Sample records for zeta potential analysis

  1. Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis for Determination of Hydrodynamic Diameter, Concentration, and Zeta-Potential of Polyplex Nanoparticles.

    Wilson, David R; Green, Jordan J


    Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) is a recently developed nanoparticle characterization technique that offers certain advantages over dynamic light scattering for characterizing polyplex nanoparticles in particular. Dynamic light scattering results in intensity-weighted average measurements of nanoparticle characteristics. In contrast, NTA directly tracks individual particles, enabling concentration measurements as well as the direct determination of number-weighted particle size and zeta-potential. A direct number-weighted assessment of nanoparticle characteristics is particularly useful for polydisperse samples of particles, including many varieties of gene delivery particles that can be prone to aggregation. Here, we describe the synthesis of poly(beta-amino ester)/deoxyribonucleic acid (PBAE/DNA) polyplex nanoparticles and their characterization using NTA to determine hydrodynamic diameter, zeta-potential, and concentration. Additionally, we detail methods of labeling nucleic acids with fluorophores to assess only those polyplex nanoparticles containing plasmids via NTA. Polymeric gene delivery of exogenous plasmid DNA has great potential for treating a wide variety of diseases by inducing cells to express a gene of interest.

  2. A study on the zeta potential of microcapsules during ageing.

    Labhasetwar, V D; Dorle, A K


    Gelatin, methylcellulose and agar microcapsules were prepared with and without suphadiazine. The zeta potential of these microcapsules was measured at regular intervals during ageing at 45 degrees C. An initial sharp rise in zeta potential is followed by a progressive decrease. Zeta potential could prove to be a useful parameter to study the changes occurring in the encapsulating material of microcapsules during ageing.

  3. Wettability Studies Using Zeta Potential Measurements

    Ghada Bassioni


    Full Text Available Wettability studies have been carried out on reservoir rocks using different techniques such as the Amott-Harvey method, the USBM method, and the contact angle method, all with limitations. In this study, the wettability is studied by discussing the surface charge using zeta potential measurements. The study relies on the finding that carbonated reservoir rocks, consisting of CaCO3 mainly, are positively charged and their surface has the potential to adsorb significant quantities of anions. Moreover, heavy fractions such as asphaltenes are reported to remain afloat depending on dispersive forces present in the oil and its various fractions. Experiments are carried out on aqueous limestone suspension with the addition of crude oil. The experiment is repeated with the use of polymeric inhibitors, A and B. The zeta potential is found to alter depending on the sequence of polymeric inhibitor in oil/water addition. The inhibitor is found to adsorb on the limestone surface, with a net negative charge, causing repulsion between crude oil and the inhibitor and, hence, preventing the deposition of heavy fractions and particularly asphaltenes. This study gives a comprehensive insight on the mechanism of polymeric inhibitor interaction with the surface and the effect of wettability on its performance.

  4. Zeta potential in colloid science principles and applications

    Hunter, Robert J; Rowell, R L


    Zeta Potential in Colloid Science: Principles and Applications covers the concept of the zeta potential in colloid chemical theory. The book discusses the charge and potential distribution at interfaces; the calculation of the zeta potential; and the experimental techniques used in the measurement of electrokinetic parameters. The text also describes the electroviscous and viscoelectric effects; applications of the zeta potential to areas of colloid science; and the influence of simple inorganic ions or more complex adsorbates on zeta potential. Physical chemists and people involved in the stu

  5. Characterization of an Effective Cleaning Procedure for Aluminum Alloys: Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy and Zeta Potential Analysis

    Cherepy, N J; Shen, T H; Esposito, A P; Tillotson, T M


    We have developed a cleaning procedure for aluminum alloys for effective minimization of surface-adsorbed sub-micron particles and non-volatile residue. The procedure consists of a phosphoric acid etch followed by an alkaline detergent wash. To better understand the mechanism whereby this procedure reduces surface contaminants, we characterized the aluminum surface as a function of cleaning step using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). SERS indicates that phosphoric acid etching re-establishes a surface oxide of different characteristics, including deposition of phosphate and increased hydration, while the subsequent alkaline detergent wash appears to remove the phosphate and modify the new surface oxide, possibly leading to a more compact surface oxide. We also studied the zeta potential of <5 micron pure aluminum and aluminum alloy 6061-T6 particles to determine how surface electrostatics may be affected during the cleaning process. The particles show a decrease in the magnitude of their zeta potential in the presence of detergent, and this effect is most pronounced for particles that have been etched with phosphoric acid. This reduction in magnitude of the surface attractive potential is in agreement with our observation that the phosphoric acid etch followed by detergent wash results in a decrease in surface-adsorbed sub-micron particulates.

  6. Zeta-potential of fouled thin film composite membrane

    Ikeda, K.; Hachisuka, H.; Nakamura, T. [Nitto denko Corp., Ibaraki, (Japan); Kimura, S. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Environ. Chemical Engineering; Ueyama, K. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    The surface zeta-potential of a cross-linked polyamide thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane was measured using an electrophoresis method. It was confirmed that this method could be effectively applied to analyze the fouling of such membranes. It is known that the water flux of membranes drastically decreases as a result of fouling by surfactants. Although the surfactants adsorbed on reverse osmosis membranes could not be detected by conventional methods such as SEM, EDX and FT-IR, their presence could be clarified by the profile measurements of the surface zeta-potential. The profiles of the membrane surface zeta-potentials changed to more positive values in the measured pH range as a result of fouling by cationic or amphoteric surfactants. This measuring method of surface zeta-potentials allowed us to analyze a very small amount of fouling of a thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane. This method could be used to analyze the fouled surface of the thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane which is used for production of ultrapure water and shows a remarkable decrease in flux. It also became clear that this method is easy and effective for the reverse osmosis membrane surface analysis of adsorbed materials such as surfactants. (author)

  7. The Isolation of DNA by Polycharged Magnetic Particles: An Analysis of the Interaction by Zeta Potential and Particle Size

    Yazan Haddad


    Full Text Available Magnetic isolation of biological targets is in major demand in the biotechnology industry today. This study considers the interaction of four surface-modified magnetic micro- and nanoparticles with selected DNA fragments. Different surface modifications of nanomaghemite precursors were investigated: MAN37 (silica-coated, MAN127 (polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated, MAN158 (phosphate-coated, and MAN164 (tripolyphosphate-coated. All particles were positive polycharged agglomerated monodispersed systems. Mean particle sizes were 0.48, 2.97, 2.93, and 3.67 μm for MAN37, MAN127, MAN164, and MAN158, respectively. DNA fragments exhibited negative zeta potential of −0.22 mV under binding conditions (high ionic strength, low pH, and dehydration. A decrease in zeta potential of particles upon exposure to DNA was observed with exception of MAN158 particles. The measured particle size of MAN164 particles increased by nearly twofold upon exposure to DNA. Quantitative PCR isolation of DNA with a high retrieval rate was observed by magnetic particles MAN127 and MAN164. Interaction between polycharged magnetic particles and DNA is mediated by various binding mechanisms such as hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Future development of DNA isolation technology requires an understanding of the physical and biochemical conditions of this process.

  8. The Isolation of DNA by Polycharged Magnetic Particles: An Analysis of the Interaction by Zeta Potential and Particle Size.

    Haddad, Yazan; Xhaxhiu, Kledi; Kopel, Pavel; Hynek, David; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech


    Magnetic isolation of biological targets is in major demand in the biotechnology industry today. This study considers the interaction of four surface-modified magnetic micro- and nanoparticles with selected DNA fragments. Different surface modifications of nanomaghemite precursors were investigated: MAN37 (silica-coated), MAN127 (polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated), MAN158 (phosphate-coated), and MAN164 (tripolyphosphate-coated). All particles were positive polycharged agglomerated monodispersed systems. Mean particle sizes were 0.48, 2.97, 2.93, and 3.67 μm for MAN37, MAN127, MAN164, and MAN158, respectively. DNA fragments exhibited negative zeta potential of -0.22 mV under binding conditions (high ionic strength, low pH, and dehydration). A decrease in zeta potential of particles upon exposure to DNA was observed with exception of MAN158 particles. The measured particle size of MAN164 particles increased by nearly twofold upon exposure to DNA. Quantitative PCR isolation of DNA with a high retrieval rate was observed by magnetic particles MAN127 and MAN164. Interaction between polycharged magnetic particles and DNA is mediated by various binding mechanisms such as hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Future development of DNA isolation technology requires an understanding of the physical and biochemical conditions of this process.

  9. Generation of directional EOF by interactive oscillatory zeta potential.

    Kuo, Chih-Yu; Wang, Chang-Yi; Chang, Chien-Cheng


    A steady directional EOF due to a nonlinear interaction between oscillatory axial electrical fields and oscillatory wall potentials (zeta potentials) is presented. This is a new mechanism to produce such a mean flow. It is found that the flow velocity depends not on the external driving frequency but on the phase angle difference between the electric fields and the zeta potentials. The formulation can also be reduced to the static EOF straightforwardly. For the purpose of theoretical demonstration, we use the Debye-Huckel approximation for the zeta potential. Results of planar and cylindrical capillaries are given.

  10. A study on zeta potential and dielectric constant of liposomes.

    Labhasetwar, V; Mohan, M S; Dorle, A K


    Zeta potential and dielectric constant of the liposomes were measured to study the effect of some of the formulation factors and in vitro ageing. Sonication affects zeta potential and dielectric constant of the liposomes. The ageing study showed an increase in the dielectric constant and zeta potential of liposomes at different storage temperatures. These two electrical parameters could be useful in studying structural alterations in liposomal vesicles and system as a function of different conditions. Particle size distribution and optical density were also measured, for comparison.

  11. Zeta potential of microfluidic substrates: 2. Data for polymers.

    Kirby, Brian J; Hasselbrink, Ernest F


    Zeta potential data are reviewed for a variety of polymeric microfluidic substrate materials. Many of these materials currently used for microchip fabrication have only recently been employed for generation of electroosmotic flow. Despite their recent history, polymeric microfluidic substrates are currently used extensively for microchip separations and other techniques, and understanding of the surface zeta potential is crucial for experimental design. This paper proposes the use of pC (the negative logarithm of the counterion concentration) as a useful normalization for the zeta potential on polymer substrates in contact with indifferent univalent counterions. Normalizing zeta by pC facilitates comparison of results from many investigators. The sparseness of available data for polymeric substrates prevents complete and rigorous justification for this normalization; however, it is consistent with double layer and adsorption theory. For buffers with indifferent univalent cations, normalization with the logarithm of the counterion concentration in general collapses data onto a single zeta/pC vs. pH curve, and (with the exception of PMMA) the repeatability of the data is quite encouraging. Normalization techniques should allow improved ability to predict zeta potential performance on microfluidic substrates and compare results observed with different parameters.

  12. Zeta Potential and Rheological Behavior of ULC Castables Matrix

    XU Yuanchao; WANG Zhanmin; CAO Xiying


    Effects of starting materials and four dispersants (STP, SHP, FDN and FS60) on Zeta potential and rheological behavior of alumina based ULC castables matrix were investigated. The results show that: characteristics of silica fume and alumina cements play a very important role in Zeta potential and viscosity of suspensions of the castables matrix; the dispersants STP and SHP can change Zeta potential values of the matrix suspensions remarkably; the four dispersants can effectively improve the rheological properties of matrix suspensions. For the point of lower viscosity of the matrix suspensions, the suitable additions of the three dispersants (SHP, FDN and FS60) are about 0.2% while that of STP is about 0.3%.

  13. Granulometric structure, zeta potential and differential scanning calorimetry of native starch powders from Dioscorea spp.

    Gildas K. Gbassi


    Full Text Available Starch powders from two cultivars of Dioscorea rotundata (DR were analysed on the physicochemical aspect. Granulometric structure, zeta potential and differential scanning calorimetry of starch powders showed the following properties. Various shapes with predominance of granule ranging from 10 to 40 μm were noted. The zeta potential of DR went from positive values to negative values as the pH was increasing from 2 to 8. From pH 2 to 4, the zeta potential was positive. A significant difference was obtained between each value (p > 0.05. The zeta potential took a negative value from pH 5 and above. The results of thermal analysis show that starches start swelling at 68.91.5 C. Enthalpy of gelatinization was about 15 J.g-1 .

  14. Zeta-function approach to Casimir energy with singular potentials

    Khusnutdinov, N R


    In the framework of zeta-function approach the Casimir energy for three simple model system: single delta potential, step function potential and three delta potentials is analyzed. It is shown that the energy contains contributions which are peculiar to the potentials. It is suggested to renormalize the energy using the condition that the energy of infinitely separated potentials is zero which corresponds to subtraction all terms of asymptotic expansion of zeta-function. The energy obtained in this way obeys all physically reasonable conditions. It is finite in the Dirichlet limit and it may be attractive or repulsive depending on the strength of potential. The effective action is calculated and it is shown that the surface contribution appears. The renormalization of the effective action is discussed.

  15. Transient zeta-potential measurements in hydrophobic, TOPAS microfluidic substrates.

    Tandon, Vishal; Bhagavatula, Sharath K; Kirby, Brian J


    We utilize time-resolved electrokinetic measurements in order to study the electrokinetic properties of silica and TOPAS microfluidic channels as a function of the time history of the fluid-solid interface. In pressure-driven flow through TOPAS microchannels, the zeta-potential as inferred from streaming potential measurements decays exponentially by a factor of 1.5 with a characteristic decay time of 3 h after the initial formation of the fluid-solid interface. A similar exponential decay is observed immediately after water is exchanged for ethanol as the solvent in the system. In electroosmotically driven flow through TOPAS microchannels, the zeta-potential as inferred through current monitoring experiments was constant in time. No electrokinetic transients were observed in silica microchannels under these flow conditions.

  16. Measuring zeta potential of protein nano-particles using electroacoustics.

    Dukhin, A S; Parlia, S


    Electroacoustic spectroscopy offers a simple way for measuring the zeta potential of proteins in physiological solutions with high ionic strength. Ultrasound as a driving force does not generate the heat effects which complicate traditional electrophoretic measurements at high ionic strength. In addition, measurements can be conducted with concentrated protein dispersions without dilution, as is required by electrophoretic methods. This paper presents results for electroacoustic measurements of 5wt.% bovine serum albumin suspended in aqueous solutions. In these suspensions the proteins are not completely dissolved; they form nano-particles with a median size of about 180nm. We studied the dependence of zeta potential on ionic strength within a wide range of salt molarities, up to as high as 0.5mol/L. Dialysis was used for performing measurements at lower ionic strength range. We also conducted pH titrations of this system and titrations with Ca(2+) ions. Our results agree well with published data for samples where such data is available.

  17. Measuring the zeta potential. The relationships with sandstone fineness

    de Luxán, M. P.


    Full Text Available The application of the zeta potential technique in the area of construction materials and Portland cement is quite recent. The initial research work involved the study of cement suspensions or suspensions of one of the components of cement, such as alite, tricalcium alumínate, in the presence of additives and, more specifically, superplasticizers. The studies of this sort were extended with the mixing of active additions into cement (fly ashes, etc.. The present study discusses the application of siliceous materials (sandstone as a basis of the research into the behaviour of sandstone mortars containing repair products.

    La aplicación de la técnica del potencial zeta en el campo de los materiales de construcción y del cemento portland es muy reciente. Las primeras investigaciones se refieren al estudio de suspensiones de cemento o de alguno de sus compuestos que lo forman como alita, aluminato tricálcico, en presencia de aditivos y, más concretamente, de superfluidificantes. Con la incorporación de adiciones activas al cemento (cenizas volantes,... se amplían los estudios de este tipo de cementos. En este trabajo se considera la aplicación a los materiales silíceos (arenisca como base para la investigación del comportamiento de los morteros de arenisca conteniendo productos de reparación.

  18. Electroviscous effect on fluid drag in a microchannel with large zeta potential.

    Jing, Dalei; Bhushan, Bharat


    The electroviscous effect has been widely studied to investigate the effect of surface charge-induced electric double layers (EDL) on the pressure-driven flow in a micro/nano channel. EDL has been reported to reduce the velocity of fluid flow and increase the fluid drag. Nevertheless, the study on the combined effect of EDL with large zeta potential up to several hundred millivolts and surface charge depenedent-slip on the micro/nano flow is still needed. In this paper, the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation for electrical potential and ion distribution in non-overlapping EDL is first analytically solved. Then, the modified Navier-Stokes equation for the flow considering the effect of surface charge on the electrical conductivity of the electrolyte and slip length is analytically solved. This analysis is used to study the effect of non-overlapping EDL with large zeta potential on the pressure-driven flow in a microchannel with no-slip and charge-dependent slip conditions. The results show that the EDL leads to an increase in the fluid drag, but that slip can reduce the fluid drag. When the zeta potential is large enough, the electroviscous effect disappears for flow in the microchannel under a no-slip condition. However, the retardation of EDL on the flow and the enhancement of slip on the flow counteract each other under a slip condition. The underlying mechanisms of the effect of EDL with large zeta potential on fluid drag are the high net ionic concentration near the channel wall and the fast decay of electrical potential in the EDL when the zeta potential is large enough.

  19. Zeta potential of mica covered by colloid particles: a streaming potential study.

    Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Zaucha, Maria; Zembala, Maria


    The streaming potential of mica covered by monodisperse latex particles was measured using the parallel-plate channel, four-electrode cell. The zeta potential of latex bearing amidine charged groups was regulated by the addition of NaCl (10(-4)-10(-2) M) and MgCl(2) (10(-4)-10(-2) M) at a constant pH 5.5 and by the change in pH (4-12) at 10(-2) M NaCl. The size of the latex particles, determined by dynamic light scattering, varied between 502 and 540 nm for the above electrolyte concentration range. Mica sheets have been covered with latex particles under diffusion transport conditions. The latex coverage was regulated by the bulk suspension concentration in the channel and the deposition time. The coverage was determined, with a relative precision of 2%, by the direct enumeration of particles by optical microscopy and AFM. The streaming potential of mica was then determined for a broad range of particle coverage 0 < theta < 0.5, the particle-to-substrate zeta potential ratio zeta(p)/zeta(i), and 8.8 < kappa a < 143 (thin double-layer limit). These experimental data confirmed that the streaming potential of covered surfaces is well reflected by the theoretical approach formulated in ref 32. It was also shown experimentally that variations in the substrate streaming potential with particle coverage for theta < 0.3 and zeta(p)/zeta(i) < 0 are characterized by a large slope, which enables the precise detection of particles attached to interfaces. However, measurements at high coverage and various pH values revealed that the apparent zeta potential of covered surfaces is 1/2(1/2) smaller than the bulk zeta potential of particles (in absolute terms). This is valid for arbitrary zeta potentials of substrates and particles, including the case of negative particles on negatively charged substrates that mimics rough surfaces. Therefore, it was concluded that the streaming potential method can serve as an efficient tool for determining bulk zeta potentials of colloids and

  20. Zeta Potential of Modified Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes in Presence of poly (vinyl alcohol) Hydrogel

    de la Cruz, EF; Zheng, Y.; Torres, E; Li, W.; Song, W; Burugapalli, K


    The main objective of this study is investigate the behavior of the Zeta Potential of the MWCNT modified with SDS(Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate) and CTAB(Cetyl Tetraethyl Ammonium Bromide) in presence of PVA. Full hydrolyzed PVA was used. As a result, adding PVA in the CNT solution led to decrease the Zeta Potential. The Zeta Potential of suspended colloid varied from 42.00mV to 6.48mV and -45.00mV to -6.4mV at 1.5% concentration of PVA; according with the changing pH, the Zeta Potential dropped to ...

  1. Zeta potentials in the flotation of oxide and silicate minerals.

    Fuerstenau, D W; Pradip


    Adsorption of collectors and modifying reagents in the flotation of oxide and silicate minerals is controlled by the electrical double layer at the mineral-water interface. In systems where the collector is physically adsorbed, flotation with anionic or cationic collectors depends on the mineral surface being charged oppositely. Adjusting the pH of the system can enhance or prevent the flotation of a mineral. Thus, the point of zero charge (PZC) of the mineral is the most important property of a mineral in such systems. The length of the hydrocarbon chain of the collector is important because of chain-chain association enhances the adsorption once the surfactant ions aggregate to form hemimicelles at the surface. Strongly chemisorbing collectors are able to induce flotation even when collector and the mineral surface are charged similarly, but raising the pH sufficiently above the PZC can repel chemisorbing collectors from the mineral surface. Zeta potentials can be used to delineate interfacial phenomena in these various systems.

  2. Influence of surface conductivity on the apparent zeta potential of calcite

    Li, Shuai; Heberling, Frank; Devau, Nicolas; Jougnot, Damien; Chiaberge, Christophe


    Zeta potential is a physicochemical parameter of particular importance in describing the surface electrical properties of charged porous media. However, the zeta potential of calcite is still poorly known because of the difficulty to interpret streaming potential experiments. The Helmholtz-Smoluchowski (HS) equation is widely used to estimate the apparent zeta potential from these experiments. However, this equation neglects the influence of surface conductivity on streaming potential. We present streaming potential and electrical conductivity measurements on a calcite powder in contact with an aqueous NaCl electrolyte. Our streaming potential model corrects the apparent zeta potential of calcite by accounting for the influence of surface conductivity and flow regime. We show that the HS equation seriously underestimates the zeta potential of calcite, particularly when the electrolyte is diluted (ionic strength < 0.01 M) because of calcite surface conductivity. The basic Stern model successfully predicted ...

  3. Hydrophobicity, surface tension, and zeta potential measurements of glass-reinforced hydroxyapatite composites.

    Lopes, M A; Monteiro, F J; Santos, J D; Serro, A P; Saramago, B


    Wettability and zeta potential studies were performed to characterize the hydrophobicity, surface tension, and surface charge of P2O5-glass-reinforced hydroxyapatite composites. Quantitative phase analysis was performed by the Rietveld method using GSAS software applied to X-ray diffractograms. Surface charge was assessed by zeta potential measurements. Protein adsorption studies were performed using vitronectin. Contact angles and surface tensions variation with time were determined by the sessile and pendent drop techniques, respectively, using ADSA-P software. The highest (-18.1 mV) and lowest (-28.7 mV) values of zeta potential were found for hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP), respectively, with composite materials presenting values in between. All studied bioceramic materials showed similar solid surface tension. For HA and beta-TCP, solid surface tensions of 46.7 and 45.3 mJ/m2, respectively, were obtained, while composites presented intermediate surface tension values. The dispersive component of surface tension was the predominant one for all materials studied. Adhesion work values between the vitronectin solution and HA and beta-TCP were found to be 79.8 and 88.0 mJ/m2, respectively, while the 4.0 wt % glass composites showed slightly lower values than the 2.5 wt % ones. The presence of beta-TCP influenced surface charge, hydrophobicity, and protein adsorption of the glass-reinforced HA composites, and therefore indirectly affected cell-biomaterial interactions.

  4. Influence of surface conductivity on the apparent zeta potential of calcite.

    Li, Shuai; Leroy, Philippe; Heberling, Frank; Devau, Nicolas; Jougnot, Damien; Chiaberge, Christophe


    Zeta potential is a physicochemical parameter of particular importance in describing the surface electrical properties of charged porous media. However, the zeta potential of calcite is still poorly known because of the difficulty to interpret streaming potential experiments. The Helmholtz-Smoluchowski (HS) equation is widely used to estimate the apparent zeta potential from these experiments. However, this equation neglects the influence of surface conductivity on streaming potential. We present streaming potential and electrical conductivity measurements on a calcite powder in contact with an aqueous NaCl electrolyte. Our streaming potential model corrects the apparent zeta potential of calcite by accounting for the influence of surface conductivity and flow regime. We show that the HS equation seriously underestimates the zeta potential of calcite, particularly when the electrolyte is diluted (ionic strength ⩽ 0.01 M) because of calcite surface conductivity. The basic Stern model successfully predicted the corrected zeta potential by assuming that the zeta potential is located at the outer Helmholtz plane, i.e. without considering a stagnant diffuse layer at the calcite-water interface. The surface conductivity of calcite crystals was inferred from electrical conductivity measurements and computed using our basic Stern model. Surface conductivity was also successfully predicted by our surface complexation model.

  5. Physical properties of nanofluid suspension of ferromagnetic graphite with high Zeta potential

    Souza, N. S.; Rodrigues, A. D.; Cardoso, C. A.; Pardo, H.; Faccio, R.; Mombru, A. W.; Galzerani, J. C.; de Lima, O. F.; Sergeenkov, S.; Araujo-Moreira, F. M.


    We report on the magnetic properties and stability of nanofluid ferromagnetic graphite (NFMG) studied through the measurements of its magnetization hysteresis curves, Raman spectrum and the so-called Zeta potential. The obtained results suggest a robust ferromagnetic behavior of NFMG even at room temperature along with a good stability of the dispersed solution (with Zeta potential around 41.3 mV) and a good reactivity between magnetic graphite and CTAB type cationic surfactant.

  6. Optical tweezers as a new biomedical tool to measure zeta potential of stored red blood cells.

    Diego C N Silva

    Full Text Available During storage, red blood cells (RBCs for transfusion purposes suffer progressive deterioration. Sialylated glycoproteins of the RBC membrane are responsible for a negatively charged surface which creates a repulsive electrical zeta potential. These charges help prevent the interaction between RBCs and other cells, and especially among each RBCs. Reports in the literature have stated that RBCs sialylated glycoproteins can be sensitive to enzymes released by leukocyte degranulation. Thus, the aim of this study was, by using an optical tweezers as a biomedical tool, to measure the zeta potential in standard RBCs units and in leukocyte reduced RBC units (collected in CPD-SAGM during storage. Optical tweezers is a sensitive tool that uses light for measuring cell biophysical properties which are important for clinical and research purposes. This is the first study to analyze RBCs membrane charges during storage. In addition, we herein also measured the elasticity of RBCs also collected in CPD-SAGM. In conclusion, the zeta potential decreased 42% and cells were 134% less deformable at the end of storage. The zeta potential from leukodepleted units had a similar profile when compared to units stored without leukoreduction, indicating that leukocyte lyses were not responsible for the zeta potential decay. Flow cytometry measurements of reactive oxygen species suggested that this decay is due to membrane oxidative damages. These results show that measurements of zeta potentials provide new insights about RBCs storage lesion for transfusion purposes.

  7. Silver ion impregnated composite biomaterial optimally prepared using zeta potential measurements.

    Sakthivel, N; Socrates, R; Shanthini, G M; Rajaram, A; Kalkura, S Narayana


    Biodegradable, antimicrobial composite of various silver ion concentrations was synthesized using zeta potential and isoelectric point measurements, for a controlled release of silver ions, and in addition to assess the effect of protein adsorption with the increase of the silver ion concentration. The interaction between hydroxyapatite (HAp) and silver incorporated hydroxyapatite (AgHAp) with gelatin was increased by optimally adjusting the zeta potential and isoelectric point of the ceramic (HAp and AgHAp), and bio-polymer individually. The electrostatic interactions between the ceramic and biopolymer were confirmed, through shifts in N-H stretching, decrease in the swelling ratio, and increase in the degradation temperature observed by the derivative thermo-gravimetric analysis (DTG). These results substantiate that, the zeta potential is a novel tool to increase the ceramic-biopolymer interaction. Increasing electrostatic interaction between the biopolymer and ceramic, decreases the release of silver ions in the simulated body fluid, due to the controlled degradation of the biopolymer. The isoelectric point decreases with the increase of the silver ion concentration, which evidenced the change in the net surface charge. With the increase of the silver ion concentration, the protein adsorption decreases due to an increase in hydrophilic character of the composite. This study examines the minimum concentration of silver ion essential for maximum protein adsorption, antimicrobial and hemocompatibility. This study provides a novel route to control the release of silver ions by enhancing the ceramic-polymer interaction and estimate the silver ion concentration suitable for protein adsorption. The prepared composite is nontoxic, degradable, and antimicrobial, with the controlled release of silver ions in the simulated body fluid.

  8. Physical properties of nanofluid suspension of ferromagnetic graphite with high Zeta potential

    Souza, N.S. [Materials and Devices Group, Department of Physics, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, A.D. [Raman Spectroscopy in Nanostructured Materials, Department of Physics, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Cardoso, C.A. [Materials and Devices Group, Department of Physics, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Pardo, H.; Faccio, R.; Mombru, A.W. [Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DEQUIFIM, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, P.O. Box 1157, CP 11800, Montevideo (Uruguay); Galzerani, J.C. [Raman Spectroscopy in Nanostructured Materials, Department of Physics, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lima, O.F. de [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin”, UNICAMP, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Sergeenkov, S., E-mail: sergei@df.ufscar [Materials and Devices Group, Department of Physics, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Araujo-Moreira, F.M. [Materials and Devices Group, Department of Physics, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)


    We report on the magnetic properties and stability of nanofluid ferromagnetic graphite (NFMG) studied through the measurements of its magnetization hysteresis curves, Raman spectrum and the so-called Zeta potential. The obtained results suggest a robust ferromagnetic behavior of NFMG even at room temperature along with a good stability of the dispersed solution (with Zeta potential around 41.3 mV) and a good reactivity between magnetic graphite and CTAB type cationic surfactant. -- Highlights: ► Magnetic properties and stability of nanofluid ferromagnetic graphite (NFMG) are studied. ► The magnetization hysteresis curves suggest a robust ferromagnetic behavior of NFMG even at room temperature. ► NFMG is found to have Zeta potential around 41.3 mV indicating a good stability of the dispersed solution.


    Nishi K. Bhardwaj; Sanjay Kumar; Pramod K. Bajpai


    Thc zeta potential and cationic demands of various kraft pulps - unbleached, bleached and beaten to different freeness levels were determined in the laboratory. The zeta potential of pulp where the final stage was a lignin degrading and dissolving treatment such as alkaline extraction or hypochlorite was lower than the unbleached pulp. The cationic demand of unbleached pulp was higher compared to that of bleached pulp. Beaten pulps showed larger cationic demands than the unbeaten pulps, which can be attributed to the larger specific surface area of pulp components. Fibres become increasingly electronegative when beaten and therefore cationic demand of pulps increases with beating. When the zeta potential method is used with furnishes of different freeness,the linear relationship is observed. However, the slope is decreasing with the decrease in freeness of the pulp.

  10. Zeta potential change of Neuro-2a tumor cells after exposure to alumina nanoparticles

    Kazantsev, Sergey O.; Fomenko, Alla N.; Korovin, Matvey S.


    In recent years, researches have paid much attention to the physical, chemical, biophysical and biochemical properties of a cell surface. It is known that most of the cells' surfaces are charged. This charge depends on the biochemical structure of the cell membranes. Therefore, measurement of a cell surface charge is a significant criterion that gives information about the cell surface. Evaluation of the cells zeta-potential is important to understand the interaction mechanisms of various drugs, antibiotics, as well as the interaction of nanoparticles with the cell surface. In this study, we use the dynamic light scattering method to detect the zeta-potential change of Neuro-2a tumor cells. It has been observed that zeta-potential shifted to negative values after exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles and inducing apoptosis.

  11. Polysaccharide zeta-potentials and protein-affinity.

    Comert, Fatih; Azarikia, Fatemeh; Dubin, Paul L


    The ζ-potential, a parameter typically obtained by model-dependent transformation of the measured electrophoretic mobility, is frequently used to understand polysaccharide-protein complexation. We tested the hypothesis that two anionic polysaccharides with identical ζ-potentials would show equal binding affinity to the protein β-lactoglobulin (BLG). We selected two polysaccharide polyelectrolytes (PE) with very different structures: hyaluronic acid (HA) and tragacanthin (TG). Highly precise (±0.1%) turbidimetric titrations were performed to determine critical pH values of complex formation; and PE ζ-potentials were measured for different ionic strengths I at those critical pH values. While phase boundaries (pHcvs. I) showed that HA binds to BLG more strongly (e.g. at a lower pH, for fixed I), comparisons made at fixed ζ-potential indicated that TG binds more strongly. The source of this contradiction is the effect of the bulky side chains of TG on its friction coefficient which diminishes its mobility and hence the resultant ζ-potential; while having a distinctly separate effect on the interaction between BLG and the carboxylated backbone of TG. Thus, unless the locus of the bound protein coincides with the shear plane, the ζ-potential does not directly contribute to the electrostatic PE-protein interaction.

  12. Zeta potential of selected bacteria in drinking water when dead, starved, or exposed to minimal and rich culture media.

    Soni, Kamlesh A; Balasubramanian, Ashwin K; Beskok, Ali; Pillai, Suresh D


    The zeta potentials of E. coli, GFP (green fluorescence protein)-labeled E. coli, Salmonella Newport, and Pseudomonas sp. in different states (nutrient-starved and dead) and grown in rich and minimal media were measured. Capillary electrophoresis experiments were conducted to measure the zeta potential of the different cells suspended in a drinking water sample. Salmonella Newport strain showed a lower zeta potential compared to E. coli, GFP-labeled E. coli, and Pseudomonas sp. Starved E. coli cells had a lower zeta potential compared to E. coli cells grown under rich media conditions. Salmonella Newport cells grown in minimal media also had a lower zeta potential compared to rich, starved, and dead cells. The different bacterial cell types exhibited differences in size as well. These results suggest that when bacterial cells are present in drinking water they can exhibit significant heterogeneity in the size and zeta potential, depending on their physiological state.

  13. Identifying prospective antifouling coatings for venturis: Zeta potential measurements of oxides at elevated temperatures

    Jayaweera, P.; Hettiarachchi, S.; Pound, B.G. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States))


    This report describes the results of research to determine the zeta potential of oxides responsible for fouling of heat transfer, venturi, and other flow measurement device surfaces. Fouling deposits formed on these surfaces reduce mass flow rates of water, causing power reductions of as much as 3 to 4%. There is considerable evidence that deposit formation can be prevented by coating the critical surfaces with a coating material that electrostatically repels the suspended fouling particulates. The zeta potential can be used as a parameter to identify and determine the best coating material to be employed for fouling prevention. The research entailed the development of the equipment necessary for zeta potential measurements, measurement of zeta potentials of oxides and coatings of interest to nuclear power plant applications, and evaluation of candidate coating materials to prevent fouling of surfaces. By this approach, numerous metals and oxides have been identified as potential coating materials. Fouling studies revealed that magnetite does not deposit on tungsten and palladium surfaces, indicating the potential use of these metals for coating venturi surfaces used in nuclear power plants.

  14. Progress in nanoparticles characterization:Sizing and zeta potential measurement

    Renliang Xu


    Characterization of various nanoparticles is on the center stage in nanotechnology development. The subjects for nanoparticles characterization are focused on particle size and particle surface charge determinations. This article summarizes the latest development in particle size analysis using dynamic light scattering and surface charge determination using electrophoretic light scattering for nano- or even sub-nanoparticles in concentrated suspensions.

  15. Influence of temperature, anions and size distribution on the zeta potential of DMPC, DPPC and DMPE lipid vesicles.

    Morini, M A; Sierra, M B; Pedroni, V I; Alarcon, L M; Appignanesi, G A; Disalvo, E A


    The purpose of the work is to compare the influence of the multilamellarity, phase state, lipid head groups and ionic media on the origin of the surface potential of lipid membranes. With this aim, we present a new analysis of the zeta potential of multilamellar and unilamellar vesicles composed by phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) dispersed in water and ionic solutions of polarizable anions, at temperatures below and above the phase transition. In general, the adsorption of anions seems to explain the origin of the zeta potential in vesicles only above the transition temperature (Tc). In this case, the sign of the surface potential is ascribed to a partial orientation of head group moiety toward the aqueous phase. This is noticeable in PC head groups but not in PEs, due to the strong lateral interaction between PO and NH group in PE.

  16. High-concentration zeta potential measurements using light-scattering techniques.

    Kaszuba, Michael; Corbett, Jason; Watson, Fraser Mcneil; Jones, Andrew


    Zeta potential is the key parameter that controls electrostatic interactions in particle dispersions. Laser Doppler electrophoresis is an accepted method for the measurement of particle electrophoretic mobility and hence zeta potential of dispersions of colloidal size materials. Traditionally, samples measured by this technique have to be optically transparent. Therefore, depending upon the size and optical properties of the particles, many samples will be too concentrated and will require dilution. The ability to measure samples at or close to their neat concentration would be desirable as it would minimize any changes in the zeta potential of the sample owing to dilution. However, the ability to measure turbid samples using light-scattering techniques presents a number of challenges. This paper discusses electrophoretic mobility measurements made on turbid samples at high concentration using a novel cell with reduced path length. Results are presented on two different sample types, titanium dioxide and a polyurethane dispersion, as a function of sample concentration. For both of the sample types studied, the electrophoretic mobility results show a gradual decrease as the sample concentration increases and the possible reasons for these observations are discussed. Further, a comparison of the data against theoretical models is presented and discussed. Conclusions and recommendations are made from the zeta potential values obtained at high concentrations.

  17. Phase diagrams of colloidal spheres with a constant zeta-potential

    Smallenburg, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313939039; Boon, N.J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313960143; Kater, M.; Dijkstra, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123538807; van Roij, R.H.H.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/152978984


    We study suspensions of colloidal spheres with a constant zeta-potential within Poisson–Boltzmann theory, quantifying the discharging of the spheres with increasing colloid density and decreasing salt concentration. We use the calculated renormalized charge of the colloids to determine their

  18. Zeta potential of Polish copper-bearing shale in the absence and presence of flotation frothers

    Mengsu Peng


    Full Text Available In this paper, zeta potential as a function of pH of copper-bearing shale, which is mined in Poland by KGHM, was investigated. The measurements were conducted in water and aqueous solutions of selected flotation frothers. It was established that for investigated copper-bearing shale, after dispersion in water, the isoelectric point (IEP occurs at pH=3.5. Addition of frothers decreased the IEP on the pH scale and the IEP for butanol was 1.93, for MIBC 2.90 and for eicosaethylene glycol hexadecyl ether (C16E20 2.76. In the case of introducing frothers changed, the zeta potential becomes less negative. An empirical equation, having two adjustable parameters, was used in the paper to approximate the course of the zeta potential-pH curve. The equation showed a very good approximation of the zeta potential of the investigated shale either in water or frother aqueous solutions.

  19. Directional flow induced by synchronized longitudinal and zeta-potential controlling AC-electrical fields

    Wouden, van der E.J.; Hermes, D.C.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Berg, van den A.


    Electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a microchannel can be controlled by electronic control of the surface charge using an electrode embedded in the wall of the channel. By setting a voltage to the electrode, the zeta-potential at the wall can be changed locally. Thus, the electrode acts as a "gate" for liq

  20. The effect of WWTP effluent zeta-potential on direct nanofiltration performance

    Schrader, G.A.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Wessling, Matthias


    Laboratory scale filtration tests utilizing wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) effluent were conducted to investigate fouling and filtration performance of nanofiltration (NF) membranes. The focus of this research is to assess the influence of the zeta-potential of the colloidal fraction in WWTP

  1. Surface free energy components of glass from ellipsometry and zeta potential measurements

    Chibowski, E.; Hołysz, L.; Kip, Gerhardus A.M.; van Silfhout, Arend; Busscher, H.J.


    Two different experimental approaches based on ellipsometry and zeta potential measurements have been employed to determine the dispersion and polar surface free energy components of glass. From ellipsometry the adsorption isotherms of n-octane and water have been determined, yielding values for the

  2. Phase diagrams of colloidal spheres with a constant zeta-potential.

    Smallenburg, Frank; Boon, Niels; Kater, Maarten; Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Roij, René


    We study suspensions of colloidal spheres with a constant zeta-potential within Poisson-Boltzmann theory, quantifying the discharging of the spheres with increasing colloid density and decreasing salt concentration. We use the calculated renormalized charge of the colloids to determine their pairwise effective screened-Coulomb repulsions. Bulk phase diagrams in the colloid concentration-salt concentration representation follow, for various zeta-potentials, by a mapping onto published fits of phase boundaries of point-Yukawa systems. Although the resulting phase diagrams do feature face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic phases, they are dominated by the (re-entrant) fluid phase due to the colloidal discharging with increasing colloid concentration and decreasing salt concentration.

  3. Electrokinetic mixing at high zeta potentials: ionic size effects on cross stream diffusion.

    Ahmadian Yazdi, Alireza; Sadeghi, Arman; Saidi, Mohammad Hassan


    The electrokinetic phenomena at high zeta potentials may show several unique features which are not normally observed. One of these features is the ionic size (steric) effect associated with the solutions of high ionic concentration. In the present work, attention is given to the influences of finite ionic size on the cross stream diffusion process in an electrokinetically actuated Y-shaped micromixer. The method consists of a finite difference based numerical approach for non-uniform grid which is applied to the dimensionless form of the governing equations, including the modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The results reveal that, neglecting the ionic size at high zeta potentials gives rise to the overestimation of the mixing length, because the steric effects retard liquid flow, thereby enhancing the mixing efficiency. The importance of steric effects is found to be more intense for channels of smaller width to height ratio. It is also observed that, in sharp contrast to the conditions that the ions are treated as point charges, increasing the zeta potential improves the cross stream diffusion when incorporating the ionic size. Moreover, increasing the EDL thickness decreases the mixing length, whereas the opposite is true for the channel aspect ratio.

  4. Tetracycline adsorption on chitosan: a mechanistic description based on mass uptake and zeta potential measurements.

    Caroni, A L P F; de Lima, C R M; Pereira, M R; Fonseca, J L C


    Adsorption phenomena occurring at the solid/liquid interface of chitosan particles are of extreme importance in the kinetics of drug release/upload as well as in effluent treatment by adsorption. In this work, equilibrium and kinetic aspects of protonated tetracycline adsorption on chitosan are explored using classic solution depletion method and zeta potential measurements. Equilibrium experiments showed that for solutions with tetracycline initial concentration of ca. 1.2 g L(-1), corresponding to a pH around 3, chitosan structure disrupted, as indicated by an increase in magnitude of tetracycline sorption. Adsorption and zeta potential isotherms before disruption suggested that the process of adsorption had a Langmuir character up to a point at which subsurface was exposed to adsorption; at this point, a second mode of sorption began: zeta potential tended to an equilibrium value, following Sips isotherm and tetracycline sorption had a linear dependence on its continuous phase concentration. The kinetics of tetracycline sorption suggested that sorption of tetracycline was divided between the sorption of protonated and non-protonated tetracycline; tetracycline in its non-protonated form seemed to rule the sorption of tetracycline.

