective way to improve the prognosis. However, the treatment outcomes of adding trastuzumab, lapatinib, or both to NAC were not unequivocal in randomized clinical trials. Based on these data, a meta-analysis was performed. Objective: The main objective was to evaluate the efficiency and safety of trastuzumab and lapatinib added to NAC for treatment of Her2-positive breast cancer. Methods: ClinicalTrials.gov and PubMed were searched for randomized clinical trials that compared trastuzumab, lapatinib, or both, added to NAC. The main endpoint was a pathologically complete response (pCR rate, in breast only or in breast and lymph nodes. The drug safety and the influence of hormone-receptor status, comparing the clinical response and the rate of breast conservation, were evaluated. Results: A total of eight publications were included in the primary analysis, designed as two or three subgroups. The cumulative cases were 2,349 and the analyses of all the clinical trials showed that the pCR rate was significantly higher in the group receiving trastuzumab than that in the group with lapatinib, either in breast only (P=0.001 or in breast and lymph nodes (P=0.0001. Similar results could be seen in comparisons of the combination versus trastuzumab group. Further studies of subgroups divided into hormone receptor-positive or-negative patients showed that the addition of trastuzumab or dual Her2-targeted therapy significantly improved the pCR rate in patients who were hormone-insensitive. Regarding the toxic

  4. Provenance of the lower Miocene of the Gulf of Mexico from detrital zircon double dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    xu, J.

    2013-12-01

    The lower Miocene interval of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has recently gained increasing attention from oil and gas industry due to its hydrocarbon potential below the salt canopy. However, it has been less well studied than both the underlying Oligocene and overlying middle Miocene strata. The lower Miocene worldwide is a transitional period of tectonic, climatic, and oceanographic change. In particular, it is a period of major tectonic reorganization in the western interior of North America (Rocky Mountains), involving a shift from the Oligocene thermal phase, with abundant volcanic activity recorded in the thick Frio/Vicksburg succession of the GOM, to the Miocene Basin-Range extensional phase. Climatic conditions also changed from a relatively arid Oligocene to wetter Miocene, resulting in increased sediment yields from exhumed tectonic structures. Previous provenance studies used proportions of quartz, feldspar and lithic fragments and consideration of likely river courses through known paleogeomorphological elements. Only limited detrital zircon (DZ) U-Pb studies on Paleocene strata have been undertaken and there has been no previous U-Pb and (U-Th)/He double dating in the GOM. In this study we apply the latest analytical approaches, such as DZ U-Pb dating to gain robust source terranes ages and more fully elucidate the complex sediment provenance and dispersal history of GOM. We also employ DZ (U-Th)/He (ZHe) dating, combined with DZ U-Pb, to not only define sedimentary provenance but also the exhumation histories of detrital source regions. Samples of lower Miocene outcrop exposures in Texas and Louisiana have been collected to discriminate the varied tectonic and drainage system changes across the basin in lateral. In addition, samples from the Eocene, Oligocene and middle Miocene have been obtained to reveal vertical shift of source terranes contributions. Our initial age data show detrital zircons of lower Miocene sediments come from a wide range of source

  5. Cytotoxic effects of ZnO nanoparticles on mouse testicular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Z

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhe Han,1,* Qi Yan,1,* Wei Ge,2 Zhi-Guo Liu,1 Sangiliyandi Gurunathan,3 Massimo De Felici,4 Wei Shen,2 Xi-Feng Zhang1 1College of Biological and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 2Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement in Universities of Shandong, College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 4Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Nanoscience and nanotechnology are developing rapidly, and the applications of nanoparticles (NPs have been found in several fields. At present, NPs are widely used in traditional consumer and industrial products, however, the properties and safety of NPs are still unclear and there are concerns about their potential environmental and health effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential toxicity of ZnO NPs on testicular cells using both in vitro and in vivo systems in a mouse experimental model. Methods: ZnO NPs with a crystalline size of 70 nm were characterized with various analytical techniques, including ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The cytotoxicity of the ZnO NPs was examined in vitro on Leydig cell and Sertoli cell lines, and in vivo on the testes of CD1 mice injected with single doses of ZnO NPs.Results: ZnO NPs were internalized by Leydig cells and Sertoli cells, and this resulted in cytotoxicity in a time- and dose-dependent manner through the induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis likely occurred as a consequence of DNA damage (detected as γ-H2AX and RAD51 foci caused by increase in reactive oxygen

  6. Comparison of the short-term efficacy between docetaxel plus carboplatin and 5-fluorouracil plus carboplatin in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv X

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Xing Lv,1,2,* Wei-Xiong Xia,1,2,* Liang-Ru Ke,1,2 Jing Yang,1,2 Wen-Zhe Qiu,1,2 Ya-Hui Yu,1,2 Hu Liang,1,2 Xin-Jun Huang,1,2 Guo-Yin Liu,1,2 Qi Zeng,1,2 Xiang Guo,1,2 Yan-Qun Xiang1,2 1Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, 2Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Platinum-based chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy is a standard treatment strategy for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. This study aimed to investigate the long-term efficacy and tolerability of inductive chemotherapy with docetaxel plus carboplatin (TC or 5-fluorouracil plus carboplatin (FC followed by concurrent radiation therapy in patients with NPC. Methods: Patients (N=88 were randomized to receive TC or FC as inductive therapy followed by concurrent radiotherapy (60–70 Gy with two cycles of carboplatin (area under the curve =5 mg·h/L. Patients were followed up for 8 years. Primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS. Secondary end points included overall survival (OS, toxicity, tumor response, distant metastasis-free survival, and local recurrence-free survival. Results: At the end of the follow-up period, 31 patients died, 32 had disease progression, eleven had cancer recurrence, and 25 had distant metastasis. Overall, there was no difference between treatment groups with regard to response or survival. We found that following induction and concurrent chemoradiotherapy, the majority of patients showed a complete response (~96%–98% for induction therapy and 82%–84% for comprehensive therapy to both therapies. PFS and OS were also similar between groups. The rate of PFS was 63.6% for both FC and TC and that of OS was 65.9% and 63.5%, respectively. The overall incidence of grade 3–4 adverse events in the TC group (20.5% was higher than in the FC group (10.7%. Neutropenia and leukopenia

  7. Accurate reporting of adherence to inhaled therapies in adults with cystic fibrosis: methods to calculate normative adherence

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    Hoo ZH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhe Hui Hoo,1,2 Rachael Curley,1,2 Michael J Campbell,1 Stephen J Walters,1 Daniel Hind,3 Martin J Wildman1,2 1School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR, University of Sheffield, 2Sheffield Adult Cystic Fibrosis Centre, Northern General Hospital, 3Sheffield Clinical Trials Research Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK Background: Preventative inhaled treatments in cystic fibrosis will only be effective in maintaining lung health if used appropriately. An accurate adherence index should therefore reflect treatment effectiveness, but the standard method of reporting adherence, that is, as a percentage of the agreed regimen between clinicians and people with cystic fibrosis, does not account for the appropriateness of the treatment regimen. We describe two different indices of inhaled therapy adherence for adults with cystic fibrosis which take into account effectiveness, that is, “simple” and “sophisticated” normative adherence. Methods to calculate normative adherence: Denominator adjustment involves fixing a minimum appropriate value based on the recommended therapy given a person’s characteristics. For simple normative adherence, the denominator is determined by the person’s Pseudomonas status. For sophisticated normative adherence, the denominator is determined by the person’s Pseudomonas status and history of pulmonary exacerbations over the previous year. Numerator adjustment involves capping the daily maximum inhaled therapy use at 100% so that medication overuse does not artificially inflate the adherence level. Three illustrative cases: Case A is an example of inhaled therapy under prescription based on Pseudomonas status resulting in lower simple normative adherence compared to unadjusted adherence. Case B is an example of inhaled therapy under-prescription based on previous exacerbation history resulting in lower sophisticated normative adherence compared to unadjusted adherence and simple normative adherence

  8. Vancomycin-modified Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag microflowers as effective antimicrobial agents

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    Wang C

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chongwen Wang,1,2,* Kehan Zhang,2,* Zhe Zhou,2,* Qingjun Li,2 Liting Shao,2 Rong Zhang Hao,3 Rui Xiao,2 Shengqi Wang1,2 1College of Life Sciences & Bio-Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, 2Beijing Key Laboratory of New Molecular Diagnosis Technologies for Infectious Diseases, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, 3Institute for Disease Control and Prevention, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Nanomaterials combined with antibiotics exhibit synergistic effects and have gained increasing interest as promising antimicrobial agents. In this study, vancomycin-modified magnetic-based silver microflowers (Van/Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag microflowers were rationally designed and prepared to achieve strong bactericidal ability, a wide antimicrobial spectrum, and good recyclability. High-performance Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag microflowers served as a multifunction-supporting matrix and exhibited sufficient magnetic response property due to their 200 nm Fe3O4 core. The microflowers also possessed a highly branched flower-like Ag shell that provided a large surface area for effective Ag ion release and bacterial contact. The modified-vancomycin layer was effectively bound to the cell wall of bacteria to increase the permeability of the cell membrane and facilitate the entry of the Ag ions into the bacterium, resulting in cell death. As such, the fabricated Van/Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag microflowers were predicted to be an effective and environment-friendly antibacterial agent. This hypothesis was verified through sterilization of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 10 and 20 µg mL-1, respectively. The microflowers also showed enhanced effect compared with bare Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag microflowers and free-form vancomycin, confirming the synergistic effects of the combination of the

  9. Consumers' Use of UMLS Concepts on Social Media: Diabetes-Related Textual Data Analysis in Blog and Social Q&A Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Sook; He, Zhe; Chen, Zhiwei; Oh, Sanghee; Bian, Jiang

    2016-11-24

    media datasets shared frequent semantic types such as "Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein," "Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component," and "Disease or Syndrome." Although the 3 social media datasets vary greatly in size, they exhibited similar conceptual coverage among UMLS source vocabularies and the identified concepts showed similar semantic type distributions. As such, concepts that are both frequently used by consumers and also found in professional vocabularies such as SNOMED CT can be suggested to OAC CHV to improve its coverage. ©Min Sook Park, Zhe He, Zhiwei Chen, Sanghee Oh, Jiang Bian. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 24.11.2016.

  10. Public reporting influences antibiotic and injection prescription in primary care: a segmented regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenxi; Zhang, Xinping; Wan, Jie

    2015-08-01

    Inappropriate use and overuse of antibiotics and injections are serious threats to the global population, particularly in developing countries. In recent decades, public reporting of health care performance (PRHCP) has been an instrument to improve the quality of care. However, existing evidence shows a mixed effect of PRHCP. This study evaluated the effect of PRHCP on physicians' prescribing practices in a sample of primary care institutions in China. Segmented regression analysis was used to produce convincing evidence for health policy and reform. The PRHCP intervention was implemented in Qian City that started on 1 October 2013. Performance data on prescription statistics were disclosed to patients and health workers monthly in 10 primary care institutions. A total of 326 655 valid outpatient prescriptions were collected. Monthly effective prescriptions were calculated as analytical units in the research (1st to 31st every month). This study involved multiple assessments of outcomes 13 months before and 11 months after PRHCP intervention (a total of 24 data points). Segmented regression models showed downward trends from baseline on antibiotics (coefficient = -0.64, P = 0.004), combined use of antibiotics (coefficient = -0.41, P < 0.001) and injections (coefficient = -0.5957, P = 0.001) after PRHCP intervention. The average expenditure of patients slightly increased monthly before the intervention (coefficient = 0.8643, P < 0.001); PRHCP intervention also led to a temporary increase in average expenditure of patients (coefficient = 2.20, P = 0.307) but slowed down the ascending trend (coefficient = -0.45, P = 0.033). The prescription rate of antibiotics and injections after intervention (about 50%) remained high. PRHCP showed positive effects on physicians' prescribing behaviour, considering the downward trends on the use of antibiotics and injections and average expenditure through the intervention. However, the effect

  11. Downregulation of long noncoding RNA TUG1 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis through the TUG1/miR-142/ZEB2 axis in bladder cancer cells

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    Liu Q

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Qian Liu,* Hui Liu,* Hepeng Cheng, Yang Li, Xiaodong Li, Chaoyang Zhu Department of Urology Surgery, Huaihe Hospital of Henan University, Kaifeng, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Bladder cancer is a common serious disease around the world. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs have been demonstrated to participate in the development and progression of various cancers, including bladder cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lncRNA taurine upregulated gene 1 (TUG1 on proliferation and apoptosis in bladder cancer cell lines and the underlying mechanism.Methods: The levels of TUG1 were detected by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR in bladder cancer tissues and cells. The mRNA and protein levels of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2 were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The functional targets of TUG1 were predicted by online softwares and confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. The effects of TUG1 on cell proliferation and apoptosis were examined by MTT and apoptosis assay, respectively. The expression levels of β-catenin, cyclinD1, and c-Myc in T24 cells were determined by Western blot analysis.Results: The levels of TUG1 and ZEB2 were significantly increased in bladder cancer tissues and cells. Knockdown of either TUG1 or ZEB2 inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in bladder cancer cells. Interestingly, ZEB2 overexpression reversed the effects of TUG1 knockdown on cell proliferation and apoptosis. Moreover, ZEB2 was verified as a direct target of miR-142 and miR-142 could specially bind to TUG1. In addition, downregulation of TUG1 inhibited the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by regulating ZEB2 expression in bladder cancer cells.Conclusion: Downregulation of TUG1 expression inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in bladder cancer cells by targeting ZEB2 mediated by miR-142 through the inactivation of Wnt

  12. Greener synthesis of electrospun collagen/hydroxyapatite composite fibers with an excellent microstructure for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou YY

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yuanyuan Zhou,1,2 Hongchang Yao,1 Jianshe Wang,1 Dalu Wang,1 Qian Liu,1 Zhongjun Li11College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Institute of Enviromental and Municipal Engineering, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: In bone tissue engineering, collagen/hydroxyapatite (HAP fibrous composite obtained via electrospinning method has been demonstrated to support the cells’ adhesion and bone regeneration. However, electrospinning of natural collagen often requires the use of cytotoxic organic solvents, and the HAP crystals were usually aggregated and randomly distributed within a fibrous matrix of collagen, limiting their clinical potential. Here, an effective and greener method for the preparation of collagen/HAP composite fibers was developed for the first time, and this green product not only had 40 times higher mechanical properties than that previously reported, but also had an excellent microstructure similar to that of natural bone. By dissolving type I collagen in environmentally friendly phosphate buffered saline/ethanol solution instead of the frequently-used cytotoxic organic solvents, followed with the key step of desalination, co-electrospinning the collagen solution with the HAP sol, generates a collagen/HAP composite with a uniform and continuous fibrous morphology. Interestingly, the nano-HAP needles were found to preferentially orient along the longitudinal direction of the collagen fibers, which mimicked the nanostructure of natural bones. Based on the characterization of the related products, the formation mechanism for this novel phenomenon was proposed. After cross-linking with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl-1-carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide, the obtained composite exhibited a significant enhancement in mechanical properties. In addition, the biocompatibility of the

  13. HIV Trends in the United States: Diagnoses and Estimated Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, H Irene; Song, Ruiguang; Tang, Tian; An, Qian; Prejean, Joseph; Dietz, Patricia; Hernandez, Angela L; Green, Timothy; Harris, Norma; McCray, Eugene; Mermin, Jonathan

    2017-02-03

    race or ethnicity groups. Further progress depends on effectively reducing HIV incidence among MSM, among whom the majority of new infections occur. ©H Irene Hall, Ruiguang Song, Tian Tang, Qian An, Joseph Prejean, Patricia Dietz, Angela L Hernandez, Timothy Green, Norma Harris, Eugene McCray, Jonathan Mermin. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 03.02.2017.

  14. D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate-based derivative nanoparticles as a novel carrier for paclitaxel delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu YP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Yupei Wu,1,* Qian Chu,2,* Songwei Tan,1 Xiangting Zhuang,1 Yuling Bao,1 Tingting Wu,1 Zhiping Zhang1,3,41Tongji School of Pharmacy, 2Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical School, 3Hubei Engineering Research Center for NDDS, 4National Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Paclitaxel (PTX is one of the most effective antineoplastic drugs. Its current clinical administration Taxol® is formulated in Cremophor EL, which causes serious side effects. Nanoparticles (NP with lower systemic toxicity and enhanced therapeutic efficiency may be an alternative formulation of the Cremophor EL-based vehicle for PTX delivery. In this study, novel amphipathic 4-arm-PEG-TPGS derivatives, the conjugation of D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS and 4-arm-polyethylene glycol (4-arm-PEG with different molecular weights, have been successfully synthesized and used as carriers for the delivery of PTX. These 4-arm-PEG-TPGS derivatives were able to self-assemble to form uniform NP with PTX encapsulation. Among them, 4-arm-PEG5K-TPGS NP exhibited the smallest particle size, highest drug-loading efficiency, negligible hemolysis rate, and high physiologic stability. Therefore, it was chosen for further in vitro and in vivo investigations. Facilitated by the effective uptake of the NP, the PTX-loaded 4-arm-PEG5K-TPGS NP showed greater cytotoxicity compared with free PTX against human ovarian cancer (A2780, non-small cell lung cancer (A549, and breast adenocarcinoma cancer (MCF-7 cells, as well as a higher apoptotic rate and a more significant cell cycle arrest effect at the G2/M phase in A2780 cells. More importantly, PTX-loaded 4-arm-PEG5K-TPGS NP resulted in a significantly improved tumor growth inhibitory effect in comparison to Taxol® in S180 sarcoma-bearing mice models. This study suggested

  15. Cognitive effects of electro-acupuncture and pregabalin in a trigeminal neuralgia rat model induced by cobra venom

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    Chen RW

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruo-Wen Chen,1,2 Hui Liu,2 Jian-Xiong An,1,2 Xiao-Yan Qian,2 Yi-De Jiang,2 Doris K Cope,3 John P Williams,3 Rui Zhang,1 Li-Na Sun1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang City, Shandong, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Medicine and Critical Care Medicine, Aviation General Hospital of China Medical University and Beijing Institute of Translational Medicine, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; 3Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of electro-acupuncture (EA and pregabalin on cognition impairment induced by chronic trigeminal neuralgia (TN in rats. Design: Controlled animal study. Setting: Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Medicine and Critical Care Medicine, Aviation General Hospital of China Medical University. Subjects: Forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into four groups. The TN model was induced by administration of cobra venom to the left infraorbital nerve. On postoperative day 14, either EA or pregabalin was administered, free behavioral activities were observed. Spatial learning and memory abilities were determined in the Morris water maze. The ultrastructural alterations of the Gasserian ganglion, medulla oblongata and hippocampus were examined by electron microscopy. The changes on long-term potentiation were investigated. Results: After treatment, the exploratory behavior increased and the grooming behavior decreased (P<0.05 for the EA group and pregabalin group compared with the cobra venom group; moreover, demyelination of neurons in Gasserian ganglion and medulla oblongata was reversed. The number of platform site crossings, the average percentages of time in the target quadrant and the field excitatory postsynaptic potential slopes increased (P<0.05 in the EA group compared to the cobra venom group. However, the pregabalin group

  16. Improving the osteogenesis of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell sheets by microRNA-21-loaded chitosan/hyaluronic acid nanoparticles via reverse transfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Z

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhongshan Wang,1 Guangsheng Wu,2,3 Mengying Wei,4 Qian Liu,1 Jian Zhou,1 Tian Qin,1 Xiaoke Feng,1 Huan Liu,1 Zhihong Feng,1 Yimin Zhao1 1State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Prosthodontics, 2State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Dental Materials and Advanced Manufacture, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, 3Qingdao First Sanatorium, Jinan Military Region, Qingdao, Shandong Province, 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Cell sheet engineering has emerged as a novel approach to effectively deliver seeding cells for tissue regeneration, and developing human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (hBMMSC sheets with high osteogenic ability is a constant requirement from clinics for faster and higher-quality bone formation. In this work, we fabricated biocompatible and safe chitosan (CS/hyaluronic acid (HA nanoparticles (NPs to deliver microRNA-21 (miR-21, which has been proved to accelerate osteogenesis in hBMMSCs; then, the CS/HA/miR-21 NPs were cross-linked onto the surfaces of culture plates with 0.2% gel solution to fabricate miR-21-functionalized culture plates for reverse transfection. hBMMSC sheets were induced continuously for 14 days using a vitamin C-rich method on the miR-21-functionalized culture plates. For the characterization of CS/HA/miR-21 NPs, the particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology, and gel retardation were sequentially investigated. Then, the biological effects of hBMMSC sheets on the miR-21-functionalized culture plates were evaluated. The assay results demonstrated that the hBMMSC sheets could be successfully induced via the novel

  17. The efficacy and safety of alectinib in the treatment of ALK+ NSCLC: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan JS

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Junsheng Fan,1,2,* Zengfei Xia,1,* Xiaoli Zhang,1,* Yuqing Chen,1 Ruolan Qian,1 Sihan Liu,1 Danming You,1 Jian Zhang,1 Peng Luo1 1Department of Oncology, Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Alectinib is a second-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK inhibitor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat crizotinib-refractory non-small cell lung cancer. We performed this meta-analysis to synthesize the results of different clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of alectinib. Methods: A search of 3 databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library, was performed from the inception of each database through September 5, 2017. We have pooled the overall response rate (ORR, disease control rate, progression-free survival, and intracranial ORR to evaluate the efficacy of alectinib. Discontinuation rate, rate of dose reduction or interruption due to adverse events as well as the incidence of several adverse events were aggregated to evaluate its safety. Results: A total of 8 studies with 626 patients have been included in our study. The pooled efficacy parameters are as follows: ORR 70% (95% CI: 57% to 82%, disease control rate 88% (95% CI: 82% to 94%, progression-free survival 9.36 months (95% CI: 7.38% to 11.34%, and intracranial ORR 52% (95% CI: 45% to 59%. ALK inhibitor-naïve patients tend to have better responses than crizotinib-pretreated patients. The aggregate discontinuation rate is 7% (95% CI: 4% to 10%, and the pooled rate of dose reduction or interruption is 33% (95% CI: 24% to 42%. The incidences of most adverse events were relatively low, while the incidences of 2 frequently reported adverse events, myalgia (18% and anemia (25%, were even higher than with the first-generation ALK inhibitor

  18. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy plus nimotuzumab with or without concurrent chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

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    Huang JF

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Jianfeng Huang,1,* Qinzhou Zou,1,* Danqi Qian,1 Leyuan Zhou,1 Bo Yang,1 Jianjun Chu,1 Qingfeng Pang,2 Kewei Wang,2 Fuzheng Zhang1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University, 2Department of Epidemiology, Wuxi Medical School of Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT plus nimotuzumab with or without concurrent chemotherapy (CCT for patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC. Patients and methods: A total of 50 newly diagnosed patients with LA-NPC treated at the Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University between November 2011 and January 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients received the combined treatment modality of nimotuzumab plus IMRT. Nimotuzumab was administered concurrently with IMRT at a weekly dose of 200 mg. Neoadjuvant, concurrent or adjuvant chemotherapy with the doublet regimen of taxanes (docetaxel or paclitaxel plus platinum (cisplatin or nedaplatin were administered. Among the 50 patients, 43 (86.0% received ≥6 cycles of nimotuzumab (median 7 cycles, range 2–14 cycles and 29 (58.0% received two cycles of CCT with docetaxel plus nedaplatin. Results: With a median follow-up of 28.0 months, the 2-year progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival were 83.29% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 67.93%–91.72% and 97.67% (95% CI: 84.62%–99.67%, respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that cycles of nimotuzumab were significantly associated with PFS. Patients who received ≥6 cycles of nimotuzumab showed a better PFS than those receiving <6 cycles (P=0.006, whereas the addition of CCT failed to improve PFS. Oral mucositis was the most common adverse event, which was recorded as grade 3–4 in 18 (36.0% patients. Besides, two (4.0% patients experienced

  19. Effects of Improving Primary Health Care Workers' Knowledge About Public Health Services in Rural China: A Comparative Study of Blended Learning and Pure E-Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xingxin; Zhang, Zhixia; Sun, Fang; Liu, Qian; Peng, Weijun; Zhang, Heng; Yan, Weirong

    2017-05-01

    rural China, a blended-learning approach to BPHS training could result in a higher knowledge achievement and satisfaction level compared with a pure e-learning approach. The findings of the study will contribute knowledge to improve the competency of PHCWs in similar settings. ©Xingxin Zhan, Zhixia Zhang, Fang Sun, Qian Liu, Weijun Peng, Heng Zhang, Weirong Yan. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 01.05.2017.

  20. Comprehensive analysis of gene-expression profile in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Wei L

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lei Wei,1,* Dong Xu,2,* Yechang Qian,1 Guoyi Huang,1 Wei Ma,1 Fangying Liu,1 Yanhua Shen,1 Zhongfu Wang,1 Li Li,1 Shanfang Zhang,1 Yafang Chen1 1Department of Respiratory Disease, Baoshan District Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai, 2Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To investigate the gene-expression profile of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients and explore the possible therapeutic targets. Methods: The microarray raw dataset GSE29133, including three COPD samples and three normal samples, was obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus. After data preprocessing with the Affy package, Student’s t-test was employed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs. The up- and downregulated DEGs were then pooled for gene-ontology and pathway-enrichment analyses using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID. The upstream regulatory elements of these DEGs were also explored by using Whole-Genome rVISTA. Furthermore, we constructed a protein–protein interaction (PPI network for DEGs. The surfactant protein D (SP-D serum level and HLA-A gene frequency in COPD patients and healthy controls were also measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Results: A total of 39 up- and 15 downregulated DEGs were screened. Most of the upregulated genes were involved in the immune response process, while the downregulated genes were involved in the steroid metabolic process. Moreover, we also found that HLA-A has the highest degree in the PPI network. The SP-D serum level and HLA-A gene frequency in COPD patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (13.62±2.09 ng/mL vs 10.28±2.86 ng/mL; 62.5% vs 12.5%; P<0.05. Conclusion: Our results may help further the understanding of the mechanisms of

  1. Cancer survivors’ perspectives and experience on western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine treatment and rehabilitation: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JW

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ji-Wei Wang,1 Zhi-Qi Yang,1 Cong Liu,1 Si-Jia Chen,1 Qian Shen,1 Tian-Rui Zhang,1 Nancy S Partike,2 Zheng-Ping Yuan,3 Jin-Ming Yu1 1School of Public Health, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Public Health, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA; 3Shanghai Cancer Rehabilitation Club, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: In the People’s Republic of China, both western medicine (WM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM are the main treatment and rehabilitation options for cancer patients. This study aimed to explore cancer survivors’ perspectives and experience of treatment and rehabilitation, in order to promote patient-centered activities of treatment and rehabilitation.Methods: Using a qualitative research approach, 68 cancer survivors were recruited from eight community cancer rehabilitation organizations in Shanghai, People’s Republic of China. Eight focus group interviews were conducted. All these interviews were transcribed verbatim, and the data were analyzed by theme analysis.Results: WM was the main choice in treatment phase though study participants noted more side effects. TCM was primarily used in the recovery phase. The lack of communication between doctors and cancer patients appears to affect treatment adherence and impair the doctor–patient relationship. WM was expensive for diagnostic procedures and treatment, while the cumulative costs of frequent use of TCM in the long rehabilitation period were also high. Both treatment options created significant perceived economic burden on patients. Conflicting information about dietary supplements tended to make cancer survivors confused.Conclusion: Improving the communication between doctors and cancer patients helps to ameliorate cancer patient adherence and the effect of treatments. It is essential to educate cancer patients about the effect and cost of both WM and traditional TCM

  2. Correlation of primary middle and distal esophageal cancers motion with surrounding tissues using four-dimensional computed tomography

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    Wang W

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wei Wang,1 Jianbin Li,1 Yingjie Zhang,1 Qian Shao,1 Min Xu,1 Bing Guo,1 Dongping Shang2 1Department of Radiation Oncology, 2Department of Big Bore CT Room, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To investigate the correlation of gross tumor volume (GTV motion with the structure of interest (SOI motion and volume variation for middle and distal esophageal cancers using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT.Patients and methods: Thirty-three patients with middle or distal esophageal carcinoma underwent 4DCT simulation scan during free breathing. All image sets were registered with 0% phase, and the GTV, apex of diaphragm, lung, and heart were delineated on each phase of the 4DCT data. The position of GTV and SOI was identified in all 4DCT phases, and the volume of lung and heart was also achieved. The phase relationship between the GTV and SOI was estimated through Pearson’s correlation test.Results: The mean peak-to-peak displacement of all primary tumors in the lateral (LR, anteroposterior (AP, and superoinferior (SI directions was 0.13 cm, 0.20 cm, and 0.30 cm, respectively. The SI peak-to-peak motion of the GTV was defined as the greatest magnitude of motion. The displacement of GTV correlated well with heart in three dimensions and significantly associated with bilateral lung in LR and SI directions. A significant correlation was found between the GTV and apex of the diaphragm in SI direction (rleft=0.918 and rright=0.928. A significant inverse correlation was found between GTV motion and varying lung volume, but the correlation was not significant with heart (rLR=–0.530, rAP=–0.531, and rSI=–0.588 during respiratory cycle.Conclusion: For middle and distal esophageal cancers, GTV should expand asymmetric internal margins. The primary tumor motion has quite good correlation with diaphragm, heart, and lung. Keywords

  3. Self-assembled nanoparticles based on the c(RGDfk peptide for the delivery of siRNA targeting the VEGFR2 gene for tumor therapy

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    Liu L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Li Liu,1 Xiaoxia Liu,1 Qian Xu,1 Ping Wu,2 Xialin Zuo,3 Jingjing Zhang,1 Houliang Deng,1 Zhuomin Wu,1 Aimin Ji1 1Department of Pharmacy, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, Chengdu Integrated TCM & Western Medicine Hospital, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 3Institute of Neurosciences and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Key Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Channelopathies of Guangdong Province and the Ministry of Education of China, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The clinical application of small interfering RNA (siRNA has been restricted by their poor intracellular uptake, low serum stability, and inability to target specific cells. During the last several decades, a great deal of effort has been devoted to exploring materials for siRNA delivery. In this study, biodegradable, tumor-targeted, self-assembled peptide nanoparticles consisting of cyclo(Arg–Gly–Asp–d–Phe–Lys-8–amino–3,6–dioxaoctanoic acid–β–maleimidopropionic acid (hereafter referred to as RPM were found to be an effective siRNA carrier both in vitro and in vivo. The nanoparticles were characterized based on transmission electron microscopy, circular dichroism spectra, and dynamic light scattering. In vitro analyses showed that the RPM/VEGFR2-siRNA exhibited negligible cytotoxicity and induced effective gene silencing. Delivery of the RPM/VEGFR2 (zebrafish-siRNA into zebrafish embryos resulted in inhibition of neovascularization. Administration of RPM/VEGFR2 (mouse-siRNA to tumor-bearing nude mice led to a significant inhibition of tumor growth, a marked reduction of vessels, and a downregulation of VEGFR2 (messenger RNA and protein in tumor tissue. Furthermore, the levels of IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-12, and IL-6 in mouse serum, assayed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, did not indicate any immunogenicity of the RPM/VEGFR2

  4. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with recurrent pancreatic adenocarcinoma at the abdominal lymph nodes or postoperative stump including pancreatic stump and other stump

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    Zeng XL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Xian-Liang Zeng,* Huan-Huan Wang,* Mao-Bin Meng, Zhi-Qiang Wu, Yong-Chun Song, Hong-Qing Zhuang, Dong Qian, Feng-Tong Li, Lu-Jun Zhao, Zhi-Yong Yuan, Ping Wang Department of Radiation Oncology, Tianjin’s Clinical Research Center for Cancer and Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT using CyberKnife in the treatment of patients with recurrent pancreatic adenocarcinoma at the abdominal lymph node or stump after surgery. Patients and methods: Between October 1, 2006 and May 1, 2015, patients with recurrent pancreatic adenocarcinoma at the abdominal lymph node or stump after surgery were enrolled and treated with SBRT at our hospital. The primary end point was local control rate after SBRT. Secondary end points were overall survival, time to symptom alleviation, and toxicity, assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Results: Twenty-four patients with 24 lesions (17 abdominal lymph nodes and seven stumps were treated with SBRT, of which five patients presented with abdominal lymph nodes and synchronous metastases in the liver and lung. The 6-, 12-, and 24-month actuarial local control rates were 95.2%, 83.8%, and 62.1%, respectively. For the entire cohort, the median overall survival from diagnosis and SBRT was 28.9 and 12.2 months, respectively. Symptom alleviation was observed in eleven of 14 patients (78.6% within a median of 8 days (range, 1–14 days after SBRT. Nine patients (37.5% experienced Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 grade 1–2 acute toxicities; one patient experienced grade 3 acute toxicity due to thrombocytopenia. Conclusion: SBRT is a safe and

  5. Quantum dots immunofluorescence histochemical detection of EGFR gene mutations in the non-small cell lung cancers using mutation-specific antibodies

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    Qu YG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yan-Gang Qu,1 Qian Zhang,2 Qi Pan,3 Xian-Da Zhao,4 Yan-Hua Huang,2 Fu-Chun Chen,3 Hong-Lei Chen41Department of Pathology, The Central Hospital of Enshi Autonomous Prefecture, Enshi, 2Department of Molecular Pathology, Wuhan Nano Tumor Diagnosis Engineering Research Center, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Thoracosurgery, Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital of Wenling, Wenling, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutation status plays an important role in therapeutic decision making for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Since EGFR mutation-specific antibodies (E746-A750del and L858R have been developed, EGFR mutation detection by immunohistochemistry (IHC is a suitable screening test. On this basis, we want to establish a new screening test, quantum dots immunofluorescence histochemistry (QDs-IHC, to assess EGFR gene mutation in NSCLC tissues, and we compared it to traditional IHC and amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS.Materials and methods: EGFR gene mutations were detected by QDs-IHC, IHC, and ADx-ARMS in 65 cases of NSCLC composed of 55 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens and ten pleural effusion cell blocks, including 13 squamous cell carcinomas, two adenosquamous carcinomas, and 50 adenocarcinomas.Results: Positive rates of EGFR gene mutations detected by QDs-IHC, IHC, and ADx-ARMS were 40.0%, 36.9%, and 46.2%, respectively, in 65 cases of NSCLC patients. The sensitivity of QDs-IHC when detecting EGFR mutations, as compared to ADx-ARMS, was 86.7% (26/30; the specificity for both antibodies was 100.0% (26/26. IHC sensitivity was 80.0% (24/30 and the specificity was 92.31% (24/26. When detecting EGFR mutations, QDs-IHC and ADx-ARMS had perfect consistency (κ=0.882; P<0.01. Excellent agreement was observed

  6. TRPA1 in the spinal dorsal horn is involved in post-inflammatory visceral hypersensitivity: in vivo study using TNBS-treated rat model

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    Li Q

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Qian Li,1,* Cheng-Hao Guo,2,* Mohammed Ali Chowdhury,1 Tao-Li Dai,1 Wei Han,1,3 1Department of Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, 2Department of Pathology, Medical School of Shandong University, 3Laboratory of Translational Gastroenterology, Shandong University, Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: The transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1 channel, a pain transducer and amplifier, is drawing increasing attention in the field of visceral hypersensitivity, commonly seen in irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the role of TRPA1 in visceral nociception during post-inflammatory states is not well defined. Here, we explore the correlation between TRPA1 expression in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH and persistent post-inflammatory visceral hypersensitivity.Methods: We injected rats intracolonically with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS or vehicle (n=12 per group. Post-inflammatory visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by recording the electromyographic activity of the external oblique muscle in response to colorectal distension. TRPA1 expression and distribution in the spinal cord and colon were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry.Results: Animals exposed to TNBS had more abdominal contractions than vehicle-injected controls (P<0.05, which corresponded to a lower nociceptive threshold. Expression of TRPA1 in the SDH (especially in the substantia gelatinosa and the colon was significantly greater in the TNBS-treated group than in controls (P<0.05. In the SDH, the number of TRPA1-immunopositive neurons was 25.75±5.12 in the control group and 34.25±7.89 in the TNBS-treated group (P=0.023, and integrated optical density values of TRPA1 in the control and TNBS-treated groups were 14,544.63±6,525.54 and 22,532.75±7,608.11, respectively (P=0.041.Conclusion: Our results indicate

  7. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability study of two ondansetron oral soluble film formulations in fasting healthy male Chinese volunteers

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    Zhu YB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Yubing Zhu,1 Qian Zhang,1 Jianjun Zou,2 Meng Wan,1 Zheng Zhao,1 Junrong Zhu1 1Department of Pharmacy, 2Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Background: Ondansetron oral soluble film is designed to be applied on top of the tongue without requiring water to aid dissolution or swallowing, which is especially fitting for nausea and vomiting patients.Purpose: This study was conducted to compare the bioavailability of two 8 mg ondansetron oral soluble film formulations.Patients and methods: This randomized, open-label, two-period crossover study was performed under fasting conditions. A total of ten eligible subjects were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to receive a single 8 mg dose of the test and reference ondansetron oral soluble film formulations, followed by a 1-week washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. The concentrations of ondansetron were assayed using an liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS method. For analysis of pharmacokinetic properties, including the peak concentration of Tmax (Cmax, AUC from time 0 (baseline to t hours (AUC0–t, and AUC from baseline to infinity (AUC0–∞, blood samples were obtained at intervals over the 24-hour period after studying drug administration. Tolerability was assessed by monitoring vital signs and laboratory tests (hematology, blood biochemistry, hepatic function, and urinalysis and by questioning subjects about adverse events.Results: The mean (standard derivation [SD] relative bioavailability was 96.5 (23.7%. The 90% confidence intervals (CIs for the log-transformed ratios of Cmax and AUC0–t were 84.71%–103.28% and 91.38%–108.60%, respectively (P>0.05. Similar results were found for the data without log-transformation. No statistically significant differences were found based on analysis of variance. No significant adverse events occurred

  8. Effect of Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction on striatal glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid levels detected using microdialysis in a rat model of Tourette syndrome

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    Zhang W

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wen Zhang,1,* Li Wei,2,* Wenjing Yu,1 Xia Cui,1 Xiaofang Liu,2 Qian Wang,1 Sumei Wang2 1Department of Pediatrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital, 2Department of Pediatrics, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction (JPZDD is a dedicated treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS. The balance of neurotransmitters in the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical network is crucial to the occurrence of TS and related to its severity. This study evaluated the effect of JPZDD on glutamate (Glu and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA and their receptors in a TS rat model.Materials and methods: Rats were divided into four groups (n=12 each. TS was induced in three of the groups by injecting them with 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile for 7 consecutive days. Two model groups were treated with tiapride (Tia or JPZDD, while the control and the remaining model group were gavaged with saline. Behavior was assessed by stereotypic score and autonomic activity. Striatal Glu and GABA contents were detected using microdialysis. Expressions of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 and GABAA receptor (GABAAR were observed using Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: Tia and JPZDD groups had decreased stereotypy compared with model rats; however, the JPZDD group showed a larger decrease in stereotypy than the Tia group at a 4-week time point. In a spontaneous activity test, the total distance of the JPZDD and Tia groups was significantly decreased compared with the model group. The Glu levels of the model group were higher than the control group and decreased with Tia or JPZDD treatment. The GABA level was higher in the model group than the control group. Expressions of GABAAR protein in the model group were higher than in the control group. Treatment with Tia or JPZDD reduced the expression of GABAAR protein. In the case of the m

  9. Codelivery of curcumin and doxorubicin by MPEG-PCL results in improved efficacy of systemically administered chemotherapy in mice with lung cancer

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    Wang BL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bi-Lan Wang,1,* Yong-mei Shen,1,3,* Qiong-wen Zhang,1,* Yu-li Li,1 Min Luo,1 Ze Liu,1,2 Yan Li,1 Zhi-yong Qian,1 Xiang Gao,1 Hua-shan Shi1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medicine School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 2State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Department of Head and Neck Oncology, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 3Sichuang Haoyisheng Pharmacy, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Systemic administration of chemotherapy for cancer often has toxic side effects, limiting the doses that can be used in its treatment. In this study, we developed methoxy poly(ethylene glycol-poly(caprolactone (MPEG-PCL micelles loaded with curcumin and doxorubicin (Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL that were tolerated by recipient mice and had enhanced antitumor effects and fewer side effects. It was shown that these Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles could release curcumin and doxorubicin slowly in vitro. The long circulation time of MPEG-PCL micelles and the slow rate of release of curcumin and doxorubicin in vivo may help to maintain plasma concentrations of active drug. We also demonstrated that Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL had improved antitumor effects both in vivo and in vitro. The mechanism by which Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles inhibit lung cancer might involve increased apoptosis of tumor cells and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. We found advantages using Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles in the treatment of cancer, with Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL achieving better inhibition of LL/2 lung cancer growth in vivo and in vitro. Our study indicates that Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles may be an effective treatment strategy for cancer in the future. Keywords: methoxy poly(ethylene glycol, poly(caprolactone, curcumin, doxorubicin, micelles, cancer, treatment

  10. Anti-HER2 antibody and ScFvEGFR-conjugated antifouling magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for targeting and magnetic resonance imaging of breast cancer

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    Chen H

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hongwei Chen,1,* Liya Wang,1,2,* Qiqi Yu,1,2 Weiping Qian,3 Diana Tiwari,1 Hong Yi,4 Andrew Y Wang,5 Jing Huang,1,2 Lily Yang,3 Hui Mao1,2 1Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, 2Center for Systems Imaging, 3Department of Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine, 4Robert Apkarian Electron Microscopy Core, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 5Ocean NanoTech LLC, Springdale, AK, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Antifouling magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs coated with block copolymer poly(ethylene oxide-block-poly(γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (PEO-b-PγMPS were investigated for improving cell targeting by reducing nonspecific uptake. Conjugation of a HER2 antibody, Herceptin®, or a single chain fragment (ScFv of antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor (ScFvEGFR to PEO-b-PγMPS-coated IONPs resulted in HER2-targeted or EGFR-targeted IONPs (anti-HER2-IONPs or ScFvEGFR-IONPs. The anti-HER2-IONPs bound specifically to SK-BR-3, a HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cell line, but not to MDA-MB-231, a HER2-underexpressing cell line. On the other hand, the ScFvEGFR-IONPs showed strong reactivity with MDA-MB-231, an EGFR-positive human breast cancer cell line, but not with MDA-MB-453, an EGFR-negative human breast cancer cell line. Transmission electron microscopy revealed internalization of the receptor-targeted nanoparticles by the targeted cancer cells. In addition, both antibody-conjugated and non-antibody-conjugated IONPs showed reduced nonspecific uptake by RAW264.7 mouse macrophages in vitro. The developed IONPs showed a long blood circulation time (serum half-life 11.6 hours in mice and low accumulation in both the liver and spleen. At 24 hours after systemic administration of ScFvEGFR-IONPs into mice bearing EGFR-positive breast cancer 4T1 mouse mammary tumors, magnetic resonance imaging revealed signal reduction in the tumor as a result of the accumulation of the targeted IONPs

  11. Activation of PLC by an endogenous cytokine (GBP) in Drosophila S3 cells and its application as a model for studying inositol phosphate signalling through ITPK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yixing; Wu, Shilan; Wang, Huanchen; Hayakawa, Yoichi; Bird, Gary S; Shears, Stephen B

    2012-12-01

    Using immortalized [3H]inositol-labelled S3 cells, we demonstrated in the present study that various elements of the inositol phosphate signalling cascade are recruited by a Drosophila homologue from a cytokine family of so-called GBPs (growth-blocking peptides). HPLC analysis revealed that dGBP (Drosophila GBP) elevated Ins(1,4,5)P3 levels 9-fold. By using fluorescent Ca2+ probes, we determined that dGBP initially mobilized Ca2+ from intracellular pools; the ensuing depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores by dGBP subsequently activated a Ca2+ entry pathway. The addition of dsRNA (double-stranded RNA) to knock down expression of the Drosophila Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor almost completely eliminated mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ stores by dGBP. Taken together, the results of the present study describe a classical activation of PLC (phospholipase C) by dGBP. The peptide also promoted increases in the levels of other inositol phosphates with signalling credentials: Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, Ins(1,4,5,6)P4 and Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5. These results greatly expand the regulatory repertoire of the dGBP family, and also characterize S3 cells as a model for studying the regulation of inositol phosphate metabolism and signalling by endogenous cell-surface receptors. We therefore created a cell-line (S3ITPK1) in which heterologous expression of human ITPK (inositol tetrakisphosphate kinase) was controlled by an inducible metallothionein promoter. We found that dGBP-stimulated S3ITPK1 cells did not synthesize Ins(3,4,5,6)P4, contradicting a hypothesis that the PLC-coupled phosphotransferase activity of ITPK1 [Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5+Ins(1,3,4)P3→Ins(3,4,5,6)P4+Ins(1,3,4,6)P4] is driven solely by the laws of mass action [Chamberlain, Qian, Stiles, Cho, Jones, Lesley, Grabau, Shears and Spraggon (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 28117-28125]. This conclusion represents a fundamental breach in our understanding of ITPK1 signalling.

  12. Holliday junction–recognizing protein promotes cell proliferation and correlates with unfavorable clinical outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma

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    Hu B

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Baohong Hu,1,2,* Qianli Wang,3,* Yueju Wang,4 Jian Chen,2 Peng Li,2 Mingyong Han1 1Department of Health Care Oncology, East District of Shandong Provincial Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, 2Department of Medical Oncology, 3Department of Intensive Care Unit, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital Affiliated to Qingdao University, Yantai, Shandong, 4Department of Geriatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Aim: To investigate the expression and clinical significance of Holliday junction–recognizing protein (HJURP in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Methods: In this study, we detected the expression of HJURP protein in samples of 164 patients with HCC, and based on this, we divided the patients into two cohorts: high expression of HJURP and low expression of HJURP. We analyzed the correlation between HJURP expression and the clinicopathological factors using chi-square test. Survival significance of HJURP was defined by Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank test, and the independent prognostic factors were identified by Cox regression model. Using function assays of HCC cell lines, we investigated the influence of HJURP on the proliferation of HCC cells. Results: In our study, the proportion of patients with high HJURP expression was 25.6%, which was significantly associated with the tumor size and Barcelona clinic liver cancer stage. Univariate analysis confirmed that high HJURP expression was remarkably associated with poorer overall survival rates (P=0.003, as well as tumor number (P=0.016, tumor differentiation (P=0.047, TNM stage (P=0.005, and Barcelona clinic liver cancer stage (P=0.004. Multivariate analysis confirmed that high HJURP expression (P<0.001 acted as an independent prognostic risk factor of unfavorable prognosis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the expression of HJURP was significantly higher in

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations for the motion of evaporative droplets driven by thermal gradients along nanochannels

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Congmin

    2013-04-04

    For a one-component fluid on a solid substrate, a thermal singularity may occur at the contact line where the liquid-vapor interface intersects the solid surface. Physically, the liquid-vapor interface is almost isothermal at the liquid-vapor coexistence temperature in one-component fluids while the solid surface is almost isothermal for solids of high thermal conductivity. Therefore, a temperature discontinuity is formed if the two isothermal interfaces are of different temperatures and intersect at the contact line. This leads to the so-called thermal singularity. The localized hydrodynamics involving evaporation/condensation near the contact line leads to a contact angle depending on the underlying substrate temperature. This dependence has been shown to lead to the motion of liquid droplets on solid substrates with thermal gradients (Xu and Qian 2012 Phys. Rev. E 85 061603). In the present work, we carry out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as numerical experiments to further confirm the predictions made from our previous continuum hydrodynamic modeling and simulations, which are actually semi-quantitatively accurate down to the small length scales in the problem. Using MD simulations, we investigate the motion of evaporative droplets in one-component Lennard-Jones fluids confined in nanochannels with thermal gradients. The droplet is found to migrate in the direction of decreasing temperature of solid walls, with a migration velocity linearly proportional to the temperature gradient. This agrees with the prediction of our continuum model. We then measure the effect of droplet size on the droplet motion. It is found that the droplet mobility is inversely proportional to a dimensionless coefficient associated with the total rate of dissipation due to droplet movement. Our results show that this coefficient is of order unity and increases with the droplet size for the small droplets (∼10 nm) simulated in the present work. These findings are in semi

  14. Effects of HGF gene polymorphisms and protein expression on transhepatic arterial chemotherapeutic embolism efficacy and prognosis in patients with primary liver cancer

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    Chen HY

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hai-Yong Chen,1,2 Yao-Min Chen,3 Jian Wu,1,2 Fu-Chun Yang,1,2 Zhen Lv,1,2 Yi-Gang Qian,1,2 Shu-Sen Zheng1,2 1Department of Surgery, Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, 2Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, 3Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Objective: To investigate the correlations of two hepatocyte growth factor (HGF gene polymorphisms (rs5745652 and rs2074725 and their protein expression levels with the efficacy of transhepatic arterial chemotherapeutic embolism (TACE and prognosis in patients with primary liver cancer (PLC. Methods: From March 2011 to June 2012, 109 PLC patients (the case group who chose TACE as primary treatment and 80 healthy people (the control group who had undergone physical examination in The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University were selected during the same period. Gene polymorphisms of HGF rs5745652 and HGF rs2074725 were detected. Serum HGF level, treating efficacy, survival quality, and 3-year survival rate for PLC patients who received TACE were observed. Results: There were significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies of HGF rs5745652 and HGF rs2074725, between the case and control groups (all P<0.05. Compared with CT+TT genotype of HGF rs5745652, patients carrying CC genotype had lower serum HGF levels, higher efficacy, better survival quality, and prolonged 3-year survival rate (all P<0.05. In rs2074725, patients carrying CA+AA genotype had lower serum HGF levels, higher efficacy, better survival quality, and prolonged 3-year survival rate compared with patients carrying rs2074725 CC genotype (all P<0.05. Gene polymorphisms of HGF rs5745652 and HGF rs2074725, tumor size, and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage were independent prognostic factors for PLC (P<0.05. Conclusion: Our

  15. WE-AB-207A-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING): High-Resolution Cone-Beam CT of the Extremities and Cancellous Bone Architecture with a CMOS Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Q; Brehler, M; Sisniega, A; Marinetto, E; Stayman, J; Siewerdsen, J; Zbijewski, W [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zyazin, A; Peters, I [Teledyne DALSA, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Yorkston, J [Carestream Health, Inc, Penfield, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    -frequency imaging tasks through adoption of the CMOS detector and small FS x-ray source, motivating the use of these components in a new system for quantitative in-vivo imaging of trabecular bone. Financial Support: US NIH grant R01EB018896. Qian Cao is a Howard Hughes Medical Institute International Student Research Fellow. Disclosures: W Zbijewski, J Siewerdsen and A Sisniega receive research funding from Carestream Health.