  5. Electroosmotic fluid motion and late-time solute transport at non-negligible zeta potentials

    S. K. Griffiths; R. H. Nilson


    Analytical and numerical methods are employed to determine the electric potential, fluid velocity and late-time solute distribution for electroosmotic flow in a tube and channel when the zeta potential is not small. The electric potential and fluid velocity are in general obtained by numerical means. In addition, new analytical solutions are presented for the velocity in a tube and channel in the extremes of large and small Debye layer thickness. The electroosmotic fluid velocity is used to analyze late-time transport of a neutral non-reacting solute. Zeroth and first-order solutions describing axial variation of the solute concentration are determined analytically. The resulting expressions contain eigenvalues representing the dispersion and skewness of the axial concentration profiles. These eigenvalues and the functions describing transverse variation of the concentration field are determined numerically using a shooting technique. Results are presented for both tube and channel geometries over a wide range of the normalized Debye layer thickness and zeta potential. Simple analytical approximations to the eigenvalues are also provided for the limiting cases of large and small values of the Debye layer thickness. The methodology developed here for electroosmotic flow is also applied to the Taylor problem of late-time transport and dispersion in pressure-driven flows.

  6. Effective flocculation of Chlorella vulgaris using chitosan with zeta potential measurement

    Low, Y. J.; Lau, S. W.


    Microalgae are considered as one promising source of third-generation biofuels due to their fast growth rates, potentially higher yield rates and wide ranges of growth conditions. However, the extremely low biomass concentration in microalgae cultures presents a great challenge to the harvesting of microalgae because a large volume of water needs to be removed to obtain dry microalgal cells for the subsequent oil extraction process. In this study, the fresh water microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) was effectively harvested using both low molecular weight (MW) and high MW chitosan flocculants. The flocculation efficiency was evaluated by physical appearance, supernatant absorbance, zeta potential and solids content after centrifugal dewatering. High flocculation efficiency of 98.0-99.0% was achieved at the optimal dosage of 30-40 mg/g with formation of large microalgae flocs. This study suggests that the polymer bridging mechanism was governing the flocculation behaviour of C. vulgaris using high MW chitosan. Besides, charge patch neutralisation mechanism prevailed at low MW chitosan where lower dosage was sufficient to reach near-zero zeta potential compared with the high MW chitosan. The amount of chitosan polymer present in the culture may also affect the mechanism of flocculation.

  7. Stability of fenbendazole suspensions for veterinary use. Correlation between zeta potential and sedimentation.

    Arias, José L; López-Viota, Margarita; Clares, Beatriz; Ruiz, Ma Adolfina


    In this paper we have carried out a detailed investigation of the stability and redispersibility characteristics of fenbendazole aqueous suspensions, through a thermodynamic and electrokinetic characterization, considering the effect of both pH and ionic strength. The hydrophobic character of the drug, and the surface charge and electrical double-layer thickness play an essential role in the stability of the system, hence the need for a full characterization of fenbendazole. It was found that the drug suspensions displays "delayed" or "hindered" sedimentation, determined by their hydrophobic character and their low zeta potential (indicating a small electrokinetic charge on the particles). The electrostatic repulsion between the particles is responsible for the low sedimentation volume and poor redispersibility of the drug. However, only low concentrations of AlCl(3) induced a significant effect on both the zeta potential and stability of the drug, leading to a "free-layered" sedimentation and a very easy redispersion which could be of great interest in the design of an oral pharmaceutical dosage form for veterinary.

  8. The Zeta Potential of Surface-Functionalized Metallic Nanorod Particles in Aqueous Solution

    Dougherty, G M; Rose, K A; Tok, J B; Pannu, S S; Chuang, F S; Sha, M Y; Chakarova, G; Penn, S G


    Metallic nanoparticles suspended in aqueous solutions, and functionalized with chemical and biological surface coatings, are important elements in basic and applied nanoscience research. Many applications require an understanding of the electrokinetic or colloidal properties of such particles. In this paper we describe the results of experiments to measure the zeta potential of metallic nanorod particles in aqueous saline solutions, including the effects of pH, ionic strength, metallic composition, and surface functionalization state. Particle substrates tested include gold, silver, and palladium monometallic particles as well as gold/silver bimetallic particles. Surface functionalization conditions included 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA), mercaptoethanol (ME), and mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (MESA) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), as well as MUA layers subsequently derivatized with proteins. Zeta potential data for typical charge-stabilized polystyrene particles are also presented for comparison. Experimental data are compared with theory. The results of these studies are useful in predicting and controlling the aggregation, adhesion, and transport of functionalized metallic nanoparticles within microfluidic devices and other systems.

  9. Surface electrochemical properties of red mud (bauxite residue): zeta potential and surface charge density.

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravendra; Ming, Hui


    The surface electrochemical properties of red mud (bauxite residue) from different alumina refineries in Australia and China were studied by electrophoresis and measuring surface charge density obtained from acid/base potentiometric titrations. The electrophoretic properties were measured from zeta potentials obtained in the presence of 0.01 and 0.001 M KNO(3) over a wide pH range (3.5-10) by titration. The isoelectric point (IEP) values were found to vary from 6.35 to 8.70 for the red mud samples. Further investigation into the surface charge density of one sample (RRM) by acid/base potentiometric titration showed similar results for pH(PZC) with pH(IEP) obtained from electrokinetic measurements. The pH(IEP) determined from zeta potential measurements can be used as a characteristic property of red mud. The minerals contained in red mud contributed to the different values of pH(IEP) of samples obtained from different refineries. Different relationships of pH(IEP) with Al/Fe and Al/Si ratios (molar basis) were also found for different red mud samples.

  10. Influence of zeta potential on the flocculation of cyanobacteria cells using chitosan modified soil.

    Li, Liang; Zhang, Honggang; Pan, Gang


    Using chitosan modified soil to flocculate and sediment algal cells has been considered as a promising strategy to combat cyanobacteria blooms in natural waters. However, the flocculation efficiency often varies with algal cells with different zeta potential (ZP) attributed to different growth phases or water conditions. This article investigated the relationship between ZP of Microcystis aeruginosa and its influence to the flocculation efficiency using chitosan modified soil. Results suggested that the optimal removal efficiency was obtained when the ZP was between -20.7 and -6.7 mV with a removal efficiency of more than 80% in 30 min and large floc size of >350 μm. When the algal cells were more negatively charged than -20.7 mV, the effect of chitosan modified soil was depressed (flocculation efficiency of chitosan modified soil and an important guidance for practical engineering of cyanobacteria bloom control.

  11. Measuring microchannel electroosmotic mobility and zeta potential by the current monitoring method.

    Shao, Chenren; Devoe, Don L


    Electroosmotic flow (EOF) is an electrokinetic flow control technique widely used in microfluidic systems for applications including direct electrokinetic pumping, hydrodynamic pressure generation, and counterflow for microfluidic separations. During EOF, an electric field is applied along the length of a microchannel containing an electrolyte, with mobile ions near the charged microchannel walls experiencing a Coulomb force due to electrostatic interactions with the applied electric field that leads to bulk solution movement. The goal of this laboratory is to experimentally determine the fixed channel surface charge (zeta potential) and electroosmotic mobility associated with a given microchannel substrate material and buffer solution, using a simple current monitoring method to measure the average flow velocity within the microchannel. It is a straightforward experiment designed to help students understand EOF physics while gaining hands-on experience with basic world-to-chip interfacing. It is well suited to a 90-min laboratory session for up to 12 students with minimal infrastructure requirements.




    Full Text Available In the past 10 years, the need for biodegradable lubricants has been more and more emphasized. The use of vegetable oils as lubricants offers several advantages. The vegetable oils are biodegradable; thus, the environmental pollution is minimal either during or after their use. The aim of this paper is to presents a preliminary study concerning the influence of some preparation conditions on the stability of vegetable oil-in-water (O/W emulsions as eco-friendly lubricants stabilized by nonionic surfactant. In this context, vegetable oil-in-water emulsions characteristics where assessed using microscopically observation and zeta potential. In addition, the color of these emulsions can be evaluated. It can be observed that the emulsions tend to stabilize in time.

  13. Surfactants, not size or zeta-potential influence blood-brain barrier passage of polymeric nanoparticles.

    Voigt, Nadine; Henrich-Noack, Petra; Kockentiedt, Sarah; Hintz, Werner; Tomas, Jürgen; Sabel, Bernhard A


    Nanoparticles (NP) can deliver drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), but little is known which of the factors surfactant, size and zeta-potential are essential for allowing BBB passage. To this end we designed purpose-built fluorescent polybutylcyanoacrylate (PBCA) NP and imaged the NP's passage over the blood-retina barrier - which is a model of the BBB - in live animals. Rats received intravenous injections of fluorescent PBCA-NP fabricated by mini-emulsion polymerisation to obtain various NP's compositions that varied in surfactants (non-ionic, anionic, cationic), size (67-464nm) and zeta-potential. Real-time imaging of retinal blood vessels and retinal tissue was carried out with in vivo confocal neuroimaging (ICON) before, during and after NP's injection. Successful BBB passage with subsequent cellular labelling was achieved if NP were fabricated with non-ionic surfactants or cationic stabilizers but not when anionic compounds were added. NP's size and charge had no influence on BBB passage and cell labelling. This transport was not caused by an unspecific opening of the BBB because control experiments with injections of unlabelled NP and fluorescent dye (to test a "door-opener" effect) did not lead to parenchymal labelling. Thus, neither NP's size nor chemo-electric charge, but particle surface is the key factor determining BBB passage. This result has important implications for NP engineering in medicine: depending on the surfactant, NP can serve one of two opposite functions: while non-ionic tensides enhance brain up-take, addition of anionic tensides prevents it. NP can now be designed to specifically enhance drug delivery to the brain or, alternatively, to prevent brain penetration so to reduce unwanted psychoactive effects of drugs or prevent environmental nanoparticles from entering tissue of the central nervous system.

  14. Mechanisms of fibrinogen adsorption on latex particles determined by zeta potential and AFM measurements.

    Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Bratek-Skicki, Anna; Dąbrowska, Paulina; Nattich-Rak, Małgorzata


    The adsorption of fibrinogen on polystyrene latex particles was studied using the concentration depletion method combined with the AFM detection of residual protein after adsorption. Measurements were carried out for a pH range of 3.5-11 and an ionic strength range of 10(-3)-0.15 M NaCl. First, the bulk physicochemical properties of fibrinogen and the latex particle suspension were characterized for this range of pH and ionic strength. The zeta potential and the number of uncompensated (electrokinetic) charges on the protein were determined from microelectrophoretic measurements. It was revealed that fibrinogen molecules exhibited amphoteric characteristics, being on average positively charged for pH adsorption of fibrinogen on latex for pH below 11. It was also proven that fibrinogen adsorption was irreversible, with the maximum surface concentration varying between 2.5 and 5 × 10(3) μm(-2) (weight concentration of a bare molecule was 1.4 to 2.8 mg m(-2)). These measurements revealed two main adsorption mechanisms of fibrinogen: (i) the unoriented (random) mechanism prevailing for lower ionic strength, where adsorbing molecules significantly penetrate the fuzzy polymeric layer on the latex core and (ii) the side-on adsorption mechanism prevailing for pH > 5.8 and a higher ionic strength of 0.15 M. It was also shown that in the latter case, variations in the zeta potential with the protein coverage could be adequately described in terms of the electrokinetic model, previously formulated for planar substrate adsorption. On the basis of these experimental data, an efficient procedure of preparing fibrinogen-covered latex particles of controlled monolayer structure and coverage was envisaged.

  15. ζ-potential determination using a ZetaMeter-Dynamic Speckle assembly

    González-Peña, Rolando J.; Sánchez-Muñoz, Orlando L.; Martínez-Celorio, René A.; Cibrián, Rosa M.; Salvador-Palmer, Rosario; Salgado, Jesús


    Electrophoretic mobility and ζ-potential are important physical parameters for the characterization of micro- and nanosystems. In this communication we describe a new method for determining the ζ-potential through the assembly of two well known techniques: free electrophoresis and Dynamic Speckle. When coherent light passes through a fluid having scattering centres, the far field interference originates a speckled image. If the scattering centres are contained within the cylindrical electrophoresis cell of a ZetaMeter and are forced to move in an orderly way under the action of an external electric field, the time variation of the light intensity in the far field speckle images follows a temporal autocorrelation function g(τ). The corresponding correlation time can then be obtained and related with the velocity, from which the electrophoretic mobility and the ζ-potential of the scattering centres can be determined. We have applied this method to microparticles, like natural air-floated silica and two classes of bioceramics, hydroxyapatite and biphasic calcium phosphate. For comparison, we analysed the same samples in parallel using a commercial Zetasizer Nano from Malvern Instruments. The values of ζ-potential determined using the two techniques were the same within ~3% error. These results validate our new method as a useful and efficient alternative for ζ-potential determination of particles, at least within the micrometer scale.

  16. Binding of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-zeta (PLC-zeta) to phospholipid membranes: potential role of an unstructured cluster of basic residues.

    Nomikos, Michail; Mulgrew-Nesbitt, Anna; Pallavi, Payal; Mihalyne, Gyongyi; Zaitseva, Irina; Swann, Karl; Lai, F Anthony; Murray, Diana; McLaughlin, Stuart


    Phospholipase C-zeta (PLC-zeta) is a sperm-specific enzyme that initiates the Ca2+ oscillations in mammalian eggs that activate embryo development. It shares considerable sequence homology with PLC-delta1, but lacks the PH domain that anchors PLC-delta1 to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, PIP2. Thus it is unclear how PLC-zeta interacts with membranes. The linker region between the X and Y catalytic domains of PLC-zeta, however, contains a cluster of basic residues not present in PLC-delta1. Application of electrostatic theory to a homology model of PLC-zeta suggests this basic cluster could interact with acidic lipids. We measured the binding of catalytically competent mouse PLC-zeta to phospholipid vesicles: for 2:1 phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine (PC/PS) vesicles, the molar partition coefficient, K, is too weak to be of physiological significance. Incorporating 1% PIP2 into the 2:1 PC/PS vesicles increases K about 10-fold, to 5x10(3) M-1, a biologically relevant value. Expressed fragments corresponding to the PLC-zeta X-Y linker region also bind with higher affinity to polyvalent than monovalent phosphoinositides on nitrocellulose filters. A peptide corresponding to the basic cluster (charge=+7) within the linker region, PLC-zeta-(374-385), binds to PC/PS vesicles with higher affinity than PLC-zeta, but its binding is less sensitive to incorporating PIP2. The acidic residues flanking this basic cluster in PLC-zeta may account for both these phenomena. FRET experiments suggest the basic cluster could not only anchor the protein to the membrane, but also enhance the local concentration of PIP2 adjacent to the catalytic domain.

  17. Interrelationship between the zeta potential and viscoelastic properties in coacervates complexes.

    Espinosa-Andrews, Hugo; Enríquez-Ramírez, Karina Esmeralda; García-Márquez, Eristeo; Ramírez-Santiago, Cesar; Lobato-Calleros, Consuelo; Vernon-Carter, Jaime


    The formation of the complex coacervate (CC) phases between gum Arabic (GA) and low molecular weight chitosan (Ch) and the interrelationship between the zeta-potential and viscoelastic properties of the coacervate phase were investigated. The maximum charge difference of biopolymers stock dispersion was displayed in a range of pH between 4.0 and 5.5. Titration experiment between the oppositely charged biopolymers showed that the isoelectric point was found at a biopolymers mass ratio (R[GA:Ch]) of R[5.5:1]. Turbidity, size and ζ-potential of the soluble complexes (SC) showed an interrelation with the complex coacervate yield (CCY). Higher CCY values (82.2-88.1%) were obtained in the range from R[3:1] to R[5.5:1]. Change the R[GA:Ch] in dispersion, make possible to produce CC's phases exhibiting cationic (R[1:1] and R[3:1]), neutral (R[5.5:1]) or anionic (R[9:1] and R[7:1]) charged. All CC's exhibited liquid-viscoelastic behavior at lower frequencies and a crossover between G″ and G' at higher frequencies.

  18. Development of a novel in silico model of zeta potential for metal oxide nanoparticles: a nano-QSPR approach

    Wyrzykowska, Ewelina; Mikolajczyk, Alicja; Sikorska, Celina; Puzyn, Tomasz


    Once released into the aquatic environment, nanoparticles (NPs) are expected to interact (e.g. dissolve, agglomerate/aggregate, settle), with important consequences for NP fate and toxicity. A clear understanding of how internal and environmental factors influence the NP toxicity and fate in the environment is still in its infancy. In this study, a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approach was employed to systematically explore factors that affect surface charge (zeta potential) under environmentally realistic conditions. The nano-QSPR model developed with multiple linear regression (MLR) was characterized by high robustness ({{{Q}}{{2}}}{{CV}}=0.90) and external predictivity ({{{Q}}{{2}}}{{EXT}}=0.93). The results clearly showed that zeta potential values varied markedly as functions of the ionic radius of the metal atom in the metal oxides, confirming that agglomeration and the extent of release of free MexOy largely depend on their intrinsic properties. A developed nano-QSPR model was successfully applied to predict zeta potential in an ionized solution of NPs for which experimentally determined values of response have been unavailable. Hence, the application of our model is possible when the values of zeta potential in the ionized solution for metal oxide nanoparticles are undetermined, without the necessity of performing more time consuming and expensive experiments. We believe that our studies will be helpful in predicting the conditions under which MexOy is likely to become problematic for the environment and human health.

  19. Effect of isotonic solutions and peptide adsorption on zeta potential of porous silicon nanoparticle drug delivery formulations.

    Kaasalainen, Martti; Mäkilä, Ermei; Riikonen, Joakim; Kovalainen, Miia; Järvinen, Kristiina; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Salonen, Jarno


    Recently, highly promising results considering the use of porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticles as a controlled and targeted drug delivery system have been published. Drugs are typically loaded into PSi nanoparticles by electrostatic interactions, and the drug-loaded nanoparticles are then administered parenterally in isotonic solutions. Zeta potential has an important role in drug adsorption and overall physical stability of nanosuspensions. In the present study, we used zeta potential measurements to study the impact of the formulation components to the nanosuspension stability. The impact of medium was studied by measuring isoelectric points (IEP) and zeta potentials in isotonic media. The role of drug adsorption was demonstrated with gastrointestinal peptides GLP-1(7-37) and PYY (3-36) and the selection of isotonic additive was demonstrated with peptide-loaded PSi nanoparticles. The results show the notable effect of isotonic solutions and peptide adsorption on zeta potential of PSi nanosuspensions. As a rule of thumb, the sugars (sucrose, dextrose and mannitol) seem to be good media for negatively charged peptide-loaded particles and weak acids (citric- and lactic acid) for positively charged particles. Nevertheless, perhaps the most important rule can be given for isotonic salt solutions which all are very poor media when the stability of nanosuspension is considered.

  20. Zeta potential, contact angles, and AFM imaging of protein conformation adsorbed on hybrid nanocomposite surfaces.

    Pinho, Ana C; Piedade, Ana P


    The sputtering deposition of gold (Au) and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) was used to prepare a nanocomposite hybrid thin film suitable for protein adsorption while maintaining the native conformation of the biological material. The monolithic PTFE and the nanocomposite PTFE/Au thin films, with Au content up to 1 at %, were co-deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering using argon as a discharge gas and deposited onto 316L stainless steel substrates, the most commonly used steel in biomaterials. The deposited thin films, before and after bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption, were thoroughly characterized with special emphasis on the surface properties/characteristics by atomic force microscopy (AFM), zeta potential, and static and dynamic contact angle measurements, in order to assess the relationship between structure and conformational changes. The influence of a pre-adsorbed peptide (RGD) was also evaluated. The nanotopographic and chemical changes induced by the presence of gold in the nanocomposite thin films enable RGD bonding, which is critical for the maintenance of the BSA native conformation after adsorption.

  1. Universal Dielectric Enhancement from Externally Induced Double Layer Without $\\zeta$-Potential

    Qian, Jiang


    Motivated by recent experiments showing over $10^4$-fold increase in induced polarization from electrochemically inert, conducting materials in dilute saline solutions, we theoretically demonstrate a new mechanism for dielectric enhancement, in the absence of $\\zeta-$potentials at interfaces between non-insulating particles and an electrolyte solution. We further show that the magnitude of such enhancement obeys universal scaling laws, independent of the particle's electrical properties and valid across particle shapes: for a dilute suspension of identical, but arbitrarily shaped particles of a linear dimension $a$ and volume fraction $f$, as $\\omega\\to0$ the effective real dielectric constant of the mixture is enhanced from that of water by a factor $1+f~(P_r+(a/\\lambda)P_i)$, and the frequency-dependent phase shift of its impedance has a scale-invariant maximum $f\\,\\mathsf{\\Theta}$ if particles are much more conductive than the solution. Here $\\lambda$ is the solution's Debye length and $P_r$, $P_i$, $\\math...

  2. Characterization of PF4-Heparin Complexes by Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and Zeta Potential.

    Bertini, Sabrina; Fareed, Jawed; Madaschi, Laura; Risi, Giulia; Torri, Giangiacomo; Naggi, Annamaria


    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is associated with antibodies to complexes between heparin and platelet factor 4 (PF4), a basic protein usually found in platelet alpha granules. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia antibodies preferentially recognize macromolecular complexes formed between positively charged PF4 and polyanionic heparins over a narrow range of molar ratios. The aim of this work was to study the complexes that human PF4 forms with heparins from various species, such as porcine, bovine, and ovine; heparins from various organs, such as mucosa and lung; and different low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) at several stoichiometric ratios to evaluate their sizes and charges by photo correlation spectroscopy and zeta potential measurements. The resulting data of the PF4 complexes with unfractionated heparins (UFHs), LMWHs and their fractions, and oligosaccharide components suggest that the size of aggregates is not only a simple function of average molecular weight but also of the molecular weight distribution of the sample. Moreover, it was found that lower concentrations of the tested ovine-derived mucosal heparin are required to form the large PF4/heparin complexes as compared to mucosal porcine and bovine heparin.

  3. Biosynthesis and characterization of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles – An emphasis of zeta potential behavior due to capping

    Sankhla, Aryan, E-mail: [Centre for Converging Technologies, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, 302015 (India); Sharma, Rajeshwar; Yadav, Raghvendra Singh [Centre for Converging Technologies, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, 302015 (India); Kashyap, Diwakar [Department of Biological Chemistry, Ariel University, Ariel, 40700 (Israel); Kothari, S.L. [Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Jaipur, 303002 (India); Kachhwaha, S. [Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, 302004 (India)


    Biological approaches have been amongst the most promising protocols for synthesis of nanomaterials. In this study, Cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) were synthesized by incubating their precursor salts with Escherichia coli and zeta potential (ζ-potential) measurement with varying pH was carried out to evaluate stability of the colloidal dispersion. Formation of CdS NPs was studied in synchrony with microbial growth. TEM analysis confirmed the uniform distribution of NPs. Average size (5 ± 0.4 nm) and electron diffraction pattern revealed polycrystalline cubic crystal phase of these nanoparticles. X-ray diffractogram ascertained the formation of CdS nanoparticles with phase formation and particle size distribution in accordance with the particle size obtained from TEM. Absorption edge of biosynthesized CdS NPs showed a blue shift at ∼400 nm in comparison to their bulk counterpart. A hump at 279 nm indicated presence of biomolecules in the solution in addition to the particles. FT-IR spectrum of capped CdS NPs showed peaks of protein. This confirms adsorption of protein molecules on nanoparticle surface. They act as a capping agent hence responsible for the stability of NPs. The enhanced stability of the particles was confirmed by Zeta potential analysis. The presence of charge on the surface of capped CdS NPs gave a detail understanding of dispersion mechanism and colloidal stability at the NP interface. This stability study of biosynthesized semiconductor nanoparticles utilizing microbial cells had not been done in the past by any research group providing an impetus for the same. Surface area of capped CdS NPs and bare CdS NPs were found to be 298 ± 2.65 m{sup 2}/g and 117 ± 2.41 m{sup 2}/g respectively. A possible mechanism is also proposed for the biosynthesis of CdS NPs. - Highlights: • Synthesis of CdS NPs utilizing reproducible molecular machinery viz. Escherichia coli biomass. • Uniform and Polydispersed NPs with high surface area

  4. Interaction between ropinirole hydrochloride and aspirin with human serum albumin as binary and ternary systems by multi-spectroscopic, molecular modeling and zeta potential

    Mahaki, Hanie, E-mail: [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Memarpoor-Yazdi, Mina; Chamani, Jamshidkhan [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reza Saberi, Mohammad [Medical Chemistry Department, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The aim of the present study was to describe the competition of ropinirole hydrochloride (RP) and aspirin (ASA) in binding to human serum albumin (HSA) in physiological buffer (pH=7.4) using multi-spectroscopic, molecular modeling and zeta-potential measurements. Fluorescence analysis was used to define the binding and quenching properties of drug-HSA complexes in binary and ternary systems. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed that in the presence of RP, the binding constant of HSA-ASA was increased. Static quenching was confirmed to result in the fluorescence quenching and FRET. The effect of drugs on the conformation of HSA was analyzed using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, three-dimensional fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism (CD). The RLS method determined the critical aggregation concentration of drugs on HSA in binary and ternary systems that confirmed the zeta potential results. Structural modeling showed that the affinity of each of the drugs to HSA in binary and ternary systems confirms the spectroscopic results. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the interaction of ropinirole hydrochloride and aspirin with HSA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molecular modeling and zeta-potential used to describe competitive interaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We determined the critical induced aggregation concentration of both drugs on HSA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The binding mechanism of drugs as separate and simultaneous to HSA has been compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The binding site of both drugs as simultaneous effects on HSA has been determined.

  5. Visualizing the transient electroosmotic flow and measuring the zeta potential of microchannels with a micro-PIV technique.

    Yan, Deguang; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Yang, Chun; Huang, Xiaoyang


    We have demonstrated a transient micro particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) technique to measure the temporal development of electroosmotic flow in microchannels. Synchronization of different trigger signals for the laser, the CCD camera, and the high-voltage switch makes this measurement possible with a conventional micro-PIV setup. Using the transient micro-PIV technique, we have further proposed a method on the basis of inertial decoupling between the particle electrophoretic motion and the fluid electroosmotic flow to determine the electrophoretic component in the particle velocity and the zeta potential of the channel wall. It is shown that using the measured zeta potentials, the theoretical predictions agree well with the transient response of the electroosmotic velocities measured in this work.

  6. Correlations between the zeta potentials of silica hydride-based stationary phases, analyte retention behaviour and their ionic interaction descriptors.

    Kulsing, Chadin; Yang, Yuanzhong; Munera, Caesar; Tse, Colby; Matyska, Maria T; Pesek, Joseph J; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W


    In this study, the zeta potentials of type-B silica, bare silica hydride, the so-called Diamond Hydride™ and phenyl substituted silica hydride stationary phases have been measured in aqueous-organic media and correction procedures developed to account for the more negative zeta potential values in media containing different acetonitrile contents. Retention studies of 16 basic, acidic and neutral compounds were also performed with these four stationary phases with mobile phases containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid and various acetonitrile-water compositions ranging from 0-90% (v/v) acetonitrile. The retention properties of these analytes were correlated to the corrected stationary phase zeta potentials measured under these different mobile phase conditions with R(2) values ranging from 0.01 to 1.00, depending on the stationary phase and analyte type. Using linear solvation energy relationships, stationary phase descriptors for each stationary phase have been developed for the different mobile phase conditions. Very high correlations of the zeta potentials with the ionic interaction descriptors were obtained for the type-B silica and the Diamond Hydride™ phases and good correlation with bare silica hydride material whilst there was no correlation observed for the phenyl substituted silica hydride phase. The nature of the retention mechanisms which gives rise to these different observations is discussed. The described methods represent a useful new approach to characterize and assess the retention properties of silica-hydride based chromatographic stationary phases of varying bonded-phase coverage and chemistries, as would be broadly applicable to other types of stationary phase used in the separation sciences.

  7. Zeta potential in oil-water-carbonate systems and its impact on oil recovery during controlled salinity water-flooding

    Jackson, Matthew D.; Al-Mahrouqi, Dawoud; Vinogradov, Jan


    Laboratory experiments and field trials have shown that oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs can be increased by modifying the brine composition injected during recovery in a process termed controlled salinity water-flooding (CSW). However, CSW remains poorly understood and there is no method to predict the optimum CSW composition. This work demonstrates for the first time that improved oil recovery (IOR) during CSW is strongly correlated to changes in zeta potential at both the mineral-water and oil-water interfaces. We report experiments in which IOR during CSW occurs only when the change in brine composition induces a repulsive electrostatic force between the oil-brine and mineral-brine interfaces. The polarity of the zeta potential at both interfaces must be determined when designing the optimum CSW composition. A new experimental method is presented that allows this. Results also show for the first time that the zeta potential at the oil-water interface may be positive at conditions relevant to carbonate reservoirs. A key challenge for any model of CSW is to explain why IOR is not always observed. Here we suggest that failures using the conventional (dilution) approach to CSW may have been caused by a positively charged oil-water interface that had not been identified.

  8. Study of total dry matter and protein extraction from canola meal as affected by the pH, salt addition and use of zeta-potential/turbidimetry analysis to optimize the extraction conditions.

    Gerzhova, Alina; Mondor, Martin; Benali, Marzouk; Aider, Mohammed


    Total dry matter and proteins were differentially and preferentially extracted from canola meal (CM) under different conditions. The effect of the extraction medium pH, CM concentration and salt concentrations were found to have different influences on the extractability of total dry matter and proteins from CM. The pH of the extracting medium had the most significant effect. The maximal total dry matter (42.8±1.18%) extractability was obtained with 5% CM at pH 12 without salt addition, whereas the maximal for total protein (58.12±1.47%) was obtained with 15% CM under the same conditions. The minimal extractability for the dry matter (26.63±0.67%) was obtained with 5% CM at pH 10 without salt added and the minimal protein extractability was observed in a 10% CM at pH 10, in 0.01 NaCl. Turbidity and ζ-potential measurements indicated that pH 5 was the optimum condition for the highest protein extraction yield. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that salt addition contributes to higher solubility of canola proteins specifically cruciferin fraction, although it reduces napin extraction.

  9. Computation of surface electrical potentials of plant cell membranes . Correspondence To published zeta potentials from diverse plant sources

    Kinraide; Yermiyahu; Rytwo


    A Gouy-Chapman-Stern model has been developed for the computation of surface electrical potential (psi0) of plant cell membranes in response to ionic solutes. The present model is a modification of an earlier version developed to compute the sorption of ions by wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Scout 66) root plasma membranes. A single set of model parameters generates values for psi0 that correlate highly with published zeta potentials of protoplasts and plasma membrane vesicles from diverse plant sources. The model assumes ion binding to a negatively charged site (R- = 0.3074 &mgr;mol m-2) and to a neutral site (P0 = 2.4 &mgr;mol m-2) according to the reactions R- + IZ &rlharr; RIZ-1 and P0 + IZ &rlharr; PIZ, where IZ represents an ion of charge Z. Binding constants for the negative site are 21, 500 M-1 for H+, 20,000 M-1 for Al3+, 2,200 M-1 for La3+, 30 M-1 for Ca2+ and Mg2+, and 1 M-1 for Na+ and K+. Binding constants for the neutral site are 1/180 the value for binding to the negative site. Ion activities at the membrane surface, computed on the basis of psi0, appear to determine many aspects of plant-mineral interactions, including mineral nutrition and the induction and alleviation of mineral toxicities, according to previous and ongoing studies. A computer program with instructions for the computation of psi0, ion binding, ion concentrations, and ion activities at membrane surfaces may be requested from the authors.

  10. Protein adsorption on dopamine-melanin films: role of electrostatic interactions inferred from zeta-potential measurements versus chemisorption.

    Bernsmann, Falk; Frisch, Benoît; Ringwald, Christian; Ball, Vincent


    We recently showed the possibility to build dopamine-melanin films of controlled thickness by successive immersions of a substrate in alkaline solutions of dopamine [F. Bernsmann, A. Ponche, C. Ringwald, J. Hemmerlé, J. Raya, B. Bechinger, J.-C. Voegel, P. Schaaf, V. Ball, J. Phys. Chem. C 113 (2009) 8234-8242]. In this work the structure and properties of such films are further explored. The zeta-potential of dopamine-melanin films is measured as a function of the total immersion time to build the film. It appears that the film bears a constant zeta-potential of (-39+/-3) mV after 12 immersion steps. These data are used to calculate the surface density of charged groups of the dopamine-melanin films at pH 8.5 that are mostly catechol or quinone imine chemical groups. Furthermore the zeta-potential is used to explain the adsorption of three model proteins (lysozyme, myoglobin, alpha-lactalbumin), which is monitored by quartz crystal microbalance. We come to the conclusion that protein adsorption on dopamine-melanin is not only determined by possible covalent binding between amino groups of the proteins and catechol groups of dopamine-melanin but that electrostatic interactions contribute to protein binding. Part of the adsorbed proteins can be desorbed by sodium dodecylsulfate solutions at the critical micellar concentration. The fraction of weakly bound proteins decreases with their isoelectric point. Additionally the number of available sites for covalent binding of amino groups on melanin grains is quantified.

  11. Quasi-SMILES and nano-QFPR: The predictive model for zeta potentials of metal oxide nanoparticles

    Toropov, Andrey A.; Achary, P. Ganga Raju; Toropova, Alla P.


    Building up of the predictive quantitative structure-property/activity relationships (QSPRs/QSARs) for nanomaterials usually are impossible owing to the complexity of the molecular architecture of the nanomaterials. Simplified molecular input-line entry system (SMILES) is a tool to represent the molecular architecture of ;traditional; molecules for "traditional" QSPR/QSAR. The quasi-SMILES is a tool to represent features (conditions and circumstances), which accompany the behavior of nanomaterials. Having, the training set and validation set, so-called quantitative feature-property relationships (QFPRs), based on the quasi-SMILES, one can build up model for zeta potentials of metal oxide nanoparticles for situations characterized by different features.

  12. The zeta potential and surface properties of asphaltenes obtained with different crude oil/n-heptane proportions

    Hilda Parra-Barraza; Daniel Hernandez-Montiel; Jaime Lizardi; Javier Hernandez; Ronaldo Herrera Urbina; Miguel A. Valdez [Universidad de Sonora, Sonora (Mexico). Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas


    We have investigated some surface properties of asphaltenes precipitated from crude oil with different volumes of n-heptane. According to the crude oil/n-heptane proportions used, asphaltenes are identified as 1:5, 1:15 and 1:40. Zeta potential results indicate that the amount of n-heptane determines the electrokinetic behaviour of asphaltenes in aqueous suspensions. Asphaltene 1:5 exhibits an isoelectric point (IEP) at pH 4.5 whereas asphaltenes 1:15 and 1:40 show an IEP at about pH 3. Surface charge on asphaltenes arises from the dissociation of acid functionalities and the protonation of basic functional groups. The presence of resins remaining on the asphaltene molecules may be responsible for the different IEP of asphaltene 1:5. Both sodium dodecyl sulfate (an anionic surfactant) and cetylpyridinium chloride (a cationic surfactant) were found to adsorb specifically onto asphaltenes. They reverse the sign of the zeta potential under certain conditions. These surfactants may be potential candidates to aid in controlling the stability of crude oil dispersions. Critical micelle concentration, interfacial tension measurements, and Langmuir isotherms at the air water interface confirm the different nature of asphaltene 1:5, which also showed more solubility and a larger molecular size. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Improving the Efficiency of a Coagulation-Flocculation Wastewater Treatment of the Semiconductor Industry through Zeta Potential Measurements

    Eduardo Alberto López-Maldonado


    Full Text Available Efficiency of coagulation-flocculation process used for semiconductor wastewater treatment was improved by selecting suitable conditions (pH, polyelectrolyte type, and concentration through zeta potential measurements. Under this scenario the zeta potential, ζ, is the right parameter that allows studying and predicting the interactions at the molecular level between the contaminants in the wastewater and polyelectrolytes used for coagulation-flocculation. Additionally, this parameter is a key factor for assessing the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation processes based on the optimum dosages and windows for polyelectrolytes coagulation-flocculation effectiveness. In this paper, strategic pH variations allowed the prediction of the dosage of polyelectrolyte on wastewater from real electroplating baths, including the isoelectric point (IEP of the dispersions of water and commercial polyelectrolytes used in typical semiconductor industries. The results showed that there is a difference between polyelectrolyte demand required for the removal of suspended solids, turbidity, and organic matter from wastewater (23.4 mg/L and 67 mg/L, resp.. It was also concluded that the dose of polyelectrolytes and coagulation-flocculation window to achieve compliance with national and international regulations as EPA in USA and SEMARNAT in Mexico is influenced by the physicochemical characteristics of the dispersions and treatment conditions (pH and polyelectrolyte dosing strategy.

  14. Joule heating effects on electromagnetohydrodynamic flow through a peristaltically induced micro-channel with different zeta potential and wall slip

    Ranjit, N. K.; Shit, G. C.


    This paper aims to develop a mathematical model for magnetohydrodynamic flow of biofluids through a hydrophobic micro-channel with periodically contracting and expanding walls under the influence of an axially applied electric field. The velocity slip effects have been taken into account at the channel walls by employing different slip lengths due to hydrophobic gating. Different temperature jump factors have also been used to investigate the thermomechanical interactions at the fluid-solid interface. The electromagnetohydrodynamic flow in a microchannel is simplified under the framework of Debye-Hückel linearization approximation. We have derived the closed-form solutions for the linearized dimensionless boundary value problem under the assumptions of long wave length and low Reynolds number. The axial velocity, temperature, pressure distribution, stream function, wall shear stress and the Nusselt number have been appraised for diverse values of the parameters approaching into the problem. Our main focus is to determine the effects of different zeta potential on the axial velocity and temperature distribution under electromagnetic environment. This study puts forward an important observation that the different zeta potential plays an important role in controlling fluid velocity. The study further reveals that the temperature increases significantly with the Joule heating parameter and the Brinkman number (arises due to the dissipation of energy).

  15. Prediction of the zeta potentials and ionic descriptors of a silica hydride stationary phase with mobile phases of different pH and ionic strength.

    Kulsing, Chadin; Yang, Yuanzhong; Matyska, Maria T; Pesek, Joseph J; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W


    In this study, the zeta potentials of a silica hydride stationary phase (Diamond Hydride™) in the presence of different water-acetonitrile mixtures (from 0-80% (v/v) acetonitrile) of different ionic strengths (from 0-40mM) and pH values (from pH 3.0-7.0) have been investigated. Debye-Hückel theory was applied to explain the effect of changes in the pH and ionic strength of these aqueous media on the negative zeta potential of this stationary phase. The experimental zeta potentials of the Diamond Hydride™ particles as a function of acetonitrile content up to 50% (v/v) correlated (R(2)=0.998) with the predicted zeta potential values based on this established theory, when the values of the dissociation constant of all related species, as well as viscosity, dielectric constant and refractive index of the aqueous medium were taken into consideration. Further, the retention behavior of basic, acidic and neutral analytes was investigated under mobile phase conditions of higher pH and lower ionic strength. Under these conditions, the Diamond Hydride™ stationary phase surface became more negative, as assessed from the increasingly more negative zeta potentials, resulting in the ion exchange characteristics becoming more dominant and the basic analytes showing increasing retention. Ionic descriptors were derived from these chromatographic experiments based on the assumption that linear solvation energy relationships prevail. The results were compared with predicted ionic descriptors based on the different calculated zeta potential values resulting in an overall correlation of R(2)=0.888. These studies provide fundamental insights into the impact on the separation performance of changes in the zeta potential of the Diamond Hydride™ surface with the results relevant to other silica hydride and, potentially, to other types of stationary phase materials.

  16. Ground State Energy Calculations of Isoelectronic Series of He in Double-Zeta Approximation Using Coulomb Potential with Noninteger Indices

    GUSEINOV I.Israfil; AKSU Hüseyin


    @@ Using formulae for one-and two-electron integrals of Coulomb interaction potential fk(r)=r-k with non-integer indices k established by one of the authors with the help of complete orthonormal sets of Ψa-exponential-type orbitals(a=1,0,-1,-2,…),we perform the calculations for isoelectronic series of the He atom containing nuclear charges from 2 to 10,where k=1-μ(-1<μ<0).For this purpose we have used the dogble-zeta approximation,the configuration interaction and coupled-cluster methods employing the integer-n Slater-type orbitals as basis sets.It is demonstrated that the results of calculations obtained are better than the numerical Hartree-Fock values.

  17. Perfluorinated poly(dimethylsiloxane) via the covalent attachment of perfluoroalkylsilanes on the oxidized surface: Effects on zeta-potential values

    Sun, Peiling; Horton, J. Hugh


    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is a widely-used polymer in microfluidic devices due to its range of physical and chemical properties suitable for molding micron-sized features. However, its hydrophobicity also leads to some limitations: it poorly supports electro-osmotic flow, and can be incompatible with biomolecules and with many organic solvents. Surface modification is commonly used to vary PDMS surface properties to make it more suitable for specific microfluidic applications. Here, we report on the surface modification of PDMS using perfluoroalkane-triethoxysilanes, via the covalent attachment of triethoxysilane groups on plasma-oxidized PDMS. A device constructed from such fluorinated materials could be used for separating fluorous-tagged proteins or peptides. Modified PDMS were characterized using a range of surface analytical methods. In particular, zeta- (ζ-) potential values at the interfaces of both modified and unmodified PDMS and under varying pH conditions were measured, as ζ-potential is an essential parameter to support electroosmotic flow (EOF), a common pumping method in microfluidic devices. The results showed the length of fluorinated alkane chain has significant effect on the density of surface modifying species and topography following modification. In addition, the perfluorinated modification increases the magnitude of the ζ-potential at the PDMS interface when compared to that of native PDMS, increasing the electro-osmotic flow rate, over a wide pH range. The modified surface is resistant to the diffusion of PDMS oligomers that affects other PDMS surface modification processes.

  18. Use of Spectroscopic, Zeta Potential and Molecular Dynamic Techniques to Study the Interaction between Human Holo-Transferrin and Two Antagonist Drugs: Comparison of Binary and Ternary Systems

    Mohammad Reza Saberi


    Full Text Available For the first time, the binding of ropinirole hydrochloride (ROP and aspirin (ASA to human holo-transferrin (hTf has been investigated by spectroscopic approaches (fluorescence quenching, synchronous fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism, resonance light scattering, as well as zeta potential and molecular modeling techniques, under simulated physiological conditions. Fluorescence analysis was used to estimate the effect of the ROP and ASA drugs on the fluorescence of hTf as well as to define the binding and quenching properties of binary and ternary complexes. The synchronized fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra demonstrated some micro-environmental and conformational changes around the Trp and Tyr residues with a faint red shift. Thermodynamic analysis displayed the van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds interactions are the major acting forces in stabilizing the complexes. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence data revealed that the fluorescence quenching of complexes are static mechanism. The effect of the drugs aggregating on the hTf resulted in an enhancement of the resonance light scattering (RLS intensity. The average binding distance between were computed according to the forster non-radiation energy transfer theory. The circular dichroism (CD spectral examinations indicated that the binding of the drugs induced a conformational change of hTf. Measurements of the zeta potential indicated that the combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between ROP, ASA and hTf formed micelle-like clusters. The molecular modeling confirmed the experimental results. This study is expected to provide important insight into the interaction of hTf with ROP and ASA to use in various toxicological and therapeutic processes.

  19. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of glutathione transferase zeta 1 (GSTZ1a-1a)

    Boone, Christopher D.; Zhong, Guo; Smeltz, Marci; James, Margaret O., E-mail:; McKenna, Robert, E-mail:


    Crystals of glutathione transferase zeta 1 were grown and shown to diffract X-rays to 3.1 Å resolution. They belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 42.0, b = 49.6, c = 54.6 Å, α = 82.9, β = 69.9, γ = 73.4°.

  20. Interactions of surfactants with a water treatment protein from Moringa oleifera seeds in solution studied by zeta-potential and light scattering measurements.

    Kwaambwa, Habauka M; Rennie, Adrian R


    Protein extracted from Moringa oleifera (MO) seeds has been advocated as a cheap and environmental friendly alternative to ionic flocculants for water purification. However, the nature and mechanism of its interaction with particles in water, as well as with dissolved surface-active molecules, are not well understood. In this article, we report studies of the protein and its interaction with four surfactants using dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta-potential and turbidity measurements. Zeta-potential measurements identified points of charge reversal and the turbidity and DLS measurements were used to characterize the microstructure and size of protein-surfactant complexes. From the points of charge reversal, it was estimated that 7 anions are required to neutralize the positive charges of each protein molecule at pH 7. For protein mixtures with sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyl di-acid sodium salt, the peak in turbidity corresponds to concentrations with a large change in zeta-potential. No turbidity was observed for protein mixtures with either the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 or the zwitterionic surfactant N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate. Changes of pH in the range 4-10 have little effect on the zeta-potential, turbidity, and the hydrodynamic radius reflecting the high isoelectric point of the protein. Addition of small amounts of salt has little effect on the size of protein in solution. These results are discussed in the context of the use of the MO protein in water treatment.

  1. Rheology and zeta potential of cement pastes containing calcined silt and ground granulated blast-furnace slag

    Safi, B.


    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the re-use of dam silt as a supplementary binder for self-compacting concrete (SCC. When burnt, silt becomes more reactive because the kaolin it contains is converted into metakaolin. Portland cement, calcined or burnt silt and ground granulated blast furnace slag were used in this research. Cement pastes were prepared with blends containing two or three of these materials. The replacement ratio for burnt silt in both cases was 10 % and 20 % by cement weight and the ratio for the slag was a constant 30 % by weight of the blend. Rheological and zeta potential tests were conducted to evaluate paste electrokinetics and rheological behaviour. The findings showed that burnt silt is apt for use as an addition to cement for SCC manufacture.

    En el presente trabajo se ha analizado la posibilidad de utilizar los lodos procedentes de embalses como adición en la fabricación del hormigón autocompactante (HAC. Con la calcinación, estos materiales se vuelven más reactivos debido a la transformación en metacaolín, del caolín que forma parte de su composición. Las materias primas empleadas en esta investigación son: cemento Pórtland, lodos de embalse calcinados y escorias granuladas de horno alto. Se prepararon pastas de cemento con mezclas que contenían dos o tres de estos materiales. El porcentaje de reemplazo de los lodos calcinados osciló entre el 10 y el 20 % en peso del cemento, mientras que el de la escoria fue del 30 % en peso de la mezcla. Se llevaron a cabo ensayos reológicos y de potencial zeta para evaluar el comportamiento electrocinético y reológico de las distintas pastas. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, una vez calcinados, los lodos de embalse son aprovechables como adición al cemento con destino a la preparación de HAC.

  2. Dielectric Enhancement from Non-Insulating Particles with Ideally Polarized Interfaces and Zero $\\zeta$-Potential I: Exact Solution

    Qian, Jiang


    We solve exactly the dielectric response of a non-insulating sphere of radius $a$ suspended in symmetric, univalent electrolyte solution, with ideally-polarizable interface but without significant $\\zeta$-potential. We then use this solution to derive the dielectric response of a dilute random suspension of such spheres, with volume fraction $f\\ll1$, within the Maxwell-Garnett Effective Medium Approximation. Surprisingly, we discover a huge dielectric enhancement in this bare essential model of dielectric responses of solids in electrolyte solution: at low frequency $\\omega\\tau_D \\ll (\\lambda/a) / (\\sigma_w / \\sigma_s+1/2)$, the real part of the effective dielectric constant of the mixture is $1-(3f/2)+(9f/4)(a/\\lambda)$. Here $\\sigma_{w/s}$ is the conductivity of the electrolyte solution/solids, $\\lambda$ is the Debye screening length in the solution, $\\tau_D=\\lambda^2/D$ is the standard time scale of diffusion and $D$ is the ion diffusion coefficient. As $\\lambda$ is of the order nm even for dilute electrol...

  3. Electroacoustic and ultrasonic attenuation measurements of droplet size and zeta-potential of alkane-in-water emulsions: effects of oil solubility and composition.

    Djerdjev, Alex M; Beattie, James K


    The effects of oil solubility and composition on the zeta potential and drop size of oil-in-water emulsions stabilised by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were studied by electroacoustics and ultrasonic attenuation. The zeta-potentials of toluene and alkane emulsions were found to decrease (be less negative) as the water solubility of the dispersed oil phase increased. The zeta-potentials also depended on the composition of mixed oils, becoming more negative with increasing mole fraction of an insoluble oil (hexadecane). As the water solubility of the dispersed oil phase increased, the conductance within the Stern layer relative to the diffuse layer (K/K) increased, which is interpreted as due to the displacement of the shear plane further into the diffuse layer. The shear plane was calculated to increase from approximately 0.50 nm at the insoluble oil-water interface (hexadecane) to approximately 2.5 nm at a soluble oil-water interface of toluene. The lowering of the zeta-potentials of the soluble oils is ascribed to the shift of the shear plane into the diffuse layer, resulting in a more diffuse interface. The total surface conductance of the mixed oils was related to the log of the oil solubility and decreased from approximately 7 x 10(-9) Omega(-1) to 3 x 10(-9) Omega(-1) with increasing oil solubility from hexadecane to toluene, respectively. The lower surface conductance at the soluble oil-water interface is attributed to a reduction in the dielectric constant of the water inside of the shear plane, caused by the presence of the soluble oil.

  4. Investigations of the influence of vapour phase inhibitors on the surface charge of iron oxide particles by zeta-potential measurements

    Kuenzelmann, U.; Reinhard, G. (Technische Univ., Dresden (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Chemie); Jacobasch, H.J. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Dresden. Inst. fuer Technologie der Fasern (German Democratic Republic))


    Adsorbability of the vapour phase inhibitor dicyclohexylammonium nitrite (Dichan) and its ionic constituents present in aqueous media were investigated by means of zeta-potential measurements in 10{sup -3} M KCl solution in dependence on the pH-value using particles of various iron oxides and oxide hydroxides. It was pointed out, that the interactions between Dichan and iron oxides result in a negativation of the zeta-potential and in a displacement of the isoelectric point of the particles surface (IEPS) due to specific adsorption of anions. By dicyclohexylamine in the primary solution, the zeta-potential of iron oxides is hardly influenced, even when the saturation concentration is established. As nitrite changes the chemical surface properties when concentrations considerably higher than those indicated for Dichan are achieved, a synergism is assumed to be present because of the Dichan's high adsorbability at oxidic iron compounds. This effect probable consist in the promotion of the specific adsorption of nitrite ions at the oxide surface by the amine component. (orig.).

  5. A detailed X-ray investigation of {\\zeta} Puppis III. A spectral analysis of the whole RGS spectrum

    Hervé, A; Nazé, Y


    Context. Zeta Pup is the X-ray brightest O-type star of the sky. This object was regularly observed with the RGS instrument aboard XMM-Newton for calibration purposes, leading to an unprecedented set of high-quality spectra. Aims. We have previously reduced and extracted this data set and combined it into the most detailed high-resolution X-ray spectrum of any early-type star so far. Here we present the analysis of this spectrum accounting for the presence of structures in the stellar wind. Methods. For this purpose, we use our new modeling tool that allows fitting the entire spectrum with a multi-temperature plasma. We illustrate the impact of a proper treatment of the radial dependence of the X-ray opacity of the cool wind on the best-fit radial distribution of the temperature of the X-ray plasma. Results. The best fit of the RGS spectrum of Zeta Pup is obtained assuming no porosity. Four plasma components at temperatures between 0.10 and 0.69 keV are needed to adequately represent the observed spectrum. Wh...

  6. Degenerate Euler zeta function

    Kim, Taekyun


    Recently, T. Kim considered Euler zeta function which interpolates Euler polynomials at negative integer (see [3]). In this paper, we study degenerate Euler zeta function which is holomorphic function on complex s-plane associated with degenerate Euler polynomials at negative integers.

  7. Riemann Zeta Matrix Function

    Kargın, Levent; Kurt, Veli


    In this study, obtaining the matrix analog of the Euler's reflection formula for the classical gamma function we expand the domain of the gamma matrix function and give a infinite product expansion of sinπxP.  Furthermore we define Riemann zeta matrix function and evaluate some other matrix integrals. We prove a functional equation for Riemann zeta matrix function.

  8. Predicting the influence of liposomal lipid composition on liposome size, zeta potential and liposome-induced dendritic cell maturation using a design of experiments approach.

    Soema, Peter C; Willems, Geert-Jan; Jiskoot, Wim; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon F


    In this study, the effect of liposomal lipid composition on the physicochemical characteristics and adjuvanticity of liposomes was investigated. Using a design of experiments (DoE) approach, peptide-containing liposomes containing various lipids (EPC, DOPE, DOTAP and DC-Chol) and peptide concentrations were formulated. Liposome size and zeta potential were determined for each formulation. Moreover, the adjuvanticity of the liposomes was assessed in an in vitro dendritic cell (DC) model, by quantifying the expression of DC maturation markers CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86. The acquired data of these liposome characteristics were successfully fitted with regression models, and response contour plots were generated for each response factor. These models were applied to predict a lipid composition that resulted in a liposome with a target zeta potential. Subsequently, the expression of the DC maturation factors for this lipid composition was predicted and tested in vitro; the acquired maturation responses corresponded well with the predicted ones. These results show that a DoE approach can be used to screen various lipids and lipid compositions, and to predict their impact on liposome size, charge and adjuvanticity. Using such an approach may accelerate the formulation development of liposomal vaccine adjuvants.

  9. A Derivation of $pi(n$ Based on a Stability Analysis of the Riemann-Zeta Function

    Harney M.


    Full Text Available The prime-number counting function $pi(n$, which is significant in the prime number theorem, is derived by analyzing the region of convergence of the real-part of the Riemann-Zeta function using the unilateral $z$-transform. In order to satisfy the stability criteria of the $z$-transform, it is found that the real part of the Riemann-Zeta function must converge to the prime-counting function.

  10. A Derivation of π(n Based on a Stability Analysis of the Riemann-Zeta Function

    Harney M.


    Full Text Available The prime-number counting function ( n , which is significant in the prime number the- orem, is derived by analyzing the region of convergence of the real-part of the Riemann- Zeta function using the unilateral z -transform. In order to satisfy the stability criteria of the z -transform, it is found that the real part of the Riemann-Zeta function must con- verge to the prime-counting function.

  11. Mixtures of latex particles and the surfactant of opposite charge used as interface stabilizers--influence of particle contact angle, zeta potential, flocculation and shear energy.

    Deleurence, Rémi; Parneix, Caroline; Monteux, Cécile


    We investigate the stabilization of air-water interfaces by mixtures of negatively charged latex particles (sulfate polystyrene) and cationic surfactants (alkyl trimethylammonium bromides). First we report results concerning the binding of surfactant molecules to the latex particles. As the surfactant concentration increases, the charge of the particles reverses, from negative to positive, because CnTAB first binds electrostatically to the latex particles and then through hydrophobic interaction with the monolayer already adsorbed on the particles as well as directly with the hydrophobic surface of the latex. Over a large range of surfactant concentrations around the charge inversion, a strong flocculation is observed and 100 μm large aggregates form in the suspension. Unlike previous studies published on mixtures of inorganic particles with oppositely charged surfactants, we show that we can vary the sign of the zeta potential of the particles without changing the contact angle of the particles over a large range of surfactant concentrations. Indeed, the latex particles that we study are more hydrophobic than inorganic particles, hence adding moderate concentrations of the surfactant results in a weak variation of the contact angle while the charge of the particles can be reversed. This enables decoupling of the effect of zeta potential and contact angle on the interfacial properties of the mixtures. Our study shows that the contact angle and the charge of the particles are not sufficient parameters to control the foam properties, and the key-parameters are the flocculation state and the shear energy applied to produce the foam. Indeed, flocculated samples, whatever the sign of the zeta potential, enable production of a stable armour at the interface. The large aggregates do not adsorb spontaneously at the interface because of their large size, however when a large shear energy is used to produce the foam very stable foam is obtained, where particles are trapped

  12. Organelles and chromatin fragmentation of human umbilical vein endothelial cell influence by the effects of zeta potential and size of silver nanoparticles in different manners.

    Tavakol, Shima; Hoveizi, Elham; Kharrazi, Sharmin; Tavakol, Behnaz; Karimi, Shabnam; Rezayat Sorkhabadi, Seyed Mahdi


    Recently, it has been disclosed that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have the potential to inhibit infection and cancerous cells and eventually penetrate through injected site into the capillary due to their small size. This study focuses on the effect of size and zeta potential of bare and citrate-coated AgNPs on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as main capillary cells. AgNPs with high and low concentrations and no citrate coating were synthesized by using simple wet chemical method and named as AgNP/HC, AgNP/LC, and AgNP, respectively. Citrate coated particles showed larger zeta potential of -22 mV and AgNp/HC showed the smallest size of 13.2 nm. UV-Visible spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were performed to evaluate particle size and hydrodynamic diameter of NPs in water and cell culture media. Results indicated that higher concentrations of citrate decreased hydrodynamic diameter and NP agglomeration. reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of all AgNPs was similar at 28 ppm although it was significantly higher than control group. Their effects on cell membrane and chromosomal structure were studied using LDH measurement and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, as well. Results demonstrated that AgNP/LC was less toxic to cells owing to higher value of IC50, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and less release of LDH. Cancerous (Human Caucasian neuroblastoma) and immortal cells (Mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line) were about twice more sensitive than HUVECs to toxic effects of AgNPs. DAPI staining results showed that AgNP and AgNP/HC induced highest and lowest breaking of chromosome. Overall results suggest that viability of HUVECs will be higher than 90% when viability of cancerous cells is 50% in AgNPs chemotherapy.

  13. Elucidation of the mechanisms of action of Bacteriophage K/nano-emulsion formulations against S. aureus via measurement of particle size and zeta potential.

    Esteban, Patricia Perez; Jenkins, A Toby A; Arnot, Tom C


    In earlier work we have demonstrated the effect that nano-emulsions have on bacterial growth, and most importantly the enhanced bacteriophage infectivity against Staphylococcus aureus in planktonic culture when phage are carried in nano-emulsions. However, the mechanisms of enhancement of the bacteriophage killing effect are not specifically understood. This work focuses on the investigation of the possible interactions between emulsion droplets and bacterial cells, between emulsion droplets and bacteriophages, and finally interactions between all three components: nano-emulsion droplets, bacteria, and bacteriophages. The first approach consists of simple calculations to determine the spatial distribution of the components, based on measurements of particle size. It was found that nano-emulsion droplets are much more numerous than bacteria or bacteriophage, and due to their size and surface area they must be covering the surface of both cells and bacteriophage particles. Stabilisation of bacteriophages due to electrostatic forces and interaction with nano-emulsion droplets is suspected, since bacteriophages may be protected against inactivation due to 'charge shielding'. Zeta potential was measured for the individual components in the system, and for all of them combined. It was concluded that the presence of nano-emulsions could be reducing electrostatic repulsion between bacterial cells and bacteriophage, both of which are very negatively 'charged'. Moreover, nano-emulsions lead to more favourable interaction between bacteriophages and bacteria, enhancing the anti-microbial or killing effect. These findings are relevant since the physicochemical properties of nano-emulsions (i.e. particle size distribution and zeta potential) are key in determining the efficacy of the formulation against infection in the context of responsive burn wound dressings-which is the main target for this work.

  14. The zeta potential of cyclo-olefin polymer microchannels and its effects on insulative (electrodeless) dielectrophoresis particle trapping devices

    Mela, Petra; Berg, van den Albert; Fintschenko, Yolanda; Cummings, Eric B.; Simmons, Blake A.; Kirby, Brian J.


    While cyclo-olefin polymer microchannels have the potential to improve both the optical detection sensitivity and the chemical resistance of polymer microanalytical systems, their surface properties are to date not thoroughly characterized. These surface properties dictate, among other things, elect

  15. Zeta Potential Study on the Bio-oxidation of Copper Sulfide Minerals%硫化铜矿细菌氧化的Zeta电位研究

    傅开彬; 林海


    为了研究矿物与细菌相互作用后矿物的Zeta电位与细菌对矿物的氧化能力之间的关系,利用Zeta电位仪检测与细菌作用前后硫化矿的Zeta电位,根据Zeta电位和IEP(Iso Electric Point)的变化,判断细菌对硫化矿的氧化作用及其程度。结果表明,硫化铜矿与细菌作用后,矿物的Zeta电位降低,辉铜矿、斑铜矿和铜蓝的IEP向铜的氢氧化物方向移动,而黄铜矿向细菌的IEP方向靠近,分析原因主要是由于各矿物被细菌氧化的程度不同。对与细菌相互作用后的铜蓝进行XPS测试结果证实其表面被氧化。研究证实了细菌对硫化矿的直接氧化作用,同时也得出不同硫化铜的细菌氧化顺序:辉铜矿〉斑铜矿〉铜蓝〉黄铜矿。%The direct bacterial oxidation of sulphide minerals was evaluated by Zeta potential and the iso- electric point (IEP). The results show that copper sulphide minerals have been directly oxidized by the bacteria, after conditioning with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, the Zeta potential of copper sulphide de- creased and became negative, the IEP of chalcoeite, bornite and covellite moved towards the IEP of cop- per hydroxide, however, the IEP of chalcopyrite was very close to that of bacteria. The XPS of covellite after conditioning with bacteria indicates the surface was oxidized. The results support the direct mecha- nism of sulphide minerals bio-oxidation from a new viewpoint. The following order for the bio-oxidation of these minerals is obtained ~ chalcocite 〉 bornite 〉 covellite 〉 chalcoovrite.

  16. Remarks on Shintani's zeta function

    Wakayama, Masato


    We introduce a zeta function attached to a representation of a group. We show that the multi-dimensional zeta function due to Shintani [Sh 1], which is a generalization of the multiple Hurwitz zeta function, can be obtained in this framework. We also construct a gamma function from the zeta function attached to a representation via zeta regularization. We study then a $q$-analogue of the Shintani zeta function and the corresponding gamma function. A sine function defined via the reflection fo...

  17. 细粒棘球绦虫14-3-3zeta蛋白的生物信息学分析%Application of bioinformatic analysis in 14-3-3zeta protein of Echinococcus granulosus

    符瑞佳; 吕刚; 尹飞飞; 梁培


    目的:应用生物信息学技术对细粒棘球绦虫(Echinococcus granulosus)14-3-3zeta蛋白的结构和功能进行预测和分析,为进一步的实验研究提供依据。方法利用美国国家生物技术信息中心(NCBI,和瑞士生物信息学研究所的蛋白分析专家系统(ExPASY,提供的各种有关基因和蛋白序列、结构信息分析的工具,并结合其它生物信息学分析软件,对该蛋白质的结构和功能进行预测和分析。结果该基因全长为771 bp ,编码256个氨基酸,其编码的蛋白相对分子量理论预测值和等电点分别是29.4 kDa和5.04。预测该蛋白无信号肽和跨膜区,二级结构含8个α-螺旋和12个β-折叠股,氨基酸序列中有9个潜在抗原表位。结论初步认识了细粒棘球绦虫14-3-3zeta蛋白的基本特征,为深入研究该蛋白的生物学功能奠定了基础。%Objective To predict and analyze the structure and function of 14-3-3zeta protein from Echinococcus granulosus by bioinformatics technology. Methods The structure and function of Eg14-3-3zeta protein was identified from two biological information sites, USA National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI,, and Expert System for analysis of protein of the Swiss Institute of bioinformatics (ExPASY,, which offer the analysis of various related gene and protein sequence, structure information tools, and other bioinformatics analysis software. Results The full-length cDNA sequence encoding Eg14-3-3zeta included a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 771 bp coding to a putative protein with 256 amino acids. Molecular weight of Eg14-3-3zeta was predicted to be 29.4 kDa and its isoelectric point was 5.04. The protein had no signal peptide site and transmembrane do-main. Secondary structure of Eg14-3-3zeta contained 8 alpha-helices and 12 beta-strands.There were

  18. Stability Investigation of Ligand-Exchanged CdSe/ZnS-Y (Y = 3-Mercaptopropionic Acid or Mercaptosuccinic Acid through Zeta Potential Measurements

    Ngoc Thuy Vo


    Full Text Available Quantum dots have been considered to be promising candidates for bioapplications because of their high sensitivity, rapid response, and reliability. The synthesis of high-quality quantum dots that can be dissolved in water and other biological media is a crucial step toward their further application in biology. Starting with a one-pot reaction and the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method, we produced the CdSe/ZnS core/shell structure. Through a ligand-exchange mechanism, we coated the as-made CdSe/ZnS structure with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA or mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA. Various techniques, including photoluminescence (PL, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, were utilized to characterize the ligand-coated CdSe/ZnS structure. The results show enhanced luminescence intensity, CdSe surface passivation by ZnS, and successful coating with MPA and MSA. The stability of quantum dots in solutions with different pH values was investigated by performing zeta potential measurements. The results revealed that the quantum dots shifted from displaying hydrophobic to hydrophilic behavior and could be connected with bioagents.

  19. Effect of chemical composition on hydrophobicity and zeta potential of plasma sprayed HA/CaO-P2O5 glass coatings.

    Ferraz, M P; Monteiro, F J; Serro, A P; Saramago, B; Gibson, I R; Santos, J D


    Multilayered plasma sprayed coatings on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V alloys have been prepared, which were composed of an underlayer of HA and a surface layer of a CaO-P2O5 glass-HA composite, with 2 or 4wt% of glass. Contact angle and surface tension variation with time, for both water and a protein solution, were determined by the sessile and pendent drop methods respectively using the ADSA-P software. Wettability studies showed that hydrophobicity of the coatings increase with the glass addition. The work of adhesion of albumin was also altered in a controlled manner by the addition of the CaO-P2O5 glass, being lower on the composite coatings than on HA. Zeta potential (ZP) results showed that composite coatings presented a higher net negative charge than HA coatings and that ZP values were also influenced by the content of the glass. This study demonstrated that the surface properties of those coatings may be modified by the addition of CaO-P2O5 glass.

  20. Bilateral zeta functions and their applications

    Shibukawa, Genki


    We introduce a new type of multiple zeta functions, which we call bilateral zeta functions, analogous to the Barnes zeta functions. The bilateral zeta function is a periodic function and shares certain basic properties of Barnes zeta function. Especially, we prove that the bilateral zeta function has a nice Fourier series expansion and the Barnes zeta function can be expressed as a finite sum of bilateral zeta functions. By these properties of the bilateral zeta functions, We obtain simple pr...

  1. The preparation, surface structure, zeta potential, surface charge density and photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} nanostructures of different shapes

    Grover, Inderpreet Singh; Singh, Satnam; Pal, Bonamali, E-mail:


    Titania based nanocatalysts such as sodium titanates of different morphology having superior surface properties are getting wide importance in photocatalysis research. Despite having sodium (Na) contents and its high temperature synthesis (that generally deteriorate the photoreactivity), these Na-titanates often exhibit better photoactivity than P25-TiO{sub 2} catalyst. Hence, this work demonstrated the influence of crystal structure, BET surface area, surface charge, zeta potential (ζ) and metal loading on the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared sodium titanate nanotube (TNT) and titania nanorod (TNR). Straw like hollow orthorhombic-TNT (Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 5}·H{sub 2}O) particles (W = 9–12 nm and L = 82–115 nm) and rice like pure anatase-TNR particles (W = 8–13 nm and L = 81–134 nm) are obtained by the hydrothermal treatment of P25-TiO{sub 2} with NaOH, which in fact, altered the net surface charge of TNT and TNR particles. The observed ζ = −2.82 (P25-TiO{sub 2}), −13.5 (TNT) and −22.5 mV (TNR) are significantly altered by the Ag and Cu deposition. It has been found here that TNT displayed best photocatalytic activity for the imidacloprid insecticide (C{sub 9}H{sub 10}ClN{sub 5}O{sub 2}) degradation to CO{sub 2} formation under UV irradiation because of its largest surface area 176 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} among the catalysts studied.

  2. Structure-based lead discovery for protein kinase C zeta inhibitor design by exploiting kinase-inhibitor complex crystal structure data and potential therapeutics for preterm labour.

    Shao, Qing-Chun; Zhang, Cui-Juan; Li, Jie


    The protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine/threonine kinases with a broad range of cellular targets. Members of the PKC family participate at the diverse biological events involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival. The PKC isoform zeta (PKCζ) is an atypical member that has recently been found to play an essential role in promoting human uterine contractility and thus been raised as a new target for treating preterm labour and other tocolytic diseases. In this study, an integrative protocol was described to graft hundreds of inhibitor ligands from their complex crystal structures with cognate kinases into the active pocket of PKCζ and, based on the modeled structures, to evaluate the binding strength of these inhibitors to the non-cognate PKCζ receptor by using a consensus scoring strategy. A total of 32 inhibitors with top score were compiled, and eight out of them were tested for inhibitory potency against PKCζ. Consequently, five compounds, i.e. CDK6 inhibitor fisetin, PIM1 inhibitor myricetin, CDK9 inhibitor flavopiridol and PknB inhibitor mitoxantrone as well as the promiscuous kinase inhibitor staurosporine showed high or moderate inhibitory activity on PKCζ, with IC50 values of 58 ± 9, 1.7 ± 0.4, 108 ± 17, 280 ± 47 and 0.019 ± 0.004 μM, respectively, while other three compounds, including two marketed drugs dasatinib and sunitinib as well as the Rho inhibitor fasudil, have not been detected to possess observable activity. Next, based on the modeled structure data we modified three flavonoid kinase inhibitors, i.e. fisetin, myricetin and flavopiridol, to generate a number of more potential molecular entities, two of which were found to have a moderately improved activity as compared to their parent compounds.

  3. Zeta-spectroscopy beyond 40 GeV

    Buchmueller, W.


    The zeta-family of bound states, formed by the anticipated t-quark and its antiquark, is discussed. The quantitative connection between the zeta-spectroscopy and the short distance behavior of the quark-antiquark potential is examined. It is pointed out that the next quarkonium system will lead to an accurate determination of the QCD scale parameter ..lambda... Weak zeta-decays are briefly considered.

  4. Generalised root identities for zeta functions of curves over finite fields

    Stone, Richard


    We consider generalised root identities for zeta functions of curves over finite fields, \\zeta_{k}, and compare with the corresponding analysis for the Riemann zeta function. We verify numerically that, as for \\zeta, the \\zeta_{k} do satisfy the generalised root identities and we investigate these in detail for the special cases of \\mu=0,-1\\:\\&\\:-2. Unlike for \\zeta, however, we show that in the setting of zeta functions of curves over finite fields the \\mu=-2 root identity is consistent with the Riemann hypothesis (RH) proved by Weil. Comparison of this analysis with the corresponding calculations for \\zeta illuminates the fact that, even though both \\zeta and \\zeta_{k} have both Euler and Hadamard product representations, it is the detailed structure of the counting function, N(T), which drives the Cesaro computations on the root side of these identities and thereby determines the implications of the root identities for RH in each setting.

  5. A zeta potential value determines the aggregate’s size of penta-substituted [60]fullerene derivatives in aqueous suspension whereas positive charge is required for toxicity against bacterial cells

    Deryabin, Dmitry G.; Ludmila V. Efremova; Vasilchenko, Alexey S.; Saidakova, Evgeniya V; Sizova, Elena A.; Pavel A. Troshin; Zhilenkov, Alexander V; Khakina, Ekaterina E


    Background The cause–effect relationships between physicochemical properties of amphiphilic [60]fullerene derivatives and their toxicity against bacterial cells have not yet been clarified. In this study, we report how the differences in the chemical structure of organic addends in 10 originally synthesized penta-substituted [60]fullerene derivatives modulate their zeta potential and aggregate’s size in salt-free and salt-added aqueous suspensions as well as how these physicochemical characte...

  6. Interpolation of multiple zeta and zeta-star values

    Yamamoto, Shuji


    We define polynomials of one variable t whose values at t=0 and 1 are the multiple zeta values and the multiple zeta-star values, respectively. We give an application to the two-one conjecture of Ohno-Zudilin, and also prove the cyclic sum formula for these polynomials.

  7. Ionic Distribution, Electrostatic Potential and Zeta Potential at Electrochemical Interfaces%电化学界面处离子分布、静电势和ζ势的研究

    于养信; 吴建中; 高光华


    Density functional theory is applied to predicting the structures and electrostatic potentials of planar electrochemical surfaces within the framework of the restricted primitive model where small ions are represented by charged hard spheres of equal diameter and the solvent is assumed to be a continuous dielectric medium. The hard-sphere contribution to the excess Helmholtz energy functional is evaluated using the modified fundamentalmeasure theory and the electrostatic contribution is obtained from the quadratic functional Taylor expansion using the second-order direct correlation function from the mean-spherical approximation. Numerical results for the ionic density profiles and the mean electrostatic potentials near a planar surface of various charge densities are in excellent agreement with molecular simulations. In contrast to the modified Gouy-Chapman theory, the present density functional theory correctly predicts the second layer formation and charge inversion of charged surfaces as observed in simulations and in experiments. The theory has also been tested with the zeta potentials of positively charged polystyrene particles in aqueous solutions of KBr. Good agreement is achieved between the calculated and experimental results.

  8. Probing the interaction of human serum albumin with vitamin B2 (riboflavin) and L-Arginine (L-Arg) using multi-spectroscopic, molecular modeling and zeta potential techniques

    Memarpoor-Yazdi, Mina [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahaki, Hanie, E-mail: [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    This study was designed to examine the interaction of Riboflavin (RB) and L-Arginine (L-Arg) with human serum albumin (HSA) using different spectroscopic, zeta potential and molecular modeling techniques under imitated physiological conditions. The resonance light scattering (RLS) method determined the critical aggregation concentration of RB on HSA in the presence and absence of L-Arg which confirmed the zeta potential results. The binding constants (K{sub a}) of HSA–RB were 2.5×10{sup 4} and 9.7×10{sup 3} M{sup −1}, respectively in binary and ternary system at the excitation wavelength of 280 nm, also were 7.5×10{sup 3} and 7.3×10{sup 3}, respectively in binary and ternary system at the excitation wavelength of 295 nm. Fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that in the presence of L-Arg, the binding constant of HSA–RB was increased. Static quenching was confirmed to results in the fluorescence quenching and FRET. The binding distances between HSA and RB in two- and three-component systems were estimated by the Forster theory which revealed that nonradiative energy transfer from HSA to RB occurred with a high probability. The effect of RB on the conformation of HSA was analyzed using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) in both systems. Docking studies demonstrated a reduction in the binding affinity between RB and HSA in the presence of L-Arg. -- Highlights: ► We studied the interaction of riboflavin with HSA in presence and absence of L-Arg. ► Molecular modeling and zeta-potential used to describe competitive interaction. ► We compared the binding mechanism of riboflavin (RB) to HSA in both systems. ► We determined critical aggregation concentration of RB on HSA in both systems. ► The binding site of RB on HSA in both systems has been determined.

  9. On a new zeta function

    Sun, Zhi-Wei


    Let m be a positive integer. We introduce a new zeta function zeta_m(s) defined by zeta_m(s) = sum_{n>0(-e^{2*pi*i/m})^{Omega(n)}/n^s for Re(s)>1, where Omega(n) denotes the total number of prime factors of n (counted with multiplicity). We show that sum_{n\\le x}(-e^{2*pi*i/3})^{Omega(n)}/n is asymptotically equivalent to c(log x)^{(1-sqrt{-3})/2} with c a nonzero complex number, and that sum_{n\\le x}(-e^{2*pi*i/m})^{Omega(n)}/n=O(1) for all m=4,5,6,... We note that zeta_m(s)*sum_{n>0}mu_m(n)/n^s=1 for Re(s)>1, where mu_m(n)=e^{2*pi*i*Omega(n)/m} if n is squarefree, and mu_m(n)=0 otherwise. We also prove that sum_{n>0}mu_3(n)/n=0, which is similar to the known identity sum_{n>0}mu(n)/n=0 equivalent to the Prime Number Theorem. In contrast with the Riemann Hypothesis, we raise the following new hypothesis: zeta_m(1):=sum_{n>0}(-e^{2*pi*i/m})^{Omega(n)}/n=0 for all m=5,6,....

  10. Bilateral zeta functions and their applications

    Shibukawa, Genki


    We introduce a new type of multiple zeta functions, which we call bilateral zeta functions, analogous to the Barnes zeta functions. The bilateral zeta function is a periodic function and shares certain basic properties of Barnes zeta function. Especially, we prove that the bilateral zeta function has a nice Fourier series expansion and the Barnes zeta function can be expressed as a finite sum of bilateral zeta functions. By these properties of the bilateral zeta functions, We obtain simple proofs of some formulas, for example the reflection formula for the multiple gamma function, the inversion formula of the Dedekind eta function, Ramanujan's formula, Fourier expansion of the Barnes zeta function and multiple Iseki's formula.

  11. Raw Coal Density Affected to Surface Zeta Potential of Muddy and Slime Particle%原煤密度对泥化及煤泥颗粒表面ξ电位的影响

    赵晴; 闵凡飞; 刘令云; 李宏亮


    The muddy experiment on 50 -0.5 mm different density raw coal from Dingji Coal Preparation Plant of Huainan Mining Area was conducted. The X-ray diffractor and the electrophoresis experiment was individually applied to measure the raw coal mineral composition and the zeta potential on the micro particle surface of the slime. The results showed that the main mineral composition of the raw coal to be prepared would be including quartz, kaolinite, green mudstone and others. The muddy rate of the high density and medium density raw coal was high. In the muddy slime of the +1. 60 g/cmJ raw coal, the -0. 045 mm particles would be the majority and the -0. 025 mm micro particles would be over 90%. With the raw coal density increased and the slime particle reduced, the zeta potential on the micro particle surface of the muddy slime would be reduced in potential. The water hardness, the soluble salt in the raw coal and the particle surface property would have important influence to the zeta potential occurred on the slime micro particle. The zeta potential increased on the slime micro particle surface would cause the particles in the slime water in more stable dispersed state.%对淮南矿区丁集选煤厂50~0.5 mm不同密度级原煤进行了泥化试验,采用X-射线衍射 仪和电泳试验分别对原煤矿物组成和煤泥微细颗粒表面ξ电位进行了测定.结果表明:入选原煤中主要矿物成分有石英、高岭石、绿泥石等;高密度和中间密度级原煤泥化率大,+1.60g/cm3原煤泥化煤泥中-0.045 mm颗粒最多,其中约90%以上为-0.025 mm的微细颗粒;随着原煤密度的增大和煤泥粒度的减小,泥化煤泥微细颗粒表面ξ电位呈减小趋势,水的硬度、原煤中可溶性盐及颗粒表面性质对煤泥微细颗粒ξ电位产生重要影响,微细煤泥颗粒表面ξ电位增大会导致其在煤泥水中处于更加稳定的分散状态.

  12. Proof of Riemann's zeta-hypothesis

    Bergstrom, Arne


    Make an exponential transformation in the integral formulation of Riemann's zeta-function zeta(s) for Re(s) > 0. Separately, in addition make the substitution s -> 1 - s and then transform back to s again using the functional equation. Using residue calculus, we can in this way get two alternative, equivalent series expansions for zeta(s) of order N, both valid inside the "critical strip", i e for 0 < Re(s) < 1. Together, these two expansions embody important characteristics of the zeta-funct...

  13. Zeta regularized products, Riemann zeta zeros and prime number spectra

    Menezes, G; Svaiter, N F


    The Riemann hypothesis states that all nontrivial zeros of the zeta function lie in the critical line $\\Re(s)=1/2$. Hilbert and P\\'olya suggested that one possible way to prove the Riemann hypothesis is to interpret the nontrivial zeros in the light of spectral theory. Following this approach, we associate such a numerical sequence with the discrete spectrum of a linear differential operator. We discuss a necessary condition that such a sequence of numbers should obey in order to be associated with the spectrum of a linear differential operator of a system with countably infinite number of degrees of freedom. The sequence of nontrivial zeros is zeta regularizable. Then, functional integrals associated with hypothetical systems described by self-adjoint operators whose spectra is given by the sequence of the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function could be constructed. In addition, we demonstrate that if one considers the same situation with primes numbers, the associated functional integral cannot be co...

  14. Bernoulli numbers and zeta functions

    Arakawa, Tsuneo; Kaneko, Masanobu


    Two major subjects are treated in this book. The main one is the theory of Bernoulli numbers and the other is the theory of zeta functions. Historically, Bernoulli numbers were introduced to give formulas for the sums of powers of consecutive integers. The real reason that they are indispensable for number theory, however, lies in the fact that special values of the Riemann zeta function can be written by using Bernoulli numbers. This leads to more advanced topics, a number of which are treated in this book: Historical remarks on Bernoulli numbers and the formula for the sum of powers of consecutive integers; a formula for Bernoulli numbers by Stirling numbers; the Clausen–von Staudt theorem on the denominators of Bernoulli numbers; Kummer's congruence between Bernoulli numbers and a related theory of p-adic measures; the Euler–Maclaurin summation formula; the functional equation of the Riemann zeta function and the Dirichlet L functions, and their special values at suitable integers; various formulas of ...

  15. Convergence of zeta functions of graphs

    Clair, Bryan; Mokhtari-Sharghi, Shahriar


    The $L^2$-zeta function of an infinite graph Y (defined previously in a ball around zero) has an analytic extension. For a tower of finite graphs covered by Y, the normalized zeta functions of the finite graphs converge to the $L^2$-zeta function of Y.

  16. Protein Kinase M[Zeta] Is Essential for the Induction and Maintenance of Dopamine-Induced Long-Term Potentiation in Apical CA1 Dendrites

    Navakkode, Sheeja; Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Sacktor, Todd Charlton; Frey, Julietta U.


    Dopaminergic D1/D5-receptor-mediated processes are important for certain forms of memory as well as for a cellular model of memory, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. D1/D5-receptor function is required for the induction of the protein synthesis-dependent maintenance of CA1-LTP (L-LTP) through activation…

  17. On multiple zeta values of even arguments

    Hoffmann, Michael E. [U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)


    For k {<=} n, let E(2n,k) be the sum of all multiple zeta values with even arguments whose weight is 2n and whose depth is k. Of course E(2n,1) is the value {zeta}(2n) of the Riemann zeta function at 2n, and it is well known that E(2n,2)=(3)/(4){zeta}(2n). Recently Z. Shen and T. Cai gave formulas for E(2n,3) and E(2n,4) in terms {zeta}(2n) and {zeta}(2){zeta}(2n-2). We give two formulas form E(2n,k), both valid for arbitrary k{<=}n, one of which generalizes the Shen-Cai results; by comparing the two we obtain a Bernoulli-number identity. We also give an explicit generating function for the numbers E(2n,k).

  18. On differences of zeta values

    Flajolet, Philippe; Vepstas, Linas


    Finite differences of values of the Riemann zeta function at the integers are explored. Such quantities, which occur as coefficients in Newton series representations, have surfaced in works of Bombieri-Lagarias, Maslanka, Coffey, Báez-Duarte, Voros and others. We apply the theory of Nörlund-Rice integrals in conjunction with the saddle-point method and derive precise asymptotic estimates. The method extends to Dirichlet L-functions and our estimates appear to be partly related to earlier investigations surrounding Li's criterion for the Riemann hypothesis.

  19. Multiple q-Zeta Brackets

    Wadim Zudilin


    Full Text Available The multiple zeta values (MZVs possess a rich algebraic structure of algebraic relations, which is conjecturally determined by two different (shuffle and stuffle products of a certain algebra of noncommutative words. In a recent work, Bachmann constructed a q-analogue of the MZVs—the so-called bi-brackets—for which the two products are dual to each other, in a very natural way. We overview Bachmann’s construction and discuss the radial asymptotics of the bi-brackets, its links to the MZVs, and related linear (independence questions of the q-analogue.

  20. The triple system Zeta Aquarii

    Tokovinin, Andrei


    Zeta Aquarii is a bright and nearby (28 pc) triple star with a 26-year astrometric subsystem. Almost a half of the outer 540-year visual orbit has been covered in 238 years of its observations. Both inner and outer orbits are revised here taking into account recent direct resolution of the inner pair Aa,Ab. The inner orbit has a high eccentricity of 0.87 and is inclined to the outer orbit by 140+-10 degrees, suggesting that Kozai-Lidov cycles take place. The masses of the stars Aa, B, and Ab are 1.4, 1.4, and 0.6 solar. The age of the system is about 3 Gyr, and the two main components have just left the main sequence. Hypothetically, this system could have formed by a dynamical capture of the small star Ab in the twin binary Aa,B.

  1. Riemann zeta function is a fractal

    Woon, S C


    Voronin's theorem on the "Universality" of Riemann zeta function is shown to imply that Riemann zeta function is a fractal (in the sense that Mandelbrot set is a fractal) and a concrete "representation" of the "giant book of theorems'' that Paul Halmos referred to.

  2. Corrosion potential analysis system

    Kiefer, Karl F.