  16. Electrospinning of calcium phosphate-poly(D,L-lactic acid nanofibers for sustained release of water-soluble drug and fast mineralization

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    Fu QW

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Qi-Wei Fu,1,* Yun-Peng Zi,1,* Wei Xu,1 Rong Zhou,1 Zhu-Yun Cai,1 Wei-Jie Zheng,1 Feng Chen,2 Qi-Rong Qian1 1Department of Orthopedics, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 2State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Calcium phosphate-based biomaterials have been well studied in biomedical fields due to their outstanding chemical and biological properties which are similar to the inorganic constituents in bone tissue. In this study, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP nanoparticles were prepared by a precipitation method, and used for preparation of ACP-poly(D,L-lactic acid (ACP-PLA nanofibers and water-soluble drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers by electrospinning. Promoting the encapsulation efficiency of water-soluble drugs in electrospun hydrophobic polymer nanofibers is a common problem due to the incompatibility between the water-soluble drug molecules and hydrophobic polymers solution. Herein, we used a native biomolecule of lecithin as a biocompatible surfactant to overcome this problem, and successfully prepared water-soluble drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers. The lecithin and ACP nanoparticles played important roles in stabilizing water-soluble drug in the electrospinning composite solution. The electrospun drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers exhibited fast mineralization in simulated body fluid. The ACP nanoparticles played the key role of seeds in the process of mineralization. Furthermore, the drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers exhibited sustained drug release which simultaneously occurred with the in situ mineralization in simulated body fluid. The osteoblast-like (MG63 cells with spreading filopodia were well observed on the as-prepared nanofibrous mats after culturing for 24 hours, indicating a high cytocompatibility. Due

  17. Combination of TRAIL and actinomycin D liposomes enhances antitumor effect in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo LG

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Liangran Guo1,2,4, Li Fan1,2, Jinfeng Ren1,2, Zhiqing Pang1,2, Yulong Ren1,2, Jingwei Li1,2, Ziyi Wen1,3, Yong Qian1,2, Lin Zhang1,2, Hang Ma4, Xinguo Jiang1,2 1School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Zhangheng Road, Shanghai, 2Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education and PLA, Shanghai, 3School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, People's Republic of China; 4College of Pharmacy, University of Rhode Island, RI, USAAbstract: The intractability of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC to multimodality treatments plays a large part in its extremely poor prognosis. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL is a promising cytokine for selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells; however, many NSCLC cell lines are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The therapeutic effect can be restored by treatments combining TRAIL with chemotherapeutic agents. Actinomycin D (ActD can sensitize NSCLC cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by upregulation of death receptor 4 (DR4 or 5 (DR5. However, the use of ActD has significant drawbacks due to the side effects that result from its nonspecific biodistribution in vivo. In addition, the short half-life of TRAIL in serum also limits the antitumor effect of treatments combining TRAIL and ActD. In this study, we designed a combination treatment of long-circulating TRAIL liposomes and ActD liposomes with the aim of resolving these problems. The combination of TRAIL liposomes and ActD liposomes had a synergistic cytotoxic effect against A-549 cells. The mechanism behind this combination treatment includes both increased expression of DR5 and caspase activation. Moreover, systemic administration of the combination of TRAIL liposomes and ActD liposomes suppressed both tumor formation and growth of established subcutaneous NSCLC xenografts in nude mice, inducing apoptosis without causing significant general toxicity. These results provide preclinical proof

  18. Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent predictor of long-term clinical outcomes in Chinese octogenarians with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Z

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Zhenhong Fu,1,* Geng Qian,1,* Hao Xue,1,* Jun Guo,1 Lian Chen,1 Xia Yang,1 Mingzhi Shen,2 Wei Dong,1 Yundai Chen11Department of Cardiology, Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Cardiology, Hainai Branch of Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, Sanya, Hainan, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: To evaluate the prognostic value of homocysteine (Hcy in Chinese acute coronary syndrome (ACS octogenarians.Methods: The study cohort comprised 660 consecutive ACS octogenarians who underwent coronary angiography. We classified the patients into three groups according to Hcy tertiles. Kaplan–Meier method was performed for survival and major adverse cardiac events (MACE rates. Multivariate Cox regression was performed to identify mortality predictors. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to predict the cutoff value of Hcy for all-cause mortality.Results: The follow-up period was 28 (inter-quartile range: 16–38 months. Diastolic blood pressure, ratios of male, renal failure and old myocardial infarction in high plasma level Hcy (H-Hcy group were higher than those in low (L-Hcy and middle (M-Hcy plasma level of Hcy groups (P<0.05. The Hcy level was positively correlated with uric acid level (r=0.211, P=0.001 and Cystatin C (Cys C level (r=0.212, P=0.001 and negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (r=−0.148, P=0.018. For the long-term outcomes, the cumulative survival rate of H-Hcy group was significantly lower than that of L-Hcy and M-Hcy groups (P=0.006. All-cause mortality and MACE of H-Hcy group were higher than those of L-Hcy and M-Hcy group (P=0.0001, P=0.0008. Hcy is an independent predictor for long-term all-cause mortality (odds ratio =2.26, 95% CI=1.23–4.16, P=0.023 and MACE (odds ratio =1.91, 95% CI=1.03–3.51, P=0.039. Receiver operating characteristic

  19. Peripheral inflammation/immune indicators of chemosensitivity and prognosis in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Y

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yi Qian,1,* Jing Tao,1,2,* Xiuqing Li,3 Hua Chen,1 Qi Lu,1 Junzhe Yang,1 Hong Pan,1 Cong Wang,4 Wenbin Zhou,1 Xiaoan Liu1 1Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China; 2Department of General Surgery, Nanjing Pukou Hospital, Nanjing, China; 3Department of Pathology, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China; 4Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC has become a standard treatment for locally advanced breast cancer. The present study was designed to investigate the predictive value of different peripheral inflammation/immune biomarker responses to NAC and prognosis in breast cancer patients. Materials and methods: A total of 180 breast cancer patients treated with NAC in the First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University between January 2008 and March 2015 were enrolled in the study. The associations between inflammation/immune indicators and pathological complete response (pCR were determined, and the prognostic value of inflammation/immune indicators was also evaluated. Results: In the univariate analysis, patients with a high pretreatment peripheral lymphocyte count (>2.06×109/L showed a higher pCR rate than those with a low lymphocyte count (23.9% vs 10.4%, P=0.023. The pCR rate of patients with a neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio ≤2.15 was significantly higher than that of patients with a high neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio (20% vs 7.8%; P=0.03. However, multivariate analysis revealed that only the high lymphocyte count was predictive for pCR (odds ratio: 4.375, 95% CI: 1.429–13.392, P=0.010. In the survival analysis, patients with a higher neutrophil count (>2.65×109/L were confirmed to have a shorter disease-free survival (hazard ratio: 4.322, 95% CI: 1.028–18.174, P=0.046, and the

  20. The clinical significances of the abnormal expressions of Piwil1 and Piwil2 in colonic adenoma and adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang HL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hai-Ling Wang,1 Bei-Bei Chen,1 Xin-Guang Cao,1 Jin Wang,2 Xiu-Feng Hu,1 Xiao-Qian Mu,1 Xiao-Bing Chen1 1The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan Cancer Hospital, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China Objective: The objective of the present investigation was to study the clinical significances of the abnormal expressions of Piwil1 and Piwil2 protein in colonic adenoma and adenocarcinoma.Methods: This study had applied immunohistochemical method to detect 45 cases of tissues adjacent to carcinoma (distance to cancerous tissue was above 5 cm, 41 cases of colonic adenoma and 92 cases of colon cancer tissues, and their Piwil1 and Piwil2 protein expression levels.Analysis: The correlation of both expression and its relationship with clinicopathological features of colon cancer was analyzed.Results: Positive expression rates of Piwil1 in tissues adjacent to carcinoma, colonic adenoma, and colon cancer were 11.1% (5/45, 53.7% (22/41, and 80.4% (74/92, respectively; the expression rates increased, and the comparisons between each two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05. In each group, the positive expression rates of Piwil2 were 24.4% (11/45 cases, 75.6% (31/41 cases, and 92.4% (85/92 cases; expression rates increased, and the comparisons between each two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05. Piwil1 expression and the correlation of the degree of differentiation, TNM stage, and lymph node metastasis were statistically significant (P<0.05. Piwil2 expression and the correlation of the degree of differentiation, tumor node metastasis (TNM stage, and lymph node metastasis had no statistical significance (P>0.05. In colon cancer tissue, Piwil1 and Piwil2 expressions were positively correlated (r=0.262, P<0.05.Conclusion: The results showed that the abnormal expression of Piwil1 and Piwil2 might play an important role in

  1. Microstructures, mechanical, and biological properties of a novel Ti-6V-4V/zinc surface nanocomposite prepared by friction stir processing

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    Zhu C

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Chenyuan Zhu,1,2,* Yuting Lv,3,4,* Chao Qian,1,2,* Zihao Ding,3,5 Ting Jiao,1,2 Xiaoyu Gu,1,2 Eryi Lu,6 Liqiang Wang,3 Fuqiang Zhang1,2 1Department of Prosthodontics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 2Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center of Stomatology, 3State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 4College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 6Department of Stomatology, Ren Ji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The interaction between the material and the organism affects the survival rate of the orthopedic or dental implant in vivo. Friction stir processing (FSP is considered a new solid-state processing technology for surface modification. Purpose: This study aims to strengthen the surface mechanical properties and promote the osteogenic capacity of the biomaterial by constructing a Ti-6Al-4V (TC4/zinc (Zn surface nanocomposites through FSP. Methods: FSP was used to modify the surface of TC4. The microstructures and mechanical properties were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nanoindentation and Vickers hardness. The biological properties of the modified surface were evaluated by the in vitro and in vivo study. Results: The results showed that nanocrystalline and numerous β regions, grain boundary a phase, coarser acicular α phase and finer acicular martensite α' appeared because of the severe plastic deformation caused by FSP, resulting in a decreased elastic modulus and an increased surface hardness. With the addition of

  2. Porous Se@SiO2 nanospheres treated paraquat-induced acute lung injury by resisting oxidative stress

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    Zhu Y

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yong Zhu,1,* Guoying Deng,2,* Anqi Ji,2 Jiayi Yao,1 Xiaoxiao Meng,1 Jinfeng Wang,1 Qian Wang,2 Qiugen Wang,2 Ruilan Wang1 1Department of Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, 2Trauma Center, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Acute paraquat (PQ poisoning is one of the most common forms of pesticide poisoning. Oxidative stress and inflammation are thought to be important mechanisms in PQ-induced acute lung injury (ALI. Selenium (Se can scavenge intracellular free radicals directly or indirectly. In this study, we investigated whether porous Se@SiO2 nanospheres could alleviate oxidative stress and inflammation in PQ-induced ALI. Male Sprague Dawley rats and RLE-6TN cells were used in this study. Rats were categorized into 3 groups: control (n=6, PQ (n=18, and PQ + Se@SiO2 (n=18. The PQ and PQ + Se@SiO2 groups were randomly and evenly divided into 3 sub-groups according to different time points (24, 48 and 72 h after PQ treatment. Porous Se@SiO2 nanospheres 1 mg/kg (in the PQ + Se@SiO2 group were administered via intraperitoneal injection every 24 h. Expression levels of reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, reactive oxygen species (ROS, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, phosphorylated NF-κB (p-NF-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β were detected, and a histological analysis of rat lung tissues was performed. The results showed that the levels of ROS, malondialdehyde, NF-κB, p-NF-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β were markedly increased after PQ treatment. Glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels were reduced. However, treatment with porous Se@SiO2 nanospheres markedly alleviated PQ-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Additionally, the results from histological examinations and wet-to-dry weight ratios of rat lung

  3. Aflatoxins, hydroxylated metabolites, and aflatoxicol from breast muscle of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Zaragoza, M; Carvajal-Moreno, M; Méndez-Ramírez, I; Chilpa-Galván, N C; Avila-González, E; Flores-Ortiz, C M

    2014-12-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic fungal secondary metabolites that are pathological to animals and humans. This study identified and quantified AF (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), AFG(2)) and their hydroxylated metabolites (AFM(1), AFM(2), AFP(1)) and aflatoxicol (AFL) from laying hen breast muscles. Aflatoxins pass from cereal feed to the laying hen tissues, causing economic losses, and from there to humans. To detect the passage of AF from feed to hen breast muscle tissues, an experiment that included 25 Hy-Line W36 121-wk-old hens was performed for 8 d. Hens in individual cages were distributed into 3 groups: a control group, with feed free of AFB(1), and 2 experimental groups, with feed spiked with 2 AFB(1) dosages: 30 µg·kg(-1) (low) or 500 µg·kg(-1) (high). The daily feed consumption per hen was recorded and afterward hens were euthanized and breast muscles were collected, weighed, and dried individually. Aflatoxins were extracted by 2 chemical methods and quantified by HPLC. Both methods were validated by lineality (calibration curves), recovery percentage (>80%), limit of detection, and limit of quantification. The AF (µg·kg(-1)) averages recovered in control breast muscles were as follows: AFB(1) (18); AFG(1), AFM(2), and AFL (0); AFG(2) (1.3); AFM(1) (52), and AFP1 (79). Hens fed with feed spiked with 30 µg·kg(-1) of AFB(1) had AFG(1) (16); AFG(2) (72); AFM(1) (0); AFM(2) (18); AFP(1) (145); and AFL (5 µg·kg(-1)). Hens with feed spiked with 500 µg·kg(-1) of AFB(1) had AFG(1) (512); AFG(2) (7); AFM(1) (4,775); AFM(2) (0); AFP(1) (661); and AFL (21 µg·kg(-1)). The best AF extraction method was Qian and Yang's method, modified by adding additional AF from both Supelclean LC18 SPE columns; its limit of detection (0.5 ng·mL(-1)) was lower compared with that of Koeltzow and Tanner, which was 1 ng·mL(-1). ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Oleanolic acid induces mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis and G0/G1 phase arrest in gallbladder cancer cells

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    Li HF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Huai-Feng Li,1–3,* Xu-An Wang,1–3,* Shan-Shan Xiang,1–3,* Yun-Ping Hu,1–3 Lin Jiang,1–3 Yi-Jun Shu,1–3 Mao-Lan Li,1–3 Xiang-Song Wu,1–3 Fei Zhang,1–3 Yuan-Yuan Ye,1–3 Hao Weng,1–3 Run-Fa Bao,1–3 Yang Cao,1–3 Wei Lu,1–3 Qian Dong,1–3 Ying-Bin Liu1–3 1Department of General Surgery, 2Laboratory of General Surgery, 3Institute of Biliary Tract Disease, Xinhua Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Oleanolic acid (OA, a naturally occurring triterpenoid, exhibits potential antitumor activity in many tumor cell lines. Gallbladder carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, and is a highly aggressive tumor with an extremely poor prognosis. Unfortunately, the effects of OA on gallbladder carcinoma are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of OA on gallbladder cancer cells and the underlying mechanism. The results showed that OA inhibits proliferation of gallbladder cancer cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner on MTT and colony formation assay. A flow cytometry assay revealed apoptosis and G0/G1 phase arrest in GBC-SD and NOZ cells. Western blot analysis and a mitochondrial membrane potential assay demonstrated that OA functions through the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Moreover, this drug inhibited tumor growth in nude mice carrying subcutaneous NOZ tumor xenografts. These data suggest that OA inhibits proliferation of gallbladder cancer cells by regulating apoptosis and the cell cycle process. Thus, OA may be a promising drug for adjuvant chemotherapy in gallbladder carcinoma. Keywords: oleanolic acid, gallbladder carcinoma, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial pathway

  5. Functionalized milk-protein-coated magnetic nanoparticles for MRI-monitored targeted therapy of pancreatic cancer

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    Huang J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Jing Huang,1,2 Weiping Qian,3 Liya Wang,1,2 Hui Wu,1 Hongyu Zhou,3 Andrew Yongqiang Wang,4 Hongbo Chen,5 Lily Yang,3 Hui Mao1,2 1Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, 2Center for Systems Imaging, 3Department of Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 4Ocean Nanotech LLC, Springdale, AR, USA; 5School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, Guangxi, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Engineered nanocarriers have emerged as a promising platform for cancer therapy. However, the therapeutic efficacy is limited by low drug loading efficiency, poor passive targeting to tumors, and severe systemic side effects. Herein, we report a new class of nanoconstructs based on milk protein (casein-coated magnetic iron oxide (CNIO nanoparticles for targeted and image-guided pancreatic cancer treatment. The tumor-targeting amino-terminal fragment (ATF of urokinase plasminogen activator and the antitumor drug cisplatin (CDDP were engineered on this nanoplatform. High drug loading (~25 wt% and sustained release at physiological conditions were achieved through the exchange and encapsulation strategy. These ATF-CNIO-CDDP nanoparticles demonstrated actively targeted delivery of CDDP to orthotopic pancreatic tumors in mice. The effective accumulation and distribution of ATF-CNIO-CDDP was evidenced by magnetic resonance imaging, based on the T2-weighted contrast resulting from the specific accumulation of ATF-CNIO-CDDP in the tumor. Actively targeted delivery of ATF-CNIO-CDDP led to improved therapeutic efficacy in comparison with free CDDP and nontargeted CNIO-CDDP treatment. Meanwhile, less systemic side effects were observed in the nanocarrier-treated groups than that in the group treated with free CDDP. Hematoxylin and Eosin and Sirius Red staining of tumor sections revealed the possible disruption of stroma during the treatment with ATF-CNIO-CDDP. Overall, our results suggest that

  6. Association between pretreatment Glasgow prognostic score and gastric cancer survival and clinicopathological features: a meta-analysis

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    Zhang CX

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Xiao Zhang,* Shu-Yi Wang,* Shuang-Qian Chen, Shuai-Long Yang, Lu Wan, Bin Xiong Department of Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Glasgow prognostic score (GPS is widely known as a systemic inflammatory-based marker. The relationship between pretreatment GPS and gastric cancer (GC survival and clinicopathological features remains controversial. The aim of the study was to conduct a meta-analysis of published studies to evaluate the association between pretreatment GPS and survival and clinicopathological features in GC patients. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, and BioMed databases for relevant studies. Combined analyses were used to assess the association between pretreatment GPS and overall survival, disease-free survival, and clinicopathological parameters by Stata Version 12.0. Results: A total of 14 studies were included in this meta-analysis, including 5,579 GC patients. The results indicated that pretreatment high GPS (HGPS predicted poor overall survival (hazard ratio =1.51, 95% CI: 1.37–1.66, P<0.01 and disease-free survival (hazard ratio =1.45, 95% CI: 1.26–1.68, P<0.01 in GC patients. Pretreatment HGPS was also significantly associated with advanced tumor–node–metastasis stage (odds ratio [OR] =3.09, 95% CI: 2.11–4.53, P<0.01, lymph node metastasis (OR =4.60, 95% CI: 3.23–6.56, P<0.01, lymphatic invasion (OR =3.04, 95% CI: 2.00–4.62, P<0.01, and venous invasion (OR =3.56, 95% CI: 1.81–6.99, P<0.01. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis indicated that pretreatment HGPS could be a predicative factor of poor survival outcome and clinicopathological features for GC patients. Keywords: Glasgow prognostic score, gastric cancer, survival, clinicopathological feature

  7. Pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism is associated with gastric cancer prognosis and might affect mature let-7a expression

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    Li Y

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ying Li, Qian Xu, Jingwei Liu, Caiyun He, Quan Yuan, Chengzhong Xing, Yuan Yuan Tumor Etiology and Screening Department of Cancer Institute and General Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, and Key Laboratory of Cancer Etiology and Prevention (China Medical University, Liaoning Provincial Education Department, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The relationship between the pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism and gastric cancer (GC risk has been reported. However, the role of this polymorphism in the prognosis of GC remains largely elusive. Sequenom MassARRAY platform method and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism were used to investigate pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 G→A in 334 GC patients. Real-time PCR detected expression of mature let-7a in serum and tissue. Patients with AA or GA+AA genotypes of the pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism demonstrated significantly longer survival time than those with the wild GG genotype. Stratified analysis indicated that survival time was significantly longer in women with AA or GA+AA genotypes and in Borrmann type I/II patients with GA heterozygote or GA+AA genotypes. AA genotype was more frequent in the lymphatic-metastasis-negative subgroup. Serum mature let-7a expression in healthy people with the GA heterozygote and the GA+AA genotype was higher than in those with the GG genotype, and the difference remained significant in the female healthy subgroup. Pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism might be a biomarker for GC prognosis, especially for female and Borrmann type I/II patients. The pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism might affect serum mature let-7a expression, and partly explain the mechanism of the relationship between the pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism and GC survival. Keywords: miRNA, let-7a, polymorphism, gastric cancer, prognosis, expression

  8. China's space development history: A comparison of the rocket and satellite sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Andrew S.

    2014-10-01

    China is the most recent great power to emerge in aerospace. It has become the first developing nation to achieve some measure of aerospace production capability across the board. Outside the developed aerospace powers, only China has demonstrated competence concerning all aspects of a world-class aerospace industry: production of advanced rockets, satellites, and aircraft and of their supporting engineering, materials, and systems. As an emerging great power during the Cold War, China was still limited in resources, technology access, and capabilities. It thereby faced difficult choices and constraints. Yet it achieved increasing, though uneven, technological levels in different aerospace sub-sectors. Explaining this variance can elucidate challenges and opportunities confronting developing nations sharing limitations that previously constrained China. Rockets (missiles and space launch vehicles/SLVs) and satellites (military and civilian) were two areas of early achievement for China, and represent this article's two in-depth case studies. Initial import of American and Soviet knowledge and technology, coupled with national resources focused under centralized leadership, enabled China to master missiles and satellites ahead of other systems. Early in the Cold War, great power status hinged on atomic development. China devoted much of its limited technical resources to producing nuclear weapons in order to “prevent nuclear blackmail,” “break the superpowers' monopoly,” and thereby secure great power status. Beijing's second strategic priority was to develop reliable ballistic missiles to credibly deliver warheads, thereby supporting nuclear deterrence. Under Chairman Mao Zedong's direction and the guidance of the American-educated Dr. Qian Xuesen (H.S. Tsien), missile development became China's top aerospace priority. Satellites were also prioritized for military-strategic reasons and because they could not be purchased from abroad following the Sino

  9. Metformin inhibits proliferation and cytotoxicity and induces apoptosis via AMPK pathway in CD19-chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Q

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Qian Mu,1,2,* Miao Jiang,1,* Yuzhu Zhang,1 Fei Wu,1 Hui Li,1 Wen Zhang,1 Fang Wang,1 Jiang Liu,1 Liang Li,1 Dongshan Wang,3 Wenjuan Wang,1 Shiwu Li,1 Haibo Song,4 Dongqi Tang1 1Gene and Immunotherapy Center, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Health Management Center, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 4Central Research Laboratory, Zibo Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Affiliated to Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Zibo, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: CD19-chimericantigen receptor (CAR modified T cells (CD19-CAR T cells have been well documented to possess potent anti-tumor properties against CD19-expressingleukemia cells. As a traditional medicine, metformin has been widely used to treat type II diabetes mellitus and more recently has become a candidate for the treatment of cancer. However, no report has revealed the direct effect of metformin on CD19-CAR T cell biological function and its underling mechanisms. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to explore the effect of metformin on CD19-CAR T cell biological function and the mechanisms involved. Methods: CD19-CAR T cells proliferation, apoptosis and cytotoxicity were mainly tested by CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry and ELISA. The detection of mechanism primarily used western blot. Bioluminescence imaging is the main application technology of animal studies. Results: In the current study, it was found that metformin inhibited CD19-CAR T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, our study revealed that metformin activated AMPK and suppressed mTOR and HIF1α expression. By using an AMPK inhibitor, compound C, we demonstrated the crucial roles of AMPK in CD19

  10. Skeleton labeled 13C-carbon nanoparticles for the imaging and quantification in tumor drainage lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Xie

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ping Xie,1 Qian Xin,2 Sheng-Tao Yang,3 Tiantian He,2,4 Yuanfang Huang,2 Guangfu Zeng,2,4 Maosheng Ran,2,5 Xiaohai Tang2 1State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 2Chongqing Lummy Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Chongqing, 3College of Chemistry & Environment Protection Engineering, Southwest University for Nationalities, 4College of Life Sciences, Sichuan Normal University, 5State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs have been widely used in tumor drainage lymph node (TDLN imaging, drug delivery, photothermal therapy, and so on. However, during the theranostic applications, the accumulation efficiency of CNPs in target organs is unknown yet, which largely hinders the extension of CNPs into clinical uses. Herein, we prepared skeleton-labeled 13C-CNPs that had identical properties to commercial CNPs suspension injection (CNSI for the imaging and quantification in TDLN. 13C-CNPs were prepared by arc discharge method, followed by homogenization with polyvinylpyrrolidone. The size distribution and morphology of 13C-CNPs were nearly the same as those of CNSI under transmission electron microscope. The hydrodynamic radii of both 13C-CNPs and CNSI were similar, too. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy analyses, the chemical compositions and chemical states of elements were also nearly identical for both labeled and commercial forms. The skeleton labeling of 13C was reflected by the shift of G-band toward lower frequency in Raman spectra. 13C-CNPs showed competitive performance in TDLN imaging, where the three lymph nodes (popliteal lymph node, common iliac artery lymph node, and paraaortic lymph node were stained black upon the injection into the hind extremity of mice. The direct quantification of 13C-CNPs indicated that 877 µg

  11. The outcomes of intra-aortic balloon pump usage in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a comprehensive meta-analysis of 33 clinical trials and 18,889 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan ZG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zhong-Guo Fan,1,* Xiao-Fei Gao,1,2,* Li-Wen Chen,1 Xiao-Bo Li,1,2 Ming-Xue Shao,1,2 Qian Ji,1 Hao Zhu,1 Yi-Zhi Ren,1 Shao-Liang Chen,1,2 Nai-Liang Tian1,2 1Department of Cardiology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 2Department of Cardiology, Nanjing Heart Center, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The effects of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP usage in patients with acute myocardial infarction remain controversial. This study sought to evaluate the outcomes of IABP usage in these patients.Methods: Medline, EMBASE, and other internet sources were searched for relevant clinical trials. The primary efficacy endpoints (in-hospital, midterm, and long-term mortality and secondary endpoints (reinfarction, recurrent ischemia, and new heart failure in the hospital as well as safety endpoints (severe bleeding requiring blood transfusion and stroke in-hospital were subsequently analyzed.Results: Thirty-three clinical trials involving 18,889 patients were identified. The risk of long-term mortality in patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction was significantly decreased following IABP use (odds ratio [OR] 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.48–0.91, P=0.010. Both in-hospital and midterm mortality did not differ significantly between the IABP use group and no IABP use group (in-hospital: OR 0.87, 95% CI: 0.59–1.28, P=0.479; midterm: OR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.53–2.38, P=0.768. IABP insertion was not associated with the risk reduction of reinfarction, recurrent ischemia, or new heart failure. However, IABP use increased the risk of severe bleeding requiring blood transfusion (OR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.29–3.25, P=0.002 and stroke (OR 1.71, 95% CI: 1.04–2.82, P=0.035. In the thrombolytic therapy and cardiogenic shock subgroups, reduced mortality rates following IABP use were observed.Conclusion: IABP insertion is associated with feasible benefits with respect to long

  12. Chitosan nanoparticle-based delivery of fused NKG2D–IL-21 gene suppresses colon cancer growth in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan L

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Lunmei Tan,1 Sen Han,2 Shizhen Ding,2 Weiming Xiao,3,4 Yanbing Ding,3 Li Qian,2,4 Chenming Wang,1,5 Weijuan Gong1–5 1Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, 2Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, 3Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Clinical Medical College, 4Department of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, School of Medicine, 5Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nanoparticles can be loaded with exogenous DNA for the potential expression of cytokines with immune-stimulatory function. NKG2D identifies major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related protein in human and retinoic acid early induced transcript-1 in mouse, which acts as tumor-associated antigens. Biologic agents based on interleukin 21 (IL-21 have displayed antitumor activities through lymphocyte activation. The NKG2D–IL-21 fusion protein theoretically identifies tumor cells through NKG2D moiety and activates T cells through IL-21 moiety. In this study, double-gene fragments that encode the extracellular domains of NKG2D and IL-21 genes were connected and then inserted into the pcDNA3.1(– plasmid. PcDNA3.1–dsNKG2D–IL-21 plasmid nanoparticles based on chitosan were generated. Tumor cells pretransfected with dsNKG2D–IL-21 gene nanoparticles can activate natural killer (NK and CD8+ T cells in vitro. Serum IL-21 levels were enhanced in mice intramuscularly injected with the gene nanoparticles. DsNKG2D–IL-21 gene nanoparticles accumulated in tumor tissues after being intravenously injected for ~4–24 h. Treatment of dsNKG2D–IL-21 gene nanoparticles also retarded tumor growth and elongated the life span of tumor-bearing mice by activating NK and T cells in vivo. Thus, the dsNKG2D–IL-21 gene nanoparticles exerted efficient antitumor activities and would be potentially used for tumor therapy. Keywords: NKG2

  13. Translation Str A Comparison of ategies from the Perspective of Two Chinese Versions of The Importance%文化转向视角下的翻译策略研究——以王尔德The Importance of Being Earnest两中译本为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施秋蕾

    2012-01-01

    The cultural turn of translation studies offers a brand-new perspective on both theory and practice, extending the scope from the linguistic level to the cultural level. It also makes the choice between translation strategies even more complicated. This paper analyses the different strategies adopted by Yu Guangzhong and Qianzhide when translating Oscar Wilde' s masterpiece The Importance of Being Earnest from the viewpoint of cultural turn. With the purpose of performability, Yu employs the domestication strategy, integrating the foreign culture into the target culture; while Qian focuses on the text itself and applies foreignization, keeping the foreign culture intact. It is suggested that purpose permitting, the translator should adopt the foreignization strategy more frequently in order to boost the exchange between two cuhures.%翻译的“文化转向”为翻译研究提供了一个全新视角,使之从语言层面扩展至文化层面,同时也使翻译策略的选择变得更为复杂。从文化转向的视角分析余光中与钱之德在翻译王尔德名剧弛The Importance of Being Earnest时的策略选择可知,余译以剧本的舞台表演性为目的,采取了归化策略,将异国文化融入目的语文化中;钱译不以表演性为目的,采取了异化策略,保留了异域文化特色。译者应在不违背翻译目的的前提下,尽可能多地采用异化策略,以促进原语文化和目的语文化的交流。

  14. Virtue Existential Career Model: A Dialectic and Integrative Approach Echoing Eastern Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Hui; Hung, Jui-Ping; Peng, Hsin-I; Chang, Chia-Hui; Lu, Yi-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Our Virtue Existential Career (VEC) model aims at complementing western modernism and postmodernism career theories with eastern philosophy. With dialectical philosophy and virtue-practice derived from the Classic of Changes , the VEC theoretical foundation incorporates merits from Holland typology, Minnesota Theory of Work Adjustment, Social Cognitive Career Theory, Meaning Therapy, Narrative Approach Career Counseling, and Happenstance Learning Theory. While modernism considers a matched job as an ideal career vision and prefers rational strategies ( controlling and realizing ) to achieve job security; postmodernism prefers appreciating and adapting strategies toward openness and appreciates multiple possible selves and occupations, our model pursues a blending of security and openness via controlling-and-realizing and appreciating-and-adapting interwoven with each other in a dialectical and harmonious way. Our VEC counseling prototype aims at a secular goal of living on the earth with ways and harmony () and an ultimate end to spiral up to the wisdom of living up to the way of heaven () with mind and virtue (). A VEC counseling process of five major career strategies, metaphorical stories of qian and kun , and experiential activities are developed to deliver VEC concepts. The VEC model and prototype presented in this research is the product of an action research following Lewin's (1946) top-to-down model. Situated structure analyses were conducted to further investigate the adequacy of this version of VEC model and prototype. Data from two groups (one for stranded college graduates and the other for growing college students) revealed empirical supports. Y ang type of career praxes tends to induce actualization, which resulting in realistic goals and concrete action plans; yin type of career praxes tends to increase self-efficacy, which resulting in positive attitude toward current situatedness and future development. Acceptance and dialectic thinking often

  15. Virtue Existential Career Model: A Dialectic and Integrative Approach Echoing Eastern Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hui Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our Virtue Existential Career (VEC model aims at complementing western modernism and postmodernism career theories with eastern philosophy. With dialectical philosophy and virtue-practice derived from the Classic of Changes, our VEC theoretical foundation incorporates merits from Holland typology, Minnesota Theory of Work Adjustment, Social Cognitive Career Theory, Meaning Therapy, Narrative Approach Career Counseling, and Happenstance Learning Theory. While modernism considers a matched job as an ideal career vision and prefers rational strategies (controlling and realizing to achieve job security; postmodernism prefers adapting and appreciating strategies toward openness and appreciates multiple possible selves and occupations, our VEC model pursues a blending of security and openness via controlling-and-realizing and appreciating-and-adapting interwoven with each other in a dialectical and harmonious way. Our VEC counseling prototype aims at a secular goal of living on the earth with ways and harmony (安身以法以和 and an ultimate end to spiral up to the wisdom of living up to the way of heaven (天道 with mind and virtue (立命以心以德. A VEC counseling process of five major career strategies, metaphorical stories of qian and kun, and experiential activities are developed to deliver VEC concepts. The VEC model and prototype presented in this research is the product of an action research following Lewin’s (1946 top-to-down model. Situated structure analyses were conducted to further investigate the adequacy of this version of VEC model and prototype. Data from two groups (one for stranded college graduates and the other for growing college students revealed empirical supports. Yang type of career praxes tend to induce actualization, which resulting in realistic goals and concrete action plans; yin type of career praxes tend to increase self-efficacy, which resulting in positive attitude toward current situatedness and future

  16. Enrichment of CD44 in basal-type breast cancer correlates with EMT, cancer stem cell gene profile, and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu HX

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hanxiao Xu,1 Yijun Tian,1 Xun Yuan,1 Yu Liu,2 Hua Wu,1 Qian Liu,1 Gen Sheng Wu,3,4 Kongming Wu1 1Department of Oncology, 2Department of Geriatrics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Oncology, 4Department of Pathology, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that serves as the receptor for the extracellular matrix component hyaluronic acid. CD44 has been reported to play key roles in cell proliferation, motility, and survival, but its role in breast cancer remains controversial. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis. A total of 23 published Gene Expression Omnibus databases were included to evaluate the association between CD44 mRNA expression and clinicopathological characteristics or prognosis of the patients with breast cancer. Our analysis revealed that CD44 expression was associated with clinicopathological features, including the histological grade, estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status. Higher levels of CD44 expression were observed in the basal subtype of breast cancer both at the mRNA and protein levels (odds ratio [OR] =2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.72–2.52; OR =2.11, 95% CI: 1.67–2.68. Patients with CD44 overexpression exhibited significantly worse overall survival (hazard ratio =1.27; 95% CI: 1.04–1.55. Whole gene profile analysis revealed that CD44 expression was enriched in basal-type breast cancer and correlated with epithelial–mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell gene profiles. In summary, our analyses indicated that CD44 potentially might be a prognostic marker for breast cancer and thus can serve as a therapeutic target for basal-type breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, CD44, survival prediction, meta

  17. Health-related quality of life in dialysis patients with constipation: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang JS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available JiSheng Zhang,1,* CongYang Huang,1,* YanLi Li,1 Jun Chen,2 FangYuan Shen,1 Qiang Yao,3 JiaQi Qian,4 BeiYan Bao,1 XuPing Yao51Division of Nephrology, School of Medicine, Ningbo Urology and Nephrology Hospital, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China; 2Blood Purification Center, School of Medicine, Ningbo Urology and Nephrology Hospital, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China; 3Baxter Healthcare Pty Ltd, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 4Division of Nephrology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 5Division of Urology, School of Medicine, Ningbo Urology and Nephrology Hospital, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workObjectives: To evaluate differences in the health-related quality of life (HRQoL between patients with constipation receiving hemodialysis (HD and those receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 605 dialysis patients (478 HD cases and 127 PD cases; all patients were older than 18 years from our hospital were included. A questionnaire was used to evaluate their constipation statuses. The effect of constipation on HRQoL was assessed, using the Chinese version of the 12-item short-form (SF-12 general health survey. Karnofsky score, sociodemographic, and clinical data were also collected. We performed multiple logistic regression analysis to define independent risk factors for constipation and impaired HRQoL.Results: A total of 605 participants (326 men [53.9%] and 279 women [46.1%] were surveyed. The incidence of constipation was 71.7% in HD patients and 14.2% in PD patients. Dialysis patients with constipation had significantly lower mean SF-12 Physical Component Summary scale and Mental Component Summary scale scores than the nonconstipation group (P < 0.05, whereas HD patients had better SF-12 Physical Component

  18. Clinical course of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: an assessment of severity, progression, and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeone JC

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Jason C Simeone,1 Jay P Bae,2 Byron J Hoogwerf,3 Qian Li,1 Axel Haupt,3 Ayad K Ali,4 Marilyn K Boardman,3 Beth L Nordstrom1 1Real-world Evidence, Evidera, Waltham, MA, USA; 2Global Patient Outcomes and Real World Evidence, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Lily Diabetes, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 4Global Patient Safety, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Purpose: To identify the characteristics and initial disease severity of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and assess incidence and risk factors for disease progression in a retrospective study.Methods: Patients ≥18 years of age without alcoholism or other liver diseases (eg, hepatitis B/C were selected from Geisinger Health System electronic medical record data from 2004 to 2015. Initial disease stage was stratified into uncomplicated NAFLD, advanced fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, and liver transplant using clinical biomarkers, diagnosis, and procedure codes. Disease progression was defined as stage progression or death and analyzed via Kaplan–Meier plots and multistate models.Results: In the NAFLD cohort (N=18,754, 61.5% were women, 39.0% had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and the mean body mass index was 38.2±10.2 kg/m2. At index, 69.9% had uncomplicated NAFLD, 11.7% had advanced fibrosis, and 17.8% had cirrhosis. Of 18,718 patients assessed for progression, 17.3% progressed (11.0% had stage progression, 6.3% died without evidence of stage progression during follow-up (median=842 days. Among subgroups, 12.3% of those without diabetes mellitus progressed vs 24.7% of those with T2DM. One-year mortality increased from 0.5% in uncomplicated NAFLD to 22.7% in HCC. After liver transplant, mortality decreased to 5.6% per year.Conclusions: In 2.3 years of follow-up, approximately 17% of patients progressed or died without evidence of stage progression. T2DM was associated with approximately twice the risk of

  19. Enhancement of radiotherapy efficacy by miR-200c-loaded gelatinase-stimuli PEG-Pep-PCL nanoparticles in gastric cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui FB

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fang-bo Cui,1,* Qin Liu,1,* Ru-Tian Li,1 Jie Shen,1 Pu-yuan Wu,1 Li-Xia Yu,1 Wen-jing Hu,1 Feng-lei Wu,2 Chun-Ping Jiang,1 Guo-feng Yue,2 Xiao-Ping Qian,1 Xi-Qun Jiang,3 Bao-Rui Liu11The Comprehensive Cancer Center of Drum-Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University and Clinical Cancer Institute of Nanjing University, Nanjing, 2Nanjing Medical University, 3Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry and Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Radiotherapy is the main locoregional control modality for many types of unresectable tumors, including gastric cancer. However, many patients fail radiotherapy due to intrinsic radioresistance of cancer cells, which has been found to be strongly associated with cancer stem cell (CSC-like properties. In this study, we developed a nanoparticle formulation to deliver miR-200c, which is reported to inhibit CSC-like properties, and then evaluated its potential activity as a radiosensitizer. miR-200c nanoparticles significantly augmented radiosensitivity in three gastric cancer cell lines (sensitization enhancement ratio 1.13–1.25, but only slightly in GES-1 cells (1.06. In addition to radioenhancement, miR-200c nanoparticles reduced the expression of CD44, a putative CSC marker, and the percentage of CD44+ BGC823 cells. Meanwhile, other CSC-like properties, including invasiveness and resistance to apoptosis, could be suppressed by miR-200c nanoparticles. CSC-associated radioresistance mechanisms, involving reactive oxygen species levels and DNA repair capacity, were also attenuated. We have demonstrated that miR-200c nanoparticles are an effective radiosensitizer in gastric cancer cells and induce little radiosensitization in normal cells, which suggests that they are as a promising candidate for further preclinical and clinical evaluation

  20. Concentration- and time-dependent response of human gingival fibroblasts to fibroblast growth factor 2 immobilized on titanium dental implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Q

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Qianli Ma1*, Wei Wang1*, Paul K Chu2, Shenglin Mei1,2, Kun Ji3, Lei Jin4, Yumei Zhang11Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China; 4Stomatology Department, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Southern Medical University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Titanium (Ti implants are widely used clinically, but peri-implantitis remains one of the most common and serious complications. Healthy integration between gingival tissue and the implant surface is critical to long-term success in dental implant therapy. The objective of this study was to investigate how different concentrations of immobilized fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2 on the titania nanotubular surface influence the response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs.Methods: Pure Ti metal was anodized at 20 V to form a vertically organized titanium dioxide nanotube array on which three concentrations of FGF2 (250 ng/mL, 500 ng/mL, or 1000 ng/mL were immobilized by repeated lyophilization. Surface topography was observed and FGF2 elution was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The bioactivity changes of dissolvable immobilized FGF2 were measured by methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium assay. Behavior of HGFs was evaluated using adhesion and methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium bromide assays.Results: The FGF2 remained for several days on the modified surface on which HGFs were cultured. Over 90% of the dissolvable immobilized FGF2 had been eluted by Day 9, whereas the FGF2 activity was found to diminish gradually from Day 1 to Day 9. The titania nanotubular surface with an optimal preparing

  1. A phase I pharmacokinetic study of ursolic acid nanoliposomes in healthy volunteers and patients with advanced solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying G

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zhongling Zhu,1,4 Zhengzi Qian,2,4 Zhao Yan,1,4 Cuicui Zhao,2,4 Huaqing Wang,2,4 Guoguang Ying3,41Department of Clinical Pharmacology, 2Department of Lymphoma, 3Laboratory of Tumor Cell Biology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 4Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Ursolic acid is a promising anticancer agent. The current study aims to evaluate the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics (PK as well as the safety of ursolic acid nanoliposomes (UANL in healthy volunteers and in patients with advanced solid tumors.Methods: Twenty-four healthy volunteers in the single-dose PK study were divided into three different groups, which received 37, 74, and 98 mg/m2 of UANL. Eight patients in the multiple-dose PK study were administered with 74 mg/m2 of UANL daily for 14 days. The UA plasma concentrations were determined using ultra-performance liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry.Results: The plasma concentration profiles of all subjects were characterized by a biexponential decline after infusion. The mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax increased linearly as a function of the dose (r = 0.999. The mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC from 0 to 16 hours also increased proportionally with dose escalation (r = 0.998. However, the clearance was constant over the specific dose interval. In the multiple-dose PK study, the trough and average concentrations remained low. The mean AUC, half-life, Cmax, time to Cmax, and the volume of distribution on the first day were similar to those on the last day. All subjects tolerated the treatments well. Most UANL-associated adverse events varied from mild to moderate.Conclusions: UANL exhibits relatively linear PK behavior with dose levels from 37 mg/m2 to 98 mg/m2. No drug accumulation was observed with repeated doses of UANL. The intravenous infusion of UANL was well

  2. lncRNA H19 predicts poor prognosis in patients with melanoma and regulates cell growth, invasion, migration and epithelial–mesenchymal transition in melanoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi G

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaofeng Shi,1,2 Hu Li,2 Fengshan Gao,2 Qian Tan1 1Drum Tower Clinical Medical College of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Plastic Surgery, the Affiliated Wuxi No 4 People’s Hospital of Jiangnan University, Wuxi, People’s Republic of China Introduction: Melanoma is a deadly malignancy and the poor prognosis of patients with advanced disease is relatively poor. Recent studies indicate that long non-coding RNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma. This study aims to investigate the role of the long non-coding RNA H19 in melanoma and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Materials and methods: The expression levels of H19 in clinical samples and melanoma cells were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The cell growth and cell metastasis were assessed by Cell Counting Kit 8, cell invasion and wound healing assays. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle were determined by flow cytometry. Protein levels were determined by Western blotting assay. Results: H19 was highly expressed in melanoma tissues compared to normal adjacent skin tissues, and the tissue expression level of H19 from melanoma patients with metastasis was significantly higher than that from patients without distant metastasis. In addition, the high expression of H19 in melanoma tissues was associated with advanced tumor invasion and TNM stage, distal metastasis, lymph node metastasis and shorter overall survival in patients with melanoma. The in vitro functional assays showed that knockdown of H19 inhibited cell growth, invasion and migration and also induced cell apoptosis as well as G0/G1 arrest in melanoma cells. Further quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot experiments showed that knockdown of H19 differentially regulated the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT-related gene expressions and reversed EMT in melanoma cell lines. Knockdown of H19 suppressed in vivo tumor growth and modulated the

  3. WE-AB-207A-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING): High-Resolution Cone-Beam CT of the Extremities and Cancellous Bone Architecture with a CMOS Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Q; Brehler, M; Sisniega, A; Marinetto, E; Stayman, J; Siewerdsen, J; Zbijewski, W; Zyazin, A; Peters, I; Yorkston, J

    2016-01-01

    -frequency imaging tasks through adoption of the CMOS detector and small FS x-ray source, motivating the use of these components in a new system for quantitative in-vivo imaging of trabecular bone. Financial Support: US NIH grant R01EB018896. Qian Cao is a Howard Hughes Medical Institute International Student Research Fellow. Disclosures: W Zbijewski, J Siewerdsen and A Sisniega receive research funding from Carestream Health.

  4. Upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 contributes to sevoflurane preconditioning–mediated cardioprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian B

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bin Qian,1 Yang Yang,2 Yusheng Yao,3 Yanling Liao,3 Ying Lin3 1Department of Anesthesiology, People’s Hospital Affiliated to Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, Fujian, China; 2Department of Anesthesiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China; 3Department of Anesthesiology, The Shengli Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China Purpose: Sevoflurane preconditioning (SPC can provide myocardial protective effects similar to ischemic preconditioning. However, the exact mechanism of SPC remains unclear. Previous studies indicate that vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR-1 is involved in ischemic preconditioning-mediated cardioprotection. This study was designed to determine the significance of VEGFR-1 signaling in SPC-mediated cardioprotection.Materials and methods: Myocardial ischemia–reperfusion (I/R rat model was established using the Langendorff isolated heart perfusion apparatus. Additionally, after 15 min of baseline equilibration, the isolated hearts were pretreated with 2.5% sevoflurane, 2.5% sevoflurane+MF1 10 µmol/L, or 2.5% sevoflurane+placental growth factor 10 µmol/L, and then subjected to 30 min of global ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. The changes in hemodynamic parameters, myocardial infarct size, and the levels of creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, cardiac troponin-I, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin 6 in the myocardium were evaluated.Results: Compared to the I/R group, pretreatment with 2.5% sevoflurane significantly improved the cardiac function, limited myocardial infarct size, reduced cardiac enzyme release, upregulated VEGFR-1 expression, and decreased inflammation. In addition, the selective VEGFR-1 agonist, placental growth factor, did not enhance the cardioprotection and anti-inflammation effects of sevoflurane, while the specific VEGFR-1 inhibitor, MF1, completely reversed these effects

  5. Induction of systemic and mucosal immunity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection by a novel nanoemulsion adjuvant vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun HW

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available HongWu Sun,1,* Chao Wei,1,* BaoShuai Liu,1 HaiMing Jing,1 Qiang Feng,2 YaNan Tong,1 Yun Yang,1 LiuYang Yang,1 QianFei Zuo,1 Yi Zhang,1 QuanMing Zou,1 Hao Zeng1 1National Engineering Research Center of Immunological Products, Department of Microbiology and Biochemical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA, 2Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Education, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The Gram-positive bacterial pathogen methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA can cause infections in the bloodstream, endocardial tissue, respiratory tract, culture-confirmed skin, or soft tissue. There are currently no effective vaccines, and none are expected to become available in the near future. An effective vaccine capable of eliciting both systemic and mucosal immune responses is also urgently needed. Here, we reported a novel oil-in-water nanoemulsion adjuvant vaccine containing an MRSA recombination protein antigen, Cremophor EL-35® as a surfactant, and propylene glycol as a co-surfactant. This nanoemulsion vaccine, whose average diameter was 31.34±0.49 nm, demonstrated good protein structure integrity, protein specificity, and good stability at room temperature for 1 year. The intramuscular systemic and nasal mucosal immune responses demonstrated that this nanoemulsion vaccine could improve the specific immune responses of immunoglobulin (IgG and related subclasses, such as IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b, as well as IgA, in the serum after Balb/c mice intramuscular immunization and C57 mice nasal immunization. Furthermore, this nanoemulsion vaccine also markedly enhanced the interferon-γ and interleukin-17A cytokine cell immune response, improved the survival ratio, and reduced bacterial colonization. Taken together, our results show that this novel nanoemulsion vaccine has great potential and is a

  6. Reduced prefrontal activation during verbal fluency task in chronic insomnia disorder: a multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun JJ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Jing-Jing Sun,1,2 Xiao-Min Liu,2 Chen-Yu Shen,2 Xiao-Qian Zhang,1,2 Gao-Xiang Sun,2 Kun Feng,2 Bo Xu,2 Xia-Jin Ren,1,2 Xiang-Yun Ma,1,2 Po-Zi Liu2 1Medical Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 2Department of Psychiatry, YuQuan Hospital, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China Purpose: Daytime complaints such as memory and attention deficits and failure to accomplish daily tasks are common in insomnia patients. However, objective psychological tests to detect cognitive impairment are equivocal. Neural function associated with cognitive performance may explain the discrepancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic response patterns of patients with chronic insomnia disorder (CID using the noninvasive and low-cost functional neuroimaging technique of multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS in order to identify changes of neural function associated with cognitive performance.Patients and methods: Twenty-four CID patients and twenty-five healthy controls matched for age, right-hand dominance, educational level, and gender were examined during verbal fluency tasks (VFT using NIRS. A covariance analysis was conducted to analyze differences of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC between the two groups and reduce the influence of the severity of depression. Pearson correlation coeffcients were calculated to examine the relationship between the oxy-Hb changes, with the severity of insomnia and depressive symptoms assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD.Results: The number of words generated during the VFT in CID groups showed no statistical differences with healthy controls. CID patients showed hypoactivation in the PFC during the cognitive task. In addition, we found that the function of left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC during the VFT was significantly negatively correlated with the PSQI scores and the function of right dorsolateral PFC

  7. Leptin signaling molecular actions and drug target in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang N

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nan Jiang,1,* Rongtong Sun,2,* Qing Sun3 1Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Weihai Municipal Hospital, Weihai, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pathology, QianFoShan Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Previous reports indicate that over 13 different tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, are related to obesity. Obesity-associated inflammatory, metabolic, and endocrine mediators, as well as the functioning of the gut microbiota, are suspected to contribute to tumorigenesis. In obese people, proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL-1 and IL-6, insulin and insulin-like growth factors, adipokines, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, adiponectin, and leptin are found to play crucial roles in the initiation and development of cancer. The cytokines induced by leptin in adipose tissue or tumor cells have been intensely studied. Leptin-induced signaling pathways are critical for biological functions such as adiposity, energy balance, endocrine function, immune reaction, and angiogenesis as well as oncogenesis. Leptin is an activator of cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis in several cell types, and an inducer of cancer stem cells; its critical roles in tumorigenesis are based on its oncogenic, mitogenic, proinflammatory, and pro-angiogenic actions. This review provides an update of the pathological effects of leptin signaling with special emphasis on potential molecular mechanisms and therapeutic targeting, which could potentially be used in future clinical settings. In addition, leptin-induced angiogenic ability and molecular mechanisms in HCC are discussed. The stringent binding affinity of leptin and its receptor Ob-R, as well as the highly upregulated expression of both

  8. The preosteoblast response of electrospinning PLGA/PCL nanofibers: effects of biomimetic architecture and collagen I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian YZ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Yunzhu Qian,1,2 Hanbang Chen,1 Yang Xu,1 Jianxin Yang,2 Xuefeng Zhou,3 Feimin Zhang,1 Ning Gu3 1Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 2Center of Stomatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, 3School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Constructing biomimetic structure and incorporating bioactive molecules is an effective strategy to achieve a more favorable cell response. To explore the effect of electrospinning (ES nanofibrous architecture and collagen I (COL I-incorporated modification on tuning osteoblast response, a resorbable membrane composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid/poly(caprolactone (PLGA/PCL; 7:3 w/w was developed via ES. COL I was blended into PLGA/PCL solution to prepare composite ES membrane. Notably, relatively better cell response was delivered by the bioactive ES-based membrane which was fabricated by modification of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and COL I. After investigation by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurement, and mechanical test, polyporous three-dimensional nanofibrous structure with low tensile force and the successful integration of COL I was obtained by the ES method. Compared with traditional PLGA/PCL membrane, the surface hydrophilicity of collagen-incorporated membranes was largely enhanced. The behavior of mouse preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cell infiltration and proliferation on membranes was studied at 24 and 48 hours. The negative control was fabricated by solvent casting. Evaluation of cell adhesion and morphology demonstrated that all the ES membranes were more favorable for promoting the cell adhesion and spreading than the casting membrane. Cell Counting Kit-8 assays revealed that biomimetic architecture, surface topography, and bioactive properties of membranes were favorable for cell

  9. Preparation and characterization of monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol-poly(ε-caprolactone micelles for the solubilization and in vivo delivery of luteolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu JF

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Jin-Feng Qiu,1 Xiang Gao,1,2 Bi-Lan Wang,1 Xia-Wei Wei,1 Ma-Ling Gou,1 Ke Men,1 Xing-Yu Liu,1 Gang Guo,1 Zhi-Yong Qian,1 Mei-Juan Huang1 1Department of Thoracic Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital and Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 2Medical School and Department of Pathophysiology, College of Preclinical and Forensic Medical Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Luteolin (Lu is one of the flavonoids with anticancer activity, but its poor water solubility limits its use clinically. In this work, we used monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol-poly(ε-caprolactone (MPEG-PCL micelles to encapsulate Lu by a self-assembly method, creating a water-soluble Lu/MPEG-PCL micelle. These micelles had a mean particle size of 38.6 ± 0.6 nm (polydispersity index = 0.16 ± 0.02, encapsulation efficiency of 98.32% ± 1.12%, and drug loading of 3.93% ± 0.25%. Lu/MPEG-PCL micelles could slowly release Lu in vitro. Encapsulation of Lu in MPEG-PCL micelles improved the half-life (t½; 152.25 ± 49.92 versus [vs] 7.16 ± 1.23 minutes, P = 0.007, area under the curve (0–t (2914.05 ± 445.17 vs 502.65 ± 140.12 mg/L/minute, P = 0.001, area under the curve (0–∞ (2989.03 ± 433.22 vs 503.81 ± 141.41 mg/L/minute, P = 0.001, and peak concentration (92.70 ± 11.61 vs 38.98 ± 7.73 mg/L, P = 0.003 of Lu when the drug was intravenously administered at a dose of 30 mg/kg in rats. Also, Lu/MPEG-PCL micelles maintained the cytotoxicity of Lu on 4T1 breast cancer cells (IC50 = 6.4 ± 2.30 µg/mL and C-26 colon carcinoma cells (IC50 = 12.62 ± 2.17 µg/mL in vitro. These data suggested that encapsulation of Lu into MPEG-PCL micelles created an aqueous formulation of Lu with potential anticancer effect. Keywords: luteolin, micelle, MPEG-PCL, cancer therapy

  10. Multifunctional dendrimer-based nanoparticles for in vivo MR/CT dual-modal molecular imaging of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kangan Li,1,4,5,* Shihui Wen,2,* Andrew C Larson,4,5 Mingwu Shen,2 Zhuoli Zhang,4,5 Qian Chen,3 Xiangyang Shi,2,3 Guixiang Zhang1 1Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 4Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA; 5Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Development of dual-mode or multi-mode imaging contrast agents is important for accurate and self-confirmatory diagnosis of cancer. We report a new multifunctional, dendrimer-based gold nanoparticle (AuNP as a dual-modality contrast agent for magnetic resonance (MR/computed tomography (CT imaging of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, amine-terminated generation 5 poly(amidoamine dendrimers modified with gadolinium chelate (DOTA-NHS and polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether were used as templates to synthesize AuNPs, followed by Gd(III chelation and acetylation of the remaining dendrimer terminal amine groups; multifunctional dendrimer-entrapped AuNPs (Gd-Au DENPs were formed. The formed Gd-Au DENPs were used for both in vitro and in vivo MR/CT imaging of human MCF-7 cancer cells. Both MR and CT images demonstrate that MCF-7 cells and the xenograft tumor model can be effectively imaged. The Gd-Au DENPs uptake, mainly in the cell cytoplasm, was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The cell cytotoxicity assay, cell morphology observation, and flow cytometry show that the developed Gd-Au DENPs have good biocompatibility in the given concentration range. Our results

  11. Difference in Injury Mode, Dose-Rate Dependence and RBE of 730-Mev Protons, 100-KVp X-Rays and 250-KVp X-Rays; Differences dans le Type de Lesion, l'Importance du Debit de Dose et l'EBR entre les Protons de 730 Mev, les Rayons X de 100 Kv-Crete et les Rayons X de 250 Kv-Crete; Razlichiya kharaktera porazheniya, zavisimosti ot moshchnosti dozy i obeh protonov s ehnergiej 730 mehv i rentgenovskikh luchej s pikovym napryazheniem 100 i 250 kv; Diferencias en la Modalidad de La Lesion, la Relacion con la Intensidad de Dosis y la EBR de los Protones de 730 Mev, y los Rayos X de 100 Kvp Y de 250 Kvp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondhaus, C. A.; Wallace, R. W.; Lyman, J. T.; Kase, K. W.; Steward, P. G. [University of California Lawrence Radiation Laboratory Berkeley (United States)

    1964-03-15

    pogibali na 12 -14-j den' v rezul'tate gemopojeticheskih narushenij, prichem obnaruzhena takaja zhe zavisimost' ot moshhnosti dozy. OBJe protonov po sravneniju s rentgenovskimi luchami s pikovym naprjazheniem 250 kv dlja LD{sub 50} k 30-mu dnju ravnjalas' 0,8; OBJe dlja LD{sub 50} k shestomu dnju ravnjalas' 1,2 pri toj zhe moshhnosti dozy 100 rad/min. Predpolagaetsja, chto razlichija v haraktere porazhenija mogu t byt' svjazany s neodinakovym raspredeleniem tkanevoj dozy. Bolee vysokaja, no izmenjajushhajasja OBJe protonov v otnoshenii kishechnoj smerti na shestoj den', ochevidno, javljaetsja projavleniem jeffekta moshhnosti dozy. Obsuzhdaetsja prakticheskoe znachenie faktorov raspredelenija dozy i ee moshhnosti. (author)

  12. Organ Visualization by Photoscanning Using Micro- and Macro-Aggregates of Radioalbumin; Examen d'Organes par Photoscintigraphie (avec des Micro-Agglomerats et des Macroagglomerats de Radioalbumine); Vizualizatsiya organov putem fotoskennirovaniya; Visualizacion de Organos por Fotoexploracion (Empleo de Micro y Macroagregados de Radioalbumina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taplin, G. V.; Johnson, D. E.; Dore, E. K.; Kaplan, H. S. [School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Los Alamos County Harbor General Hospital, Torrance, CA (United States)

    1964-10-15

    'bumina syvorotki chelovecheskoj krovi,mechenogo jodom-131,javljaetsja nailuchshim indikatorom dlja fotoskennirovanija pecheni i selezenki. Doza obluchenija jetih organov minimal'na, a prigotovlenie indikatora otnositel'no legko i prosto. S pomoshh'ju jetogo zhe veshhestva mozhno poluchit' otchetlivoe vizual'noe predstavlenie o serdce, zheludke i sljunnyh zhelezah. Opisyvajutsja metody i fiziologicheskie osnovy poluchenija i tolkovanija skennogramm jetih organov. Illjustriruetsja ih znachenie dlja postanovki diagnoza. Fiziologicheskie osnovy primenenija al'bumina v vide makrochastic (1-10 mk) dlja vizualizacii legkih pokazany na primere tipichnyh skennogramm sobak. Toksikologicheskoe izuchenie i sootvetstvujushhie patofiziologicheskie issledovanija na zhivotnyh pokazyvajut nalichie shirokih granic bezopasnosti, pozvoljajushhih primenjat' indikatory, sostojashhie iz krupnyh chastic, dlja skennirovanija u ljudej. Predvaritel'nye jeksperimenty na sobakah pokazali vozmozhnost' skennirovanija legkih posle vdyhanija ajerozolej jetogo zhe veshhestva. Jetot metod javljaetsja prostym, bezboleznennym i sovershenno bezopasnym. Budut predstavleny fotosken- nogrammy bol'nyh s raznoobraznymi legochnymi zabolevanijami. (author)

  13. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Information and Many-Body Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisert, Jens; Plenio, Martin B.