    Many cities in the northeastern U.S. transport electrical power from place to place via underground cables, which utilize voltages from 68 kv to 348 kv. These cables are placed in seamless steel pipe to protect the conductors. These buried pipe-type-cables (PTCs) are carefully designed and constantly pressurized with transformer oil to prevent any possible contamination. A protective coating placed on the outside diameter of the pipe during manufacture protects the steel pipe from the soil environment. Notwithstanding the protection mechanisms available, the pipes remain vulnerable to electrochemical corrosion processes. If undetected, corrosion can cause the pipes to leak transformer oil into the environment. These leaks can assume serious proportions due to the constant pressure on the inside of the pipe. A need exists for a detection system that can dynamically monitor the corrosive potential on the length of the pipe and dynamically adjust cathodic protection to counter local and global changes in the cathodic environment surrounding the pipes. The northeastern United States contains approximately 1000 miles of this pipe. This milage is critical to the transportation and distribution of power. So critical, that each of the pipe runs has a redundant double running parallel to it. Invocon, Inc. proposed and tested a technically unique and cost effective solution to detect critical corrosion potential and to communicate that information to a central data collection and analysis location. Invocon's solution utilizes the steel of the casing pipe as a communication medium. Each data gathering station on the pipe can act as a relay for information gathered elsewhere on the pipe. These stations must have 'smart' network configuration algorithms that constantly test various communication paths and determine the best and most power efficient route through which information should flow. Each network station also performs data acquisition and analysis tasks that ultimately

  3. Structural analysis of intermolecular interactions in the kinesin adaptor complex fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 1/ short coiled-coil protein (FEZ1/SCOCO.

    Marcos Rodrigo Alborghetti

    Full Text Available Cytoskeleton and protein trafficking processes, including vesicle transport to synapses, are key processes in neuronal differentiation and axon outgrowth. The human protein FEZ1 (fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 1 / UNC-76, in C. elegans, SCOCO (short coiled-coil protein / UNC-69 and kinesins (e.g. kinesin heavy chain / UNC116 are involved in these processes. Exploiting the feature of FEZ1 protein as a bivalent adapter of transport mediated by kinesins and FEZ1 protein interaction with SCOCO (proteins involved in the same path of axonal growth, we investigated the structural aspects of intermolecular interactions involved in this complex formation by NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry (MS, SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering and molecular modelling. The topology of homodimerization was accessed through NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance studies of the region involved in this process, corresponding to FEZ1 (92-194. Through studies involving the protein in its monomeric configuration (reduced and dimeric state, we propose that homodimerization occurs with FEZ1 chains oriented in an anti-parallel topology. We demonstrate that the interaction interface of FEZ1 and SCOCO defined by MS and computational modelling is in accordance with that previously demonstrated for UNC-76 and UNC-69. SAXS and literature data support a heterotetrameric complex model. These data provide details about the interaction interfaces probably involved in the transport machinery assembly and open perspectives to understand and interfere in this assembly and its involvement in neuronal differentiation and axon outgrowth.

  4. Integrals of products of Hurwitz zeta functions

    Shpot, M A; Paris, R B


    We evaluate two integrals over $x\\in [0,1]$ involving products of the function $\\zeta_1(a,x)\\equiv \\zeta(a,x)-x^{-a}$ for $\\Re (a)>1$, where $\\zeta(a,x)$ is the Hurwitz zeta function. The evaluation of these integrals for the particular case of integer $a\\geq 2$ is also presented. As an application we calculate the $O(g)$ weak-coupling expansion coefficient $c_{1}(\\varepsilon)$ of the Casimir energy for a film with Dirichlet-Dirichlet boundary conditions, first stated by Symanzik [Schr\\"odinger representation and Casimir effect in renormalizable quantum field theory, Nucl. Phys. B 190 (1981) 1-44] in the framework of $g\\phi^4_{4-\\varepsilon}$ theory.

  5. Probing the interaction of human serum albumin with bilirubin in the presence of aspirin by multi-spectroscopic, molecular modeling and zeta potential techniques: insight on binary and ternary systems.

    Hosainzadeh, Akram; Gharanfoli, Mohsen; Saberi, Mohammad; Chamani, JamshidKhan


    Here, we report on the effect of aspirin (ASA), on the binding parameters with regard to bilirubin (BR) to human serum albumin (HSA). Two different classes of binding sites were detected. Binding to the first and second classes of the binding sites was dominated by hydrophobic forces in the case of HSA-BR, whereas in the case of the ternary system, binding to the first and second classes of the binding sites was achieved by electrostatic interaction. The binding constant (K(a)) and number of binding site (n) obtained were 1.6 × 10(6)M(-1) and 0.98, respectively, for the primary binding site in the case of HSA-BR, and 3.7 × 10(6)M(-1) and 0.84, respectively, in the presence of ASA (ternary complex) at λ(ex)= 280 nm. The progressive quenching of the protein fluorescence as the BR concentration increased indicated an arrangement of the domain IIA in HSA. Changes in the environment of the aromatic residues were also observed by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS). Changes of the secondary structure of HSA involving a decrease of α-helical and β-sheet contents and increased amounts of turns and unordered conformations were mainly found at high concentrations of BR. For the first time, the relationship between the structural parameters of HSA-BR by RLS for determining the critical induced aggregation concentration (C(CIAC)) of BR in the absence and presence of ASA was investigated, and there was a more significant enhancement in the case of the ternary mixture as opposed to the binary one. Changes in the zeta potential of HSA and the HSA-ASA complex in the presence of BR demonstrated a hydrophobic adsorption of this anionic ligand onto the surface of HSA in the binary system as well as both electrostatic and hydrophobic adsorption in the case of the ternary complex. By performing docking experiments, it was found that the acting forces between BR and HSA were mainly hydrophobic > hydrogen bonding > electrostatic interactions, and consequently BR had a long

  6. Characterization of zeta (zeta): a new opioid receptor involved in growth.

    Zagon, I S; Goodman, S R; McLaughlin, P J


    Endogenous opioid systems (i.e., opioids and opioid receptors) are known to play a role in neural cancer. Using [3H]-[Met5]enkephalin, a potent ligand involved in growth, specific and saturable binding was detected in homogenates of S20Y neuroblastoma transplanted into A/Jax mice; the data fit a single binding site. Scatchard analysis yielded a Kd of 0.49 nM and a binding capacity of 5.32 fmol/mg protein. Binding was dependent on protein concentration, time, temperature, and pH, and was sensitive to Na+ and guanine nucleotides. Optimal binding required protease inhibitors, and pretreatment of the tumor homogenates with trypsin markedly reduced [3H]-[Met5]enkephalin binding, suggesting that the binding site was proteinaceous in character. Displacement experiments indicated that [Met5]enkephalin was the most potent displacer of [3H]-[Met5]enkephalin; other ligands selective for mu, delta, kappa, epsilon, and sigma were not highly competitive. Given the functional significance of [Met5]enkephalin as a potent regulator of normal and abnormal growth, and that the receptor recognized by [Met5]enkephalin does not resemble any previously described, the present study has demonstrated the presence of a new opioid receptor termed zeta (zeta) (from the Greek 'Zoe', life) related to the proliferation of cells and tissues.

  7. Riemann zeta function from wave-packet dynamics

    Mack, R.; Dahl, Jens Peder; Moya-Cessa, H.


    is governed by the temperature of the thermal phase state and tau is proportional to t. We use the JWKB method to solve the inverse spectral problem for a general logarithmic energy spectrum; that is, we determine a family of potentials giving rise to such a spectrum. For large distances, all potentials...... index of JWKB. We compare and contrast exact and approximate eigenvalues of purely logarithmic potentials. Moreover, we use a numerical method to find a potential which leads to exact logarithmic eigenvalues. We discuss possible realizations of Riemann zeta wave-packet dynamics using cold atoms...

  8. Fourier coefficients associated with the Riemann zeta-function

    Y. V. Basiuk


    Full Text Available We study the Riemann zeta-function $\\zeta(s$ by a Fourier series method. The summation of $\\log|\\zeta(s|$ with the kernel $1/|s|^{6}$ on the critical line $\\mathrm{Re}\\; s = \\frac{1}{2}$ is the main result of our investigation. Also we obtain a new restatement of the Riemann Hypothesis.

  9. Partial zeta functions of algebraic varieties over finite fields

    Wan, D


    By restricting the variables running over various (possibly different) subfields, we introduce the notion of a partial zeta function. We prove that the partial zeta function is rational in an interesting case, generalizing Dwork's well known rationality theorem. In general, the partial zeta function is probably not rational. But a theorem of Faltings says that the partial zeta function is always nearly rational.

  10. Zeta functions in brane world cosmology

    Flachi, Antonino; Knapman, Alan; Naylor, Wade; Sasaki, Misao


    We present a calculation of the zeta function and of the functional determinant for a Laplace-type differential operator, corresponding to a scalar field in a higher-dimensional deSitter brane background, which consists of a higher-dimensional anti deSitter bulk spacetime bounded by a deSitter section, representing a brane. Contrary to the existing examples, which all make use of conformal transformations, we evaluate the zeta function working directly with the higher-dimensional wave operator. We also consider a generic mass term and coupling to curvature, generalizing previous results. The massless, conformally coupled case is obtained as a limit of the general result and compared with known calculations. In the limit of large anti deSitter radius, the zeta determinant for the ball is recovered in perfect agreement with known expressions, providing an interesting check of our result and an alternative way of obtaining the ball determinant.

  11. A new Vitreoscilla filiformis extract grown on spa water-enriched medium activates endogenous cutaneous antioxidant and antimicrobial defenses through a potential Toll-like receptor 2/protein kinase C, zeta transduction pathway

    Mahe YF


    Full Text Available Yann F Mahe,1 Marie-Jesus Perez,1 Charlotte Tacheau,1 Chantal Fanchon,2 Richard Martin,3 Françoise Rousset,1 Sophie Seite4 1L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Clichy, 2L’Oréal Research and Innovation, Chevilly Larue, 3L’Oréal Research and Innovation Tours, 4La Roche-Posay Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Asnières, France Abstract: Vitreoscilla filiformis (VF biomass (VFB has been widely used in cosmetic preparations and shown to modulate the major inducible free-radical scavenger mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in skin cells. By adding La Roche-Posay (LRP thermal spring water to the VF culture medium, we obtained a biomass (LRP-VFB with a similar mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activation capacity to VF. Also, the new biomass more powerfully stimulated mRNA expression and antimicrobial peptides in reconstructed epidermis. Interestingly, a predictive computer model that analyzed transducing events within skin epidermal cells suggested that this protective activity may involve the Toll-like receptor 2/protein kinase C, zeta transduction pathway. Protein kinase C, zeta inhibition was effectively shown to abolish VFB-induced gene stimulation and confirmed this hypothesis. This thus opens new avenues for investigation into the improvement of skin homeostatic defense in relation to the control of its physiological microbiota and innate immunity. Keywords: innate skin defenses, TLR2, PKCz, La Roche-Posay, mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, SOD2

  12. Zeta Functions Of Discrete Groups Acting On Trees

    Clair, Bryan; Mokhtari-Sharghi, Shahriar


    This paper generalizes Bass' work on zeta functions for uniform tree lattices. Using the theory of von Neumann algebras, machinery is developed to define the zeta function of a discrete group of automorphisms of a bounded degree tree. The main theorems relate the zeta function to determinants of operators defined on edges or vertices of the tree. A zeta function associated to a non-uniform tree lattice with appropriate Hilbert representation is defined. Zeta functions are defined for infinite...

  13. Euler Polynomials, Fourier Series and Zeta Numbers

    Scheufens, Ernst E


    Fourier series for Euler polynomials is used to obtain information about values of the Riemann zeta function for integer arguments greater than one. If the argument is even we recover the well-known exact values, if the argument is odd we find integral representations and rapidly convergent series....

  14. The magnetic field of zeta Orionis A

    Blazère, A; Tkachenko, A; Bouret, J -C; Rivinius, Th


    Zeta Ori A is a hot star claimed to host a weak magnetic field, but no clear magnetic detection was obtained so far. In addition, it was recently shown to be a binary system composed of a O9.5I supergiant and a B1IV star. We aim at verifying the presence of a magnetic field in zeta Ori A, identifying to which of the two binary components it belongs (or whether both stars are magnetic), and characterizing the field.Very high signal-to-noise spectropolarimetric data were obtained with Narval at the Bernard Lyot Telescope (TBL) in France. Archival HEROS, FEROS and UVES spectroscopic data were also used. The data were first disentangled to separate the two components. We then analyzed them with the Least-Squares Deconvolution (LSD) technique to extract the magnetic information. We confirm that zeta Ori A is magnetic. We find that the supergiant component zeta Ori Aa is the magnetic component: Zeeman signatures are observed and rotational modulation of the longitudinal magnetic field is clearly detected with a per...

  15. Euler Polynomials, Fourier Series and Zeta Numbers

    Scheufens, Ernst E


    Fourier series for Euler polynomials is used to obtain information about values of the Riemann zeta function for integer arguments greater than one. If the argument is even we recover the well-known exact values, if the argument is odd we find integral representations and rapidly convergent series....

  16. Bernoulli Polynomials, Fourier Series and Zeta Numbers

    Scheufens, Ernst E


    Fourier series for Bernoulli polynomials are used to obtain information about values of the Riemann zeta function for integer arguments greater than one. If the argument is even we recover the well-known exact values, if the argument is odd we find integral representations and rapidly convergent ...

  17. Zeta and q-Zeta Functions and Associated Series and Integrals

    Srivastava, H M


    Zeta and q-Zeta Functions and Associated Series and Integrals is a thoroughly revised, enlarged and updated version of Series Associated with the Zeta and Related Functions. Many of the chapters and sections of the book have been significantly modified or rewritten and a new chapter on the theory and applications of the basic (or q-) extensions of various Special Functions is included. This book will be invaluable as it covers not only detailed and systematic presentations of the theory and applications of the various methods and techniques used in dealing with many different classes of ser

  18. Exploring the Riemann zeta function 190 years from Riemann's birth

    Nikeghbali, Ashkan; Rassias, Michael


    This book is concerned with the Riemann Zeta Function, its generalizations, and various applications to several scientific disciplines, including Analytic Number Theory, Harmonic Analysis, Complex Analysis and Probability Theory. Eminent experts in the field illustrate both old and new results towards the solution of long-standing problems and include key historical remarks. Offering a unified, self-contained treatment of broad and deep areas of research, this book will be an excellent tool for researchers and graduate students working in Mathematics, Mathematical Physics, Engineering and Cryptography.

  19. Special Uniformity of Zeta Functions I. Geometric Aspect

    Weng, Lin


    The special uniformity of zeta functions claims that pure non-abelian zeta functions coincide with group zeta functions associated to the special linear groups. Naturally associated are three aspects, namely, the analytic, arithmetic, and geometric aspects. In the first paper of this series, we expose intrinsic geometric structures of our zetas by counting semi-stable bundles on curves defined over finite fields in terms of their automorphism groups and global sections. We show that such a counting maybe read from Artin zetas which are abelian in nature. This paper also contains an appendix written by H. Yoshida, one of the driving forces for us to seek group zetas. In this appendix, Yoshida introduces a new zeta as a function field analogue of the group zeta for SL2 for number fields and establishes the Riemann Hypothesis for it.

  20. Graph Zeta function and gauge theories

    He, Yang-Hui


    Along the recently trodden path of studying certain number theoretic properties of gauge theories, especially supersymmetric theories whose vacuum manifolds are non-trivial, we investigate Ihara's Graph Zeta Function for large classes of quiver theories and periodic tilings by bi-partite graphs. In particular, we examine issues such as the spectra of the adjacency and whether the gauge theory satisfies the strong and weak versions of the graph theoretical analogue of the Riemann Hypothesis.

  1. Computing zeta functions of sparse nondegenerate hypersurfaces

    Sperber, Steven


    Using the cohomology theory of Dwork, as developed by Adolphson and Sperber, we exhibit a deterministic algorithm to compute the zeta function of a nondegenerate hypersurface defined over a finite field. This algorithm is particularly well-suited to work with polynomials in small characteristic that have few monomials (relative to their dimension). Our method covers toric, affine, and projective hypersurfaces and also can be used to compute the L-function of an exponential sum.

  2. Variance in total levels of phospholipase C zeta (PLC-ζ) in human sperm may limit the applicability of quantitative immunofluorescent analysis as a diagnostic indicator of oocyte activation capability.

    Kashir, Junaid; Jones, Celine; Mounce, Ginny; Ramadan, Walaa M; Lemmon, Bernadette; Heindryckx, Bjorn; de Sutter, Petra; Parrington, John; Turner, Karen; Child, Tim; McVeigh, Enda; Coward, Kevin


    To examine whether similar levels of phospholipase C zeta (PLC-ζ) protein are present in sperm from men whose ejaculates resulted in normal oocyte activation, and to examine whether a predominant pattern of PLC-ζ localization is linked to normal oocyte activation ability. Laboratory study. University laboratory. Control subjects (men with proven oocyte activation capacity; n = 16) and men whose sperm resulted in recurrent intracytoplasmic sperm injection failure (oocyte activation deficient [OAD]; n = 5). Quantitative immunofluorescent analysis of PLC-ζ protein in human sperm. Total levels of PLC-ζ fluorescence, proportions of sperm exhibiting PLC-ζ immunoreactivity, and proportions of PLC-ζ localization patterns in sperm from control and OAD men. Sperm from control subjects presented a significantly higher proportion of sperm exhibiting PLC-ζ immunofluorescence compared with infertile men diagnosed with OAD (82.6% and 27.4%, respectively). Total levels of PLC-ζ in sperm from individual control and OAD patients exhibited significant variance, with sperm from 10 out of 16 (62.5%) exhibiting levels similar to OAD samples. Predominant PLC-ζ localization patterns varied between control and OAD samples with no predictable or consistent pattern. The results indicate that sperm from control men exhibited significant variance in total levels of PLC-ζ protein, as well as significant variance in the predominant localization pattern. Such variance may hinder the diagnostic application of quantitative PLC-ζ immunofluorescent analysis. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Zeta-functions of renormalizable sub-Lorenz templates

    Franco, Nuno, E-mail: nmf@uevora.p [CIMA-UE and Department of Mathematics, University of Evora, Rua Romao Ramalho, 59, 7000-671 Evora (Portugal); Silva, Luis, E-mail: lfs@dec.isel.ipl.p [CIMA-UE and Scientific Area of Mathematics, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Rua Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal)


    We describe the Williams zeta-functions and the twist zeta-functions of sub-Lorenz templates generated by renormalizable Lorenz maps, in terms of the corresponding zeta-functions of the sub-Lorenz templates generated by the renormalized map and by the map that determines the renormalization type.

  4. Integrated module inverter using a zeta DC-DC converter with feedforward MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) control; Inversor modulo integrado utilizando um conversor CC-CC zeta com controle MPPT feedforward

    Lopez, Henrique Fioravanti Miguel


    This work presents the study and development of a processing power system that could be used in the connection of renewable energy sources to commercial power grid. The system consists of a ZETA converter associated with a bridge inverter operating at low frequency. The Zeta converter, operating in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM), plays the main role in this arrangement, producing a rectified sinusoidal current waveform synchronized with the electric grid. The function of the full-bridge inverter, connected in cascade with the Zeta converter, is to reverse every 180 deg the current generated by the Zeta converter. Initially it presents the analysis of the Zeta converter operating in DCM, as well as a design criterion. Following by the control strategy and the experimental results for the proposed system are presented and discussed. (author)

  5. Field Analysis and Potential Theory


    T T T 430 FIELD ANALYSIS AND POTENTIAL THEORY [Sec.5.7 But V2f [ dT - Z j V2 Jxdr T T hence V c2at 7- dT _- J2 (J2 dT T TT whence dalf [13 dT " 0 (5.7...8) at exterior points or dal pot [2] - O (5.7-8(a)) Similarly, dalf r dS - 0 (5.7-9) dal [y] ds - 0 (5.7-10) r Sec.5.7] RETARDED POTENTIAL THEORY 431

  6. An integral involving the generalized zeta function

    E. Elizalde


    Full Text Available A general value for ∫abdtlogΓ(t, for a, b positive reals, is derived in terms of the Hurwitz ζ function. That expression is checked for a previously known special integral, and the case where a is a positive integer and b is half an odd integer is considered. The result finds application in calculating the numerical value of the derivative of the Riemann zeta function at the point −1, a quantity that arises in the evaluation of determinants of Laplacians on compact Riemann surfaces.

  7. Modeling the Circumstellar Disk of $\\zeta$ Tauri

    Carciofi, A. C.; Bjorkman, J. E.


    We present a model for the disk of the classical Be star $\\zeta$ Tauri. The model consists of a Keplerian rotating disk with a power-law surface density and a vertical density distribution that follows from the balance between the thermal gas pressure and the z-component of the stellar gravitation. The opening angle of such a disk is not a fixed value but increases with the distance to the star (flared disk). We use a Monte Carlo code that solves simultaneously the thermal equilibrium, the st...



    A vanishing theorem is proved for -adic cohomology with compact support on an affine (singular) complete intersection. As an application, it is shown that for an affine complete intersection defined over a finite field of q elements, the reciprocal "poles" of the zeta function are always divisible by q as algebraic integers. A p-adic proof is also given, which leads to further q-divisibility of the poles or equivalently an improvement of the polar part of the AxKatz theorem for an affine complete intersection. Similar results hold for a projective complete intersection.

  9. Dedekind zeta-functions and Dedekind sums

    陆洪文; 焦荣政; 纪春岗


    In this paper we use Dedekind zeta functions of two real quadratic number fields at -1 to denote Dedekind sums of high rank. Our formula is different from that of Siegel's. As an application, we get a polynomial representation of ζK(-1): ζK(-1) =1/45(26n3-41n±9), n ≡±2(mod 5), where K=Q( q),prime q=4n2+1, and the class number of quadratic number field K2=Q(q) is 1.

  10. Zeta function factorisation, Dwork hypersurfaces, hypergeometric hypersurfaces

    Goutet, Philippe


    Let $\\mathbb{F}_q$ be a finite field with $q$ elements, $\\psi$ a non-zero element of $\\mathbb{F}_q$, and $n$ an integer $\\geq 3$ prime to $q$. The aim of this article is to show that the zeta function of the projective variety over $\\mathbb{F}_q$ defined by $X_\\psi \\colon x_1^n+...+x_n^n - n \\psi x_1... x_n=0$ has, when $n$ is prime and $X_\\psi$ is non singular (i.e. when $\\psi^n \

  11. Ten physical applications of spectral zeta functions

    Elizalde, Emilio


    Zeta-function regularization is a powerful method in perturbation theory. This book is meant as a guide for the student of this subject. Everything is explained in detail, in particular the mathematical difficulties and tricky points, and several applications are given to show how the procedure works in practice (e.g. Casimir effect, gravity and string theory, high-temperature phase transition, topological symmetry breaking). The formulas some of which are new can be used for accurate numerical calculations. The book is to be considered as a basic introduction and a collection of exercises for those who want to apply this regularization procedure in practice.

  12. 2-(6-Phenyl-1H-indazol-3-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazoles: Design and synthesis of a potent and isoform selective PKC-[zeta] inhibitor

    Trujillo, John I.; Kiefer, James R.; Huang, Wei; Thorarensen, Atli; Xing, Li; Caspers, Nicole L.; Day, Jacqueline E.; Mathis, Karl J.; Kretzmer, Kuniko K.; Reitz, Beverley A.; Weinberg, Robin A.; Stegeman, Roderick A.; Wrightstone, Ann; Christine, Lori; Compton, Robert; Li, Xiong; (Pfizer)


    The inhibition of PKC-{zeta} has been proposed to be a potential drug target for immune and inflammatory diseases. A series of 2-(6-phenyl-1H indazol-3-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazoles with initial high crossover to CDK-2 has been optimized to afford potent and selective inhibitors of protein kinase c-zeta (PKC-{zeta}). The determination of the crystal structures of key inhibitor:CDK-2 complexes informed the design and analysis of the series. The most selective and potent analog was identified by variation of the aryl substituent at the 6-position of the indazole template to give a 4-NH{sub 2} derivative. The analog displays good selectivity over other PKC isoforms ({alpha}, {beta}II, {gamma}, {delta}, {epsilon}, {mu}, {theta}, {eta} and {ell}/{lambda}) and CDK-2, however it displays marginal selectivity against a panel of other kinases (37 profiled).

  13. Los Zetas and Proprietary Radio Network Development

    James Halverson


    Full Text Available The years from 2006 through 2011 were very active years for a number of Mexican drug trafficking organizations. However, the group that probably saw the most meteoric rise in this period, Los Zetas, had a unique and innovative tool at their disposal. It was during these years that the group constructed and utilized a proprietary encrypted radio network that grew to span from Texas to Guatemala through the Gulf States of Mexico and across much of the rest of the country. This network gave the group an operational edge. It also stood as a symbol of the latitude the group enjoyed across vast areas, as this extensive illicit infrastructure stood, in the face of the government and rival cartels, for six years. This investigation explicates the process by which Los Zetas constructed, concealed and utilized this network and attempts to draw conclusions about the motivations and organizational dynamics that brought the network to be, with attention paid to what this case says about the complex engineering capabilities of non-state entities in general.

  14. Investigations with spectroscopy, zeta potential and molecular modeling of the non-cooperative behaviour between cyclophosphamide hydrochloride and aspirin upon interaction with human serum albumin: binary and ternary systems from multi-drug therapy.

    Omidvar, Zahra; Parivar, Kazem; Sanee, Hamideh; Amiri-Tehranizadeh, Zeinab; Baratian, Ali; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Asoodeh, Ahmad; Chamani, Jamshidkhan


    The interaction between cyclophosphamide hydrochloride (CYC) and aspirin (ASA) with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied by various kind of spectroscopic, ζ potential and molecular modeling under physiological conditions. The fluorescence data showed that the binding of drugs to proteins caused strong static fluorescence quenching. The analysis of the fluorescence quenching of HSA in the binary and ternary systems displayed that ASA was affected by the complex formed between CYC and HSA. Moreover, CYC was influenced by the HSA-ASA complex. The inherent binding information, including the quenching mechanism, binding constants, number of binding sites, effective quenching constant, fraction of the initial fluorescence and thermodynamic parameters were measured by the fluorescence quenching technique at various temperatures. In addition, according to the synchronous fluorescence spectra of HSA, the results showed that the fluorescence quenching of HSA originated from the Trp and Tyr residues, and indicated a conformational change of HSA with the addition of the drugs. Far-UV CD spectra of HSA were recorded before and after the addition of ASA and CYC as binary and ternary systems. An increase in intensity of the positive CD peak of HSA was observed in the presence of the drugs. The results were interpreted by excited interactions between the aromatic residues of the HSA binding sites and the drugs bound to them. The distance r between donor and acceptor was obtained by the Forster energy according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and found to be 2.35 nm and 1.78 nm for CYC and ASA, respectively. This confirmed the existence of static quenching for proteins in the presence of CYC and ASA. Furthermore, docking studies pointed at a reduction of the affinity of each of the drug compounds to the protein in the presence of the other in meaningful amounts. Pre-binding of any of the said compounds forced the second to bind in a non-optimized location and

  15. Fundamental Domains of Gamma and Zeta Functions

    Cabiria Andreian Cazacu


    Full Text Available Branched covering Riemann surfaces (ℂ,f are studied, where f is the Euler Gamma function and the Riemann Zeta function. For both of them fundamental domains are found and the group of cover transformations is revealed. In order to find fundamental domains, preimages of the real axis are taken and a thorough study of their geometry is performed. The technique of simultaneous continuation, introduced by the authors in previous papers, is used for this purpose. Color visualization of the conformal mapping of the complex plane by these functions is used for a better understanding of the theory. A version of this paper containing colored images can be found in arXiv at Andrian Cazacu and Ghisa.

  16. Zeta Functions and the Casimir Energy

    Blau, Steven K; Wipf, Andreas; 10.1016/0550-3213(88)90059-4


    We use zeta function techniques to give a finite definition for the Casimir energy of an arbitrary ultrastatic spacetime with or without boundaries. We find that the Casimir energy is intimately related to, but not identical to, the one-loop effective energy. We show that in general the Casimir energy depends on a normalization scale. This phenomenon has relevance to applications of the Casimir energy in bag models of QCD. Within the framework of Kaluza-Klein theories we discuss the one-loop corrections to the induced cosmological and Newton constants in terms of a Casimir like effect. We can calculate the dependence of these constants on the radius of the compact dimensions, without having to resort to detailed calculations.

  17. Hamiltonian for the Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function.

    Bender, Carl M; Brody, Dorje C; Müller, Markus P


    A Hamiltonian operator H[over ^] is constructed with the property that if the eigenfunctions obey a suitable boundary condition, then the associated eigenvalues correspond to the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function. The classical limit of H[over ^] is 2xp, which is consistent with the Berry-Keating conjecture. While H[over ^] is not Hermitian in the conventional sense, iH[over ^] is PT symmetric with a broken PT symmetry, thus allowing for the possibility that all eigenvalues of H[over ^] are real. A heuristic analysis is presented for the construction of the metric operator to define an inner-product space, on which the Hamiltonian is Hermitian. If the analysis presented here can be made rigorous to show that H[over ^] is manifestly self-adjoint, then this implies that the Riemann hypothesis holds true.

  18. Quantum corrections to finite-gap solutions for Yang-Mills-Nahm equations via zeta-function technique

    Leble, Sergey


    One-dimensional Yang-Mills-Nahm models are considered from algebrogeometric points of view. A quasiclassical quantization of the models based on path integral and its zeta function representation in terms of a Green function diagonal for a heat equation with an elliptic potential is considered. The Green function diagonal and, hence, zeta function and its derivative are expressed via solutions of Hermit equation and, alternatively, by means of Its-Matveev formalism in terms of Riemann teta-functions. For the Nahm model, which field is represented via elliptic (lemniscate) integral by construction, one-loop quantum corrections to action are evaluated as the zeta function derivative in zero point in terms of a hyperelliptic integral. The alternative expression should help to link the representations and continue investigation of the Yang-Mills-Nahm models. Keywords: Nahm model, one-loop quantum corrections, zeta function, elliptic potential, hyperelliptic integral, Its-Matveev formula. MSC numbers: 81Q30, 35J10...

  19. Zeta-Functions for Families of Calabi--Yau n-folds with Singularities

    Frühbis-Krüger, Anne


    We consider families of Calabi-Yau n-folds containing singular fibres and study relations between the occurring singularity structure and the decomposition of the local Weil zeta-function. For 1-parameter families, this provides new insights into the combinatorial structure of the strong equivalence classes arising in the Candelas - de la Ossa - Rodrigues-Villegas approach for computing the zeta-function. This can also be extended to families with more parameters as is explored in several examples, where the singularity analysis provides correct predictions for the changes of degree in the decomposition of the zeta-function when passing to singular fibres. These observations provide first evidence in higher dimensions for Lauder's conjectured analogue of the Clemens-Schmid exact sequence.

  20. Selberg zeta functions and transfer operators an experimental approach to singular perturbations

    Fraczek, Markus Szymon


    This book presents a method for evaluating Selberg zeta functions via transfer operators for the full modular group and its congruence subgroups with characters. Studying zeros of Selberg zeta functions for character deformations allows us to access the discrete spectra and resonances of hyperbolic Laplacians under both singular and non-singular perturbations. Areas in which the theory has not yet been sufficiently developed, such as the spectral theory of transfer operators or the singular perturbation theory of hyperbolic Laplacians, will profit from the numerical experiments discussed in this book. Detailed descriptions of numerical approaches to the spectra and eigenfunctions of transfer operators and to computations of Selberg zeta functions will be of value to researchers active in analysis, while those researchers focusing more on numerical aspects will benefit from discussions of the analytic theory, in particular those concerning the transfer operator method and the spectral theory of hyperbolic spac...

  1. The multiple zeta value data mine

    Buemlein, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Broadhurst, D.J. [Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Physics and Astronomy Dept.; Vermaseren, J.A.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    We provide a data mine of proven results for multiple zeta values (MZVs) of the form {zeta}(s{sub 1},s{sub 2},..,s{sub k}) = sum {sup {infinity}}{sub n{sub 1}}{sub >n{sub 2}}{sub >...>n{sub k}}{sub >0} {l_brace}1/(n{sub 1}{sup s{sub 1}}..n{sub k}{sup s{sub k}}){r_brace} with weight w = sum {sup K}{sub i=1}s{sub i} and depth k and for Euler sums of the form sum {sup {infinity}}{sub n{sub 1}}{sub >n{sub 2}}{sub >...>n{sub k}}{sub >0} {l_brace}({epsilon}{sub 1}{sup n{sub 1}}..{epsilon}{sub 1}{sup n{sub k}})/(n{sub 1}{sup s{sub 1}}..n{sub k}{sup s{sub k}}){r_brace} with signs {epsilon}{sub i} = {+-} 1. Notably, we achieve explicit proven reductions of all MZVs with weights w{<=}22, and all Euler sums with weights w{<=}12, to bases whose dimensions, bigraded by weight and depth, have sizes in precise agreement with the Broadhurst. Kreimer and Broadhurst conjectures. Moreover, we lend further support to these conjectures by studying even greater weights (w{<=}30), using modular arithmetic. To obtain these results we derive a new type of relation for Euler sums, the Generalized Doubling Relations. We elucidate the ''pushdown'' mechanism, whereby the ornate enumeration of primitive MZVs, by weight and depth, is reconciled with the far simpler enumeration of primitive Euler sums. There is some evidence that this pushdown mechanism finds its origin in doubling relations. We hope that our data mine, obtained by exploiting the unique power of the computer algebra language FORM, will enable the study of many more such consequences of the double-shuffle algebra of MZVs, and their Euler cousins, which are already the subject of keen interest, to practitioners of quantum field theory, and to mathematicians alike. (orig.)

  2. A pseudo zeta function and the distribution of primes.

    Chernoff, P R


    The Riemann zeta function is given by: [equation, see published text]. Zeta(s) may be analytically continued to the entire s-plane, except for a simple pole at s = 0. Of great interest are the complex zeros of zeta(s). The Riemann hypothesis states that the complex zeros all have real part 1/2. According to the prime number theorem, pn approximately n logn, where pn is the nth prime. Suppose that pn were exactly nlogn. In other words, in the Euler product above, replace the nth prime by nlogn. In this way, we define a pseudo zeta function C(s) for Re s > 1. One can show that C(s) may be analytically continued at least into the half-plane Re s > 0 except for an isolated singularity (presumably a simple pole) at s = 0. It may be shown that the pseudo zeta function C(s) has no complex zeros whatsoever. This means that the complex zeros of the zeta function are associated with the irregularity of the distribution of the primes.

  3. Zeta Functions for Elliptic Curves I. Counting Bundles

    Weng, Lin


    To count bundles on curves, we study zetas of elliptic curves and their zeros. There are two types, i.e., the pure non-abelian zetas defined using moduli spaces of semi-stable bundles, and the group zetas defined for special linear groups. In lower ranks, we show that these two types of zetas coincide and satisfy the Riemann Hypothesis. For general cases, exposed is an intrinsic relation on automorphism groups of semi-stable bundles over elliptic curves, the so-called counting miracle. All this, together with Harder-Narasimhan, Desale-Ramanan and Zagier's result, gives an effective way to count semi-stable bundles on elliptic curves not only in terms of automorphism groups but more essentially in terms of their $h^0$'s. Distributions of zeros of high rank zetas are also discussed.

  4. On $p$-adic Hurwitz-type Euler zeta functions

    Kim, Min-Soo


    Henri Cohen and Eduardo Friedman constructed the $p$-adic analogue for Hurwitz zeta functions, and Raabe-type formulas for the $p$-adic gamma and zeta functions from Volkenborn integrals satisfying the modified difference equation. In this paper, we define the $p$-adic Hurwitz-type Euler zeta functions. Our main tool is the fermionic $p$-adic integral on $\\mathbb Z_p$. We find that many interesting properties for the $p$-adic Hurwitz zeta functions are also hold for the $p$-adic Hurwitz-type Euler zeta functions, including the convergent Laurent series expansion, the distribution formula, the functional equation, the reflection formula, the derivative formula, the $p$-adic Raabe formula and so on.

  5. Molecular characterization of zeta class glutathione S-transferases from Pinus brutia Ten.

    E. Oztetik; F. Kockar; M. Alper; M. Iscan


    Glutathione transferases (GSTs; EC play important roles in stress tolerance and metabolic detoxification in plants. In higher plants, studies on GSTs have focussed largely on agricultural plants. There is restricted information about molecular characterization of GSTs in gymnosperms. To date, only tau class GST enzymes have been characterized from some pinus species. For the first time, the present study reports cloning and molecular characterization of two zeta class GST genes, namely PbGSTZ1 and PbGSTZ2 from Pinus brutia Ten., which is an economically important pine native to the eastern Mediterranean region and have to cope with several environmental stress conditions. The PbGSTZ1 gene was isolated from cDNA, whereas PbGSTZ2 was isolated from genomic DNA. Sequence analysis of PbGSTZ1 and PbGSTZ2 revealed the presence of an open reading frame of 226 amino acids with typical consensus sequences of the zeta class plant GSTs. Protein and secondary structure prediction analysis of two zeta class PbGSTZs have shared common features of other plant zeta class GSTs. Genomic clone, PbGSTZ2 gene, is unexpectedly intronless. Extensive sequence analysis of PbGSTZ2, with cDNA clone, PbGSTZ1, revealed 87% identity at nucleotide and 81% identity at amino acid levels with 41 amino acids differences suggesting that genomic PbGSTZ2 gene might be an allelic or a paralogue version of PbGSTZ1.

  6. X-ray in Zeta-Ori

    López-García, M. A.; López-Santiago, J. L.; Albacete-Colombo, J. F.; De Castro, E.


    Nearby star-forming regions are ideal laboratories to study high-energy emission processes but they usually present high absorption what makes difficult to detect the stellar population inside the molecular complex. As young late-type stars show high X-ray emission and X-ray photons are little absorbed by interstellar material, X-ray dedicated surveys are an excellent tool to detect the low-mass stellar population in optically absorbed regions. In this work, we present a study of the star-forming region Zeta-Ori and its surroundings. We combine optical, infrared and X-ray data. Properties of the X-ray emiting plasma and infrared features of the young stellar objects detected in the XMM-Newton observation are determined. The southern part of the Orion B giant molecular cloud complex harbor other star forming regions, as NGC 2023 and NGC 2024, we use this regions to compare. We study the spectral energy distribution of X-ray sources. Combining these results with infrared, the X-ray sources are classified as class I, class II and class III objects. The X-ray spectrum and ligth curve of detected X-ray sources is analyzed to found flares. We use a extincion-independent index to select the stars with circumstellar disk, and study the relationship between the present of disk and the flare energy. The results are similar to others studies and we conclude that the coronal properties of class II and class III objects in this region do not differ significantly from each other and from stars of similar infrared class in the ONC.

  7. An introduction to the theory of local zeta functions

    Igusa, Jun-ichi


    This book is an introductory presentation to the theory of local zeta functions. Viewed as distributions, and mostly in the archimedean case, local zeta functions are also called complex powers. The volume contains major results on analytic and algebraic properties of complex powers by Atiyah, Bernstein, I. M. Gelfand, S. I. Gelfand, and Sato. Chapters devoted to p-adic local zeta functions present Serre's structure theorem, a rationality theorem, and many examples found by the author. The presentation concludes with theorems by Denef and Meuser.

  8. Dynamics and zeta functions on conformally compact manifolds

    Rowlett, Julie; Tapie, Samuel


    In this note, we study the dynamics and associated zeta functions of conformally compact manifolds with variable negative sectional curvatures. We begin with a discussion of a larger class of manifolds known as convex co-compact manifolds with variable negative curvature. Applying results from dynamics on these spaces, we obtain optimal meromorphic extensions of weighted dynamical zeta functions and asymptotic counting estimates for the number of weighted closed geodesics. A meromorphic extension of the standard dynamical zeta function and the prime orbit theorem follow as corollaries. Finally, we investigate interactions between the dynamics and spectral theory of these spaces.

  9. RNA secondary structures in a polymer-zeta model how foldings should be shaped for sparsification to establish a linear speedup.

    Jin, Emma Yu; Nebel, Markus E


    Various tools used to predict the secondary structure for a given RNA sequence are based on dynamic programming used to compute a conformation of minimum free energy. For structures without pseudoknots, a worst-case runtime proportional to n3, with n being the length of the sequence, results since a table of dimension n2 has to be filled in while a single entry gives rise to a linear computational effort. However, it was recently observed that reformulating the corresponding dynamic programming recursion together with the bookkeeping of potential folding alternatives (a technique called sparsification) may reduce the runtime to n2 on average, assuming that nucleotides of distance d form a hydrogen bond (i..e., are paired) with probability b/d(c) for some constants b > 0, c > 1. The latter is called the polymer-zeta model and plays a crucial role in speeding up the above mentioned algorithm. In this paper we discuss the application of the polymer-zeta property for the analysis of sparsification, showing that it must be applied conditionally on first and last positions to pair. Afterwards, we will investigate the combinatorics of RNA secondary structures assuming that the corresponding conditional probabilities behave according to a polymer-zeta probability model. We show that even if some of the structural parameters exhibit an almost realistic behavior on average, the expected shape of a folding in that model must be assumed to highly differ from those observed in nature. More precisely, we prove our polymer-zeta model to be appropriate for mRNA molecules but to fail in connection with almost every other family of RNA. Those findings explain the huge speedup of the dynamic programming algorithm observed empirically by Wexler et al. when applying sparsification in connection with mRNA data.

  10. Explicit bounds on the logarithmic derivative and the reciprocal of the Riemann zeta-function

    Trudgian, Tim


    The purpose of this article is consider $|\\zeta'(\\sigma + it)/\\zeta(\\sigma + it)|$ and $|\\zeta(\\sigma + it)|^{-1}$ when $\\sigma$ is close to unity. We prove that $|\\zeta'(\\sigma + it)/\\zeta(\\sigma + it)| \\leq 87\\log t$ and $|\\zeta(\\sigma + it)|^{-1} \\leq 6.9\\times 10^{6} \\log t$ for $\\sigma \\geq 1-1/(8 \\log t)$ and $t\\geq 45$.

  11. Seiberg Duality, Quiver Gauge Theories, and Ihara Zeta Function

    Zhou, Da; He, Yang-Hui


    We study Ihara zeta function for graphs in the context of quivers arising from gauge theories, especially under Seiberg duality transformations. The distribution of poles is studied as we proceed along the duality tree, in light of the weak and strong graph versions of the Riemann Hypothesis. As a by-product, we find a refined version of Ihara zeta function to be the generating function for the generic superpotential of the gauge theory.

  12. On the Zeta Function of a Family of Quintics

    Goutet, Philippe


    In this article, we give a proof of the link between the zeta function of two families of hypergeometric curves and the zeta function of a family of quintics that was observed numerically by Candelas, de la Ossa, and Rodriguez Villegas. The method we use is based on formulas of Koblitz and various Gauss sums identities; it does not give any geometric information on the link.