    2010-02-01

    Quantum many-body models describing natural systems or materials and physical systems assembled piece by piece in the laboratory for the purpose of realizing quantum information processing share an important feature: intricate correlations that originate from the coherent interaction between a large number of constituents. In recent years it has become manifest that the cross-fertilization between research devoted to quantum information science and to quantum many-body physics leads to new ideas, methods, tools, and insights in both fields. Issues of criticality, quantum phase transitions, quantum order and magnetism that play a role in one field find relations to the classical simulation of quantum systems, to error correction and fault tolerance thresholds, to channel capacities and to topological quantum computation, to name but a few. The structural similarities of typical problems in both fields and the potential for pooling of ideas then become manifest. Notably, methods and ideas from quantum information have provided fresh approaches to long-standing problems in strongly correlated systems in the condensed matter context, including both numerical methods and conceptual insights. Focus on quantum information and many-body theory Contents TENSOR NETWORKS Homogeneous multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz tensor networks for quantum critical systems M Rizzi, S Montangero, P Silvi, V Giovannetti and Rosario Fazio Concatenated tensor network states R Hübener, V Nebendahl and W Dür Entanglement renormalization in free bosonic systems: real-space versus momentum-space renormalization group transforms G Evenbly and G Vidal Finite-size geometric entanglement from tensor network algorithms Qian-Qian Shi, Román Orús, John Ove Fjærestad and Huan-Qiang Zhou Characterizing symmetries in a projected entangled pair state D Pérez-García, M Sanz, C E González-Guillén, M M Wolf and J I Cirac Matrix product operator representations B Pirvu, V Murg, J I Cirac

  14. PREFACE International Symposium on Spintronic Devices and Commercialization 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, You-wei; Judy, Jack; Qian, Zhenghong; Wang, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    very successful indeed. We are also grateful to the Advisory Committee, the Conference Chairs, the Excutive Chairs, the Academic Committee, the Organization Committee and the Secretariat for their fruitful work. We would especially like to thank all the organizers listed below for their support in all aspects of the conference. We would like to express our thanks to all the authors for their time and genuine efforts, and to the reviewers for their fruitful comments during the preparation of this volume. ISSDC'2010 ORGANIZATION Advisory Committee Chialing Chien, USAJunhao Chu, ChinaBernard Dieny, FranceKoichiro Inomata, Japan Liangmo Mei, ChinaJohn Sivertsen, USAMingjing Tu, ChinaDingsheng Wang, China Zhanguo Wang, ChinaQikun Xue, ChinaWenshan Zhan, China Conference Chairs Jack Judy, USAYouwei Du, China Executive Chairs Zhenghong Qian, USAJianping Wang, USA Organization Committee ChairJiyan Luo, China Vice ChairsGuilin Duan, ChinaLingling Sun, ChinaBaogen Shen, China MembersTiecheng Lu, ChinaDa Ma, ChinaYe Tian, China Jinsong Xu, ChinaQiuling XuChangmao Yang, China Guanghua Yu, ChinaYi Yan, China Academic Committee ChairsZhenghong Qian, USAYongbing Xu, UK Vice ChairsSeongtae Bae, SingaporeYong Jiang, ChinaDexin Wang, USA Huaiwu Zhang, ChinaJianhua Zhao, China MembersJianwang Cai, ChinaXiangdong Chen, ChinaHaifeng Ding, China Chunhong Hou, USAGunther Baubock, USABin Hu, USA Jungchun Huang, TaiwanDexuan Huo, ChinaYoon H Jeong, Korea Chihuang Lai, TaiwanRunwei Li, ChinaWei Liu, China Jing Shi, USAYasushi Takemura, JapanMark Tondra, USA Shan X Wang, USADi Wu, ChinaDesheng Xue, China Minglang Yan, USAShishen Yan, ChinaXiaofei Yang, China Chun Yeol You, KoreaWei Zhao, ChinaShiming Zhou, China Jianguo Zhu, China Secretariat Secretary-generalChangmao Yang, China Vice Secretary-generalJunli Wang, ChinaJinsong Xu, ChinaYe Tian, China MembersRu Bai, ChinaHongliang Zhan, China ISSDC' 2010 Organizers Department of Science and Technology, CSIC, China SpinIC Inc., China Hangzhou

  15. Determination on Mice and other Organisms of the RBE of High-Energy Protons and Electrons; Efficacite Biologique Relative sur la Souris et d'Autres Organismes des Protons et des Electrons De Haute Energie; Opredelenie obeh pri obluchenii myshej i drugikh organizmov protonami i ehlektronami vysokikh ehnergij; Determinacion de la Eficacia Biologica Relativa de los Protones y de los Electrones de Elevada Emergia en el Raton y en Otros Organismos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonet-Maury, P.; Baarli, J.; Kahn, T.; Dardenne, G.; Frilley, M.; Deysine, A. [Institut du Radium, Paris (France)

    1964-03-15

    {sub 50}, supervivencia media, reduccion del timo y de los testiculos) es proxima a 1; esta EBR corresponde al valor medio de la transferencia lineal de energia (TLE) de las particulas y, en el caso de los protones, no parece que sufra aumento alguno por efecto del valor local mas elevado del TLE de las 'estrellas' de espalacion. (author) [Russian] Izuchalis' obshhie jeffekty pri obluchenii myshej letal'nymi dozami protonov s jenergiej 157 i 592 Mjev i jelektronov s jenergiej 150 i 950 Mjev. {gamma} obluchennyh zhivotnyh nabljudalis te zhe obshhie simptomy, chto i posle rentgenovskogo i gamma-obluchenija. S pomoshh'ju primenennyh biologicheskih testov ne bylo o b naruzheno nikakih fenomenov, specifichnyh dlja chastic vysokih jenergij. Ustanovlennaja po chetyrem pokazateljam OBJe (LD-50, srednjaja vyzhivaemost', umen'shenie zobnoj zhelezy i semennikov) malo otklonjaetsja ot 1 ; jeta OBJe so o tvetstvue t srednej LPE chastic, i dlja protonov ne kazhetsja uvelichennoj za schet povyshenija mestnogo LPE zvezd raspada. (author). (author)

  16. The Treatment of Cancer by a Radioactive Drug: Tritium-Labelled Tetra-Sodium 2-Methyl-1:4-Naphthaquinol Diphosphate; Traitement du Cancer par un Remede Radioactif: Le Diphosphate Tetrasodique de Methyl-2 Naphtoquinone-1,4 Tritie; 041b 0435 0447 0435 043d 0414 ; Tratamiento del Cancer con la Sal Tetrasodica del Acido 2-Metil-1,4-Naftoquinon Difosforico Marcada con Tritio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrian, D. H.; Marshall, Barbara; Mitchell, J. S.; Simon-Reuss, I. [Department of Radiotherapeutics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1962-02-15

    tetrasodica del acido 2-metil-l,4-naftoquinon-difosforico (''Synkavit'' Roche), asi como algunos de los metodos que se han empleado para marcar este y otros compuestos analogos. Sintetizaron el compuesto tritiado en forma de obtener una substancia radioquimicamente pura de 28 c/mmol (1 atomo de tritio por molecula) de actividad especifica. Demuestran que este producto penetra muy rapidamente en las celulas vivas, tanto in vivo como in vitro y que, en igualdad de condiciones los cultivos de celulas malignas incorporan en grado mucho mayor el compuesto marcado que los cultivos de celulas normales. Describen las investigaciones preliminares del empleo clinico de ese producto en casos avanzados de tumores malignos que suelen ser refractarios a otros tratamientos, observandose que la medula osea absorbe menor cantidad del compuesto que el tumor (en algunas ocasiones, hasta cinco veces menos). (author) [Russian] Dejstvie tetrasoda - 2-metil-1: 4- naftagidrohinondifosfata (Sinkavit - proizvodstvo Roshe) v kachestve radio- senitajzera obsuzhdaetsja narjadu s bolee rannimi metodami mechenija jetih i podob- nyh molekul. Sintez jetogo soedinenija, mechennogo tritiem, byl sdelan dlja togo, chtoby polu- chit' radiohimicheskoe chistoe lekarstvo s udel'noj aktivnost'ju v 28 kjuri/mil- limol' (odin atom tritija na molekulu). Budet pokazano, chto jeto soedinenie bystro vhodit v zhivuju kletku kak v este- stvennyh, tak i i laboratornyh uslovijah i chto kul'tury zlokachestvennyh kletok pogloshhajut mechenye atomy v gorazdo bol'shem ob{sup e}me, chem kul'tury normal'nyh kletok pri teh zhe uslovijah. Budut opisany predvaritel'nye issledovanija primenenija jetogo lekarstva na pacientah, imejushhih zlokachestvennye opuholi i nahodjashhihsja v tjazhelom ili neizlechimom sostojanii; usvoenie kostnym na kojefficient 5 mozgom nizhe, chem usvoenie opuhol'ju. (author)

  17. An Idea on the Maximum Permissible Concentrations of Radioactive Materials in Sea Water; Concentrations Maxima Admissibles des Substances Radioactives dans l'Eau de Mer; 041e 041c 0414 ; Concentracion Maxima Admisible de Materiales Radiactivos en las Aguas del Mar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiyama, Yoshio [University of Tokyo (Japan)

    1960-07-01

    sobre el analisis quimico de las aguas marinas y del cuerpo humano, trata; de encontrar una relacion entre el grado de contaminacion del agua del mar por varios radionuclidos y el grado de intensidad de la dosis de radiacion en el cuerpo humano causada por estos radionuclidos de origen marino. Sin, embargo, aunque los especialistas en oceanografia, salud publica, nutricion, radiobiologia y en otras materias reconozcan la conveniencia de efectuar; esos calculos habra que obtener mas datos sobre la cantidad de trazadores, en las aguas del mar, en los productos marinos y en el cuerpo humano, para confeccionar un cuadro de las concentraciones maximas admisibles de diversos radionuclidos en las aguas del mar. En la memoria, el autor se limita a enunciar la idea y a describir algunos ejemplos. (author) [Russian] V nastojashhem doklade avtor stremitsja najti svjaz' mezhdu urovnem zarazhennosti morskoj vody nekotorymi vidami radionuklidov i urovnem radiacionnoj dozy, poluchaemoj chelovekom v rezul'tate dejstvija radionuklidov morskogo proishozhdenija; avtor ispol'zuet pri jetom rekomendacii MKRZ i nekotorye dannye himicheskogo analiza morskoj vody i chelovecheskogo organizma, izvestnye emu. Odanko, esli ideja jetih raschetov budet priznana uchenymi v oblasti okeanografii, zdravoohranenija, pitanija, radiacionnoj biologii i dr., vse zhe potrebujutsja dopolnitel'nye dannye o kolichestvah metjashhih jelementov v morskoj vode, v produktah morja i v chelovecheskom organizme dlja togo, chtoby zavershit' tablicu maksimal'no dopustimyh koncentracij v morskoj vode razlichnyh vidov radionuklidov. Ideja, vyskazannaja v doklade, nosit chisto predvaritel'nyj harakter; v doklade takzhe dajutsja nekotorye primery. (author)

  18. Paeonia lactiflora Pall. protects against ANIT-induced cholestasis by activating Nrf2 via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma X

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiao Ma,1,2 Yan-ling Zhao,2 Yun Zhu,3 Zhe Chen,1,2 Jia-bo Wang,4 Rui-yu Li,1,4 Chang Chen,1,2 Shi-zhang Wei,1,2 Jian-yu Li,3 Bing Liu,5 Rui-lin Wang,3 Yong-gang Li,3 Li-fu Wang,3 Xiao-he Xiao4 1Pharmacy College, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, 302 Military Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Integrative Medical Center, 302 Military Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4China Military Institute of Chinese Medicine, 302 Military Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 5School of Chinese Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Background: Paeonia lactiflora Pall. (PLP, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been used for hepatic disease treatment over thousands of years. In our previous study, PLP was shown to demonstrate therapeutic effect on hepatitis with severe cholestasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative effect of PLP on alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT-induced cholestasis by activating NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Materials and methods: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS was performed to identify the main compounds present in PLP. The mechanism of action of PLP and its therapeutic effect on cholestasis, induced by ANIT, were further investigated. Serum indices such as total bilirubin (TBIL, direct bilirubin (DBIL, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT, and total bile acid (TBA were measured, and histopathology of liver was also performed to determine the efficacy of treatment with PLP. Moreover, in order to illustrate the underlying signaling pathway, liver glutathione (GSH content and mRNA or protein levels of glutamate

  19. Theory of isotope scanning; Theorie de l'Exploration par les Radioisotopes; Teoriya meditsinskikh issledovanij s primeneniem izotopov; Teoria de la exploracion mediante radioisotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownell, G L [Physics Research Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1959-07-01

    aspecto del empleo de los radioisotopos en la medicina. El autor compara los esquemas de sensibilidad de diversos sistemas de colimacion y calcula su eficacia y su poder de resolucion. Los sistemas de coliminacion de que se trata se componen de orificios cilindricos y cenicos, de colimadores de enfoque y de dispositivos que permitan detectar por coincidencia las radiaciones de aniquilacion. Formula una teoria general con miras a establecer la concentracion optima de isotopos para cada uno de los sistemas. El autor enuncia una teoria analoga con respecto a la camara de centelleo, y compara la concentracion optima de isotopos para este dispositivo en relacion con los resultados logrados con ayuda de los distintos metodos de exploracion. Estudia tambien la posibilidad de modificar el principio de la camara a fin de utilizarla en la deteccion de las radiaciones de aniquilacion. Para terminar, compara diversos sistemas de registre desde el punto de vista de su eficacia y de la presentacion de los datos. (author) [Russian] Vozmozhnost' tochno ustanovit' raspredelenie izotopov yavlyaetsya vazhnym aspektom ispol'zovaniya ikh v meditsine. Sravnivaetsya stepen' chuvstvitel'nosti razlichnykh sistem kollimirovaniya, ustanavlivaetsya ikh ehffektivnost' i razreshayushchaya sposobnost'. Rassmatrivaemye kollimiruyushchie sistemy sostoyat iz tsilindricheskikh i konusnykh otverstij, fokusiruyushchikh kollimatorov i prispo-soblenij dlya obnaruzheniya annigilyatsionnogo izlucheniya metodom sovpadenij. Vyrabatyvaetsya obshchaya teoriya s tsel'yu ustanovit' optimal'nuyu kontsentratsiyu izotopov dlya kazhdoj iz ehtikh sistem. Podobnaya zhe teoriya razrabatyvaetsya i dlya stsintillyatsionnoj kamery; pro voditsya sravnenie optimal'noj kontsentratsii izotopov ehtogo pribora v svyazi s primenyaemymi metodami issledovaniya. Obsuzhdaetsya vopros ob izmenenii printsipa dejstviya kamery v tselyakh ispol'zovaniya ee pri nalichii annigilya-tsionnogo izlucheniya. Sravnivayutsya razlichnye sistemy

  20. Radioactive thickness gauge; Jauge d'epaisseur radioactive; Radioaktivnyj tolshchinomer; Calibrador radiactivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guizerix, J [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, Grenoble (France)

    1962-01-15

    traves del material que se desea medir y luego una fuente testigo de la misma naturaleza; la separacion de las radiaciones en el tiempo se efectua con ayuda de un obturador absorbente, con sectores llenos y huecos alternados. Despues del tubo fotomultiplicador se separan las corrientes que corresponden a cada una de las fuentes mediante un detector sincronizado con el movimiento de rotacion del obturador. A continuacion, se obtiene el cociente de ambas con ayuda de un potenciometro registrador de tipo clasico. Gracias a este montaje, el valor medio de la respuesta, que es del tipo G = f(I{sub 1}/I{sub 2}), no resulta afectado por el decrecimiento de las fuentes radiactivas; ademas, las variaciones de la alta tension, de la temperatura o de las propiedades del aire en el intervalo comprendido entre la fuente y el detector solo ejercen una reducida influencia sobre el valor obtenido. El autor expone las caracteristicas de funcionamiento de este calibrador. (author) [Russian] Avtor opisyvaet tolshchinomer, v kotorom stsintillyatsionnyj kristall-detektor poperemenno ''prosmatrivaet'' radioaktivnyj istochnik cherez izmeryaemyj material, a zatem sravnitel'nyj istochnik takogo zhe kharaktera; razdelenie izluchenij osushchestvlyaetsya inogda pri pomoshchi zaslonki segmentnogo poglotitelya poperemenno polnogo i pologo. Toki, sootvetstvuyushchie oboim istochnikam, razdelyayutsya posle trubki fotoumnozhitelya sinkhronnym detektorom pri pomoshchi vrashcheniya zaslonki. Zatem vychislyayut koehffitsient ehtikh oboikh tokov s pomoshch'yu obychnogo kontrol'nogo potentsiometra. Iz ehtogo polozheniya vytekaet, chto srednee znachenie otveta, kotoroe sleduet iz formuly G = f(I{sub 1}/I{sub 2}) ne uchityvaetsya pri raspade radioaktivnykh istochnikov i chto ono malo chuvstvitel'no k izmeneniyam vysokogo napryazheniya, temperatury ili atmosfernykh svojstv, imeyushchikh mesto v promezhutke mezhdu istochnikom i detektorom. Privodyatsya rezul'taty ehtogo izmeritelya. (author)

  1. Targeting bladder tumor cells in voided urine of Chinese patients with FITC-CSNRDARRC peptide ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia XY

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Xing-You Jia1, Qi Yu2, Zhe-Hui Zhang3, Xiao-Feng Yang11School of the First Clinical Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China; 2Department of Information Management, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China; 3Research Center for Philosophy of Science and Technology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, ChinaObjective: To study the practicality of the FITC-CSNRDARRC peptide ligand (containing the Cys–Ser–Asn–Arg–Asp–Ala–Arg–Arg–Cys nonapeptide in diagnosing and monitoring bladder tumors.Materials and methods: Between March 2011 and September 2011, 80 consecutive patients with radiographic abnormalities, localizing hematuria, other symptoms, or signs were studied using the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand, urinary cytology (UC, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. The sensitivity and specificity of these three technologies were determined and compared. Cystoscopy and tissue biopsy were taken as the “gold standards” for bladder tumor diagnosis in this study.Results: Twenty-nine out of 80 patients were diagnosed with a bladder tumor via histopathological examination. The FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand was positive in 23 out of 29 bladder tumor patients and produced false negatives in six (20.69% patients. The UC was positive in six out of 29 bladder tumor patients and produced false negatives in 23 (79.31% patients. The FISH was positive in 21 out of 29 bladder tumor patients and produced false negatives in eight (27.59% patients. The overall sensitivity as verified by the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand was much higher than in UC (79.31% versus 20.69%, P < 0.001 and was slightly higher than in FISH (79.31% versus 72.41%, P = 0.625. The sensitivity of FISH was significantly higher than that of UC (72.41% versus 20.69%, P < 0.001. Sensitivities of the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand and UC by grade were 58.33% versus 8.3% for low-grade (LG tumors (P = 0.031 and 94.12% versus 29.41% for high-grade (HG tumors (P = 0.003, respectively

  2. Temperature Distribution in Radioactive Solid Wastes. Part I - Beta-Active Solids; Repartition des Temperatures dans les Dechets Radioactifs Solides. Partie I - Solides Radioactifs Beta; 0420 0410 0421 041f 0420 0415 0414 ; Distribucion de la Temperatura en los Desechos Radiactivos Solidos. Parte I - Desechos Solidos Emisores de Radiaciones Beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotewale, D. A.; Ganguly, A. K. [Atomic Energy Establishment, Trombay (India)

    1960-07-01

    temperatura de cualquier emisor beta de periodo largo en determinados puntos de una esfera y un cilindro de dimensiones y difusividad dadas. (author) [Russian] V jetom dokumente idet rech' o vychislenii raspredelenija temperatury v radioaktivnoj sfere i v konechnom radioaktivnom cilindre, pogruzhennom v sredu, imejushhuju te zhe teplovye svojstva. Dajutsja formuly dlja takih vychislenij. Chislovye dannye o poluchennoj temperature privodjatsja v graficheskom izobrazhenii dlja teh sluchaev, kogda aktivnost' vyzyvaetsja beta-izluchateljami, takimi kak P{sup 32}, Sr{sup 89}, Cs{sup 135} i Sr{sup 90} + (Y{sup 90}). Privodjatsja obshhie diagrammy vychislenija poluchennoj temperatury dlja ljubogo beta-izluchatelja s dlitel'nym srokom zhizni v konkretnyh tochkah kruga i cilindra opredelennyh razmerov i s opredelennym kojefficientom diffuzii. (author)

  3. Identification and estimation ot carbohydrates using radioisotopic methods; Identification et dosage des hydrates de carbone a l'aide des radioisotopes; Identifikatsiya i opredelenie karbogidratov s pomoshch'yu radioizotopnykh metodov; Identificacion u valoracion de hidratos de carbono con ayuda de radioisotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, G O; Criddle, W J [Department of Chemistry, University College, Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    1962-01-15

    chromatogrammes sur bandes de papier; elle n'exige qu'une modification peu couteuse du materiel de comptage traditionnel. (author) [Spanish] Dado que los metodos analiticos clasicos no permiten obtener resultados satisfactorios, los autores han perfeccionado unos metodos de dilucion isotopica para identificar y valorar los productos que se forman en pequenas cantidades al exponer hidratos de carbono en solucion acuosa a las radiaciones gamma del {sup 60}Co. Las autorradiografias de cromatogramas sobre papel, obtenidos despues de irradiar soluciones de azucares marcados con {sup 14}C, revelan una considerable degradacion molecular. Gracias a un metodo de dilucion isotopica inverso basado en la adicion de portadores conocidos, y en la obtencion de derivados cristalizados de los fragmentos, los autores han podido determinar cuantitativamente los siguientes constituyentes. El metodo descrito por los autores permite distinguir entre estereoisomeros y valorar cada lino de ellos por separado. Asimismo puede utilizarse para resolver otros problemas de orden analitico que plantea la quimica de los hidratos de carbono. Los autores describen un nuevo metodo de exploracion y registro de la radiactividad a lo largo de las tiras de papel en las que se ha desarrollado el cromatograma. Este metodo solo requiere una modificacion poco onerosa del equipo de recuento corriente. (author) [Russian] Dlya identifikatsii i otsenki nebol'shikh kolichestv obrazovavshikhsya produktov pri obluchenii karbogidratov v vodnom rastvore gamma-aktivnym kobal'tom-60 byli razrabotany metody razbavleniya izotopov. Obychnye zhe analiticheskie metody okazalis' nedostatochnymi. Po obluchenii rastvorov S14-sakhar podgotovlennye avtoradiografii posle khromatografii na bumage ukazyvayut na znachitel'noe snizhenie. Ispol'zovanie protsedury obratnogo izotopnogo rastvora, svyazannoj s dobavkoj izvestnykh nositelej i preobrazovaniem oskolkov v derivaty kristallov, byli opredeleny kolichestvennye razmery sleduyushchikh

  4. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Iron(II-Iron(III) Electron-Exchange Reaction in Mixed Solvent Media; Cinetique et Mecanisme de l'Echange d'Electrons entre Fer (II) et Fer (III), dans des Melanges de Solvants; Ikinetika i mekhanizm reaktsii ehlektronnogo obmena zheleza (I) - zheleza (III) v smeshannoj rastvoryayushchej srede; Cinetica y Mecanismo del Intercambio de Electrones Entre Fe{sup II} Y Fe{sup lII} en Mezclas de Disolventes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, R. A. [Arthur D. Little, Inc. Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1965-10-15

    de intercambio electronico entre Fe{sup II} y Fe{sup III} a diversas temperaturas, grados de acidez y fuerzas ionicas, en soluciones de aguaacetona, agua-metanol y agua-etanol. La velocidad de reaccion disminuye apreciablemente al aumentar la concentracion de agua en el ultimo de estos sistemas, tendiendo a cero con la concentracion. La energfa de activacion del intercambio es la misma en mezclas de disolventes que en solucion acuosa. La constante dielectrica efectiva que interviene entre los reactivos sigue siendo la misma que en agua pura, incluso par a soluciones en agua-etanol bastante pobres en agua. Las mediciones espectroscopicas y del intercambio electronico reflejan las alteraciones de la composicion de la vaina de solvatacion del Fe{sup III} en disolventes mixtos. Estos resultados corroboran la teoria de que el intercambio electronico se efectua por intermedio de puentes agua. (author) [Russian] Byli izmereny udel'nye kon stanty skorosti reakcii jelektronnogo obmena Fe{sup II} - Fe{sup III} n pri razlichnyh temperaturah kislotnostjah i ionnyh silah v sredah: voda - aceton, voda - metanal i voda - jetanol. Sko rost' reakcii zametno snizhaetsja s umen'sheniem koncentracii vody v poslednej sistem i priblizhaetsja k nulju, kogda koncentracija vody priblizhaetsja k nulju. Jenergija aktivaci obmena javljaetsja toj zhe samoj v.smeshannom rastvore, kak i v vodnom rastvore. Jeffektiv naja dijelektricheskaja konstanta, kotoruju 'vidjat' reagirujushhie veshhestva, prodolzhaet byt konstantoj chistoj vody dazhe v rastvorah - jetanol, vpolne rastvorimyh v vode. Iz menenija v sostave obolochki sol'vatacii Fe{sup III} v smeshannoj srede otrazhajutsja kak v jelek tronnom obmene, tak i v spektroskopicheskih izmerenijah. Jeti vyvody, poluchennye na osnov rezul'tatov v smeshannoj rastvorjajushhej srede, podtverzhdajut teoriju vodjanogo mostika pr jelektronnom obmene. (author)

  5. Using Social Media Data to Understand the Impact of Promotional Information on Laypeople's Discussions: A Case Study of Lynch Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Jiang; Zhao, Yunpeng; Salloum, Ramzi G; Guo, Yi; Wang, Mo; Prosperi, Mattia; Zhang, Hansi; Du, Xinsong; Ramirez-Diaz, Laura J; He, Zhe; Sun, Yuan

    2017-12-13

    .57% (2704/14,564) were classified as laypeople's discussions. The most discussed themes were treatment (n=4080) and genetic testing (n=3073). We found that the topic distributions in laypeople's discussions were similar to the distributions in promotional Lynch syndrome-related information. Furthermore, most people had a positive attitude when discussing Lynch syndrome. The proportion of negative tweets was 3.51%. Within each topic, treatment (16.67%) and genetic testing (5.60%) had more negative tweets compared with other topics. When comparing monthly trends, laypeople's discussions had a strong correlation with promotional Lynch syndrome-related information on awareness (r=.98, PLynch Syndrome Awareness Day (March 22, 2017) had significant positive impacts on laypeople's discussions and their attitudes. There is evidence that participative social media platforms, namely Twitter, offer unique opportunities to inform cancer communication surveillance and to explore the mechanisms by which these new communication media affect individual health behavior and population health. ©Jiang Bian, Yunpeng Zhao, Ramzi G Salloum, Yi Guo, Mo Wang, Mattia Prosperi, Hansi Zhang, Xinsong Du, Laura J Ramirez-Diaz, Zhe He, Yuan Sun. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 13.12.2017.

  6. Extensions of the techniques for the accelerated unspecific isotopic labelling of organic compounds; Applications nouvelles des techniques accelererees du marquage non specifique de composes organiques; Rasprostranenie metodov uskoreniya mecheniya nespetsifichnymi izotopami organicheskikh slozhnykh soedinenij; Nuevas aplicaciones de las tecnicas de marcacion inespecifica acelerada de compuestos organicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanem, N A [National Research Centre, El-Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Westermark, T [Division of Physical Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm 70 (Sweden)

    1962-03-15

    marcar, y citar ejemplos en los que este procedimiento se ha empleado con exito. Las diversas tecnicas se basan en el uso de descargas de microondas y de ondas hertzianas, descargas luminiscentes producidas por corriente continua, o alterna, o sencillamente rayos ultravioleta. Se han obtenido cantidades considerables de productos purificados con actividades superiores a 100 mcuries/g. Los tiempos de exposicion a las descargas son del orden de un minuto, y en la mayoria de los casos se observo poca descomposicion. Los autores calcularon el rendimiento energetico alcanzado en estos metodos de marcacion y lo comparan con el correspondiente a las radiaciones ionizantes empleadas por Wilzbach y otros investigadores; tambien dan los valores de G para la sustitucion isotopica. Existen pruebas de que la marcacion del poliestireno se produce en virtud de una reaccion atomo-molecula. (author) [Russian] Tsel'yu nastoyashchego doklada yavlyaetsya rassmotrenie novykh sposobov uskoreniya reaktsii mezhdu radioaktivnym gazom i materialom misheni, podlezhashchim mecheniyu, a takzhe privedenie primerov uspeshnykh sluchaev. Ehti metody vklyuchayut ispol'zovanie razryadov mikrovoln i radiovoln, tleyushchikh razryadov pod vozdejstviem istochnikov postoyannogo ili peremennogo tokov, ili prosto radiatsii ul'trafioletovykh luchej. Byla dostignuta udel'naya aktivnost', dokhodyashchaya do 100 mikrokyuri na gramm, v znachitel'nykh kolichestvakh ochishchennogo produkta. Vremya vozdejstviya razryada bylo poryadka odnoj minuty, i vo mnogikh sluchayakh razlozhenie bylo chrezvychajno ogranichennym. Dayutsya podschety ehffektivnosti ispol'zovaniya ehnergii dlya proizvodstva mecheniya ehtimi metodami po sravneniyu s zatratoj dlya toj zhe tseli ehnergii ioniziruyushchego izlucheniya, ispol'zuemoj Vil'tsbakhom i dr. ; krome togo, ukazyvayutsya znacheniya radiatsionnokhimicheskogo vykhoda G dlya zameny izotopov. Est' ukazaniya na to, chto pri mechenii polistirola mekhanizm opredelyaetsya reaktsiej atom

  7. Indirect Lymphography and its Importance in Oncology; La Lymphographie Indirecte et son Interet en Oncologie; Kosvennaya limfografiya i ee znachenie v onkologii; La Linfografia Indirecta y su Interes en Oncologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaloye, B.; Magnenat, P. [Laboratoire des Radioisotopes, Clinique Medicale Universitaire de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1964-10-15

    par injection sous-capsulaire d'or-198 colloiedal par voie transcutanee. Cette technique permet de mettre en evidence la chaine mediastinale lymphatique anterieure et posterieure. (author) [Spanish] La linfografia indirecta, para la cual solo se requiere una inyeccion subcutanea de oro-198 coloidal, cuyas particulas tienen un diametro de 50 A. en los tributarios del sistema linfatico que se quieren explorar, permite visualizar por registro centelleo- grafico las cadenas ganglionares linfaticas. Los autores examinan los problemas de colimacion a fin de obtener la mejor definicion posible. Esta tecnica de investigacion del sistema linfatico facilita indirectamente, cuando se mide el tiempo de aparicion del oro en la sangre, informaciones sobre la velocidad de circulacion de las particulas de oro coloidal por los vasos linfaticos. Permite tambien obtener informaciones utiles sobre las infiltraciones neoplasticas de los ganglios, con lo que es posible conocer el alcance de una infiltracion metastatica. Los autores presentan algunos ejemplos clinicos. Describen, ademas, una nueva tecnica de linfografia hepatica por inyeccion intracapsular de oro-198 coloidal por vfa transcutanea. Esta tecnica permite visualizar la cadena mediastuiica linfatica anterior y posterior. (author) [Russian] Kosvennaja Limfo- Grafija, Kotoraja Trebuet Lish' Podkozhnogo Vvedenija Kolloidal'Nogo Zolota-198 (Diametr Chastic 50a) V Sootvetstvujushhem Uchastke Limfaticheskoj Sistemy, Daet S Pomoshh'Ju Scinti- Graficheskoj Registracii Vozmozhnost' S Dostatochnoj Ochevidnost'Ju Vyjavljat' Cepi Limfaticheskih Uzlov. Obsuzhdajutsja Problemy Kollimacii V Celjah Nailuchshego Opredelenija. Takoj Metod Issledovanija Limfaticheskoj Sistemy Pozvoljaet Pri Izmerenii Vremeni Pojavlenija Zolota V Krovi Poluchat' Kosvennym Putem Svedenija O Skorosti Perenosa Chastic Kolloidal'Nogo Zolota Po Limfaticheskim Sosudam. Tak Zhe Byli Polucheny Poleznye Svedenija O Neoplasticheskoj Infil'Tracii Uzlov, Chto Daet

  8. Effects of Variable Dose-Rates on Radiation Damage in the Rust-Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium Castaneum Herbst; Effets du debit de dose sur les dommages radioinduits chez le tenebrion roux (Tribolium Castaneum Herbst); Vliyanie razlichnykh moshchnostej doz na radiatsionnoe povrezhdenie krasnogo muchnogo zhuka, Tribolium Castaneum (Herbst); Radio lesiones que sufre el Tribolium Castaneum Herbst cuando se le somete a dosis de radiaciones de diversas intensidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, K. K.; Subramanyam, G. [Biology Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1963-09-15

    huevecillos disminuyo considerablemente al aumentar la intensidad de dosis, aunque vuelve a aumentar de manera notable cuando las intensidades de dosis alcanzan valores muy elevados. La memoria discute el significado de estos resultados. (author) [Russian] Dlya opredeleniya zavisimosti reaktsii na obluchenie ot izmeneniya moshchnosti dozy izuchalis' zhiznesposobnost' i fertil'nost' yaits, a takzhe vzroslykh osobej Tribolium castaneum posle gamma-oblucheniya pri razlichnykh moshchnostyakh doz. Ispol'zovalis' dozy v 2000 i 5000 rad, a moshchnost' doz izmenyalas' ot 126 do 140 000 rad v chas. Bylo zamecheno, chto s povysheniem moshchnosti dozy ponizhalas' fertil'nost' vzroslykh osobej. Podobnym zhe obrazom s povysheniem moshchnosti dozy znachitel'no umen'shalas' zhiznesposobnost' yaits, odnako pri ochen' bol'shikh moshchnostyakh doz zhiznesposobnost' zametno uvelichivalas'. Obsuzhdaetsya znachenie poluchennykh dannykh. (author)

  9. A novel lipid-based nanomicelle of docetaxel: evaluation of antitumor activity and biodistribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mingshu Ma,1 Yanli Hao,1 Nan Liu,1 Zhe Yin,1 Lan Wang,1 Xingjie Liang,2 Xiaoning Zhang11Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; 2National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing, ChinaPurpose: A lipid-based, nanomicelle-loaded docetaxel (M-DOC was designed and characterized. Optical imaging was employed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and antitumor efficacy of docetaxel in vivo.Materials and methods: The M-DOC was prepared using the emulsion-diffusion method. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering were used to assess the morphology and particle size of the M-DOC. Critical micelle concentrations, their stability under physiological conditions, and their encapsulation efficiency – as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography – were assessed. Pharmacological features were evaluated in two different animal models by comparing M-DOC treatments with docetaxel injections (I-DOC. Bioluminescence imaging was used to assess antitumor activity and docetaxel distribution in vivo, using nude mice injected with luciferase-expressing MDA-MB-231 human breast tumor cells. In addition, animals injected with B16 melanoma cells were used to measure survival time and docetaxel distribution.Results: The M-DOC was prepared as round, uniform spheres with an effective diameter of 20.8 nm. The critical micelle concentration of the original emulsion was 0.06%. Satisfactory encapsulation efficiency (87.6% ± 3.0% and 12-hour stability were achieved. Xenograft results demonstrated that the M-DOC was more effective in inhibiting tumor growth, without significantly changing body weight. Survival was prolonged by 12.6% in the M-DOC group. Tumor growth inhibitory rates in the M-DOC and I-DOC groups were 91.2% and 57.8% in volume and 71.8% and 44.9% in weight, respectively. Optical bioluminescence imaging of tumor growths yielded similar results. Area under the

  10. Bardoxolone methyl induces apoptosis and autophagy and inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and stemness in esophageal squamous cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YY

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Yan-Yang Wang,1,2 Yin-Xue Yang,3 Ren Zhao,1 Shu-Ting Pan,2,4 Hong Zhe,1 Zhi-Xu He,5 Wei Duan,6 Xueji Zhang,7 Tianxin Yang,8 Jia-Xuan Qiu,4 Shu-Feng Zhou2,51Department of Radiation Oncology, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Department of Colorectal Surgery, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, 5Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Research Center and Sino-US Joint Laboratory for Medical Sciences, Guiyang Medical University, Guiyang, People’s Republic of China; 6School of Medicine, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, VIC, Australia; 7Research Center for Bioengineering and Sensing Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 8Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah and Salt Lake Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Natural and synthetic triterpenoids have been shown to kill cancer cells via multiple mechanisms. The therapeutic effect and underlying mechanism of the synthetic triterpenoid bardoxolone methyl (C-28 methyl ester of 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid; CDDO-Me on esophageal cancer are unclear. Herein, we aimed to investigate the anticancer effects and underlying mechanisms of CDDO-Me in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC cells. Our study showed that CDDO-Me suppressed the proliferation and arrested cells in G2/M phase, and induced apoptosis in human ESCC Ec109 and KYSE70 cells. The G2/M arrest was accompanied with upregulated p21Waf1/Cip1 and p53 expression. CDDO-Me significantly decreased B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xl, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2

  11. Review of the United States Army Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food Program (1955-1966); Apercu du Programme d'Etudes de l'Armee des Etats Unis sur la Comestibilite des Produits Alimentaires Irradies (1955-1966); Obzor programmy Amerikanskoj armii po voprosu sokhraneniya vkusovykh i pitatel'nykh'kachestv obluchennykh pishchevykh produktov (1955-1966); Programa del Ejercito de Los Estados Unidos Relativo a la Comestibilidad de los Alimentos Irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raica, N. Jr. [United States Army Medical Research And Nutrition Laboratory, Fitzsimons General Hospital, Denver, CO (United States); Howie, D. L. [United States Army Medical Research and Development Command, Office of the Surgeon General, Washington, DC (United States)

    1966-11-15

    proporcion de 32% a 100%. Se llego a las siguientes conclusiones: a) los alimentos irradiados con rayos gamma o con electrons de 10 MeV, en dosis de 5,6 Mrad como maximo, sori tan comestibles como los alimentos no irradiados; b) en general, las perdidas de vitaminas por'irradiacion son analogas a las que produce el tratamiento termico; c) en los alimentos irradiados con cobalto-60 o con electrones de 10 MeV no existe radiactividad inducida detectable; d). los alimentos irradiados son, en general, tan aceptables como los no irradiados. En vista de estas conclusiones, la autoridad competente de los Estados Unidos ha aprobado la irradiacion de los siguientes alimentos: tocino, dosis de 4,5 Mrad, cobalto-60 o electrones de 10 MeV; trigo y derivados, dosis de 50 krad, cobalto-60; patatas, dosis de 10 krad, electrones de 2 MeV; Se estan estudiando o tramitando otras autorizaciones. (author) [Russian] Armija SShA shiroko izuchala mnogie voprosy, kasajushhiesja primenenija ionizirujushhego obluchenija dlja sohranenija pishhevyh produktov. . Rassmatrivajutsja dannye, otvechajushhie na vopros o sohranenii vkusovyh i pitatel'nyh.kachestv(s tochki zrenija toksikologii, pitatel'nosti i, chastichno, mikrobiologicheskoj bezopasnosti) obluchennyh pishhevyh produktov. Bylo zaversheno izuchenie rezul'tatov dlitel'nogo kormljonija zhivotnyh i pokazano, chto obluchennye pishhevye produkt sohranjajut svoi kachestva v toj zhe stepeni, i, kak pravilo, tak zhe prjjomlemy, kak'i pishhevye produkty, obrabotannye obychnym sposobom. Dannye byli polucheny blagodarja usilijam bolee-30 universitetskih, kommercheskih i pravitel'stvennyh laboratorij i vkljuchajut v sebja rezul'taty kormlenija obluchennymi pishhevymi produktami (mjaso, ryba, frukty, juvoshhi i -dr. - vsego 21: vid) 15 000 myshej, 5000 roditel'skih pokolenij krys, 300 sobak i 37 obez'jan. Kak pravilo, produkty byli oblucheny dozami do 2,79 i 5,58 megarada. Istochnikami obluchenija sluzhili otrabotavshie toplivnye, sterzhni, ustanovki s kobal

  12. Effects of Incorporated Radioactivity and External Radiation on Heterogeneous Catalysis; Effets de la radioactivite incorporee et des rayonnements externes sur la catalyse heterogene; Vliyanie vvedennoj radioaktivnosti i vneshnego oblucheniya na geterogennyj kataliz; Efectos de la radiactividad incorporada y de la irradiacion externa sobre la catalisis heterogenea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krohn, N. A.; Wymer, R. G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge and University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee (United States)

    1963-11-15

    aktivirovannykh alyumokhromovykh katalizatorakh. Izucheny ehffekty vvedeniya v katalizator radioaktivnykh izotopov i predvaritel'nogo gamma-oblucheniya ot istochnika Co''6''0. Sud'fatmagnievyj katalizator i katalizator smeshannogo tipa sul'fat magniya + sul'fat natriya, soderzhashchie do 45,5 mkkyuri (S''3''5)/r, pri raschete na edinitsu poverkhnosti menee aktivny, chem katalizatory togo zhe sostava, no ne soderzhashchie radioaktivnykh izotopov. Oslablenie kataliticheskoj aktivnosti sokhranyalos' dazhe posle togo, kak radioaktivnost' sushchestvenno pala, dalee, pri obluchenii rentgenovskimi luchami, kotoroe provodilos' v protsesse reaktsii, nikakikh izmenenij v kataliticheskoj aktivnosti ne nablyudalos'. Na osnovanii ehtikh dannykh sdelan vyvod, chto ehmissiya beta-chastits iz katalizatora v protsesse ego ispol'zovaniya ne okazyvaet nikakogo vliyaniya. Soobshcheniya ob usilenii kataliticheskoj aktivnosti sleduet otnesti za schet togo, chto pri prigotovlenii katalizatorov u tekh iz nikh, kotorye soderzhali radioaktivnye izotopy, vozmozhno poluchalas' bol'shaya ploshchad' poverkh- nosti, chem u tekh, kotorye ne soderzhali radioaktivnykh izotopov. Ehto obstoyatel'stvo ne bylo prinyato vo vnimanie. Predvaritel'noe gamma-obluchenie ot istochnika Co''6''0 dozoj 10''1''1 erg/g ne okazalo vliyaniya na kataliticheskuyu aktivnost'. S drugoj storony, predvaritel'noe obluchenie gamma-luchami ot istochnika Co{sup 60} alyumokhromovykh katalizatorov dozoj 4,2 x 10{sup 11} erg/g usililo kataliticheskuyu aktivnost' pochti na 34%, pri 485{sup o}C. V to zhe vremya vvedenie v katalizator do 148 mkkyuri (Pm{sup 147} )/g katalizatora ne okazyvalo pochti nikakogo vozdejstviya. V ehtom sluchae ne nablyudalos' skol'ko-nibud' zametnogo vliyaniya izlucheniya na ploshchad' poverkhnosti ili na kazhushchuyusya ehnergiyu aktivatsii. (author)

  13. Ultrasonic Inspection following Heat Treatment of Uranium Alloys; Controle des Traitements Thermiques d'Alliage d'Uranium par Ultrasons; Kontrol' termicheskoj obrabotki uranovykh splavov s pomoshch'yu ul'trazvuka; Control Ultrasonico de los Tratamientos Termicos de Aleaciones de Uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destribats, Marie-Therese; Cherpentier, C.; Papezik, F.; Pigeon, M. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires Desaclay (France)

    1965-10-15

    'zujutsja slegka legirovannye splavy urana, chasto voznikaet neobhodimost' izmel'chat' zerna termicheskoj obrabotkoj. Pri jetom okazalos' neobhodimym osushhestvljat' kontrol' za vsemi jelementami i za vsem proizvodstvom, chtoby tochno znat' kachestvo ispol'zovannogo topliva. Jetot kontrol' nevozmozhno osushhestvljat' cherez mikrografiju, tak kak on zanimaet mnogo vremeni i ne daet polnyh rezul'tatov. Kontrol prinjatyj v jadernom centre, osnovan na principe pogloshhenija ul'trazvukov materialami. Dannoe pogloshhenie svjazano so strukturoj sredy. Esli znachenie Xmalo po sravneniju s velichinoj zerna {lambda}, to pogloshhenie slaboe, a esli G sostavljaet porjadka {lambda}/2, to pogloshhenie ochen' sil'noe. Vse pervye opyty provodili v vozduhe na osnove analiza mnogokratnyh jeho i zatem izmerjali vysoty pervogo jeha. Dalee izmerenie provodili v vode. Pri jetom sravnivali vysoty propushhennogo i pervonachal'nogo jeha. Pri promyshlennom kontrole sravnivaetsja amplituda jeha, propushhennogo cherez material, s jehom, poluchennym na horosho obrabotannom jetalone togo zhe tipa i toj zhe geometricheskoj formy. Ispytanie provodili v special'noj ustanovke, kogda materialy zapuskali v rotaciju s pomoshh'ju rolikov, a napravljaemye preobrazovateli peremeshhali vdol' jelementa. Vintovoe skennirovanie osushhestvljali pri shage menee 5 mm. V ul'trazvukovom generatore imeetsja sistema regulirovanija,kotoraja podderzhivaet kontrol'noe jeho. Privoditsja serija zapisej po razlichnym splavam, i v chastnosti govoritsja o defektah, nabljudaemyh u jelementov, kotorye byli obrabotany indukciej vo vremja prohozhdenija. Obnaruzhivajutsja ploho obrabotannye uchastki razmerom menee 1 sm{sup 2} . V nastojashhee vremja podobnym obrazom osushhestvljaetsja kontrol' za vsemi tipami topliva v vide slegka legirovannyh uranovyh splavov, primenjaemyh v reaktorah G2 EL3,EF1 EdF2 i INCA, inymi slovami, kontrolirujutsja vse sterzhni i trubki s diametrom mezhdu 20 i 95 mm. (author)

  14. Thermal Annealing of Paramagnetic Defects Induced by Gamma Irradiation in (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} and (ND{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} Single Crystals: Experimental Verification of the Theory of Fletcher and Brown; Recuit Thermique des Defauts Paramagnetiques Induits par Irradiation Gamma dans des Monocristaux de (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} et (ND{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}: Verification Experimentale de la Theorie de Fletcher et Brown; 0422 0415 0420 041c 0414 ; Regeneracion Termica de los Defectos Paramagneticos Inducidos por Irradiacion Gamma en Monocristales de (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} y (ND{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}: Verificacion Experimental de la Teoria de Fletcher y Brown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calusaru, A.; Barbur, I.; Ursu, I. [Institut de Physique Atomique, Bucarest (Romania); Universite ' Babes' , Cluj (Romania)

    1965-04-15

    ,996 y 2,0032, respectivamente. El estudio de la regeneracion por recocido del primer radical en el intervalo 60 Degree-Sign -170 Degree-Sign C revela la existencia de una cinetica con un solo rellano correspondiente a una recombinacion total de los radicales. Se ha podido establecer, para cada isoterma, la ecuacion correspondiente utilizando la funcion de errores deducida por Fletcher y Brown considerando el modelo de recombinacion de pares inicialmente correlacionados (y luego liberados) segun un proceso aleatorio. La concordancia entre los resultados experimentales y la funcion se obtiene corrigiendo esta mediante un factor alfa. La curva compuesta de recocido se ajusta muy bien a la funcion de errores corregida. Aplicando el metodo fenomenologico de Fletcher y Brown para calcular la energia de activacion, se ha hallado el valor de 1,594 eV, correspondiente al primer radical en el (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Basandose en la variacion del coeficiente de difusion con la temperatura, se ha determinado el valor de 1,592 eV para la misma energia de activacion. Aplicando el metodo de Vand-Primack se ha hallado el valor de 1,45 eV, menor que los dos anteriores. Se estima, en conclusion, que el modelo de recombinacion de pares correlacionados segun un proceso aleatorio es aplicable en la formula dada por la teoria cuando la interaccion de las especies formadas con la red es bastante debil; en esas condiciones, los pares correlacionados inicialmente pueden liberarse. (author) [Russian] V obluchennyh kristallah (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} i (ND{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} s pomoshh'ju metoda rezonansa spina jelektrona byli identificirovany dva paramagnitnyh vida. Konstanta g pervogo radikala sostavljaet 2,014 i vtorogo-2,020 dlja sul'fata ammonija s vodorodom; te zhe konstanty dlja dejterirovannogo kristalla sostavljajut 1,9996 i 2,0032. Izuchenie otzhiga pervogo radikala pri temperaturah mezhdu 60 Degree-Sign i 170 Degree-Sign C pokazalo, chto v dannom sluchae imeet mesto

  15. Environmental Implications of Radioactive Waste Disposal as Related to Stream Environments; Incidences du Milieu sur l'Elimination des Dechets Radioactifs dans le Voisinage des Cours d'Eau; 0412 041b 0418 042f 0414 ; Efectos de la Evacuacion de Desechos Radiactivos en las Corrientes Fluviales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Conrad P.; Goldin, Abraham S.; Friend, Albert G.; Taft, Robert A. [Sanitary Engineering Center, US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1960-07-01

    hay que anadir las sustancias provenientes de la precipitacion radiactiva y las que se depositan directamente en el rio o incorporan a la corriente{sub a} traves de sus afluentes. Como las corrientes fluviales pueden utilizarse con diversos fines: para obtener agua potable, para el consumo industrial, como lugar de recreo, para la pesca, el riego o la navegacion, hay que evaluar cuidadosamente los efectos de la evacuacion en cada uno de los casos mencionados. Los criterios actualmente establecidos no proporcionan una base suficiente para determinar el limite admisible de evacuacion, a no ser que se conozcan las cantidades.de cada radionuclido ya presentes en el agua y su comportamiento al ser arrastrados por la corriente. Habra que modificar los limites admisibles de evacuacion segun estos datos y, sobre todo, segun los fines con que se utilice el rio aguas abajo del punto de descarga. Si en un rio determinado se permite la evacuacion de desechos radiactivos en diferentes puntos, habra que determinar las cantidades maximas correspondientes a cada radionuclido teniendo en cuenta la exposicion de las poblaciones situadas aguas abajo de todos los puntos de descarga. En la memoria se sugieren diversas maneras de abordar el problema de la evacuacion de desechos segun el uso que se hace de la comente aguas abajo del punto de evacuacion, y se examinan las dificultades practicas inherentes a cada una de ellas. (author) [Russian] V nastojashhee vremja ezhegodno v reki popadajut vse v bol'shem kolichestve, radioaktivnye othody. Oni idut iz mnogochislennyh laboratorij, v kotoryh ispol'zujutsja radioaktivnye materialy dlja poleznyh celej, a takzhe iz sushhestvujushhih sredstv ispol'zovanija atomnoj jenergii. K jetomu- kolichestvu, popadajushhemu neposredstvenno v reki pri uslovijah kontrolja, sleduet dobavit' eshhe i radioaktivnye materialy, kotorye javljajutsja sledstviem vypadenija i prosachivanija ili prjamye osadki, popadajushhie v reki. Poskol'ku jeti zhe reki mogut ispol

  16. Recoil Processes of Cr{sup 51} in Mixed Inorganic Systems; Processus de Recul de {sup 51}Cr dans des Melanges Inorganique; 041f 0420 041e 0426 0415 0421 0421 042b 0421 042f 0414 0420 0410 041c 0418 041e 0422 0414 0410 0427 0418 0425 0420 041e 041c 0410 -51 0412 0421 041c 0415 III 0410 041d 041d 042b 0425 041d 0415 041e 0420 0413 0410 041d 0418 0427 0415 0421 041a 0418 0425 0421 0418 0421 0422 0415 041c 0410 0425 ; Procesos de Retroceso del {sup 51}Cr en Sistemas Inorganicos Mixtos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veljkovic, S. R.; Milenkovic, S. M.; Ratkovic, M. R. [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Vinca, Yugoslavia (Serbia); Faculty Of Natural Sciences, Belgrade University, Belgrade, Yugoslavia (Serbia)

    1965-04-15

    smesjah hromatov ili solej hroma s neorganicheskimi okislami. V kachestve okislov ispol'zovalis' AI{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2} i MgO. Termicheskie jeffekty kontrolirovalis' parallel'no dlja ocenki chisto teplovyh vozdejstvij v reaktore i dlja ocenki vozmozhnogo vnutrennego nagreva v mishenjah. V sisteme, gde hromaty byli osazhdeny na MgO, nabljudalos' sil'noe vosstanovlenie do hrom-iona. Pri temperature obluchenija nejtronnye jeffekty prevalirovali nad termicheskimi processami i tol'ko nagrevanie do temperatury vyshe 600 Degree-Sign S davalo podobnyj rezul'tat. Ion hroma vo vremja obluchenija ne izmenilsja. Uvelichenie koncentracii hromatov privodilo k horosho izvestnomu uderzhaniju Cr{sup 51}O{sub 4}{sup =}. Hromaty, adsorbirovannye na glinozeme, sohranjali formu okisi tak zhe, kak i v sisteme s SiO{sub 2}. Teplovye jeffekty imeli to zhe samoe napravlenie. Ion hroma, absorbirovannyj na jetih okisjah, vedet sebja razlichno. V sisteme s glinozemom otmechalos' sil'noe okislenie, kotoroe znachitel'no prevyshalo vklad teplovyh processov. Pri sravnenii jeffekta obluchenija i nagreva v sisteme s SiO{sub 2} obnaruzhena nebol'shaja raznica, hotja bylo otmecheno bol'shoe diffuzionnoe obednenie poverhnosti ionami hroma. Obshhaja osobennost' vseh sistem sostoit v ochen' nebol'shoj koncentracii soedinenij hroma. Himija tonkogo sloja, po-vidimomu, otlichaetsja ot obychnogo povedenija bol'shih mass hromatov v bol'shinstve sluchaev, kak v teplovyh processah, tak i v processe otdachi. Jeto mozhet oznachat', chto processy v ''gorjachih tochkah'', nahodjas' v zavisimosti ot vseh komponentov, mogut davat' himicheskie produkty, chuvstvitel'nye k harakteru misheni. Obobshhennaja kartina processov s jadrami otdachi v tverdyh soedinenijah, po-vidimomu, nuzhdaetsja v dopolnitel'nom rassmotrenii voprosa o materiale matric. (author)

  17. Retention in Solid KIO{sub 3} Activated with Fast and Slow Neutrons; Retention dans KIO{sub 3} Solide Active par des Neutrons Rapides et des Neutrons Lents; 0423 0414 0415 0420 0416 0410 041d 0418 0415 0412 0422 0412 0415 0420 0414 041e 041c KIO{sub 3}, 0410 041a 0422 0418 0412 0418 0420 041e 0412 0410 041d 041d 041e 041c 0411 042b 0421 0422 0420 042b 041c 0418 0418 041c 0415 0414 041b 0415 041d 041d 042b 041c 0418 041d 0415 0418 0422 0420 041e 041d 0410 041c 0418 ; Retencion en KIO{sub 3} Solido Activado con Neutrones Rapidos y Lentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aten, A.H.W. Jr.; Lindner-Groen, M.; Lindner, L. [Instituut voor Kernphysisch Onderzoek, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1965-04-15

    cristal, y presentar caracteristicas identicas para los diferentes isotopos. Para comprobar estas hipotesis se ha realizado una serie de experimentos en los que se activo KIO{sub 3} solido con neutrones rapidos y termicos. En el caso de los neutrones rapidos, la retencion de {sup 128}I fue sensiblemente mayor que la de {sup 126}I, pero la retencion de {sup 128}I alcanzada con los neutrones termicos fue aun mas elevada que la obtenida con los neutrones rapidos. Este hecho indica que, aparte del esquema de desintegracion, la energia de retroceso tambien puede constituir un factor determinante de la retencion. Tambien difieren los efectos del recocido en el {sup 128}I y en el {sup 126}I (obtenidos ambos con neutrones rapidos). Por tratamiento postirradiatorio a temperaturas de hasta 100 Degree-Sign C, la retencion de ambos isotopos referida a la actividad total aumento en la misma proporcion, esto es, la diferencia de retencion permanecio constante. Por tanto, la parte de la fraccion de {sup 126}I reducida por el proceso de retroceso que excede de la fraccion de {sup 128}I reducida, resulta mucho menos afectada por el calentamiento que la fraccion reducida de ambos isotopos. Es evidente que solo un modelo bastante detallado permite explicar ese comportamiento quimico tan complicado del atomo radiactivo de retroceso. (author) [Russian] Prostaja model' vzaimodejstvij jader otdachi v tverdom tele predpolagaet, chto osnovnoe (neotozhzhennoe) uderzhanie dolzhno pokazat' izotopnye jeffekty (kotorye, verojatno, byli by svjazany so sposobom poteri jadrom produkta svoej izbytochnoj jadernoj jenergii) i chto jeto kolichestvo dolzhno byt' nechuvstvitel'nym k usloviju kristallicheskoj reshetki. S drugoj storony, otzhig v jetoj prostoj modeli dolzhen zaviset' ot uslovija (i predvaritel'noj obrabotki) kristalla, no pokazyvat' to zhe samoe povedenie dlja razlichnyh izotopov . Proverka jetih argumentov daetsja posredstvom provedenija serii opytov, v kotoryh tverdyj KJO{sub 3} aktivirovalsja

  18. Planned Procedures for Fast Determination of Radiation Levels and Personnel Dosimetry in Connection with Radiological Accidents; Methodes de Dosimetrie Rapide du Personnel en Cas d'Accident Radiologique; 041f 041b 0410 041d 0414 ; Servicio Organizado de Determinacion Rapida de los Niveles de Radiacion y de Dosimetria del Personal en Caso de Accidente Radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edvardsson, K. -A.; Wahlberg, T. [AB Atomenergi, Studsvik (Sweden)

    1965-06-15

    'ju. Jeta organizacija imeet svoju shtab- kvartiru, v kotoroj hranitsja oborudovanie i kotoraja imeet razlichnye vidy vnutrennih i vneshnih kommunikacij. Dlja opredelenija stepeni obluchenija neobhodimo poluchit' kak mozhno skoree predvaritel'nye dannye o moshhnosti dozy vneshnego i vnutrennego obluchenija i dovol'no tochno izmerit' stepen' obluchenija kazhdogo cheloveka, imejushhego otnoshenie k avarij, v techenie priemlemogo sroka. Special'nye gruppy po opredeleniju doz obluchenija obsledujut mesto avarii, chtoby imet' obshhuju ocenku o razmerah opasnosti. Jeti gruppy nachinajut dejstvovat' srazu zhe posle poluchenija signala trevogi. Oni imejut pri sebe portativnye pribory i peredvigajutsja na mashinah po opredelennym dorogam v meste raspolozhenija ustanovki. Prakticheskaja proverka pokazala, chto shtab-kvartira poluchaet rezul'taty obsledovanija ot jetih grupp v techenie 10 - 15 minut posle signala o radiacionnoj opasnosti, i na osnove jetih rezul'tatov mozhno sostavit' horoshee predstavlenie ob urovnjah radiacii vnutri i snaruzhi razlichnyh zdanij. Portativnoe oborudovanie vkljuchaet ustrojstva dlja vzjatija prob vozduha s krajne neznachitel'nym vremenem otbora prob, kotorye dejstvujut na osnove principa vozdushnogo jezhektora. Individual'nye vneshnie dozy opredeljajutsja na osnove jekspozicij fotoplenki, dozimetra kritichnosti, aktivacii i analiza aktivnosti volos i krovi. Vnutrennee zagrjaznenie opredeljaetsja posredstvom izmerenija aktivnosti vsego tela i radiometricheskim analizom jekskrementov. S cel'ju opredelenija polej radiacii, sozdannyh v rezul'tate avarii, rjad ustanovlennyh kontrol'nyh postov osnashhaetsja dozimetrami razlichnyh tipov, kotorye takzhe zamerjajutsja srazu zhe posle gipoteticheskoj avarii. (author)

  19. Cycle ergometer and inspiratory muscle training offer modest benefit compared with cycle ergometer alone: a comprehensive assessment in stable COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang K

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Kai Wang,1,* Guang-qiao Zeng,2,* Rui Li,1,* Yu-wen Luo,1 Mei Wang,1 Yu-he Hu,1 Wen-hui Xu,1 Lu-qian Zhou,2 Rong-chang Chen,2 Xin Chen1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, The State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Cycle ergometer training (CET has been shown to improve exercise performance of the quadriceps muscles in patients with COPD, and inspiratory muscle training (IMT may improve the pressure-generating capacity of the inspiratory muscles. However, the effects of combined CET and IMT remain unclear and there is a lack of comprehensive assessment.Materials and methods: Eighty-one patients with COPD were randomly allocated to three groups: 28 received 8 weeks of CET + IMT (combined training group, 27 received 8 weeks of CET alone (CET group, and 26 only received 8 weeks of free walking (control group. Comprehensive assessment including respiratory muscle strength, exercise capacity, pulmonary function, dyspnea, quality of life, emotional status, nutritional status, and body mass index, airflow obstruction, and exercise capacity index were measured before and after the pulmonary rehabilitation program.Results: Respiratory muscle strength, exercise capacity, inspiratory capacity, dyspnea, quality of life, depression and anxiety, and nutritional status were all improved in the combined training and CET groups when compared with that in the control group (P<0.05 after pulmonary rehabilitation program. Inspiratory muscle strength increased significantly in the combined training group when compared with that in the CET group (ΔPImax [maximal inspiratory pressure] 5.20±0.89 cmH2O vs 1.32±0.91 cmH2O

  20. Collaborative International Evaluated Library Organisation Pilot Project - CIELO meeting, OECD Conference Centre, 9-11 May 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, Michal Wladyslaw; Cabellos De Francisco, Oscar; Trkov, Andrej; Bauge, Eric; Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd; Ignatyuk, Anatoly V.; Mcnabb, Dennis P.; Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Grudzevich, Oleg T.; Mattoon, Caleb; Brown, David; Chadwick, Mark; Roubtsov, Danila; Iwamoto, Osamu; Kahler, Albert C.; Diez De La Obra, Carlos Javier; Qian, Jing; Wu, Haicheng; Ruan, Xichao; Sobes, Vladimir; Rearden, Bradley T.; Yokoyama, Kenji; Schillebeeckx, Peter; Kodeli, Ivan-Alexander; Plompen, Arjan; White, Morgan C.; Leal, Luiz Carlos; Fiorito, Luca; Danon, Yaron; Romain, Pascal; Dunn, Michael; Zerovnik, Gasper; Morillon, Benjamin; Jacqmin, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The aim of WPEC subgroup 39 'Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files' is to provide criteria and practical approaches to use effectively the results of sensitivity analyses and cross section adjustments for feedback to evaluators and differential measurement experimentalists in order to improve the knowledge of neutron cross sections, uncertainties, and correlations to be used in a wide range of applications. WPEC subgroup 40-CIELO (Collaborative International Evaluated Library Organization) provides a new working paradigm to facilitate evaluated nuclear reaction data advances. It brings together experts from across the international nuclear reaction data community to identify and document discrepancies among existing evaluated data libraries, measured data, and model calculation interpretations, and aims to make progress in reconciling these discrepancies to create more accurate ENDF-formatted files. SG40-CIELO focusses on 6 important isotopes: "1H, "1"6O, "5"6Fe, "2"3"5","2"3"8U, "2"3"9Pu. This document is the proceedings of the 2016 SG40-CIELO meeting, followed by a joint SG39/SG40 session, held at the OECD Headquarters Conference Center, Paris, France, on 9-11 May 2016. It comprises all the available presentations (slides) given by the participants: A - SG40-CIELO meeting: - SG40-1: Status of Cross Section Progress for "2"3"5","8U, "2"3"9Pu, "5"6Fe, "1"6O (Mark CHADWICK); - SG40-2: Summary of IRMM (Arjan PLOMPEN); - SG40-2.1: Giorginis "1"6O(n,alpha) insights (Arjan PLOMPEN); - SG40-3: New Oxygen "1"6O Hale evaluation (Mark CHADWICK); - SG40-4: "1"6O and "5"6Fe Iron resonance region evaluations (Luiz LEAL); - SG40-5: Iron evaluation work at BNL, ORNL, and IAEA (Mike HERMAN); - SG40-6: Minor Fe isotopes (David BROWN); - SG40-7: Iron evaluation work at CIAE (Jing QIAN); - SG40-8: IAEA CIELO data testing relevant to "5"6Fe (Andre TRKOV); - SG40-9: CIELO data testing (Skip KAHLER

  1. Metamorphic and tectonic evolution of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex in Nyalam region, south Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Rubatto, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    timing along the South Tibetan detachment (27-16 Ma) but precedes that along the MCT (16-10 Ma). Comparison between the obtained P-T-t data and model predictions implies that a lateral crustal flow process dominated the exhumation of the high-grade upper GHC migmitites during 25-16 Ma, whereas a critical taper thrusting process dominated the exhumation of the MCT zone nonmigmatites and cooled migmatites in the lower GHC at 16-10 Ma. In other words, at different temporal and spatial scale, both propagating thrusting along large tectonic boundaries and a low-viscosity melting crust could contribute to the exhumation of high-grade metamorphic rocks in Himalaya-like large hot collisional orogens. KEY WORDS: Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex; P-T path; U-Pb geochronology; channel flow; tectonic discontinuity References: Wang, J.M., Rubatto, D., Zhang, J.J., 2015a. Timing of partial melting and cooling across the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (Nyalam, central Himalaya): in-sequence thrusting and its implications. Journal of Petrology, 56, 1677-1702. Wang, J.M., Zhang, J.J., Wei, C.J., Rai, S.M., Wang, M., Qian, J.H., 2015b. Characterizing the metamorphic discontinuity across the Main Central Thrust Zone of eastern-central Nepal. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 101, 83-100. Wang, J.M., Zhang, J.J., Wang, X.X., 2013. Structural kinematics, metamorphic P-T profiles and zircon geochronology across the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex in south-central Tibet: implication for a revised channel flow. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 31, 607-628.

  2. Comparison of planning target volumes based on three-dimensional and four-dimensional CT imaging of thoracic esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wei Wang, Jianbin Li, Yingjie Zhang, Qian Shao, Min Xu, Tingyong Fan, Jinzhi Wang Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Background and purpose: To investigate the definition of planning target volumes (PTVs based on four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT compared with conventional PTV definition and PTV definition using asymmetrical margins for thoracic primary esophageal cancer. Materials and methods: Forty-three patients with esophageal cancer underwent 3DCT and 4DCT simulation scans during free breathing. The motions of primary tumors located in the proximal (group A, middle (group B, and distal (group C thoracic esophagus were obtained from the 4DCT scans. PTV3D was defined on 3DCT using the tumor motion measured based on 4DCT, PTV conventional (PTVconv was defined on 3DCT by adding a 1.0 cm margin to the clinical target volume, and PTV4D was defined as the union of the target volumes contoured on the ten phases of the 4DCT images. The centroid positions, volumetric differences, and dice similarity coefficients were evaluated for all PTVs. Results: The median centroid shifts between PTV3D and PTV4D and between PTVconv and PTV4D in all three dimensions were <0.3 cm for the three groups. The median size ratios of PTV4D to PTV3D were 0.80, 0.88, and 0.71, and PTV4D to PTVconv were 0.67, 0.73, and 0.76 (χ2=–3.18, –2.98, and –3.06; P=0.001, 0.003, and 0.002 for groups A, B, and C, respectively. The dice similarity coefficients were 0.87, 0.90, and 0.81 between PTV4D and PTV3D and 0.80, 0.84, and 0.83 between PTV4D and PTVconv (χ2=–3.18, –2.98, and –3.06; P=0.001, 0.003, and 0.002 for groups A, B, and C, respectively. The difference between the degree of inclusion of PTV4D in PTV3D and that of PTV4D in PTVconv was <2% for all groups. Compared with PTVconv, the amount of irradiated normal tissue

  3. Electromagnetic Emissions During Rock-fracturing Experiments Inside Magnetic Field Free Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, T.; Jin, H.

    2012-12-01

    Corporation in America. EME and AE signals were collected at sampling rate larger than 1 MHz, while strain signals at sampling interval of 0.1 second. Abnormal strong EME signals were usually observed at the same moment with the main crack indicated by strain signals. There are too many AE signals but too little EME signals collected during the rock-cracking experiments. Even AE signals with amplitude larger than 60dB were hardly found accompanied by EME signals. Few data indicate that EME and AE signals occur simultaneously. Abnormal EME signals were always detected after rock specimens were cracked, indicated by the torn strain gauges. The lag of EME signals behind the cracking signals revealed by strain gauges may indicate that EME signals were caused by the fast movement of charged rock fragments. This study was sponsored by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, grant 41004029) and Institute of Geophysics, CEA (Project No.: DQJB10B14). We would like to thank Shuqing Qian, Zhiwei Guo and Zhengyi Liu to take part in the experiments.

  4. PREFACE: Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audoin, Bertrand; Dehoux, Thomas; Guillet, Yannick

    2011-02-01

    and the gala dinner took place in a wine chateau in the medieval village. We hope this experience will remain in the attendees' memories as a pleasant and convivial time. We would like to express our thanks to the members of the organizing committee, the scientific committee, and all our generous sponsors, either institutions or companies, for their help in making this event possible. We would also like to thank the scientists involved for their confidence in our organization, and for their contributions. As unanimously decided by the attendees, the next symposium will be held in Japan, most likely in 2012. The papers published in this volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series provide a collection of state-of-the-art and recent advances in research and applications of laser ultrasonics as presented at this second Symposium. Bertrand Audoin - Conference ChairThomas Dehoux - Conference proceedings co-editorYannick Guillet - Conference proceedings co-editor Conference photograph Scientific committee Bertrand AudoinUniversité Bordeaux 1, France Alain BlouinNRC, Canada Christ GlorieuxKatholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium Vitalyi GusevUniversité du Maine, France Peter HessUniversity of Heidelberg, Germany Alexander A KarabutovMoscow State University, Russia Sridhar KrishnaswamyNorthwestern University, USA Humphrey MarisBrown University, USA Jean-Pierre MonchalinNRC, Canada Todd MurrayBoston University, USA Makoto OchiaiToshiba Corp, Japan Menglu QianTongji University, China Daniel RoyerEcole Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie, France Hervé TrétoutDassault Aviation, France Hubert VoillaumeEADS, France Oliver B WrightHokkaido University, Japan Shu-yi ZhangNanjing University, China Organizing committee Bertrand AudoinChair Sandrine GuitLocal administrator Christophe Aristégui Thomas Dehoux Evelyne Dewayse Yannick Guillet Armelle Guilloux

  5. Effects of a micro/nano rough strontium-loaded surface on osseointegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Y

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Yongfeng Li,1,* Yaping Qi,2,* Qi Gao,3,* Qiang Niu,1 Mingming Shen,2 Qian Fu,1 Kaijin Hu,1 Liang Kong1 1State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 3Department of Stomatology, PLA 458 Hospital, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: We developed a hierarchical hybrid micro/nanorough strontium-loaded Ti (MNT-Sr surface fabricated through hydrofluoric acid etching followed by magnetron sputtering and evaluated the effects of this surface on osseointegration. Samples with a smooth Ti (ST surface, micro Ti (MT surface treated with hydrofluoric acid etching, and strontium-loaded nano Ti (NT-Sr surface treated with SrTiO3 target deposited via magnetron sputtering technique were investigated in parallel for comparison. The results showed that MNT-Sr surfaces were prepared successfully and with high interface bonding strength. Moreover, slow Sr release could be detected when the MNT-Sr and NT-Sr samples were immersed in phosphate-buffered saline. In in vitro experiments, the MNT-Sr surface significantly improved the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts compared with the other three groups. Twelve weeks after the four different surface implants were inserted into the distal femurs of 40 rats, the bone–implant contact in the ST, MT, NT-Sr, and MNT-Sr groups were 39.70%±6.00%, 57.60%±7.79%, 46.10%±5.51%, and 70.38%±8.61%, respectively. In terms of the mineral apposition ratio, the MNT-Sr group increased by 129%, 58%, and 25% compared with the values of the ST, MT, and NT-Sr groups, respectively. Moreover, the maximal pullout force in the MNT-Sr group was 1.12-, 0.31-, and 0.69-fold higher than the values of the ST, MT, and NT

  6. SPAG9 is involved in hepatocarcinoma cell migration and invasion via modulation of ELK1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan QY

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Qiuyue Yan,1,2 Guohua Lou,3 Ying Qian,1 Bo Qin,1 Xiuping Xu,1,2 Yanan Wang,1,2 Yanning Liu,3 Xuejun Dong1 1Shaoxing People’s Hospital, Shaoxing Hospital Zhejiang University, Shaoxing, Zhejiang, 2The Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medicine, Ministry of Education of China, School of Laboratory Medicine and Life Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 3State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Background: Sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9 is upregulated in several malignancies and its overexpression is positively correlated with cancer cell malignancies. However, the specific biological roles of SPAG9 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC are less understood. Methods: We analyzed SPAG9 and ETS-like gene 1, tyrosine kinase (ELK1 expression in 50 paired HCC specimens and adjacent noncancerous liver specimens using immunohistochemistry. SPAG9 small interfering RNA (siRNA was used to knockdown SPAG9 expression in HCCLM3 and HuH7 cell lines. We used plasmids to upregulate ELK1 expression and siRNA to downregulate ELK1 expression in HuH7 cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were used to evaluate the expression of SPAG9 and ELK1 at the mRNA and protein level, respectively. Wound healing, matrigel migration, and invasion analyses were performed to determine the effect of SPAG9 and ELK1 on HCC metastasis. Results: SPAG9 and ELK1 were overexpressed in HCC tissue specimens and their expressions were higher in HCCLM3 and HuH7 cells compared to the low-metastatic HepG2 cells. Overexpression of SPAG9 was positively associated with tumor-node-metastasis staging (P=0.032, metastasis parameters (P=0.018 of HCC patients, and ELK1 expression (r=0.422, P<0.001 in HCC tissue specimens. In addition

  7. Determination of the Uranium Content of Aluminium Alloys; Determination de la Teneur en Uranium dans les Alliages a Base d'Aluminium; Opredelenie soderzhaniya urana v splavakh na osnove alyuminiya; Determinacion del Contenido de Uranio en las Aleaciones a Base de Aluminio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, J.; Van Hove, L. [S.A. Metallurgie et Mecanique Nucleaires Dessel (Belgium)

    1965-09-15

    determinacion de su contenido exacto de uranio-235 se efectua mediante analisis quimicos e isotopicos. El control, cuando las operaciones se reaUzan a una cadencia industrial, se hace midiendo la densidad de la aleacion o contando los rayos gamma emitidos por el uranio-235. Ambos metodos permiten obtener resultados de una precision relativa comparable ({+-} 0,5%). Desde el punto de vista economico, se puede recomendar la determinacion del contenido por recuento de la emision gamma, siempre que sea necesario llevar a cabo muchos examenes de piezas de una forma determinada. (author) [Russian] Vo mnogih reaktorah dlja ispytanija materialov splav aljuminija i obogashhennogo urana ispol'zuetsja v kachestve topliva. Kolichestvo urana-235 v kazhdom toplivnom jelemente dolzhno byt' tochno izvestno. Ispol'zovannye dlja jetogo opredelenija metody prosty v principe i k tomu zhe raznoobrazny. Privodjatsja sledujushhie metody: izmerenie plotnosti splava, otschet gamma-izluchenija urana-235, himicheskij analiz, opredelenie izotopnogo soderzhanija i ocenka potemnenija radiograficheskogo snimka. K sozhaleniju, kazhdyj iz jetih metodov stradaet bolee ili menee ser'eznymi nedostatkami na praktike, kogda jeto kasaetsja kontrolja vazhnoj produkcii. Izmerenie plotnosti splava metodom Arhimeda daet dostatochno tochnye rezul'taty, esli jetot metod primenjaetsja ostorozhno i esli tochno izvestna plotnost' sostavnyh metallov. Vmeste s tem, na praktike jetot metod javljaetsja ochen' medlennym. Krome togo, nado ochen' tochno znat' izotopnoe soderzhanie, chtoby opredelit' kolichestvo urana-235. Registracija gamma-aktivnosti urana-235 pozvoljaet neposredstvenno davat' ocenku jetomu izotopu. Odnako mnogie parametry odnokanal'nogo spektrometra obuslovlivajut primenenie horosho izvestnyh jetalonov i sozdanija iskljuchitel'noj ustojchivosti registracii. I vse zhe, po nashemu mneniju, jetot metod javljaetsja naibolee celesoobraznym dlja analizov v promyshlennom masshtabe. S drugoj storony, vybor jetalonov

  8. First Results of a Systematic Study of Internal Contamination Due to Fall-Out; Premiers Resultats d'une Etude Systematique des Contaminations Internes Consecutives aux Retombees Radioactives; 041f 0415 0420 0414 ; Resultados Iniciales de un Estudio Sistematico de las Contaminaciones Internas Debidas a la Precipitacion Radiactiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellerin, P.; Moroni, J. P.; Remy, M. L. [Travail du Service Central de Protection Contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, Ministere de la Sante Publique, Paris (France)

    1964-11-15

    organismo humano tendria capital importancia, pero la medicion directa de este isotopo mediante el antropogammametro no puede realizarse cuando se trata de bajas actividades. Por lo tanto, los autores procuraron evaluar el orden de magnitud de dicha carga por dos metodos diferentes: primeramente, el estudio del cesio-137, cuya concentracion en las precipitaciones radiactivas sigue una evolucion sensiblemente paralela al del estroncio-90, permite hallar una primera aproximacion. Ademas, los autores midieron la excrecion urinaria de estroncio-90 en cierto numero de sujetos, con el proposito de deducir asi la carga total o, por lo menos, encontrar un limite superior para la concentracion de dicho isotopo. (author) [Russian] S sentjabrja 1961 goda Central'naja sluzhba zashhity ot ionizirujushhih izluchenij provela svyshe 500 obsledovanij s pomosh'ju schetchika dlja izmerenija radioaktivnosti vsego organizma cheloveka. Mnogie lica obsledovalis' v techenii treh ili shesti mesjacev . Pri jetih obsledovanijah chasto ispol'zovalsja radioanaliz mochi, v celom radiohimicheskomu issledovaniju predshestvovalo sistematicheskoe izuchenie obrazcov mochi s pomosh'ju gamma-spektrometrii.Sravnitel'noe izuchenie rezul'tatov jetih razlichnyh issledovanij pozvoljaet vyjavit' nekotorye fakty, otnosjashhiesja k vnutrennemu zarazheniju v rezul'tate radioaktivnyh vypadenij: 1. Cezij-137 javljaetsja edinstvennym iskustvennym radioizotopom, kotoryj postojanno obnaruzhivalsja pri obsledovanijah s pomoshh'ju schetchika dlja izmerenija aktivnosti vsego organizma. Jevoljucija obshhego srednego soderzhanija izotopa mozhet byt' proslezhena v techenie vsego perioda vremeni, otvedennogo na vse issledovanija. Dopolnitel'no mozhno otmetit' izmenenija, i k tomu zhe obychnye, radioaktivnogo zarazhenija v zavisimosti ot pola. 2. Chto kasaetsja obychno vstrechajushhihsja slabyh aktivnostej, to nam udalos' izuchit' svjaz' mezhdu vydeleniem s mochoj cezija-137 i obshhim soderzhaniem jetogo izotopa v organizme. Rezul

  9. Nucleic Acids and Protein Metabolism of Bone Marrow Cells Studied by Means of Tritiumlabelled Precursors; Etude du Metabolisme des Acides Nucleiques et des Proteines dans les Cellules de la Moelle Osseuse, a l'Aide de Precurseurs Trities; 0418 0437 0443 0414 ; Estudio con Ayuda de Precursores Tritiados del Metabolismo de los acidos Nucleicos y de las Proteinas en las Celulas de la Medula Osea;

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavosto, F. [Istituto di Clinica Medica Generale e Centro di Studi Fisico-Biologici, Universita de Turin, Turin (Italy)

    1962-02-15

    demostrado que en las celulas normales de la medula osea la razon entre la incorporacion de uridina y la de aminoacidos permanece constante. En los casos de leucemia aguda, la incorporacion de acido ribonucleico y de precursores proteinicos en las celulas leucemicas es siempre sensiblemente mas reducida, aunque varia de un caso a otro. Asimismo, la razon entre la incorporacion de uridina y la de aminoacidos se altera constantemente en estas celulas. El autor estudia la disminucion y disociacion del metabolismo del acido ribonucleico y de las proteinas en las celulas leucemicas (leucemia aguda), relacionando estos fenomenos con la maduracion defectuosa, tipica de estas celulas. (author) [Russian] Obsuzhdajutsja prei- mushhestva ispol'zovanija mechennyh tritiem slozhnyh soedinenij v metodah avto- radiograficheskogo analiza. Dejstvitel'no, jelektrony tritija obladajut maksi- mal'noj jenergiej 0,018 Mjev, chto sootvetstvuet priblizitel'no rasstojaniju 1 mikrona na fotograficheskoj plenke, dostigaja tem samym nailuchshej vozmozh- noj razreshajushhej sposobnosti v masshtabe kletok i ih komponentov. Jeto osobenno polezno pri izuchenii javlenij metabolizma v tkanjah, sostojashhih; kak jeto imeet mestno v kostnom mozge, iz raznovidnostej kletok, nahodjashhihsja na razlichnoj stadii differenciacii. Jetot metod byl ispol'zovan dlja issledovanija metabolizma nukleinovyh kislot i proteina v zdorovyh i porazhennyh lejkemiej kletkah kostnogo mozga. Izuchenie metabolizma dioksiribonukleinovoj kisloty proizvodilos' pri pomoshhi specificheskogo predshestvennika, a imenno timidina tritija. Putem sopostavlenija nahodjashhihsja na odnoj i toj zhe stadii sozrevanija chastic zdoro- vyh i porazhennyh lejkemiej tkanej byli obnaruzheny znachitel'nye rashozhde- nija v procentnyh doljah mechenyh kletok. V chastnosti, v jachejkah, porazhennyh ostroj lejkemiej, nabnjudalos' gorazdo bolee slaboe pogloshhenie timidina, chto prinimalos' za dokazatel'stvo men'shej sposobnosti razmnozhenija jetih kletochek po

  10. Biological Monitoring for Plutonium-241; Detection du Plutonium-241 par Controles Biologiques; Dozimetriya Plutoniya-241 v biologicheskikh materialakh; Determinacion del Plutonio-241 en Sustancias Biologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, J. C.; McDonald, B. J.; Barnes, V. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Windscale Works, Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1965-10-15

    {pi}. El equipo construido hasta la fecha puede detectar 3 pCi de {sup 241}Pu en un recuento de 1 h. Esta cantidad representa la excretada por la orina durante 24 h a los 3 meses de absorber el 5% de la carga corporal maxima admisible (0,9 {mu}Ci). Seguidamente los discos se analizan para determinar los isotopos del plutonio emisores alfa colocandolos durante una semana sobre una placa nuclear, que se examina visualmente bajo el microscopio. (author) [Russian] Opisyvajutsja proishozhdenie i harakteristiki plutonija-241. Podcherkivajutsja soobrazhenija otnositel'no vreda jetogo jelementa dlja zdorov'ja i problemy ego opredelenija. Opisyvaetsja sistema scheta, vyrabatyvaemaja v nastojashhee vremja v Uindskejle dlja kolichestvennogo opredelenija plutonija-241 maloj aktivnosti v probah, sobiraemyh po programme biologicheskogo dozimetricheskogo kontrolja. Na nastojashhej stadii razrabotki jetot metod po men'shej mere stol' zhe chuvstvitelen, kak opisannye ranee, i obladae't preimushhestvami blagodarja prostote, bystrote i jekonomichnosti. Jetot metod prednaznachen v pervuju ochered' dlja analiza mochi dlja dopolnenija informacii, uzhe poluchennoj posredstvom radioavtograficheskogo analiza al'fa-aktivnyh radioizotopov plutonija. Dlja opredelenija kolichestva plutonija-241 ispol'zuetsja tot zhe samyj diskovyj istochnik, chto pozvoljaet sokratit' podgotovitel'nye raboty. Radioizotopy plutonija prezhde vsego izvlekajut iz proby mochi ili drugogo biologicheskogo materiala v sostojanii bol'shoj radiohimicheskoj chistoty posredstvom anionoobmena. V rezul'tate jelektroliza oni otkladyvajutsja na diske iz nerzhavejushhej stali. Neposredstvennyj otschet mjagkogo beta-spektra plutonija-241 (maksimal'naja jenergija 20 kjev, period poluraspada 13,3 goda) proizvoditsja s pomoshh'ju sistemy antisovpadenij, sostojashhej iz proporcional'nogo schetchika malogo ob{sup e}ma s gazovym potokom i iz zashhity s plasticheskim fosfornym scintilljatorom antisovpadenij. Razmery takovy, chto vse beta

  11. Application of radioisotopes to the investigation of the kinetics and mechanism of reactions of some inorganic complex compounds; Application des radioisotopes a l'etude de la cinetique et du mecanisme des reactions de certains complexes inorganiques; Primenenie radioizotopov k issledovaniyam kinetiki i mekhanizma reaktsij nekotorykh neorganicheskikh slozhnykh soedinenij; Aplicacion de los radioisotopos al estudio de la cinetica y del mecanismo de las reacciones de algunos complejos inorganicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Gordon M [Department of Chemistry, University of Buffalo, Buffalo 14, NY (United States)

    1962-03-15

    estado de equilibrio, efectuada en la reaccion de intercambio de carbonatos. De la misma manera, los datos relativos al efecto cinetico de los isotopos en la hidratacion del ion Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}CO{sub 3}{sup +} catalizada por acidos han corroborado las teorias sobre el caracter de la fase de ruptura de enlaces, que determina la velocidad de estas reacciones. Por ultimo, los experimentos con trazadores radiactivos facilitan frecuentemente el estudio de las posiciones sucesivas de ciertos atomos o radicales en las reacciones inorganicas para las que existen diversas explicaciones teoricamente posibles. Como ejemplo puede citarse la demostracion de que en la oxidacion del ion tiocianato por peroxido de hidrogeno, el cianuro no es un producto intermedio que sufre un intercambio rapido a pesar de que constituye uno de los principales productos finales. (author) [Russian] Ispol'zovanie radioizotopov okazyvaet neotsenimye uslugi pri issledovanii khimicheskikh neorganicheskikh reaktsij samykh raznoobraznykh vidov i, v chastnosti, reaktsij so slozhnymi ionizirovannymi veshchestvami v vodnykh rastvorakh. Odnim iz vazhnykh metodov sluzhit izuchenie skorosti i mekhanizma protsessov izotopnogo obmena. Tak, naprimer, byl proveden ryad issledovanij obmen a mezhdu t.n. ''svobodnym'' karbonatom, mechennym uglerodom-14, i svyazyvayushchim karbonatom oktaehdral'nykh slozhnykh ionov tipa CoA{sub 2}CO{sub 3}{sup +}, gde A = 2 NH{sub 3}, ehtilendiamin (en), propilendiamin (pn) ili trimetilendiamin (tn). EHti issledovaniya priveli k dovol'no tochnomu ponimaniyu kharaktera reaktsij ehtogo roda po zamene svyazi, a takzhe roli v ehtoj reaktsii neuchastvuyushchikh v obmene svyazyvayushchikh aminovykh zven'ev. Analogichnye issledovaniya obmena oksalatov, provedennye so slozhnymi trioaksalatami tipa M (C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}{sup -3}, gde M=Co (III), Cr (III) ili Br (III), dali stol' zhe plodotvornye rezul'taty. Drugim metodom, primenimym tol'ko v sluchae ispol'zovaniya radioizotopov s malym

  12. Standardization of Radionuclides in the Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tokyo; Etalonnage des radionuclides au Laboratoire d'electrotechniqu e de Tokyo; Standartizatsiya radioizotopov v ehlektrotekhnichesko j laboratorii v Tokio; Normalizacion de radionuclidos en el Laboratorio de Electrotecnica de Tokio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Masashi; Inouye, Yajiro; Yura, Osamu [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1960-06-15

    izmerenii aktivnosti bylo vzyato ochen' malen'koe kolichestvo (50 mg) obraztsa na tonkoj plenke. Ono bylo vysusheno v silikagel'nom sushil'nom vakuum-kotle. Zatem obrazets byl vyparen snova. Tonkaya plenka byla poluchena v rezul'tate togo, chto sinteticheskaya smola, pokryvavshaya vodnuyu poverkhnost', byla perenesena na metallicheskoe kol'tso i zatem pokryta ochen' tonkim sloem zolota s pomoshch'yu vyparivaniya v vakuume. Izotopy Sr{sup 90} - Y{sup 90}, So{sup 60} i Cs{sup 137} byli izmereny vysheupomyanuty m sposobom. Tochnost' izmerenij sostavlyala {+-} 2%. 2) Metod 2 ya a({pi}) ({alpha})-scheta. Obraztsy RaD + E + F, U{sup 238} i Ro{sup 210} byli izmereny s pomoshch'yu tekh zhe apparatov, kotorye primenyalis' pri metode 4 ({pi}) ({beta})-scheta. Tochnost' izmereniya sostavlyala {+-}2, {+-} 1 i + 1% sootvetstvenno. 3) Vychislenie metodom, osnovannom na printsipe sovpadenij. Pri pri- menenii ehtogo metoda byli ispol'zovany metody ({beta})-({gamma}) i ({gamma})-({gamma}) scheta. Stsintillyatsionny j schetchik [Nal (TI), 1'' ({Phi}) X 1''] byl ispol'zovan v ka- chestve detektora u-luchej, a schetchik Gejgera-Myuller a - kak detektor ({beta})-uchej. Nedavno dlya togo chtoby issledovat' sushchestvuyushchee razlichie mezhdu vychisleniem metodom 4({pi}) ({beta}) -scheta i metodom, osnovannom na printsipe sovpadenij, my vmesto schetchika Gejgera-Myuller a skonstruiroval i spe- tsial'nyj tip proportsional'nog o 4 ({pi}) ({beta}) -schetchika, kotoryj mozhet, krome togo, byt' ispol'zovan v kachestve proportsional'nog o 4 ({pi}) ({beta})-schetchika nezavisimo ot skhem sovpadenij. Rezul'taty, poluchennye metodom, osnovannym na printsipe sovpadenij, dlya ({beta})-({gamma}) -u izluchenij v obshchem neskol'ko otlichalis' (na 3-4%) ot rezul'tatov metoda vychisleniya 4 ({pi}) ({beta})-scheta. EHto mozhet proizojti blagodarya samopogloshcheniyu . S drugoj storony, rezul'tat dlya So{sup 60}, poluchennyj za schet metoda, osnovannogo na printsipe sovpadenij dlya ({gamma})-({gamma}) izluchenij

  13. Relative Biological Effectiveness of 14-MeV Fast Neutrons to Co{sup 60} Gamma-Rays in Einkorn Wheat; Efficacite Biologique Relative des Neutrons Rapides de 14 MeV par Rapport aux Rayons Gamma de {sup 60}Co sur l'Engrain; Otnositel'naya biologicheskaya ehffektivnost' bystrykh nejtronov s ehnergiej 14 MeV i gamma-luchej CO{sup 60} pri ikh dejstvii na pshenitsu odnozernyanku; EBR de los Neutrones Rapidos de 14 MeV y de los Rayos Gamma del {sup 60}Co en el Trigo Escanda Menor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, T. [National Institute of Genetics, Misima (Japan)

    1964-05-15

    , sobrevivio entre 60 y 80% de las plantulas y en los grupos tratados con rayos gamma, la supervivencia fue del 100%. En cambio, en el grupo sometido a la irradiacion neutronica con la dosis mas elevada, solo sobrevivio un 4% de las plantulas. No se observaron mutaciones en el grupo testigo y el numero de plantas que presentaba retonos rayados crecio al aumentar la dosis de ambos tipos de radiacion. Se observaron retoflos con mutaciones en un 15% de las plantas sobrevivientes tratadas con la dosis inferior de neutrones y la misma frecuencia se registro para la dceis mayor de rayos gamma. Al parecer, la EBR de los neutrones de 14 MeV con respecto a los rayos gamma de {sup 60}Co, para la mutacion somatica, es 20 como minimo. (author) [Russian] Avtor izuchal OBJe nejtronov s jenergiej 14 Mjev i gamma-luchej Sobo pri ih dejstvii na pshenicu odnozernjanku s pomoshh'ju special'nogo lokusnogo metoda. Dlja opyta ispol'zovalis' semena generacii F{sub 1} gibrida mezhdu ishodnym sortom i mutantom Chlorina (mutant Chlorina byl poluchen kak edinstvennyj recessivnyj rentgenomutant; ot stadii sejanca do nastuplenija spelosti on byl odnorodno svetlozelenym s otnositel'no vysokoj vyzhivaemost'ju i urozhajnost'ju). U rastenij F{sub 1} byla normal'naja zelenaja okraska i normal'nyj harakter rosta. Pokojashhiesja semena Ft obluchali bystrymi nejtronami v dozah 0,5, 1,0 i 1,4 krad i gamma-luchami v dozah 4,3 8,6 i 12,9 krad. Mutacii ot dominantnyh normal'nyh zelenyh do Chlorina nabljudalis' posle oboih vidov obluchenija i pojavljalis' v list'jah i stebljah geterozigotnyh rastenij X{sub 1} v vide prodol'nyh polos. Okolo 80% semjan vzoshlo na kontrol'nyh uchastkah i na uchastkah posle obluchenija ca- mymi nizkimi dozami nejtronov i gamma-luchej, procent vshozhesti postepenno snizhalsja s povysheniem dozy pri oboih vidah obluchenija. Krome togo, takaja zhe tendencija nabljudalas' i na rannih stadijah rosta sejancev, kotoryj postepenno tormozilsja s povysheniem dozy. Soglasno jetim dannym nejtronnoe

  14. Comparative Studies of Chemical Effects following Nuclear Reactions and Transformations on Metal Organic Phenyl Compounds; Etudes Comparatives des Effets Chimiques Induits par les Reactions et les Transformations Nucleaires sur des Composes Phenylmetalliques; 0421 0420 0410 0414 ; Estudios Comparativos de los Efectos Quimicos de las Reacciones y Transformaciones Nucleares en Compuestos Fenil-Organometalicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, E.; Riedel, H. J. [Kernforschungsanlage, Juelich, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1965-04-15

    retroceso secundarios (interacciones elasticas e inelasticas), entre ellas la influencia peculiar del oxigeno. (author) [Russian] Izuchenie himicheskih jeffektov, sozdavaemyh v processe jadernyh reakcij atomami otdachi bol'shoj jenergii v tverdyh telah i zhidkostjah, provodilos' na osnovanii shirokogo sopostavlenija produktov, obrazovannyh reakcijami (p,{gamma}) i (p, 2p) v soedinenijah fenila s metallami , kak to: germaniem, olovom, svincom, mysh'jakom i sur'moj. V dopolnenie k jetomu radioaktivnye produkty otdachi, obrazovannye posle K-zahvata na tetrafenile germanija-68, sravnivajutsja s rezul'tatami reakcii (p,7) na trifenile gallija i reakcii (p, {gamma}) na tetrafenile germanija. Nakonec, jeto issledovanie rasprostranilos' na {beta}{sup -}-perehod tetrafenila germanija-77 v mysh'jak-77. S pomoshh'ju razlichnyh metodov otdelenija, naprimer, hromatografii adsorbcii na glinozeme, ionnogo obmena i jelektroforeza byli otdeleny razlichnye radioaktivnye produkty otdachi i opredeleny vyhody kazhdogo iz nih. Ustanovleno, chto v jadernyh reakcijah soedinenij vysheupomjanutyh metallov, imejushhih odinakovuju strukturu svjazej, obrazujutsja pochti te zhe kategorii produktov otdachi. Odnako raspredelenie vyhodov obnaruzhivaet harakternye rashozhdenija mezhdu reakcijami (p,{gamma}) i reakcijami (p, 2p). Obnaruzhivaetsja tol'ko neznachitel'noe vlijanie obluchenija na vyhody pri vozdejstvii ego sootvetstvenno na zhidkosti i rastvory. Porazhajut znachitel'nye rashozhdenija, obnaruzhivaemye dlja novyh soedinenij, poluchennyh v rezul'tate jadernyh prevrashhenij; jeti rashozhdenija kasajutsja ne tol'ko vida tipichnyh produktov, no takzhe i procentnoj doli ih vyhoda. Tak, naprimer, rjad produktov otdachi germanija i gallija metalloorganicheskogo haraktera byli obnaruzheny v jadernyh reakcijah na tetrafenile germanija-77, chego vovse ne nabljudalos' pri processah K-zahvata na tetrafenile germanija-68. {beta}{sup -}-raspad na tetrafenile germanija-77 vedet k obrazovaniju pochti takih zhe

  15. Non-Destructive Methods for Determining Burn-Up in Nuclear Fuel; Methodes Non Destructives d'Evaluation du Taux de Combustion dans le Combustible Nucleaire; Metody opredeleniya vygoraniya v yadernom toplive bez razrusheniya obraztsa; Metodos No Destructivos para Determinai el Grado de Combustion de los Elementos Combustibles Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGonnagle, W. J. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1966-02-15

    jadernyh reaktorah bez razrushenija obrazca javljajutsja poleznymi i zhelatel'nymi. Ideal'nym byl by metod, ne trebujushhij special'nyh dannyh o nejtronnom spektre, istorii radiacii ili vremeni ohlazhdenija. Obluchennye toplivnye jelementy sami po sebe javljajutsja nositeljami informacii o stepeni vygoranija topliva. Jeta informacija soderzhitsja v forme radioaktivnyh i stabil'nyh izotopov, obrazujushhihsja v processe delenija. K sozhaleniju,kak pri metodah analiza topliva bez razrushenija obrazca, tak i s razrusheniem obrazca nejtronnyj spektr, istorija radiacii i period ohlazhdenija vlijajut na jetu informaciju. Tochno tak zhe nedostatok tochnyh jadernyh dannyh, takih, kak znachenija jadernyh poperechnyh sechenij, vlijaet na ljubye vychislenija, kotorye mozhno bylo by proizvesti. Drugoj trudnost'ju pri analizah bez razrushenija obrazca javljaetsja nalichie polej vysokoj radiacii, kotoraja vnosit dopolnitel'nyj ''shum'' v fon pri izmerenijah. Razrabotka poleznyh i real'nyh standartov javljaetsja trudnym delom. Metody analiza stepeni vygoranija bez razrushenija obrazca osobenno polezny togda, kogda trebuetsja bystro i jekonomichno, dazhe pri sushhestvujushhem polozhenii s ih nedostatkom, poluchit' zhelatel'nuju tochnost' priblizitel'noj velichiny vygoranija. Ispol'zovalos' neskol'ko metodov dlja opredelenija stepeni vygoranija bez razrushenija obrazca; vedetsja ih ocenka ili oni predlagajutsja. Ispol'zovalis' razlichnye tipy spektrometrov, v tom chisle spektrometry s izognutym kristallom, magnitnyj komptonovskij spektrometr, komptonovskij spektrometr na sovpadenija i scintilljacionnyj spektrometr dlja analiza gamma-izluchenija radioaktivnogo materiala, obrazujushhegosja vo vremja processa delenija. Drugie metody analiza bez razrushenija obrazca vkljuchajut aktivaciju fol'gi, propuskanie nejtronov, aktivacionnyj analiz, izmerenie zahvata gamma-luchej i izmerenie mgnovennyh i zapazdyvajushhih nejtronov. Rassmatrivajutsja osnovnye principy kazhdogo iz vyshenazvannyh metodov i

  16. Techniques Which Aid in Quantitative Interpretation of Scan Data; Methodes Facilitant l'Interpretation Quantitative des Scintigrammes; Metody, oblegchayushchie kolichestvennuyu interpretatsiyu dannykh skennirovaniya; Tecnicas Que Facilitan la Interpretacion Cuantitativa de los Datos Centelleograficos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charleston, D. B.; Beck, R. N.; Eidelberg, P.; Schuh, M. W. [Argonne Cancer Research Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1964-10-15

    jelektronnyh pereschetnyh us troj stv . Neposredstvennyj i chrezvychajno poleznyj metod ispol'zovanija generatora besporjadochnyh impul'sov sluzhit dlja nanesenija kalibrovannyh ustupchato-klinoobraznyh otmetok, kotorye proektirujutsja na plenku t em zhe samym istochnikom sveta, kotoryj ispol'zuetsja vo vremja skennirovanija; jeto daet vozmozhnost' prosmotrovoj golovke sravnivat' plotnost' obluchenija izuchaemyh zon skennirovanija s analogichnymi zonami na klinoobraznyh otmetkah, kotorye kalibrovany neposredstvenno v edinicah skorosti scheta. Vspomogatel'noe oborudovanie, kak naprimer mnogokanal'nyj analizator, ispol'zuemyh pri sposobe mnozhestvennyh schetov, pozvoljaet nakopljat' cifrovuju informaciju dlja poluchenija 'obshhego chisla schetov na strochku skennirovanija'' dlja kazhdogo shaga pokazatelja. Bylo provedeno skennirovanie melkih zhivotnyh, kotoroe pozvolja et nakopljat' dannye i davat' ''chislo schetov na strochku skennirovanija'' dlja kazhdogo shaga pokazatelja. Jeto da et tochnoe kolichestvennoe izmerenie raspredelenija aktivnosti v tele zhivotnogo, a takzhe izobrazhaet profil' aktivnosti, analogichnyj tomu, kotoryj poluchaetsja pri shhelevom linejnom skennirovanii. Tot zhe samyj metod mnozhestvennyh schetov primenja etsja idale e putem nakoplenija chislennoj informacii dlja poluchenija {sup c}hisla schetov na edinicu ploshhadi{sup .} Dlja kazhdoj strochki skennirovanija kazhdogo shaga pokazatelja poluchaetsja otdel'naja krivaja profilja. Jeto daet vozmozhnost' opredeljat' skorost' scheta ili stroit' sootvetstvujushhij profil' dlja kazhdoj ploshhadi. Pokazanija skennirovanija s usileniem kontrasta ili beznego, a takzhe s ''otstavaniem'' ili bezne go v integrirujushhem konture diagrammy skennirovanija s razlichnymi razmerami i formami pjaten byli polucheny v identichnyh statisticheskih uslovijah pri pomoshhi m no go kratnogo skennirovanija fantoma odnim detektorom . Neposredstvennoe sravnenie jetih pokazanij sovmestno s metodom sostavlenija grafikov {sup c

  17. Handling and Separation of Short-Lived Radioisotopes from Research Reactors; Manipulation et Separation des Radioisotopes a Courte Periode Produits dans des Reacteurs de Recherche; ПОЛУЧЕНИЕ И ОТДЕЛЕНИЕ КОРОТКОЖИВУЩИХ ИЗОТОПОВ В ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКИХ РЕАКТОРАХ; Manipulacion y Separacion de Radioisotopos de Periodo Corto Obtenidos en Reactores de Investigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinke, W. W. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1963-03-15

    iz-za udalennosti ot snabzhavshego reaktora chasto ogranichivalos' temi, kotorye imeet period poluraspada bol'she odnogo dnja. Jeto tormozilo issledovanija v oblasti proizvodstva i primenenija radioizotopov voobshhe i v to zhe vremja meshalo potrebitele tochno ocenit' vozmozhnosti mnogih korotkozhivushhih izotopov. V svjazi s nalichiem vo vsem mire issledovatel'skih reaktorov jeta zavisimost' ot mesta proizvodstva izotopov mozhet predstavljat' soboj izvestnuju trudnost', no v to zhe vremja ona daet vozmozhnost' provodit' rjad novyh jeksperimentov s korotkozhivushhimi izotopami. Dlja jetogo trebuetsja vplotnuju podojti k voprosam proizvodstva mechenyh atomov. Pochti v techenie pjati let programma raboty ka issledovatel'skom reaktore Michiganskogo universiteta vkljuchala obrabotku, pererabotku i izmerenie korotkozhivushhih izotopov. Obychno pol'zovalis' izotopami, prodolzhitel'nost' poluraspada kotoryh ravnjalas' chasam i dazhe minutam. Hotja v dannom sluchae glavnye usilija byli napravleny na issledovanija v oblasti aktivacionnogo analiza, ispol'zovavsheesja oborudovanie i metodika mogut byt' primeneny i dlja drugih issledovanij. Dlja poluchenija korotkozhivushhih izotopov ne objazatel'no imet' sovershennoe oborudovanie, bol'shie zapasy izotopov ili podderzhivat' trehsmennuju rabotu reaktora. Pri uverennom obrashhenii s prostymi manipuljatorami mozhno poluchit' luchshie rezul'taty, chem distancionnym upravleniem. Osnovoj sistemy, opisyvaemoj v doklade, javljaetsja prisposoblenie v vide pnevmaticheskoj truby, kotoraja dostavljaet obrazcy v vytjazhnoj kolpak laboratorii, primykajushhej k reaktoru, v techenie treh sekund posle obluchenija. Rastvorenie i bystroe otdelenie radiohimicheskim sposobom mozhet proizvodit'sja bez dal'nejshego peremeshhenija obrazca. Metody otdelenija, legko prisposablivaemye dlja kratkovremennoj shkaly (neskol'ko minut), vkljuchajut ne tol'ko selektivnuju jekstrakciju, anionnyj obmen i osazhdenie, no i takie novye metodiki, kak izotopnyj obmen i

  18. Personnel Dosimeters with Radiation Elements; Dosimetres Individuels Comportant des Elements Emetteurs; 0418 041d 0414 0418 0412 0418 0414 ; Dosimetros Individuales Provistos de Elementos Emisores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosemann, R.; Warrikhoff, H. F.H. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin-Dahlem, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1965-06-15

    neposredstvennye, libo kosvennye sistemy. Pribor neposredstvennogo otscheta soderzhit jelement izluchenija i jelektrometr v tom zhe samom vakuumnom sosude. Otsutstvujut jelektroprovodimye kontakty vneshnej oblicovki pribora. Predpochtenie okazyvaetsja cilindricheskoj i sfericheskoj forme jelementa. Vneshnie razmery pribora ostanutsja temi zhe samymi, chto i u obychno ispol'zuemyh dozimetrov karandashnogo tipa. Kazhdaja sistema sostoit iz jelementnogo kommutatora i bloka upravlenija. (author)

  19. 100-Mc counting system; Ensemble de comptage a 100 megacycles; Schetnaya sistema na 100 megatsiklov; Sistema contador de 100 megaciclos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugarman, R; Higinbotham, W A; Yonda, A H [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, NY (United States)

    1962-04-15

    vklyucheniya toka s tranzistorami i germanievymi tunnel'nymi diodami. Vse kriticheskie skhemy imeyut vremya narastaniya i razbros vremeni v razmere dvukh nanosekund i menee. K logicheskim ehlementam otnosyatsya ogranichitel' amplitudy impul'sov, diskriminator, mnogokanal'naya skhema sovpadenij, chetyrekhkratnyj raspredelitel' impul'sov i shkala na 8 delenij. Rasshivatel' pozvolyaetogranichitelyu ili vykhodu diskriminatora sozdavat' lyubye kombinatsii chetyrekh ehlementov. Kazhdyj ehlement predstavlyaet soboj otdel'nyj smennyj modul'. EHlementy vzaimosvyazany s kabelem na 50 om ne menee, chem s odnoj zamykayushchej skhemoj. Bol'shinstvo modul'nykh vkhodov i vykhodov sovmestimy, i diskriminator, naprimer, mozhet libo privodit' v dvizhenie skhemu sovpadenij, libo privodit'sya v dvizhenie po skheme sovpadenij s pomoshch'yu vklyuchayushchikh kabelej. Dlya obespecheniya raboty na bol'shoj skorosti, a takzhe khoroshej stabil'nosti po vremeni i temperature, tranzistory rabotayut na edinom zaryadnom usilenii libo v vide vklyucheniya toka, libo v linejnom vide kak rasprostranennyj usilitel'. Kazhdyj tunnel'nyj diod obespechivaet dopolnitel'noe vklyuchaemoe zaryadnoe usilenie v razmere ot 2 do 5 s takoj zhe stabil'nost'yu i polosno-propusknym ustrojstvom v kachestve tranzistorov. Kazhdyj modul' prednaznachen dlya ispol'zovaniya do postoyannoj skorosti scheta v razmere 100 megaimpul'sov v sekundu. Vysokie rabochie tsikly sistemy yavlyayutsya vozmozhnymi blagodarya vzaimosvyazyam postoyannogo toka i blagodarya ogranicheniyu dvojnoj linii zaderzhki s tsel'yu vosstanovleniya mezhdu impul'sami. Dlya skorostej scheta do 50 megatsiklov ne predpolagaetsya nikakoj poteri pri rabote sistemy. Bazisnyj diskriminator imeet chuvstvitel'nost', kotoruyu mozhno prisposobit' dlya 2-10 milliamper so sparennym vykhodom postoyannogo toka v razmere 10 milliamper pri potentsiale zemli. Vremya narastaniya i padeniya na vykhode sostavlyaet 1 nanosekundu; shirina impul'sa ustanavlivaetsya s pomoshch'yu kabelya

  20. Some Uses of Radioisotopes and Radiations in Entomology; Quelques emplois des radioelements et des rayonnements en entomologie; Nekotorye vidy primeneniya radioehlementov i oblucheniya v ehntomologii; Algunas aplicaciones de los radioelementos y de las radiaciones en entomologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, G. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France); Lecomte, J. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Station de Recherches sur l' Abeille et les Insectes Sociaux, Bures-Sur-Yvette (France)

    1963-09-15

    dosificar el potasio en las hormigas y en las abejas. Los autores han ensayado la marcacion de acrididos con {sup 192}Ir y describen en la memoria los resultados obtenidos. Se ha hecho tambien un estudio de la distribucion de ciertos radioisotopos ( {sup 32}P y {sup 35}S) en el cuerpo de la abeja por medio del metodo autorradiografico. (author) [Russian] Stat'ya soderkhit obzor metodov primeneniya radioehlementov v ehntomologii, razrabotannykh v nashikh dvukh tsentrakh v techenie poslednikh let. Pervye raboty otnosilis' k pchelam i v osobennosti k dal'nosti poletov pchel-sborshchits iz pchelosem'i. Issledovanie provodilos' s pomoshch'yu mecheniya izotopom Au{sup 198}. Prodolzheniem rabot po opredeleniyu dozy, poluchennoj osob'yu v protsesse mecheniya, yavilos' opredelenie radiorezistentnosti pchely i letal'noj dozy, lezhashchej v predelakh 90 000 p. Au{sup 198} byl takzhe ispol'zovan dlya issledovaniya obmena pishchej vnutri ul'ya. Vmeste s tem,dlya izucheniya obmena pishchej vnutri ul'ev mezhdu rabochimi osobyami (muzhskimi osobyami, rabochimi pchelami, matkami) ili mezhdu razlichnymi royami primenyalsya R{sup 92}. Nedavno analogichnye issledovaniya trofilaksii byli provedeny na osakh. Au{sup 188} byl takzhe osnovnym radioehlementom v rabote s muravejnikami. Naibolee interesnym rezul'tatom pervogo issledovaniya yavilos' otkrytie obmena pishchej mezhdu muravejnikami, otstoyashchimi drug ot druga na rasstoyanii svyshe 50 m, i raznymi vidami murav'ev (Formica rufa i Formica polyctena). V protsesse vtorogo issledovaniya, s pomoshch'yu mecheniya puti dvizheniya murav'ev, a ne samogo muravejnika, bylo vyyavleno raspredelenie obyazannostej vnutri muravejnika. Mechenye murav'i sledovali po odnomu i tomu zhe marshrutu i redko obmenivalis' s drugimi osobyami toj zhe kolonii. V protsesse ehtogo opyta uzhe do mecheniya byla ustanovlena anormal'naya radioaktivnost' murav'ev, obuslovlennaya prezhde vsego nalichiem (Sr + Nb){sup 95}. EHto otkrytie govorit o tendentsii k nakopleniyu v

  1. Stability of RNA and DNA in Bone Marrow Cells, Demonstrated with Tritiated Cytidine and Thymidine; Emploi de la Cytidine et de la Thymidine Tritiees pour Demontrer la Stabilite de l'ARN et l'ADN dans les Cellules de la Moelle Osseuse; 0421 0442 0430 0414 ; Estudio de la Estabilidad de los Acidos Ribonucleico y Desoxirribonucleico de las Celulas de la Medula Osea, Utilizando Citidina y Timidina Tritiadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, V. P.; Feinendegen, L. E.; Cronkite, E. P. [Medical Research Centre, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, NY (United States)

    1962-02-15

    actividad del indicador concuerda con las pendientes obtenidas. Dicha velocidad se calculo en funcion de la cinetica de poblaciones celulares de la medula osea de la rata, estudiadas separadamente mediante timidina-{sup 3}H y autorradiografias, suponiendo que la renovacion del ARN y del ADN son nulas y que las perdidas de indicador solo se producen por division y maduracion de las celulas. Los resultados indican que las celulas de la medula osea retienen el ARN soluble y macromolecular, una vez sintetizado, de manera analoga al ADN. El ARN y el ADN recientemente formados solo se diluyen en las celulas por division de las mismas. (author) [Russian] Issledovalsja metabolizm DNK i RNK s ispol'zovaniem tritirovannogo timidina (H{sup 3}Th), special'noj pervichnoj chasticy dlja DNK i tritirovannogo citidina (N{sup 3}Su) obychnoj pervichnoj chasticy kak dlja RNK, tak i dlja DNK. S pomoshh'ju N{sup 3}Su radioavtograficheskim putem v edinoj kletke opredeljalos' differencirovannoe vvedenie v RNK i DNK ili rastvorimoe soedinenie i/ili himicheskim putem differencirovannoj jekstraciej s ispol'zovaniem sootvetstvujushhej obrabotki hlornoj kislotoj - dlja kletochnyh populjacij. Pervichnye issledovanija krugovorota v kletke Hela s pomoshh'ju N{sup 3}Su pokazali rol' pervichnoj chasticy jadernoj RNK dlja citoplazmennoj RNK. Konservacija i raspredelenie indikatora vo frakcii RNK soglaso- valis' s osnovnoj mikromolekuljarnoj stabil'nost'ju RNK, a nepreryvnoe vvedenie indikatora vo- frakciju DNK soglasovalos' s nalichiem poslednej pervichnoj chasticy dlja DNK. Podobnye zhe rezul'taty nabljudalis' v nezrelyh kletkah kostnogo mozga krysy, kotorye iseledovalis' bolee 7 dnej posle vnut- rivennogo vvedenija N{sup 3}Su. Razmer aktivnosti tritija v rastvorimoj kislote, frakcijah RNK i DNK opredeljalsja himicheskim putem i/ili radioavtograficheski. Najdeno, chto tri krivye parallel'nym mezhdusoboj s pervogo dnja posle in{sup e}- kcii i parallel'ny krivym dlja tritievogo indikatora v DNK

  2. Assessment of the Total Body Burden of Caesium-137 in Humans by the Analysis of Blood; Determination de la Charge Corporelle de Cesium 137 chez l'Homme, par Analyse Du Sang; 041e 041f 0420 0415 0414 ; Evaluacion de la Carga Corporal Total de Cesio-137 en el Hombre por Analisis de Sangre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagata, N. [Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1964-11-15

    en estado de equilibrio. Los resultados referentes al cesio-137 reunidos desde jumo de 1963 mediante los analisis de sangre se han comparado con los obtenidos por analisis de tejidos musculares, efectuados durante el mismo periodo. Se ha observado una concordancia satisfactoria y se estima que los analisis de sangre constituyen el mejor medio para evaluar la carga corporal total de cesio-137 en la poblacion. (author) [Russian] V Japonii proizvoditsja issledovanie soderzhanija cezija-137 v obrazcah, poluchennyh u umershih ljudej, tak kak kolichestvo schetchikov dlja izmerenija radioaktivnosti vsego organizma ogranicheno, a imejushhiesja apparaty nemobil'ny, chto zatrudnjaet opredelenie srednih urovnej zarazhenija naselenija. Odnako poluchenie myshechnoj tkani posle autopsii so vseh koncov strany javljaetsja slozhnym i neudobnym processom, tak kak obrazcy neobhodimo brat' srazu zhe posle smerti. Uchityvaja cennost' lish' takih dannyh dlja opredelenija srednih velichin soderzhanija cezija-137 u ljudej i neobhodimost' znanija individual'nyh velichin, sleduet dobivat'sja poluchenija kombinirovannyh obrazcov dlja analiza ot vozmozhno bol'shego chisla lic. Dlja jetoj celi nailuchshej zamenoj myshc byli priznany obrazcy cel'noj krovi, poskol'ku sistema sbora krovi rasprostranena po vsej strane i ohvatyvaet 47 imejushhih licenziju bankov perelivanija krovi i okolo 100 gospitalej. Proverka obrazcov citratnoj cel'noj krovi proizvoditsja postojanno v Nacional'nom institute zdravoohranenija, Tokio, gde proverjaetsja okolo 500 ampul krovi, poluchennoj ot bolee chem 3 mln.donorov v strane za god. Menee poloviny krovi iz ampuly ispol'zovalos' dlja proverki, a ostavshajasja polovina sohranjalas' dlja prigotovlenija smesi dlja opredelenija urovnja cezija-137. Dlja opredelenija soderzhanija stabil'nogo cezija zolu krovi issledovali s pomoshh'ju nejtronnogo aktivacionnogo analiza. Poluchennye dannye ukazyvajut na nalichie svjazi mezhdu koncentraciej cezija v cel'noj krovi i ego obshhim

  3. Lens Opacification in Mice Exposed to Monoenergetic Fast Neutrons; Opacite du Cristallin chez la Souris Exposee aux Neutrons Rapides; Katarakty u myshej, obluchennykh monoehnergeticheskimi bystrymi nejtronami; Opacidad del Cristalino en los Ratones Expuestos a los Neutrones Rapidos Monoenergeticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, J. L.; Bond, V. P.; Rossi, H. H. [Medical Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Radiological Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    1964-05-15

    treh pri 1,80 Mjev. Issledovanija s opredeleniem umen'shenija kolichestva spermatogoniev obnaruzhili neskol'ko bolee vysokie velichiny OBJe, no takoe zhe snizhenie pri uvelichenii jenergii nejtronov. V tom zhe diapazone jenergij nejtronov izuchalos' tormozhenie metabolizma nukleinovoj kisloty v kishechnike i kostnom mozgu, prichem polucheny bolee nizkie velichiny OBJe. V jetih issledovanijah jeffektivnost' nejtronov byla priblizitel'no proporcional'na raschetnoj (srednjaja jenergija) LPJe. Takoe pozdnee projavlenie, kak obrazovanie katarakty, obychno rassmatrivaetsja kak funkcija jenergii nejtronov, prichem 0,43 Mjev okazyvaetsja bolee jeffektivnoj velichinoj jenergii, chem, 1,80 Mjev. Ispol'zovanie peresmotrennoj metodiki s shhelevoj lampoj pozvoljalo obnaruzhivat' pomutnenie v rannej stadii pri otnositel'no nizkih dozah radiacii. Izuchalis' mehanizmy vosstanovlenija v razlichnyh kletochnyh sistemah pri obluchenii monojenergeticheskimi nejtronami i rentgenovskimi ili gamma-luchami. Izuchajutsja hromosomnye narushenija u myshej, podvergnutyh gamma-oblucheniju pri moshhnosti doz ot 0,2 rad do 100 rad/min po chastote pojavlenija patologicheskih anafaz v regenerirujushhej pecheni cherez 3 mesjaca posle obluchenija. (author)

  4. What influences climate and glacier change in southwestern China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Teppei J.