  13. Conservation of $\\zeta$ with radiative corrections from heavy field

    Tanaka, Takahiro


    In this paper, we address a possible impact of radiative corrections from a heavy scalar field $\\chi$ on the curvature perturbation $\\zeta$. Integrating out $\\chi$, we derive the effective action for $\\zeta$, which includes the loop corrections of the heavy field $\\chi$. When the mass of $\\chi$ is much larger than the Hubble scale $H$, the loop corrections of $\\chi$ only yield a local contribution in the effective action and hence the effective action simply gives an action for $\\zeta$ in a single field model, where, as is widely known, $\\zeta$ is conserved in time after the Hubble crossing time. Meanwhile, when the mass of $\\chi$ is comparable to $H$, the loop corrections of $\\chi$ can give a non-local contribution to the effective action. Because of the non-local contribution from $\\chi$, in general, $\\zeta$ may not be conserved, even if the classical background trajectory is determined only by the evolution of the inflaton. In this paper, we derive the condition that $\\zeta$ is conserved in time in the pre...

  14. Random matrices, generalized zeta functions and self-similarity of zero distributions

    Shanker, O [Bitfone Corporation, 32451 Golden Lantern Ste. 301, Laguna Niguel, CA 92677 (United States)


    There is growing evidence for a connection between random matrix theories used in physics and the theory of the Riemann zeta function and L-functions. The theory underlying the location of the zeros of these generalized zeta functions is one of the key unsolved problems. Physicists are interested because of the Hilbert-Polya conjecture, that the non-trivial zeros of the zeta function correspond to the eigenvalues of some positive operator. To complement the continuing theoretical work, it would be useful to study empirically the locations of the zeros by different methods. In this paper we use the rescaled range analysis to study the spacings between successive zeros of these functions. Over large ranges of the zeros the spacings have a Hurst exponent of about 0.095, using sample sizes of 10 000 zeros. This implies that the distribution has a high fractal dimension (1.9), and shows a lot of detailed structure. The distribution is of the anti-persistent fractional Brownian motion type, with a significant degree of anti-persistence. Thus, the high-order zeros of these functions show a remarkable self-similarity in their distribution, over fifteen orders of magnitude for the Riemann zeta function{exclamation_point} We find that the Hurst exponents for the random matrix theories show a different behaviour. A heuristic study of the effect of low-order primes seems to show that this effect is a promising candidate to explain the results that we observe in this study. We study the distribution of zeros for L-functions of conductors 3 and 4, and find that the distribution is similar to that of the Riemann zeta functions.

  15. Reload Purified Melittin and Lactoferrin on Perfluorooctyl Bromide Nanoparticles (PFOB-Nps and Examine the Distribution of Particle Size, Zeta Potential and Confirmation of Their Accession on the Nanoparticles Via Tryptophan Fluorescence and Circular Dichroism (CD and its Anti-Cancer Effects on Human Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF7

    Hadis Rahmani Incheh Keykanlu


    Full Text Available Acording to the prevalence of cancer in today's societies, it is too important to find new drugs for that treatment. Cationic antimicrobial peptides that are able to eliminate a wide range of bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses and unicellular, are natural anti-cancer agents. In the present study, the effect of cationic peptides of bee venom Melittin (ML and Lactoferrin (LF of camel milk which was loaded on the Perfluorooctyl Bromide (PFOB nanoparticles, were examined on MCF7 cells. Nanoparticles using oil in water emulsion was prepared by ultra-thoracic and ultrasonic. Then ML and LF were separately added to the nanoparticles then incorporation of them were confirmed by tryptophan fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD spectra. The mean diameter of the nanoparticles did not change after addition of ML and LF (~100 nm, but as expected, the zeta potential of the nanoparticles with increasing of ML and LF concentrations to the preformed nanoparticles increased from -18.43(without ML and LF to +21.61(LF 110.66µg/ml and +20.93(ML 0.1µg/ml and +23.75(LF 110.66µg/ml and ML 0.1µg/ml. By using of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the morphology and structure of nanoparticles was investigated, homogeneity and uniformity during processing and loading of ML and LF was observed. Effectiveness of nanoparticles loaded on cancer cells was performed with MTT test. The results showed that ML and LF had a positive effect on cancer cell death. Percent of cell death was higher when ML and LF was loaded on nanoparticles. With increase of ML and LF concentration loading on nanoparticles, increases cancer cell death. Minitab software was used to analyze some data.

  16. Intermediate- and High-Velocity Ionized Gas toward zeta Orionis

    Welty, D E; Raymond, J C; Mallouris, C; York, D G


    We combine UV spectra obtained with the HST/GHRS echelle, IMAPS, and Copernicus to study the abundances and physical conditions in the predominantly ionized gas seen at high (-105 to -65 km/s) and intermediate velocities (-60 to -10 km/s) toward zeta Ori. We have high resolution (FWHM ~ 3.3-4.5 km/s) and/or high S/N spectra for at least two significant ions of C, N, Al, Si, S, and Fe -- enabling accurate estimates for both the total N(H II) and the elemental depletions. C, N, and S have essentially solar relative abundances; Al, Si, and Fe appear to be depleted by about 0.8, 0.3-0.4, and 0.95 dex, respectively. While various ion ratios would be consistent with collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) for T ~ 25,000-80,000 K, the widths of individual high-velocity absorption components indicate that T ~ 9000 K -- so the gas is not in CIE. Analysis of the C II fine-structure excitation equilibrium yields estimated densities (n_e ~ n_H ~ 0.1-0.2 cm^{-3}), thermal pressures (2 n_H T ~ 2000-4000 cm^{-3}K), and thi...

  17. A proof of the Riemann hypothesis by using the series representation of the Riemann zeta function

    Tan, Shanguang


    The Riemann hypothesis was proved in this paper. First, a curve integral of the Riemann zeta function zeta(s) was formed, which is along a horizontal line from s to 1-\\bar{s} which are two nontrivial zeros of zeta(s) and symmetric about the vertical line Re s=1/2. Next, the result of the curve integral was derived and proved equal to zero. Then, by proving a lemma of central dissymmetry of the Riemann zeta function zeta(s), two nontrivial zeros s and 1-\\bar{s} were proved being a same zero or satisfying 1-\\bar{s}=s. Hence, the nontrivial zeros of zeta(s) all have real part Re s=1/2, that is, the Riemann hypothesis was proved.

  18. On the breakdown of the curvature perturbation $\\zeta$ during reheating

    Algan, Merve Tarman; Kutluk, Emine Seyma


    It is known that in single scalar field inflationary models the standard curvature perturbation \\zeta, which is supposedly conserved at superhorizon scales, diverges during reheating at times d\\Phi/dt=0, i.e. when the time derivative of the background inflaton field vanishes. This happens because the comoving gauge \\phi=0, where \\phi\\ denotes the inflaton perturbation, breaks down when d\\Phi/dt=0. The issue is usually bypassed by averaging out the inflaton oscillations but strictly speaking the evolution of \\zeta\\ is ill posed mathematically. We solve this problem by introducing a family of smooth gauges that still eliminates the inflaton fluctuation \\phi\\ in the Hamiltonian formalism and gives a well behaved curvature perturbation \\zeta, which is now rigorously conserved at superhorizon scales. In the linearized theory, this conserved variable can be used to unambiguously propagate the inflationary perturbations from the end of inflation to subsequent epochs. We discuss the implications of our results for th...

  19. Analytic continuation of the Hurwitz Zeta Function with physical application

    Barone-Adesi, V; Adesi, Vittorio Barone; Zerbini, Sergio


    A new formula relating the analytic continuation ofthe Hurwitz zeta function to the Euler gamma function and a "Schwinger" type series is presented. In particular, the value of the derivative of the real part of the analytic continuation of the Hurwitz zeta function for even negative integers and the imaginary one for odd negative integers are explicitly given. The result can be of interest both on mathematical and physical side, because we are able to apply our new formulas in the context of the Spectral Zeta Function regularization of one-loop Quantum Field Theory, computing the exact pair production rate per space-time unit of massive Dirac particles interacting with a purely electric background field.

  20. A new generalization of the Riemann zeta function and its difference equation

    Qadir Asghar


    Full Text Available Abstract We have introduced a new generalization of the Riemann zeta function. A special case of our generalization converges locally uniformly to the Riemann zeta function in the critical strip. It approximates the trivial and non-trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function. Some properties of the generalized Riemann zeta function are investigated. The relation between the function and the general Hurwitz zeta function is exploited to deduce new identities.

  1. Mayer Transfer Operator Approach to Selberg Zeta Function

    Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei

    These notes are based on three lectures given by the second author at Copenhagen University (October 2009) and at Aarhus University, Denmark (December 2009). We mostly present here a survey of results of Dieter Mayer on relations between Selberg and Smale-Ruelle dynamical zeta functions. In a spe...... in terms of a Fredholm determinant of a classical transfer operator of the flow. The transfer operator is defined in a certain space of holomorphic functions and its matrix representation in a natural basis is given in terms of the Riemann zeta function and the Euler gamma function....

  2. From Fourier Series to Rapidly Convergent Series for Zeta(3)

    Scheufens, Ernst E


    The article presents a mathematical study which investigates the exact values of the Riemann zeta (ζ) function. It states that exact values can be determined from Fourier series for periodic versions of even power functions. It notes that using power series for logarithmic functions on this such ......The article presents a mathematical study which investigates the exact values of the Riemann zeta (ζ) function. It states that exact values can be determined from Fourier series for periodic versions of even power functions. It notes that using power series for logarithmic functions...

  3. 77 FR 72975 - Zeta Cypermethrin; Pesticide Tolerances


    ... = 11.20 mg/ old and adults). mg/kg. day. kg based on motor UFA = 10x aPAD = 0.07 mg/kg/day.. activity... the rat. LOAEL = HED = 1.15 mg/kg/day... 0.05 mg/L based on UFA = 3x increased salivation. UFH = 10x... = uncertainty factor. UFA = extrapolation from animal to human (interspecies). UFH = potential variation...

  4. Kabat's Surface Terms in the $\\zeta$-Function approach

    Iellici, D; Iellici, Devis; Moretti, Valter


    The thermal partition functions of photons in any covariant gauge and gravitons in the harmonic gauge, propagating in a Rindler wedge, are computed using a local zeta-function approach. The relation with the surface terms previously obtained by D. Kabat is studied. The results are discussed in relation to the quantum corrections to the black hole entropy.

  5. Kabat's Surface Terms in the Zeta-Function Approach

    Iellici, D.; Moretti, V.

    The thermal partition functions of photons in any covariant gauge and gravitons in the harmonic gauge, propagating in a Rindler wedge, are computed using a local zeta-function approach. The relation with the surface terms previously obtained by D. Kabat is studied. The results are discussed in relation to the quantum corrections to the black hole entropy.

  6. Crossing the entropy barrier of dynamical zeta functions

    Aurich, R.; Bolte, J.; Matthies, C.; Sieber, M.; Steiner, F. (Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik)


    Dynamical zeta functions are an important tool to quantize chaotic dynamical systems. The basic quantization rules require the computation of the zeta functions on the real energy axis, where the Euler product representations running over the classical periodic orbits usually do not converge due to the existence of the so-called entropy barrier determined by the topological entropy of the classical system. We shown that the convergence properties of the dynamical zeta functions rewritten as Dirichlet series are governed not only by the well-known topological and metric entropy, but depend crucially on subtle statistical properties of the Maslow indices and of the multiplicities of the periodic orbits that are measured by a new parameter for which we introduce the notion of a third entropy. If and only if the third entropy is nonvanishing, one can cross the entropy barrier; if it exceeds a certain value, one can even compute the zeta function in the physical region by means of a convergent Dirichlet series. A simple statistical model is presented which allows to compute the third entropy. Four examples of chaotic systems are studied in detail to test the model numerically. (orig.).

  7. Some computational formulas related the Riemann zeta-function tails

    Hongmin Xu


    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we present two computational formulae for one kind of reciprocal sums related to the Riemann zeta-function at integer points s = 4 , 5 $s=4,5$ , which answers an open problem proposed by Lin (J. Inequal. Appl. 2016:32, 2016.

  8. Zeta Regularized Product Expressions for Multiple Trigonometric Functions

    Kurokawa, Nobushige; Wakayama, Masato


    We introduce a multiple analogue of the gamma function which differs from the one defined by Barnes [B]. Using this function, we give expressions of the multiple sine and cosine functions in terms of zeta regularized products. The expression of the multiple sine function can be interpreted as a reflection formula of this new multiple analogue of the gamma function.

  9. On the zeros of the Epstein zeta function

    Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Srinivas, Kotyada


    In this article, we count the number of consecutive zeros of the Epstein zeta-function, associated to a certain quadratic form, on the critical line with ordinates lying in $[0,T], T$ sufficiently large and which are separated apart by a given positive number $V$.

  10. Masses of the astrometric SB2 \\zeta Ori A

    Rivinius, Th; Stahl, O


    We report the first dynamic mass for an O-type supergiant, the interferometrically resolved SB2 system \\zeta Ori A (O9.5Ib+B0/1). The separation of the system excludes any previous mass-transfer, ensuring that the derived masses can be compared to single star evolutionary tracks.

  11. Dynamical zeta functions for piecewise monotone maps of the interval

    Ruelle, David


    Consider a space M, a map f:M\\to M, and a function g:M \\to {\\mathbb C}. The formal power series \\zeta (z) = \\exp \\sum ^\\infty _{m=1} \\frac {z^m}{m} \\sum _{x \\in \\mathrm {Fix}\\,f^m} \\prod ^{m-1}_{k=0} g (f^kx) yields an example of a dynamical zeta function. Such functions have unexpected analytic properties and interesting relations to the theory of dynamical systems, statistical mechanics, and the spectral theory of certain operators (transfer operators). The first part of this monograph presents a general introduction to this subject. The second part is a detailed study of the zeta functions associated with piecewise monotone maps of the interval [0,1]. In particular, Ruelle gives a proof of a generalized form of the Baladi-Keller theorem relating the poles of \\zeta (z) and the eigenvalues of the transfer operator. He also proves a theorem expressing the largest eigenvalue of the transfer operator in terms of the ergodic properties of (M,f,g).


    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović


    Full Text Available As companies and individuals to live their best release? What should companies and individuals were the most successful? What job would bring the most satisfaction and opportunities for further development? What would be the fastest way led to the realization of corporate goals and their own? Answers to these questions can be obtained through analysis of employer brand and Analysis of individual potential (AIP. Employer brand analysis and analysis of individual potential is the process of identifying the strengths and potential of the company as well as a person. In this way, determining what it is that a company or person works best, how to motivate people and to the field of application of discovered talent. The main objective of this procedure is the development of an overall as well as personal and professional development of individuals in the direction of those activities and areas that will bring long-term satisfaction

  13. Spectral zeta function and non-perturbative effects in ABJM Fermi-gas

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki


    The exact partition function in ABJM theory on three-sphere can be regarded as a canonical partition function of a non-interacting Fermi-gas with an unconventional Hamiltonian. All the information on the partition function is encoded in the discrete spectrum of this Hamiltonian. We explain how (quantum mechanical) non-perturbative corrections in the Fermi-gas system appear from a spectral consideration. Basic tools in our analysis are a Mellin-Barnes type integral representation and a spectral zeta function. From a consistency with known results, we conjecture that the spectral zeta function in the ABJM Fermi-gas has an infinite number of "non-perturbative" poles, which are invisible in the semi-classical expansion of the Planck constant. We observe that these poles indeed appear after summing up perturbative corrections. As a consequence, the perturbative resummation of the spectral zeta function causes non-perturbative corrections to the grand canonical partition function. We also present another example associated with a spectral problem in topological string theory. A conjectured non-perturbative free energy on the resolved conifold is successfully reproduced in this framework.

  14. Spectral zeta function and non-perturbative effects in ABJM Fermi-gas

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki


    The exact partition function in ABJM theory on three-sphere can be regarded as a canonical partition function of a non-interacting Fermi-gas with an unconventional Hamiltonian. All the information on the partition function is encoded in the discrete spectrum of this Hamiltonian. We explain how (quantum mechanical) non-perturbative corrections in the Fermi-gas system appear from a spectral consideration. Basic tools in our analysis are a Mellin-Barnes type integral representation and a spectral zeta function. From a consistency with known results, we conjecture that the spectral zeta function in the ABJM Fermi-gas has an infinite number of "non-perturbative" poles, which are invisible in the semi-classical expansion of the Planck constant. We observe that these poles indeed appear after summing up perturbative corrections. As a consequence, the perturbative resummation of the spectral zeta function causes non-perturbative corrections to the grand canonical partition function. We also present another example as...

  15. Adiabatic hyperspherical analysis of realistic nuclear potentials

    Daily, K M; Greene, Chris H


    Using the hyperspherical adiabatic method with the realistic nuclear potentials Argonne V14, Argonne V18, and Argonne V18 with the Urbana IX three-body potential, we calculate the adiabatic potentials and the triton bound state energies. We find that a discrete variable representation with the slow variable discretization method along the hyperradial degree of freedom results in energies consistent with the literature. However, using a Laguerre basis results in missing energy, even when extrapolated to an infinite number of basis functions and channels. We do not include the isospin $T=3/2$ contribution in our analysis.

  16. [Discourse analysis: research potentialities to gender violence].

    de Azambuja, Mariana Porto Ruwer; Nogueira, Conceição


    In the last few years we see the growing use of the terms 'discourse' and 'discourses analysis' in academic and research contexts, frequently without a precise definition. This fact opens space for critics and mistakes. The aim of this paper is to show a brief contextualization of discursive studies, as well as tasks/steps to Discourse Analysis process by the Social Construcionism perspective. As examples we used fragments of an interview with a Family Doctor about gender violence. In the results we detach the potential of Discourse Analysis to deconstruct the existing discourses to subsequently (re)construction in the way to a more holistic view about gender violence problem.

  17. On A Rapidly Converging Series For The Riemann Zeta Function

    Pichler, Alois


    To evaluate Riemann's zeta function is important for many investigations related to the area of number theory, and to have quickly converging series at hand in particular. We investigate a class of summation formulae and find, as a special case, a new proof of a rapidly converging series for the Riemann zeta function. The series converges in the entire complex plane, its rate of convergence being significantly faster than comparable representations, and so is a useful basis for evaluation algorithms. The evaluation of corresponding coefficients is not problematic, and precise convergence rates are elaborated in detail. The globally converging series obtained allow to reduce Riemann's hypothesis to similar properties on polynomials. And interestingly, Laguerre's polynomials form a kind of leitmotif through all sections.

  18. The Zeta Functions of Complexes from $\\Sp(4)$

    Fang, Yang; Wang, Chian-Jen


    Let $F$ be a non-archimedean local field with a finite residue field. To a 2-dimensional finite complex $X_\\Gamma$ arising as the quotient of the Bruhat-Tits building $X$ associated to $\\Sp_4(F)$ by a discrete torsion-free cocompact subgroup $\\Gamma$ of $\\PGSp_4(F)$, associate the zeta function $Z(X_{\\Gamma}, u)$ which counts geodesic tailless cycles contained in the 1-skeleton of $X_{\\Gamma}$. Using a representation-theoretic approach, we obtain two closed form expressions for $Z(X_{\\Gamma}, u)$ as a rational function in $u$. Equivalent statements for $X_{\\Gamma}$ being a Ramanujan complex are given in terms of vertex, edge, and chamber adjacency operators, respectively. The zeta functions of such Ramanujan complexes are distinguished by satisfying the Riemann Hypothesis.

  19. Well-rounded zeta-function of planar arithmetic lattices

    Fukshansky, Lenny


    We investigate the properties of the zeta-function of well-rounded sublattices of a fixed arithmetic lattice in the plane. In particular, we show that this function has abscissa of convergence at $s=1$ with a real pole of order 2, improving upon a recent result of S. Kuehnlein. We use this result to show that the number of well-rounded sublattices of a planar arithmetic lattice of index less or equal $N$ is $O(N \\log N)$ as $N \\to \\infty$. To obtain these results, we produce a description of integral well-rounded sublattices of a fixed planar integral well-rounded lattice and investigate convergence properties of a zeta-function of similarity classes of such lattices, building on some previous results of the author.

  20. The angular diameter and distance of the Cepheid Zeta Geminorum

    Kervella, P; Perrin, G; Schöller, M; Traub, W A; Lacasse, M D


    Cepheids are the primary distance indicators for extragalactic astronomy and therefore are of very high astrophysical interest. Unfortunately, they are rare stars, situated very far from Earth.Though they are supergiants, their typical angular diameter is only a few milliarcseconds, making them very challenging targets even for long-baseline interferometers. We report observations that were obtained in the K prime band (2-2.3 microns), on the Cepheid Zeta Geminorum with the FLUOR beam combiner, installed at the IOTA interferometer. The mean uniform disk angular diameter was measured to be 1.64 +0.14 -0.16 mas. Pulsational variations are not detected at a significant statistical level, but future observations with longer baselines should allow a much better estimation of their amplitude. The distance to Zeta Gem is evaluated using Baade-Wesselink diameter determinations, giving a distance of 502 +/- 88 pc.

  1. Lecture notes: string theory and zeta-function

    Toppan, Francesco [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E-mail:


    These lecture notes are based on a revised and LaTexed version of the Master thesis defended at ISAS. The research part being omitted, they included a review of the bosonic closed string a la Polyakov and of the one-loop background field method of quantisation defined through the zeta-function. In an appendix some basic features of the Riemann zeta-function are also reviewed. The pedagogical aspects of the material here presented are particularly emphasized. These notes are used, together with the Scherk's article in Rev. Mod. Phys. and the first volume of the Polchinski book, for the mini-course on String Theory (16-hours of lectures) held at CBPF. In this course the Green-Schwarz-Witten two-volumes book is also used for consultative purposes. (author)

  2. Consistency relations and conservation of $\\zeta$ in holographic inflation

    Garriga, Jaume


    It is well known that, in single clock inflation, the curvature perturbation $\\zeta$ is constant in time on superhorizon scales. In the standard bulk description this follows quite simply from the local conservation of the energy momentum tensor in the bulk. On the other hand, in a holographic description, the constancy of the curvature perturbation must be related to the properties of the RG flow in the boundary theory. Here, we show that, in single clock holographic inflation, the time independence of correlators of $\\zeta$ follows from the cut-off independence of correlators of the energy momentum tensor in the boundary theory, and from the so-called consistency relations for vertex functions with a soft leg.

  3. Distribution of zeta zeroes of Artin--Schreier curves

    Bucur, Alina; Feigon, Brooke; Lalin, Matilde; Sinha, Kaneenika


    We study the distribution of the zeroes of the zeta functions of the family of Artin-Schreier curves over $\\mathbb{F}_q$ when $q$ is fixed and the genus goes to infinity. We consider both the global and the mesoscopic regimes, proving that when the genus goes to infinity, the number of zeroes with angles in a prescribed interval of $[-\\pi,\\pi)$ has a standard Gaussian distribution (when properly normalized).

  4. Lowest Landau level on a cone and zeta determinants

    Klevtsov, Semyon


    We consider the integer QH state on Riemann surfaces with conical singularities, with the main objective of detecting the effect of the gravitational anomaly directly from the form of the wave function on a singular geometry. We suggest the formula expressing the normalisation factor of the holomorphic state in terms of the regularized zeta determinant on conical surfaces and check this relation for some model geometries. We also comment on possible extensions of this result to the fractional QH states.

  5. Lowest Landau level on a cone and zeta determinants

    Klevtsov, Semyon


    We consider the integer QH state on Riemann surfaces with conical singularities, with the main objective of detecting the effect of the gravitational anomaly directly from the form of the wave function on a singular geometry. We suggest the formula expressing the normalisation factor of the holomorphic state in terms of the regularized zeta determinant on conical surfaces and check this relation for some model geometries. We also comment on possible extensions of this result to the fractional QH states.

  6. On the Laurent series for the Epstein zeta function

    Joyce, G. S.


    The Epstein zeta function ζ d [ M ; s ] ≡ ∑ n ∈ Z d ‧ ( n M n T ) - s 2 , where {M} is a real symmetric and invertible d × d matrix and {n} is a d-dimensional row vector ({n}1,{n}2,\\ldots ,{n}d) with integer coordinates {n}i, is considered. (The prime on the sum indicates that the term {n}={0} should be excluded.) It is known that {\\zeta }d[{M};s] has a Laurent series expansion about the singular point s = d which can be written in the form ζ d [ M ; s ] = ∑ ν = - 1 ∞ A ν [ M ; d ] ( s - d ) ν . In this paper we shall show that the coefficient {A}ν [{M};d] can be accurately calculated using rapidly convergent series which involve the Meijer G-function. Exact formulae are also derived for {A}ν [{M};2] when M = U N ≡ 1 0 0 N , with N=1,2,\\ldots . The results for {A}0[{{U}}N;2] are then used to establish several mathematical identities involving summations of generalized Stieltjes constants. Next the Laurent series for {\\zeta }d[{{I}}d;s], where {{I}}d is the d × d unit matrix, is briefly discussed for the cases d=3,4,6 and 8. Finally, a new application of the results in lattice statistics is described.

  7. Landau-Siegel zeros and zeros of the derivative of the Riemann zeta function

    Farmer, David W


    We show that if the derivative of the Riemann zeta function has sufficiently many zeros close to the critical line, then the zeta function has many closely spaced zeros. This gives a condition on the zeros of the derivative of the zeta function which implies a lower bound of the class numbers of imaginary quadratic fields.

  8. The cyclic AMP response element modulator regulates transcription of the TCR zeta-chain

    Tenbrock, K; Kyttaris, VC; Ahlmann, M; Ehrchen, JA; Tolnay, M; Melkonyan, H; Mawrin, C; Roth, J; Sorg, C; Juang, YT; Tsokos, GC


    Systemic lupus erythematusus T cells display decreased amounts of TCR zeta mRNA that results in part from limited binding of the transcriptional enhancer Elf-1 to the TCR zeta promoter. We have identified a new cis-binding site for the cAMP response element (CRE) modulator (CREM) on the TCR zeta pro

  9. Time-series photometry of the O4 I(n)fp star zeta Puppis

    Howarth, Ian D.; Stevens, Ian R.


    We report a time-series analysis of the O4 I(n)fp star zeta Pup, based on optical photometry obtained with the SMEI instrument on the Coriolis satellite, 2003--2006. A single astrophysical signal is found, with P = (1.780938 \\pm 0.000093) d and a mean semi-amplitude of (6.9 \\pm 0.3) mmag. There is no evidence for persistent coherent signals with semi-amplitudes in excess of ca. 2~mmag on any of the timescales previously reported in the literature. In particular, there is no evidence for a sig...

  10. Graph Zeta Function in the Bethe Free Energy and Loopy Belief Propagation

    Watanabe, Yusuke


    We propose a new approach to the analysis of Loopy Belief Propagation (LBP) by establishing a formula that connects the Hessian of the Bethe free energy with the edge zeta function. The formula has a number of theoretical implications on LBP. It is applied to give a sufficient condition that the Hessian of the Bethe free energy is positive definite, which shows non-convexity for graphs with multiple cycles. The formula clarifies the relation between the local stability of a fixed point of LBP and local minima of the Bethe free energy. We also propose a new approach to the uniqueness of LBP fixed point, and show various conditions of uniqueness.

  11. Proof of generalized Riemann hypothesis for Dedekind zetas and Dirichlet L-functions

    Mcadrecki, Andrzej


    A short proof of the generalized Riemann hypothesis (gRH in short) for zeta functions $\\zeta_{k}$ of algebraic number fields $k$ - based on the Hecke's proof of the functional equation for $\\zeta_{k}$ and the method of the proof of the Riemann hypothesis derived in [$M_{A}$] (algebraic proof of the Riemann hypothesis) is given. The generalized Riemann hypothesis for Dirichlet L-functions is an immediately consequence of (gRH) for $\\zeta_{k}$ and suitable product formula which connects the Dedekind zetas with L-functions.

  12. Multivariate meta-analysis: potential and promise.

    Jackson, Dan; Riley, Richard; White, Ian R


    The multivariate random effects model is a generalization of the standard univariate model. Multivariate meta-analysis is becoming more commonly used and the techniques and related computer software, although continually under development, are now in place. In order to raise awareness of the multivariate methods, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages, we organized a one day 'Multivariate meta-analysis' event at the Royal Statistical Society. In addition to disseminating the most recent developments, we also received an abundance of comments, concerns, insights, critiques and encouragement. This article provides a balanced account of the day's discourse. By giving others the opportunity to respond to our assessment, we hope to ensure that the various view points and opinions are aired before multivariate meta-analysis simply becomes another widely used de facto method without any proper consideration of it by the medical statistics community. We describe the areas of application that multivariate meta-analysis has found, the methods available, the difficulties typically encountered and the arguments for and against the multivariate methods, using four representative but contrasting examples. We conclude that the multivariate methods can be useful, and in particular can provide estimates with better statistical properties, but also that these benefits come at the price of making more assumptions which do not result in better inference in every case. Although there is evidence that multivariate meta-analysis has considerable potential, it must be even more carefully applied than its univariate counterpart in practice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Local zeta factors and geometries under Spec Z

    Manin, Yu I.


    The first part of this note shows that the odd-period polynomial of each Hecke cusp eigenform for the full modular group produces via the Rodriguez-Villegas transform ([1]) a polynomial satisfying the functional equation of zeta type and having non-trivial zeros only in the middle line of its critical strip. The second part discusses the Chebyshev lambda-structure of the polynomial ring as Borger's descent data to \\mathbf{F}_1 and suggests its role in a possible relation of the Γ\\mathbf{R}-factor to 'real geometry over \\mathbf{F}_1' (cf. [2]).

  14. The Riemann zeta-function theory and applications

    Ivic, Aleksandar


    ""A thorough and easily accessible account.""-MathSciNet, Mathematical Reviews on the Web, American Mathematical Society. This extensive survey presents a comprehensive and coherent account of Riemann zeta-function theory and applications. Starting with elementary theory, it examines exponential integrals and exponential sums, the Voronoi summation formula, the approximate functional equation, the fourth power moment, the zero-free region, mean value estimates over short intervals, higher power moments, and omega results. Additional topics include zeros on the critical line, zero-density estim

  15. Understanding the photometric variability of {\\zeta} Ori Aa

    Buysschaert, B; Ramiaramanantsoa, T; Richardson, N D; David-Uraz, A; Moffat, A F J


    We studied the variability of the magnetic O-type supergiant $\\zeta$ Ori Aa using multi-colour BRITE photometry. We confirmed the known rotation frequency $f_{\\rm rot} = 0.15 \\pm 0.02$ c/d, and detected some of its higher harmonics, of which $4f_{\\rm rot}$ is compatible with the known DAC recurrence timescale. Thanks to simultaneous high-resolution CHIRON spectroscopy, we could identify another frequency $f_{\\rm env} = 0.10 \\pm 0.02$ c/d, caused by the circumstellar environment. Variations in the circumstellar environment are believed to cause the observed difference between the BRITE lightcurves.

  16. Sumas de Gauss y funciones zeta de hipersuperficies diagonales

    Chiara Llanos, Olmo


    A lo largo de este trabajo abordaremos algunos casos particulares de las conjeturas de Weil. En primer lugar estudiaremos la definición de función zeta de una variedad y la formulación de las conjeturas de Weil, con su respectiva motivación. Seguidamente, introduciremos toda la teoría de sumas de Gauss y de Jacobi, partiendo de la base de la teoría de caracteres de un grupo abeliano, para obtener resultados sobre el cálculo del número de puntos de ciertas variedades sobre cuerpos de caracterí...

  17. Riemann Hypothesis and Random Walks: the Zeta case

    LeClair, André


    In previous work it was shown that if certain series based on sums over primes of non-principal Dirichlet characters have a conjectured random walk behavior, then the Euler product formula for its $L$-function is valid to the right of the critical line $\\Re (s) > 1/2$, and the Riemann Hypothesis for this class of $L$-functions follows. Building on this work, here we propose how to extend this line of reasoning to the Riemann zeta function and other principal Dirichlet $L$-functions. We use our results to argue that $ S_\\delta (t) \\equiv \\lim_{\\delta \\to 0^+} \\dfrac{1}{\\pi} \\arg \\zeta (\\tfrac{1}{2}+ \\delta + i t ) = O(1)$, and that it is nearly always on the principal branch. We conjecture that a 1-point correlation function of the Riemann zeros has a normal distribution. This leads to the construction of a probabilistic model for the zeros. Based on these results we describe a new algorithm for computing very high Riemann zeros as a kind of stochastic process, and we calculate the $10^{100}$-th zero to over 1...

  18. Potencial zeta de sulfatos de de bario y de estroncio

    Edgar Delgado M.


    Full Text Available Por medio de la electroforesis se determinó las movilidades electroforéticas y los potenciales zeta del sulfato de bario a 25,0 °C como función de la fuerza iónica de NaCI, así como del Sulfato de estroncio en función de la fuerza iónica del cloruro de sodio y del pH. Se encontró que el amento de la fuerza iónica de NaCI causa un cambio del Potencial Zeta negativo del sulfato de estroncio a positivo con valor cero a aprox. 0,06 de fuerza iónica. El P.Z. del sulfato de estroncio es positivo a pH inferiores a aprox. 2,5 y negativo a pH superiores. El sulfato de bario presenta P.Z. negativas a fuerza iónicas de NaCI inferiores a aprox. 0.06 y PZ positivos a fuerzas iónicas mayores

  19. Diacylglycerol kinase-zeta localization in skeletal muscle is regulated by phosphorylation and interaction with syntrophins.

    Abramovici, Hanan; Hogan, Angela B; Obagi, Christopher; Topham, Matthew K; Gee, Stephen H


    Syntrophins are scaffolding proteins that link signaling molecules to dystrophin and the cytoskeleton. We previously reported that syntrophins interact with diacylglycerol kinase-zeta (DGK-zeta), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid. Here, we show syntrophins and DGK-zeta form a complex in skeletal muscle whose translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane is regulated by protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of the DGK-zeta MARCKS domain. DGK-zeta mutants that do not bind syntrophins were mislocalized, and an activated mutant of this sort induced atypical changes in the actin cytoskeleton, indicating syntrophins are important for localizing DGK-zeta and regulating its activity. Consistent with a role in actin organization, DGK-zeta and syntrophins were colocalized with filamentous (F)-actin and Rac in lamellipodia and ruffles. Moreover, extracellular signal-related kinase-dependent phosphorylation of DGK-zeta regulated its association with the cytoskeleton. In adult muscle, DGK-zeta was colocalized with syntrophins on the sarcolemma and was concentrated at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), whereas in type IIB fibers it was found exclusively at NMJs. DGK-zeta was reduced at the sarcolemma of dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse myofibers but was specifically retained at NMJs, indicating that dystrophin is important for the sarcolemmal but not synaptic localization of DGK-zeta. Together, our findings suggest syntrophins localize DGK-zeta signaling complexes at specialized domains of muscle cells, which may be critical for the proper control of lipid-signaling pathways regulating actin organization. In dystrophic muscle, mislocalized DGK-zeta may cause abnormal cytoskeletal changes that contribute to disease pathogenesis.

  20. Can Eccentric Debris Disks Be Long-lived? A First Numerical Investigation and Application to Zeta(exp 2) Reticuli

    Faramaz, V.; Beust, H.; Thebault, P.; Augereau, J.-C.; Bonsor, A.; delBurgo, C.; Ertel, S.; Marshall, J. P.; Milli, J.; Montesinos, B.; Mora, A.; Bryden, G.; Danchi, William C.; Eiroa, C.; White, G. J.; Wolf, S.


    Context. Imaging of debris disks has found evidence for both eccentric and offset disks. One hypothesis is that they provide evidence for massive perturbers, for example, planets or binary companions, which sculpt the observed structures. One such disk was recently observed in the far-IR by the Herschel Space Observatory around Zeta2 Reticuli. In contrast with previously reported systems, the disk is significantly eccentric, and the system is several Gyr old. Aims. We aim to investigate the long-term evolution of eccentric structures in debris disks caused by a perturber on an eccentric orbit around the star. We hypothesise that the observed eccentric disk around Zeta2 Reticuli might be evidence of such a scenario. If so, we are able to constrain the mass and orbit of a potential perturber, either a giant planet or a binary companion. Methods. Analytical techniques were used to predict the effects of a perturber on a debris disk. Numerical N-body simulations were used to verify these results and further investigate the observable structures that may be produced by eccentric perturbers. The long-term evolution of the disk geometry was examined, with particular application to the Zeta2 Reticuli system. In addition, synthetic images of the disk were produced for direct comparison with Herschel observations. Results. We show that an eccentric companion can produce both the observed offsets and eccentric disks. These effects are not immediate, and we characterise the timescale required for the disk to develop to an eccentric state (and any spirals to vanish). For Zeta2 Reticuli, we derive limits on the mass and orbit of the companion required to produce the observations. Synthetic images show that the pattern observed around Zeta2 Reticuli can be produced by an eccentric disk seen close to edge-on, and allow us to bring additional constraints on the disk parameters of our model (disk flux and extent). Conclusions. We conclude that eccentric planets or stellar companions

  1. Zeta diversity as a concept and metric that unifies incidence-based biodiversity patterns.

    Hui, Cang; McGeoch, Melodie A


    Patterns in species incidence and compositional turnover are central to understanding what drives biodiversity. Here we propose zeta (ζ) diversity, the number of species shared by multiple assemblages, as a concept and metric that unifies incidence-based diversity measures, patterns, and relationships. Unlike other measures of species compositional turnover, zeta diversity partitioning quantifies the complete set of diversity components for multiple assemblages, comprehensively representing the spatial structure of multispecies distributions. To illustrate the application and ecological value of zeta diversity, we show how it scales with sample number, grain, and distance. Zeta diversity reconciles several different biodiversity patterns, including the species accumulation curve, the species-area relationship, multispecies occupancy patterns, and scaling of species endemism. Exponential and power-law forms of zeta diversity are associated with stochastic versus niche assembly processes. Zeta diversity may provide new insights on biodiversity patterns, the processes driving them, and their response to environmental change.

  2. On the local zeta functions and the b-functions of certain hyperplane arrangements

    Budur, Nero; Yuzvinsky, Sergey


    Conjectures of J. Igusa for p-adic local zeta functions and of J. Denef and F. Loeser for topological local zeta functions assert that (the real part of) the poles of these local zeta functions are roots of the Bernstein-Sato polynomials (i.e. the b-functions). We prove these conjectures for certain hyperplane arrangements, including the case of reduced hyperplane arrangements in three-dimensional affine space.

  3. Zeta function zeros, powers of primes, and quantum chaos.

    Sakhr, Jamal; Bhaduri, Rajat K; van Zyl, Brandon P


    We present a numerical study of Riemann's formula for the oscillating part of the density of the primes and their integer powers. The formula consists of an infinite series of oscillatory terms, one for each zero of the zeta function on the critical line, and was derived by Riemann in his paper on primes, assuming the Riemann hypothesis. We show that high-resolution spectral lines can be generated by the truncated series at all integer powers of primes and demonstrate explicitly that the relative line intensities are correct. We then derive a Gaussian sum rule for Riemann's formula. This is used to analyze the numerical convergence of the truncated series. The connections to quantum chaos and semiclassical physics are discussed.

  4. Central Binomial Sums, Multiple Clausen Values and Zeta Values

    Borwein, J M; Kamnitzer, J


    We find and prove relationships between Riemann zeta values and central binomial sums. We also investigate alternating binomial sums (also called Ap\\'ery sums). The study of non-alternating sums leads to an investigation of different types of sums which we call multiple Clausen values. The study of alternating sums leads to a tower of experimental results involving polylogarithms in the golden ratio. In the non-alternating case, there is a strong connection to polylogarithms of the sixth root of unity, encountered in the 3-loop Feynman diagrams of {\\tt hep-th/9803091} and subsequently in hep-ph/9910223, hep-ph/9910224, cond-mat/9911452 and hep-th/0004010.

  5. Where do the tedious products of zetas come from?

    Broadhurst, D J


    Lamentably, the full analytical content of the epsilon-expansion of the master two-loop two-point function, with arbitrary self-energy insertions in 4-2epsilon dimensions, is still unknown. Here we show that multiple zeta values (MZVs) of weights up to 12 suffice through O(epsilon^9). Products of primitive MZVs are generated by a processes of "pseudo-exponentiation"" whose combinatorics faithfully accord with expectations based on Kreimer's modified shuffle product and on the Drinfeld-Deligne conjecture. The existence of such a mechanism, relating thousands of complicated rational numbers, enables us to identify precise and simple combinations of MZVs specific to quantum field theories in even numbers of spacetime dimensions.

  6. X-ray Observations of Bow Shocks around Runaway O Stars. The case of $\\zeta$ Oph and BD+433654

    Toalá, J A; González-Gaán, A; Guerrero, M A; Ignace, R; Pohl, M


    Non-thermal radiation has been predicted within bow shocks around runaway stars by recent theoretical works. We present X-ray observations towards the runaway stars $\\zeta$ Oph (Chandra and Suzaku) and BD+433654 (XMM-Newton) to search for the presence of non-thermal X-ray emission. We found no evidence of non-thermal emission spatially coincident with the bow shocks, nonetheless, diffuse emission is detected in the vicinity of $\\zeta$ Oph. After a careful analysis of its spectral characteristics we conclude that this emission has a thermal nature with a plasma temperature of $T \\approx 2 \\times10^{6}$ K. The cometary shape of this emission seems to be in line with recent predictions of radiation-hydrodynamic models of runaway stars. The case of BD+433654 is puzzling as non-thermal emission has been reported in a previous work for this source.

  7. Fuzzy-PI-based centralised control of semi-isolated FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC in a PV/battery hybrid system

    Mahendran, Venmathi; Ramabadran, Ramaprabha


    Multiport converters with centralised controller have been most commonly used in stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)/battery hybrid system to supply the load smoothly without any disturbances. This study presents the performance analysis of four-port SEPIC/ZETA bidirectional converter (FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC) using various types of centralised control schemes like Fuzzy tuned proportional integral controller (Fuzzy-PI), fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and conventional proportional integral (PI) controller. The proposed FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC with various control strategy is derived for simultaneous power management of a PV source using distributed maximum power point tracking (DMPPT) algorithm, a rechargeable battery, and a load by means of centralised controller. The steady state and the dynamic response of the FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC are analysed using three different types of controllers under line and load regulation. The Fuzzy-PI-based control scheme improves the dynamic response of the system when compared with the FLC and the conventional PI controller. The power balance between the ports is achieved by pseudorandom carrier modulation scheme. The response of the FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC is also validated experimentally using hardware prototype model of 500 W system. The effectiveness of the control strategy is validated using simulation and experimental results.

  8. Zeta Function Expression of Spin Partition Functions on Thermal AdS3

    Floyd L.Williams


    Full Text Available We find a Selberg zeta function expression of certain one-loop spin partition functions on three-dimensional thermal anti-de Sitter space. Of particular interest is the partition function of higher spin fermionic particles. We also set up, in the presence of spin, a Patterson-type formula involving the logarithmic derivative of zeta.

  9. An elementary and real approach to values of the Riemann zeta function

    Bagdasaryan, A. G.