    2011-12-01

    as a collective view. However, the precipitation patterns in southwestern China are probably modulated by climate feedbacks through many factors. Precipitation seasonality may also affect the climatic sensitivity of glacier mass balance (Fujita 2008). In addition to the authors' main focus above, other factors, also probably directly and indirectly, influence the climate and glacier mass balance changes. Those factors are: (a) The debris-covered effect which heats (if it is thin) or insulates (if it is thick) the ice below the debris; it probably causes no uniform response on glacier melting (Scherler et al 2011); (b) Interaction between glacial lakes and exposed ice parts on glaciers (e.g., Sakai et al 2009, Fujita et al 2009); (c) The atmospheric heating effect over the foothills of the Himalayas due to the Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC), including absorbing aerosols such as black carbon, dust and organic matters (Ramanathan et al 2007), the so called Elevated Heat Pump (EHP) effect suggested by Lau et al (2006, 2010); (d) The snow darkening effect over non debris-covered parts of glaciers as the absorbing aerosol depositions reduce snow albedo and accelerate snow melting by absorbing more solar energy at the snow surface (Warren and Wiscombe 1980, Flanner et al 2007, 2009, Yasunari et al 2010, Qian et al 2011); (e) Another kind of snow darkening effect over non debris-covered glaciers due to the growth of biological activities, with dark-colored materials on glaciers also reducing snow albedo (Takeuchi et al 2001); (f) Other factors on snow albedo reductions such as snow grain size, specific surface area and depth changes, melt-water effect on snow, and changes in solar illumination conditions (e.g., Wiscombe and Warren 1980, Flanner et al 2006, Yasunari et al 2011, Aoki et al 1999, 2011); and finally, (g) Feedbacks via interactions between the snow surface and atmosphere including all the factors above. What I'd like to emphasize is that the atmospheric warming

  5. Optical Density Control of Autoradiographs After Photographic Processing (Preliminary Results); Controle de la Densite Optique des Autoradiogrammes Apres Developpement Photographique. (Resultats Preliminaires); Regulirovanie opticheskoj plotnosti avtoradiogramm posle fotoobrabotki; Control de la Densidad Optica de las Autorradiografias Despues del Tratamiento Fotografico. (Resultados Preliminares)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, A. M. [Comissao de Estudos de Energia Nuclear, Instituto de Alta Cultura, Lisbon (Portugal); Terrinha, A. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia, Lisbon (Portugal)

    1965-10-15

    ) [Russian] Vo mnogih- sluchajah primenenija fotojemul'sij celesoobrazno regulirovat' opticheskuju plotnost' posle fotograficheskoj obrabotki. Jeto sleduet delat', naprimer, pri izuchenii opredelennyh problem fotograficheskoj dozimetrii, i osobenno vo mnogih sluchajah primenenija avtoradiografii v medicine i biologii. Pri jetom mozhno poluchit' informaciju, nesmotrja na perederzhku, kotoraja neizbezhno proishodit v nekotoryh sluchajah, v chastnosti, kogda v odnih i teh zhe avtoradiograficheskih obrazcah nabljudajutsja vazhnye variacii plotnosti zeren. Soobshhaetsja o pervyh rezul'tatah popytki regulirovat' plotnost' zerna posle projavlenija i zakreplenija fotograficheskogo materiala putem korrodirovanija obrabotannoj jemul'sii s pomoshh'ju razbavlennyh rastvorov tripsina. Izmenjaja koncentracii i temperaturu, mozhno regulirovat' po zhelaniju skorost' processa korrozii, i takim obrazom rastvor tripsina dejstvuet v kachestve ul'tramikrotoma, udaljaja tonchajshie sloi fotograficheskoj jemul'sii. Bolee togo, jetot process mozhno nabljudat' pod mikroskopom s pomosh'ju podhodjashej kameoy. Privodjatsja rezul'taty, kotorye govorjat o tom, chto s pomoshh'ju jetogo metoda mozhno sostavit' priblizitel'noe predstavlenie o vvedenii so vremenem radioizotopa v nabljudaemuju biologicheskuju strukturu. (author)

  6. Analysis of the Volatile Constituents of Irradiated Apple Juice; Analyse des Constituants Volatils des Jus de Pommes Irradies; Mezhdunarodnyj proekt po oblucheniyu fruktov i fruktovykh sokov; Analisis de los Componentes Volatiles de los Zumos de Manzana Irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, P.; Zenz, H.; Stehlik, G.; Kaindl, K. [Agence Europeenne pour l' Energie Nucleaire, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1966-11-15

    sootvetstvujushhij emu na hromatogrammah pik polnost'ju pokryvaetsja pikom jetanola, kogda rech' idet o nekoj- centrirovannyh sokah. Byli obnaruzheny k tomu zhe obrazovanija furana i dvuh soedinenij, kotorye pojavljajutsja tol'ko v vide sledov i kotorye ne byli opredeleny do nastojashhego vremeni. Poluchennye rezul'taty byli analogichny tem, chto i pri pasterizacii putem nagrevanija. (author)

  7. Half-Life Studies of Radiocaesium in Humans; Etudes sur la Periode de Radiocesium chez l'Homme; 0418 0421 0421 041b 0415 0414 ; Estudio sobre el Periodo Biologico del Radiocesio en el Hombre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naversten, Y.; Liden, K. [Radiation Physics Department, University of Lund (Sweden)

    1964-11-15

    estos estudios, sobre todo en lo que respecta a la velocidad de eliminacion del cesio, es decir, al periodo biologico y a su variacion segun el sexo y la edad. Por lo general, los periodos biologicos determinados experimentalmente oscilan entre 30 y 90 d. (author) [Russian] Izuchalas zaderzhka cezija-137 u ljudej pri razlichnyh obstojatel'stvah. Dvum vzroslym muzhchinam vvodili vnutrivenno malye kolichestva cezija-137. Pacienty nahodilis' pod nabljudeniem 300 dnej, v techenie kotoryh proizvodilis' chastye izmerenija radio aktivnosti vsego organizma.i sbor vydelenij v nachal'nom periode. Stepen' zaderzhki izotopa snizhalas' kak summa dvuh jeksponencial'nyh velichin. Naibolee medlenno izmenjajushhajasja velichina snizhalas' s periodom poluvyvedenija okolo 75 dnej. Olin iz pacientov poluchal cezij-137 vnutr' 2 goda spustja,prichem nabljudalsja tot zhe tip vydelenija, kak i posle vnutrivennogo vvedenija. Skorost' vydelenija cezija-137 izuchalas' takzhe drugim sposobom u bol'shoj gruppy muzhchin, zhenshhin i detej putem sravnenija dannyh issledovanija diety. Pri obsledovanii gruppy iz 10 dobrovol'cev, izmenivshih svoju dietu, okazalos' vozmozhnym rasschitat' srednjuju skorost' vydelenija na osnovanii izmerenija radioaktivnosti vsego organizma s intervalom v 6 nedel'. Vydelenija opredeljali takzhe u 2-h chelovek posle priema vnutr' cezija-137. Predstavleny podrobnye dannye jetih issledovanij, v osobennosti v otnoshenii skorosti vydelenija cezija, t.e. perioda ego poluvyvedenija i ego variacij v zavisimosti ot pola i vozrasta. V srednem byli polucheny sroki poluvyvedenija ot 30 do 90 dnej. (author)

  8. A general-purpose pulse amplifier; Amplificateur d'impulsions universel; Universal'nyj usilitel' impul'sov; Amplificador de impulsos para uso general

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, K B [Forsogsanlaeg Riso, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1962-04-15

    usilitelej''. Putem ispol'zovaniya odnogo osnovnogo usilitelya, no s razlichnymi skhemami obratnoj svyazi, primenenie ehtogo metoda daet vozmozhnost' poluchat' predvaritel'nye usiliteli i osnovnye usiliteli s nailuchshimi vozmozhnostyami preobrazovaniya impul'sov i v otnoshenii predstavlyayushchikh naibol'shij interes parametrov, takikh kak, naprimer, kharakteristika linejnosti, ustojchivosti i peregruzki. Tak kak ehtot metod trebuet ispol'zovaniya parallel'noj obratnoj svyazi, to on osobenno khorosho podkhodit dlya predvaritel'nykh usilitelej, tak kak bol'shaya chast' detektorov yavlyaetsya v to zhe samoe vremya generatorami toka. Opisyvaetsya usilitel', dejstvuyushchij v kachestve operatsionnogo usilitelya. Naibolee vazhnymi spetsifikatsiyami yavlyayutsya: usilenie v 90 dB ot postoyannogo toka - 10 kgts, padayushchee zatem priblizitel'no po 20 dB na dekadu do dostizheniya 15 mgts (usilenie v 30 dB). S ehtim usilitelem ispol'zuyutsya chetyre lampy. Dlya bol'shinstva operatsij preobrazovaniya impul'sov potrebnost' v stabilizirovannom istochnike ehlektroehnergii otpadaet, a ustojchivost' budet zaviset' isklyuchitel'no ot ustojchivosti ispol'zovannoj skhemy obratnoj svyazi. (author)

  9. Treatment of radiostrontium uptake in man; Traitement de la fixation de radiostrontium chez l'homme; Lechenie posledstvij pogloshcheniya radioaktivnogo strontsiya u cheloveka; Tratamiento de la radiotoxemla humana causada por absorcion de radioestroncio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volf, V. [Department of Ionizing Radiation Institute of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Disease, Prague, CSSR (Czech Republic)

    1963-02-15

    lecheniya proveryalas' v ehksperimente na krysakh v tekh zhe usloviyakh, kotorye imeli mesto vo vremya intsidenta. Pozdnee byli issledovany neskol'ko rakovykh bol'nykh s tsel'yu izucheniya dal'nejshikh vozmozhnostej okazaniya pervoj pomoshchi pri ostrom vnutrennem otravlenii radiostrontsiem u cheloveka. (author)

  10. Demountable 4 {pi} Geiger Counters for Standardization and the Assay of Low-Activity Samples; Compteurs 4 {pi} GM demontables pour l'etalonnage et l'essai d'echantillons de faible activite; S'emnye schetchiki Gejgera na 4 {pi} dlya standartizatsii i otsenki prob nizkoj aktivnosti; Condatores GM 4 {pi} para la normalizacion de patrones radiactivos con baja actividad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trott, N G; Bentley, R E; Burton, L K [Physics Department, Institute of Cancer Research, Royal Cancer Hospital, London, S. W. 3 (United Kingdom)

    1960-06-15

    radioaktivnym i materialami. V dvukh vidakh schetchikov na 4 {pi}, kotorye rassmotreny v dannom dokumente, anodnye provoda legko snimayutsya, blagodarya chemu oblegchaetsya chistka. Odin iz schetchikov uspeshno ispol'zovalsya v techenie ryada let dlya standartizatsii {beta}-izluchayushchikh radioaktivny kh nuklidov, i v dokumente privodyatsya nekotorye rezul'taty sopostavleni ya standartov so standartami, poluchennymi drugimi laboratoriyami . EHtot schetchik ispol'zovalsya takzhe vmeste s {gamma} ioniziruyushchej sistemoj dlya opredeleniya {gamma} izluchenij Fe{sup 59}, Cs{sup 137} i Ir{sup 192}. Drugoj schetchik yavlyaetsya schetchikom nizkogo fona. On ustroen tak zhe kak i vysheukazanny j schetchik, izgotovlen iz nerzhaveyushchej stali i prednaznachen glavnym obrazom dlya otsenki nebol'shikh kolichestv radioaktivnosti v organicheskikh veshchestvakh. On mozhet takzhe byt' prisposoblen dlya absolyutnogo izmereniya radioaktivny kh istochnikov na malykh skorostyakh scheta ({<=}100 otschetov v minutu), poskol'ku mozhno poluchit' stabil'nyj fon (1-2 scheta v minutu), esli odnovremenno dlya scheta nesovpadenij ispol'zovat' schetchiki kosmicheskikh luchej. (author)

  11. Determination of D{sub 2}O-2% Enriched Uranium Lattice Parameters by Means of a Critical System; Determination des Parametres d'un Reseau Uranium Enrichi a 2%-Eau Lourde au Moyen d'un Ensemble Critique; Opredelenie s pomoshch'yu kriticheskoj sistemy parametrov reshetki s 2%-nym obog ashcheniem Urana i s zamedlitelem D{sub 2}O; Determinacion, Mediante un Conjunto Critico, de los Parametros de un Reticulado de D{sub 2}O y Uranio Enriquecido al 2%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisic, N.; Takac, S.; Markovic, H.; Bosevski, T. [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Yugoslavia (Serbia)

    1964-02-15

    las tecnicas utilizadas en las mediciones. Los datos experimentales sirvieron a continuacion para deducir los parametros del reticulado, dennidos por la formula de cuatro factores y el estudio matematico del cuerpo del reactor con arreglo a la teoria de difusion de dos grupos. Los resultados obtenidos se comparan con los valores corrientemente asignados a los mismos parametros para configuraciones de reticulados medidos. Se presentan las desviaciones halladas en el valor de n y en la integral de resonancia para el {sup 238}U. En conclusion, se analiza la utilidad y precision de los datos obtenidos con los experimentos criticos para la construccion y explotacion de un reactor de investigacion de D{sub 2}O y uranio enriquecido. (author) [Russian] Daetsja opisanie serii opytov, vypolnennyh s cel'ju opredelenija osnovnyh parametrov reshetki s 2%-nym obogashheniem urana i s zamedlitelem v vide D{sub 2}O. Toplivnye jelementy predstavljali soboj polye cilindry, pokrytye aljuminiem i smochennye kak snaruzhi, tak i iznutri vodoj. Opyty provodilis' na kriticheskoj sborke RB Instituta jadernyh nauk im. Boris Kidric v Belgrade. Udobooptekaemaja geometricheskaja forma jetoj sistemy daet vozmozhnost' sravnitel'no prosto teoreticheski ob'jasnit' rezul'taty opytov i provesti neposredstvennoe gotovoe sravnenie s raschetami dvuhgruppovoj teorii diffuzii. Izmerenija, vypolnennye dlja desjati razlichnyh konfiguracij reshetki, vkljuchali opredelenie laplasiana, kojefficienta reaktivnosti urovnja vody i blok-jeffekta dlja potoka teplovyh i nadteplovyh nejtronov vnutri kamery reaktora. Opisyvaetsja metodika ctih izmerenij. Dannye opytov ispol'zujutsja dlja vyvedenija parametrov reshetki, opredeljaemyh po formule chetyreh somnozhitelej i pri primenenii k aktivnoj zone reaktora dvuhgruppovoj teorii diffuzii. Rezul'taty sravnivajutsja so standartnymi raschetami teh zhe parametrov dlja izmerjaemyh konfiguracij reshetki. Otmechajutsja otklonenija v velichine p i rezonansnogo integrala U-238. V

  12. The Main Technological Characteristics of Apparatus for Industrial Radiochemical Processes, in Particular Ethylene Polymerization; Caracteristique techniques fondamentals des appareils pour l'application industrielle de reactions chimiques sous rayonnement (notamment la polymerisation de l'ethylene ); Osnovnye tekhnologicheskie kharakteristiki apparatov dlya provedeniya radiatsionno-khimi-cheskikh protsessov (v chastnosti, dlya polimerizatsii ehtilena) v promyshlennom masshtabe; Principales caracteristicas tecnologicas de los aparatos para la aplicacion industrial de reacciones radioquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrkus, N P; Breger, A K; Weinstein, B I [Karpov Physicochemical Institute, Moscow, USSR (Russian Federation)

    1960-07-15

    , Q {approx} W{sub 0}{sup 0'5}. (author) [Spanish] Se propone un metodo de evaluacion de la efectividad de los aparatos, cualquiera que sea su construccion, comparandola con la productividad de un aparato infinitamente grande que tenga la misma fuente de radiaciones. Se indican las caracteristicas tecnologicas de un aparato destinado a la polimerizacion del etileno mediante radiaciones (a presion de 200 atmosferas y temperatura de 25{sup o} C{sup 4} empleando como fuente principal radiaciones gamma de cobalto-60 a distintas actividades. Se pueden calcular los datos tecnicos de tal aparato segun el valor medio de la intensidad de las dosis, fijado segun la magnitud del coeficiente de rendimiento energetico del aparato. Se indica en el trabajo que, siendo las demas condiciones iguales, la productividad (Q) del aparato es funcion exponencial de la intensidad (W{sub 0}) de las radiaciones gamma del mismo. Para el aparato que se estudia en el trabajo la formula es: Q{approx}W{sub 0}{sup 0'5}. (author) [Russian] V doklade rassmotreny v obshchem vide otdel'nye naibolee vazhnye tekhnologicheskie kharakteristiki apparatov (na primere sfericheskogo apparata) dlya provedeniya radiatsionno-khimicheskikh protsessov v promyshlennom masshtabe. Predlozhen metod otsenki ehffektivnosti apparata lyuboj konstruktsii putem sravneniya s proizvoditel'nost' yu beskonechno bol'shogo apparata, imeyushchego tot zhe istochnik izlucheniya. Priveden raschet tekhnologicheskoj kharakteristiki apparata dlya radiatsionnoj polimerizatsii ehtilena (davlenie 200 atm, temperatura 25{sup o} C{sup 3} so sterzhnevym istochnikom gamma-izlucheni ya Co{sup 60} razlichnoj aktivnosti. Takoj apparat mozhno rasschityvat' po srednim znacheniyam moshchnostej doz, opredelyaemym po velichine ehnergeticheskogo KPD apparata. Pokazano, chto proizvoditel'nost'apparata (Q), pri prochikh ravnykh usloviyakh, yavlyaetsya stepennoj funktsiej moshchnosti (W{sub 0}) gamma-izlucheniya apparata. Dlya rassmotrennogo apparata : Q

  13. Measurement of the wear rate of cast grinding balls using radioactive tracers; Evaluation de l'usure des boulets pour concasseurs, au moyen des indicateurs radioactifs; Izmerenie skorosti iznosa litykh drobil'nykh sharov pri pomoshchi mechenykh atomov; Medicion de la velocidad de desgaste de bolas trituradoras de acero colado con ayuda de indicadores radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keys, J D; Eichholz, G G [Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1962-01-15

    broyeur ayant une charge normale d'environ 75 tonnes et des echantillons ont ete preleves a des intervalles d'une semaine pour la recuperation des boulets radioactifs. Ces boulets etaient alors inspectes et peses, apres quoi on a pu calculer leur taux d'usure. Cette methode s'est revelee tres pratique. pour l'etude de la resistance des boulets a l'usure dans les conditions habituelles d'utilisation. (author) [Spanish] La velocidad de desgaste de las bolas trituradoras empleadas en los molinos suele ser dificil de determinar durante el funcionamiento de la maquina, y solo se poseen escasos conocimientos acerca de los factores que determinan su vida util. Los autores utilizaron con exito indicadores radiactivos para marcar bolas de acero colado, con miras a obtener informacion sobre su vida util en diversas condiciones de empleo y compararlas con otras bolas de composicion o tipo distintos. Tomaron un juego de bolas de acero marcadas, y observaron su comportamiento a lo largo de varias semanas de empleo en el molino, obteniendo asi datos estadisticos sobre el desgaste y la perdida de peso sufridos. En las pruebas experimentales anadieron {sup 60}Co al metal fundido antes de colarlas bolas y observaron su comportamiento utilizandolas en una mina de hierro y en otra de oro. Emplearon las bolas marcadas en un molino cuya carga normal es de 75 toneladas aproximadamente, y extrajeron semanalmente muestras del contenido de la maquina para separar bolas activas. Examinaron estas y las pesaron, calculando asi su velocidad de desgaste. Este procedimiento se ha revelado como un metodo practico para el estudio de la resistencia al desgaste de las bolas en condiciones industriales. (author) [Russian] Skorost' iznosa drobil'nykh sharov, ispol'zuemykh v sharovykh drobilkakh, obychno trudno poddaetsya opredeleniyu v rabochikh usloviyakh; k tomu zhe malo chto izvestno otnositel'no faktorov, opredelyayushchikh srok sluzhby drobil'nykh sharov. Dlya polucheniya svedenij o sroke sluzhby drobil

  14. Self-diffusion in volume and at the grain-boundaries of gamma-iron of high purity (99.99%); Autodiffusion en volume et aux joints de grains du fer gamma de haute purete (99,99 %); Ob'emnaya samodiffuziya i samodiffuziya na poverkhnosti granul zheleza u vysokoj chistoty (99,99%); Autodifusion en volumen y en los limites intergranulares del hierro gamma de elevada pureza (99,99 por ciento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacombe, P; Guiraldenq, P; Leymonie, C [Centre de Recherches Metallurgiques, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, Paris (France)

    1962-01-15

    1260 Degree-Sign y 918 Degree-Sign C, y de las constantes de autodifusion en las uniones intergranulares entre 1020 Degree-Sign y 918 Degree-Sign C. (author) [Russian] Vvidu trudnostej, s kotorymi vstretilis' pri tochnom izmerenii koehffitsientov samodiffuzii kak vnutri, tak i mezhdu samimi granulami v nekotorykh intervalakh temperatury, kogda sosushchestvuyut oba yavleniya, my byli vynuzhdeny pribegnut' k obychnomu metodu deleniya na chasti. V samom dele my uzhe ustanovili, chto dlya vyazkogo polutverdogo tela posle diffuzii kontsentratsiya radioaktivnykh atomov c (x{sub n}) na rasstoyanii x{sub n} ot pervonachal'nogo radioaktivnogo osadka yavlyaetsya prostoj funktsiej obshchej aktivnosti, kotoraya ostaetsya v obraztse posle abrazii na glubinu x{sub n}. EHtot vyvod yavlyaetsya rezul'tatom obobshcheniya formuly Gruzina, kotoraya do nastoyashchego vremeni primenyalas' tol'ko v ob{sup e}mnoj diffuzii. Takim obrazom my pokazali, chto mozhno putem izmereniya obshchej aktivnosti, ostayushchejsya v zavisimosti ot glubiny proniknoveniya razlichat' dolyu aktivnosti, kotoraya proiskhodit iz-za ob{sup e}mnoj samodiffuzii ot aktivnosti, proiskhodyashchej iz-za mezhgranulovoj samodiffuzii. Odnako tsennost' metoda zaklyuchaetsya v tom, chtoby prosledit' dal'she na tom zhe samom obraztse perekhod ob{sup e}mnoj samodiffuzii v mezhgranulovuyu samodiffuziyu. My primenili ehtot novyj metod dlya izmereniya konstant ob{sup e}mnoj samodiffuzii v zheleze u pri temperature 1260 Degree-Sign i 980 Degree-Sign C, a takzhe samodiffuzii na poverkhnosti granul pri temperature 1020 Degree-Sign i 918 Degree-Sign C. (author)

  15. Neutron Tests at the Start-Up of EDF1; Les essais neutroniques au demarrage du reacteur EDF1; Nejtronnye izmereniya pri puske reaktora EDF1; Ensayos neutronicos efectuados durante la puesta en marcha del reactor EDF1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teste du Bailler, A. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France); Janin, R. [Electricite de France, Paris (France)

    1963-10-15

    ehksperimental'nykh metodov, razrabotannykh na reaktorakh v Markule, byla provedena vo vremya puska reaktora EDF.1. Izmereniya kasalis' glavnym obrazom ehffektivnosti upravlyayushchikh sterzhnej pri razlichnykh p ogruzh eniyakh. Opredelyaetsya skhema pod''ema s terzhnej, kotoraya pozvolyaet poluchat' polnuyu moshchnost' prk soblyudenii opredelennykh ogranichenij v temperature obolochek i gaza. Parallel'no byli provedeny izmereniya potoka pri razlichnykh polozheniyakh kompensiruyushchikh sterzhnej i pri razlichnykh zagruzkakh poglotitelej v opredelennykh kanalakh, v zavisimosti ot predvaritel'nykh raschetov v dvukhraehmernom izmerenii. Ehti izmereniya byli polucheny putem aktivatsii tochechnykh detektorov s primeneniem obychnogo metoda otravleniya vozdukha. Pri nekotorykh urovnyakh temperatury (do 140{sup o}C) byli provedeny izmereniya koehffitsientov reaktivnosti i ehffektivnosti reguliruyushchikh sterzhnej. V to zhe vremya putem aktivatsii sootvetstvuyushchikh detektorov (uran, plutonij, lyutetsij, marganets, indij, zoloto) byli provedeny izmereniya koehffitsientov spektra. Dlya izmereniya ehffektivnosti nekotorykh kompensiruyushchikh sterzhnej byl ispol'zovan ostsillyatsionnyj metod. Nakonets, s tselyakh izucheniya zashchity i povrezhdeniya grafita byli provedeny izmereniya potoka bystrykh nejtronov. (author)

  16. A Contribution to the Study of the Oxidation of Uranium Monocarbide in Carbonic Anhydride at High Temperatures; Contribution a l'etude de l'oxydation du monocarbure d'uranium dans l'anhydride carbonique aux temperatures elevees; Vklad v izuchenie voprosa okisleniya monokarbida urana v ugol'nom angidride pri povyshennykh temperaturakh; Contribucion al estudio de la oxidacion del monocarburo de uranio en anhidrido carbonico a temperaturas elevadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desrues, R; Paidassi, J.; Darras, R. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay (France)

    1963-11-15

    monocarburo, sea que provengan del uranio o bien del dicarburo, disminuye la resistencia de este compuesto a la oxidacion; ello puede atribuirse sobre todo al hecho de que aquellas sufren una oxidacion muy seria, especialmente a raiz de las tensiones mecanicas que causa. 3. En todos los casos, el proceso de oxidacion puede caracterizarse por una energia de activacion igual a 29 000 cal/M, valor muy proximo al correspondiente a la oxidacion del uranio metalico en el mismo gas y a la difusion del oxigeno en el oxido de uranio (UO{sub 2}) que se forma. (author) [Russian] Obraztsy monokarbida urana, poluchennogo dvumya razlichnymi metodami, i obraztsy ker- meta sostava 96,7 ves% U-3,3 ves% S podvergalis' dejstviyu ugol'nogo angidrida, tshchatel'no ochishchennogo ot kisloroda i vodyanykh parov, v intervalakh 350 - 600 deg. C, i nablyudalos' ikh okislenie odnovremenno mikrograficheskim i gravimetricheskim sposobami pri pomoshchi termovesov Ehjro. Bylo otmecheno sleduyushchee: 1) Krivye vyrazhayut uvelichenie vesa kak funktsiyu vremeni i vnachale nosyat yarko vyrazhennyj linejnyj kharakter, zatem bystro vozrastayut, chto ob{sup y}asnyaetsya, v osnovnom,progressivnym razlozheniem obraztsov. Vprochem, poluchennye dannye uvelicheniya vesa yavlyayutsya bolee nizkimi chem te, kotorye byli opublikovany do nastoyashchego vremeni, chto sleduet, ochevidno, pripisat' bolee vysokoj chistote upotreblennogo ugol'nogo angitrida i ochen' neznachitel'noj poristosti ispol'zovannogo monokarbida urana. 2) Nalichie vklyuchenij v monokarbid, kotorye sootvetstvuyut uranu ili dikarbidu, umen'shaet stojkost' ehtogo materiala k okisleniyu, chto sleduet pripisat', glavnym obrazom,katastroficheskomu okisleniyu samikh vklyuchenij iz-za mekhanicheskikh svyazej. 3) Vo vsekh sluchayakh protsess okisleniya mozhet byt' okharakterizovan ehnergiej aktivatsii, ravnoj 29 000 kal/mol', velichinoj, ochen' blizkoj k toj, kotoraya sootvetstvuet okisleniyu metallicheskogo urana v tom zhe gaze i diffuzii kisloroda v okisi

  17. A modification of the method for determining current efficiency of aluminium electrolytic cells; Modification de la methode permettant de determiner le rendement des cuves dans la production d'aluminium par electrolyse; Izmenenie metoda opredeleniya ehffektivnosti toka v alyuminievykh ehlektroliticheskikh bakakh; Modificacion del metodo para determinar el rendimiento de las celdas utilizadas en la produccion de aluminio por electrolisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradzynski, A [Institute of Basic Technical Problems, Polish Academy of Sciences. Warsaw (Poland); Orman, Z [Institute of Nonferrous Metals, Gliwice (Poland)

    1962-01-15

    alyuminievykh pechakh, opisannyj vpervye REMPELEM i dr., byl usovershenstvovan BOZUKI i dr. pri pomoshchi ispol'zovaniya radioaktivnogo izotopa zolota Au{sup 198}. Pri provedenii upomyanutogo issledovaniya byli izgotovleny obraztsy splavov alyuminiya s zolotom Au{sup 198}, i proby ehtikh obraztsov s vysokoj udel'noj aktivnost'yu byli izmereny pri pomoshchi schetchika Gejgera-Myullera so svintsovym poglotitelem, vstavlennym mezhdu schetchikom i proboj. Udel'naya aktivnost' obraztsa splava byla izmerena posle razbavleniya ego opredelennym kolichestvom chistogo alyuminiya. Takim obrazom proby razbavlennogo splava i proby, vzyatye iz ehlektroliticheskogo baka, imeli udel'nuyu aktivnost' togo zhe poryadka velichiny i mogli izmeryat'sya bez vsyakogo poglotitelya. Dlya togo, chtoby oblegchit' primenenie ehtogo metoda na alyuminievom zavode i vo izbezhanie vsyakikh ogranichenij i opasnosti, svyazannykh s obrashcheniem s otkrytymi radioaktivnymi istochnikami vne osobykh laboratorij, prednaznachennykh dlya issledovaniya radioaktivnykh izotopov, byl ispol'zovan radioaktivatsionnyj analiz. K obraztsu splava, a takzhe i v nakhodyashchuyusya v ehlektroliticheskom bake plavil'nuyu vannu bylo dobavleno neaktivirovannoe zoloto. Kontsentratsiya zolota kak v obraztsakh splava, tak i v plavil'noj smesi byla zatem izmerena posle oblucheniya prob v yadernom reaktore. (author)

  18. Use of radioisotopes in studying the penetration of sulphur into iron during hydrogen cathode charging; Application des radioelements a l'etude de la penetration du soufre dans le fer lors du chargement en hydrogene cathodique; Ispol'zovanie radioehlementov dlya izucheniya proniknoveniya sery v zhelezo, kogda ona zaryazhaetsya katodnym vodorodom; Aplicacion de los radioelementos al estudio de la penetracion del azufre en el hierro durante la carga con hidrogeno catodico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besnard, S; Talbot, J [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Vitry (France)

    1962-01-15

    bylo predprinyato v nashej laboratorii s ispol'zovaniem chistogo ehlektroliticheskogo zheleza. Putem katodnoj nagruzki bylo polucheno vodorodnoe perenasyshchenie. EHlementom primesi byl sernistyj natrij, vystupayushchij kak ehlement sera-35. My smogli pokazat' chto v techenie poluchasa pri -15 Degree-Sign C sera pronikaet v zhelezo na glubinu okolo 120 mikronov. K tomu zhe bylo ustanovleno, chto sera preimushchestvenno razmeshchalas' na granulakh zeren. EHtot rezul'tat, kotoryj mog by byt' poluchen tol'ko s pomoshch'yu radioizotopov, imeet vazhnoe znachenie, osobenno v neftyanoj promyshlennosti. Podobnoe issledovanie bylo provedeno s ispol'zovaniem radioizotopa fosfor-32. (author)

  19. Fixation of Radioactive Waste in Glass. Part II. The Experimental Evaluation of Phosphate and Borosilicate Glasses; Fixation des Dechets Radioactifs dans le Verre, Deuxieme Partie: Evaluation Experimentale des Verres au Phosphate et au Borosilicate; 0424 0418 041a 0421 0410 0426 0418 042f 0420 0410 0414 0418 041e 0410 041a 0422 0418 0412 041d 042b 0425 041e 0422 0425 041e 0414 041e 0412 0412 0421 0422 0415 041a 041b 0415 . 0427 0410 0421 0422 042c Ii. 042d 041a 0421 041f 0415 0420 0418 041c 0415 041d 0422 0410 041b 042c 041d 0410 042f 041e 0426 0415 041d 041a 0410 041a 0410 0427 0415 0421 0422 0412 0424 041e 0421 0424 0410 0422 041d 042b 0425 0418 0411 041e 0420 041e 0421 0418 041b 0418 041a 0410 0422 041d 042b 0425 0421 0422 0415 041a 041e 041b ; Fijacion de Desechos Radiactivos en Vidrio, Parte II: Evaluacion Experimental de los Vidrios al Fosfato y al Borosilicato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot, M. N.; Grover, J. R.; Hardwick, W. H. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1963-02-15

    comme milieu de stockage, en les comparant aux verres au borosilicate. (author) [Spanish] El principal factor que es preciso tener en cuenta al proceder a la eleccion de un vidrio adecuado para almacenar por largos periodos desechos de productos de fision es el metodo de almacenamiento que se va a aplicar; el segundo factor es el grado de seguridad que ofrece la elaboracion del vidrio en un establecimiento de alta actividad. A su vez, los factores que interesan para el almacenamiento son la resistencia a la lixiviacion, la estabilidad termica y a las radiaciones y la proporcion de desechos que se pueden incorporar a la masa vitrea, mientras que las propiedados fisicas y quimicas de los aditivos vitrificantes, asi como el punto de fusion y la viscosidad del vidrio mismo, son factores que intervienen mas bien en el proceso de elaboracion. Los autores examinan la importancia relativa de todos estos factores. Exponen luego los resultados del estudio experimental de los vidrios al borosilicato que se han elegido para, los ensayos en instalacion piloto, incluso el efecto de dosis de radiacion hasta 10{sup 12} rad sobre sus propiedades fisicas y quimicas. Tambien examinaron vidrios de otras composiciones y compararon su posible utilidad, como medio de almacenamiento, con la de los vidrios al borosilicato. (author) [Russian] Steklo dlja dlitel'nogo hranenija othoDov, soderzhashhih produkty delenija, dolzhno vybirat'sja, vo-pervyh s uchetom predpolagaemogo metoda hranenija i , vo-vtoryh, s uchetom vozmozhnosti ego poluchenija na vysokoradioaktivnyh ustanovkah. Vazhnymi faktorami s tochki zrenija hranenija javljajutsja: stojkost' protiv vyshhelachivanjja, teplostojkost' i radiacionnaja stojkost', a takzhe predel'naja dolja vvodimyh othodov; chto zhe kasaetsja fizicheskogo haraktera i himicheskih svojstv jelementov, dobavljaemyh dlja stekloobrajeovanija, a takzhe tochki plavlenija i vjazkosti stekla, to jeti faktory kasajutsja processa izgotovlenija. Obsuzhdaetsja otnositel

  20. Gamma-Ray-Initiated Graft Copolymerization on the Surface of Nylon Fibers and in the Inner Layers of Cellulosic Fibers; Amorcage par rayons gamma de la formation de copolymeres greffes a la surface de fibres de nylon et dans les couches internes de fibres cellulosiques; Sopolimerizatsionnoe narashchivanie na poverkhnosti nejlonovogo volokna i vo vnutrennikh sloyakh tsellyuloznykh volokon pod dejstviem gamma-izluchenij; Copolimerizacion por injerto radioinducida en la superficie de fibras de nylon y en las capas internas de fibras celulosicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, S; Iwasaki, T; Kobayashi, Y; Hayashi, K

    1960-07-15

    injerto cuando la irradiacion se efectua con dosis especificas del orden de los 10{sup 5} roentgens/hora . (author) [Russian] V rezul'tate oblucheniya nejlonovogo volokna v azotnoj srede sozdaetsya poperechnaya svyaz', togda kak pri obluchenii v vozdushnoj srede proiskhodit reaktsiya, vedushchaya k umen'sheniyu velichiny molekul. Proiskhodyashchie pod vliyaniem oblucheniya izmeneniya byli izucheny posredstvom izmereniya vyazkosti volokna, obluchennogo v rastvorakh sernoj kisloty. Prochnost' na rastyazhenie byla izuchena takzhe v vozdushnoj srede. Pri obluchenii v azotnoj srede pogruzhennogo v vodnyj rastvor akrilamida nejlonovogo volokna narashchivanie imeet mesto lish' na poverkhnosti. Esli zhe predvaritel'noe obluchenie proizvodilos' v vozdushnoj srede, to narashchivanie proiskhodit i vo vnutrennikh sloyakh volokna. Stepen' narashchivaniya tsellyuloznykh volokon pri pomoshchi stirola iz metanolovogo rastvora znachitel'no povyshaetsya, esli voloknu dat' nabukhnut' v 5-10 protsentnom rastvore formamida v metanole. Bylo izucheno vliyanie kontsentratsii formamida i stirola v rastvorakh metanola, prichem bylo ustanovleno, chto maksimal'noe narashchivanie proiskhodit v 5-protsentnom rastvore formamida i 70-protsentnoj kontsentratsii stirola. Pri moshchnosti dozy priblizitel'no v 10{sup 5} r/chas ustanovleno, chto skorost' narashchivaniya opredelyaetsya diffuziej. (author)

  1. Thermal Shock Tests on UO{sub 2} Small Spheres; Essais de choc thermique sur des elements spheriques de UO{sub 2}; Ispytaniya nebol'shikh sharikov iz UO{sub 2} teplovykh udarom; Ensayo de pequenas esferas de UO{sub 2} por choque.termico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perona, G.; Brutto, E.; Galbusera, U.; Palladino, G.; Sesini, R. [Centro Informazioni Studi Esperienze, Milan (Italy)

    1963-11-15

    exponen los resultados obtenidos. La aplicacion de este metodo presenta, al parecer, considerable interes, sobre todo en lo que concierne a las investigaciones encaminadas a mejorar las caracteristicas de las esferas de UO{sub 2} por medio de aditivos. En e fecto, permite verificar el efecto global con una sola medicion. (author) [Russian] Ispol'zuya malye pariki iz UO{sub 2} v kachestve yadernogo topliva v reaktore, gde oni nakhodyatsya v soprikosnovenii s teplonositelem, neobkhodimo znat' maksimal'nuyu pri rabochem rezhime reaktora velichinu termicheskikh napryazhenij, kotorye mogut vyderzhivat' bez povrezhdeniya ehti shariki. Esli izvestny fizicheskie svojstva materiala, to mozhno rasschitat' ehti napryazheniya pri rabochem rezhime. Odnako vvidu mnogochislennosti podlezhashchikh uchetu faktorov i neizbezhnoj doli neopredelennosti kazhdogo iz nikh predstavlyaetsya predpochtitel'nym provesti neposredstvennye ispytaniya ehtikh sharikov, podvergnuv ikh tem zhe napryazheniyam, kakie oni ispytyvayut v reaktore. V nastoyashchej rabote byl izuchen metod teplovogo udara v primenenii k malym sharikam i ukazyvayutsya usloviya, pri kotorykh ehtot metod pozvolyaet proizvesti napryazheniya, neposredstvenno sravnimye s temi, kotorye sushchestvuyut v reaktore. V sluchae malykh sharikov zatrudnenie zaklyuchaetsya v osushchestvlenii okhlazhdeniya, pozvolyayushchego dostigat' ochen' bol'shikh znachenij koehffitsienta poverkhnostnoj teploperedachi. Opisyvayutsya ehksperimental'nye metody i soobshchayutsya poluchennye rezul'taty. Primenenie ehtogo' metoda, po-vidimomu., predstavlyaet bol'shoj interes, v osobennosti v oblasti tekhnologicheskikh izyskanij s tsel'yu uluchsheniya svojstv malykh sharikov iz UO{sub 2} putem vklyucheniya dobavochnykh komponentov. Fakticheski,ehtot metod daet vozmozhnost' pri pomoshchi odnogo tol'ko izmereniya kontrolirovat' izuchaemoe vozdejstvie. (author)

  2. Non-Destructive Examination of the Heat-Affected Zone of Welded Zr-Nb Alloy; Controle Non Destructif de la Zone d'Un Alliage Zr-Nb Affectee par la Chaleur Lors du Soudage; Nedestruktivnoe ispytanie zony svarnogo shva iz tsirkonij-niobij splava, kotoryj podverzhen teplovomu vliyaniyu; Examen No Destructivo de la Zona de Soldadura Afectada por el Calor en las Aleaciones de Circonio y Niobio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanstock, R. F.; Walker, D. C.B. [U.K.A.E.A. Reactor Materials Laboratory, Culcheth (United Kingdom)

    1965-10-15

    sencilla modificacion, para examinar las soldaduras en las aleaciones de circonio y niobio. Se da un ejemplo de las variaciones en la respuesta de la sonda en las distintas partes de una soldadura afectadas por el calor, y se las compara con los resultados del estudio de la corrosion efectuado en autoclave. (author) [Russian] Ispol'zovanie splava iz cir- konija i 2,5% niobija dlja obolochki vysokogo davlenija v reaktorah s vodnym zamedlitelem imeet rjad preimushhestv, svjazannyh s prochnost'ju je t ogo splava blagodarja termoobrabotke. Termoobrabotka takzhe chuvstvitel'no vlijaet na korrozionnuju stojkost' splava v uslovijah raboty reaktora, i v zonah svarki plavleniem, kotorye podverzheny teplovomu vlijaniju, mogut pojavit'sja zony nizkoj korrozionnoj stojkosti. Zony, podverzhennye korrozii, mozhno usta- novit' putem obrabotki v avtoklave. Odnako je tot metod javljaetsja neudobnym v teh slucha- jah, kogda putem svarki sobirajutsja krupnogabaritnye kontury vysokogo davlenija. Prishli k vyvodu, chto zony teplovogo vozdejstvija, chuvstvitel'nye k korrozii, mozhno obnaruzhit' putem izmerenija termojelektricheskogo potenciala mezhdu nagretym metallicheskim tochech- nym zondom, kontaktirujushhimsja s opredelennymi oblastjami svarnogo shva, i primykajushhim k nemu metallom. Termojelektricheskij zond izgotavlivaetsja tak zhe, kak zond, kotoryj soz - dan Britanskoj associaciej po issledovanijam cvetnyh metallov dlja izmerenija tolshhiny pokrytija metallicheskih substratov. Imejushhijsja v prodazhe pribor, kotoryj vkljuchaet takoj zond s neznachitel'nymi vidoizmenenijami, mozhno ispol'zovat' dlja ispytanija svarnyh soedinenij iz cirkonij-niobij splavov. Privoditsja primer izmenenija zondovoj chuvstvitel'- nosti po zonam svarnogo shva, podverzhennym teplovomu vozdejstviju, i jet ot primer srav- nivaetsja s provedennym v avtoklave ispytaniem na korroziju. (author)

  3. Difficulties and Successes in the Mass Rearing of Insects in the Laboratory, and the Possibility of Autocidal Control of some Harmful Species; Trudnosti i uspekhi massovogo razvedeniya nasekomykh v laboratorii i vozmozhnosti samoistrebleniya nekotorykh vrednykh vidov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumakov, E. M. [Rastenij, Vsesojuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Institut Zashhity Leningrad, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1968-06-15

    ' vitaminov, svobodnyh aminokislot i sterinov. Vazhnejshee znachenie imeet pravil'noe kolichestvennoe sootnoshenie v pishhevoj srede kak ukazannyh veshhestv, tak i osnovnyh komponentov korma - belkov, zhirov i uglevodov. Trudoemkost' processov razmnozhenija nasekomyh opredeljaetsja sposobami sterilizacii posudy i osadkov, a takzhe metodami predohranenija pishhevyh sred ot zagnivanija. Primerom preodolenija jetih trudnostej javljaetsja sozdanie suhoj, poroshkoobraznoj sredy dlja pereletnoj saranchi, na kotoroj v SSSR jetot vid uspeshno vospityvaetsja. Dlja rjada vrednyh vidov Lepidoptera {sup p}okazana vozmozhnost' vyrashhivanija osobej v zakrytoj, germetizirovannoj posude. Pri jetom daetsja zapas pishhevoj sredy, obespechivajushhij razvitie osobej s momenta podsadki na srodu jaic ili gusenic do vyhoda imago novogo pokolenija. Takoj priem ves'ma uproshhaet ves' tehnologicheskij process poluchenija massovoj produkcii. Mnogie vidy nasekomyh mozhno vospityvat' na zerne i semenah rastenij , menee podverzhennyh zagnivaniju npvi dlitel'nom hrapenii. Vazhnejshim voprosom massovogo razvedenija javljaetsja razrabotka putej preodolenija diapauzy u laboratornoj populjacii, chto obespechivaet nepreryvnost' razvedenija. Ustranenie diapauzy dostigaetsja kak reaktivaciej temperaturnymi vozdejstvijami, tak i sozdaniem fotoperioda, predotvrashhajushhego vozniknovenie diapauzy . Vozmozhen eshhe odin put': podbor i skreshhivanie geneticheski razlichnyh ras dannogo vida, imejushhih diapauzu i lishennyh ee. Na primere rjada vidov Orthoptcra, imejushhih dostatochno bol'shie arealy, pokazana vozmozhnost' samoistreblenija vrednyh vidov putem podmeshivanija k prirodnoj populjacii, normal'no imejushhej diapauzu - osobej bezdiapauznoj populjacii iz drugih chastej areala togo zhe vida. Takie vozmozhnosti vyjavleny dlja sverchka Teleogryllus com- moclus Walk v Avstralii, i dlja podvidov Locusta migratoria L. na territorii Starogo Sveta. Razrabotka takogo puti samoistreblenija nasekomyh zasluzhivaet bol

  4. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-Gang; Wang, En-Ke; Cai, Xu; Huang, Huan-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan

    2007-07-01

    oral presentations. Professors T Hemmick, H Satz, D T Son and N Xu gave excellent pedagogical lectures in the pre-conference student symposium and their efforts were greatly appreciated. The Shanghai Association of Science and Technology (SAST) and the staff of the Shanghai science hall provided valuable assistance and services during the conference. The conference would not have run so smoothly without their professional dedication. We also thank Professor Wenqing Shen, Chairman of the SAST, for his many valuable suggestions to the conference organizers and for providing close cooperation with SAST staff. We thank members of the Local Organizing Committee for many useful suggestions and help. We would like to express our special appreciation for the tireless efforts by many local staff who worked very hard to make this conference a success. Dr Xiang-Zhou Cai, Mrs Wei Zhou and Mrs Yang Shen undertook many duties to coordinate and organize the local services. Dr Kun Wang took responsibility of the conference web page. Dr Wei Guo, Dr Wendong Tian, Mr Chunwang Ma and Mrs Wanyan Qian organized student volunteers for the conference. Without their help and dedication this conference could not have been such a success. The Quark Matter 2006 conference has received substantial financial support from many organizations, including the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), the Ministry of Education of China (MOE), Shanghai Science and Technology Committee (SSTC), Chinese Nuclear Physics Society (CNPS), Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP), Central China Normal University (CCNU), China Center of Advanced Science and Technology (CCAST), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), and Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics (IOP Publishing).

  5. PREFACE: Dynamics of wetting Dynamics of wetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grest, Gary S.; Oshanin, Gleb; Webb, Edmund B., III

    2009-11-01

    dynamics and the broader field of fluid dynamics [7-9]. Such an active field requires an occasional collective examination of current research to highlight both recent successes and remaining challenges. Herein, we have collected a range of articles to illustrate the broad nature of research associated with understanding dynamics of moving condensed matter three phase contact lines. Despite the breadth of topics examined, certain unifying themes emerge. The role of the substrate surface is critical in determining kinetics of wetting; this is evidenced by the attention given to this in articles herein. McHale et al investigate the role of surface topography on wetting kinetics and how its effect can be incorporated in existing theories describing contact line dynamics. Moosavi et al examine surface topography effects via a mesoscopic hydrodynamics approach. The capillary driven motion of fluid through structures on a surface bears tremendous importance for microfluidics studies and the emerging field of nanofluidics. Blow et al examine this phenomena for liquid imbibition into a geometric array of structures on a solid surface, while Shen et al analyze the effects of surface temperature during boiling and non-boiling conditionson droplet impingement dynamics. Finally, Pesika et al discover a wonderful world of smart surfaces, like gecko adhesion pads. A number of papers utilize computational modeling to explore phenomena underlying wetting dynamics and to consider relevant mechanisms in terms of existing theory for contact line dynamics. Winter et al utilize Monte Carlo simulation techniques and thermodynamic integration methods to test classical theory describing heterogeneous nucleation at a wall near a wetting transition. Qian et al briefly review the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation underlying many descriptions of dissipative systems; they then provide a variational approach description of hydrodynamics of moving contact lines and demonstrate the validity

  6. Fresh Water River discharges as observed by SMOS in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Estrella; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; Turiel, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    filtering criteria is implemented, SMOS provides coherent SSS measurements close to the coast, and especially in these regions of the Indian Ocean, providing near real-time information suitable for validation and ocean data assimilation. References: [1] Font, J., Camps, A., Borges, A., Martin-Neira, M., Boutin, J., Reul, N., Kerr, Y., Hahne, A., and Mechlenburg, S. (2010). SMOS: the challenging sea surface salinity measurement from space. Proceedings of the IEEE, 98:649. [2] Olmedo, E., Martínez, J., Turiel, A., Ballabrera-Poy, J., and Portabella, M., (2017), "Debiased Non-Bayesian retrieval: a novel approach to SMOS Sea Surface Salinity, Remote Sensing of Environment, under review. [3] Zweng, M.M, J.R. Reagan, J.I. Antonov, R.A. Locarnini, A.V. Mishonov, T.P. Boyer, H.E. Garcia, O.K. Baranova, D.R. Johnson, D.Seidov, M.M. Biddle, 2013. World Ocean Atlas 2013, Volume 2: Salinity. S. Levitus, Ed., A. Mishonov Technical Ed.; NOAA Atlas NESDIS 74, 39 pp [4] Dai, A., and K. E. Trenberth, (2002): Estimates of freshwater discharge from continents: Latitudinal and seasonal variations. J. Hydrometeorol., 3, 660-687 [5] Dai, A., T. Qian, K. E. Trenberth, and J. D Milliman, (2009): Changes in continental freshwater discharge from 1949-2004. J. Climate, 22, 10, 2773-2792 [6] Bonjean F. and G.S.E. Lagerloef, (2002): Diagnostic model and analysis of the surface currents in the tropical Pacific ocean, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 2,938-2,954 [7] Donlon, C. J., M. Martin, J. D. Stark, J. Roberts-Jones, E. Fiedler and W. Wimmer, (2011). The perational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice analysis (OSTIA). Remote Sensing of the Environment. doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2010.10.017 2011. [8] Martin, M.J., A. Hines and M.J. Bell, (2007). Data assimilation in the FOAM operational short-range ocean forecasting system: a description of the scheme and its impact. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 133:981-995. [9] John D. Stark, Craig J. Donlon, Matthew J. Martin and Michael E. McCulloch, (2007), OSTIA : An operational

  7. Abstracts from the 15th International Myopia Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Benavente-Perez

    2016-11-01

    against form deprivation myopia in chickens, by local signaling within the retina Ladan Ghodsi, William K. Stell O14 Contributions of ON and OFF pathways to emmetropization and form deprivation myopia in mice Machelle T. Pardue, Ranjay Chakraborty, Han na Park, Curran S. Sidhu, P. Michael Iuvone O15 Response of the human choroid to defocus Michael J Collins O16 What can RNA sequencing tell us about myopic sclera? Nethrajeith Srinvasalu, Sally A McFadden, Paul N Baird O17 Overview of dopamine, retinal function, and myopia P. Michael Iuvone O18 The eye as a "robust" optical system and myopia Pablo Artal O19 Effect of discontinuation of orthokeratology lens wear on axial elongation in children Pauline Cho, SW Cheung O20 Myopia prevention in Taiwan Pei-Chang Wu O21 Alternatives to ultraviolet light and riboflavin for in vivo crosslinking of scleral collagen Quan V. Hoang, Sally A. McFadden O22 Absence of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC alters normal refractive development in mice Ranjay Chakraborty, Duk C. Lee, Erica G. Landis, Michael A. Bergen, Curran Sidhu, Samer Hattar, P. Michael Iuvone, Richard A. Stone, Machelle T. Pardue O23 Scleral micro-RNAs in myopia development and their potential as therapeutic targets Ravi Metlapally O24 Effects of the long-wavelength filtered continuous spectrum on emmetropization in juvenile guinea pigs Ruiqin Li, Qinglin Xu, Hong Zhon, Chenglin Pan, Weizhon Lan, Xiaoning Li, Ling Chen, Zhikuan Yang O25 Ocular and environmental factors associated with eye growth in childhood Scott A. Read O26 Overview- prevention and prediction of myopia and pathologic myopia Seang-Mei Saw O27 New insights into the roles of retinal dopamine in form-deprivation myopia and refractive development in C57BL/6 mice Shi-Jun Weng, Xiao-Hua Wu, Kang-Wei Qian, Yun-Yun Li, Guo-Zhong Xu, Furong Huang, Xiangtian Zhou, Jia Qu, Xiong-Li Yang, Yong-Mei Zhong O28 The effects of the adenosine antagonist, 7-methylxanthine, on refractive development in

  8. The Biological Effect of Fast Neutrons and High-Energy Protons; Effets Biologiques des Neutrons Rapides et des Protons de Haute Energie; Biologicheskoe dejstvie bystrykh nejtronov i protonov vysokikh ehnergii; Efectos Biologicos de los Neutrones Rapidos y de los Protones de Elevada Energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskalev, Ju. I.; Petrovich, I. K.; Strel' cova, V. N.

    1964-03-15

    despues de la irradiacion con una dosis de 42,5 rad. Con la misma dosis tambien se manifiestan leucosis y tumores de la tiroides. En la irradiacion protonica, la dosis tumorigena minima es del orden de 250 rad para lee tejidos hematopoyeticos y la tiroides, de 300 rad para los testiculos, y de unos 100 rad para la prostata, el pancreas y el tejido hipodermico. Despues de la irradiacion con neutrones rapidos, la frecuencia de la aparicion de tumores en los testiculos, el intestino grueso, los rinones y el higado, presenta un aumento para dosis entre 42,5 y 85 rad, y en la piel y el tejido hipodermico ocurre lo mismo para dosis de 85 rad. En el caso de la irradiacion con neutrones rapidos, los tumores aparecen con dosis de 3 a 5 veces inferiores a las dosis protonicas. (author) [Russian] Predstavljajutsja rezul'taty sravnitel'nyh jeksperimentov po izucheniju dejstvija bystryh nejtronov i protonov vysokih jenergij (500 Mjev) na prodolzhitel'nost' zhizni, perifericheskuju krov', cha sto tu i skorost' pojavlenija opuholej u krys v zavisimosti o t dozy vozdejstvija i sroka nabljudenija. Opyt s nejtronami postavlen na 573, s protonami na 490 belyh krysah. Bystrymi nejtronami zhivotnyh obluchali v dozah ot 8,5 do 510 rad, protonami ot 28 do 1008 rad. Dlja bystryh nejtronov i protonov ustanovleny velichiny ostro, podostro i hronicheski jeffektivnyh d o z . LD{sub 50/30} dlja nejtronov ravna 408, dlja protonov 600 rad, a LD{sub 50/120} so otvetstvenno 380 i 600 rad. Proanalizirovany zakonomernosti vymiranija krys v rannie i pozdnie sroki jeksperimenta. Pokazano, chto srednjaja prodolzhitel'nost' zhizni krys, obluchennyh bystrymi nejtronami, ne zavisit ot pola. Forma krivoj doza-jeffekt dlja otdel'nyh pokazatelej perifericheskoj krovi sushhestvenno zavisit ne tol'ko ot radiochuvstvitel'nosti sootvetstvujushhih kletok krovi, no i ot sroka nabljudenija. Ona mozhet sushhestvenno izmenjat'sja vo vremeni dlja odnogo i t o go zhe pokazatelja. V otdalennye sroki posle obluchenija kak

  9. Comparison of Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory Clean Critical and Subcritical Experiments with Calculations; Etude Comparative des Calculs et des Experiences Critiques Non Empoisonnees et Souscritiques, Faits au Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory; Sravnenie chistykh kriticheskikh i podkriticheskikh opytov v nolle s raschetnymi dannymi; Comparacion de los Resultados Experimentales del Knolls Atomic Power Lamra Tory con los Valores Calculados Teoricamente en Conjuntos Criticos Limpios y Subcriticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, D. R.; Bistline, J. A.; Bunch, S. I.; Cerbone, R. J.; Feiner, F.; Skolnik, W.; Slovacek, R. E.; Weinstein, S. [Knolls Atomic Tower Laboratory, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1964-02-15

    anteriores en todo el intervalo experimental. Los resultados de los calculos de las constantes de desintegracion por medio de la tecnica de extraccion de los venenos que cumplen la ley 1/v, utilizando claves normales de computo de difusion de pocos grupos con condiciones de frontera dependientes del grupo, concuerdan, con un margen de error que no pasa de algunas unidades por ciento de las constantes medidas, en todo el intervalo desde 100 a 45 000 s{sup -1}. Comparando las mediciones del espectro efectuadas con el selector lento con los valores calculados partiendo de los datos mas recientes de los nucleos para el hidrogeno ligado en el caso del agua y el polietileoo, se observa una concordancia satisfactoria excepto en los sistemas de agua con elevado coeficiente de absorcion. En este ultimo caso, los espectros medidos son aun mas blandos que los espectros de atomos libres obtenidos por calculo. (author) [Russian] V Nollskoj atomno-jenergeticheskoj laboratorii osushhestvlja- etsja shirokaja programma opytov i raschetov dlja ocenki adekvatnosti raschetnyh metodov i jadernyh dannyh dlja vodorodosoderzhashhih sistem. V progamme imejutsja tri obshhih aspekta: 1) chistye kriticheskie opyty s tverdym gomogennym toplivom s vysokim sootnosheniem mezhdu ob{sup e}mom metalla i ob{sup e}mom vodoroda; 2) chistye kriticheskie o'pyty s toplivom v vide plastin s ohvatom bol'shogo diapazona razmerov aktivnoj zony, otnoshenijamass metalla i vody, plotnosti topliva i temperatury; 3) izmerenija postojannoj raspada mgnovennyh nejtronov i spektroa stacionarnogo sostojanija v podkriticheskih sistemah s takoj zhe strukturoj. Toplivnye jelementy dlja opytov s tverdym gomogennym toplivom predstavljajut soboj spressovannye uplotnenija iz poroshkov ZrO{sub 2} i vysokoobogashhennogo UO{sub 2}, ravnomerno sme- shannyh s parafinom. Bloki otrazhatelja s takim zhe otnosheniem mass ZrO{sub 2} i parafina, kak i toplivnye bloki, pozvoljajut konstruirovat' otrazhaemye aktivnye zony s ravnomerno pa

  10. Tritiated Thymidine as Tracer in DNA Metabolism and Cell Dynamics of Experimental Myeloid Leukaemia; Emploi de la Thymidine Tritiee comme Indicateur pour l'Etude du Metabolisme de l'ADN et de la Dynamique des Cellules dans la Leucemie Myeloide Experimentale; 0422 0440 0438 0442 0414 ; Empleo de la Timidina Tritiada como Indicador para Estudiar el Metabolismo del Acido Desoxirribonucleico y la Dinamica Celular en la Leucemia Mieloide Experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajicek, G.; Rosin, A.; Gross, J. [Department of Experimental Medicine and Cancer Research, Hebrew University, Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)

    1962-02-15

    proizvedena ocen- ka skorosti pojavlenija mechenyh kletok v periferijnoj krovi, a takzhe v ascit- noj opuholi zhivotnogo. Pri drugih jeksperimentah delalas' ocenka skorosti raz- bavlenija jetogo metjashhego veshhestva v jadrah, chto pozvolilo takim obrazom opredelit' vremja udvoenija kletok v mielocitnoj populjacii. Izuchalas' dinamika lejkemichnyh kletok posle perelivanija krovi putem vvedenija mechenogo mielocita v shejnuju venu obychnyh i stradajushhih lejkemiej krys. Byla izmerena skorost' ih ischeznovenija iz krovi. Byli izucheny razlichnye organy dlja mechenyh kletok, prichem najdeno, chto vskore posle vvedenija jetih kletok oni sosredotachivalis' glavnym obrazom v legkih, a pozdnee v selezenke i v ves'ma neznachitel'nom kolichestve v pecheni. Spustja 24 chasa ni v odnom organe ne bylo obnaruzheno nikakih mechenyh kletok. Takim obrazom byli polucheny svedenija o sud'be lejkemichnogo mielocita v razlichnyh organah normal'nyh i zarazhennyh lejkemiej zhivotnyh. Pri provedenii laboratornyh jeksperimentov TN{sup 3} dobavljalsja v suspenziju kletok v koncentracii 1 mkkmri/ml. V processe mechenija v la'oratornyh chslo- vijah bylo otmecheno, chto chislo mechenyh kletok bylo v 40 raz bol'she chisla mitozov. (To zhe samoe bylo obnaruzheno pri vvedenii TN{sup 3} v la'oratornyh uslovijah. 1 Byla ustanovlena skorost' vvedenija TN{sup 3}. Byli ispytany koncentracii ot 0,0036 mkmolbh 10{sup -3} do 1,8 mkmolbh Ju{sup -3} . Bylo ustanovleno, chto procent kletok, usvaivajushhih jeto metjashhee veshhestvo, javljaetsja postojannym dlja razlichnyh kon- centracij timidina. Chislo zeren na jadro uvelichivalos' po mere vozrastanija vvodimoj koncentracii TN{sup 3}. Posle okonchanija skrytogo perioda, prodolzhav- shegosja 120 minut, ne bylo obnaruzheno nikakih mechenyh mitozov. Dalee metod vvedenija metjashhego veshhestva.byl odinakovym kak pri dobavlenii ego v nachale skrytogo perioda, tak i posle 160 minut. Dobavlenie TN{sup 3} k toj zhe suspenzii' pri razlichnyh intervalah ne izmenilo procena

  11. Characteristics of the Beam-Plasma Discharge; Caracteristiques de la 'Decharge Faisceau-Plasma'; ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ РАЗРЯДА ПУЧКА В ПЛАЗМЕ; Caracteristicas de la Descarga Haz-Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smullin, L. D.; Getty, W. D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1966-04-15

    annotacii my podvodim itog nedavnej raboty po izucheniju vzaimodejstvija jelektronnogo puchka s plazmoj, prodelannoj v Massachuzetskom tehnologicheskom institute. Kogda jelektronnyj puchok prohodit cherez plazmu, on vozbuzhdaet kolebanija na plazmennoj chastote. Jeti mikrovolnovye kolebanija podderzhivajut mikrovolnovyj razrjad, i my nazvali ves' process ''puchkovym razrjadom'. Ionizacija okruzhajushhego gaza osushhestvljaetsja jelektronami vysokoj jEhnergii iz plazmy, kotorye uskorjajutsja poljami kolebanij. Rezul'tatom javljaetsja obrazovanie gorjachej jelektronnoj plazmy vnutri ustanovki s magnitnymi probkami. Poskol'ku parametry razrjada puchka v plazme predstavljajutsja neblagoprijatnymi dlja neposredstvennogo ionnogo nagreva vzaimodejstviem puchka s plazmoj, my pristupili k jeksperimentam, v kotoryh dopolnitel'naja radiochastotnaja jenergija nakladyvaetsja s cel'ju vozbuzhdenija ciklotronnyh kolebanij ionov dlja ionnogo nagreva. Rassmotreniju podlezhat ustojchivost' plazmy; plotnost', srednjaja jenergija i maksimal'naja jenergija jelektronov plazmy; i predvaritel'nye rezul'taty po ionnomu nagrevu. Provodjatsja jeksperimenty s pul'sirujushhim jelektronnym puchkom v 10-15 kv i 10 - 15 A, kotoryj inzhektiruetsja vdol' osi magnitnyh probok v'oblast' drejfa, soderzhashhuju H{sub 2} np 10{sup -5}-10{sup -4} torr. Plotnost' jelektronov plazmy ob{sup e}mom v 1 litr obychno sostavljaet 10{sup 12}-10{sup 13} sm{sup -3} i plotnost' poperechnoj jEhnergii obychno sostavljaet 10{sup 15} jev/sm{sup 3}, chto sootvetstvuet temperature poperechnyh jelektronov v 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} jev. Izmerenie jenergij rentgenovskih luchej ukazyvaet na sushhestvovanie' jelektronov s jenergiej 50-100 kjev. Spad plazmy posle vykljuchenija puchka proishodit v dva jetapa: otnositel'no bystraja poterja jelektronov nizkoj jEhnergii, {tau} Less-Than-Or-Equal-To 1000 mksek, i medlennyj spad jelektronov vysokoj jEhnergii s {tau} = 10-50 msek. Vtoroj jeksperiment provoditsja s temi zhe parametrami

  12. Production of Xenon Compounds by the Beta Decay of Iodine in Iodine Compounds; Production de Composes du Xenon par Desintegration Beta de l'Iode dans les Composes Iodes; 041f 0420 041e 0418 0417 0412 041e 0414 0421 0422 0412 041e 0421 041e 0415 0414 0418 041d 0415 041d 0418 0419 041a 0421 0415 041d 041e 041d 0410 041f 041e 0421 0420 0415 0414 0421 0422 0412 041e 041c 0411 0415 0422 0410 - 0420 0410 0421 041f 0410 0414 0410 0419 041e 0414 0410 0412 0419 041e 0414 0418 0421 0422 042b 0425 0421 041e 0415 0414 0418 041d 0415 041d 0418 042f 0425 ; Produccion de Compuestos de Xenon por Desintegracion Beta del Yodo de Compuestos Yodados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlow, G. J.; Perlow, M. R. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1965-04-15

    O{sub 6} con absorbedor de clatrato, se triplico la fraccion que no experimenta retroceso, lo que implica un enlace mas fuerte. El KIO{sub 4} tambien produjo una sola raya, pero algo menos intensa. Con NalO{sub 3} como fuente y clatrato como absorbedor, se observo un desdoblamiento, lo que sugiere que el IO{sub 3}{sup -} {yields} XeO{sub 3}, transformacion que se comprobo al registrar un desdoblamiento identico en un absorbedor de XeO{sub 3} utilizado con una fuente de KIO{sub 4}. Un experimento realizado con KICI{sub 4} * H{sub 2}0 como fuente y clatrato como absorbedor acuso un desdoblamiento algo menor que el que presenta el XeF{sub 4}. En este caso ICI{sub 4}{sup -} -{yields} XeCl{sub 4}. Utilizando cristales alineados de KICI{sub 4} * H{sub 2}O y efectuando determinaciones cuantitativas de la intensidad, se demostro que la estructura cuadrada plana del ICI4 se conserva en la transicion a XeCl{sub 4}, y que en la reaccion no se forman XeCl{sub 2} ni Xe Degree-Sign en cantidades detectables. Con ayuda de Na{sub 3}H{sub 2}{sup 131}IO{sub 6} como fuente, se observo el efecto en el {sup 131}Xe. Comparando los espectros del XeF{sub 4} en ambos isotopos, se calibro el desdoblamiento en el {sup 129}Xe, lo cual permitio comparar cuantitativamente el XeF{sub 4} y el XeCl{sub 4} con el ICI{sub 4}{sup -} y el XeO{sub 3} con el IO{sub 3}{sup -}. El espectro no desdoblado del KIO{sub 4} indica que el ligando tetraedrico que circunda el yodo se conserva en el Xe04 resultante. Analogamente, el resultado relativo al paraperiodato esta en armonia con la conservacion del envolvente octaedrico. (author) [Russian] Izvestno, chto bol'shaja chast' beta-raspadov ne vyzyvaet izmenenij v jelektronnom chisle atoma, soderzhashhego raspadajushheesja jadro. Pri beta-raspade J{sup 129}-He{sup 129} v jodistom soedinenii jelektronnaja struktura i geometrija chasto podhodjat dlja obrazovanija soedinenija ksenona s takimi zhe ligandami. Jetot process byl otkryt i izuchen putem ispol'zovanija jeffekta

  13. Some factors influencing the absorption, retention and elimination of ruthenium; Facteurs agissant sur l'absorption, la retention et l'elimination du ruthenium; Nekotorye faktory, vliyakshchie na vsasyvanie, zaderzhku i vydelenie ruteniya; Factores que influyen sobre la absorcion, retencion y eliminacion de rutenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, R. S. [Radiobiological Research Council, Medical Research Council, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1963-02-15

    el suero inmediatamente despues de una inyeccion endovenosa o una administracion por via oral, pero desaparece con rapidez. Es probable que una vez que el rutenio sea absorbido en una forma que difunde libremente, parte del mismo reaccione con las proteinas del suero y que en un primer momento permanezca confinado en el espacio vascular; una parte es eliminada sin demora por los rinones y otra se difunde rapidamente en el espacio extravascular y en los tejidos. Esta ultima fraccion puede, bien reaccionar con el tejido y quedar retenida o difundirse de nuevo a la sangre, bien ser excretada. Despues de los primeros dias, la concentracion de rutenio en el suero disminuye a una velocidad que guarda una relacion estrecha con la velocidad de degradacion de las seroproteinas. Es posible que la retencion del rutenio en otros tejidos se rija tambien por su velocidad catabolica. (author) [Russian] Dva radioaktivnykh izotopa ruteniya, rutenij-103 (T1/2 = 40 dnej) i rutenij-106 (T1/2 = 1 god) obrazuyutsya v otnositel'no bol'shom kolichestve v rezul'tate rasshchepleniya urana-235. Pochti ket informatsii otnositel'no metabolizma ruteniya v organizme cheloveka, i privodimye soobrazheniya osnovyvayutsya ka issledovaniyakh krys i krolikov. KHarakter i razmer opasnosti, vyzyvaemoj radioruteniem, zavisit ne tol'ko ot uslovij zarazheniya, no i ot fizicheskogo i khimicheskogo sostoyaniya ruteniya. Rutenij-106, prinyatyj vnutr' v vide dvuokisi, vsasyvaetsya iz zheludochno-kishechnogo trakta v neznachitel'noj stepeni, kogda on prisutstvuet v forme chastits s nositelem, no pri vvedenii v vide kolloida bez nositelya pogloshchenie ego pochti takoe zhe, kak posle vvedeniya khlorida (3 - 5%). Nitratoproizvodnye nitroehila ruteniya mogut vsasyvat'sya eshche v bol'shej stepeni (u krolikov v srednem vsasyvaetsya okolo 13%). Vsasyvanie u negolodavshikh krys zakanchivaetsya v techenie odnogo chasa i ogranicheno vnutrizheludochnoJ dozoj. Ogranichennyj period vsasyvaniya mozhet ob'yasnyatsya skorost

  14. Status of Research and Developmental Studies on Radiation Pasteurization of Fish and Shellfish in the United States; Etat des Etudes et des Realisations en Matiere de Radiopasteurisation des Poissons, Crustaces et Mollusques aux Etats-Unis; Sostoyanie nauchno-issledovatel'skikh rabot po radiatsionnoj pasterizatsii ryby i krabov v soedinennykh shtatakh; Estado de las Investigaciones y Estudios Experimentales Sobre la Radiopasteurizacion de Pescados y Mariscos en los Estados Unidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavin, J. W.; Ronsivalli, L. J.; Connors, T. J. [United States Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Technological Laboratory, Gloucester, MA (United States)

    1966-11-15

    kachestvo produkta i sroki hranenija; upakovka imeet sushhestvennoe znachenie. Sinergeticheskie sistemy s ispol'zovaniem baktericidnyh solej ili nagreva v svjazi s izlucheniem jeffektivno unichtozhajut bakterii i svidetel'stvujut o vozmozhnosti sokrashhenija radiacionnyh urovnej i uvelichenija srokov hranenija produktov po sravneniju so srokami, kogda primenjaetsja lish' izluchenie. Obluchenie na ochen' nizkih urovnjah znachitel'no izmenjaet mikrobnuju floru rybnogo file, no interesno, chto jeto izmenenie bol'she izmenenija, kotoroe imeet mesto pri hranenii produktov v anajerobnoj okruzhajushhej srede. Obsuzhdaja mikrobiologicheskie izmenenija v obluchennoj i neobluchennoj rybe, avtory otmechajut, chto obrabotannye rybnye file javljajutsja takimi zhe bezopasnymi i s{sup e}dobnymi, kak i neobrabotannaja ryba. V doklade podrobno obsuzhdajutsja raboty po aspektam bezopasnosti obluchennyh rybnyh file. Provedenie issledovatel'skih rabot aktivizirovalos' posle sooruzhenija i puska v jekspluataciju ustanovki po obrabotke ryby s pomoshh'ju kobal'ta-60 moshhnost'ju v 250 000 kjuri v Glostere, Massachusets. Ispytanija po upakovke i perevozke obluchennyh produktov v iskusstvennyh kommercheskih uslovijah pokazyvajut, chto s pasterizovannoj ryboj mozhno obra shhat'sja tak zhe, kak i so svezhej ryboj, prichem srok hranenija pasterizovannoj ryby v dva raza vyshe. V sotrudnichestve s chastnymi i gosudarstvennymi organizacijami obluchennye s{sup e}dobnye produkty morja perevozilis' po territorii Soedinennyh Shtatov v kommercheskih kontejnerah i provodilas' ocenka na kachestvo. Rezul'taty - ves'ma obnadezhivajushhie i svidetel'stvujut o tom', chto dannyj process budet imet' chrezvychajno cennoe znachenie dlja promyshlennosti. Obluchenie ryby v more govorit o perspektive ispol'zovanija jetogo metoda v kachestve sredstva uvelichenija sroka hranenija vylovlennoj svezhej ryby. Predvaritel'nye rezul' taty ukazyvajut kovodnoj ryby v more na urovne menee 100 000 rad i posledujushhee povtornoe

  15. Theoretical and Experimental Aspects of Quenching Variables from Biomedical Samples in Liquid Scintillator Systems; Aspects Theoriques et Experimentaux des Parametres d'Extinction Etudies sur des Echantillons Biomedicaux dans des Systemes a Scintillateur Liquide; Teoreticheskie i ehksperimental'nye aspekty peremennykh gasheniya iz biomeditsinskikh prob v zhidkikh stsintillyatsionnykh sistemakh; Estudio Teorico y Experimental de las Variables de Extincion en el Recuento de Sustancias Biological por Centelleo Liquido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, H. H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1965-10-15

    sostoit iz nebol'shoj ampuly, soderzhashhej negashenuju scintilljacionnuju zhidkost' s dobavkoj zhelatel'nogo radioizotopa. Fotony, izluchaemye jetim standartom, obladajut takoj zhe intensivnost'ju fluorescencii i imejut takoe zhe spektral'noe raspredelenie, kak fotony, poluchaemye v samoj probe. Posle izgotovlenija izolirovannyj vnutrennij standart pogruzhajut v chistyj zhidkij scintilljacionnyj rastvor i podvergajut schetu. Vtoroj schet proizvodjat so standartom, pogruzhennym v probu, kotoraja projavljaet obescvechivanie. Otnoshenie odnogo scheta k drugomu javljaetsja meroj gashenija okraski v probe i ne zavisit ot veshhestv, vyzyvajushhih gashenie fluorescencii. Blagodarja prostote i praktichnosti jetot metod goditsja dlja povsednevnyh issledovanij. Oba metoda vnesenija popravok ispol'zovali dlja opredelenija gasjashhego vozdejstvija v sistemah razlichnyh prob. Shiroko izuchali osobo izgotovlennye rastvory krasok i proby mochi, krovi i tkani pecheni. Rezul'taty ukazyvajut na velikolepnoe sovpadenie pokazanij oboih metodov. Gasjashhee vozdejstvie bol'shej chasti prob mochi, krovi i pecheni mozhno opredelit' s tochnost'ju do {+-}3%. (author)

  16. Economics of Food Irradiation; Aspects Economiques de l'Irradiation des Denrees Alimentaires; Ehkonomicheskie aspekty oblucheniya pishchevykh produktov; Aspectos Economicos de la Irradiacion de Aumentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killam, E. R.; Ketchum, H. W.; Deitch, J.; Osburn, Jr., J. W. [United States Department of Commerce, Business and Defense Services Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    1966-11-15

    ocenka provodjashhihsja v nastojashhee vremja rabot, imejushhih otnoshenie k perspektivam kommercheskogo obluchenija pishhevyh produktov v Soedinennyh Shtatah. V issledovanii priznaetsja, chto nel'zja obobshhat' dannye v otnoshenii perspektiv obluchenija pishhevyh produktov ni na osnove processov, ni na osnove produktov. Kak tehnicheskij tak i jekonomicheskij potencialy imejut shirokij diapazon izmenenij v otnoshenii razlichnyh pishhevyh produktov, kotorye podvergajutsja tem zhe ili razlichnym vidam obrabotki. Daetsja kratkij obzor i ocenka poslednih issledovanij v otnoshenii jekonomicheskih aspektov obluchenija produktov pitanija, a takzhe kratko izlagajutsja vyvody i zakljuchenija otnositel'no jekonomicheskih potencialov. Privoditsja obsuzhdenie reakcij predstavitelej promyshlennosti na predlagaemyj opytnyj obluchatel' mjasa, zakazchikami kotorogo javljajutsja amerikanskaja armija i Komissija po atomnoj jenergii SShA; koordinirovanie osushhestvljaet Ministerstvo torgovli; analizirujutsja faktory, kotorye opredeljat budushhee napravlenie, masshtab i kommercheskij uspeh sohranenija pishhevyh produktov s pomoshh'ju ionizirujushhego obluchenija. . Raboty vo vseh jetih kategorijah javljajutsja sushhestvennymi dlja dostizhenija uspeha, v protivnom sluchae oni javjatsja tormozjashhimi faktorami. Tem ne menee, uspeshnyj i vygodnyj sbyt obluchennyh pishhevyh produktov, v konechnom itoge, dolzhen byt' postavlen v zavisimost' ot akceptacii potrebitelem i vygodnogo vzaimootnoshenija mezhdu stoimost'ju i pribyl'ju . K vygodam sleduet otnesti bolee nizkuju stoimost' i bolee vysokuju pribyl' v rezul'tate sokrashhenija porchi, uvelichenija srokov hranenija i rasstojanija perevozok, rasshirenija rynka i uluchshenija kachestva. Nakonec, jekonomicheskij uspeh jetoj novoj tehnologii dolzhen zaviset' ot jasnogo dokazatel'stva togo, chto jeti vygody prevysjat dopolnitel'nye rashody po obrabotke na kakuju-to summu, kotoraja budet dostatochnoj dlja stimuljacii neobhodimyh chastnyh

  17. Diffusion Parameters of BeO by the Pulsed Neutron Method; Calcul des Parametres de Diffusion de BeO par la Methode des Neutrons Pulses; Opredelenie diffuzionnykh parametrov BeO s pomoshch'yu metoda impul'snykh nejtronov; Determinacion de los Parametros de Difusion en el BeO por el Metodo de los Neutrones Pulsados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, B. V.; Nargundkar, V. R.; Subbarao, K. [Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1965-08-15

    'nogo vremeni zapazdyvanija. Postojannaja raspada osnovnogo sostojanija plotnosti teplovyh nejtronov Oyla opredelena dlja neskol'kih lapla- sianov. Rassmatrivajutsja te uslovija, kotorye dolzhny byt' sobljudeny dlja tochnogo opre- delenija konstanty diffuzionnogo ohlazhdenija (S). Dlja VeO polucheny sledujushhie velichiny: {lambda}{sub 0} = postojannaja pogloshhenija = 156,02 {+-} 4,37 sek{sup -1}, D = kojefficient diffuzii = (1,3334 {+-} 0,0128) {+-} 10{sup 5} sm2/sek, S = postojannaja diffuzionnogo ohlazhdenija = (-4,8758 {+-} 0,5846) * 10{sup 5} sm{sup 4}/sek. Vyjavleny posledstvija prenebrezhenija V{sup 6} pri opredelenii diffuzionnyh parametrov, pokazano, chto jeti posledstvija javljajutsja znachitel'nymi i ob{sup j}asnjajut sushhestvovavshee v teche- nie dlitel'nogo vremeni rashozhdenie mezhdu znachenijami S, poluchennymi dlja odnogo i togo zhe zamedlitelja razlichnymi issledovateljami. (author)

  18. The Use of Tritium-Labelled Thymidine in Studies on the Synthesis of Deoxyribonucleic Acids; Emploi de la Thymidine Tritiee Dans L'etude de la Synthese de l'Acide Desoxyribonucleique; 0418 0441 043f 043e 0414 ; Empleo de Timidina Tritiada para Estudiar la Sintesis de los Acidos Desoxirtibonucleicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, P. A.; Crathorn, A. R.; Shooter, K. V. [Chester Beatty Research Institute, Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom)

    1962-02-15

    aktivnosti vseh promytyh gomogenizirovannyh kletok dal cifry, kotorye soglasujutsja s radioavtograficheskim analizom. Takim obrazom, pred- stavljaetsja, chto v jetoj sisteme ispol'zovanie radioavtografii dlja izmerenija sinteza DNK mozhno postavit' pod somnenie. Byl proveden analiz svjazi, aktiv- nosti v otsutstvii DNK, i bylo takzhe predprinjato podobnoe izuchenie obshhej kletochnoj aktivnosti tritija i aktivnosti otdelennoj DNK na drugih tipah kletok; jeti opyty takzhe dali podobnye razul'taty. Blagodarja jetim dannym stalo vozmozhnym razbit' process sinteza na razlichnye stadii: 1. pervonachal'noe pogloshhenie timidina kletkoj, 2. posledujushhee fosforiliro- vanie po krajnej mere v dva priema, 3. polimerizacija fosforilirovannogo timidina s prevrashheniem v DNK. Takim obrazom, hotja predpolozhenie o tom, chto pogloshhenie timidina kletkoj javljaetsja merilom sinteza DNK, javljaetsja slishkom uproshhennym, vse zhe predstavljaetsja, chto blagodarja ispol'zovaniju jetogo indikatora mozhno polu- chit' mnogo svedenij o predvaritel'nyh stadijah processa. (author)

  19. The Technique and Dosimetry of Pituitary Implantation Using Sources of Y{sup 90}; Technique et Dosimetrie de l'Implantation de Sources d'Yttrium-90 dans l'Hypophyse; ДОЗИМЕТРИЯ ИМПЛАНТИРОВАННЫХ В ГИПОФИЗ ИГЛ ИТТРИЯ-90; Dosimetria de la Implantacion de Fuentes de {sup 90}Y en la Hipofisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Mary H.; Jones, E.; Mallard, J. R. [Department of Physics, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Joplin, G. F. [Department of Medicine, Postgraduate Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    1963-03-15

    de implantacion consiste en elegir un tamano y una actividad de la fuente adaptados a las dimensiones de la glandula en cuestion. De esta manera, se procura que el procedimiento sea uniforme en todas las implantaciones. La forma de la glandula y el acceso a ella son tales que la mejor manera de lograr su destruccion completa es implantar dos fuentes, consistentes en varillas de Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} sintetizado (de 1 mm de diametro y de longitud adaptada a las dimensiones de la glandula). La actividad de la varilla se elige tambien convenientemente; en los casos caracteristicos esta comprendida entre 2 y 3 me. Los autores han encontrado experimentalmente la relacion entre la dosis de irradiacion por una parte y la geometria y la actividad por otra. Como absorbedor equivalente al tejido, utilizaron cera Mix D; como detector, una pelicula y como patron, una fuente calibrada de {sup 90}Sr ( que se desintegra formando {sup 90}Y). La memoria examina la validez de este procedimiento. Este trabajo permitio comprobar que la necrosis y la ablacion de la hipofisis requieren dosis que oscitan entre 100 000 y 200 000 rad. (author) [Russian] Udalenija gipofiza putem implantacii ittrievoj igly nahodit vse vozrastajushhee primenenie pri lechenii raka grudnoj i predstatel'noj zhelez,tak zhe kak pri lechenii diabeticheskoj retinopatii, bolezni Kushinga, akromegalii i, vozmozhno, jekzoftal'ma pri bazedovoj bolezni. IttriJ-90 javljaetsja naibolee podhodjashhim izotopom, kogda trebuetsja polnoe udalenie zhelezy, tak kejs on ispuskaet tol'ko beta-chasticy, maksimal'nyj radius dejstvija kotoryh (7 mm) soizmerim o razmerami zhelez. Implantacija v zhelezu sterzhnej standartnoj aktivnosti, nezavisimo ot ih velichiny, nedopustima iz-za standartnogo urovnja dozy, vvodimoj v zhelezy, togda kak cel'ju metoda implantacii javljaetsja vozmozhnost' vybora velichiny i aktivnosti istochnika sootvetstvenno razmeram rassmatrivaemoj zhelezy. Takim obrazom kachestvo metodiki mozhet sovershenstvovat'sja ot

  20. Determination of Radiotracer Stability of Tritium-Labelled Compounds in Biological Studies; Determination de la Stabilite des Composes Trities Employes comme Indicateurs en Biologie; 041e 043f 0440 0435 0434 0414 043b ; Determinacion de la Estabilidad de los Compuestos Tritiados en los Estudios Biologicos Mediante Indicadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, G. T.; Spratt, J. L. [Argonne Cancer Research Hospital and Department of Pharmacology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1962-02-15

    neobhodimost' proverki issledovateljami radioindikatornoj ustojchivosti (radiotracer stability) mechennyh tritiem soedinenij. Dazhe pri ochishhenii mechenyh soedinenij do postojannoj udel'noj aktivnosti ne iskljuchaetsja vozmozhnost' obmena vnutri biologicheskoj sistemy atomov tritija na vodorod. Pri uslovii predvaritel'noj tshhatel'noj radiohimicheskoj ochistki mechenogo materiala radioindikatornaja ustojchivost' mozhet byt' pokazana raznymi sposobami. V nastojashhem doklade opisyvajutsja tri raznyh metoda opredelenija radioindikatornoj ustojchivosti mechennyh tritiem soedinenij. Odin iz jetih metodov zakljuchaetsja v sopostavlenii biologicheskogo poluperioda zhizni mechennogo tritiem N{sup 3} soedinenija s poluperiodom zhizni analogichnogo soedi- nenija, mechennogo uglerodom S{sup 14}. Jetot metod osobenno udachno primenjaetsja v svjazi s gomogennymi veshhestvami, ispytyvajushhimi pri pogloshhenii ih zhivotnymi izo- topnoe razbavlenie. Ustojchivost' jekzogennyh soedinenij mozhet byt' pro- verena vtorym metodom. V takom sluchae neobhodimo lish' dokazat', chto pri povtornom izvlechenii iz biologicheskih obrazcov mechenogo materiala ne nabljudaetsja umen'shenija v nih udel'noj aktivnosti. Tretij metod, otnimajushhij men'she vremeni, chem pervyj, primenimyj kak k gomogennym, tak i k jekzogennym materialam, zakljuchaetsja v opredelenii izotopnogo sootnoshenija mezhdu N{sup 3} i S{sup 14} v smesi odnogo i togo zhe soedinenija, mechennogo oboimi jetimi izotopami. Sohranenie neizmennogo izotopnogo sootnoshenija do vvedenija dvazhdy mechennogo materala i posle povtornogo ego izvlechenija iz organov ili vydelenij dokazy- vaet radioindikatornuju ustojchivost'. Jetot metod osobenno podhodit dlja takogo sluchaja, kogda otdelenie malyh kolichestv materiala vyzyvaet neobhodimost' ispol'zovanija neradioaktivnogo nositelja. V kachestve primerov ispol'zovanija kazhdogo iz jetih treh metodov privodjatsja dannye po opredeleniju radio- indikatornoj ustojchivosti mechenyh holesteroda, morfija i

  1. Memorizing circuit for long pulses; Circuit de memoire pour impulsions longues; Zapominayushchee ustrojstvo dlya dlitel'nykh impul'sov; Circuito memorizador para impulsos de larga duracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coli, M; Horn, G [Sorin Centro Ricerche Nucleari di Saluggia (Italy)

    1962-04-15

    rasstoyaniya t (kontrol'noj kontur zaderzhki) nasyshchennym usilitelem, kotoryj udvaivaet vkhodnoj signal i daet cherez differentsiruyushchij kontur (izmeritel'nyj kontur zaderzhki) dva impul'sa. Vykhodnoj impul's podaetsya snova na vkhod cherez oslabitel' i liniyu zaderzhki. EHtot tsikl povtoryaetsya s chastotoj povtoreniya {approx} 1/{tau}. Zapominaemyj impul's imeet shirinu ot 50 mikrosekund do 10 millisekund, i bol'she. CHastota povtoreniya mozhet izmenyat'sya v intervale ot 10{sup 4} gts do 30 gts i menee. V samom doklade opisyvaetsya i drugoj kontur s ispol'zovaniem togo zhe samogo printsipa. Pomimo amplitudy i shiriny ehtot poslednij kontur mozhet zapominat' i formu vkhodnogo impul'sa. (author)

  2. Gamma Monitoring of Land Surfaces; Controle Gamma des Surfaces Terrestres; 0413 0410 041c 041c 0410 - 0414 ; Control de la Actividad Gamma en la Superficie del Terreno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ophel, I. L.; Jones, A. R. [Environmental Research and Radiation Dosimetry Branch, Division of Biology and Health Physics, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1960-07-01

    ha acoplado un dispositivo para transportar una fuente patron de radio. El aparato es insensible a los rayos cosmicos y cuando el vehiculo se desplaza a 16 km/h las lecturas efectuadas representan el 80 por ciento de las obtenidas cuando el contador permanece inmovil. La medicion de la radiactividad en las carreteras que atraviesan la zona del reactor, acompanada de lecturas complementarias en puntos fijos de control distantes 100 metros de la carretera y 3.2 km entre si, ha demostrado que la radiacion ambiente en las carreteras es muy uniforme, alcanzando un promedio de 6 {mu}r/h. Los valores hallados en los puntos de control varian de 4,5 a 7,0 {mu}r/h. (author) [Russian] Bystroe provedenie dozimetricheskogo kontrolja zemnoj poverhnosti polezno dlja opredelenija razmerov ploshhadi, popavshej pod vozdejstvie radioaktivnogo zagrjaznenija vozduha ili dlja obnaruzhenija dlitel'nogo zarazhenija okruzhajushhej sredy. Dlja podgotovitel'nogo issledovanija mesta, kotoroe okruzhaet ploshhadku jenergeticheskogo rajona NPD okolo Chok-River, ispol'zovalsja massivnyj kontrol'nyj pribor, sposobnyj proizvodit' nepreryvnuju registraciju pri ustanovke ego na avtomobile. On sostoit iz antracenovogo kristallicheskogo schetchika gamma-luchej so shemoj fotoumnozhitelja usilenija impul'sov skorosti scheta - usilitel' postojannogo toka - 1 tA serija impul'sov samopisca.' Jeto oborudovanie vesit 28 kilogrammov i ustanavlivaetsja pri pomoshhi dvuh boltov na bufer villisa. Ego mozhno snjat' i ustanovit' na trenozhnike na takuju zhe vysotu nad zemlej. Vnutri avtomobilja ustanavlivaetsja rtutnaja batareja. Shemy rabotajut na poluprovodnikah. Dlja standartnogo istochnika radiokalibrovki ustanavlivajutsja zazhimnye prisposoblenija. Pribor ne chuvstvitelen k kosmicheskomu izlucheniju i pri skorosti dvizhenija mashiny 16 km/chas otschety dostigajut 80% teh, kotorye poluchajutsja pri nepodvizhnoj ustanovke schetchika. Obsledovanie dorogi na territorii NPD pri schete, snjatom takzhe na ustanovlennyh

  3. Research Applications of Beta-Particle Techniques: Back-Scattering and X-Ray Excitation; Applications de l'irradiation beta dans la recherche: retrodiffusion et excitation de rayons X; Primenenie metodov beta-chastits v issledovatel'skoj rabote: obratnoe rasseyanie i vozbuzhdenie rentgenovskikh luchej; Aplicacion de la irradiacion beta en la investigacion: retrodispersion y excitacion de rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, R H [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, University of California, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1962-01-15

    vyvedeny tochnye uravneniya dlya vsekh ehtikh yavlenij; nekotorye iz nikh ehmpiricheskim putem, a nekotorye sushchestvenno na teoreticheskoj osnove. Interesno otmetit', chto ehti uravneniya pravil'no predusmatrivayut optimal'nye parametry istochnika, soglasno opredeleniyam drugikh issledovatelej, kak v SSHA, tak i zagranitsej. Nuzhno dumat', chto ehti metody ukreplyayut mnenie, chto radioaktivnym izotopam suzhdena gromadnaya nauchnaya i tekhnicheskaya budushchnost'. CHto zhe kasaetsya istochnikov rentgenovskikh luchej, nuzhno skazat', chto vse v tekhnologii rentgenovskikh luchej, za isklyucheniem vyyavleniya kristallicheskoj struktury, mozhet byt' bolee legko dostignuto ehtimi sposobami. Pri nalichii istochnikov moshchnost'yu v neskol'ko kyuri, veroyatno, mozhno budet razreshit' dazhe i ehtu poslednyuyu zadachu. (author)

  4. Reactions of Hot Tritium Atoms with Amino Acids; Reactions entre Atomes Chauds de Tritium et Acides Amines; Reaktsii goryachikh atomov tritiya s aminokislotami; Reacciones de Atomos de Tritio Calientes con Aminoacidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonov, E. F.; Nesmejanov, An. N. [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Universitet, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1965-04-15

    investigaron los rendimientos de las reacciones de los atomos calientes de tritio: a) con aminoacidos, de longitud de cadena creciente; b) con aminoacidos de longitud de cadena constante, pero que contenian distintos grupos funcionales. Con esta finalidad irradiaron durante 15 min, con un flujo de 0,87 * 10{sup 13} neutrones lentos/cm{sup 2} * s, mezclas de carbonato de litio con los aminoacidos que se querian estudiar. Efectuaron los analisis cromato- graficos en fase gaseosa con ayuda de columnas intercambiables (tamices moleculares, parafina liquida en diatomeas) asi como por cromatografia sobre papel. Los datos obtenidos acerca de la resistencia a la radiolisis de los aminoacidos en funcion de la longitud de la cadena carbonada, aunque esten en contradiccion con una de las reglas fundamentales de la radioquimica, a saber, que la resistencia de las moleculas aumenta con el aumento de la longitud de su cadena, pueden explicarse por la transferencia intramolecular de energia a lo largo de la cadena carbonada, desde el lugar de impacto del atomo caliente al grupo oxidrilo y su subsiguiente ''desexcitacion''. En cambio, si bien la energia de los atomos de retroceso del tritio es mayor que la energia de enlace quimico, esta ultima influye en la resistencia a la radiolisis de las moleculas cuya longitud de cadena es la misma, pero que contienen distintos grupos funcionales. (author) [Russian] V literature v nastojashhee vremja otsutstvujut sistematicheskie dannye o vzaimodejstvii atomov otdachi tritija s aminokislotami. V to zhe vremja, takie dannye v sochetanii s imejushhimisja rezul'tatami dlja organicheskih kislot i aminov mogli by pomoch' ustanovit' mehanizm gorjachih reakcij, v zavisimosti ot struktury soedinenij (dlina cepi, funkcional'nye zamestiteli). Byli issledovany vyhody reakcii gorjachih atomov tritija: 1) s aminokislotami pri uvelichenii dliny cepi poslednih, 2) s aminokislotami odnoj dliny uglerodnoj cepi, no raznymi funkcional'nymi zamestiteljami. Dlja jetoj celi

  5. Industrial Ultrasonic Inspection of Stainless-Steel Claddings for the EL4 Reactor; Controle Industriel par Ultrasons des Gaines en Acier Inoxydable du Reacteur EL4; Promyshlennyj kontrol' obolochechnykh trub iz nerzhaveyushchej stali reaktora dlya EL4 s pomoshch'yu ul'trazvukovogo metoda; Metodos Ultrasonicos para Control Industrial de las Vainas de Acero Inoxidable del Reactor EL4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prot, A. C.; Foulquoer, H. E.; Peyrot, J. P. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1965-09-15

    'nosti reaktorov. Podtverzhdaetsja, chto vybor metoda, kotoryj sleduet primenjat' i razrabatyvat', javljaetsja trudnym. Privodjatsja osnovnye momenty. Posle togo, kak v rezul'tate laboratornyh rabot sdelan vybor, voznikajut dve novye problemy: D) vnedrenie v promyshlennost' neobhodimost' ucheta dopustimogo kachestva v opredelennyj moment metodami izgotovlenija v svjazi s ustanovlennymi bolee ili menee proizvol'nym obrazom normami dlja priema. Jeto, v dejstvitel'nosti, obuslavlivaetsja neobhodimost'ju v statisticheskom issledovanii komplektov trub razlichnogo izgotovlenija i ih klassifikacii po otnosheniju k bolee ili menee strogim normam. Vidno, chto kolichestvo podlezhashhih kontrolju trub znachitel'no prevyshaet pervonachal'no namechennoe. Jeto vedet k izucheniju avtomaticheskogo kontrol'nogo mehanizma, sposobnogo udovletvorit' odnovremenno i trebovanijam tempa, i trebovanijam, vytekajushhim iz vybrannogo tipa kontrolja: poslednie obychno svodjatsja k mehanicheskomu kontrolju i nuzhdajutsja v osobenno tshhatel'no razrabotannoj konstrukcii. Sovokupnost' jetih soobrazhenij privela k razrabotke ustrojstva, temp raboty kotorogo uzhe sejchas mozhet bez truda pokryt' potrebnosti vsego cikla proizvodstva toplivnyh jelementov. Vozmozhnosti jetogo ustrojstva tesno svjazany s harakteristikami podobrannogo oborudovanija navedenija i kontrolja, v osobennosti so svojstvami jelektroniki priborov kontrolja po ul'trazvuku i so svojstvami ispol'zuemyh preobrazovatelej. K tomu zhe iz jetogo issledovanija javstvuet, chto standartnoe oborudovanie daleko ne sootvetstvuet probleme i chto uzhe sejchas sleduet predusmotret' osoboe ustrojstvo dlja dannogo tipa kontrolja. (author)

  6. An Assessment of those Metabolites Considered to be of Value in the Diagnosis of Exposure to Radiation; Evaluation des Metabolites Consideres Comme Utiles dans le Diagnostic des Expositions aux Rayonnements; 041e 0426 0414 ; Evaluacion de los Metabolitos Considerados Utiles para Diagnosticar la Exposicion a las Radiaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.; Bates, T. H. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Chapelcross, Annan, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1965-06-15

    -oblucheniju v terapevticheskih celjah. Jeti pacienty poluchili dozy do 5000 r za period ot treh do pjati nedel'. Vydelenie s mochej kreatina, kreatinina, obshhego {alpha}-amidnogo azota, {beta} aminoizom asljanoj kisloty, pirolle-2- karbonovoj kisloty, 5-oksiindoleaciticheskoj kisloty i indoksil-sul'fata soprovozhdalis' kolichestvenno v techenie vsego hoda lechenija. Nikto iz pacientov ne podvergalsja oblucheniju vsego organizma, no ochevidno, chto izmenenija v metabolicheskoj funkcii v rezul'tate povrezhdenija, vyzvannogo izlucheniem, mozhet skazat'sja na mochevom vydelenii. Obsuzhdaetsja biohimicheskaja ocenka i interpretacija jetih obrazcov vydelenija v otnoshenii toj chasti obluchennogo organizma, no na jetoj stadii issledovanija delaetsja vyvod, chto kolichestvennaja ocenka biologicheskogo povrezhdenija ne vozmozhna. Odnako takie opyty mogut byt' poleznymi v kachestve rukovodstva dlja klinicista otnositel'no jetogo vida terapii. Predvaritel'nye opyty na osnove izmenenij v nekotoryh metabolitah plazmy u krys, obluchennyh edinymi subletal'nymi dozami rentgenovskogo obluchenija, dostojny jekstrapoljacii dlja izuchenija chelovecheskogo organizma. Izmerjalis' koncentracii plazmy 5-oksitrip- taminovoj mochevoj kisloty, SGOT, SGPT, frakcii globulina proteina, fosfokinaza kreatina, aminopeptidaza lejcina, aminopeptidaza lizila, kalikreina, kallidina, cinka i marganca. Nabljudalis vse zhe znachitel'nye kolichestvennye izmenenija v urovnjah plazmy mochevoj kisloty, aminopeptidaza lejcina, aminopeptidaza lizila i marganca posle obluchenija. O b suzhdaetsja znachenie jetih dannyh. Vnimanie koncentriruetsja na prostyh i bystryh metodah. (author)

  7. Effects of Radiation on Germ Cells of Insects: Dominant Lethals, Gamete Inactivation and Gonial-Cell Killing; Effets des rayonnements sur les cellules germinales des insectes: letalite dominante, inactivation des gametes et destruction des cellules des gonades; Vozdejstvie radiatsii na polovye kletki nasekomykh: dominantnye letali, inaktivatsiya gamet i umershchvlenie polovykh kletok; Efectos de las radiaciones sobre las celulas germinales de los insectos: elementos letales dominantes, inactivacion de los gametos y exterminacion de las celulas gonadicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Borstel, R. C. [Biology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1963-09-15

    (otryad nastoyashchikh poluzhestkokrylykh Coccldae)) predstavlyayut soboyu osobye sluchai, i ikh reaktsiya na obluchenie znachitel'no otlichaetsya ot reaktsii nasekomykh drugikh vidov. Pri istreblenii populyatsij nasekomykh oblucheniem samtsov dominantnaya detal'nost' predstavlyaetsya stol' zhe perspektivnoj dlya vidov s odnokratnym sparivaniem, kak i dlya vidov s mnogokratnym sparivaniem. Inaktivatsiyu spermy i umershchvlenie polovykh kletok mozhno schitat' primerami polucheniya istinnoj steril'nosti, naibolee ehffektnoj dlya vidov, gde sparivanie proiskhodit odnokratn'. Dlya naibolee ehffektivnogo istrebleniya dolzhny vybirat'sya takie dozy, kotorye vedut k polucheniyu maksimal'noj dominantnoj letal'nosti, proizvodyat minimal'nuyu inaktivatsiyu spermy i vyzyvayut polnoe umershchvlenie polovykh kletok. Ehti parametry legko poddayutsya opredeleniyu posredstvom izmereniya zhiznesposobnosti gamet, ehksperimentami s konkurentsiej mezhdu obluchennymi i neobluchennymi populyatsiyami, a takzhe gistologicheskim issledovaniem gonad. (author)

  8. Liver Scanning with Colloidal Radiogold; Exploration du foie a l'aide de l'or radioactif colloidal; Issledovanie pecheni pri pomoshchi radioaktivnogo kolloidal'nogo zolota; Exploracion del higado con oro coloidal radiactivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donato, L; Becchini, M F; Panichi, S [Centro di Medicina Nucleate, University of Pisa (Italy)

    1959-07-01

    esquemas anatomico y funcional. (author) [Russian] Avtory soobshchayut o svoem opyte v ispol'zovanii kolloidal'nog o zolota Ah{sup 198} dlya issledovaniya pecheni. Dlya polucheniya chetkogo razgranicheniya pecheni ot sosednikh organov i okru-zhayushchikh tkanej obychno trebuetsya doza mechenykh ehlementov, sootvetstvuyushcha ya 2,5 {mu}C/Kg. Vsya protsedura issledovaniya, kotoraya nachinaetsya cherez 30 minut posle vnutrivennogo vspryskivaniya, zanimaet okolo 90 minut pri ispol'zovanii polnost'yu avtomaticheskoj apparatury. Verkhnie i bokovye kontury pecheni obychno luchshe razlichayutsya chem nizhnie. Ispol'zovanie fokusiruyushchi kh kollimatorov (poristogo tipa) znachitel'no uluchshaet poluchaemye rezul'taty. V obychnykh usloviyakh pechen' yavlyaetsya edinstvennym organom, kotoryj chetko viden na ehkrane. V nekotorykh sluchayakh pri splenomegalii i tsirroza pecheni mozhno krome togo videt' i selezenku, veroyatno v svyazi s sokrashcheniem retikulo-ehndotelialyyuj sistemy pecheni. Sudya po priobretennomu avtorami opytu, dannyj metod ves'ma maloehffektive n dlya opredeleniya nebol'shikh metastazov pecheni, kotorye ne izmenyayut ob{sup e}ma i Formy poslednej. Dazhe v sluchayakh podtverzhdennog o operatsiej nalichiya mnozhestva razbrosannykh melkikh uzelkov metastaticheskog o kharaktera issledovaniya ehtim metodom dali neyasnye rezul'taty. Ispol'zovanie radioaktivnog o zolota-198 mozhet v sluchayakh rasseyannogo ili zonal'nogo rasshireniya - nezavisimo ot prichiny - sposobstvovat' vyyasnesho, vyzvany li ehti izmeneniya rasshireniem normal'no funktsioniruyushche j tkani ili zhe nalichem v tkani pecheni patologicheski kh obrazovanij. Ochen' udalnym okazalos' sochetanie radioizotopnog o issledovaniya pecheni s issledovaniem ee konturov rentgenovskimi luchami posle provedeniya pnevmoperitoneuma, tak kak ono pozvolyaet provesti sravnenie mezhdu anatomicheskim i funktsional'ny m sostoyaniem dannogo organa. Kontury, poluchaemye na stsintigrammakh i na rentgenovskikh snimkakh

  9. The Combined Use of Autoradiographic and Electron Microscopic Techniques for Studies on Ultra-Thin Sections of Tritium-Labelled Cells of the Intestinal Epithelium; Emploi Combine de l'Autoradiographie et du Microscope Electronique pour L'Etude de Coupes Ultra-Fines de Cellules Tritiees de l'Epithelium Intestinal; 0421 043e 0432 043c 0435 0414 ; Empleo Combinado de Tecnicas de Autorradiografia y de MicroscopiA Electronica para Estudiar Cortes Ultrafinos de Celulas Tritiadas del Epitelio Intestinal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampton, J. C. [Division of Experimental Biology, Baylor University College of Medicine, TX (United States); Quastler, H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, NY (United States)

    1962-02-15

    tolstoj dlja poluchenija radioavtografii, no vse zhe dostatochno tonkoj dlja povtornogo izuchenija obrazca pod jelektronnym mikroskopom i dlja poluchenija novogo jelektronnogo mikrograficheskogo izo- brazhenija uzhe zasnjatogo ran'she radioavtografa kletok. Radioavtograficheskaja jemul'sija nakladyvalas' sledujushhim obrazom: pri pogruzhenii nebol'shoj provolochnoj petel'ki v zhidkuju jemul'siju na petle obrazovalas' tonkaja plenka, kotoraja perenosilas' jetoj petlej na prigotovlennyj obrazec, zakrepljavshijsja na okonechnosti nebol'shogo kolyshka iz plastmassy. Nadlezhashhij kontrol' mozhet proizvodit'sja putem snjatija sreza v polmikrona s kazhdogo sve- rhtonkogo sreza i nalozhenija ego na stekljannuju plastinku dlja semki obych- nym radioavtograficheskim metodom. Vvidu bol'shoj hrupkosti sverhtonkih srezov udaetsja poluchit' lish' nebol'shoe chislo udachnyh radioavtografov. Nesmotrja na jetot nedostatok, sleduet ozhidat', chto po mere uluchshenija tehniki i metoda jetot sposob oblegchit ponimanie vazhnyh zhiznennyh kletochnyh processov. (author)

  10. Liquid Scintillation Detection of Tritium and other Radioisotopes in Insoluble or Quenching Organic Samples; Detection par compteur a scintillations a liquides du tritium et des autres radioelements contenus dans des echantillons organiques insolubles ou coupeurs; Obnaruzhenie tritiya metodom zhidkostnoj stsintillyatsii v nerastvorimykh ili sposo'nykh gasit' izluchenie organicheskikh o'raztsakh; Deteccion del tritio u otros radioisotopos por centelleo liquido en muestras organicas insolubles o que provocan extincion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastham, J F; Westbrook, H L; Gonzales, D [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1962-01-15

    stsintillyatsionnoe gashenie mnogimi organicheskimi obraztsami i ogranichennaya rastvorimost ' drugikh, prisushchi takzhe biologicheskim veshchestvam. Razrabotannye protsedury vklyuchayut v sebya okislenie obernutogo v fil'troval'nuyu bumagu obraztsa v kolbe, napolnennoj kislorodom, obrazovanie rastvora okislennykh produktov v sootvetstvuyushchem rastvoritele, dobavlennom v kolbu pered okisleniem, i stsintillyatsionnyj schet rastvora. Preimushchestva razrabotannykh protsedur dlya preodoleniya ukazannykh ogranichenij vklyuchayut: kachestvo operatsii s obraztsami bol'shogo diapazona aktivnosti (nekotorye s takoj nizkoj aktivnost'yu kak 1{mu}c//mo1e), bol'shuyu tochnost' (takuyu zhe kak pri lyubom drugom obshchem metode izmereniya radioaktivnosti H{sup 3}), i primenimost' k drugim myagkim beta-izluchatelyam (C{sup 14} i k{sup 35}). S pomoshch'yu stsintillyatsionnogo spektrometra i razrabotannykh protsedur mozhet byt' razdel'no izmerena radioaktivnost ' obraztsov mechennykh trizhdy H{sup 3}, C{sup 14} i k{sup 35}. Detali, kasayushchiesya sistem rastvoritelya i razrabotannykh metodov, budut izlozheny v doklade, krome togo v nem budet dana rabochaya kharakteristika novogo, otnositel'no nedorogogo odnokanal'nogo stsintillyatsionnogo spektrometra. Budut izlozheny analiticheskie rezul'taty, kasayushchiesya takogo gasyashchego izluchenie materiala, kak 2,4-dinitro-fenilgidrozony i tiazolidy, a takzhe takikh nerastvorimykh materialov, kak proteiny i ugolevdy. Budet obsuzhdeno primenenie metodov k otsenke izotopnogo ehffekta H{sup 1}/H{sup 3} v opredelennykh reaktsiyakh vosstanovleniya. (author)

  11. The Use of Technetium-99m as a Clinical Scanning Agent for Thyroid, Liver and Brain; Utilisation du {sup 99m}Tc comme Agent d'Exploration Clinique de la Thyroide, du Foie et du Cerveau; Ispol'zovanie Tc{sup 99m} kak klinicheskogo agenta pri skennirovanii shchitovidnoj zhelezy, pecheni i mozga; Empleo del {sup 99m}Tc como Agente para la Exploracion Clinica de la Tiroides, el Higado y el Cerebro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, P. V.; Lathrop, K. A.; McCardle, R. J.; Andros, G. [Argonne Cancer Research Hospital and Department of Surgery, University of Chicago Hospitals and Clinics, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1964-10-15

    selectivamente por la tiroides, el estomago y las glandulas salivales. Los datos facilitados por la excrecion indican que su periodo biologico es de unos 2 d. Con una dosis de irradiacion calculada en 100 mrad para la glandula y en 5 mrad para el cuerpo entero, se pueden efectuar exploraciones tiroideas de muy buena calidad entre meedia hora y una hora despues de administrar 1 me de esta sustancia lo que representa una gran ventaja sobre el {sup 131}I. El TcO{sub 4} no atraviesa libremente la barrera hematoencefalica, lo que ha permitido obtener excelentes imagenes del cerebro con un tiempo de exploracion de 2 a 5 min aprovechando el elevado fndice de recuento correspondiente a dosis de 5 a 10 me de {sup 99m}Tc. Como el tiocianap pentavalente se disuelve en una emulsion de grasa, gran parte del {sup 99m}Tc se localiza en el higado; en este caso el elevado fndice de recuento permite tambien proceder a una rapida exploracion de esta glandula con un'mayor poder de resolucion. Es muy probable que este tipo de mejores resultados aun utilizando sondas mas eficaces y adaptando los parametros biologicos y quimicos a condiciones optimas. (author) [Russian] Pri poiskah ''ideal'nogo'' izotopa dlja skennirovanija tehnecij-99m, povidimomu, imeet mnogo preimushhestv. Jeto veshhestvo javljaetsja chistym gamma-izluchatelem s jenergiej 140 kjev (9% konveosija) otsutstvii izluchenija chastic, imeet shestichasovoj fizicheskij period poluraspada, umerennuju stoimost', javljaetsja dostupnym dochernim produktom molibdena-99 s periodom poluraspada 2,7 dnja, ot kotorogo on legko otdeljaetsja na kolonke s okis'ju aljuminija. V obychnoj forme (Tc{sup 99m}O{sub 4}{sup -}) on raspredeljaetsja v organizme tak zhe kak CIO{sub 4}{sup -} i J, bystro rasprostranjajas' vo vnekletochnom prostranstve, izbiratel'no zahvatyvaetsja shhitovidnoj zhelezoj, zheludkom i sljunnymi zhelezami. 5 sootvetstvii s dannymi vydelenija period poluvyvedenija sostavljaet priblizitel'no dva dnja. Chetkie skennogrammy shhitovidnoj

  12. The use of radioactive tracers in lubrication and wear research; Emploi des indicateurs radioactifs dans les recherches sur la lubrification et l'usure; Ispol'zovanie mechenykh atomov pri issledovanii voprosov smazki i iznosa; Utilizacion de los indicadores radiactivos en los estudios sobre la lubricacion y el desgaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, R B; Grunberg, L; Milne, A A; Wright, K H.R. [Lubrication, Wear and Mechanical Engineering Aspects of Corrosion Division, National Engineering Laboratory, Thorntonhall, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1962-01-15

    chastitsy okisi zheleza ispol'zuyutsya dlya izucheniya ikh roli v protsesse iznosa. Reaktivnost' poverkh- nosti zakalennykh metallov izuchalas' s pomoshch'yu mechennoj uglerodom-14 stearinovoj kisloty i rastvora sery-35. Skorost' reaktsii v primesi masla dlya shesteren analizirovalas' putem propuskaniya korotkikh impul'sov ehlektrotoka po metallicheskim provodam, opushchennym v rastvory soedinenij, mechennykh seroj-35 i fosforom-32. Sozdanie stojkikh k istiraniyu plenok na poverkhnosti zub'ev shesterenok izuchalos' kak funktsiya nagruzki, skorosti i vremeni raboty. Vopros, vstrechayushchijsya vo mnogikh iz vidov ehtogo primeneniya, sostoit v prevrashchenii izmeryaemoj aktivnosti v absolyutnye kolichestva materialov, prisutstvuyushchikh na poverkhnosti plenok ili v produktakh iznosa. Dlya ehtoj zhe tseli ispol'zovalis' metody kalibrovaniya. (author)

  13. Fixation of Radionuclides in Titanium Dioxide and Titanates via co-Precipitation; Fixation de Radioelements dans le Bioxyde de Titane et dans les Titanates par Coprecipitation; 0424 0418 041a 0421 0410 0426 0418 042f 0420 0410 0414 0418 041e 0418 0417 041e 0422 041e 041f 041e 0412 0412 0414 0412 0423 041e 041a 0418 0421 0418 0422 0418 0422 0410 041d 0410 0418 1 0418 0422 0410 041d 0410 0422 0410 0425 041c 0415 0422 041e 0414 041e 041c 0421 041e 041e 0421 0410 0416 0414 0415 041d 0418 042f ; Fijacion de Radionuclidos en Dioxido de Titanio y Titanatos por Coprecipitacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, H. W. [Hahn-Meitner Institut fuer Kernforschung, Berlin-Wannsee, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1963-02-15

    vvedenija aktivnosti v jetot predvaritel'nyj produkt. Nedostatkami soosazhdenija javljajutsja trudnost' otdelenija vysokoaktivnogo shlamma ot rastvora i nizkaja stepen' udalenija cezija, a preimushhestvami - prigodnost' dlja predvaritel'nyh processov, menee ogranichennaja ob{sup e}mnaja emkost' po sravneniju s sorbcionnoj sposobnost'ju glinistyh mineralov i otsutstvie stadii vyparivanija. Pojetomu predstavljaetsja zhelatel'nym podrobnee rassmotret' himiju sootvetstvujushhih sistem soosazhdenija. Pervoj byla vybrana sistema TiO{sub 2} blagodarja horoshim fiksirujushhim kachestvam TiO{sub 2} i titanatov. Soosaditel'nye svojstva TiO{sub 2} * H{sub 2}O izuchalis' v razlichnyh jeksperimental'nyh uslovijah. Dlja nekotoryh radioizotopov kojefficient raspredelenija okazalsja takim zhe ili luchshim, chem v sluchae drugih gidratov okisi. Vysokaja koncentracija radioizotopa ili analogichnyh emu ionov vyzyvaet umen'shenie kojefficienta raspredelenija. Jetogo mozhno izbezhat' odnovremennym osazhdeniem karbonatov ili oksalatov, v rezul'tate kotorogo udaljaetsja osnovnoe kolichestvo ionov. Izuchalos' takzhe vlijanie aljuminija, prisutstvujushhego v bol'shih kolichestvah. Nachato issledovanie obrazovanija oktajedrita i rutila iz chistogo osadka TiO{sub 2} * H{sub 2}O i titanatov iz osadkov TiO{sub 2} * H{sub 2}O+ karbonat ili oksalat v processe vysokotemperaturnoj obrabotki. (author)

  14. Quantitative Studies of the Reactions of Hot Tritium Atoms with Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures; Etudes Quantitatives des Reactions des Atomes Chauds de Tritium avec les Hydrocarbures et les Melanges d'Hydrocarbures; Kolichestvennoe issledovanie reaktsij goryachikh atomov tritiya s gidrouglerodami i smesyami gidrouglerodov; Estudio Cuantitativo de las Reacciones de Atomos de Tritio Calientes con Hidrocarburos y Mezclas de Hidrocarburos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urch, D. S.; Welch, M. J. [Department Of Chemistry, Queen Mary College. University of London, London (United Kingdom)

    1965-04-15

    zamedlitelem i bez nego; jetan i tetrametilmetan s gelievym zamedlitelem i bez nego. Vychisljajutsja velichiny a i I dlja treh reagirujushhih veshhestv iz jetih treh tipov sistemy i obsuzhdaetsja soglasie mezhdu rezul'tatami s tochki zrenija tochnosti modeli. Rezul'taty, poluchennye iz razlichnyh sistem, soglasujutsja v ramkah predelov jeksperimental'noj oshibki, i jeto pokazyvaet, chto model' kineticheskoj teorii mozhet primenjat'sja k sistemam gorjachih atomov s nekotoroj opredelennost'ju i chto sdelannye predpolozhenija pri rassmotrenii smesej javljajutsja razumnymi. Kojefficienty reaktivnosti gidrouglerodov v smesjah v otnoshenii reakcij zameshhenija ne javljajutsja temi zhe samymi, kak sootnoshenija chisla atomov vodoroda v gidrouglerodah. Poluchennye velichiny dlja jetih kojefficientov ob{sup j}asnjajutsja velichinami I i S (poperechnoe sechenie stolknovenija) dlja gidrouglerodov. (author)

  15. Graft Polymerization of Styrene to Polyethylene; Polymerisation par greffage du styrene sur des pellicules de polyethylene; Privitaya polimerizatsiya stirola k poliehtilen; Polimerizacion por injerto de estireno en polietileno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, J.; Srinivasan, S. I.; Phalangas, C. J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1963-11-15

    takzhe skorost' prevrashcheniya stirola v gomopolimer v suspenziyakh legkoj melkokristalliches koj kal'tsinirovannoj sody. Dlya opredeleniya kolichestva okklyudirovannogo gomopolimera provedeno issledovanie pod mikroskopom privitoj plenki. Rezul'taty pokazyvayut, chto bol'shaya chast' prirosta vesa v obraztsakh plenki usloalena okklyudirovannym gomopolimerom. V ehksperimentakh s legkoj melkokristallicheskoj kal'tsinirovannoj sodoj, pri kotorykh prirost vesa v znachitel'noj stepeni ob{sup y}asnyaetsya privitym sopolimerom, uvelichenie vesa nakhoditsya v primernoj linejnoj zavisimosti ot dozy, a skorost' reaktsii pochti proportsional'na kornyu kvadratnomu iz moshchnosti gamma-oblucheniya. Nizkaya ehnergiya aktivatsii dlya. skorosti reaktsii isklyuchaet vozmozhnost' kontrolya diffuzii v legkoj melkokristallicheskoj kal'tsinirovannoj sode i v tonkikh plenkakh pri moshchnostyakh oblucheniya nizhe 10{sup 5} r/hr. Pri ehksperimentakh v legkoj melkokristallicheskoj kal'tsinirovannoj sode pri temperature 18{sup o}C i moshchnosti dozy 7,2 x 10{sup 4} r/hr skorost' obrazovaniya gomopolimera takaya zhe, kak i v sluchae obrazovaniya polimera v chistoj stirole. Ehnergiya aktivatsii, ravnaya 3,5 kkal/moya{sup ,} pochti vdvoe men'she velichiny''dlya chistogo monomera. (author)

  16. Manufacture of Wood-Plastic Combinations by Use of Gamma Radiation; Fabrication de combinaisons bois-matiere plastique a l'aide des rayons gamma; Proizvodstvo drevesno-plastmassovykh sostavov s pomoshch'yu gamma-izlucheniya; Impregnacion de maderas con materiales plasticos en presencia de radiaciones gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, J. A.; Winston, A.; Boyle, W.; Updyke, L. [Engineering Experiment Station, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States)