    An elementary approach for computing the values at negative integers of the Riemann zeta function is presented. The approach is based on a new method for ordering the integers. We show that the values of the Riemann zeta function can be computed, without using the theory of analytic continuation and any knowledge of functions of complex variable.

  10. Random matrix theory and discrete moments of the Riemann zeta function

    Hughes, C P [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Mathematical Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)


    We calculate the discrete moments of the characteristic polynomial of a random unitary matrix, evaluated a small distance away from an eigenangle. Such results allow us to make conjectures about similar moments for the Riemann zeta function, and provide a uniform approach to understanding moments of the zeta function and its derivative.

  11. Multi-loop zeta function regularization and spectral cutoff in curved spacetime

    Bilal, Adel, E-mail: [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l' École Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Ferrari, Frank, E-mail: [Service de Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Campus de la Plaine, CP 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)


    We emphasize the close relationship between zeta function methods and arbitrary spectral cutoff regularizations in curved spacetime. This yields, on the one hand, a physically sound and mathematically rigorous justification of the standard zeta function regularization at one loop and, on the other hand, a natural generalization of this method to higher loops. In particular, to any Feynman diagram is associated a generalized meromorphic zeta function. For the one-loop vacuum diagram, it is directly related to the usual spectral zeta function. To any loop order, the renormalized amplitudes can be read off from the pole structure of the generalized zeta functions. We focus on scalar field theories and illustrate the general formalism by explicit calculations at one-loop and two-loop orders, including a two-loop evaluation of the conformal anomaly.

  12. Advances in random matrix theory, zeta functions, and sphere packing.

    Hales, T C; Sarnak, P; Pugh, M C


    Over four hundred years ago, Sir Walter Raleigh asked his mathematical assistant to find formulas for the number of cannonballs in regularly stacked piles. These investigations aroused the curiosity of the astronomer Johannes Kepler and led to a problem that has gone centuries without a solution: why is the familiar cannonball stack the most efficient arrangement possible? Here we discuss the solution that Hales found in 1998. Almost every part of the 282-page proof relies on long computer verifications. Random matrix theory was developed by physicists to describe the spectra of complex nuclei. In particular, the statistical fluctuations of the eigenvalues ("the energy levels") follow certain universal laws based on symmetry types. We describe these and then discuss the remarkable appearance of these laws for zeros of the Riemann zeta function (which is the generating function for prime numbers and is the last special function from the last century that is not understood today.) Explaining this phenomenon is a central problem. These topics are distinct, so we present them separately with their own introductory remarks.

  13. Standard Model with extra dimensions and its zeta function regularization

    García-Jiménez, I; Martínez-Pascual, E; Nápoles-Cañedo, G I; Novales-Sánchez, H; Toscano, J J


    We start from a field theory governed by the extra-dimensional $ISO(1,3+n)$ Poincar\\'e group and by the extended SM gauge group, $G({\\cal M}^{4+n})$. Then we construct an effective field theory whose symmetry groups are $ISO(1,3)$ and $G({\\cal M}^{4})$. The transition is carried out via two canonical transformations: a map that preserves, but it hides, the $SO(1,3+n)$ symmetry; and a transformation, given by Fourier series, that explicitly breaks $ISO(1,3+n)$ into $ISO(1,3)$, but conserves and hides the gauge symmetry $G({\\cal M}^{4+n})$, which manifests through nonstandard gauge transformations. From the 4-dimensional perspective, a particle that propagates in compact extra dimensions unfolds into a family of fields that reduces to the SM field if the size of the compact manifold is negligible. We include a full catalogue of Lagrangian terms that can be used to derive Feynman rules. The divergent character of the theory at one-loop is studied. A regularization scheme, based on the Epstein zeta function (EZF)...

  14. DNA polymerase zeta (polζ) in higher eukaryotes

    Gregory N Gan; John P Wittschieben; Birgitte φ Wittschieben; Richard D Wood


    Most current knowledge about DNA polymerase zeta (pol ζ) comes from studies of the enzyme in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where polζ consists of a complex of the catalytic subunit Rev3 with Rev7, which associates with Rev1. Most spontaneous and induced mutagenesis in yeast is dependent on these gene products, and yeast pol can mediate translesion DNA synthesis past some adducts in DNA templates. Study of the homologous gene products in higher eukaryotes is in a relatively early stage, but additional functions for the eukaryotic proteins are already appar-ent. Suppression of vertebrate REV3L function not only reduces induced point mutagenesis but also causes larger-scale genuine instability by raising the frequency of spontaneous chromosome translocations. Disruption of Rev3L function is tolerated in Drosophila, Arabidopsis, and in vertebrate cell lines under some conditions, but is incompatible with mouse embryonic development. Functions for REV3L and REV7(MAD2B) in higher eukaryotes have been suggested not only in translesion DNA synthesis but also in some forms of homologous recombination, repair ofinterstrand DNA erosslinks, somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes and cell-cycle control. This review discusses recent devel-opments in these areas.

  15. Geomorphic Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  16. Habitat Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  17. Quantum-mechanical tunneling differential operators, zeta-functions and determinants

    Casahorrán, J


    We consider in detail the quantum-mechanical problem associated with the motion of a one-dimensional particle under the action of the double-well potential. Our main tool will be the euclidean (imaginary time) version of the path-integral method. Once we perform the Wick rotation, the euclidean equation of motion is the same as the usual one for the point particle in real time, except that the potential at issue is turned upside down. In doing so, our double-well potential becomes a two-humped potential. As required by the semiclassical approximation we may study the quadratic fluctuations over the instanton which represents in this context the localised finite-action solutions of the euclidean equation of motion. The determinants of the quadratic differential operators are evaluated by means of the zeta-function method. We write in closed form the eigenfunctions as well as the energy eigenvalues corresponding to such operators by using the shape-invariance symmetry. The effect of the multi-instantons configu...

  18. On the minima and convexity of Epstein zeta function

    Lim, S. C.; Teo, L. P.


    Let Zn(s ;a1,…,an) be the Epstein zeta function defined as the meromorphic continuation of the function ∑k εZn{0}(∑i =1n[aiki]2)-s, Re s>n/2 to the complex plane. We show that for fixed s ≠n/2, the function Zn(s ;a1,…,an) as a function of (a1,…,an)ε(R+)n with fixed ∏i =1nai has a unique minimum at the point a1=⋯=an. When ∑i =1nci is fixed, the function (c1,…,cn)↦Zn(s ;ec1,…,ecn) can be shown to be a convex function of any (n -1) of the variables {c1,…,cn}. These results are then applied to the study of the sign of Zn(s ;a1,…,an) when s is in the critical range (0,n/2). It is shown that when 1≤n≤9, Zn(s ;a1,…,an) as a function of (a1,…,an)ε(R+)n can be both positive and negative for every s ε(0,n/2). When n ≥10, there are some open subsets In,+ of s ε(0,n/2), where Zn(s ;a1,…,an) is positive for all (a1,…,an)ε(R+)n. By regarding Zn(s ;a1,…,an) as a function of s, we find that when n ≥10, the generalized Riemann hypothesis is false for all (a1,…,an).

  19. Determinations of rational Dedekind-$\\zeta$ invariants of hyperbolic manifolds and Feynman knots and links

    Borwein, J M


    We identify 998 closed hyperbolic 3-manifolds whose volumes are rationally related to Dedekind zeta values, with coprime integers $a$ and $b$ giving $a/b vol(M)=(-D)^{3/2}/(2\\pi)^{2n-4} (\\zeta_K(2))/(2\\zeta(2))$ for a manifold M whose invariant trace field $K$ has a single complex place, discriminant $D$, degree $n$, and Dedekind zeta value $\\zeta_K(2)$. The largest numerator of the 998 invariants of Hodgson-Weeks manifolds is, astoundingly, $a=2^4\\times23\\times37\\times691 =9,408,656$; the largest denominator is merely b=9. We also study the rational invariant a/b for single-complex-place cusped manifolds, complementary to knots and links, both within and beyond the Hildebrand-Weeks census. Within the censi, we identify 152 distinct Dedekind zetas rationally related to volumes. Moreover, 91 census manifolds have volumes reducible to pairs of these zeta values. Motivated by studies of Feynman diagrams, we find a 10-component 24-crossing link in the case n=2 and D=-20. It is one of 5 alternating platonic links,...

  20. A trio of Bernoulli relations, their implications for the Ramanujan polynomials and the zeta constants

    Lettington, Matthew C


    We study the interplay between recurrences for zeta related functions at integer values, `Minor Corner Lattice' Toeplitz determinants and integer composition based sums. Our investigations touch on functional identities due to Ramanujan and Grosswald, the transcendence of the zeta function at odd integer values, the Li Criterion for the Riemann Hypothesis and pseudo-characteristic polynomials for zeta related functions. We begin with a result of Lettington's and some seemingly new Bernoulli relations, which we use to obtain a generalised Ramanujan polynomial and properties thereof.

  1. Local potential analysis of MHD instability

    Sen, K. K.; Wilson, S. J.


    The use of the local potential method for studying instabilities of MHD fluids is examined. The mathematical method is similar to that developed by the authors for studying the time-dependent radiative transfer problem and the radiative stability of interstellar masers. The scheme is based on the universal evolution criterion proposed by Glansdorff and Prigogine (1964) as demonstrated by Hays (1965) for the heat equation and Schechter and Himmelblau (1965) for the Benard problem in hydrodynamics. The scheme for securing stability criteria is demonstrated for two particular cases.

  2. Mosquito larvicidal and silver nanoparticles synthesis potential of plant latex

    H.P. Borase; C.D. Patil; R.B. Salunkhe; C.P. Narkhede; R.K. Suryawanshi; Salunke, B. K.; PATIL S. V


    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from the latex of the medicinally important plants Euphorbia milii, Euphorbia hirta, Ficus racemosa and Jatropha curcas. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, particle size, and zeta potential analysis. Potency of latex and latex-synthesized AgNPs was evaluated against the 2nd and 4th instar larv...

  3. Jacob's ladders and some unbounded decomposition of the $\\zeta$-oscillating systems on products of other $\\zeta$-oscillating systems as an $\\zeta$-analogue of the prime decomposition

    Moser, Jan


    In this paper we introduce new class of multiplicative interactions of the $\\zeta$-oscillating systems generated by a subset of power functions. The main result obtained expresses an analogue of prime decomposition (without the property of uniqueness). Dedicated to recalling of Nicola Tesla's oscillators

  4. On the sign of the real part of the Riemann zeta-function

    de Reyna, Juan Arias; van de Lune, Jan


    We consider the distribution of $\\arg\\zeta(\\sigma+it)$ on fixed lines $\\sigma > \\frac12$, and in particular the density \\[d(\\sigma) = \\lim_{T \\rightarrow +\\infty} \\frac{1}{2T} |\\{t \\in [-T,+T]: |\\arg\\zeta(\\sigma+it)| > \\pi/2\\}|\\,,\\] and the closely related density \\[d_{-}(\\sigma) = \\lim_{T \\rightarrow +\\infty} \\frac{1}{2T} |\\{t \\in [-T,+T]: \\Re\\zeta(\\sigma+it) < 0\\}|\\,.\\] Using classical results of Bohr and Jessen, we obtain an explicit expression for the characteristic function $\\psi_\\sigma(x)$ associated with $\\arg\\zeta(\\sigma+it)$. We give explicit expressions for $d(\\sigma)$ and $d_{-}(\\sigma)$ in terms of $\\psi_\\sigma(x)$. Finally, we give a practical algorithm for evaluating these expressions to obtain accurate numerical values of $d(\\sigma)$ and $d_{-}(\\sigma)$.

  5. Random matrix theory and the zeros of {zeta}'(s)

    Mezzadri, Francesco [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol, BS8 1TW, UK (United Kingdom)


    We study the density of the roots of the derivative of the characteristic polynomial Z(U, z) of an N x N random unitary matrix with distribution given by Haar measure on the unitary group. Based on previous random matrix theory models of the Riemann zeta function {zeta}(s), this is expected to be an accurate description for the horizontal distribution of the zeros of {zeta}'(s) to the right of the critical line. We show that as N {yields} {infinity} the fraction of the roots of Z'(U, z) that lie in the region 1 - x/(N - 1) {<=} vertical bar z vertical bar < 1 tends to a limit function. We derive asymptotic expressions for this function in the limits x {yields} {infinity} and x {yields} 0 and compare them with numerical experiments.

  6. First detection of a magnetic field in the fast rotating runaway Oe star zeta Ophiuchi

    Hubrig, S; Schoeller, M


    The star zeta Ophiuchi is one of the brightest massive stars in the northern hemisphere and was intensively studied in various wavelength domains. The currently available observational material suggests that certain observed phenomena are related to the presence of a magnetic field. We acquired spectropolarimetric observations of zeta Oph with FORS1 mounted on the 8-m Kueyen telescope of the VLT to investigate if a magnetic field is indeed present in this star. Using all available absorption lines, we detect a mean longitudinal magnetic field B_z_all = 141+-45G, confirming the magnetic nature of this star. We review the X-ray properties of zeta Oph with the aim to understand whether the X-ray emission of zeta Oph is dominated by magnetic or by wind instability processes.

  7. Isotypic Decomposition of the Cohomology and Factorization of the Zeta Functions of Dwork Hypersurfaces

    Goutet, Philippe


    The aim of this article is to illustrate, on the example of Dwork hypersurfaces, how the study of the representation of a finite group of automorphisms of a hypersurface in its etale cohomology allows to factor its zeta function.

  8. Seiberg duality, quiver gauge theories, and Ihara’s zeta function

    Zhou, Da; Xiao, Yan; He, Yang-Hui


    We study Ihara’s zeta function for graphs in the context of quivers arising from gauge theories, especially under Seiberg duality transformations. The distribution of poles is studied as we proceed along the duality tree, in light of the weak and strong graph versions of the Riemann Hypothesis. As a by-product, we find a refined version of Ihara’s zeta function to be the generating function for the generic superpotential of the gauge theory.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chemical abundances of zeta Reticuly (Adibekyan+, 2016)

    Adibekyan, V.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Figueira, P.; Sousa, S. G.; Santos, N. C.; Faria, J. P.; Gonzalez Hernandez, J. I.; Israelian, G.; Harutyunyan, G.; Suarez-Andres, L.; Hakobyan, A. A.


    The file table1.dat lists stellar parameters, S/N, and observation dates of zeta1 Ret and zeta2 Ret derived from individual and combined spectra The file ew.dat lists the equivalent widths (EW) of all the spectral lines. The file s_lines.dat lists the lines that were used in this study. The file abund.dat lists the derived abundances of the elements for each star and spectra. (4 data files).

  10. The weak magnetic field of the O9.7 supergiant zeta Orionis A

    Bouret, J -C; Martins, F; Escolano, C; Marcolino, W; Lanz, T; Howarth, Ian


    We report here the detection of a weak magnetic field of 50 - 100 G on the O9.7 supergiant zeta Ori A, using spectropolarimetric observations obtained with NARVAL at the 2m Telescope Bernard Lyot atop Pic du Midi (France). zeta Ori A is the third O star known to host a magnetic field (along with theta^1 Ori C and HD 191612), and the first detection on a 'normal' rapidly-rotating O star. The magnetic field of zeta Ori A is the weakest magnetic field ever detected on a massive star. The measured field is lower than the thermal equipartition limit (about 100 G). By fitting NLTE model atmospheres to our spectra, we determined that zeta Ori A is a 40 Msun star with a radius of 25 Rsun and an age of about 5 - 6 Myr, showing no surface nitrogen enhancement and losing mass at a rate of about 2x10^(-6) Msol/yr. The magnetic topology of zeta Ori A is apparently more complex than a dipole and involves two main magnetic polarities located on both sides of the same hemisphere; our data also suggest that zeta Ori A rotates...

  11. Reduced fertilization after ICSI and abnormal phospholipase C zeta presence in spermatozoa from the wobbler mouse.

    Heytens, Elke; Schmitt-John, Thomas; Moser, Jakob M; Jensen, Nanna Mandøe; Soleimani, Reza; Young, Claire; Coward, Kevin; Parrington, John; De Sutter, Petra


    Failed fertilization after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can be due to a reduced oocyte-activation capacity caused by reduced concentrations and abnormal localization of the oocyte-activation factor phospholipase C (PLC) zeta. Patients with this condition can be helped to conceive by artificial activation of oocytes after ICSI with calcium ionophore (assisted oocyte activation; AOA). However some concern still exists about this approach. Mouse models could help to identify potential oocyte-activation strategies and evaluate their safety. In this study, the fertilizing capacity of wobbler sperm cells was tested and the efficiency of AOA with two exposures to ionomycin to restore fertilization and embryo development was studied. The quality of the obtained blastocysts was assessed and embryo transfer was performed to evaluate post-implantation development. The presence of PLCzeta in the spermatozoa and testis of the wobbler mouse was evaluated by PLCzeta immunostaining and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Sperm cells from wobbler mice had reduced fertilizing capacity and abnormalities in PLCzeta localization, but not in its expression. Artificially activating the oocytes restored fertilization and embryo development. Therefore, the wobbler mouse can be a model for failed fertilization after ICSI to study PLCzeta dynamics and aid in optimization of the AOA method.

  12. Hippocampal Infusion of Zeta Inhibitory Peptide Impairs Recent, but Not Remote, Recognition Memory in Rats

    Jena B. Hales


    Full Text Available Spatial memory in rodents can be erased following the infusion of zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP into the dorsal hippocampus via indwelling guide cannulas. It is believed that ZIP impairs spatial memory by reversing established late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP. However, it is unclear whether other forms of hippocampus-dependent memory, such as recognition memory, are also supported by hippocampal LTP. In the current study, we tested recognition memory in rats following hippocampal ZIP infusion. In order to combat the limited targeting of infusions via cannula, we implemented a stereotaxic approach for infusing ZIP throughout the dorsal, intermediate, and ventral hippocampus. Rats infused with ZIP 3–7 days after training on the novel object recognition task exhibited impaired object recognition memory compared to control rats (those infused with aCSF. In contrast, rats infused with ZIP 1 month after training performed similar to control rats. The ability to form new memories after ZIP infusions remained intact. We suggest that enhanced recognition memory for recent events is supported by hippocampal LTP, which can be reversed by hippocampal ZIP infusion.

  13. Local zeta regularization and the scalar Casimir effect I. A general approach based on integral kernels

    Fermi, Davide


    This is the first one of a series of papers about zeta regularization of the divergences appearing in the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of several local and global observables in quantum field theory. More precisely we consider a quantized, neutral scalar field on a domain in any spatial dimension, with arbitrary boundary conditions and, possibly, in presence of an external classical potential. We analyze, in particular, the VEV of the stress-energy tensor, the corresponding boundary forces and the total energy, thus taking into account both local and global aspects of the Casimir effect. In comparison with the wide existing literature on these subjects, we try to develop a more systematic approach, allowing to treat specific configurations by mere application of a general machinery. The present Part I is mainly devoted to setting up this general framework; at the end of the paper, this is exemplified in a very simple case. In Parts II, III and IV we will consider more engaging applications, indicated in the...

  14. Hippocampal Infusion of Zeta Inhibitory Peptide Impairs Recent, but Not Remote, Recognition Memory in Rats

    Hales, Jena B.; Ocampo, Amber C.; Broadbent, Nicola J.; Clark, Robert E.


    Spatial memory in rodents can be erased following the infusion of zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP) into the dorsal hippocampus via indwelling guide cannulas. It is believed that ZIP impairs spatial memory by reversing established late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP). However, it is unclear whether other forms of hippocampus-dependent memory, such as recognition memory, are also supported by hippocampal LTP. In the current study, we tested recognition memory in rats following hippocampal ZIP infusion. In order to combat the limited targeting of infusions via cannula, we implemented a stereotaxic approach for infusing ZIP throughout the dorsal, intermediate, and ventral hippocampus. Rats infused with ZIP 3–7 days after training on the novel object recognition task exhibited impaired object recognition memory compared to control rats (those infused with aCSF). In contrast, rats infused with ZIP 1 month after training performed similar to control rats. The ability to form new memories after ZIP infusions remained intact. We suggest that enhanced recognition memory for recent events is supported by hippocampal LTP, which can be reversed by hippocampal ZIP infusion. PMID:26380123

  15. Phenylalanine-induced leucopenia in genetic and dichloroacetic acid generated deficiency of glutathione transferase Zeta.

    Theodoratos, Angelo; Tu, Wen Juan; Cappello, Jean; Blackburn, Anneke C; Matthaei, Klaus; Board, Philip G


    Glutathione transferase Zeta (GSTZ1-1) is identical to maleylacetoacetate isomerase and catalyses a significant step in the catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine. Exposure of GSTZ1-1 deficient mice to high dietary phenylalanine causes a rapid loss of circulating white blood cells (WBCs). The loss was significant (P<0.05) after 2 days and total WBCs were reduced by 60% after 6 days. The rapid loss of WBCs was attributed to the accumulation of the catabolic intermediates maleylacetoacetate or maleylacetone (MA) in the circulation. Serum from GSTZ1-1 deficient mice treated with phenylalanine was cytotoxic to splenocytes from normal BALB/c mice and direct incubation of normal splenocytes with MA caused a rapid loss of viability. Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) has been used therapeutically to treat lactic acidosis and is potentially of use in cancer chemotherapy. Since DCA can inactivate GSTZ1-1 there is a possibility that long-term treatment of patients with DCA could cause GSTZ1-1 deficiency and susceptibility to oxidative stress and phenylalanine/tyrosine-induced WBC loss. However, although we found that DCA at 200mg/(kg day) causes a severe loss of hepatic GSTZ1-1 activity in BALB/c mice, it did not induce WBC cytotoxicity when combined with high dietary phenylalanine.


    Gordon Research Conference: Mammalian Gametogenesis and Embryogenesis New London, CT, July 1-6, 2000Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility ResearchDavid Miller 1, David Dix2, Robert Reid 3, Stephen A Krawetz 3 1Reproductive ...


    Gordon Research Conference: Mammalian Gametogenesis and Embryogenesis New London, CT, July 1-6, 2000Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility ResearchDavid Miller 1, David Dix2, Robert Reid 3, Stephen A Krawetz 3 1Reproductive ...

  18. Proof of Analytic Extension Theorem for Zeta Function Using Abel Transformation and Euler Product

    Mbaitiga Zacharie


    Full Text Available Problem statement: In the prime number the Riemann zeta function is unquestionable and undisputable one of the most important questions in mathematics whose many researchers are still trying to find answer to some unsolved problems such as Riemann Hypothesis. In this study we proposed a new method that proves the analytic extension theorem for zeta function. Approach: Abel transformation was used to prove that the extension theorem is true for the real part of the complex variable that is strictly greater than one and consequently provides the required analytic extension of the zeta function to the real part greater than zero and Euler product was used to prove the real part of the complex that are less than zero and greater or equal to one. Results: From this proposed study we noted that the real values of the complex variable are lying between zero and one which may help to understand the relation between zeta function and its properties and consequently can pay the way to solve some complex arithmetic problems including the Riemann Hypothesis. Conclusion: The combination of Abel transformation and Euler product is a powerful tool for proving theorems and functions related to Zeta function including other subjects such as radio atmospheric occultation.

  19. Riemann Zeta Zeros and Prime Number Spectra in Quantum Field Theory

    Menezes, G.; Svaiter, B. F.; Svaiter, N. F.


    The Riemann hypothesis states that all nontrivial zeros of the zeta function lie in the critical line Re(s) = 1/2. Hilbert and Pólya suggested that one possible way to prove the Riemann hypothesis is to interpret the nontrivial zeros in the light of spectral theory. Using the construction of the so-called super-zeta functions or secondary zeta functions built over the Riemann nontrivial zeros and the regularity property of one of this function at the origin, we show that it is possible to extend the Hilbert-Pólya conjecture to systems with countably infinite number of degrees of freedom. The sequence of the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function can be interpreted as the spectrum of a self-adjoint operator of some hypothetical system described by the functional approach to quantum field theory. However, if one considers the same situation with numerical sequences whose asymptotic distributions are not "far away" from the asymptotic distribution of prime numbers, the associated functional integral cannot be constructed. Finally, we discuss possible relations between the asymptotic behavior of a sequence and the analytic domain of the associated zeta function.

  20. Identification and characterization of the interaction between tuberin and 14-3-3zeta.

    Nellist, Mark; Goedbloed, Miriam A; de Winter, Christa; Verhaaf, Brenda; Jankie, Anita; Reuser, Arnold J J; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van der Sluijs, Peter; Halley, Dicky J J


    Tuberous sclerosis is caused by mutations to either the TSC1 or TSC2 tumor suppressor gene. The disease is characterized by a broad phenotypic spectrum that includes seizures, mental retardation, renal dysfunction, and dermatological abnormalities. TSC1 encodes a 130-kDa protein called hamartin, and TSC2 encodes a 200-kDa protein called tuberin. Although it has been shown that hamartin and tuberin form a complex and mediate phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-dependent phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6, it is not yet clear how inactivation of either protein leads to tuberous sclerosis. Therefore, to obtain additional insight into tuberin and hamartin function, yeast two-hybrid screening experiments were performed to identify proteins that interact with tuberin. One of the proteins identified was 14-3-3zeta, a member of the 14-3-3 protein family. The interaction between tuberin and 14-3-3zeta was confirmed in vitro and by co-immunoprecipitation; multiple sites within tuberin for 14-3-3zeta binding were identified; and it was determined that 14-3-3zeta associated with the tuberin-hamartin complex. Finally, it was shown that the tuberin/14-3-3zeta interaction is regulated by Akt-mediated phosphorylation of tuberin, providing insight into how tuberin may regulate phosphorylation of S6.

  1. Zeta functions and regularized determinants related to the Selberg trace formula

    Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei

    For a general Fuchsian group of the first kind with an arbitrary unitary representation we define the zeta functions related to the contributions of the identity, hyperbolic, elliptic and parabolic conjugacy classes in Selberg's trace formula. We present Selberg's zeta function in terms of a regu......For a general Fuchsian group of the first kind with an arbitrary unitary representation we define the zeta functions related to the contributions of the identity, hyperbolic, elliptic and parabolic conjugacy classes in Selberg's trace formula. We present Selberg's zeta function in terms...... determinants of one dimensional Schroedinger operator for harmonic oscillator. We decompose the determinant of the automorphic Laplacian into a product of the determinants where each factor is a determinant representation of a zeta function related to Selberg's trace formula. Then we derive an identity...... connecting the determinants of the automorphic Laplacians on different Riemannian surfaces related to the arithmetical groups. Finally, by using the Jacquet-Langlands correspondence we connect the determinant of the automorphic Laplacian for the unit group of quaternions to the product of the determinants...

  2. Uniform asymptotics for the full moment conjecture of the Riemann zeta function

    Hiary, Ghaith A


    Conrey, Farmer, Keating, Rubinstein, and Snaith recently conjectured formulas for the full asymptotics of the moments of $L$-functions. In the case of the Riemann zeta function, their conjecture states that the $2k$-th absolute moment of zeta on the critical line is asymptotically given by a certain $2k$-fold residue integral. This residue integral can be expressed as a polynomial of degree $k^2$, whose coefficients are given in exact form by elaborate and complicated formulas. In this article, uniform asymptotics for roughly the first $k$ coefficients of the moment polynomial are derived. Numerical data to support our asymptotic formula are presented. An application to bounding the maximal size of the zeta function is considered.

  3. Regularizations of the Euler product representation for zeta functions and the Birch--Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture

    Fujimoto, Minoru


    We consider a variant expression to regularize the Euler product representation of the zeta functions, where we mainly apply to that of the Riemann zeta function in this paper. The regularization itself is identical to that of the zeta function of the summation expression, but the non-use of the M\\"oebius function enable us to confirm a finite behavior of residual terms which means an absence of zeros except for the critical line. Same technique can be applied to the $L$-function associated to the elliptic curve, and we can deal with the Taylor expansion at the pole in critical strip which is deeply related to the Birch--Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture.

  4. Finding zeros of the Riemann zeta function by periodic driving of cold atoms

    Creffield, C. E.; Sierra, G.


    The Riemann hypothesis, which states that the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function all lie on a certain line in the complex plane, is one of the most important unresolved problems in mathematics. We propose here an approach to finding a physical system to study the Riemann zeros, which is based on applying a time-periodic driving field. This driving allows us to tune the quasienergies of the system (the analog of the eigenenergies for static systems), so that they are directly governed by the zeta function. We further show by numerical simulations that this allows the Riemann zeros to be measured in currently accessible cold-atom experiments.

  5. Roots of the derivative of the Riemann zeta function and of characteristic polynomials

    Dueñez, Eduardo; Froehlich, Sara; Hughes, Chris; Mezzadri, Francesco; Phan, Toan


    We investigate the horizontal distribution of zeros of the derivative of the Riemann zeta function and compare this to the radial distribution of zeros of the derivative of the characteristic polynomial of a random unitary matrix. Both cases show a surprising bimodal distribution which has yet to be explained. We show by example that the bimodality is a general phenomenon. For the unitary matrix case we prove a conjecture of Mezzadri concerning the leading order behavior, and we show that the same follows from the random matrix conjectures for the zeros of the zeta function.

  6. Analytic renormalization of multiple zeta functions. Geometry and combinatorics of generalized Euler reflection formula for MZV

    Vieru, Andrei


    The renormalization of MZV was until now carried out by algebraic means. In this paper, we show that renormalization in general, and in particular of the multiple zeta functions, is more than just a pure algebraic convention. We give a simple analytic method of computing the regularized values of multiple zeta functions in any dimension for arguments of the form (1,...,1), where the series do not converge. These values happen to be the coefficients of the asymptotic expansion of the inverse G...

  7. Can Time-Dependent Zeta Correlators be Swept under the Rug?

    Boran, Sibel


    We discuss quantum gravitational loop effects to observable quantities such as curvature power spectrum and primordial non-gaussianity of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. We first review the previously shown case where one gets a time dependence for zeta-zeta correlator due to loop corrections. Then we investigate the effect of these loop corrections to primordial non-gaussianity of CMB. We conclude that with a single scalar inflaton one gets a huge value for non-gaussianity which exceeds the observed value by at least 30 orders of magnitude. Finally we discuss the consequences of this result for scalar driven inflationary models.

  8. Zeta Function Regularization in Casimir Effect Calculations and J. S. Dowker's Contribution

    Elizalde, Emilio


    A summary of relevant contributions, ordered in time, to the subject of operator zeta functions and their application to physical issues is provided. The description ends with the seminal contributions of Stephen Hawking and Stuart Dowker and collaborators, considered by many authors as the actual starting point of the introduction of zeta function regularization methods in theoretical physics, in particular, for quantum vacuum fluctuation and Casimir effect calculations. After recalling a number of the strengths of this powerful and elegant method, some of its limitations are discussed. Finally, recent results of the so called operator regularization procedure are presented.

  9. Interaction of nucleosome assembly proteins abolishes nuclear localization of DGK{zeta} by attenuating its association with importins

    Okada, Masashi; Hozumi, Yasukazu [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Ichimura, Tohru [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshiaki; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Takahashi, Nobuya [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Iseki, Ken [Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Yagisawa, Hitoshi [Laboratory of Biological Signaling, Graduate School of Life Science, University of Hyogo, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Shinkawa, Takashi; Isobe, Toshiaki [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); Goto, Kaoru, E-mail: [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan)


    Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is involved in the regulation of lipid-mediated signal transduction through the metabolism of a second messenger diacylglycerol. Of the DGK family, DGK{zeta}, which contains a nuclear localization signal, localizes mainly to the nucleus but translocates to the cytoplasm under pathological conditions. However, the detailed mechanism of translocation and its functional significance remain unclear. To elucidate these issues, we used a proteomic approach to search for protein targets that interact with DGK{zeta}. Results show that nucleosome assembly protein (NAP) 1-like 1 (NAP1L1) and NAP1-like 4 (NAP1L4) are identified as novel DGK{zeta} binding partners. NAP1Ls constitutively shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in transfected HEK293 cells. The molecular interaction of DGK{zeta} and NAP1Ls prohibits nuclear import of DGK{zeta} because binding of NAP1Ls to DGK{zeta} blocks import carrier proteins, Qip1 and NPI1, to interact with DGK{zeta}, leading to cytoplasmic tethering of DGK{zeta}. In addition, overexpression of NAP1Ls exerts a protective effect against doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that NAP1Ls are involved in a novel molecular basis for the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of DGK{zeta} and provide a clue to examine functional significance of its translocation under pathological conditions.

  10. The Importance of Zeta Potential Measurements & Role of Ionic Strength in Flocculation Processes

    Stoll, Serge


    For efficient water clarification, flocculation is usually induced using positively charged polyelectrolytes such as synthetic polymers to rapidly separate the liquid phase from the solid one and obtain a clear filtrate. Generally, the use of polymeric flocculants over inorganic polyelectrolytes, such as poly-aluminum complexes, gives significant advantages when the water has a high concentration of suspended solids; the concentration of the polymeric flocculant is lower, the resulting sludge...

  11. The interaction between saliva and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans influenced by the Zeta potential

    Groenink, J; Veerman, ECI; Zandvoort, MS; Van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Amerongen, AVN


    The adhesion of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a virulence factor in the aetiology of periodontitis and is determined by physico-chemical properties, e.g. surface charge and hydrophobicity, of the bacterial cell surface. Although oral surfaces are constantly coated with saliva, few studies

  12. Jacob's ladders and the first asymptotic formula for the expression of the sixth order $|\\zeta(1/2+i\\varphi(t)/2)|^4|\\zeta(1/2+it)|^2$

    Moser, Jan


    t is proved in this paper that there is a fine correlation between the values of $|\\zeta(1/2+i\\varphi(t)/2)|^4$ and $|\\zeta(1/2+it)|^2$ which correspond to two segments with gigantic distance each from other. This new asymptotic formula cannot be obtained in known theories of Balasubramanian, Heath-Brown and Ivic.

  13. Principal component analysis of minimal excitatory postsynaptic potentials.

    Astrelin, A V; Sokolov, M V; Behnisch, T; Reymann, K G; Voronin, L L


    'Minimal' excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) are often recorded from central neurones, specifically for quantal analysis. However the EPSPs may emerge from activation of several fibres or transmission sites so that formal quantal analysis may give false results. Here we extended application of the principal component analysis (PCA) to minimal EPSPs. We tested a PCA algorithm and a new graphical 'alignment' procedure against both simulated data and hippocampal EPSPs. Minimal EPSPs were recorded before and up to 3.5 h following induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in CA1 neurones. In 29 out of 45 EPSPs, two (N=22) or three (N=7) components were detected which differed in latencies, rise time (Trise) or both. The detected differences ranged from 0.6 to 7.8 ms for the latency and from 1.6-9 ms for Trise. Different components behaved differently following LTP induction. Cases were found when one component was potentiated immediately after tetanus whereas the other with a delay of 15-60 min. The immediately potentiated component could decline in 1-2 h so that the two components contributed differently into early (reflections of synchronized quantal releases. In general, the results demonstrate PCA applicability to separate EPSPs into different components and its usefulness for precise analysis of synaptic transmission.

  14. States' Potential Enrollment of Adult Students: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    Titus, Marvin A.; Pusser, Brian


    This study shows that financial aspects of state higher education policies, particularly tuition, have an impact on the level of enrollment of adult undergraduates within a state. This study also demonstrates how stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) can be utilized to examine the "potential" maximum enrollment of adult learners in…

  15. Large gaps between consecutive maxima of the Riemann zeta-function on the critical line

    Saker, S H


    In this paper, we derive new lower bounds for the normalized distances between consecutive maxima of the Riemann zeta-function on the critical line subject to the truth of the Riemann hypothesis. The method of our proofs relies on a Sobolev type inequality of one dimension and an Opial type inequality with best possible constants.

  16. A Central Limit Theorem for the Zeroes of the Zeta Function

    Rodgers, Brad


    On the assumption of the Riemann hypothesis, we generalize a central limit theorem of Fujii regarding the number of zeroes of Riemann's Zeta function that lie in a mesoscopic interval. The result mirrors results of Soshnikov and others in random matrix theory.

  17. "Armastuse retsepti" tippkokk Zeta Jones ei oska muna keeta / Triin Tael

    Tael, Triin


    Scott Hicksi romantiline komöödiafilm "Armastuse retsept" ("No Reservations"), mille peaosas Walesist pärit näitlejanna Catherine Zeta Jones. Näitlejanna muljeid oma rolliks ettevalmistustest, mille hulka käis ka praktika pärisrestoranis

  18. Broadway teatrites näeb Denzel Washingtoni ja Catherine Zeta-Jonesi / Andres Laasik

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016


    New Yorgis välja antud Tony teatriauhinna pälvisid filminäitlejad Denzel Washington, Catherine Zeta-Jones ja Scarlett Johansson. Parim lavale naasnud näidend - "Piirdeaed", parim uus näidend - draama "Punane", mis räägib läti päritolu maalikunstnikust Mark Rothkost. Parim muusikal - "Memphis"

  19. Measurable operators and the asymptotics of heat kernels and zeta functions

    Carey, Alan


    In this note we answer some questions inspired by the introduction, by Alain Connes, of the notion of measurable operators using Dixmier traces. These questions concern the relationship of measurability to the asymptotics of $\\zeta-$functions and heat kernels. The answers have remained elusive for some 15 years.

  20. Boundary Conditions for the Maintenance of Memory by PKM[zeta] in Neocortex

    Shema, Reul; Hazvi, Shoshi; Sacktor, Todd C.; Dudai, Yadin


    We report here that ZIP, a selective inhibitor of the atypical protein kinase C isoform PKM[zeta], abolishes very long-term conditioned taste aversion (CTA) associations in the insular cortex of the behaving rat, at least 3 mo after encoding. The effect of ZIP is not replicated by a general serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor that is…

  1. Broadway teatrites näeb Denzel Washingtoni ja Catherine Zeta-Jonesi / Andres Laasik

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016


    New Yorgis välja antud Tony teatriauhinna pälvisid filminäitlejad Denzel Washington, Catherine Zeta-Jones ja Scarlett Johansson. Parim lavale naasnud näidend - "Piirdeaed", parim uus näidend - draama "Punane", mis räägib läti päritolu maalikunstnikust Mark Rothkost. Parim muusikal - "Memphis"

  2. Certain Subclasses of Analytic and Bi-Univalent Functions Involving Double Zeta Functions

    Saibah Siregar


    Full Text Available In the present paper, we introduce two new subclasses of the functions class Σ of bi-univalent functions involving double zeta functions in the open unit disc U={z:zEC, |z|<1}. The estimates on the coefficients |a2| and |a3| for functions in these new subclasses of the function class Σ are obtained in our investigation.

  3. Fractals of the Julia and Mandelbrot sets of the Riemann $zeta$ Function

    Woon, S C


    Computations of the Julia and Mandelbrot sets of the Riemann zeta function and observations of their properties are made. In the appendix section, a corollary of Voronin's theorem is derived and a scale-invariant equation for the bounds in Goldbach conjecture is conjectured.

  4. "Armastuse retsepti" tippkokk Zeta Jones ei oska muna keeta / Triin Tael

    Tael, Triin


    Scott Hicksi romantiline komöödiafilm "Armastuse retsept" ("No Reservations"), mille peaosas Walesist pärit näitlejanna Catherine Zeta Jones. Näitlejanna muljeid oma rolliks ettevalmistustest, mille hulka käis ka praktika pärisrestoranis

  5. Scientific and methodical approaches to analysis of enterprise development potential

    Hrechina Iryna V.


    Full Text Available The modern state of the Ukrainian economy urge enterprises to search for new possibilities of their development, which makes the study subject topical. The article systemises existing approaches to analysis of the potential of enterprise development and marks out two main scientific approaches: first is directed at analysis of prospects of self-development of the economic system; the second – at analysis of probability of possibilities of growth. In order to increase the quality of the process of formation of methods of analysis of potential of enterprise development, the article offers an organisation model of methods and characterises its main elements. It develops methods of analysis, in the basis of which there are indicators of potentialogical sustainability. Scientific novelty of the obtained results lies in a possibility of identification of main directions of enterprise development with the use of the enterprise development potential ration: self-development or probability of augmenting opportunities, which is traced through interconnection of resources and profit.

  6. Quasiclassical analysis of spectra in two groups of central potentials

    Shpatakovskaya, G V


    The method for the spectra analysis in the gravitational central potentials with the Coulomb feature in the zero (interatomic potentials) and the finite ones in the zero (potentials in the spheric clusters nuclei) is proposed. It is shown that by the degeneration removal by the orbital quantum number for the n-shell by small l the difference epsilon sub n sub l - epsilon sub n sub 0 approx = a subepsilon sub sub n sub sub 0 (l + 1/2) sup 2. The correctness of the presented formula for the internal electrons is demonstrated by the mercury atoms spectrum calculations. The reverse dependence takes place, as a rule, in the cluster potentials. The dependence of the area position with the degenerated level on the N cluster size is analyzed by the example of the Al sub N aluminium clusters. It is known that the increase in the N leads to the pressing-out of this area upwards

  7. An Earth-grazing fireball from the Daytime $\\zeta$-Perseid shower observed over Spain on 10 June 2012

    Madiedo, José M; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J; Pastor, Sensi; Reyes, José A de los


    On 10 June 2012, an Earth-grazer meteor which lasted over 17 s with an absolute magnitude of -4.0 $\\pm$ 0.5 was observed over Spain. This work focuses on the analysis of this rare event which is, to our knowledge, the faintest Earth-grazing meteor reported in the scientific literature, but also the first one belonging to a meteor shower. Thus, the orbital parameters show that the parent meteoroid belonged to the Daytime $\\zeta$-Perseid meteoroid stream. According to our calculations, the meteor was produced by a meteoroid with an initial mass ranging between 115 and 1.5 kg. During its encounter with Earth, the particle travelled about 510 km in the atmosphere. Around 260 g were destroyed in the atmosphere during the luminous phase of the event as a consequence of the ablation process. The modified orbit of the remaining material, which left our planet with a fusion crust, is also calculated.