    1963-11-15

    maderas de pino albar, encina blanca, encina roja, alamo, abedul, haya, abeto y arce sacarino. Se indica el efecto de la intensidad de dosis sobre las velocidades de polimerizacion en esas combinaciones, algunas de las cuales son incompatibles. Por ejemplo, la secoya no permite la polimerizacion del acetato de vinilo o del metacrilato de metilo, en tanto que el pino albar imposibilita la polimerizacion del acetato de vinilo. Los autores estudiaron diversos agentes de reticulacion con miras a determinar su eficacia para acelerar la polimerizacion y, con ello, conseguir ciclos mas breves, y exponen los resultados obtenidos para el acrilato de alilo, el dimetacrilato de etilenglicol, el dimetacrilato de polietilenglicol, el titanato de tetra-isopropilo, el metacrilato de alilo y (en el caso del estireno) el divinilbenceno. Los ensayos mecanicos realizados con maderas impregnadas ponen de manifiesto una mejora de propiedades tales como la dureza, el limite de elasticidad en la compresion y la estabilidad dimensional. Por lo general, se registra un aurpento de la fragilidad respecto de la madera natural. En la memoria se incluyen datos sobre la dureza, el limite de elasticidad en la compresion, la estabilidad en la compresion, la estabilidad dimensional, asi como la resistencia a la flexion y al cizallamiento. (author) [Russian] Opisan promyshlennyj metod polucheniya drevesno-plastmassovykh ''splavov'' s pomoshch'yu gamma-izlucheniya. Protsess sostoit iz dvukh chastej: propitki otobrannoj drevesiny neobkhodimym monomerom i polimerizatsii monomera v meste nakhozhdeniya .s pomoshch'yu gamma-luchej. Izucheno vliyanie razlichnykh faktorov na proniknovenie monomera v drevesinu. Provedennye ispytaniya pokazali, chto na praktike osushchestvimo khoroshee raspredelenie polimera v konechnom produkte. Odnu chast' obraztsov tolshchinoj 10 cm i dlinoj 150 cm podvergli propitke i issledovali na pronikanie monomera, v to vremya kak druguyu chast' obraztsov takoj zhe tolshchiny uspeshno

  17. Construction, Cost and Use of an Enriched Uranium, Light-Water Subcritical Assembly; Assemblage Sous-Critique a Uranium Enrichi et Eau Legere; Realisation, Cout et Application; Realizatsiya i stoimost' podkriticheskoj sborki na obogashchennom urane i legkoj vode; Construccion, Coste y Aplicacion de un Conjunto Subcritico de Uranio Enriquecido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittoz, B.; Berthet, P.; Gavin, P.; Mandrin, C.; Robert, P.; Thurnheer, J. [Ecole Polytechnique de l' Universite de Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1964-02-15

    raznovelikih rasstojanijah. Kazhdyj plan sterzhnej javljaetsja istochnikom bystryh nejtronov i poglotitelem teplovyh. Za jetimi planami ispol'zujutsja diffuzionnye uravnenija dvuh grupp. Dostatochno znat' harakteristiki odnogo plana sterzhnej, chtoby opredelit' potok nejtronov po n-planam. Jeksperimental'noe opredelenie jetih harakteristik provedeno s uchetom vertikal'nogo izmenenija potoka nejtronov. Issledovanie prodolzhaetsja paralell'no s izucheniem vlijanija rasstojanija mezhdu sterzhnjami odnogo i togo zhe plana. (author)

  18. Measurement of Caesium-137 in the Normal Person; Dosage du Cesium 137 chez un Sujet Normal; 0418 0417 041c 0414 ; Determinacion Cuantitativa del Cesio-137 en el Individuo Normal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huycke, E. J.; Oberhausen, E. [United States Army Medical Research Unit, Europe, Landstuhl/Pfalz, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1964-11-15

    period poluvyvedenija cezija-137 koroche u bolee molodyh'ljudej. Jeto soglasuetsja s rannimi dannymi izmerenija soderzhanija cezija-137, poluchennymi na jetom schetchike v period s ijunja 1959 do dekabrja 1960 goda; jeti dannye ukazyvajut na men'shee soderzhanie cezija-137'u detej, chem u vzroslyh. Drugaja ocenka nedavno poluchennyh'v jetom medicinskom otdelenii dannyh kasaetsja standartnogo otklonenija (sigma) soderzhanija cezija-137 u bol'shoj gruppy naselenija. U jetoj gruppy naselenija sigma izmerennoj velichiny cezija na gramm kalija v organizme sostavila 33% . Jeto bolee chem v 2 raza prevyshaet sigmu soderzhanija kalija v organizme u toj zhe gruppy naselenija. Sravneniem dannyh dlja lic, u kotoryh neodnokratno bralis' analizy v techenie dlitel'nogo perioda vremeni so srednemesjachnymi velichinami u vsej gruppy obsledovannyh bylo najdeno, chto bol'shaja sigma soderzhanija cezija-137 ne mozhet ob{sup j}asnjat'sja lish' putem izmenenija diety u obsledovannoj gruppy. (author)

  19. Radioisotope Scanning of the Pancreas with Selenomethionine-Se{sup 75}; Gammagraphie du Pancreas a l'Aide de la Selenomethionine-{sup 75}Se; Diagnosticheskoe fotoskennirovanie podzheludochnoj zhelezy; Gammagrafia del Pancreas Mediante Radioisotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodee, D. B. [Doctors Hospital and Renner Clinic Foundation, Cleveland Heights, OH (United States)

    1964-10-15

    voznikajushhee v rezul'tate koncentraciiselenometionina - {sup 75}Se v pecheni izluchenie, kotoroe v proshlom meshalo tochnomu opredeleniju kontura podzheludochnoj zhelezy. Nedavno avtory ispol'zovali kristall razmerom 12,5 h 7,5 sm i 121-kanal'nyj svincovyj kollimator s fokusnym rasstojaniem 12,5 sm. Jeto uluchshilo kachestvo izobrazhenija, i po mere usovershenstvovanija metodiki mozhno budet, verojatno, videt' men'shie povrezhdenija na bol'shej glubine. Okazalos',chto karcinoma podzheludochnoj zhelezy koncentriruet selenometionina -Se75 . huzhe, chem normal'naja tkan'. S pomoshh'ju jetoj metodiki udalos' pravil'no istolkovat' zabolevanie u 5 iz 6 bol'nyh, stradajushhih karcinomoj podzheludochnoj zhelezy. Nepoddajushhiesja obnaruzheniju Mel'chajshie karcinomatoznye uzly byli zatemneny uvelichennoj pechen'ju. Diagnoz ostrogo i hronicheskogo pankreatita takzhe podtverzhdaetsja skennirovaniem podzheludochnoj zhelezy, poskol'ku povrezhdennye kletki podzheluzhochnoj zhelezy ne koncentrirujut selenometionin -{sup 75}Se. Avtor takzhe opisyvaet izbiratel'noe pogloshhenie selenometionina -{sup 75}Se tkan'ju para- shhitovidnoj zhelezy . S pomoshh'ju jetogo zhe metoda skennirovanija byli obnaruzheny adenomy parashhitovidnoj zhelezy u nebol'shoj gruppy bol'nyh s povyshennoj funkciej parashhitovid- noj zhelezy. Fotoskennirovanie podzheludochnoj zhelezy uzhe javljaetsja prakticheskim metodom, i v nastojashhee vremja vedetsja izuchenie fotoskennirovanija parashhitovidnoj zhelezy. Narjadu s vnov' probudivshimsja interesom k organam, kotorye byli nevidimy pri obychnyh radiograficheskih metodah, selektivnoe skennirovanie organov s pomoshh'ju soedinenij,soderzhashhih mechenye atomy i podobrannyh po ih biohemicheskim svojstvam, stanovitsja vazhnym metodom budushhego. (author)

  20. Diagnosis of Intracranial Lesions by Gamma-Encephalography using Human Serum Albumin Labelled with Iodine-131; Diagnostic des lesions intracraniennes par la gamma-encephalographie a l'aide de la serumalbumine humaine marquee a l'iode 131; Diagnoz vnutricherepnykh povrezhdenij putem gamma-ehntsefalografii pri pomoshchi mechenoj iodom-131 albuminovoj syvorotki cheloveka; Diagnostico de las lesiones intracraneanas por gammaencefalografia mediante sero- albumina humana marcada con yodo-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planiol, Therese [Institut National d' Hygiene, Paris (France)

    1959-07-01

    sto pyat'desyat sopovozhdalis' ochagom dlitel'noj povyshennoj gamma-aktivnosti. Opukholi, kotorye ne poddalis' obsledovaniyu, yavlyayutsya napolovinu opukholyami polushariya mozga, a napolovinu - opukholyami zadnej polosti i shishkovidnoj zhelezy. Byli obnaruzheny gnojniki, krovyanye opukholi, mestnye vetvistye anevrizmy. Povrezhdenie mozgovoj tkani i krovenosnykh sosudov vyzvalo v odnoj treti sluchaev anomalii: polovina ehtikh anormal'nykh grafikov imeet formu, kharakternuyu dlya razmyagcheniya godovnogo mozga (ili tromboz), nalichie kotorogo mozhet byt' takim obrazom ustanovleno; drugie zhe napominayut grafiki opukholej s toj edinstvennoj raznitsej, chto anomalii ischezayut cherez neskol'ko nedel' v sluchayakh povrezhdeniya krovenosnykh sosudov; dve treti ehtikh povrezhdenij dayut otritsatel'nuyu gamma- ehntsefalogrammu. Rasshirenie arterij, bezopukhol'ny e ochagi, vyzyvayushchie pripadki ehpillepsii i razlichnye zabolevaniya chisto nevrologicheskog o kharaktera dali v 96% sluchaev normal'nye rezul'taty. Obsledovanie mozga pri pomoshchi radioaktivnog o albumina mozhet dat' tsennye svedeniya ne tol'ko o nalichii i tochnom mestonakhozhdeni i nevrokhirurgicheskikh povreyasdenij, no i v otnoshenii ikh kharaktera. V chastnosti, ono daet bol'shie vozmozhnosti dlya opredeleniya opukholej mozgovykh obolochek, gliom i metastazov. Ehti vozmozhnosti, sovmestno so svedeniyami, kasayushchimisya polozhitel'nogo i topograficheskogo diagnoza, pridayut dannomu vidu obsledovaniya osobyj interes po sravneniyu s drugimi metodami nevrologicheskog o diagnoza. Krome togo gamma-ehntsefalografi ya obeshchaet stat' odnim iz naibolee tochnykh sredstv dlya obnaruzheniya retsidivov i dlya nablyudeniya za khodom lecheniya obychnymi metodami ili radioterapii. (author)

  1. Documenting the Earliest Chinese Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-zhong (Joe Zhou

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:19-24

    According to various authoritative sources, the English word "journal" was first used in the 16lh century, but the existence of the journal in its original meaning as a daily record can be traced back to Acta Diuma (Daily Events in ancient Roman cities as early as 59 B.C. This article documents the first appearance of Chinese daily records that were much early than 59 B.C.

    The evidence of the earlier Chinese daily records came from some important archaeological discoveries in the 1970's, but they were also documented by Sima Qian (145 B.C. - 85 B.C., the grand historian of the Han Dynasty imperial court. Sima's lifetime contribution was the publication of Shi Ji (史記 (The Grand Scribe's Records, the Records hereafter. The Records is a book of history of a grand scope. It encompasses all Chinese history from 30lh century B.C. through the end of the second century B.C. in 130 chapters and over 525,000 Chinese

  2. Radiotracers For Lipid Signaling Pathways In Biological Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatley, S. J. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-09-26

    enzymes such as fatty acid amide hydrolase, which may regulate endocannabinoid tone in animals. Early results were presented at the 2011 ICRS meeting, and at the 2012 Society for Neurosciences. Narachidonoylethanolamine is an endocannabinoid signaling messenger in animals and is known as “anandamide”. It is one of several families of signaling molecules derived from arachidonic acid, the principal omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA’s) in animal species. Other derivatives of arachidonic acid include thromboxanes and prostaglandins. Full details of the studies with the ethanolamide isotopomers were a part of the PhD dissertation of Kun Hu (nee Qian), and were submitted for publication to Nuclear Medicine and Biology in August 2016. Syntheses of [14C]docosahexanoylethanolamine isotopomers and preliminary biological investigations Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the omega-3 PUFA that can be regarded in some respects as the counterpart of arachidonic acid in the omega-6 series. While arachidonic acid is proinflammatory, DHA is anti-inflammatory, and foods high in DHA (or artificially enriched in DHA) are commonly regarded as promoting health. In contrast to the large literature on the Nethanolamide of arachidonic acid (i.e. the endocannabinoid anandamide) as of now (9/25/2016) there are only six papers on the corresponding ethanolamide of DHA, and when our studies under this grant began there were none. Beneficial actions of endogenously produced DHAethanolamine (“synaptamide”) have been indicated, and to help elucidate the possible roles of synaptamide, we have synthesized this molecule for the first time labeled with C-14 in either the ethanolamine moiety or the fatty acid moiety. Studies of the disposition of endogenously administered isotopomers of DHA-ethanolamine are in progress, to complement tissue culture experiments evaluation hypothesized protective effects of this DHA derivative.

  3. Literature Review of Bozhou Tusi Studies (2001-2013)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yueping

    2014-01-01

    education .Education developed in the Tusi are-as in Bozhou.As a result of this, the cultural qualities of the people was raised and flourished;the development of literature and art in the north-ern part of Qian ( Guizhou ) was promoted , and the rule and control of the central government in Bozhou had been consolidated .By doing so , na-tional unity had been maintained and social civili-zation and progress in the ethnic minority areas of western part in China had been promoted . 3.Tusi Graves Graves were not only places for burying dead bodies, but also were places for embodying social etiquette, religion and beliefs, customs of burial, and architectural arts .Graves are very important historical cultural relics .The graves of the Yangs had unique value as cultural relics .They recorded social development and wars on the old special place at that time;and recorded a family's rise and fall in history .All of the things in the graves , such as gravestones , headstones and epitaphs , have im-portant academic value , and are very important for the people who study the families of the Yang Tusi. To some extent , the graves of the Yangs , with their grand scale and exquisite construction , embodied the development of culture and economy in Bozhou . IV.Deficiencies in the Studies Although , there are many articles about Bozhou Tusi studies in 2001-2013, especially in 2012 -2013 , we can find some deficiencies in these studie 1.The definition is not certain .Which Tusi lasted the longest in the border area , Tianshi Tusi or Yang Tusi? 2 .There is a lack of studies on the relevant historical cultural relics , such as Sanyuanshan , Paotaipo etc . around Hailongtun . This gap will need to be filled in . 3 .There are not enough important study re-sults which have impact .Over 85% study results have been published in journals in Guizhou , and about 80% have been published in common jour-nals, which indicates that the impact of study re-sults needs to be raised . 4 .The number of

  4. A Study of the Recoil Reactions of Three Isotopes of Ruthenium in Ruthenocene; Etude des Reactions d'Atomes de Recul de Trois Isotopes du Ruthenium dans le Ruthenocen; 0418 0417 0423 0427 0415 041d 0418 0415 0420 0415 0410 041a 0426 0418 0419 041e 0422 0414 0410 0427 0418 0422 0420 0415 0425 0418 0417 041e 0422 041e 041f 041e 0412 0420 0423 0422 0415 041d 0418 042f 0412 0420 0423 0422 0415 041d 041e 0421 0415 041d 0415 ; Estudio de las Reacciones de Retroceso de Tres Isotopos del Rutenio en el Rutenoceno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbottle, G.; Zahn, U. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1965-04-15

    on daval eshhe odno (neizvestnoe) letuchee organicheskoe soedinenie so sledami rutenija, kotoroe mozhno otdelit' ot rutenosena mnogokratnoj sublimaciej. Kogda bombardirovalis' dvuhprocentnye rastvory rutenosena, nabljudavshiesja stepeni uderzhanija sostavljali 0,61 {+-}0,03, 1,04{+-}0,02 i 0,98{+-}0,02% sootvetstvenno. Jeti velichiny ne izmenjalis' v znachitel'noj stepeni, kogda bombardirovalsja rastvor, razbavlennyj v desjat' raz do 0,2% . Dlja togo, chtoby izuchit' vozmozhnyj jeffekt vjazkosti sredy, issledovalis' takzhe dvuhprocentnye rastvory rutenosena v benzine, soderzhashhie 2,10 i 20% poli- stirena. Zdes' takzhe rezul'taty byli vpolne analogichnymi rezul'tatam dlja chistogo benzola . Zamorozhennye rastvory benzola (2 i 0,2% rutenosena) izuchalis' takzhe, i zdes' velichiny uderzhanija priblizhalis' k velichinam uderzhanija kristallov rutenosena pri toj zhe temperature . Esli my opredelim 'izotopnyj jeffekt'kak(1-(uderzhanieRu{sup 97}/ uderzhanie Ru{sup 103})J *100 (v procentah), togda rastvory rutenosena imejut izotopnye jeffekty, sostavljajushhie v srednem 42% po sravneniju s bolee nizkimi ciframi 10 - 15% dlja kristallov i zamorozhennyh rastvorov. Vozmozhnym ob{sup j}asneniem bolee vysokogo uderzhanija i bolee nizkogo izotopnogo jeffekta javljaetsja bolee jeffektivnoe udalenie momenta otdachi kristallicheskoj reshetkoj po sravneniju s zhidkoj i dazhe s letuchej. No drugie faktory, naprimer relaksacija zarjazhennogo sostojanija razlichnyh izotopov rutenija vsled za snjatiem vozbuzhdenija jadernogo sostojanija soedinenija, dolzhny takzhe prinimat'sja vo vnimanie. Budut obsuzhdat'sja neskol'ko al'ternativnyh ob{sup j}asnenij jetih rezul'tatov. (author)

  5. The Hanford Emergency Dosimetry System; Le Systeme de Dosimetrie pour les Cas d'Urgence a Hanford; 0421 0418 0421 0422 0414 ; El Sistema Dosimetrico de Hanford para Casos de Urgencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, H. V.; Keene, A. R. [Radiation Protection Operation, Hanford Laboratories, General Electric Company, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, Richland, WA (United States)

    1965-06-15

    sotrudnikov. Dozimetricheskij personal s pomoshh'ju perenosnoj apparatury osushhestvljaet izmerenija Na{sup 24} in vivo na meste ili izmerenija aktivirovannoj indievoj fol'gi v plenochnom dozimetre s cel'ju predvaritel'noj ocenki dozy. Preduprezhdenie personala i rabota centrov avarijnogo kontrolja obespechivajut tehnicheskoe rukovodstvo i peredvizhnoe vspomogatel'noe oborudovanie, v tom chisle perenosnoj schetchik dlja izmerenija radioaktivnosti vsego organizma. S pomoshh'ju dublirujushhih laboratornyh ustrojstv osushhestvljaetsja vspomogatel'nyj dozimetricheskij kontrol' v rezul'tate provedenija analiza krovi na predmet opredelenija stepeni aktivacii Na{sup 24}, soderzhanija R{sup 32} v volosah, mnogoizotopnogo analiza vydelenij organizma, izmerenija radioaktivnosti vsego organizma i vyjavlenija zarazhennyh ran. Hjenfordskie dozimetry kritichnosti, ustanavlivaemye povsjudu na ustanovke v legkodostupnyh mestah, udaljajutsja i ocenivajutsja. V jetih dozimetrah imejutsja takie zhe jelementarnye fol'gi, kak i v plenochnom dozimetre, oni obespechivajut vtorichnye sredstva dlja ocenki dozy, poluchaemoj otdel'nymi licami. (author)

  6. Mass and Charge Distribution in Low-Energy Fission; Repartition des Masses et des Charges dans la Fission a Basse energie; 0420 0410 0421 041f 0420 0415 0414 0415 041b 0415 041d 0418 0415 041c 0410 0421 0421 042b 0418 0417 0410 0420 042f 0414 0410 041f 0420 0418 0414 0415 041b 0415 041d 0418 0418 , 0412 042b 0417 0412 0410 041d 041d 041e 041c 0427 0410 0421 0422 0418 0426 0410 041c 0418 041c 0410 041b 041e 0419 042d 041d 0415 0420 0413 0418 0418 ; Distribucion de Masas y de Cargas en la Fision a Bajas Energias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, A. C. [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1965-07-15

    fragmentos de fision. Aunque muchos de los rendimientos calculados para los fragmentos primarios encierran considerables incertidumbres, debido principalmente a la falta de conocimientos sobre la distribucion de las cargas, en particular en el caso de productos de fision formados con un bajo rendimiento, el autor presenta algunos calculos de los rendimientos- primarios para destacar la necesidad de proseguir la labor de experimentacion y la posibilidad de hacerlo. Entre los procesos de fision que examina, ademas de la fision del {sup 235}U inducida por neutrones termicos, figuran los siguientes: fision del {sup 233}U y del {sup 239}Pu inducida por neutrones termicos, fision espontanea del {sup 240}Pu y del {sup 252}Cf, fision del {sup 235}U y del {sup 238}U inducida por neutrones de 14 MeV, fision del {sup 226}Ra inducida por protones de 11 MeV, y fision del {sup 209}Bi por deuterones de 22 MeV. (author) [Russian] Raspredelenija massy i zarjada pri delenii urana-235, vyzvannom teplovymi nejtronami dostatochno podrobno obsuzhdajutsja i sravnivajutsja zatem s sootvetstvujushhimi raspredelenijami pri drugih processah delenija, vyzvannogo chasticami nizkoj jenergii. V sostav voprosov, podlezhashhih obsuzhdeniju v svjazi s raspredelenijami mass pri delenii na dve chasti, vkljuchajutsja voprosy otnositel'no raspolozhenija pikov, vpadiny i tonkoj struktury krivoj vyhoda massy v otnoshenii zapolnennyh jadernyh obolochek i izmenenij v raspolozhenii, chto sluchaetsja pri izmenenii deljashhegosja jadra i jenergii vozbuzhdenija. Obsuzhdaetsja takzhe raspredelenie mass pri delenii jadra na tri chasti. Kak pri dvojnom, tak i pri trojnom delenii sdelany zamechanija otnositel'no raspredelenija mass pervichnyh oskolkov (do nejtronnoj jemissii) i produktov delenija (posle nejtronnoj jemissii). Raspredelenie zarjada obsuzhdaetsja v ramkah dispersii zarjada sredi produktov delenija s tem zhe massovym chislom i izmeneniem v massovom chisle Zp, ''naibolee verojatnyj zarjad'' (neintegral

  7. Experimental studies of some of the physical features of beryllium-moderated intermediate reactors; Etude experimentale de quelques particularites physiques des reacteurs a neutrons intermediaires, ralentis au beryllium; Ehksperimental'ny e issledovaniya nekotorykh fizicheskikh osobennostej promezhutochnykh reaktorov s berillievym zamedlitelem; Estudios experimentales de algunas caracteristicas fisicas de los reactores intermedios moderados con berilio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lejpunskij, A I; Kuznetsov, V A; Artyukhov, G Ya; Mogil' ner, A I; Prokhorov, Yu A; Steklovski, V M; Chernov, L A [Akademiya Nauk, Moskva, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian Federation)

    1962-03-15

    _derivative}Be/{partial_derivative}U{sup 235}{approx_equal}200. Ehtot fakt ob'yasnyaetsya rezkim snizheniem tsennosti nejtronov, pogloshchaemykh uranom. Dlya ehtoj zhe sborki privodyatsya dannye po ehffektivnosti sterzhnej iz razlichnykh pogloshchayushchikh materialov. Privoditsya ehksperimental'n o izmerennyj khod plotnosti nejtronov razlichnykh ehnergij vblizi sterzhnya iz karbida bora i plotnost' zakhvatov nejtronov ' 1/v-detektorom vnutri sterzhnya. V doklade privoditsya takzhe metodika i rezul'taty ehksperimentov po otsenke ehffektivnosti povorotnykh kompensiruyushchikh tsilindrov, razmeshchennykh na granitse aktivnoj zony i otrazhatelya. (author)

  8. EURATOM's Programme of Participation in Power Reactor Construction; Le programme de participation d'Euratom aux reacteurs de puissance; Programma uchastiya v razrabotke ehnergeticheskikh reaktorov Evratoma; El programa de participacion de la Euratom en la construccion y explotacion de reactores de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadier, R. C.; Parker, E. [Communaute Europoenne de l' Energie Atomique, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1963-10-15

    razrabotke dvukh ehnergeticheskikh reaktorov. Ehti zaprosy byli predstavleny sootvetstvenno Ob''edineniem Rheinisch-Westffllischee Elektrizitfltswerk - Bayernwerke (RWE-BW) N.V. Samenwerkende Electriciteits -Productiebedriyve. Pervyj zapros kasaetsya kipyashchego reaktora s dvojnym tsiklom moshchnost'yu v 237 mgvt ehl), vtoroj - kipyashchego reaktora s pryamym tsiklom i estestvennoj tsirkulyatsiej moshchnost'yu v 50 mgvt (ehl). Sovmestnoe uchastie mozhet prinimat' razlichnye formy. Ono mozhet, v chastnosti, vylit'sya v uchastie pri pokrytii veroyatnogo defitsita pri proizvodstve ehlektroehnergii na ehlektrostantsiyakh v techenie pervykh let ikh ehkspluatatsii. Takoe uchastie Evratoma imelo tsel'yu pooshchrit' stroitel'stvo nekotorykh iz ehtikh atomnykh ehlektrostantsij. K tomu zhe ono pozvolit i v dal'nejshem poluchat' chrezvychajno poleznuyu informatsiyu v posleduyushchie gody, kogda problemy predstoyashchej deyatel'nosti v oblasti razvitiya atomnoj ehnergii vstanut so vsej ochevidnost'yu. (author)

  9. In Vivo and Air Dosimetry of Fission-Spectrum Neutrons; Dosimetrie In Vivo et dans l'Air du Spectre des Neutrons de Fission; Dozimetriya v vozdukhe i dozimetriya In Vivo nejtronov spektra deleniya; Dosimetria In Vivo y en el Aire de Neutrones de un Espectro de Fision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobley, T. S.; Engel, R. E.; Godden, W. R. [Kirtland Airforce Base, New Mexico (United States); Penikas, V. T. [AFIT, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, with Duty Station at University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1964-03-15

    rumenotomfa empleada. La dosis neutronica se determina mediante laminas de umbral. Para medir el flujo integrado de neutrones termicos, se utilizaron las laminas de oro y de oro recubierto de cadmio; para el flujo integrado de neutrones rapidos, se recurrio al plutonio-239, al neptunio-237, al uranio-238 y al azufre-32; la dosis gamma se determino con varillas de vidrio radiofotoluminiscentes. Las ovejas fueron sometidas a exposiciones laterales, a una distancia de linea media de 200 o 175 cm del centro del conjunto critico. La dosis neutronica medida en el aire, a 200 cm, fue 161 {+-} 5 ,5 rad; y a 175 cm, fue 242 {+-} 16,6 rad. A las mismas distancias, la dosis gamma fue, respectivamente, 33 {+-} 2,4 y 42 {+-}2,5 r. Las dosis de entrada y salida, asi como la dosis recibida por el aposito interno varian con el ascenso de temperatura, la distancia al reactor, la orientacion de las laminas con respecto a este y el espesor y composicion de los tejidos atenuadores. (author) [Russian] Dlja opredelenija glubinnoj dozy vo vremja obluchenija nejtronami spektra delenija na ovcah razrabotan metod dozimetrii nejtronov in vivo. Dlja issledovanij ispol'zovalas impul'snaja reaktornaja sborka podobnaja sborke Godiva I I Los-Alamosskoj nauchnoj laboratorii. Reak tor rabotal v impul'snom rezhime, proizvodja impul'sy prodolzhitel'nost'ju 50 mksek shirinoj v polovinu vysoty maksimal'nogo impul'sa, prichem temperatura toplivnogo materiala povyshalas' primerno do 100 Degree-Sign S. Podkozhnyj detektor soderzhal kadmij, pokrytyj zolotoj fol'goj, prostuju zolotuju fol'gu i tri stekljannyh termoljuminescentnyh sterzhnevyh dozimetra v stekljannom kontejnere, vylozhennom litiem i svincom. Jeti detektory pomeshhalis' v podkozhnoj tkani po obeim storonam tela dlja obnaruzhenija integrirovannogo potoka teplovyh nejtronov i gamma-dozy, tak kak potoki nejtronov napravljalis' sboku. Detektory dlja brjushnoj polosti byli podgotovleny takim zhe obrazom, kak i dlja podkozhnogo vvedenija, i sostojali iz

  10. Circulations in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea with Reference to Safe Disposal of Radioactive Wastes Near the Indian Coasts; Les Circulations dans les Eaux du Golfe du Bengale et de la Mer d'Oman et l'Elimination sans Danger des Dechets Radioactifs pres des Cotes Indiennes; 0426 0418 0420 0414 ; Circulaciones en el Golfo de Bengala e en el Mar Arabico con Relacion a la Evacuacion sin Riesgos de Desechos Radiactivos Frente al Litoral Indio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rama Sastry, A. A. [Meteorological Office, Poona 5 (India)

    1960-07-01

    dannyh, sobrannyh razlichnymi jekspedicijami v Indijskom okeane, izuchaetsja fizicheskaja okeanografija v rajone k severu ot jekvatora. Kak v Bengal'skom zalive, tak i v Aravijskom more na glubine do 200 metrov imeetsja po krajnej mere tri razlichnyh vodnyh sloja. V vidu ochen' sil'noj rastvoritel'noj sposobnosti vod Bengal'skogo zaliva poverhnostnye vody mogut byt' podrazdeleny eshhe na neskol'ko kategorij. Po gorizontal'nomu raspredeleniju razlichnyh okeanograficheskih parametrov daetsja cirkuljacija vodnyh mass na razlichnyh urovnjah do 150 metrov vdol' indijskogo poberezh'ja ; jeto zhe otnositsja i k vodnym massam do 500 metrov po vertikal'nomu secheniju. Uroven' nepodvizhnyh vod, kak kazhetsja, nahoditsja vyshe 500 metrov i menjaetsja kak po ploshhadi, tak i po vremeni. Smeshenie vod vyvoditsja iz otnoshenija T-S (vremja-ploshhad'). Privodjatsja sezony povyshenija i ponizhenija urovnja vody vdol' poberezh'ja i rassmatrivaemogo rajona. Intensivnost' povyshenija urovnja vody vdol' poberezh'ja bolee vyrazhena i v techenie jetogo perioda proishodit polnoe smeshenie sloev vody na priberezhnoj otmeli. Glubokovodnye massy razdeljajutsja na vody jekvatorial'noj chasti Indijskogo okeana, antarkticheskie promezhutochnye sloi vody sovmestno s vodami Krasnogo morja i na neznachitel'nuju chast' vod central'noj chasti Indijskogo okeana, glubokovodnye massy Indijskogo okeana i antarkticheskie donnye vody. Daetsja raspredelenie jetih vodnyh mass, a takzhe cirkuljacija glubinnyh vodnyh sloev k severu ot jekvatora. Kak kazhetsja, za poslednie 60 let antarkticheskie donnye vody prodvigajutsja dalee k severu ot jekvatora kak v Bengal'skom zalive, tak i v Aravijskom more. V svjazi s jetim nabljudaetsja ponizhenie solenosti kak v Bengal'skom zalive, tak i v Aravijskom more. V zakljuchenie predlagetsja programma dal'nejshih okeanograficheskih issledovanij v svjazi s bezopasnym udaleniem radioaktivnyh othodov, v chastnosti v Aravijskoe more. (author)

  11. Anisotropy of the Chemical Shift Tensor for Fluorines in UF{sub 6} : Application to the Fluorine Atom Movement Model; Anisotropie du Tenseur de Deplacement Chimique des Fluors dans UF{sub 6}: Application au Modele du Mouvement des Atomes de Fluor; Anizotropiya tenzora khimicheskogo zameshcheniya ftora v UF{sub 6}. Primenenie k modeli dvizheniya atomov ftora; Anisotropia del Tensor de Desplazamiento Quimico de los Atomos de Fluor en el UF{sub 6}: Aplicacion al Modelo del Movimiento de los Atomos de Fluor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigny, P. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1965-10-15

    permanece unos 5 {mu}s en cada una de las posiciones, con una energia de activacion de 0,5 eV aproximadamente. (author) [Russian] Pervoe izuchenie polikristallicheskogo shestiftoristogo urana po metodu magnitnogo rezonansa ftora bylo provedeno R.Blinkom i dr. pri 40Mgc. Napomnim, chto spektr, poluchennyj pri nizkoj temperature (t <-20 Degree-Sign C) mozhno analizirovat' nalozheniem dvuh linij, chto podtverzhdaet strukturu, obnaruzhennuju Hordom i Strupom v rentgenovskih luchah, gde pri nalichii oktajedra UF{sub 6} s odnoj dlinnoj os'ju i dvumja korotkimi osjami atomy ftora raspredeljajutsja mezhdu dvumja mestopolozhenijami. Izmenenie spektra s temperaturoj - slijanie dvuh linij - daet osnovanie predpolagat' o nalichii peremeshhenija atomov ftora mezhdu dvumja mestopolozhenijami. Povtoriv jeti opyty pri 56,4 i 94Mgc, my smogli otmetit' nalichie sil'noj osevoj anizotropii tenzora himicheskogo zameshhenija (okolo 650 chastej na million). Linija pogloshhenija, poluchennaja v jetih uslovijah dlja poroshka, javljaetsja slozhnoj i podlezhit izucheniju, tem bolee esli uchest' funkciju formy f (h), kotoraja predstavljaet soboj prisushhuju chastichke poroshka verojatnost' poluchenija orientacii, vynuzhdajushhej rezonirovat' jetu chastichku pri znachenii h polja. Pri otsutstvii dvizhenija (spektr nizkoj temperatury) funkcija formy dlja kazhdoj iz dvuh linij (sootvetstvujushhaja dvum vidam'mestopolozhenija) poluchaet formu dlja vseh jekvivalentnyh atomov. Izvestno, chto parametry tenzorov himicheskih zameshhenij svidetel'stvujut o haraktere himicheskih svjazej. Takim putem prishli, v chastnosti, k tomu, chtoby pripisat' v osnovnom ionnyj harakter (I Asymptotically-Equal-To 1/2) svjazjam urana s dvumja naibolee udalennymi atomami ftora. Pri nalichii dvizhenija funkcija formy krajne raznoobrazna i zavisit ot tipa dvizhenija. Dlja UF{sub 6} izuchenie pri nalichii anizotropii pokazyvaet, chto atomy ftora odnoj toj zhe molekuly obmenivajutsja mezhdu soboj i chto kazhdyj atom zatrachivaet

  12. Quality Selection of Zircaloy-2 Canning Tubes by Ultrasonic Testing on Small Defects; Controle de la Qualite des Gaines en Zircaloy-2: Detection de Petits Defauts par les Ultrasons; Achestvennyjotb ortrub chatykh obolochek iz tsirkalloya-2 putem vyyavleniya nebol'shikh defektov s pomoshch'yu ul'trazvuka; Control de Calidad de los Revestimientos de Zircaloy-2 por Localizacion Ultrasonica de Pequenos Defectos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Der Linde, A. [Reactor Centrum Nederland, Petten (Netherlands); Deraad, J. A. [Roentgen Technische Dienst N.V., Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1965-09-15

    , de los 93 tubos ensayados, 21 presentaban defectos transversales de 10 a 50 {mu}m de profundidad. Por consiguiente, puede afirmarse que el procedimiento indicado permite clasificar los tubos con arreglo a su calidad. (author) [Russian] Trubchatye obolochki iz cirkalloja-2 s vnutrennim diametrom 10,20 mm, tolshhinoj stenok 0,90 mm i dlinoj 1500 mm, prednaznachennye dlja proverki v kachestve pokrytija toplivnyh sterzhnej pri temperature 330 Degree-Sign S v reaktornoj petle s vodoj pod davleniem ispytyvalis' s pomoshh'ju ul'trazvuka s cel'ju obnaruzhenija defektov. Ispytyvaemye trubchatye obolochki byli postavleny izgotoviteljami v SShA, soedinennom Korolevstve i v Skandinavii. Nashe trebovanie, chtoby vse postavlennye trubki byli svobodny ot treshhin i drugih defektov razmerom svyshe 500 - 1000 mikron po dline i svyshe 25 - 50 mikron po glubine, ne bylo prinjato polnost'ju izgotoviteljami. Oni mogli garantirovat' tol'ko otsutstvie treshhin velichinoj svyshe 1000 mikron po dline i svyshe 50 mikron po glubine. V svjazi s tem, chto iz 93 ispytannyh trub tol'ko u dvuh byli obnaruzheny treshhiny velichinoj svyshe 50 mikron po glubine, reshili provodit' bolee stroguju proverku, v rezul'tate kotoroj mozhno bylo by obnaruzhivat' defekty velichinoj porjadka 10 - 50 mikron po glubine. Dlja obnaruzhenija i registracii takih nebol'shih defektov primenjalos' poluavtomaticheskoe ul'trazvukovoe impul'snoe oborudovanie, dejstvujushhee kak v prodol'nom, tak i v poperechnom napravlenijah, v kombinacii s sistemami propuskanija i mnogokanal'nym registratorom. Sistema razvertki byla otregulirovana takim obrazom, chto vnutrennie i naruzhnye defekty odnogo i togo zhe porjadka i razmera ukazyvalis' s odinakovymi amplitudami. Kalibrovanie oborudovanija proizvodili na iskusstvennyh defektah. Defekty, obrazovavshiesja v prodol'nom napravlenii, obnaruzhivalis' s pomoshh'ju razdel'noj sistemy datchik-priemnik s primeneniem fokusirovannogo puchka. Defekty, obrazovavshiesja v poperechnom napravlenii

  13. Beta-Excited Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation; Sources de rayonnements electromagnetiques excites par des particules beta; Vozbuzhdennye beta-chastitsami istochniki ehlektromagnitnogo izlucheniya; Fuentes de radiacion electromagnetica excitadas por particulas beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, J F; Rhodes, J R [Physics Group, Isotope Research Division, (AERE), Wantage Research Laboratory, Wantage, Berks (United Kingdom)

    1962-01-15

    incluyen cuadros que permiten escoger la fuente optima para absorbentes de distintos espesores. (author) [Russian] Avtory dayut opisanie vozbuzhdennykh beta-chastitsami istochnikov ehlektromagnitnogo izlucheniya v ehnergeticheskom rajone ot 1 do 200 kehv i prigodnykh dlya promyshlennogo ispol'zovaniya. V kachestve istochnikov beta-chastits byli vzyaty tritij, prometij-147, kripton-85, tallij-204 i strontsij-90+ ittrij-90, poskol'ku oni imeyut prodolzhitel'nyj period poluraspada, nebol'shuyu stoimost', vysokuyu udel'nuyu aktivnost' i legkost' ikh polucheniya. Dlya izgotovleniya vozbuzhdennykh beta-chastitsami istochnikov staralis' dostignut' kompromissa mezhdu prakticheskimi trebovaniyami konstruktsii i nailuchshej teoreticheskoj ehffektivnost'yu v dannoj ehnergeticheskoj zone. V dannoj annotatsii avtory raz{sup y}asnyayut putem podscheta kolichestva protonov, izluchaemykh beta-chastitsami, i predusmatrivayut vnesenie izmenenij v ehti podschety dlya samoabsorbtsii rentgenovskogo izlucheniya. EHti podschety uchityvayut v to zhe samoe vremya tormoznoe izluchenie i kharakteristicheskie flyuorestsentnye luchi, maksimal'nyj vykhod kharakteristicheskikh luchej, dostigaemyj dlya mishenej Z ot 40 do 60. Nakonets, oni utverzhdayut, chto v zhelaemoj ehnergeticheskoj zone poluchayut kak luchshij vykhod fotonnogo izlucheniya so ''sloenymi'' mishenyami, sloj polovinnogo oslableniya kotorogo sootvetstvuet dline probega 1-2 beta. Alyuminij, serebro i zoloto s proizvodstvennoj tochki zreniya yavlyayutsya podkhodyashchimi ehlementami dlya pokrytiya istochnikov. Oni takzhe dayut udovletvoritel'nye vykhody tormoznogo izlucheniya i rentgenovskogo izlucheniya i raspredelenie po razlichnym ehnergeticheskim zonam v radiuse ot 0 do 200 kehv pri pravil'nom ob{sup e}dinenii s vysheukazannymi beta-izluchatelyami. Dayutsya nekotorye ehnergeticheskie spektry i privodyatsya krivye pogloshcheniya v alyuminii i zheleze dlya nailuchshikh kombinatsij istochnikov mishenej. Byla obnaruzhena neznachitel

  14. Ternary Fission of U{sup 235} by Resonance Neutrons; Fission Ternaire de {sup 235}U par des Neutrons de Resonance; 0422 0420 041e 0419 041d 041e 0415 0414 0415 041b 0415 041d 0418 0415 0423 0420 0410 041d 0410 -235 041d 0410 0420 0415 0417 041e 041d 0410 041d 0421 041d 042b 0425 041d 0415 0419 0422 0420 041e 041d 0410 0425 ; Fision Ternaria del {sup 235}U por Neutrones de Resonancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvitek, I.; Popov, Ju. P.; Rjabov, Ju. V. [Ob' edinennyj Institut Jadernyh Issledovanij, Dubna, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1965-07-15

    de presion. La capa de {sup 235}U enriquecido, de {approx}2 mg/cm{sup 2} de espesor y de {approx}300 cm{sup 2} de superficie, se coloco sobre una lamina de aluminio de 20 {mu}m de espesor. En el volumen gaseoso situado de un lado de la lamina, se registraron los destellos de los fragmentos de fision, por el otro, los de las particulas ligeras de largo alcance. Para evaluar la actividad de fondo (por ejemplo, la coincidencia de los impulsos de un fragmento con el impulso de un cuanto gamma de fision o de un proton procedente de la reaccion (n, p) en la lamina de aluminio se efectuaron mediciones en las que el volumen en el que se registraban las particulas de largo alcance, se protegio mediante un filtro de aluminio suplementario de 1 mm de espesor. Los resultados del experimento indican que la razon entre las fisiones ternarias y binarias del {sup 235}U no acusa las fuertes variaciones sena ladas por otros autores. En las mediciones no se observo ninguna irregularidad en la razon de las secciones eficaces en el intervalo energetico 0,1 -0,2 eV. En la memoria se discute la posible influencia de la reaccion (n, {alpha}) sobre los resultados experimentales en los que no se ha recurrido a la coincidencia de las particulas de largo alcance con los fragmentos de fision. (author) [Russian] V poslednee vremja pojavilis' raboty, v kotoryh ukazyvalos' na sushhestvennye kolebanija otnoshenija sechenija trojnogo delenija k secheniju dvojnogo delenija urana-235 pri perehode odnogo nejtronnogo rezonansa k drugomu. V to zhe vremja dlja urana-235 i plutonija-239 takih kolebanij obnaruzheno ne bylo. V nastojashhem doklade soobshhaetsja ob issledovanijah trojnogo delenija urana-235 na nejtronah s jenergiej 0,1-30 jev. V otlichie ot drugih rabot po trojnomu deleniju urana-235 akt trojnogo delenija identificirovalsja po sovpadenijam odnogo iz oskolkov delenija s legkoj dlinnoprobezhnoj chasticej. Jeto pozvoljalo otdelit' trojnye delenija ot. vozmozhnogo vklada reakcii (n, {alpha

  15. A New Technique for Determining the Distribution of Radium and Thorium in Living Persons; Determination de la Repartition du Radium et du Thorium chez les Personnes Vivantes: Une Methode Nouvelle; Novyj metod opredeleniya raspredeleniya radiya i toriya u patsientov; Nueva Tecnica para Determinar la Distribucion del Radio y del Torio en Pacientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C. E. [Argonne National Laboratory, Health Division, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1964-10-15

    pacienta. Jeta vytjanutaja forma kristalla byla primenena vmesto obychnogo vertikal'no raspolozhennogo korotkogo cilindra dlja togo,-chtoby ploshhad' poverhnosti i poperechnoe sechenie kristalla imeli odinakovuju formu po otnosheniju k ljuboj tochke tela. Spektry gamma-luchej, ishodjashhih ot pozvonochnika pacienta i ot radioaktivnyh istochnikov v centre fantoma iz pressovannoj drevesiny, byli polucheny pri pomoshhi kristalla, pomeshhaemogo v h-chisle polozhenij s odinakovymi intervalami vdol' krovati. Skorosti scheta, poluchennye dlja otobrannyh fotopikov iz spektrov pacienta i fantoma, byli vvedeny v jelektronnoschetnoe ustrojstvo, zaprogrammirovannoe dlja podscheta serii tochechnyh istochnikov, chto daet tot zhe samyj profil' gamma-luchej. Rezul'taty, poluchennye pri issledovanii rjada pacientov, svidetel'stvujut o tom. chto hotja raspredelenie chashhe vsego v osnovnom odnorodno, u nekotoryh lic koncentracija v dva ili tri raza vyshe srednej v nogah, tazu ili v cherepe. Itogi vychislennyh istochnikov sootvetstvujut v predelah'neskol'kih procentov obshhemu soderzhaniju radija v organizme, podschitannomu na osnovanii drugih metodik izmerenija aktivnosti vsego organizma. Izmerenija, provedennye u dvuh pacientov, poluchavshih torotrast bolee devjatnadcati let nazad, i na fantomah, soderzhashhih torotrast i radij-torij, takzhe svidetel'stvovali o vozmozhnosti izmerenija neodnorodnogo raspredelenija Tl{sup 208} (ThC''), Ac{sup 228}(MsTh{sup 2}) i, vozmozhno, Pb{sup 212} vdol' osi tela. (author)

  16. A transistorized 1024-channel neutron time-of-flight analyser; Selecteur transistorise de temps de vol pour neutrons, a 1024 canaux; Nejtronnyj analizator vremeni proleta s 1024 kanalami i s perevodom skhemy na tranzistory; Aparato transistorizado de 1024 canales para analizar tiempos de vuelo de neutrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannelli, G [European Atomic Energy Community, CCR, Ispra (Italy)

    1962-04-15

    adaptabilidad y que sea posible modificar o ampliar si lo precisaran los experimentadores. (author) [Russian] Daetsya opisanie nejtronnogo analizatora vremeni proleta s 1024 kanalami i s perevodom skhemy na tranzistory. EHtot pribor byl razdelen na dve absolyutno nezavisimye chasti: analog k tsifrovomu preobrazovatelyu (ATSP), kotoryj izmeryaet vremya proleta, i 1024-kanal'noe nakopitel'noe ustrojstvo na ferritovykh serdechnikakh. Takim putem vykhodnye signaly, postupayushchie iz ATSP, mogut byt' zaregistrirovany na magnitnoj lente vmeste s vykhodnymi signalami iz drugikh ATSP, izmeryayushchikh drugie fizicheskie kolichestva, otnosyashchiesya k tomu zhe yadernomu prevrashcheniyu pri obshchem kolichestve kanalov, prevyshayushchem moshchnost' nakopitel'nogo ustrojstva. Analog tsifrovogo preobrazovatelya snabzhen vremennym zapominayushchim ustrojstvom, kotoroe blagodarya svoemu regulirovaniyu skorosti signalov: 1) pozvolyaet dostich' velichiny mertvogo vremeni lish' 0,5 {mu} v sekundu, kogda analog tsifrovogo preobrazovatelya svyazan neposredstvenno s 1024-kanal'nym nakopitel'nym ustrojstvom; i 2) sposobstvuet luchshemu ispol'zovaniyu samoj magnitnoj lenty, kogda analog tsifrovogo preobrazovatelya privodit v dejstvie magnitofon. Vremennoe zapominayushchee ustrojstvo obladaet sposobnost'yu zapominat' s chetyrekhkratnoj tochnost'yu (vplot' do shestnadtsati dvoichnykh razryadov). SHirina kanala analizatora kolebletsya ot 0,5 do 48 {mu}s. 1024 kanala mogut byt' razdeleny na dve odinakovye gruppy po 512 kanalov, kazhdaya iz kotorykh soedinyaetsya s dvumya detektorami. Vremennoe zapominayushchee ustrojstvo dopuskaet odnovremennuyu zapis' signalov dvumya gruppami. Kanaly mogut byt' takzhe podrazdeleny po vremeni proleta na dve gruppy, iz kotorykh pervaya gruppa (16 kanalov) ispol'zuetsya dlya zapisi chisto nulevogo vremeni proleta, togda kak vtoraya gruppa mozhet byt' ispol'zovana v lyuboj pozitsii po obshchim intervalam vremeni mezhdu proletami. CHislo kanalov, ispol'zuemykh dlya zapisi

  17. Interesting Developments in UO{sub 2} Technology; Progres interessants dans la technologie du bioxyde d'uranium; Interesnye usovershenstvovaniya tekhnologii UO{sub 2}; Recientes progresos en la tecnologia del UO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J. A.L. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1963-11-15

    vydelenie iz UO{sub 2} gazov, yavlyayushchikhsya produktami deleniya. V chastnosti, uvelichenie oblucheniya s 10{sup 15} do 10{sup 18} delenij/cm{sup 2} mozhet snizit' ochevidnye skorosti diffuzii dlya ksenona v UO{sub 2} pri posleduyushchikh obzhigakh na koehffitsient 10{sup 3}. Gaz, po-vidimomu, uderzhivaetsya v mel'chajshikh lovushkakh, chast' iz kotorykh sushchestvuet v iskhodnom materiale, a chast' obrazuetsya v rezul'tate radiatsionnogo povrezhdeniya. Tshchatel'nyj analiz pokazal sushchestvovanie medlennoj utechki iz lovushek, chto, veroyatno, ob''yasnyaetsya ogranichennoj rastvorimost'yu ksenona v UO{sub 2}. Vozmozhnost' osushchestvleniya izmerenij v reaktore otkryvaet novuyu fazu eshche bolee vazhnykh ehksperimentov. Oni pokazhut, imeyutsya li kakie-libo potentsial'nye ehkonomicheskie preimushchestva v novykh formakh topliva. V to zhe vremya budut prodolzhat'sya nastojchivye razrabotki spechenoj UO{sub 2} v prostoj geometrii sterzhnya. (author)

  18. Radioisotope Power Sources; Sources d'energie utilisant les radiobotopes; Radioizotopnye istochniki ehnergii; Fuentes radio isotopicas de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culwell, J. P. [USAEC, Washington, D.C (United States)

    1963-11-15

    , obychno ispuskayut al'fa- ili beta-luchi. Al'fa-izluchateli kak toplivo predstavlyayut bol'shuyu tsennost', no oni stoyat doroge i v to zhe vremya menee dostupny, chem beta-izluchateli, poehtomu ikh, kak pravilo, ispol'zuyut dlya kosmicheskikh zadach. Beta-goryuchee, vydelennoe iz otkhodov reaktora, v nastoyashchee vremya primenyaetsya isklyuchitel'no dlya nazemnykh ili morskikh tselej. Odnako sleduet ozhidat', chto takie beta-izluchateli, kak strontsij-90, v kontse kontsov budut primenyat'sya i v kosmose. V nastoyashchee vremya vedutsya issledovatel'skie raboty s generatorami, v kotorykh v kachestve goryuchego budut primenyat' smeshannye produkty deleniya. Ehto goryuchee budet deshevle, chem chistye radioizotopy, poskol'ku sokratyatsya zatraty na razdelenie izotopov i na ikh ochistku. Prototipom termoehlektri- cheskikh generatorov, pitaemykh strontsiem-90 i tseziem-137, yavlyayutsya uzhe funktsionirujte ili razrabatyvaemye generatory na meteorologicheskikh stantsiyakh, v navigatsii i v glubokovodnykh ustrojstvakh obnaruzheniya. Termoehlektricheskim generatorom, rabotayushchim na plutonii-238, osnashchen iskustvennyj sputnik ''Tranzit'', razrabotannyj voennomorskim vedomstvom SSHA. Razrabatyvayutsya generatory dlya ispol'zovaniya v kosmose Upravleniem po natsional'noj aehronavtike i issledovaniyu kosmicheskogo prostranstva. Vysokaya aktivnost' radioizotopnykh istochnikov ehnergii trebuet, chtoby voprosam bezopasnosti bylo udeleno osoboe vnimanie. Sleduet ustanovit' strogij kontrol' za soblyudeniem tekhniki bezopasnosti i provesti ryad shirokikh ispytanij, chtoby udostoverit'sya, chto radioaktivnye sistemy mogut funktsionirovat', ne nanosya ushcherba okruzhayushchim. (author)

  19. Radiation Synthesis of Stannous Dibromodibutyl; Synthese radiochimique de l'etain dibromopibutyle; Radiatsionno-khimicheskij sintez dibromdibutilolova; Sintesis radioquimica del dffiromodibutilestano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramova, L. V.; Vereshchinskij, I. V.; Kocheshkov, K. A.; Miretskij, V. Yu.; Pozdneev, V. V.; Ryabukhin, Yu. S.; Sheverdina, N. I.