  8. An exact trace formula and zeta functions for an infinite quantum graph with a non-standard Weyl asymptotics

    Endres, Sebastian Egger né; Steiner, Frank


    We study a quantum Hamiltonian that is given by the (negative) Laplacian and an infinite chain of δ-like potentials with strength κ > 0 on the half line { R}_{\\ge 0} and which is equivalent to a one-parameter family of Laplacians on an infinite metric graph. This graph consists of an infinite chain of edges with the metric structure defined by assigning an interval In = [0, ln], n\\in { N}, to each edge with length l_n=\\frac{\\pi }{n}. We show that the one-parameter family of quantum graphs possesses a purely discrete and strictly positive spectrum for each κ > 0 and prove that the Dirichlet Laplacian is the limit of the one-parameter family in the strong resolvent sense. The spectrum of the resulting Dirichlet quantum graph is also purely discrete. The eigenvalues are given by λn = n2, n\\in { N}, with multiplicities d(n), where d(n) denotes the divisor function. We can thus relate the spectral problem of this infinite quantum graph to Dirichlet's famous divisor problem and infer the non-standard Weyl asymptotics {N}(\\lambda )=\\frac{\\sqrt{\\lambda }}{2}\\ln \\lambda +\\mathord {{O}}(\\sqrt{\\lambda }) for the eigenvalue counting function. Based on an exact trace formula, the Voronoï summation formula, we derive explicit formulae for the trace of the wave group, the heat kernel, the resolvent and for various spectral zeta functions. These results enable us to establish a well-defined (renormalized) secular equation and a Selberg-like zeta function defined in terms of the classical periodic orbits of the graph for which we derive an exact functional equation and prove that the analogue of the Riemann hypothesis is true.

  9. GIS Based Analysis of future district heating potential in Denmark

    Nielsen, Steffen; Möller, Bernd


    The physical placement of buildings is important when determining the future potential for district heating (DH). Good locations for DH are mainly determined by having a large heat demand within a certain area combined with an access to local resources. In Denmark, the placement of buildings...... and their heat demand has in recent years been assessed in a heat atlas including all buildings in Denmark. The focus in this article is to further develop a method for assessing the costs associated with supplying these buildings with DH. The analysis takes departure in the existing DH areas in Denmark....... By finding the heat production cost within these areas, and adding transmission and distribution costs, the economic feasibility of supplying areas with DH is found. The result of the analysis is that the DH potential differs from area to area. In many areas it is economically feasible to expand DH, while...


    Naze, Yaeel; Gosset, Eric [GAPHE, Departement AGO, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout 17, Bat. B5C, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Oskinova, Lidia M., E-mail: [Institute for Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)


    Stellar winds are a crucial component of massive stars, but their exact properties still remain uncertain. To shed some light on this subject, we have analyzed an exceptional set of X-ray observations of {zeta} Puppis, one of the closest and brightest massive stars. The sensitive light curves that were derived reveal two major results. On the one hand, a slow modulation of the X-ray flux (with a relative amplitude of up to 15% over 16 hr in the 0.3-4.0 keV band) is detected. Its characteristic timescale cannot be determined with precision, but amounts from one to several days. It could be related to corotating interaction regions, known to exist in {zeta} Puppis from UV observations. Hour-long changes, linked to flares or to the pulsation activity, are not observed in the last decade covered by the XMM observations; the 17 hr tentative period, previously reported in a ROSAT analysis, is not confirmed either and is thus transient, at best. On the other hand, short-term changes are surprisingly small (<1% relative amplitude for the total energy band). In fact, they are compatible solely with the presence of Poisson noise in the data. This surprisingly low level of short-term variability, in view of the embedded wind-shock origin, requires a very high fragmentation of the stellar wind, for both absorbing and emitting features (>10{sup 5} parcels, comparing with a two-dimensional wind model). This is the first time that constraints have been placed on the number of clumps in an O-type star wind and from X-ray observations.

  11. The 4.36-th moment of the Riemann zeta function

    Radziwill, Maksym


    Conditionally on the Riemann Hypothesis we obtain bounds of the correct order of magnitude for the 2k-th moment of the Riemann zeta function for all positive real k 2; the case of k = 2 corresponds to a classical result of Ingham. We prove our result by establishing a connection between moments with k > 2 and the so-called "twisted fourth moment". This allows us to appeal to a recent result of Hughes and Young. Furthermore we obtain a point-wise bound for |zeta(1/2 + it)|^{2r} (with 0 < r < 1) that can be regarded as a multiplicative analogue of Selberg's bound for S(T). We also establish asymptotic formulae for moments (k < 2.181) slightly off the half-line.

  12. Non-Commutative Integration, Zeta Functions and the Haar State for SU{sub q}(2)

    Matassa, Marco, E-mail: [SISSA (Italy)


    We study a notion of non-commutative integration, in the spirit of modular spectral triples, for the quantum group SU{sub q}(2). In particular we define the non-commutative integral as the residue at the spectral dimension of a zeta function, which is constructed using a Dirac operator and a weight. We consider the Dirac operator introduced by Kaad and Senior and a family of weights depending on two parameters, which are related to the diagonal automorphisms of SU{sub q}(2). We show that, after fixing one of the parameters, the non-commutative integral coincides with the Haar state of SU{sub q}(2). Moreover we can impose an additional condition on the zeta function, which also fixes the second parameter. For this unique choice the spectral dimension coincides with the classical dimension.

  13. Non-Commutative Integration, Zeta Functions and the Haar State for SU q (2)

    Matassa, Marco


    We study a notion of non-commutative integration, in the spirit of modular spectral triples, for the quantum group SU q (2). In particular we define the non-commutative integral as the residue at the spectral dimension of a zeta function, which is constructed using a Dirac operator and a weight. We consider the Dirac operator introduced by Kaad and Senior and a family of weights depending on two parameters, which are related to the diagonal automorphisms of SU q (2). We show that, after fixing one of the parameters, the non-commutative integral coincides with the Haar state of SU q (2). Moreover we can impose an additional condition on the zeta function, which also fixes the second parameter. For this unique choice the spectral dimension coincides with the classical dimension.

  14. On the higher derivatives of Z(t) associated with the Riemann Zeta-Function

    Matsuoka, Kaneaki


    Let $Z(t)$ be the classical Hardy function in the theory of the Riemann zeta-function. The main result in this paper is that if the Riemann hypothesis is true then for any positive integer $n$ there exists a $t_{n}>0$ such that for $t>t_{n}$ the function $Z^{(n+1)}(t)$ has exactly one zero between consecutive zeros of $Z^{(n)}(t)$.

  15. Trace of heat kernel,spectral zeta function and isospectral problem for sub-laplacians

    CHANG; Der-Chen; YEUNG; Sai-Kee


    In this article,we first study the trace for the heat kernel for the sub-Laplacian operator on the unit sphere in C n+1.Then we survey some results on the spectral zeta function which is induced by the trace of the heat kernel.In the second part of the paper,we discuss an isospectral problem in the CR setting.

  16. The Stability of Electron Orbital Shells based on a Model of the Riemann-Zeta Function

    Harney M.


    Full Text Available It is shown that the atomic number Z is prime at the beginning of the each s1, p1, d1, and f1 energy levels of electrons, with some fluctuation in the actinide and lanthanide series. The periodic prime number boundary of s1, p1, d1, and f1 is postulated to occur because of stability of Schrodinger’s wave equation due to a fundamental relationship with the Riemann-Zeta function.

  17. New Relations Involving an Extended Multiparameter Hurwitz-Lerch Zeta Function with Applications

    H. M. Srivastava


    Full Text Available We derive several new expansion formulas involving an extended multiparameter Hurwitz-Lerch zeta function introduced and studied recently by Srivastava et al. (2011. These expansions are obtained by using some fractional calculus methods such as the generalized Leibniz rules, the Taylor-like expansions in terms of different functions, and the generalized chain rule. Several (known or new special cases are also given.

  18. Variations of the Ramanujan polynomials and remarks on $\\zeta(2j+1)/\\pi^{2j+1}$

    Lalin, Matilde


    We observe that five polynomial families have all of their zeros on the unit circle. We prove the statements explicitly for four of the polynomial families. The polynomials have coefficients which involve Bernoulli numbers, Euler numbers, and the odd values of the Riemann zeta function. These polynomials are closely related to the Ramanujan polynomials, which were recently introduced by Murty, Smyth and Wang. Our proofs rely upon theorems of Schinzel, and Lakatos and Losonczi and some generalizations.

  19. Computational estimation of the constant beta (1) characterizing the order of zeta (1+it)

    Kotnik, Tadej


    The paper describes a computational estimation of the constant beta (1) characterizing the bounds of left\\vert zeta (1+it)right\\vert . It is known that as trightarrow infty frac{zeta (2)}{2beta (1)e^{gamma }left[ 1+o(1)right] log \\... ... (1+it)right\\vert leq 2beta (1)e^{gamma }left[ 1+o(1) right] log log t with beta (1)geq frac{1}{2} , while the truth of the Riemann hypothesis would also imply that beta (1)leq 1 . In the range 1zeta (1+it)right\\vert . As t increases, the estimates in the first set rapidly fall below 1 and gradually reach values slightly below 0.70 , while the estimates in the second set rapidly exceed frac{1}{2} and gradually reach values slightly above 0.64 . The obtained numerical results are discussed and compared to the implications of recent theoretical work of Granville and Soundararajan.

  20. A perturbative approach to the spectral zeta functions of strings, drums, and quantum billiards

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, CUICBAS, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico)


    We show that the spectral zeta functions of inhomogeneous strings and drums can be calculated using Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory. The inhomogeneities that can be treated with this method are small but otherwise arbitrary and include the previously studied case of a piecewise constant density. In two dimensions the method can be used to derive the spectral zeta function of a domain obtained from the small deformation of a square. We also obtain exact sum rules that are valid for arbitrary densities and that correspond to the values taken by the spectral zeta function at integer positive values; we have tested numerically these sum rules in specific examples. We show that the Dirichlet or Neumann Casimir energies of an inhomogeneous string, evaluated to first order in perturbation theory, contain in some cases an irremovable divergence, but that the combination of the two is always free of divergences. Finally, our calculation of the Casimir energies of a string with piecewise constant density and of two perfectly conducting concentric cylinders, of similar radius, reproduce the results previously published.

  1. Fractal zeta functions and fractal drums higher-dimensional theory of complex dimensions

    Lapidus, Michel L; Žubrinić, Darko


    This monograph gives a state-of-the-art and accessible treatment of a new general higher-dimensional theory of complex dimensions, valid for arbitrary bounded subsets of Euclidean spaces, as well as for their natural generalization, relative fractal drums. It provides a significant extension of the existing theory of zeta functions for fractal strings to fractal sets and arbitrary bounded sets in Euclidean spaces of any dimension. Two new classes of fractal zeta functions are introduced, namely, the distance and tube zeta functions of bounded sets, and their key properties are investigated. The theory is developed step-by-step at a slow pace, and every step is well motivated by numerous examples, historical remarks and comments, relating the objects under investigation to other concepts. Special emphasis is placed on the study of complex dimensions of bounded sets and their connections with the notions of Minkowski content and Minkowski measurability, as well as on fractal tube formulas. It is shown for the f...

  2. Relation between primes and nontrivial zeros in the Riemann hypothesis; Legendre polynomials, modified zeta function and Schrödinger equation

    Choi, Seongsoo; Chung, J. W.; Kim, Kwang S.


    We study the dependence between prime numbers and the real and imaginary parts of the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function. The Legendre polynomials and the partial derivatives of the Riemann zeta function are used to investigate the above dependence along with the Riemann hypothesis with physical interpretations. A modified zeta function with finite terms is defined as a new implement for the study of the zeta function and its zeros.

  3. Higher order statistical moment application for solar PV potential analysis

    Basri, Mohd Juhari Mat; Abdullah, Samizee; Azrulhisham, Engku Ahmad; Harun, Khairulezuan


    Solar photovoltaic energy could be as alternative energy to fossil fuel, which is depleting and posing a global warming problem. However, this renewable energy is so variable and intermittent to be relied on. Therefore the knowledge of energy potential is very important for any site to build this solar photovoltaic power generation system. Here, the application of higher order statistical moment model is being analyzed using data collected from 5MW grid-connected photovoltaic system. Due to the dynamic changes of skewness and kurtosis of AC power and solar irradiance distributions of the solar farm, Pearson system where the probability distribution is calculated by matching their theoretical moments with that of the empirical moments of a distribution could be suitable for this purpose. On the advantage of the Pearson system in MATLAB, a software programming has been developed to help in data processing for distribution fitting and potential analysis for future projection of amount of AC power and solar irradiance availability.

  4. Statistical Error analysis of Nucleon-Nucleon phenomenological potentials

    Perez, R Navarro; Arriola, E Ruiz


    Nucleon-Nucleon potentials are commonplace in nuclear physics and are determined from a finite number of experimental data with limited precision sampling the scattering process. We study the statistical assumptions implicit in the standard least squares fitting procedure and apply, along with more conventional tests, a tail sensitive quantile-quantile test as a simple and confident tool to verify the normality of residuals. We show that the fulfilment of normality tests is linked to a judicious and consistent selection of a nucleon-nucleon database. These considerations prove crucial to a proper statistical error analysis and uncertainty propagation. We illustrate these issues by analyzing about 8000 proton-proton and neutron-proton scattering published data. This enables the construction of potentials meeting all statistical requirements necessary for statistical uncertainty estimates in nuclear structure calculations.

  5. Analysis of potential highway routes to Yucca Mountain

    Sathisan, S.K.; Parentela, E.M.; Lee, M.S. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    States have been provided the authority to designate routes for the transport of highway route controlled quantity shipments of radioactive materials. The state of Nevada is currently evaluating alternative routes for such designation. This paper provides a preliminary assessment of potential system impacts of Nevada`s highway route designation for the shipment of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLRW) to the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A potential route being evaluated by Nevada was used to specify routing constraints for highway shipments to Yucca Mountain. Individual routes were determined for shipments from each origin using the HIGHWAY model for unconstrained and constrained routing scenarios. Results of the analysis indicate that the imposition of the routing constraint would result in increased travel times and shipment distances. These increases range from about 1.25 percent to about 80 percent. However, the magnitude of such increases is highly dependent on the geographic location of the origin.

  6. Integral and Series Representations of Riemann's Zeta Function and Dirichlet's Eta Function and a Medley of Related Results

    Michael S. Milgram


    Full Text Available Contour integral representations of Riemann's Zeta function and Dirichlet's Eta (alternating Zeta function are presented and investigated. These representations flow naturally from methods developed in the 1800s, but somehow they do not appear in the standard reference summaries, textbooks, or literature. Using these representations as a basis, alternate derivations of known series and integral representations for the Zeta and Eta function are obtained on a unified basis that differs from the textbook approach, and results are developed that appear to be new.

  7. The potential of electroanalytical techniques in pharmaceutical analysis.

    Kauffmann, J M; Pékli-Novák, M; Nagy, A


    With the considerable progresses observed in analytical instrumentation, it was of interest to survey recent trends in the field of electroanalysis of drugs. Potentiometric, voltammetric and amperometric techniques were scrutinized both in terms of historical evolution and in terms of potentialities with respect to the analysis of drugs in various matrices. With regard to the former, it appeared that numerous original selective electrodes (for drugs and ions) have been studied and several ion-selective electrodes have been successfully commercialized. Improvements are still expected in this field in order to find more robust membrane matrices and to minimize the surface fouling. Electrochemistry is well suited for trace metal analysis. A renewed interest in potentiometric stripping analysis is observed and is stimulated by the power of computers and microprocessors which allow rapid signal recording and data handling. Polarography and its refinements (Pulsed Waveform, Automation,...) is ideally applied for trace metal analysis and speciation. The technique is still useful in the analysis of drug formulations and in biological samples provided that the method is adequately validated (selectivity!). The same holds for solid electrodes which are currently routinely applied as sensitive detectors after chromatographic separation. New instrumentation is soon expected as regard electrochemical detection in capillary electrophoresis. Actually, in order to increase the responses and improve the selectivity, solid electrodes are facing exponential research dedicated to surface modifications. Perm-selectivity, chelations catalysis, etc. may be considered as appropriate strategies. Microelectrodes and screen printed (disposable) sensors are of considerable interest in cell culture e.g. for single cell excretion analysis and in field (decentralized) assays, respectively. Finally several biosensors and electrochemical immunoassays have been successfully development for the

  8. GIS based analysis of future district heating potential in Denmark

    Nielsen, Steffen; Möller, Bernd


    The physical placement of buildings is important when determining the potential for DH (district heating). Good locations for DH are mainly determined by having both a large heat demand within a certain area and having access to local heat resources. In recent years, the locations of buildings...... in Denmark have been mapped in a heat atlas which includes all buildings and their heat demands. This article focuses on developing a method for assessing the costs associated with supplying these buildings with DH. The analysis is based on the existing DH areas in Denmark. By finding the heat production...

  9. Protecting Privacy of Shared Epidemiologic Data without Compromising Analysis Potential

    John Cologne


    Full Text Available Objective. Ensuring privacy of research subjects when epidemiologic data are shared with outside collaborators involves masking (modifying the data, but overmasking can compromise utility (analysis potential. Methods of statistical disclosure control for protecting privacy may be impractical for individual researchers involved in small-scale collaborations. Methods. We investigated a simple approach based on measures of disclosure risk and analytical utility that are straightforward for epidemiologic researchers to derive. The method is illustrated using data from the Japanese Atomic-bomb Survivor population. Results. Masking by modest rounding did not adequately enhance security but rounding to remove several digits of relative accuracy effectively reduced the risk of identification without substantially reducing utility. Grouping or adding random noise led to noticeable bias. Conclusions. When sharing epidemiologic data, it is recommended that masking be performed using rounding. Specific treatment should be determined separately in individual situations after consideration of the disclosure risks and analysis needs.

  10. Quantum mechanical potentials related to the prime numbers and Riemann zeros.

    Schumayer, Dániel; van Zyl, Brandon P; Hutchinson, David A W


    Prime numbers are the building blocks of our arithmetic; however, their distribution still poses fundamental questions. Riemann showed that the distribution of primes could be given explicitly if one knew the distribution of the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta(s) function. According to the Hilbert-Pólya conjecture, there exists a Hermitian operator of which the eigenvalues coincide with the real parts of the nontrivial zeros of zeta(s) . This idea has encouraged physicists to examine the properties of such possible operators, and they have found interesting connections between the distribution of zeros and the distribution of energy eigenvalues of quantum systems. We apply the Marchenko approach to construct potentials with energy eigenvalues equal to the prime numbers and to the zeros of the zeta(s) function. We demonstrate the multifractal nature of these potentials by measuring the Rényi dimension of their graphs. Our results offer hope for further analytical progress.

  11. Potential Vaccine Targets against Rabbit Coccidiosis by Immunoproteomic Analysis.

    Song, Hongyan; Dong, Ronglian; Qiu, Baofeng; Jing, Jin; Zhu, Shunxing; Liu, Chun; Jiang, Yingmei; Wu, Liucheng; Wang, Shengcun; Miao, Jin; Shao, Yixiang


    The aim of this study was to identify antigens for a vaccine or drug target to control rabbit coccidiosis. A combination of 2-dimensional electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and mass spectrometric analysis were used to identify novel antigens from the sporozoites of Eimeria stiedae. Protein spots were recognized by the sera of New Zealand rabbits infected artificially with E. stiedae. The proteins were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) analysis in combination with bioinformatics. Approximately 868 protein spots were detected by silver-staining, and a total of 41 immunoreactive protein spots were recognized by anti-E. stiedae sera. Finally, 23 protein spots were successfully identified. The proteins such as heat shock protein 70 and aspartyl protease may have potential as immunodiagnostic or vaccine antigens. The immunoreactive proteins were found to possess a wide range of biological functions. This study is the first to report the proteins recognized by sera of infected rabbits with E. stiedae, which might be helpful in identifying potential targets for vaccine development to control rabbit coccidiosis.

  12. Analysis of registered CDM projects: potential removal of evidenced bottlenecks

    Agosto, D.; Bombard, P.; Gostinelli, F.


    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has developed during its first period of implementation, a distinctive set of patterns. The authors thought of concentrating on the CDM analysis in order to highlight potential remedies or reasons for given bottlenecks. In order to establish a sort of extensive SWOT analysis for CDMs, all the 356 projects actually (November 2006) registered at UNFCCC were examined, together with all the about 1000 PDDs presented to the UNFCCC but not registered yet. The CDM projects have been studied trying to cluster projects according to relevant characteristics, both from a technical and an economic point of view. Chosen indicators are meant to identify: more convenient/more diffused energy system for a CDM; reasons for a geographical distribution of different types of projects; potentials for a future exploitation of lower used technologies in CDM. Conclusions are drawn and appropriate tables and graphs presented. (1) the Baseline Emission Factor, combined to economic patterns, is the pivotal factor that characterizes both choices of host country and technology; (2) some technologies can exploit appropriately CDM scheme, whilst other technologies, are constrained by it. (3) there are still some important weak points: grouping of non Annex I countries; crediting period; criteria for the evaluation of sustainable development. (auth)

  13. Analysis of some potential social effects of four coal technologies

    Walker, C.A.; Gould, L.C.


    This is an analysis of the potential social impacts of four coal technologies: conventional combustion, fluidized-bed combustion, liquifaction, and gasification. Because of their flexibility, and the abundance and relatively low costs of coal, the potential benefits of these technologies would seem to outweigh their potential social costs, both in the intermediate and long term. Nevertheless, the social costs of a coal industry are far more obscure and hard to quantify than the benefits. In general, however, it maybe expected that those technologies that can be deployed most quickly, that provide fuels that can substitute most easily for oil and natural gas, that are the cheapest, and that are the most thermally efficient will minimize social costs most in the intermediate term, while technologies that can guide energy infrastructure changes to become the most compatable with the fuels that will be most easily derived from inexhaustible sources (electricity and hydrogen) will minimize social costs most in the long run. An industry structured to favor eastern over western coal and plant sites in moderate sized communities, which could easily adapt to inexhaustible energy technologies (nuclear or solar) in the future, would be favored in either time period.

  14. Wind energy potential analysis in Al-Fattaih-Darnah

    Tjahjana, Dominicus Danardono Dwi Prija, E-mail:; Salem, Abdelkarim Ali, E-mail:; Himawanto, Dwi Aries, E-mail: [University of Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A, Surakarta, Indonesia 57126 (Indonesia)


    In this paper the wind energy potential in Al-Fattaih-Darnah, Libya, had been studied. Wind energy is very attractive because it can provide a clean and renewable energy. Due mostly to the uncertainty caused by the chaotic characteristics of wind near the earth’s surface, wind energy characteristic need to be investigated carefully in order to get consistent power generation. This investigation was based on one year wind data measured in 2003. As a result of the analysis, wind speed profile and wind energy potential have been developed. The wind energy potential of the location is looked very promising to generate electricity. The annual wind speed of the site is 8.21 m/s and the wind speed carrying maximum energy is 7.97 m/s. The annual power density of the site is classified into class 3. The Polaris P50-500 wind turbine can produce 768.39 M Wh/year and has capacity factor of 17.54%.

  15. CD3zeta down-modulation may explain Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocyte anergy in HIV-infected patients.

    Sacchi, Alessandra; Tempestilli, Massimo; Turchi, Federica; Agrati, Chiara; Casetti, Rita; Cimini, Eleonora; Gioia, Cristiana; Martini, Federico


    The aim of the present study was to explain the observed anergy of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. CD3zeta expression and interferon (IFN)-gamma production by Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells from HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects were analyzed. We demonstrated that Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells from HIV-infected patients expressed a lower level of CD3zeta than did Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells from healthy donors. A direct correlation was found between CD3zeta expression and IFN-gamma production capability by Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells. However, activation of protein kinase C by phorbol myristate acetate is able to restore CD3zeta expression and IFN-gamma production. Our findings may contribute to clarification of the molecular mechanisms of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cell anergy found in HIV-positive patients.

  16. On the distribution of extreme values of zeta and $L$-functions in the strip $1/2<\\sigma<1$

    Lamzouri, Youness


    We study the distribution of large (and small) values of several families of $L$-functions on a line $\\text{Re(s)}=\\sigma$ where $1/2<\\sigma<1$. We consider the Riemann zeta function $\\zeta(s)$ in the $t$-aspect, Dirichlet $L$-functions in the $q$-aspect, and $L$-functions attached to primitive holomorphic cusp forms of weight $2$ in the level aspect. For each family we show that the $L$-values can be very well modeled by an adequate random Euler product, uniformly in a wide range. We also prove new $\\Omega$-results for quadratic Dirichlet $L$-functions (predicted to be best possible by the probabilistic model) conditionally on GRH, and other results related to large moments of $\\zeta(\\sigma+it)$.

  17. The Potential for Meta-Analysis to Support Decision Analysis in Ecology

    Mengersen, Kerrie; MacNeil, M. Aaron; Caley, M. Julian


    Meta-analysis and decision analysis are underpinned by well-developed methods that are commonly applied to a variety of problems and disciplines. While these two fields have been closely linked in some disciplines such as medicine, comparatively little attention has been paid to the potential benefits of linking them in ecology, despite reasonable…

  18. The Potential for Meta-Analysis to Support Decision Analysis in Ecology

    Mengersen, Kerrie; MacNeil, M. Aaron; Caley, M. Julian


    Meta-analysis and decision analysis are underpinned by well-developed methods that are commonly applied to a variety of problems and disciplines. While these two fields have been closely linked in some disciplines such as medicine, comparatively little attention has been paid to the potential benefits of linking them in ecology, despite reasonable…

  19. On an analytic estimate in the theory of the Riemann zeta function and a theorem of Báez-Duarte.

    Burnol, Jean-François


    On the Riemann hypothesis we establish a uniform upper estimate for zeta(s)/zeta (s + A), 0 Riemann Hypothesis. We investigate function-theoretically some of the functions defined by Báez-Duarte in his study and we show that their square-integrability is, in itself, an equivalent formulation of the Riemann Hypothesis. We conclude with a third equivalent formulation which resembles a "causality" statement.




    Full Text Available In this paper we will present a SWOT analysis on the potential of rural tourism in the region Crisana. Crisana region is a historical region delimited at north by the river Somes and Maramures region, at west by the river Tisa, at south by the Mures river and Banat region, and at east by the peaks of the Apuseni Mountains and Transylvania region. Crisana Region stretches on both Romania and Hungary, and we will refer only to the Romanian side of it. Crisana region has an area of 17,717 km2 and if we refer to the current counties, this region includes much of Arad county, without the area between the river Mures and Timis county, north of Hunedoara county Bihor county and part of western Salaj county

  1. Multi-Channel Noise Reduced Visual Evoked Potential Analysis

    Palaniappan, Ramaswamy; Raveendran, Paramesran; Nishida, Shogo

    In this paper, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used to reduce noise from multi-channel Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) signals. PCA is applied to reduce noise from multi-channel VEP signals because VEP signals are more correlated from one channel to another as compared to noise during visual perception. Emulated VEP signals contaminated with noise are used to show the noise reduction ability of PCA. These noise reduced VEP signals are analysed in the gamma spectral band to classify alcoholics and non-alcoholics with a Fuzzy ARTMAP (FA) neural network. A zero phase Butterworth digital filter is used to extract gamma band power in spectral range of 30 to 50 Hz from these noise reduced VEP signals. The results using 800 VEP signals give an average FA classification of 92.50 % with the application of PCA and 83.33 % without the application of PCA.

  2. Flood Risk Analysis and Flood Potential Losses Assessment


    The heavy floods in the Taihu Basin showed increasing trend in recent years. In thiswork, a typical area in the northern Taihu Basin was selected for flood risk analysis and potentialflood losses assessment. Human activities have strong impact on the study area' s flood situation (asaffected by the polders built, deforestation, population increase, urbanization, etc. ), and havemade water level higher, flood duration shorter, and flood peaks sharper. Five years of differentflood return periods [(1970), 5 (1962), 10 (1987), 20 (1954), 50 (1991)] were used to cal-culate the potential flood risk area and its losses. The potential flood risk map, economic losses,and flood-impacted population were also calculated. The study's main conclusions are: 1 ) Humanactivities have strongly changed the natural flood situation in the study area, increasing runoff andflooding; 2) The flood risk area is closely related with the precipitation center; 3) Polder construc-tion has successfully protected land from flood, shortened the flood duration, and elevated waterlevel in rivers outside the polders; 4) Economic and social development have caused flood losses toincrease in recent years.

  3. Analysis of classifiers performance for classification of potential microcalcification

    M. N., Arun K.; Sheshadri, H. S.


    Breast cancer is a significant public health problem in the world. According to the literature early detection improve breast cancer prognosis. Mammography is a screening tool used for early detection of breast cancer. About 10-30% cases are missed during the routine check as it is difficult for the radiologists to make accurate analysis due to large amount of data. The Microcalcifications (MCs) are considered to be important signs of breast cancer. It has been reported in literature that 30% - 50% of breast cancer detected radio graphically show MCs on mammograms. Histologic examinations report 62% to 79% of breast carcinomas reveals MCs. MC are tiny, vary in size, shape, and distribution, and MC may be closely connected to surrounding tissues. There is a major challenge using the traditional classifiers in the classification of individual potential MCs as the processing of mammograms in appropriate stage generates data sets with an unequal amount of information for both classes (i.e., MC, and Not-MC). Most of the existing state-of-the-art classification approaches are well developed by assuming the underlying training set is evenly distributed. However, they are faced with a severe bias problem when the training set is highly imbalanced in distribution. This paper addresses this issue by using classifiers which handle the imbalanced data sets. In this paper, we also compare the performance of classifiers which are used in the classification of potential MC.

  4. The Composition of Interstellar Grains Toward Zeta Ophiuchi: Constraining the Elemental Budget Near the Diffuse-Dense Cloud Transition

    Poteet, Charles A; Draine, Bruce T


    We investigate the composition of interstellar grains along the line of sight toward Zeta Ophiuchi, a well-studied environment near the diffuse-dense cloud transition. A spectral decomposition analysis of the solid-state absorbers is performed using archival spectroscopic observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope and Infrared Space Observatory. We find strong evidence for the presence of sub-micron-sized amorphous silicate grains, principally comprised of olivine-like composition, with no convincing evidence of H2O ice mantles. However, tentative evidence for thick H2O ice mantles on large (a ~ 2.8 microns) grains is presented. Solid-state abundances of elemental Mg, Si, Fe, and O are inferred from our analysis and compared to standard reference abundances. We find that nearly all of elemental Mg and Si along the line of sight are present in amorphous silicate grains, while a substantial fraction of elemental Fe resides in compounds other than silicates. Moreover, we find that the total abundance of eleme...

  5. Quantum Graphs Whose Spectra Mimic the Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function

    Kuipers, Jack; Hummel, Quirin; Richter, Klaus


    One of the most famous problems in mathematics is the Riemann hypothesis: that the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function lie on a line in the complex plane. One way to prove the hypothesis would be to identify the zeros as eigenvalues of a Hermitian operator, many of whose properties can be derived through the analogy to quantum chaos. Using this, we construct a set of quantum graphs that have the same oscillating part of the density of states as the Riemann zeros, offering an explanation of the overall minus sign. The smooth part is completely different, and hence also the spectrum, but the graphs pick out the low-lying zeros.

  6. Horizontal Monotonicity of the Modulus of the Riemann Zeta Function and Related Functions

    Matiyasevich, Yuri; Zvengrowski, Peter


    It is shown that the absolute values of Riemann's zeta function and two related functions strictly decrease when the imaginary part of the argument is fixed to any number with absolute value at least 8 and the real part of the argument is negative and increases up to 0; extending this monotonicity to the increase of the real part up to 1/2 is shown to be equivalent to the Riemann Hypothesis. Another result is a double inequality relating the real parts of the logarithmic derivatives of the three functions under consideration.

  7. Relations between elliptic multiple zeta values and a special derivation algebra

    Broedel, Johannes; Matthes, Nils; Schlotterer, Oliver


    We investigate relations between elliptic multiple zeta values (eMZVs) and describe a method to derive the number of indecomposable elements of given weight and length. Our method is based on representing eMZVs as iterated integrals over Eisenstein series and exploiting the connection with a special derivation algebra. Its commutator relations give rise to constraints on the iterated integrals over Eisenstein series relevant for eMZVs and thereby allow to count the indecomposable representatives. Conversely, the above connection suggests apparently new relations in the derivation algebra. Under we provide relations for eMZVs over a wide range of weights and lengths.

  8. Quantum scalar fields in the half-line. A heat kernel/zeta function approach

    Mateos Guilarte, Juan; Muñoz-Castañeda, Jose María; Senosiaín Aramendía, María Jesús


    [EN]In this paper we shall study vacuum fluctuations of a single scalar field with Dirichlet boundary conditions in a finite but very long line. The spectral heat kernel, the heat partition function and the spectral zeta function are calculated in terms of Riemann Theta functions, the error function, and hypergeometric PFQ functions. [ES]En este artículo vamos a estudiar las fluctuaciones en el vacío de un campo escalar con las condiciones de contorno de Dirichlet en una línea finita pero muy...

  9. Applications of Wirtinger Inequalities on the Distribution of Zeros of the Riemann Zeta-Function

    Saker SamirH


    Full Text Available On the hypothesis that the th moments of the Hardy -function are correctly predicted by random matrix theory and the moments of the derivative of are correctly predicted by the derivative of the characteristic polynomials of unitary matrices, we establish new large spaces between the zeros of the Riemann zeta-function by employing some Wirtinger-type inequalities. In particular, it is obtained that which means that consecutive nontrivial zeros often differ by at least 6.1392 times the average spacing.

  10. Quantum graphs whose spectra mimic the zeros of the Riemann zeta function.

    Kuipers, Jack; Hummel, Quirin; Richter, Klaus


    One of the most famous problems in mathematics is the Riemann hypothesis: that the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function lie on a line in the complex plane. One way to prove the hypothesis would be to identify the zeros as eigenvalues of a Hermitian operator, many of whose properties can be derived through the analogy to quantum chaos. Using this, we construct a set of quantum graphs that have the same oscillating part of the density of states as the Riemann zeros, offering an explanation of the overall minus sign. The smooth part is completely different, and hence also the spectrum, but the graphs pick out the low-lying zeros.

  11. Fractional parts and their relations to the values of the Riemann zeta function

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim


    A well-known result, due to Dirichlet and later generalized by de la Vallée–Poussin, expresses a relationship between the sum of fractional parts and the Euler–Mascheroni constant. In this paper, we prove an asymptotic relationship between the summation of the products of fractional parts with powers of integers on the one hand, and the values of the Riemann zeta function, on the other hand. Dirichlet’s classical result falls as a particular case of this more general theorem.

  12. Space-frequency analysis and reduction of potential field ambiguity

    A. Rapolla


    Full Text Available Ambiguity of depth estimation of magnetic sources via spectral analysis can be reduced representing its field via a set of space-frequency atoms. This is obtained throughout a continuous wavelet transform using a Morlet analyzing wavelet. In the phase-plane representation even a weak contribution related to deep-seated sources is clearly distinguished with respect a more intense effect of a shallow source, also in the presence of a strong noise. Furthermore, a new concept of local power spectrum allows the depth to both the sources to be correctly interpreted. Neither result can be provided by standard Fourier analysis. Another method is proposed to reduce ambiguity by inversion of potential field data lying along the vertical axis. This method allows a depth resolution to gravity or the magnetic methods and below some conditions helps to reduce their inherent ambiguity. Unlike the case of monopoles, inversion of a vertical profile of gravity data above a cubic source gives correct results for the cube side and density.

  13. Generating Property-Directed Potential Invariants By Backward Analysis

    Adrien Champion


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of lemma generation in a k-induction-based formal analysis of transition systems, in the linear real/integer arithmetic fragment. A backward analysis, powered by quantifier elimination, is used to output preimages of the negation of the proof objective, viewed as unauthorized states, or gray states. Two heuristics are proposed to take advantage of this source of information. First, a thorough exploration of the possible partitionings of the gray state space discovers new relations between state variables, representing potential invariants. Second, an inexact exploration regroups and over-approximates disjoint areas of the gray state space, also to discover new relations between state variables. k-induction is used to isolate the invariants and check if they strengthen the proof objective. These heuristics can be used on the first preimage of the backward exploration, and each time a new one is output, refining the information on the gray states. In our context of critical avionics embedded systems, we show that our approach is able to outperform other academic or commercial tools on examples of interest in our application field. The method is introduced and motivated through two main examples, one of which was provided by Rockwell Collins, in a collaborative formal verification framework.

  14. Cyclic variability of the circumstellar disk of the Be star zetaTau - I. Long-term monitoring observations

    Stefl, S; Carciofi, A C; LeBouquin, J B; Baade, D; Bjorkman, K S; Hesselbach, E; Hummel, C A; Okazaki, A T; Pollmann, E; Rantakyrö, F; Wisniewski, J P


    Emission lines formed in decretion disks of Be stars often undergo long-term cyclic variations, especially in the violet-to-red (V/R) ratio of their primary components. From observations of the bright Be-shell star zeta Tau, the possibly broadest and longest data set illustrating the prototype of this behaviour was compiled from our own and archival observations. It comprises optical and infrared spectra, broad-band polarimetry, and interferometric observations. From 3 V/R cycles between 1997 and 2008, a mean cycle length in H alpha of 1400-1430 days was derived. After each minimum in V/R, the shell absorption weakens and splits into two components, leading to 3 emission peaks. This phase makes the strongest contribution to the variability in cycle length. V/R curves of different lines are shifted in phase. Lines formed on average closer to the central star are ahead of the others. The shell absorption lines fall into 2 categories differing in line width, ionization/excitation potential, and variability of th...

  15. The Structural Evolution of Milky-Way-Like Star-Forming Galaxies zeta is approximately 1.3

    Patel, Shannon G.; Fumagalli, Mattia; Franx, Marun; VanDokkum, Pieter G.; VanDerWel, Arjen; Leja, Joel; Labbe, Ivo; Brammr, Gabriel; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Momcheva, Ivelina; Lundgren, Britt; Muzzin, Adam; Quadri, Ryan F.; Nelson, Erica June; Wake, David A.; Rix, Hans-Walter


    We follow the structural evolution of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) like the Milky Way by selecting progenitors to zeta is approx. 1.3 based on the stellar mass growth inferred from the evolution of the star-forming sequence. We select our sample from the 3D-HT survey, which utilizes spectroscopy from the HST-WFC3 G141 near-IR grism and enables precise redshift measurements for our sample of SFGs. Structural properties are obtained from Sersic profile fits to CANDELS WFC3 imaging. The progenitors of zeta = 0 SFGs with stellar mass M = 10(exp 10.5) solar mass are typically half as massive at zeta is approx. 1. This late-time stellar mass grow is consistent with recent studies that employ abundance matching techniques. The descendant SFGs at zeta is approx. 0 have grown in half-light radius by a factor of approx. 1.4 zeta is approx. 1. The half-light radius grows with stellar mass as r(sub e) alpha stellar mass(exp 0.29). While most of the stellar mass is clearly assembling at large radii, the mass surface density profiles reveal ongoing mass growth also in the central regions where bulges and pseudobulges are common features in present day late-type galaxies. Some portion of this growth in the central regions is due to star formation as recent observations of H(a) maps for SFGs at zeta approx. are found to be extended but centrally peaked. Connecting our lookback study with galactic archeology, we find the stellar mass surface density at R - 8 kkpc to have increased by a factor of approx. 2 since zeta is approx. 1, in good agreement with measurements derived for the solar neighborhood of the Milky Way.

  16. Hilbert-P\\'olya Conjecture, Zeta-Functions and Bosonic Quantum Field Theories

    Andrade, Julio


    The original Hilbert and P\\'olya conjecture is the assertion that the non-trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function can be the spectrum of a self-adjoint operator. So far no such operator was found. However the suggestion of Hilbert and P\\'olya, in the context of spectral theory, can be extended to approach other problems and so it is natural to ask if there is a quantum mechanical system related to other sequences of numbers which are originated and motivated by Number Theory. In this paper we show that the functional integrals associated with a hypothetical class of physical systems described by self-adjoint operators associated with bosonic fields whose spectra is given by three different sequence of numbers cannot be constructed. The common feature of the sequence of numbers considered here, which causes the impossibility of zeta regularization, is that the various Dirichlet series attached to such sequences - such as those which are sums over "primes" of $(\\mathrm{norm} \\ P)^{-s}$ have a natural boundar...

  17. The Zeta-Function of a p-Adic Manifold, Dwork Theory for Physicists

    Candelas, Philip


    In this article we review the observation, due originally to Dwork, that the zeta-function of an arithmetic variety, defined originally over the field with p elements, is a superdeterminant. We review this observation in the context of a one parameter family of quintic threefolds, and study the zeta-function as a function of the parameter \\phi. Owing to cancellations, the superdeterminant of an infinite matrix reduces to the (ordinary) determinant of a finite matrix, U(\\phi), corresponding to the action of the Frobenius map on certain cohomology groups. The parameter-dependence of U(\\phi) is given by a relation U(\\phi)=E^{-1}(\\phi^p)U(0)E(\\phi) with E(\\phi) a Wronskian matrix formed from the periods of the manifold. The periods are defined by series that converge for $|\\phi|_p < 1$. The values of \\phi that are of interest are those for which \\phi^p = \\phi so, for nonzero \\phi, we have |\\vph|_p=1. We explain how the process of p-adic analytic continuation applies to this case. The matrix U(\\phi) breaks up i...

  18. Multiple zeta functions and double wrapping in planar N=4 SYM

    Leurent, Sébastien


    Using the FiNLIE solution of the AdS/CFT Y-system, we compute the anomalous dimension of the Konishi operator in planar N=4 SYM up to eight loops, i.e. up to the leading double wrapping order. At this order a non reducible Euler-Zagier sum, zeta(1,2,8), appears for the first time. We find that at all orders in perturbation, every spectral-dependent quantity of the Y-system is expressed through multiple Hurwitz zeta functions, hence we provide a Mathematica package to manipulate these functions, including the particular case of Euler-Zagier sums. Furthermore, we conjecture that only Euler-Zagier sums can appear in the answer for the anomalous dimension at any order in perturbation theory. We also resum the leading transcendentality terms of the anomalous dimension at all orders, obtaining a simple result in terms of Bessel functions. Finally, we demonstrate that exact Bethe equations should be related to an absence of poles condition that becomes especially nontrivial at double wrapping.