    1963-11-15

    nerzhaveyushchej stali ob''emom 2-1) byl snabzhen meshalkoj. Ustanovka montirovalas' na istochnike {gamma}-izlucheniya Co{sup 60}. Opyty provodilis' pri temperature 80 {+-} 5{sup o}C i atmosfernom davlenii. Moshchnost' dozy sostavlyala {approx}50 rad/sek (po ferrosul'fatnomu dozimetru). Primenyalos' metallicheskoe poroshkoobraznoe olovo i bromistyj butil raznoj stepeni ochistki. Komponenty reaktsii bralis' v razlichnykh sootnosheniyakh. Ustanovlennoe chto v dannykh usloviyakh protekaet napravlennaya radiatsionnokhimicheskaya reaktsiya, v rezul'tate kotoroj v osnovnom obrazuetsya dibromdibutilolovo s vysokim kolichestvennym vykhodom. Pokazano, chto protsess protekaet s induktsionnym periodom, dlitel'nost' kotorogo zavisit ot chistoty iskhodnogo bromistogo butila. EHtot zhe faktor zametno vliyaet ne skorost' obrazovaniya tselevogo produkta. Najdeno, chto olovo, ne voshedshee v reaktsiyu, mozhet povtorno ispol'zovat'sya dlya polucheniya dibromdibutilolova. Pri ehtom polnost'yu ustranyaetsya induktsionnyj period. Otmechennye osobennosti sozdayut predposylki dlya provedeniya nepreryvnogo protsessa. Predlozhen mekhanizm reaktsij dlya ob{sup y}asneniya zakonomernostej protsessa, protekayushchego so znachitel'nym radiatsionno-khimicheskim vykhodom. (author)

  20. Thermodynamic Properties of Alloys of Iron and Silicon; Proprietes Thermodynamiques des Alliages Fer-Silicium; Termodinamicheskie svojstva splavov zheleza s kremniem; Propiedades Termodinamicas de las Aleaciones de Hierro y Silicio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecher, R. A.; Gejderih, V. A.; Gerasimov, Ja. I. [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Universitet Im.M.V. Lomonosova, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1966-01-15

    siliciuros; en efecto, el enlace metalico se transforma en covalente al aumentar el contenido de silicio. A partir de los datos correspondientes a las aleaciones (soluciones de silicio en hierro a) se calculo la actividad del hierro. Se hallo que la transicion {alpha} Rightwards-Harpoon-Over-Leftwards-Harpoon {alpha}' observada anteriormente constituye una verdadera transformacion de fases. La region bifasica es mas ancha que la indicada en el diagrama de equilibrio (basado en los datos publicados). La actividad del hierro en soluciones liquidas, calculada a partir de la actividad del hierro en solucion solida concuerda satisfactoriamente con los datos obtenidos por Chipman. (author) [Russian] Fazovaja dia- gramma Fe-Si slozhna. Pri 1000 Degree-Sign K imejutsja fazy FeSi{sub 2} ({beta}),FeSi i tverdye rastvory kremnija v zheleze {alpha} and {alpha}'. Izmerjalis' JeDS jelektrohimicheskih jacheek: Fe|Fe{sup 2+} , KI + Nal|Fe-Si pr 600-800 Degree-Sign C Splavy gotovili iz osobo chistyh komponentov metodov poroshkovoj metallurgii i dlitel'- no otzhigali. Izucheny desjat' splavov s soderzhaniem kremnija ot 85 do 4%, lezhashhih vo vseh fazovyh poljah razreza diagrammy pri 1000 Degree-Sign K. Vychisleny integral'nye termodinamicheskie velichiny {Delta}G, {Delta}H i {Delta}S dlja obrazovanija silicidov FeSi{sub 2}({beta}), FeSi i Fe{sub 3}Si pri srednej tempera- ture opytnogo intervala (1000 Degree-Sign K), a takzhe (s ispol'zovaniem teploemkostej silicidov, zhe- leza i kremnija) pri 298 Degree-Sign , 1188 Degree-Sign i 1798 Degree-Sign K. Teploty obrazovanija ukazannyh silicidov pri 298 Degree-Sign K (kkal/mol') ravny - 19,4, - 17,6 i - 22,4 sootvetstvenno. Imejushhiesja v literatu- re dannye pozvoljajut vychislit' teplotu obrazovanija FeSi{sub 2,33} ({alpha}-leboita) pri 298 Degree-Sign K, ravnuju - 14,4 kkal/mol'. Vychislennye nami teploty bol'she jeksperimental'nyh velichin Korbera i Ol'sena na 1,5 - Zkkal. Rasschitannye nami teploty smeshenija dlja zhidkih splavov horo- sho

  1. Group cross-sections for fast reactors; Sections efficaces de groupes pour les reacteurs a neutrons rapides; Gruppovye secheniya reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh; Secciones eficaces de grupos para reactores rapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweifel, P P [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ball, G L [Atomic Power Development Associates, Inc., Detroit, MI (United States)

    1962-03-15

    entre coeficientes de difusion de grupos, capacidad de moderacion y secciones eficaces de absorcion. Se demuestra que la definicion de las secciones eficaces de absorcion de grupos basada en integrales de resonancia eficaz que se emplea frecuentemente no es correcta, siendo preciso modificarla de acuerdo con el metodo de grupos multiples que se utilice. (author) [Russian] Daetsya obshchij obzor mnogogruppovykh diffuzionnykh uravnenij i rassmatrivaetsya pravil'naya forma gruppovykh poperechnykh sechenij. V chastnosti, pokazano, chto srednee poperechnoe sechenie perenosa mozhet do nekotoroj stepeni priblizitel'no byt' vyrazheno v vide srednej velichiny svobodnogo probega. Podschet takogo kolichestva zanimaet mnogo vremeni, tak kak on ne poddaetsya vyrazheniyu v vide ehlementarnogo usredneniya ; odnako podtverdilis' nekotorye neravnomernosti chto uproshchaet neobkhodimyj metod usredneniya. Rassmatrivayutsya tri sleduyushchikh voprosa gruppovykh poperechnykh sechenij, kotorye chasto ignoriruyutsya, no kotorye mogut imet' znachenie pri detal'nom izuchenii proekta : a) Ispol'zovanie odnoj i toj zhe serii usrednennykh po gruppam sechenij dlya vsekh reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh nichego ne daet, esli spektry razlichnykh reaktorov ne odinakovy i esli secheniya bystro izmenyayutsya v gruppe; takoe polozhenie chasto imeet mesto. Daetsya opisanie metoda povtoreniya, posredstvom kotorogo ustanavlivaetsya pravil'noe usrednenie, i ehtot metod ispol'zuetsya dlya opredeleniya vliyaniya spektral'nykh ehffektov na reaktornye raschety. b) Pri raschetakh perenosa, takikh, kak S{sub n} usredneniya dolzhny byt' vypolneny kak po uglu, tak i po ehnergii. Tak kak potok nel'zya razdelit' na 'uglovoj' i 'ehnergeticheskij', neobkhodimo ochen' tshchatel'no izbegat' oshibochnykh rezul'tatov. Uravnenie S{sub n} izuchaetsya v vide prostoj modeli, i poluchaetsya kriterij, kotoryj mozhet okazat'sya poleznym pri opredelenii znacheniya uglovoj nerazdelimosti v reaktornykh raschetakh. c) Na osnove

  2. Saddle-Point Rotational States from Resonance Fission of Oriented Nuclei; Etats Rotationnels a l'Etranglement Resultant de la Fission, par Neutrons de Resonance, de Noyaux Orientes; 0412 0420 0410 0429 0410 0422 0415 041b 042c 041d 042b 0415 0421 041e 0421 0422 041e 042f 041d 0418 042f 0421 0415 0414 041b 041e 0412 041e 0419 0422 041e 0427 K 0418 0412 0420 0415 0417 0423 041b 042c 0422 0410 0422 0415 0420 0415 0417 041e 041d 0410 041d 0421 041d 041e 0413 041e 0414 0415 041b 0415 041d 0418 042f 041e 0420 0418 0415 041d 0422 0418 0420 041e 0412 0410 041d 041d 042b 0425 042f 0414 0415 0420 ; Estados Rotacionales en el Punto de Estrangulacion Debidos a la Fision por Resonancia de Nucleos Orientados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabbs, J. W.T.; Walter, F. J.; Parker, G. W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1965-07-15

    mucho mas preciso del numero y naturaleza de los canales de fision disponibles, cuestiones ambas que el fenomeno de la fision suscita desde hace mucho tiempo. En el {sup 235}U se observo, para las resonancias de 1,14 y 8,8 eV, una anisotropfa de los fragmentos de fision proxima al maximo posible, y de signo contrario al de la observada previamente en el caso de los heliones. Asimismo, se comprobo una marcada disminucion de la anisotropia para energias neutronicas proximas a la conocida resonancia de 0,3 eV. Como se carecia de informacion directa sobre los valores J del U se recurrio a un ajuste de niveles multiples a of, analogo al de Kirpichnikov y col., para el que se supuso que J(0,3 eV) Not-Equal-To J(1,14 eV), a diferencia de ajustes anteriores de caracter analogo. Estos datos iniciales son compatibles con una anisotropfa proporcional a la contribucion que se ha calculado aportan a of los dos valores posibles de J. Sin embargo, la forma de la curva no concuerda con otros datos tales como la variacion de la razon cresta a valle de Faler y Tromp; por consiguiente, no deben aceptarse aun como concluyentes los fuertes indicios de que J(0,3 eV) Not-Equal-To J(1,14 eV). Los autores estan efectuando mediciones complementarias para aclarar este concepto. (author) [Russian] Jadra aktinidnyh jelementov urana, neptunija i plutonija mozhno vystroit' v soedinenijah XO{sub 2}Rb(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} putem vzaimodejstvija kvadrupol'nogo momenta jadra s gradientom kristallicheskogo jelektricheskogo polja prosto v rezul'tate ohlazhdenija sootvetstvujushhego edinichnogo kristalla. Vystraivanie jader jetogo tipa sootvetstvuet neravnomernomu uglovomu raspredeleniju osi simmetrii sostavnogo jadra v prostranstve, chto otrazhaet v pervuju ochered' velichinu K. Esli predpolozhit', chto takovo zhe i raspredelenie oskolkov, to poluchim metod dlja ustanovlenija chisla kvantov K v sedlovoj tochke. V Okridzhe byli vypolneny jeksperimenty s vystroennymi jadrami urana-233 i urana{sup -}235 pri

  3. Radiotracer Approaches to Carbamate Insecticide Toxicology; Emploi des radio indicateurs pour l'etude de la toxicologie des insecticides a base de carbamates; Primenenie radioaktivnykh indikatorov dlya izucheniya toksikologii karbamatnykh insektitsidov; Estudio con radioindicadores de la toxico logia de los insecticidas a base de carbamatos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casida, J. E. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1963-09-15

    5-[3-metil-2-dimetilcarbamil]- pirazolina) y un compuesto comparable indican tambien que el ataque oxidante forma derivados N-metilo y N-metilol. Faltan todavia muchos datos sobre la relacion entre esas reacciones de desintaxicacion y el mecanismo de resistencia, la accion de las sustancias sinergicas, la toxicidad selectiva de este grupo de insecticidas, y la naturaleza y el significado de los residuos. Es probable tambien que el metabolismo del Sevin inyectado en las plantas sea oxidativo mas que hidrolitico, pero no se ha establecido todavia la naturaleza de los productos y el mecanismo enzimatico. (author) [Russian] Metilkarbamaty yavlyayutsya odnoj iz glavnykh grupp insektitsidov. Mnogie nerazreshennye problemy toksikologii ehtikh veshchestv mogut byt' legko izucheny pri pomoshchi radioaktivnykh indikatorov. Byli izgotovleny N, N-dimetidkarbamaty, karbonilovaya gruppa kotorykh metilas' C{sup 14}, a takzhe N-metilkar- bamaty, metilovaya, karbonilovaya gruppa i kbl'tsa kotorykh byli mecheny C{sup 14}. Farmakologicheskoe dejstvie ehtikh slozhnykh soedinenij, veroyatno, svyazano s tormozheniem atsetilkholinesteraehy i mozhet vklyuchat' karbamilatsiyu. Mechenie karbonilovoj ili metilovoj gruppy karbamatov daet vozmozhnost' v ikh reaktsiyakh s ochishchennoj kholinesterazoj ili s drugimi ehsterazami kriticheski izuchit' reaktsiyu karbamida tsii, a takzhe legkost' samoproizvol'noj ili vyzvannoj reaktivatsii ili dekarbamilatsii. Fiziologicheskoe znachenie tormozheniya kholinesterazy mozhet byt' izucheno pri pomoshchi vvedeniya mechennogo C{sup 14} atsetata i analiza mechenogo atsetilkholina, nakopivshegosya v nervnykh tkanyakh, ili zhe putem ispol'zovaniya atsetil-C{sup 14}-kholina v kachestve substrata dlya opredeleniya In vitro stepeni tormozheniya kholiya- esterazy v tkanyakh otravlennykh zhivotnykh pri minimal'nom rastvorenii vo vremya analiza ingibitorov i fermentov.Nekotorye'uspekhi byli dostignuty pri pomoshchi mechennykh radioizotopami veshchestv v issledovanii

  4. Controllable Pulse Frequency and Width System for Pulsing and Modulating Fast-Neutron Core Assemblies; Systeme a Frequence et Largeur d'Impulsions Ajustables Permettant la Pulsation et la Modulation de Milieux Multipliants Sous-Critiques a Neutrons Rapides; Sistema reguliruemykh chastoty i shiriny impul'sa, dayushaya impul's i modulyatsiyu razmnozhayushchikh sred na bystrykh nejtronakh; Sistema de Frecuencia y Amplitud de Impulso Ajustables, para Pulsar y Modular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duquesne, M.; Lyon, F.; Schmitt, A. [Association Euratom-CEA-SECNR (France); Nucleaires de Cadarache, Centre d' Etudes [France; Gerbier, R. [Laboratoire des Accelerateurs - CEN de Grenoble (France); Nucleaires de Cadarache, Centre d' Etudes [France

    1965-10-15

    diafragmy. Na pervuju plastinku napravljaetsja ochen' shirokij impul's naprjazhenija, kotoryj snimaet pole, i jeto delaetsja dlja togo, chtoby bystro napravit' puchok na mishen', generirujushhuju nejtrony (nachalo impul'sa). Zatem vtoraja plastinka poluchaet impul's togo zhe tipa, kotoryj vosstanavlivaet pole i snimaet puchok s misheni (konej impul'sa). Front narastanija impul'sov porjadka 10 nanosekund; vremja ischeznovenija s misheni nizhe jetogo poslednego znachenija. Prodolzhitel'nost' impul'sa mozhet svobodno regulirovat'sja v razumnyh predelah sootvetstvujushhej zaderzhkoj vtorogo impul'sa po otnosheniju k pervomu. V opredelennyh sluchajah vremja proleta ionov v plastinkah imeet opredelennoe znachenie po otnosheniju k postepennoj prodolzhitel'nosti, kotoraja k jetomu vremeni primenjaetsja. Dalee odnu iz plastinok zamenjajut uvelichivajushhejsja liniej, k kotoroj posledovatel'no primenjajutsja dva impul'sa. 'Impul's naprjazhenija soprovozhdaet, takim obrazom, sgustok dejtonov, kotoryj daet impul's. Stupenchatye generatory naprjazhenija v pervyh stupenjah imejut tranzistory. Vyhodnymi lampami javljajutsja jelektronnye lampy s diskovymi vyvodami, kotorye dajut vozmozhnost' poluchat' seriju 1500 vol't v techenie neskol'kih nanosekund. My ispol'zuem dvojnye tetrody po 50 mgc dlja impul'sov, prednaznachennyh dlja linii zaderzhki. V sisteme obnaruzhenija primenjaetsja scintilljacionno-fotoumnozhajushhee ustrojstvo, cep' kotorogo sostoit iz shemy sovpadenij-antisovpadenij, vremennogo analizatora i cifrovogo samopisia informacii. (author)

  5. The Use of Research Reactors and Short-Lived Isotopes in the Study of Nuclear-Reactor Fuel Materials; Emploi de Reacteurs de Recherche et de Radioisotopes de Courte Periode dans l'Etude des Combustibles pour Reacteurs Nucleaires; ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКИХ РЕАКТОРОВ И КОРОТКОЖИВУЩИХ ИЗОТОПОВ ПРИ ИЗУЧЕНИИ ТОПЛИВНЫХ МАТЕРИАЛОВ ДЛЯ ЯДЕРННХ РЕАКТОРОВ; Empleo de Reactores de Investigacion y de Isotopos de Periodo Corto en el Estudio de Combustibles Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elleman, T. S.; Townley, C. W.; Sunderman, D. N. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1963-03-15

    ) adsorbirujutsja v ohlazhdaemyh lovushkah iz drevesnogo uglja, razdeljajutsja jeljuirovaniem na frakcii joda, kriptona i ksenona putem hromatografii ka kolonke i analizirujutsja pri pomoshhi gamma-luchevoj spektrometrii. Vysvobozhdaemye obrazcom neletuchie produkty delenija otlagajutsja na sosednej lovushke iz metallicheskoj fol'gi, kotoraja mozhet byt' vynuta v ljuboj moment obluchenija dlja analiza. Vysvobozhdenie produktov delenija, nabljudaemoe dlja razlichnyh uslovij obluchenija, mozhet libo zaviset' ot koncentracii, libo ne zaviset' ot nee i mozhet pokazyvat' predpochtitel'noe vydelenie opredelennyh jelementov, bystroe vysvobozhdenie produktov delenija pri izmenenii temperatury i vysvobozhdenie gazoobraznyh produktov delenija posle ostanovki reaktora. Ispol'zovanie jetogo tehnologicheskogo metoda daet vozmozhnost' poluchit' osnovnuju informaciju otnositel'no povedenija materialov dlja prototipov topliva bez neobhodimosti ispol'zovanija krupnyh ispytatel'nyh reaktorov ili zhe bez ustrojstva kamer dlja obrashhenija s vysokoaktivnymi obrazcami. (author)

  6. Recent Advances in Food Irradiation Research in Japan; Recents Progres de l'Irradiation des Produits Alimentaires au Japon; Poslednie dostizheniya v issledovaniyakh po oblucheniyu produktov pitaniya v Yaponii; Progresos Recientes de las Investigaciones Sobre Irradiacion de Alimentos Realizadas en el Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, A. [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Honkomagome, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    1966-11-15

    'noj programmy po oblucheniju produktov pitanija v oblasti kak fundamental'nyh, tak i prakticheskih problem. V nastojashhee vremja Komissija po atomnoj jenergii predprinimaet usilija po razrabotke programmy issledovanij metodov i ih prakticheskogo primenenija, kotoraja, verojatno, nachnet osushhestvljat'sja v 1967 godu. Sotrudnichestvo issledovatelej v jetoj oblasti privelo k sozdaniju Japonskoj issledovatel'skoj associacii po oblucheniju produktov pitanija, i jeta organizacija, kak ozhidaetsja, budet igrat' vazhnuju rol' v razrabotke nacional'noj programmy. V nastojashhee vremja v Japonii imeetsja okolo 30 radioizotopnyh istochnikov porjadka kilokjuri i pochti takoe zhe chislo generatorov jelektronov, vkljuchaja neskol'ko krupnyh obluchajushhih ustanovok. Prakticheskie issledovanija po oblucheniju produktov v Japonii razdeljajutsja na tri kategorii v zavisimosti ot ih celi. Pervaja - jeto predohranenie produktov pitanija ot.porchi s pomoshh'ju obluchenija; jetim issledovanijam udeljaetsja glavnoe vnimanie. Zaderzhka prorastanija kartofelja, luka i batata, obezzarazhivanija risa, pshenicy i izdelij iz nih i obrabotka nebol'shimi dozami germeticheski upakovannoj ryby i vodnyh zhivotnyh, imejushhih pancir', pri velichine dozy menee 0,5 Mrad i nekotoryh fruktov, takih kak klubnika i apel'siny, - jeto primery potencial'nogo primenenija obluchenija. Interesnoe nabljudenie pri obluchenii risa sostojalo v tom, chto pri obezzarazhivajushhej doze v 5 000- 20 000 rad kachestvennye izmenenija, obnaruzhimye neposredstvenno posle obluchenija, stali posle vos'mimesjachnogo hranenija neznachitel'nymi pri statisticheskom analize organolepticheskih dannyh. Vtoraja kategorija - jeto issledovanija po ocenke vrednyh biologicheskih i biohimicheskih faktorov v produktah pitanija s tochki zrenija zdravoohranenija. Chuvstvitel'nost' k oblucheniju, proizvedennogo Cl. botulinum tipa E, issledovalas' v svjazi s celostnost'ju obluchennyh produktov pitanija. Tret'ja kategorija svjazana s ispol

  7. Irradiation of Poultry and Egg Products; Irradiation de la Volaille et des Ceufs et Derives; Obluchenie domashnej ptitsy, yaits i izdelij iz nikh; Irradiacion de Volateria, Huevos y Productos Derivados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornley, Margaret J. [Sub-Department of Chemical Microbiology, Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1966-11-15

    estudiaran las necesidades y ventajas economicas, la comestibilidad, la preparacion de productos, su envasado y su aceptacion por los consumidores. (author) [Russian] Domashnjaja ptica, jajca i izdelija iz nih mogut uspeshno obrabatyvat'sja s pomoshh'ju razlichnyh processov obluchenija v razlichnyh uslovijah. Kogda rech' idet o zarazhenii Salmonella mozhet osushhestvljat'sja 'radisidacija' s dozami porjadka 0,5 megarad. Jeto osobenno jeffektivno v otnoshenii zamorozhennyh produktov, takih kak jajca i nekotorye vidy domashnej pticy, osobenno utki. Takim zhe obrazom mogut obrabatyvat'sja suhie jaichnye produkty. Dannyj metod detal'no opisan drugimi avtorami (Lej, Mossel). Obrabotka tushek domashnej pticy s tem, chtoby oni mogli hranit'sja v techenie prodolzhitel'nogo vremeni, ili {sup r}adappertizacija{sup ,} mozhet byt' dostignuta s pomoshh'ju doz v 4,5 Mrad. Odnako narjadu s oblucheniem pri jetom dolzhny primenjat'sja drugie processy dlja predotvrashhenija nezhelatel'nyh privkusov. Jeti processy mogut zakljuchat'sja v predvaritel'nom nagrevanii dlja inaktivacii fermentov, obluchenii e zamorozhennom sostojanii, v vakuumnyh ili azotnyh upakovkah ili s aktivirovannym drevesnym uglem v upakovke, i inogda rekomendujutsja otdel'nye metody zharenija. Jeti metody predstavljajut interes dlja vooruzhennyh sil i shiroko izuchajutsja v ramkah programmy issledovanij armii SShA. Process 'radurizacii' v otnoshenii domashnej ptniy, t.e. uvelichenie sroka hranenija putem inaktivacii bol'shej chasti mikroorganizmov, vyzyvajushhih porchu produktov, predstavljajut interes dlja kommercheskogo ispol'zovanija. Dozy v diapazone 0,15-0,25 megarad mogut ispol'zovat'sja bez neblagoprijatnogo vozdejstvija na vkus produktov i uvelichat period hranenija bez porchi, vyzyvaemoj mikroorganizmami, v poltora - tri raza. Neobhodimym javljaetsja hranenie pri nizkih temperaturah (5 Degree-Sign C ili nizhe), i izmenenie vkusovyh kachestv v period hranenija mozhet ogranichit' prodolzhitel'nost' dannogo perioda

  8. Detection of Beta-Emitting Nuclides of Energy >1 Mev in Urine After an Accident by Means of Measurement of the Cerenkov Effect in a Liquid Scintillation Counting System; Detection des Radioelements Emetteurs Beta d'une Energie Superieure a 1 Mev dans l'Urine Apres un Accident, par la Mesure de l'Effet Cerenkov Avec un Ensemble de Comptage a Scintillation Liquide; 041e 0411 041d 0414 ; Deteccion en la Orina de Emisores Beta de Energia Superior a 1 Mev, Despues de un Accidente, por Medicion del Efecto Cerenkov en un Contador de Centelleador Liquido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narrog, J. [Landesinstitut fuer Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1965-06-15

    issledovaniju mochi. Kogda provodilis' jeksperimenty s mochoj, kotoraja ne byla predvaritel'no obrabotana, to izmerenija byli nechuvstvitel'nymi vvidu sil'nogo jeffekta absorbcii. Mochu sleduet podvergnut' ochistke. Pojetomu mochu okisljali s pomoshh'ju KMnO{sub 4}, v rezul'tate chego byla poluchena prozrachnaja zhidkost'. Fon byl ves'ma vysokim, poskol'ku kalij v KMnO{sub 4} soderzhit radioaktivnyj kalij-40, kotoryj takzhe ispuskaet beta-luchi s jenergiej bolee 1 Mjev (1,32 Mjev). My ispol'zovali NaMnO{sub 4} vmesto KMnO{sub 4} i poluchili luchshie rezul'taty. Fon sejchas sostavljaet primerno 30 otsch/min, prichem nizhnij predel (izmerennyj s pomoshh'ju Sr{sup 90}/Y{sup 90}) sostavljaet priblizitel'no 1 mkmkkjuri na 1 ml mochi. Esli v avarijnyh uslovijah nel'zja opredelit' soderzhanie radioaktivnogo kalija-40 v moche (naprimer, pri izmerenii soderzhanija kalija v moche s pomoshh'ju plamennogo fotometra), to takoj metod daet tochno takuju zhe chuvstvitel'nost', chto i drugie metody (naprimer, szhiganie i izmerenie v proporcional'nom schetchike s bol'shoj ploshhad'ju) v dannom sluchae (bolee 2 mkmkkjuri/ml). Izmerenie s pomoshh'ju proporcional'nogo schetchika s bol'shoj ploshhad'ju i dopolnitel'noe opredelenie beta-aktivnosti kalija-40 v moche javljaetsja bolee chuvstvitel'nym i bolee tochnym. Vysheupomjanutyj metod podhodit dlja bystrogo izmerenija bol'shogo soderzhanija aktivnosti v organizme (i posledujushhih jekskrementah) beta-nuklidov s jenergiej bolee 1 Mjev, chto neobhodimo pri avarijnoj situacii. Jeti metody trebujut dlja provedenija analiza ne bolee 90 minut. (author)

  9. Pulsed Irradiation Studies in Mice, Rats and Dogs; Etudes sur l'Exposition de la Souris, du Rat et du Chien a des Rayonnements Pulses; Impul'snoe obluchenie myshej, krys i sobak; Estudios sobre la Irradiacion Pulsante de Ratones, Ratas y Perros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, E. J.; Leong, G. F.; Kendall, K.; Alpen, E. L.; Albright, M. L. [US Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1964-05-15

    } rad/min dlja myshej i Tilde-Operator 2,0 * 10{sup 5} rad/min dlja s obak ). V opytah na myshah DL{sub 30/50} zhivotnyh , obluchennyh nejtronami pri umerennoj moshhnosti dozy 40 rad/min ili gam m a -luch am i pri 100 rad/min, ne otlichalis' v znachitel'noj stepeni ot DL{sub 30/50} zhivotnyh, podvergnutyh takomu zhe oblucheniju, no v forme impul'snogo obluchenija. Podobno jetomu pri izuchenii vnezapnoj smerti u sobak, podvergnutyh odnostoronnemu nejtronnomu oblucheniju, ne obnaruzheno znachitel'noj raznicy v DL{sub 30/50} mezhdu gruppami, obluchennymi s moshhnost'ju 23 rad/min ili podvergnutymi impul'snomu oblucheniju s moshhnost'ju svyshe 1,5 * 10{sup 5} rad/min. Provedeny drugie issledovanija dlja opredelenija zavisimosti v os stanovlenija luchevogo porazhenija u myshej, sozdannogo po metodu rasshheplenija dozy obluchenija, ot moshhnosti, pri kotoroj sozdaetsja pervichnoe subletal'noe porazhenie. Sravnivalas' stepen' vosstanovlenija na 5 -j i 14-jden' posle obluchenijau grupp zhivotnyh, obluchennyh pri moshhnosti 40 ili 9 * 10{sup 4} rad/min, prichem zavisimosti vosstanovlenija ot moshhnosti dozy ne obnaruzheno. (author)

  10. The Determination of Components of Radioactive Decay Mixtures by Computer Analysis of Count-Rate Data; Determination des Composants de Melanges Radioactifs en Decroissance par Analyse a l'Ordinateur des Resultats du Comptage; Opredelenie komponentov smesej radioaktivnogo raspada posredstvom analiza dannykh skorostej scheta s pomoshch'yu schetno-reshayushchego ustrojstva; Determinacion de los Componentes de Mezclas Radiactivas por Analisis de los Datos de Recuento Mediante Calculadoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airman, W. D.F.; Tyler, S. A.; Dipertand, M. H.; Sedlet, J. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1965-10-15

    izmenjaetsja znachitel'nym obrazom za period vremeni nabljudenija, libo v rezul'tate neposredstvennogo raspada, libo vsledstvie narastanija produktov raspada. Dlja kazhdoj novoj smesi predstavljaetsja vozmozhnym predskazat' sostav vozmozhnyh komponentov na osnovanii takih soobrazhenij, kak proishozhdenie i posledujushhaja jevoljucija smesi, harakter himii otdelenija i metod ili metody scheta. Esli takogo roda soobrazhenija primenjajutsja nadlezhashhim obrazom, to sostav vozmozhnyh komponentov vkljuchit vse dejstvitel'nye komponenty smesi. V takom sluchae mozhno sostavit' nadlezhashhie uravnenija narastanija i raspada i reshit' ih odnovremenno dlja poluchenija kazhdogo komponenta, ili zhe smes' mozhet byt' razlozhena na sostavnye chasti graficheski putem jekstrapoljacii linejnyh otrezkov krivoj obshhego raspada i narastanija. Odnako v sluchae bol'shogo chisla komponentov, esli rech' idet o kompleksnyh shemah raspada, jeti dva metoda libo okazyvajutsja nepriemlemymi, libo ne predstavljaetsja vozmozhnym opredelit' velichiny pogreshnostej, svjazannyh s vychislenijami. Otbor komponentov raspada po metodu naimen'shih kvadratov daet luchshuju ocenku, chem samo po sebe odnovremennoe reshenie uravnenij. Pojetomu na osnovanii metoda naimen'shih kvadratov byla vyrabotana programma po fortranu dlja schetno-reshajushhego ustrojstva (oboznachennaja po kodu {sup K}ORD{sup )}, kotoraja razreshaet sledujushhuju obshhuju problemu: zadajutsja momenty vremeni i otschety za edinicu vremeni dlja proby, vozmozhnye ishodnye radioizo- ' topy i shemy ih raspada, a takzhe vse sootvetstvujushhie konstanty raspada i jeffektivnosti obnaruzhenija; trebuetsja podschitat' kolichestvo kazhdogo ishodnogo izotopa, dejstvitel'no prisutstvujushhego v zaranee opredelennoe nulevoe vremja. V dopolnenie k jetomu programma daet kolichestvo ishodnyh i dochernih produktov v ljuboj moment registracii dannyh. Ispol'zovannaja pervonachal'no dlja bioanalizov i dlja analiza vzjatyh iz okruzhajushhej sredy prob, jeta programma

  11. Injection Experiments in Jutphaas; Injection au Centre de Jutphaas; Ehksperimenty s inzhektsiej v institute fiziki plazmy v yutfaas; Experimentos de Inyeccion en Jutphaas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Kluiver, H.; Brandt, H. B.; Strijland, W.; Huizenga, W. [Fom-Instituut voor Plasma-Fysica, Runhuizen, Jutphaas (Netherlands)

    1966-04-15

    10 a 20 {mu}s disminuyen al 20% del valor que tenian antes de la interrupcion del haz; a continuacion decrecen mas lentamente, con una constante de tiempo de 50 {mu}s. El sondeo radial del plasma acusaba un aumento considerable de la corriente colectada hacia el centro, con una disminucion simultanea del tiempo de decrecimiento. Las mediciones sugieren que, durante la inyeccion, se acumula una carga espacial positiva en el centro, que va llenando continuamente la region exterior, mas adiabatica, de la cuspide. Despues de interrumpir el haz, el numero de particulas de la region no adiabatica disminuye con rapidez, mientras que las particulas de la region adiabatica desaparecen mas lentamente (50 {mu}s). (author) [Russian] Provodilis' jeksperimenty po inzhekcii parallel'no osi magnitnogo polja antiprobochnoj geometrii v neadiabaticheskom rezhime. Na modeli s jelektronnym puchkom polovina inzhektirovannogo toka vremenno zahvatyvaetsja. Ustanovleno, chto zavisimost' vremeni uderzhanija ot magnitnogo polja soglasuetsja s raschetom traektorij. Pri vneshnih jelektrostaticheskih poljah bylo dostignuto polnoe uderzhanie za iskljucheniem poter', svjazannyh s rassejaniem na ostatochnom gaze. Byli polucheny protonnye puchki v 75 ma pri 17 kv iz ionnogo istochnika s impul'sami dlitel'nost'ju 2 mksek. Pri naprjazhennosti polja 13 kGs v lovushku vhodil polnyj tok v 35 ma, iz kotoryh 15 ma vyhodili cherez protivopolozhnyj konec ee. Kol'cevoj kollektor v shheli lovushki izmerjal poteri. Ustanovleno, chto vremja spada sostavljalo 50 mksek, chto primerno v dva raza prevyshaet nashu luchshuju ocenku vremeni perezarjadki i v desjat' raz - velichinu, poluchennuju iz analiza neabatichnosti orbit. Integrirovanie tokov po kol'cevoj shheli daet poterju v 10-20 ma. Iz jetih dannyh vytekaet srednjaja plotnost' 0,5 x 10{sup 9} ionov/sm{sup 3}. Zond special'noj formy, sobirajushhij tol'ko gorjachie iony, pokazal v obshhem to zhe povedenie toka, chto i obychnye zondy. Pri davlenii H{sub 2} v 10

  12. Comparison of Clinical and Laboratory Responses in Sheep and Dogs following Whole-Body Exposures to 250-Kvp X-Rays and Fission-Spectrum Neutrons; Etude Comparee Clinique et en Laboratoire, des Reactions de Moutons et de Chiens a la Suite d'une Exposition du Corps Entier a des Rayons X de 250 Kv-Crete et a des Neutrons de Fission; Sravnenie klinicheskikh i laboratornykh dannykh o reaktsii ovets i sobak na obluchenie vsego tela rentgenovskimi luchami pri pikovom napryazhenii 250 Kv i nejtronami spektra deleniya; Estudio Comparado, Clinico y de Laboratorio, de las Reacciones de Ovejas y Perros Consecutivas a la Irradiacion del Cuerpo Entero con Rayos X de 250 KVp y Neutrones de Fision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaife, M. A.; Boer, J. de; Jones, R. K.; Ichiki, A. T.; Godden, W. R.; Davis, H.; Engel, R. E. [Kirtland AFB, New Mexico (United States)

    1964-05-15

    parametro de la hematopoyesis con fines diagnosticos. Las alteraciones patologicas mas significativas se circunscribieron a los pulmones, donde se observaron extensas hemorragias perivasculares. Mediante el microscopio se confirmo que la zona hemorragica estaba situada entre el tejido conjuntivo adventicio y los vasos periarteriales. El indice de mortalidad a los 30 dias, en los perros, fue del 50% despues de la exposicion a los neutrones y del 93% despues de la exposicion a los iayos X. En cuanto a las ovejas, los neutrones ocasionaron una mortalidad de 22% y los rayos X, una de 80%. (author) [Russian] Pjatnadcat' ovec i vosem' sobak byli oblucheny dozoj 400 rad (vozdushnaja doza) pul'sirujushhih nejtronov spektra delenija, a takoe zhe kolichestvo ovec i 14 sobak -dozoj 400 rentgen (sredinnaja vozdushnaja doza) rentgenovskih luchej pri pikovom naprjazhenii 250 kv. Sem' ovec i chetyre sobaki byli ostavleny neobluchennymi dlja kontrolja. Kontrol'nye dannye poluchali v techenie dvuh nedel', predshestvovavshih oblucheniju, a takzhe reguljarno i chasto posle n ego . U ovec naibolee opredelennym klinicheskim izmeneniem bylo polnoe vypadenie shersti k 51 dnju posle obluchenija. Obnazhivshajasja kozha byla rozovogo cveta, ochen' napominajushhego slabyj rumjanec. U sobak vypadenija shersti ne bylo. Posle obluchenija u oboih vidov zhivotnyh rezko upalo soderzhanie formennyh jelementov krovi, nejtrofil'nyh lejkocitov, limfocitov i trombocitov. Primerno na 24-j den' posle obluchenija vosstanovlenie kolichestva lejkocitov bylo otmecheno to l'ko u zhivotnyh, podvergshihsja oblucheniju nejtronami. Urovni trombocitov snizilis' do bezopasno go urovnja u oboih vidov zhivotnyh, no u sobak jeto proizoshlo neskol'ko ran'she. Vosstanovlenie nastupilo na tret'ej nedele posle obluchenija u oboih vidov zhivotnyh, podvergshihsja oblucheniju nejtronami, no ne proizoshlo u zhivotnyh, obluchennyh rentgenovskimi luchami. Issledovanija gematokrita pokazali znachitel'noe sokrashhenie gemoglobina u oboih

  13. The Design and Performance of a Large High resolution Focusing Collimator; Etude d'un Grand Collimateur a Focalisation et Fort Pouvoir de Resolution: Resultats; Konstruktsiya i kharakteristika krupnogo fokusiruyushchego kollimatora s vysokoj stepen'yu razresheniya; Diseno y Funcionamiento de un Gran Colimador Enfocado de Alto Poder de Resolucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, C. C.; Bell, P. R.; Satterfield, M. M.; Ross, D. A.; Jordan, J. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1964-10-15

    udlinennogo svincovogo kollimatora nanosit ushherb osnovnym konstrukcionnym celjam iz - z a uvelichenija skorosti sch et a , esli ne ispol'zuetsja takzhe krupnyj det ek tor. Avtory sproektirovali i sozdali svincovyj kollimator s 91 otverstiem dlja ispol'zovanija s d et ektorom NaJ (T 1 ) r a zm er om 13,5 h 7,5 s m . Fokus nahoditsja na rasstojanii 24 sm ot d et ek tora , a prostranstvennyj ugol vosprijatija analogichen uglam fokusirujushhih kollimatorov pri odnovremennom ispol'zovanii ih s detektorami na 7,5 sm . Maksimal'naja dlina sostavlja et 16,5 sm ; obychnaja dlina konstrukcii sost avlja et 14 sm . Pri dannyh velichinah dliny opticheskie ''okruzhnosti razreshenija'' sostavljajut sootvetstvenno 1,2 i 0,77 sm . Jeti konstrukcii dajut sledujushhee: 1 . Bol e e dlinnoe fokusnoe r a s stojan i e s odn o vremennym uvelicheniem jeffektivnosti scheta blagodarja b ol e e krupnomu ljuminoforu. 2 . Svincovyj kollimator s razreshajushhej sposobnost'ju, kotoruju mozhno sravnit' s bolee korotkimi kollimatorami iz zolot a (skennogramma t ochechnogo istochnika C s-V a 137 imeet di ametr v sego 7 m m ) . 3. Kollimator s vysokoj stepen'ju razreshenija dlja skennirovanija chelovecheskogo organizma i melkih zhivotnyh. 4. Osnovnaja konstrukcija sborki dlja ispol'zovanija kollimatorov s bolee krupnym prostranstvennym uglom dlja uvelichenija jeffektivnosti scheta. Polucheny skennogrammy v sego organizma s primeneniem zolota -198 i jod a -131. Obnaruzhena vozrosshaja jeffektivnost' i razreshenie 14-sm kollimatora. Na skennogramme sobaki s 16,5 sm kollimatorom horosho vidna koncentracija aktivnosti, imejushhaja, ochevidno, v Diametre menee 6m m; aktivnost',lish' v 5 raz prevyshajushhaja ''fon organizma'', vse zhe byla chetko otdelena rasstojaniem 6 mm ot istochnika diametrom 1,8 sm s bolee vysokim (v 50 raz) urovnem aktivnosti. (author)

  14. Physical and Chemical Analysis of the Germinating and Nutritional Properties of Irradiated Wheat; Analyse Physico-Chimique des Caracteristiques Germinatives et Nutritives du Ble Irradie; Fizicheskie i khimicheskie analizy svojstv rosta i pitatel'nykh kachestv obluchennoj pshenitsy; Analisis Fisicoquimico de Trigo Irradiado: Estudio de sus Caracteristicas Germinativas y Nutricionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahissa Campa, J.; Gabarain, R. V.A.; De Pahissa, M. H.H. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Bassa, L. [Junta Nacional de Granos, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1966-11-15

    raskatyvanija testa, soprotivlenie raskatyvaniju, raskatyvanie, otnoshenie soprotivlenija raskatyvaniju k raskatyvaniju), harakteristiki, kasajushhiesja vypechki hleba (ves, ob{sup e}m i udel'nyj ob{sup e}m hleba). Te zhe samye velichiny byli opredeleny takzhe dlja neobluchennoj pshenicy. Dostatochnoe kolichestvo pshenicy bylo oblucheno s tem, chtoby mozhno bylo osushhestvit' analizy obrazcov po istechenii razlichnyh periodov vremeni. Byli najdeny analiticheskie velichiny, menjajushhiesja s dozoj, otmecheny razlichija (s uchetom kontrol'nogo obrazca), registriruemye v teksture, aromate, cvete i vkuse hleba, izgotovlennogo iz pshenicy, obluchennoj samymi bol'shimi dozami. Dlja opredelenija izmenenij v pitatel'nyh svojstvah obluchennaja pshenica byla vkljuchena v racion krys kak neposredstvenno posle obluchenija, tak i spustja nekotoroe vremja. Posle jetogo byli provedeny tshhatel'nye nabljudenija za razvitiem krys, v chastnosti za razvitiem ih kartiny krovi i kostnogo mozga. (author)

  15. Study of Fluidized-Bed Control Rods; Etude de Barres de Controle Fluidisees; Izuchenie reguliruyushchej sistemy, ispol'zuyushchej suspenziyu pogloshchayushchikh chastits; Estudio Sobre Barras de Control de Lecho Fluidificado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, D. J. [General Nuclear Engineering Corporation, Dunedin, FL (United States); Driscoll, M. J.; Dalton, G. R.; Parkinson, T. F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1964-06-15

    sistemu trub podobno sistemam upravlenija, razrabatyvaemym dlja reaktorov s suspenziej topliva. Nekotorye iz vozmozhnyh preimushhestv koncepcii SPCh: 1) ustranjaetsja bol'shinstvo vvodov v verhnjuju chast' korpusa i uproshhaetsja process peregruzki topliva; 2) pri vozniknovenij avarii v rezul'tate poteri potoka proishodit avtomaticheskaja bystraja ostanovka reaktora; 3) osevoe raspredelenie moshhnosti mozhet izmenjat'sja v rezul'tate primenenija special'nyh kanalov ili chastic peremennoj velichiny; 4) rezkoe vozrastanie potoka v vodjanom zazore mozhet byt' umen'sheno dlja chastichno izvlechennogo upravljajushhego sterzhnja; 5) mozhno umen'shit' temperaturnyj ''zapas'' reaktivnosti,esli sistema imeet otricatel'nyj temperaturnyj kojefficient; 6) rashody po izgotovleniju znachitel'no nizhe, chem dlja jelektromehanicheskih sistem. Provedena ocenka koncepcii SMCh, v tom chisle bylo osushhestvleno stroitel'stvo pro- totipnyh modelej i proverka gidravlicheskih i jadernyh harakteristik. Izuchalis' dva tipa: propuskajushhie ''sterzhni'' (tolshhina 2 srednih svbbodnyh probega) i otrazhajushhie ''sterzhni'' (tolshhina 4 srednih svobodnyh probega). Dlja oboih tipov mozhno poluchit' priemlimye gidravlicheskie i jadernye harakteristiki. Obosnovana vozmozhnost' upravlenija reaktorami nizkoj moshhnosti s pomoshh'ju propuskajushhih ili otrazhajushhih upravljajushhih ' sterzhnej''. Dalee bylo pokazano, chto SPCh obladajut horoshimi regulirujushhimi svojstvami, kotorye mozhno rasschitat' standartnymi metodami. V sluchae bol'shoj moshhnosti i vysokoj temperatury neobhodima dopolnitel'naja informacija otnositel'no harakteristik materiala chastic. Bol'shoe preimushhestvo SPCh zakljuchaetsja v vozmozhnosti formirovanija osevogo potoka libo putem ispol'zovanija chastic razlichnoj velichiny i pogloshhenija, libo zhe putem.sootvetstvujushhego formirovanija oblasti poperechnogo sechenija SPCh. (author)

  16. Scanning Techniques for Brain-Tumour, Localization; Techniques Scintigraphies pour la Iocalisation des Tumeurs Cerebrales; Tekhnika skennirovaniya pri opredelenii lokalizatsii opukholej mozga; Tecnicas Centelleograficas para la Localizacion de Tumores Cerebrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, M. H.; Brice, J.; Jones, E.; Mallard, J. R.; Myers, M. L. [Department Of Medical Physics, Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1964-10-15

    vstrechajushhiesja geometricheskie iskazhenija. Oni voznikajut i v otnoshenii bulavochnyh i matrichnyh apertur nabljudenija. Obsuzhdajutsja uluchshenija, dostignutye v rezul'tate rjada izmenenij, napravlennyh na ustranenie zavisimosti razmera izobrazhenija ot jenergii gamma-luchej. Analiz dannyh skennirovanija mozga predstavljaet trudnosti, esli skorost' scheta v issleduemoj oblasti tol'ko nemnogo vyshe, chem'v okruzhajushhej tkani. ''Normal'naja'' diagramma skorosti scheta dlja golovy byla opredelena na osnovanii razdelenija skennogrammy na rjad oblastej, kotorye javljajutsja priblizitel'no jekvivalentnymi anatomicheski u rjada pacientov i putem izmerenija skorosti scheta v predelah scentiskennograficheskih otmetok v kazhdoj oblasti. Pojetomu ljubuju patologicheskuju skennogrammu mozhno sravnivat' s jetoj diagrammoj. Pri takom analize pribegajut k schetno-vychislitel'nym metodam. Ispol'zovanie metoda postojannogo usrednenija takzhe imeet znachenie dlja uluchshenija vizual'nogo nabljudenija otklonenij ot normy vblizi granic detektirovanija v podvizhnyh detektornyh sistemah. Rassmatrivajutsja vozmozhnosti primenenija s jetoj cel'ju mnogokanal'nyh analizatorov i ispol'zovanija v to zhe vremja novogo cennogo vosproizvodjashhego ustrojstva kak dlja podvizhnoj, tak i stacionarnoj sistem. (author)

  17. Biological Effects of Thermal Neutrons and the B{sup 10}(n, {alpha}) Li{sup 7} reaction; Effets Biologiques des Neutrons Thermiques et la Reaction {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7}Li; Biologicheskoe dejstvie teplovykh nejtronov i reaktsiya B{sup 10}(n, {alpha}) Li{sup 7}; Efectos Biologicos de los Neutrones Termicos y la Reaccion {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7}Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambeau, J. O.; Alcober, V.; Calvo, W. G.; Brenneis, H. [Medical Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1964-05-15

    -izluchenija, pojavljajushhegosja pri zahvate teplovyh nejtronov jelementami tkani i jekranirujushhih materialov, a takzhe gamma-izluchenija i obluchenija bystrymi nejtronami, pojavljajushhimisja pri processah delenija v aktivnoj zone reaktora. Konechnyj rezul'tat obluchenija teplovymi nejtronami javljaetsja funkciej padajushhego potoka nejtronov. Poskol'ku plotnost' potoka teplovyh nejtronov v tkani bystro padaet (sloj polovinnogo pogloshhenija Approximately-Equal-To 1,8 sm), dlja obespechenija vysokih doz v glubine na poverhnost' dolzhny popadat' bol'shie dozy. Pojetomu reakcii legkih, kishechnika, kostnogo mozga i slizistoj obolochki zavisjat glavnym obrazom, ot gamma-obluchenija v rezul'tate zahvata nejtronov vyshelezhashhimi tkanjami. Obluchenie golovy u sobak pri nejtronnom potoke 1.4 x 10{sup 14}/cm{sup 2} privodit k jepiljacii, jeriteme i vlazhnoj deskvamacii s soputstvujushhim ugneteniem krovotvorenija. Odnako v techenie 25-30 dnej na''ljudaetsja vosstanovlenie dejatel'nosti kostnogo mozga i izlechenie kozhnyh porazhenij. Pri nejtronnom obluchenii zhivotnyh 5 x 10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2} cherez 30 minut posle vnutrivennogo vvedenija 35 mg/kg bora-10 u zhivotnyh nabljudaetsja nekroticheskij jepidermit, otek kozhi golovy i kon{sup j}unktivit. B mozgu obnaruzhivajutsja kapiljarnye krovoizlijanija i staz s povrezhdeniem nejtronov i astrocitov i narusheniem jendotileja kapilljarov. Znachitel'no umen'shaetsja chislo trombocitov, kotoroe usugubljaet mestnye izmenenija. Zhivotnye pogibajut ot krovotechenij i/ili mozgovyh narushenij na 5 -8-j den' posle obluchenija. Jeti jeffekty svjazyvajut kak s gamma- tak i s al'fa-oblucheniem, voznikajushhim pri zahvate nejtronov borom (B{sup 10}(n, {alpha}) Li{sup 7}). Obluchenie kozhi svinej pri 5 x 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} ne privodit k gistologicheskim izmenenijam. Pri obluchenii kozhi posle vnutrivennogo vvedenija 35 mg/kg bora-10 pri takoj zhe moshhnosti nejtronnogo potoka razvivaetsja klassicheskij radio-jepidermit, izlechivajushhijsja cherez36 -40 dnej

  18. Special Nuclear Material Control by the Power Reactor Operator; Controle des Matieres Nucleaires Speciales par l'Exploitant d'une Centrale Nucleaire; Spetsial'nyj kontrol' nalichiya yadernykh materialov operatorom ehnergeticheskogo reaktora; Control de Materiales Nucleares Especiales por Parte de Quienes Operan el Reactor de Potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordin, R. A. [Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Boston, MA (United States)

    1966-02-15

    debido a un control deficiente de los combustibles nucleares y a la falta de precision en las operaciones contables. La administracion de materiales nucleares requiere que los explotadores de los reactores de potencia lleven una contabilidad completa y detallada. No es necesario que los documentos sean complejos si lo que se pretende es que sean completos y adecuados. En realidad, la sencillez es sobremanera conveniente. A pesar de que el combustible nuclear es un combustible nuevo y totalmente distinto de los de tipo tradicional, no hay que rodear su utilizacion de ninguna aureola de misterio. El control de los materiales nucleares no es una simple labor de inventario, sino que constituye la base de muchas otras operaciones inherentes a la explotacion de los reactores de potencia, por ejemplo: el transporte del combustible irradiado, su regeneracion con la correspondiente contabilizacion del combustible recuperado y del material producido durante el funcionamiento del reactor, y, por ultimo, el establecimiento de un sistema de seguros adecuado. (author) [Russian] Otnositel'no novoe i chrezvychajno cennoe toplivo dlja proizvodstva jelektrojenergii, a imenno uran, trebuet ochen' tshhatel'nogo ucheta s momenta, kogda operator reaktora prinimaet na sebja material'nuju otvetstvennost' za jetot material, i do togo momenta, kogda jetot material v vide chastichno otrabotannogo topliva peredaetsja na druguju ustanovku, gde regeneriruetsja ostavshajasja chast' ego pervonachal'noj cennosti. Bol'shaja chast' operatorov jenergeticheskih reaktorov, do pojavlenija v svet jadernoj jenergetiki, rabotala na jelektrostancijah s obychnym iskopaemym toplivom i /zhe davno vyrabotala dostatochno polnye i nadezhnye formy kontrolja za ego rashodovaniem. Operator reaktora dolzhen raspolagat' ne menee nadezhnymi sposobami ucheta jadernyh materialov, ispol'zuemyh na ego ustanovke. Jekspluatacija jenergeticheskih reaktorov ne imeet bol'shoj istorii, i na protjazhenii otnositel'no korotkogo perioda

  19. A Scintillation Camera for Kinetic Studies of the Distribution of Radioactive Nuclides in the Brain; Chambre a Scintillation pour des Etudes sur la Cinetique de la Repartition des Radionucleides dans le Cerveau; Stsintillyatsionnaya kamera dlya kineticheskogo issledovaniya raspredeleniya radioaktivnykh izotopov v tkani mozga; Camara de Centelleo para Estudiar la Cinetica de la Distribucion de Radionuclidos en el Cerebro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, W. [Radiological Research Laboratory, Department Of Radiology, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Schlesinger, E. B.; De Boves, S. [Department of Neurological Surgery, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    1964-10-15

    corresponder a la situacion espacial de los contadores de centelleo. La modulacion de la intensidad del haz del osciloscopio y la supresion de la actividad de fondo facilitan la visualizacion de la distribucion de actividad. (author) [Russian] Razrabotana scintil- ljacionnaja kamera, special'no prednaznachennaja dlja izuchenija kinetiki raspredelenija radioaktivnyh izotopov v tkani mozga. Jetot pribor sostoit iz dvuh grupp, aktivirovannyh talliem kristallov NaJ razmerom 1,8 X 2,5 sm , prichem 63 kristalla kazhdoj gruppy soboany v porjadok 7 x 9 na 2 ,5 -sm centrah. Jeti gruppy m ogut byt' raspolozheny takim o'razom, chtoby odnovremenno poluchat' ob e bokovye proekcii ili odnu bokovuju i odnu za dne-perednjuju ili peredne-zadnjuju proekciju. Pole zrenija kazhdogo kristalla ogranicheno kollimatorom, so stojashhim iz 19 suzhivajushhihsja kanalov s parallel'nymi osjam i. Jeta konstrukcija imeet chuvstvitel'nost' pochti ravnuju polnoj shirote na polovine rasstojanija douslovnogo istochnika opuholi po vsem rasstojanijam do 10 cm ot perednej chasti kollimatora. Jeta chuvstvitel'nost' dostatochno shiroka, chtoby izbezhat' neradioaktivnyh zon , i v to zhe vremja dostatochno uzka , chtoby pozvolit' tochnoe nabljudenie raspredelenija aktivnosti v techenie neskol'kih minut, pri ispol'zovanii normal'nyh indikatornyh doz j o d a -131. Kazhdyj kristall opticheski s o edinen so svoim fotoumnozhitelem v obshhej upakovke. Vyhodnye impul'sy fotoumnozhitelej analizirujutsja s pomoshh'ju diskriminatorov i informacija hranitsja v cifrovoj forme v chetverti zapominajushhego ustrojstva 512-kanal'nogo analizatora vysokih impul'sov. Sovpadajushhie po vremeni impul'sy iz razlichnyh d e tektorov mogut prinimat'sja v jetoj ust anovke s neznachitel'nymi p ot er jam i . Schityvanie dannyh vozmozhno v neskol'kih formah. Mozhno poluchit' dannye v cifrovoj forme, v mashinopisnoj forme ili v vide perfokart. Poslednie mozhno vvesti obratno v pribor dlja povtornogo izuchenija. Analogichnoe schityvanie

  20. Studies on radiation-image detectors; Etudes sur les detecteurs a images de rayonnements; Izuchenie detektorov izobrazheniya radiatsii; Estudios sobre detectores de radiaciones productores de imagenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiffel, L [Armour Research Foundation, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1962-04-15

    expone datos relativos a sus caracteristicas opticas, que son tambien aplicables a la tecnologia de la camara de centelleo. Examina brevemente algunos tipos de detectores productores de imagenes, que podrian construirse empleando gruesos bloques de sustancias capaces de acumular energia en cantidad considerable y de producir fosforescencia estimulada cuando se someten a irradiacion, asi como algunos metodos de lectura en los que se emplean haces opticos de exploracion para evitar la disminucion de poder de resolucion debida al espesor finito del fosforo. (author) [Russian] Opisana provodimaya v nastoyashchee vremya rabota po izucheniyu detektorov izobrazheniya radiatsii, sposobnykh sokhranyat' informatsiyu o prostranstvennom raspredelenii. My zanimaemsya, glavnym obrazom, izucheniem problem, svyazannykh s opredeleniem raspredeleniya intensivnosti radiatsii na ploskosti, a vozmozhno, i na tsilindricheskoj poverkhnosti. V ehtu kategoriyu problem vkhodyat diffraktsiya nejtronov i radiografiya, a takzhe radiografiya rentgenovskikh luchej i gamma-izluchenij, ili zhe issledovanie rasseyaniya s pomoshch'yu takikh vidov izluchenij. Osobyj upor delaetsya na izuchenie detektorov izobrazheniya radiatsii, osnovannykh na razrushenii iskr, i na lyuminestsentsii ili navedennoj fosforestsentsii. My vyrabotali schetchiki iskr ochen' bol'shikh razmerov, vesom bolee 100 funtov, imeyushchie svetochuvstvitel'nye poverkhnosti poryadka 2000 kv. sm., kotorye snabzheny sistemoj ustupchatykh ploskostej pochti s 400 anodnykh i katodnykh provodov. Primenenie schetchikov, napolnennykh VOZDUKHOM ili gazovoj smes'yu argona s metanom dlya izmereniya potoka, sozdaet ustrojstvo, chuvstvitel'noe k al'fa-chastitsam, a obnaruzhenie medlennykh nejtronov dostigaetsya plastinami preobrazovatelya, obogashchennogo B{sup 10}. S drugimi zapolnyayushchimi gazami obnaruzhivalas' chuvstvitel'nost' k protonam i ehlektronam. Registratsiya raspredeleniya intensivnosti dostigaetsya fotograficheskoj s{sup e

  1. Fission-Fragment Angular, Energy, and Mass Division Correlations for the U{sup 234} (d, Pf) Reaction; Correlation des Angles, des energies et des Masses pour les Fragments de Fission Produits par la Reaction {sup 234}U(d, pf); K 041e 0420 0420 0415 041b 042f 0426 0418 042f 041c 0415 0416 0414 0423 0420 0410 0421 041f 0420 0415 0414 0415 041b 0415 041d 0418 0415 041c 041e 0421 K 041e 041b K 041e 0412 0414 0415 041b 0415 041d 0418 042f 041f 041e 0423 0413 041b 0423 , 041f 041e 042d 041d 0415 0420 0413 0418 0418 0418 041f 041e 041c 0410 0421 0421 0415 0412 0420 0415 0417 0423 041b 042c 0422 0410 0422 0415 0420 0415 0410 K 0426 0418 0419 (d, pf) 0423 0420 0410 041d 0410 -234; Correlaciones Entre la Distribucion Angular, la Energia y la Division Masica de los Fragmentos en la Reaccion {sup 234}U (d, pf)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenbosch, R. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Unik, J. P.; Huizenga, J. R. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1965-07-15

    pruebas de que les propiedades del punto de estrangulacion influyen sobre la division final de las masas. El promedio de la energia cinetica total liberada en la fision varia en menos del 0,5% para los distintos canales observados en el punto de estrangulacion. Tambien se ha estudiado la variacion de la energia cinetica total en funcion de la razon masica. (author) [Russian] Delenie slozhnogo jadra urana-235 pri priblizhenii k porogu ego delenija izuchalos' pri pomoshhi reakcii (d, pf) urana-234. V celjah odnovremennoj registracii dlja kazhdogo sovpadajushhego sobytija dvuh kineticheskih jenergij oskolkov delenija i jenergij protona byl ispol'zovan trehparametrovyj analizator. Jenergija vozbuzhdenija, pri kotoroj proishodit delenie, opredeljaetsja kineticheskoj jenergiej sryva protona. Izmenenie uglovoj anizotropii v zavisimosti ot jenergii vozbuzhdenija ukazyvaet na znachitel'no bol'shuju zavisimost' ot struktury, chem jeto bylo polucheno Lamfirom dlja togo zhe jadra v rezul'tate bombardirovki urana-234 bystrymi nejtronami. V sedlovine nabljudalos' po men'shej mere vosem' kanalov delenija dlja intervala jenergii mezhdu porogom i 2 Mjev svyshe poroga. Dlja bolee znachitel'nyh deformacij, bolee tochno opisyvajushhih konfiguraciju sedloviny, oyli prodelany raschety tipa nilssona dlja jenergii odinochnoj chasticy dlja deformirovannogo jadra. Sostojanija odinochnoj chasticy, vyjavlennye Lamfirom, sovmestimy s podschitannymi sostojanijami, priolizhajushhimisja k poverhnosti Fermi dlja ogranichennyh deformacij sedloviny. Glavnoj prichinoj dlja provedenija jetogo jeksperimenta bylo stremlenie izyskat' vozmozhnuju korreljaciju mezhdu asimmetriej massy i uglovoj anizotropiej. Vyhody massy, poluchennye' iz korrelirovannyh jenergij oskolkov, ne ukazyvajut na izmenenie anizotropii v zavisimosti ot massovogo sootnoshenija v protivopolozhnost' jeksperimentam, v kotoryh jenergija vozbuzhdenija, pri kotoroj proishodit delenie, ne javljaetsja postojannoj, i pri kotoroj nabljudalas

  2. The adsorption of hydrogen on a molecular sieve at -196{sup o}C and the observation of an isotope effect; Adsorption d'hydrogene sur un tamis moleculaire a -196{sup o}C et observation d'un effet isotopique; Absorbtsiya vodoroda na molekulyarnom fil'tre pri -196{sup o} i nablyudenie rezul'tatov dejstviya izotopov; Adsorcion de hidrogeno en un tamiz molecular a -196{sup o}C y observacion de un efecto isotopico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncombe, W G [Wellcome Research Laboratories, Beckenham, Kent (United Kingdom)

    1962-03-15

    adsorbio en el tamiz molecular cerca del 99 % del hidrogeno inicial antes de comenzar la desorcion por bombeo. Por lo tanto, parece probable que el considerable fraccionamiento observado tenga lugar principalmente durante la desorcion y que el efecto carezca de importancia cuando el tamiz se emplea para manipular pequenos volumenes de isotopos del hidrogeno ya que, por lo general, la desorcion total se efectuara por calentamiento. (author) [Russian] Ispytyvalsya molekulyarnyj fil'tr Linde 4 A v kachestve vozmozhnogo sredstva obrashcheniya s nebol'shimi ob{sup e}mami izotopov vodoroda v vakuume, vmesto primenyayushchegosya v nastoyashchee vremya nasosa Toiplera. Davlenie ravnovesiya (P) izmeryaetsya razlichnymi ob{sup e}mami (V) vodoroda, absorbiruemogo odnim grammom fil'tra pri temperature -196{sup o}. EHksperimenty s aktivirovannym drevesnym uglem pokazyvayut preimushchestvo fil'tra kak absorbenta vodoroda. Odin gramm fil'tra v sisteme s ob{sup e}mom v 500 ml absorbiruet okolo 97 % odnogo ml obraztsa vodoroda. Absorbtsiya neznachitel'na pri temperature -78{sup o}, i desorbtsiya yavlyaetsya kolichestvennoj i b'kpro protekaet pri komnatnoj temperature. Vozmozhnost' rezul'tatov dejstviya izotopa izuchalas' putem absorbirovaniya izmeryaemykh ob{sup e}mov tritiya (5 millikyuri/mol') pri ravnomernom davlenii okolo 5 mm, pri ehtom proiskhodilo vykachivanie sistemy v periode do 15 minut i izmerenie ob{sup e}ma ostatochnogo vodoroda. Poslednij prevrashchalsya kolichestvenno v vodu, zatem v butan i gaz. Udel'naya aktivnost' byla vsegda vyshe, chem aktivnost' tritiya, kotoryj prokhodil 10 tsiklov absorbtsii i desorbtsii bez promezhutochnogo vykachivaniya s tem, chtoby ne bylo nikakikh chistykh poter' gaza. EHto imelo takuyu zhe udel'nuyu aktivnost', kak u neobrabotannogo tritiya, vzyatogo iz rezervnoj kolby. Bylo obnaruzheno, chto logarifm (ostatochnyj ob{sup e}m/nachal'nyj ob{sup e}m) proportsionalen 1/logarifm (ostatochnaya udel'naya aktivnost'/ nachal'naya udel'naya aktivnost') v

  3. Reactor Physics Development for Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactors; Recherches en Physique des Reacteurs, pour des Reacteurs Perfectionnes Refroidis par un Gaz; Razrabotka metodov v oblasti reaktornoj fiziki dlya usovershenstvovannogo reaktora s gazovym okhlazhdeniem; Progresos de la Fisica de los Reactores de Tipo Avanzado Refrigerados por Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (United Kingdom)

    1964-04-15

    reshetki dlja reaktora AGR i proverki teoreticheskih metodov, razrabotannyh dlja geterogennyh aktivnyh zon reaktorov, ispol'zovalis' kriticheskaja ustanovka APEX i reaktor nulevoj moshhnosti HERO s obychnymi raspolozhenijami reshetok , i kombinacijami izmenjajushhih rabotu reaktora jelementov, naprimer regulirujushhih sterzhnej. Teoreticheskie metody, razrabotannye i primen