  19. Clinical efficacy and safety of biosimilar epoetin: focus on epoetin zeta

    Mikhail A


    Full Text Available Ashraf Mikhail , Christopher BrownRenal Unit, Morriston Hospital, Wales, UK Abstract: Biosimilars have been developed for several biologic therapeutic agents, including erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Biosimilars cannot be assumed to be completely identical to the reference product. Several regulatory bodies have issued stringent guidelines to regulate the licensing of biosimilars. These guidelines, although share a unified aim of ensuring the safety and efficacy of biosimilars, show several differences. Such differences may reflect the difficulties facing regulatory bodies in defining a biosimilar, identifying sensitive means to assess equivalence in efficacy, and designing robust methodologies to monitor long-term safety. This review will discuss some of the aspects of differences in licensing requirements for biosimilars, comparing the European Medicines Agency guidelines and the American Food and Drug Administration guidelines. The pathway adopted by the manufacturer of a biosimilar (epoetin zeta to gain licensing within the European market will be assessed, analyzing its compliance with the European Medicines Agency guidelines for the approval process. Since many patients are likely to be switched from original drugs to biosimilars in future, there is a need to establish strict guidelines on interchangeability and substitution of biosimilars and original products and to make it an integral part of the pre-registration assessment of any biosimilar in future. Eventually, long-term, observational post-marketing data will provide further reassurance on safety and tolerability of biosimilars. Keywords: biosimilars, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, epoetin zeta, biologic therapeutic agents

  20. Fundamental stellar parameters of $\\zeta$ Pup and $\\gamma^2$ Vel from HIPPARCOS data

    Schärer, D; Grenon, Michel; Schaerer, Daniel; Schmutz, Werner; Grenon, Michel


    We report parallax measurements by the HIPPARCOS satellite of zeta Puppis and gamma^2 Velorum. The distance of zeta Pup is d=429 (+120/ -77) pc, in agreement with the commonly adopted value to Vela OB2. However, a significantly smaller distance is found for the gamma^2 Vel system: d=258 (+41/-31) pc. The total mass of gamma^2 Vel derived from its parallax, the angular size of the semi-major axis as measured with intensity interferometry, and the period is M(WR+O)=29.5 (+/-15.9) Msun. This result favors the orbital solution of Pike et al. (1983) over that of Moffat et al. (1986). The stellar parameters for the O star companion derived from line blanketed non-LTE atmosphere models are: Teff=34000 (+/-1500) K, log L/Lsun=5.3 (+/-0.15) from which an evolutionary mass of M=29 (+/-4) Msun and an age of 4.0 (+0.8/-0.5) Myr is obtained from single star evolutionary models. With non-LTE model calculations including He and C we derive a luminosity log L/Lsun~4.7 (+/-0.2) for the WR star. The mass-luminosity relation of...

  1. Molecular electrostatic potential analysis of non-covalent complexes



    Ab initio MP4/Aug-cc-pvDZ//MP2/6-311++g(d,p) level interaction energy (Eint) and molecular electrostatic potential analysis (MESP) of a large variety of non-covalent intermolecular complexes, viz. tetrel, chalcogen, pnicogen, halogen, hydrogen, dihydrogen and lithium bonded complexes have been reported. The electronic changes associated with the non-covalent complex formation is monitored in terms of MESP minimum (Vmin) in the free and complexed states of the donor and acceptor molecules as well as in terms ofMESP at the donor and acceptor atoms (Vn) of the free monomers and complexes. The change in Vmin or Vn on the donor molecule (ΔVmin(D) or ΔVn(D)) during complex formation is proportional to its electron donating ability while such a change on the acceptor molecule (ΔVmin(A) or ΔVn(A)) is proportional to its electron accepting ability. Further, the quantities ΔΔVmin = ΔVmin(D) −ΔVmin(A) and ΔΔVn = ΔVn(D) −ΔVn(A) have shown strong linear correlations with Eint of the complex (Eint values fall in the range 0.7 to 46.2 kcal/mol for 54 complexes) and suggest that the intermolecular non-covalent interactions in a wide variety of systems can be monitored and assessed in terms of change in MESP due to complex formation in the gas phase. With the incorporation of solvent effect in the calculation, charged systems showed significant deviations from the linear correlation. The MESP based analysis proposes that the large variety of intermolecular non-covalent complexes considered in this study can be grouped under the general category of electron donor-acceptor (eDA) complexes

  2. Pressure potential and stability analysis in an acoustical noncontact transportation

    Li, J.; Liu, C. J.; Zhang, W. J.


    Near field acoustic traveling wave is one of the most popular principles in noncontact manipulations and transportations. The stability behavior is a key factor in the industrial applications of acoustical noncontact transportation. We present here an in-depth analysis of the transportation stability of a planar object levitated in near field acoustic traveling waves. To more accurately describe the pressure distributions on the radiation surface, a 3D nonlinear traveling wave model is presented. A closed form solution is derived based on the pressure potential to quantitatively calculate the restoring forces and moments under small disturbances. The physical explanations of the effects of fluid inertia and the effects of non-uniform pressure distributions are provided in detail. It is found that a vibration rail with tapered cross section provides more stable transportation than a rail with rectangular cross section. The present study sheds light on the issue of quantitative evaluation of stability in acoustic traveling waves and proposes three main factors that influence the stability: (a) vibration shape, (b) pressure distribution and (c) restoring force/moment. It helps to provide a better understanding of the physics behind the near field acoustic transportation and provide useful design and optimization tools for industrial applications.

  3. Streaming potential near a rotating porous disk.

    Prieve, Dennis C; Sides, Paul J


    Theory and experimental results for the streaming potential measured in the vicinity of a rotating porous disk-shaped sample are described. Rotation of the sample on its axis draws liquid into its face and casts it from the periphery. Advection within the sample engenders streaming current and streaming potential that are proportional to the zeta potential and the disk's major dimensions. When Darcy's law applies, the streaming potential is proportional to the square of the rotation at low rate but becomes invariant with rotation at high rate. The streaming potential is invariant with the sample's permeability at low rate and is proportional to the inverse square of the permeability at high rate. These predictions were tested by determining the zeta potential and permeability of the loop side of Velcro, a sample otherwise difficult to characterize; reasonable values of -56 mV for zeta and 8.7 × 10(-9) m(2) for the permeability were obtained. This approach offers the ability to determine both the zeta potential and the permeability of materials having open structures. Compressing them into a porous plug is unnecessary. As part of the development of the theory, a convenient formula for a flow-weighted volume-averaged space-charge density of the porous medium, -εζ/k, was obtained, where ε is the permittivity, ζ is the zeta potential, and k is the Darcy permeability. The formula is correct when Smoluchowski's equation and Darcy's law are both valid.

  4. The potential for meta-analysis to support decision analysis in ecology.

    Mengersen, Kerrie; MacNeil, M Aaron; Caley, M Julian


    Meta-analysis and decision analysis are underpinned by well-developed methods that are commonly applied to a variety of problems and disciplines. While these two fields have been closely linked in some disciplines such as medicine, comparatively little attention has been paid to the potential benefits of linking them in ecology, despite reasonable expectations that benefits would be derived from doing so. Meta-analysis combines information from multiple studies to provide more accurate parameter estimates and to reduce the uncertainty surrounding them. Decision analysis involves selecting among alternative choices using statistical information that helps to shed light on the uncertainties involved. By linking meta-analysis to decision analysis, improved decisions can be made, with quantification of the costs and benefits of alternate decisions supported by a greater density of information. Here, we briefly review concepts of both meta-analysis and decision analysis, illustrating the natural linkage between them and the benefits from explicitly linking one to the other. We discuss some examples in which this linkage has been exploited in the medical arena and how improvements in precision and reduction of structural uncertainty inherent in a meta-analysis can provide substantive improvements to decision analysis outcomes by reducing uncertainty in expected loss and maximising information from across studies. We then argue that these significant benefits could be translated to ecology, in particular to the problem of making optimal ecological decisions in the face of uncertainty. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The extended Lennard-Jones potential energy function: A simpler model for direct-potential-fit analysis

    Hajigeorgiou, Photos G.


    An analytical model for the diatomic potential energy function that was recently tested as a universal function (Hajigeorgiou, 2010) has been further modified and tested as a suitable model for direct-potential-fit analysis. Applications are presented for the ground electronic states of three diatomic molecules: oxygen, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen fluoride. The adjustable parameters of the extended Lennard-Jones potential model are determined through nonlinear regression by fits to calculated rovibrational energy term values or experimental spectroscopic line positions. The model is shown to lead to reliable, compact and simple representations for the potential energy functions of these systems and could therefore be classified as a suitable and attractive model for direct-potential-fit analysis.

  6. Newton flow of the Riemann zeta function: separatrices control the appearance of zeros

    Neuberger, J. W.; Feiler, C.; Maier, H.; Schleich, W. P.


    A great many phenomena in physics can be traced back to the zeros of a function or a functional. Eigenvalue or variational problems prevalent in classical as well as quantum mechanics are examples illustrating this statement. Continuous descent methods taken with respect to the proper metric are efficient ways to attack such problems. In particular, the continuous Newton method brings out the lines of constant phase of a complex-valued function. Although the patterns created by the Newton flow are reminiscent of the field lines of electrostatics and magnetostatics they cannot be realized in this way since in general they are not curl-free. We apply the continuous Newton method to the Riemann zeta function and discuss the emerging patterns emphasizing especially the structuring of the non-trivial zeros by the separatrices. This approach might open a new road toward the Riemann hypothesis.

  7. Explicit Formulae for Values of Dedekind Zeta Functions of Two Kinds of Cyclotomic Fields

    马连荣; 张贤科


    @@ Let K = Q(ζm) denote the m-th cyclotomic field, and K+ its maximal real subfield, where ζm =exp( ) is an m-th primary root of unity. Let ζK(s) denote the Dedekind zeta function of K. For prime integers m = p, Fumio Hazama recently in [1] obtained formulae for calculating special values of ζK(s) and ζK+(s), i.e., calculating formulae of ζK+(1 -- n) and ζK(1-n) for ζK+ (1-n)positive integers n, which are the newest results of a series of his work in many years (see [1-3]).

  8. Combinatorics of lower order terms in the moment conjectures for the Riemann zeta function

    Dehaye, Paul-Olivier


    Conrey, Farmer, Keating, Rubinstein and Snaith have given a recipe that conjecturally produces, among others, the full moment polynomial for the Riemann zeta function. The leading term of this polynomial is given as a product of a factor explained by arithmetic and a factor explained by combinatorics (or, alternatively, random matrices). We explain how the lower order terms arise, and clarify the dependency of each factor on the exponent $k$ that is considered. We use extensively the theory of symmetric functions and representations of symmetric groups, ideas of Lascoux on manipulations of alphabets, and a key lemma, due in a basic version to Bump and Gamburd. Our main result ends up involving dimensions of partitions, as studied by Olshanski, Regev, Vershik, Ivanov and others.

  9. Simultaneous visible and ultraviolet spectroscopy of stellar wind variability in Zeta Puppis

    Wegner, G. A.; Snow, T. P., Jr.


    Spectra of He II 4686 A and H-alpha in Zeta Pup were obtained simultaneously with Copernicus ultraviolet scans of several P Cygni profiles in this O4 If supergiant with strong mass loss. The visible-wavelength data show significant variations in the profiles of both lines, consisting of doubling of the emission over times of less than a day. Recent theoretical calculations show that the observed profile variations in 4686 A can be produced by significant fluctuations in the wind density. The Copernicus data show less variability, although in one scan of the 1400-A Si IV doublet there appears to be a significant enhancement of the emission which may be correlated with one of the doublings observed in 4686 A and H-alpha, as though a density enhancement formed at low levels and then moved outward in the wind.

  10. Measuring differential rotation of the K-giant $\\zeta$\\,And

    K\\Hovári, Zs; Kriskovics, L; Vida, K; Donati, J -F; Coroller, H Le; Pedretti, J D Monnier E; Petit, P


    We investigate the temporal spot evolution of the K-giant component in the RS CVn-type binary system $\\zeta$\\,Andromedae to establish its surface differential rotation. Doppler imaging is used to study three slightly overlapping spectroscopic datasets, obtained independently at three different observing sites. Each dataset covers one full stellar rotation with good phase coverage, and in total, results in a continuous coverage of almost three stellar rotations ($P_{\\rm rot}=$17.8\\,d). Therefore, these data are well suited for reconstructing surface temperature maps and studying temporal evolution in spot configurations. Surface differential rotation is measured by the means of cross-correlation of all the possible image pairs. The individual Doppler reconstructions well agree in the revealed spot pattern, recovering numerous low latitude spots with temperature contrasts of up to $\\approx$1000\\,K with respect to the unspotted photosphere, and also an asymmetric polar cap which is diminishing with time. Our det...

  11. Dynamic analysis of a diffusing particle in a trapping potential

    Lindner, M.; Nir, G.; Vivante, A.; Young, I.T.; Garini, Y.


    The dynamics of a diffusing particle in a potential field is ubiquitous in physics, and it plays a pivotal role in single-molecule studies. We present a formalism for analyzing the dynamics of diffusing particles in harmonic potentials at low Reynolds numbers using the time evolution of the particle

  12. Dynamic analysis of a diffusing particle in a trapping potential

    Lindner, M.; Nir, G.; Vivante, A.; Young, I.T.; Garini, Y.


    The dynamics of a diffusing particle in a potential field is ubiquitous in physics, and it plays a pivotal role in single-molecule studies. We present a formalism for analyzing the dynamics of diffusing particles in harmonic potentials at low Reynolds numbers using the time evolution of the particle

  13. Calculations of Isoelectronic Series of He Using Noninteger n-Slater Type Orbitals in Single and Double Zeta Approximations

    GUSEINOV,Israfil; ERT(U)RK,Murat; SAHIN,Ercan; AKSU,Hüseyin


    Using integer and noninteger n-Slater type orbitals in single- and double-zeta approximations, the Hartree-Fock-Roothaan calculations were performed for the ground states of first ten cationic members of the isoelectronic series of He atom. All the noninteger parameters and orbital exponents were fully optimized. In the case of noninteger n-Slater type orbitals in double zeta basis sets, the results of calculations obtained are more close to the numerical Hatree-Fock values and the average deviations of our ground state energies do not exceed 2×10-6 hartrees of their numerical results.

  14. Uncoupling of T Cell Receptor Zeta Chain Function during the Induction of Anergy by the Superantigen, Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A

    William D. Cornwell


    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins have immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we show that Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA induces a strong proliferative response in a murine T cell clone independent of MHC class II bearing cells. SEA stimulation also induces a state of hypo-responsiveness (anergy. We characterized the components of the T cell receptor (TCR during induction of anergy by SEA. Most interestingly, TCR zeta chain phosphorylation was absent under SEA anergizing conditions, which suggests an uncoupling of zeta chain function. We characterize here a model system for studying anergy in the absence of confounding costimulatory signals.

  15. Analysis of Deuteron-Nucleus Scattering Using Sao Paulo Potential

    Ibraheem, Awad A.


    Deuteron elastic and inelastic scattering from 6Li, 12C, 16O, 24Mg, 32S, 50V, 58Ni, 70Ge, 90Zr, and 116Sn targets at different incident energies have been analyzed. Both Phenomenological Woods-Saxon and double-folding optical model potentials have been used. The folding calculations were based upon the Sao Paulo potential. A semi-microscopic representation has been proposed to study the effect of the dynamic polarization potential. Comparisons between our results and measured angular distributions of the differential cross sections showed a pronounced success of our theoretical predictions. The corresponding reaction cross sections have also been investigated.

  16. LFPy and hybrid scheme for local field potentials. CNS2014 tutorial T4: Modeling and analysis of extracellular potentials

    Hagen, Espen


    T4: Modeling and analysis of extracellular potentialsGaute Einevoll, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, NorwaySzymon Łęski (Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Warsaw)Espen Hagen (Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås)While extracellular electrical recordings have been the main workhorse in electrophysiology, the interpretation of such recordings is not trivial [1,2,3]. The recorded extracellular potentials in general stem from a complicated sum of contributions from all tr...

  17. zeta-, epsilon-, and gamma-Globin mRNA in blood samples and CD71(+) cell fractions from fetuses and from pregnant and nonpregnant women, with special attention to identification of fetal erythroblasts

    Høgh, A M; Hviid, T V; Christensen, B;


    BACKGROUND: Information about the appearance of gamma-, epsilon-, and zeta-globin mRNAs in fetal erythroblasts during gestation and about the presence and amounts of these mRNAs in pregnant and nonpregnant women is important from the perspective of using these molecules as a marker of fetal...... analysis of gamma- and epsilon-globin cDNA, and quantitative analysis of gamma-globin mRNA based on competitive RT-PCR to investigate these aspects. RESULTS: All adult whole-blood samples were negative for epsilon- and zeta-globin mRNA. Analyses of CD71(+) cell fractions showed that specimens from 19 of 20...... nonpregnant and 10 of 14 pregnant women (at 9-13 weeks of gestation) were positive for gamma-globin mRNA (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.13), and those from 3 of 20 nonpregnant and 5 of 14 pregnant women were positive for zeta-globin mRNA (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.23). No epsilon-globin mRNA was detected in CD...

  18. Methamphetamine-induced short-term increase and long-term decrease in spatial working memory affects Protein Kinase M zeta (PKMζ, dopamine, and glutamate receptors

    Stephen H Braren


    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (MA is a toxic, addictive drug shown to modulate learning and memory, yet the neural mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of 2 weekly injections of MA (30 mg/kg on working memory using the radial 8-arm maze (RAM across 5 weeks in adolescent-age mice. MA-treated mice show a significant improvement in working memory performance 1 week following the first MA injection compared to saline-injected controls. Following 5 weeks of MA abstinence mice were re-trained on a reference and working memory version of the RAM to assess cognitive flexibility. MA-treated mice show significantly more working memory errors without effects on reference memory performance. The hippocampus and dorsal striatum were assessed for expression of glutamate receptors subunits, GluA2 and GluN2B; dopamine markers, dopamine 1 receptor (D1, dopamine transporter (DAT and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; and memory markers, protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ and protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ. Within the hippocampus, PKMζ and GluA2 are both significantly reduced after MA supporting the poor memory performance. Additionally, a significant increase in GluN2B and decrease in D1 identifies dysregulated synaptic function. In the striatum, MA treatment increased cytosolic DAT and TH levels associated with dopamine hyperfunction. MA treatment significantly reduced GluN2B while increasing both PKMζ and PKCζ within the striatum. We discuss the potential role of PKMζ/PKCζ in modulating dopamine and glutamate receptors after MA treatment. These results identify potential underlying mechanisms for working memory deficits induced by MA.

  19. Methamphetamine-induced short-term increase and long-term decrease in spatial working memory affects protein Kinase M zeta (PKMζ), dopamine, and glutamate receptors.

    Braren, Stephen H; Drapala, Damian; Tulloch, Ingrid K; Serrano, Peter A


    Methamphetamine (MA) is a toxic, addictive drug shown to modulate learning and memory, yet the neural mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of 2 weekly injections of MA (30 mg/kg) on working memory using the radial 8-arm maze (RAM) across 5 weeks in adolescent-age mice. MA-treated mice show a significant improvement in working memory performance 1 week following the first MA injection compared to saline-injected controls. Following 5 weeks of MA abstinence mice were re-trained on a reference and working memory version of the RAM to assess cognitive flexibility. MA-treated mice show significantly more working memory errors without effects on reference memory performance. The hippocampus and dorsal striatum were assessed for expression of glutamate receptors subunits, GluA2 and GluN2B; dopamine markers, dopamine 1 receptor (D1), dopamine transporter (DAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH); and memory markers, protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ) and protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ). Within the hippocampus, PKMζ and GluA2 are both significantly reduced after MA supporting the poor memory performance. Additionally, a significant increase in GluN2B and decrease in D1 identifies dysregulated synaptic function. In the striatum, MA treatment increased cytosolic DAT and TH levels associated with dopamine hyperfunction. MA treatment significantly reduced GluN2B while increasing both PKMζ and PKCζ within the striatum. We discuss the potential role of PKMζ/PKCζ in modulating dopamine and glutamate receptors after MA treatment. These results identify potential underlying mechanisms for working memory deficits induced by MA.

  20. Stability analysis of the inverse transmembrane potential problem in electrocardiography

    Burger, Martin; Mardal, Kent-André; Nielsen, Bjørn Fredrik


    In this paper we study some mathematical properties of an inverse problem arising in connection with electrocardiograms (ECGs). More specifically, we analyze the possibility for recovering the transmembrane potential in the heart from ECG recordings, a challenge currently investigated by a growing number of groups. Our approach is based on the bidomain model for the electrical activity in the myocardium, and leads to a parameter identification problem for elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). It turns out that this challenge can be split into two subproblems: the task of recovering the potential at the heart surface from body surface recordings; the problem of computing the transmembrane potential inside the heart from the potential determined at the heart surface. Problem (1), which can be formulated as the Cauchy problem for an elliptic PDE, has been extensively studied and is well known to be severely ill-posed. The main purpose of this paper is to prove that problem (2) is stable and well posed if a suitable prior is available. Moreover, our theoretical findings are illuminated by a series of numerical experiments. Finally, we discuss some aspects of uniqueness related to the anisotropy in the heart.

  1. A full simulation analysis of the graviscalar discovery potential

    Oye, Ola Kristoffer


    We explore the discovery potential for a graviscalar in ATLAS, using full detector simulation. The graviscalar is an extra dimensional supersymmetric partner to the graviton, arising in the bulk in the ADD scenario. The signal from such a particle will be observed as ETmiss accompanied by a high pT jet. The study is based on a previous study [1] performed with ATLFAST.

  2. Geospatial Analysis of Renewable Energy Technical Potential on Tribal Lands

    Doris, E.; Lopez, A.; Beckley, D.


    This technical report uses an established geospatial methodology to estimate the technical potential for renewable energy on tribal lands for the purpose of allowing Tribes to prioritize the development of renewable energy resources either for community scale on-tribal land use or for revenue generating electricity sales.

  3. comparative analysis of hydrocarbon potential in shaly sand ...

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    A CASE STUDY OF “X” FIELD, NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA ... log measurements, using gamma ray, spontaneous potential, neutron-density combination, resistivity and combination of different methods. ... Study Area. Cities. Terminals. Producing Oil Fields. Ogoni Fields (Closed) .... Table 1: Qualitative Evaluation of Porosity in.

  4. Structural mutations of C-domains in members of the Ig superfamily. Consequences for the interactions between the T cell antigen receptor and the zeta 2 homodimer

    Geisler, C; Rubin, B; Caspar-Bauguil, S;


    not fully understood. We locate critical amino acid residues for TCR assembly in the Ti-alpha and -beta extracellular C-domains. A point mutation (phenylalanine195----valine) in a highly conserved residue in the Ti-alpha chain of the Jurkat variant J79 was identified by DNA sequencing. This mutation did......-alpha-deficient Jurkat variant. Computer model analysis showed that the Ti-alpha phenylalanine195 directly contributed to the beta-sheet facing away from the Ti-beta chain, indicating that it could be directly involved in the interactions between one or more of the CD3 chains or the zeta 2 dimer. Site......-directed mutagenesis of the corresponding residue in the Ti-beta chain demonstrated that a phenylalanine216----valine substitution had similar effects on TCR assembly as the Ti-alpha mutation, whereas a phenylalanine216----histidine substitution allowed TCR assembly and expression. Whether the consequences for TCR...


    Mijalce Gjorgievski


    Full Text Available Man is the prime mover of the overall social economic and political life of the entire globe and therefore he is studied from various aspects depending on the needs of what we want to obtain information on the demographic potential and its features.In this paper, the subject of study will be processing potential through its demographic characteristics (number condition, age structure, natural increase, economic activity, religious composition, etc. for the tourism economy. We know that the basic elements of tourism are the natural and cultural wealth that detect, evaluate and put into operation in tourism. However, it has its function, the basic factor are the people who need to visit those places, so it is very important to understand the demographic characteristics of people in every region of the globe in order to come to some understanding of the habits, needs and affinities of people depending on age, nationality and religious affiliation, etc. when choosing their travel destination.

  6. Potential analysis of stable processes and its extensions

    Stos, Andrzej


    Stable Lévy processes and related stochastic processes play an important role in stochastic modelling in applied sciences, in particular in financial mathematics. This book is about the potential theory of stable stochastic processes. It also deals with related topics, such as the subordinate Brownian motions (including the relativistic process) and Feynman–Kac semigroups generated by certain Schroedinger operators. The authors focus on classes of stable and related processes that contain the Brownian motion as a special case. This is the first book devoted to the probabilistic potential theory of stable stochastic processes, and, from the analytical point of view, of the fractional Laplacian. The introduction is accessible to non-specialists and provides a general presentation of the fundamental objects of the theory. Besides recent and deep scientific results the book also provides a didactic approach to its topic, as all chapters have been tested on a wide audience, including young mathematicians at a C...

  7. Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV): Analysis and US market potential

    Frantzis, Lisa; Friedman, David; Hill, Sarah; Teagan, Peter; Strong, Steven; Strong, Marilyn


    Arthur D. Little, Inc., in conjunction with Solar Design Associates, conducted a study for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technologies (OBT) to determine the market potential for grid-connected, building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). This study defines BIPV as two types of applications: (1) where the PV modules are an integral part of the building, often serving as the exterior weathering skin; and (2) the PV modules are mounted on the existing building exterior. Both of these systems are fully integrated with the energy usage of the building and have potential for significant market penetration in the US. Off-grid building applications also offer a near-term market for BIPV, but are not included in the scope of this study.

  8. Chances and limitations of European soybean production : market potential analysis

    Berschneider, Jana


    Overseas imports of soybeans from Brazil, the US and Argentina to Europe are increasing every year. Simultaneously, GMO farming in these countries is being expanded ever further. European farming of protein crops especially soybeans is being pushed by organizations and protein initiatives for economical and ecological reasons. In 2015 soybean acreages expanded drastically due to the additional Greening political measures which came into force. Therefore it is worth asking about the potential ...

  9. Analysis of 1-Minute Potentially Available Fluoride from Dentifrice

    Carey, Clifton M.; Erin C. Holahan; Schmuck, Burton D


    Previous reports found that some fluoride-containing dentifrices do not release effective concentrations of fluoride during brushing. Failure to release fluoride can be due to dentifrice matrix components that interfere with the solubilization of the fluoride salts during brushing. A new generation of dentifrices has the capability to precipitate beneficial fluoride salts during tooth brushing. Therefore, a method that assesses the potentially available fluoride during the 1-minute brushing i...

  10. Chances and limitations of European soybean production : market potential analysis

    Berschneider, Jana


    Overseas imports of soybeans from Brazil, the US and Argentina to Europe are increasing every year. Simultaneously, GMO farming in these countries is being expanded ever further. European farming of protein crops especially soybeans is being pushed by organizations and protein initiatives for economical and ecological reasons. In 2015 soybean acreages expanded drastically due to the additional Greening political measures which came into force. Therefore it is worth asking about the potential ...

  11. Analysis of event-related potentials (ERP) by damped sinusoids.

    Demiralp, T; Ademoglu, A; Istefanopulos, Y; Gülçür, H O


    Several researchers propose that event-related potentials (ERPs) can be explained by a superposition of transient oscillations at certain frequency bands in response to external or internal events. The transient nature of the ERP is more suitable to be modelled as a sum of damped sinusoids. These damped sinusoids can be completely characterized by four sets of parameters, namely the amplitude, the damping coefficient, the phase and the frequency. The Prony method is used to estimate these parameters. In this study, the long-latency auditory-evoked potentials (AEP) and the auditory oddball responses (P300) of 10 healthy subjects are analysed by this method. It is shown that the original waveforms can be reconstructed by summing a small number of damped sinusoids. This allows for a parsimonious representation of the ERPs. Furthermore, the method shows that the oddball target responses contain higher amplitude, slower delta and slower damped theta components than those of the AEPs. With this technique, we show that the differentiation of sensory and cognitive potentials are not inherent in their overall frequency content but in their frequency components at certain bands.

  12. Geospatial analysis identifies critical mineral-resource potential in Alaska

    Karl, Susan; Labay, Keith; Jacques, Katherine; Landowski, Claire


    Alaska consists of more than 663,000 square miles (1,717,000 square kilometers) of land—more than a sixth of the total area of the United States—and large tracts of it have not been systematically studied or sampled for mineral-resource potential. Many regions of the State are known to have significant mineral-resource potential, and there are currently six operating mines in the State along with numerous active mineral exploration projects. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys have developed a new geospatial tool that integrates and analyzes publicly available databases of geologic information and estimates the mineral-resource potential for critical minerals, which was recently used to evaluate Alaska. The results of the analyses highlight areas that have known mineral deposits and also reveal areas that were not previously considered to be prospective for these deposit types. These results will inform land management decisions by Federal, State, and private landholders, and will also help guide future exploration activities and scientific investigations in Alaska.

  13. Explosive Potential Analysis of AB Process-Final Report

    Bullock, J.S.; Giles, G.E. jr.; Wendel, M.W.; Sulfredge, C.D.


    A need arose to define the hazards associated with the operation of a process. The process involved the evolution of a hydrogen gas stream from thermal decomposition of uranium hydride at approximately 400 C into the interior of a purged argon-filled glove box. Specific hazards of interest included the potential reaction severity of the evolved hydrogen with atmospheric oxygen, either downstream in the vent system or inside the box in the event of serious air inleakage. Another hazard might be the energetic reaction of inleaked air with the hot uranium and uranium hydride powder bed, possibly resulting in the dispersion of powders into an air atmosphere and the rapid combustion of the powders. This was approached as a problem in calculational simulation. Given the parameters associated with the process and the properties of the glove box system, certain scenarios were defined and the potential for flammable or detonation reactions estimated. Calculation tools included a comprehensive fluid dynamics code, a spreadsheet, a curve-fitting program, an equation solver, and a thermochemistry software package. Results are reported which suggest that the process can be operated without significant hazard to operators or significant damage to equipment, assuming that operators take account of potential upset scenarios.

  14. Time series analysis in astronomy: Limits and potentialities

    Vio, R.; Kristensen, N.R.; Madsen, Henrik


    In this paper we consider the problem of the limits concerning the physical information that can be extracted from the analysis of one or more time series ( light curves) typical of astrophysical objects. On the basis of theoretical considerations and numerical simulations, we show that with no a...

  15. Time series analysis in astronomy: Limits and potentialities

    Vio, R.; Kristensen, N.R.; Madsen, Henrik


    In this paper we consider the problem of the limits concerning the physical information that can be extracted from the analysis of one or more time series ( light curves) typical of astrophysical objects. On the basis of theoretical considerations and numerical simulations, we show that with no a...

  16. Analysis of Mount Atlas mastic smoke: a potential food preservative.

    Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Faridi, Pouya; Ghasemi, Younes


    Pistacia terebinthus L. smoke has been used traditionally in Iran as disinfectant and air purifier. Smoke was collected by a simple method, and the chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the smoke were analyzed. The chemical constituents of the smoke were alpha-pinene (65.1%), limonene (11.5%) and allo-ocimene (2.8%). The non polar phase of smoke noticeably inhibited the growth of different microorganisms. MIC test shows that non polar fraction of smoke can inhibit the growth of some bacteria. The results indicating that the properties of the smoke as a flavoring and preservative agent could be a potential subject for future studies.

  17. Probability theory versus simulation of petroleum potential in play analysis

    Crovelli, R.A.


    An analytic probabilistic methodology for resource appraisal of undiscovered oil and gas resources in play analysis is presented. This play-analysis methodology is a geostochastic system for petroleum resource appraisal in explored as well as frontier areas. An objective was to replace an existing Monte Carlo simulation method in order to increase the efficiency of the appraisal process. Underlying the two methods is a single geologic model which considers both the uncertainty of the presence of the assessed hydrocarbon and its amount if present. The results of the model are resource estimates of crude oil, nonassociated gas, dissolved gas, and gas for a geologic play in terms of probability distributions. The analytic method is based upon conditional probability theory and a closed form solution of all means and standard deviations, along with the probabilities of occurrence. ?? 1987 J.C. Baltzer A.G., Scientific Publishing Company.

  18. The potential of shared value creation: a theoretical analysis

    Victor Danciu


    Full Text Available The urgent issues economy, environment and society are facing need new approaches which allow a well-balanced sharing of value created by the economy. A step forward is the concept of shared value creation. This paper aims to analyze the main features, the content of strategy of shared value creation and to propose the social innovation as main strategic way of shared value creation. At the beginning, the drivers and challenges of shared value creation are investigated in a systematized manner, in order to better understand why this new way of doing business is needed. Then, the concept and the three levels of shared value creation are investigated as sources of economic, environmental and social benefits that a business creates. These benefits depend on how efficient and diligent the company works. We are advancing the social innovation as main strategy having the greatest potential to create value with economic, environmental and social benefits. Finally, a framework for measurement of shared value creation is included. This framework is aiming at giving a tool for checking up the potential the shared value creation has for solving environmental and social issues.


    Palmrose, D E; Yang, J M


    The objective of this paper is to assess proposed transuranic waste accident analysis guidance and recent software improvements in a Windows-OS version of MACCS2 that allows the inputting of parameter uncertainty. With this guidance and code capability, there is the potential to perform a quantitative uncertainty assessment of unmitigated accident releases with respect to the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline (EG) of DOE-STD-3009-94 CN3 (STD-3009). Historically, the classification of safety systems in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility's safety basis has involved how subject matter experts qualitatively view uncertainty in the STD-3009 Appendix A accident analysis methodology. Specifically, whether consequence uncertainty could be larger than previously evaluated so the site-specific accident consequences may challenge the EG. This paper assesses whether a potential uncertainty capability for MACCS2 could provide a stronger technical basis as to when the consequences from a design basis accident (DBA) truly challenges the 25 rem EG.

  20. Nonlinear Time Series Analysis in Earth Sciences - Potentials and Pitfalls

    Kurths, Jürgen; Donges, Jonathan F.; Donner, Reik V.; Marwan, Norbert; Zou, Yong


    The application of methods of nonlinear time series analysis has a rich tradition in Earth sciences and has enabled substantially new insights into various complex processes there. However, some approaches and findings have been controversially discussed over the last decades. One reason is that they are often bases on strong restrictions and their violation may lead to pitfalls and misinterpretations. Here, we discuss three general concepts of nonlinear dynamics and statistical physics, synchronization, recurrence and complex networks and explain how to use them for data analysis. We show that the corresponding methods can be applied even to rather short and non-stationary data which are typical in Earth sciences. References Marwan, N., Romano, M., Thiel, M., Kurths, J.: Recurrence plots for the analysis of complex systems, Physics Reports 438, 237-329 (2007) Arenas, A., Diaz-Guilera, A., Kurths, J., Moreno, Y., Zhou, C.: Synchronization in complex networks, Physics Reports 469, 93-153 (2008) Marwan, N., Donges, J.F., Zou, Y., Donner, R. and Kurths, J., Phys. Lett. A 373, 4246 (2009) Donges, J.F., Zou, Y., Marwan, N. and Kurths, J. Europhys. Lett. 87, 48007 (2009) Donner, R., Zou, Y., Donges, J.F., Marwan, N. and Kurths, J., Phys. Rev. E 81, 015101(R) (2010)

  1. Giants of eclipse the ζ [Zeta] Aurigae stars and other binary systems

    Griffin, Elizabeth


    The zeta Aurigae stars are the rare but illustrious sub-group of binary stars that undergo the dramatic phenomenon of "chromospheric eclipse". This book provides detailed descriptions of the ten known systems, illustrates them richly with examples of new spectra, and places them in the context of stellar structure and evolution. Comprised of a large cool giant plus a small hot dwarf, these key eclipsing binaries reveal fascinating changes in their spectra very close to total eclipse, when the hot star shines through differing heights of the "chromosphere", or outer atmosphere, of the giant star. The phenomenon provides astrophysics with the means of analyzing the outer atmosphere of a giant star and how that material is shed into space. The physics of these critical events can be explained qualitatively, but it is more challenging to extract hard facts from the observations, and tough to model the chromosphere in any detail. The book offers current thinking on mechanisms for heating a star's chromosphere an...

  2. TC Trends And Terrestrial Planet Formation: The Case of Zeta Reticuli

    Vardan, Adibekyan; Delgado-Mena, Elisa; Figueira, Pedro; Sousa, Sergio; Santos, Nuno; Faria, Joao; González Hernández, Jonay; Israelian, Garik; Harutyunyan, Gohar; Suárez-Andrés, Lucia; Hakobyan, Arthur


    During the last decade astronomers have been trying to search for chemical signatures of terrestrial planet formation in the atmospheres of the hosting stars. Several studies suggested that the chemical abundance trend with the condensation temperature, Tc, is a signature of rocky planet formation. In particular, it was suggested that the Sun shows 'peculiar' chemical abundances due to the presence of the terrestrial planets in our solar-system. However, the rocky material accretion or the trap of rocky materials in terrestrial planets is not the only explanation for the chemical 'peculiarity' of the Sun, or other Sun-like stars with planets. In this talk I madea very brief review of this topic, and presented our last results for the particular case of Zeta Reticuli binary system: A very interesting and well-known system (known in science fiction and ufology as the world of Grey Aliens, or Reticulans) where one of the components hosts an exo-Kuiper belt, and the other component is a 'single', 'lonely' star.

  3. Perancangan Zeta Converter yang dilengkapi Power Factor Correction pada Aplikasi Pengaturan Kecepatan Motor Brushless DC

    Adhika Prajna Nandiwardhana


    Full Text Available Penggunaan motor brushless DC telah banyak digunakan dalam berbagai bidang seperti peralatan rumah tangga maupun industri dikarenakan motor ini memiliki struktur yang sederhana, efisiensi dan torsi yang tinggi, serta menggunakan konsep komutasi elektris yang berbeda dari motor DC lainnya. Namun pengoperasian pada umumnya yang menggunakan sumber AC, penyearah serta inverter membuat tingginya nilai harmonisa arus (THD sebesar 73,33% dan power factor sebesar 0,803 dimana nilai ini kurang baik dalam pengaplikasiannya. Pada penelitian ini akan dikaji mengenai proses power factor correction yang mereduksi harmonisa arus (THD sumber AC dengan menggunakan zeta converter dalam pengaplikasian motor brushless DC, serta pengoperasian motor dengan mengamati respon motor terhadap kecepatan referensi yang berubah-ubah dan mengamati kestabilan motor terhadap pembebanan yang bervariasi. Dalam menerapkan metode yang dilakukan pada penelitian ini, pengoperasian motor brushless DC yang telah dirancang dapat bekerja dengan baik meliputi respon motor yang dapat mengikuti kecepatan referensi yang berubah-ubah, serta kestabilan motor dalam mempertahankan kecepatannya pada pembebanan yang bervariasi. Proses power factor correction dapat meningkatkan kualitas daya pada berbagai kecepatan dan mode penerapan yang berbeda-beda, dimana peningkatan tersebut membuktikan kinerja yang baik dalam sistem ini dan memiliki nilai kualitas daya yang baik.

  4. Dynamical mass of the O-type supergiant in Zeta Orionis A

    Hummel, C A; Nieva, M -F; Stahl, O; van Belle, G; Zavala, R T


    A close companion of Zeta Orionis A was found in 2000 with the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI), and shown to be a physical companion. Because the primary is a supergiant of type O, for which dynamical mass measurements are very rare, the companion was observed with NPOI over the full 7-year orbit. Our aim was to determine the dynamical mass of a supergiant that, due to the physical separation of more than 10 AU between the components, cannot have undergone mass exchange with the companion. The interferometric observations allow measuring the relative positions of the binary components and their relative brightness. The data collected over the full orbital period allows all seven orbital elements to be determined. In addition to the interferometric observations, we analyzed archival spectra obtained at the Calar Alto, Haute Provence, Cerro Armazones, and La Silla observatories, as well as new spectra obtained at the VLT on Cerro Paranal. In the high-resolution spectra we identified a few lines tha...

  5. Beyond the triangle and uniqueness relations non-zeta counterterms at large N from positive knots

    Broadhurst, D J; Kreimer, D


    Counterterms that are not reducible to $\\zeta_{n}$ are generated by ${}_3F_2$ hypergeometric series arising from diagrams for which triangle and uniqueness relations furnish insufficient data. Irreducible double sums, corresponding to the torus knots $(4,3)=8_{19}$ and $(5,3)=10_{124}$, are found in anomalous dimensions at ${\\rm O}(1/N^3)$ in the large-$N$ limit, which we compute analytically up to terms of level 11, corresponding to 11 loops for 4-dimensional field theories and 12 loops for 2-dimensional theories. High-precision numerical results are obtained up to 24 loops and used in Padé resummations of $\\varepsilon$-expansions, which are compared with analytical results in 3 dimensions. The ${\\rm O}(1/N^3)$ results entail knots generated by three dressed propagators in the master two-loop two-point diagram. At higher orders in $1/N$ one encounters the uniquely positive hyperbolic 11-crossing knot, associated with an irreducible triple sum. At 12 crossings, a pair of 3-braid knots is generated, correspon...

  6. Moments of zeta functions associated to hyperelliptic curves over finite fields.

    Rubinstein, Michael O; Wu, Kaiyu


    Let q be an odd prime power, and Hq,d denote the set of square-free monic polynomials D(x)∈Fq[x] of degree d. Katz and Sarnak showed that the moments, over Hq,d, of the zeta functions associated to the curves y(2)=D(x), evaluated at the central point, tend, as q→∞, to the moments of characteristic polynomials, evaluated at the central point, of matrices in USp(2⌊(d-1)/2⌋). Using techniques that were originally developed for studying moments of L-functions over number fields, Andrade and Keating conjectured an asymptotic formula for the moments for q fixed and q→∞. We provide theoretical and numerical evidence in favour of their conjecture. In some cases, we are able to work out exact formulae for the moments and use these to precisely determine the size of the remainder term in the predicted moments. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of 1-Minute Potentially Available Fluoride from Dentifrice

    Carey, Clifton M; Holahan, Erin C; Schmuck, Burton D


    Previous reports found that some fluoride-containing dentifrices do not release effective concentrations of fluoride during brushing. Failure to release fluoride can be due to dentifrice matrix components that interfere with the solubilization of the fluoride salts during brushing. A new generation of dentifrices has the capability to precipitate beneficial fluoride salts during tooth brushing. Therefore, a method that assesses the potentially available fluoride during the 1-minute brushing is needed. A new filter-paper absorption method to assess the 1-min bioavailable fluoride concentration was developed to meet this need. This method utilizes coiled filter paper that rapidly absorbs the aqueous phase of the dentifrice slurry followed by centrifugation to recover that fluid for fluoride measurement via fluoride ion-selective electrode. The analytical method was used to successfully determine the total fluoride and 1-min bioavailable fluoride in eight dentifrice products containing sodium fluoride (NaF), disodium monofluorophosphate (Na2FPO3, MFP), stannous fluoride (SnF2), or NaF with amorphous calcium phosphate (NaF + ACP). The results showed that some of the dentifrices tested had significantly lower potentially available fluoride than the total fluoride. For a MFP-containing sample, aged seven years past its expiry date, there was significant reduction in the bioavailable fluoride compared to MFP products that were not aged. Other than the aged MFP and the SnF2-containing samples the bioavailable fluoride for all products tested had at least 80 % of the label fluoride concentration. The filter paper absorption method yielded reproducible results for the products tested with MFP samples showing the largest variations. PMID:25821392

  8. Radiological risk analysis of potential SP-100 space mission scenarios

    Bartram, B.W.; Weitzberg, A.


    This report presents a radiological risk analysis of three representative space mission scenarios utilizing a fission reactor. The mission profiles considered are: a high-altitude mission, launched by a TITAN IV launch vehicle, boosted by chemical upper stages into its operational orbit, a interplanetary nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) mission, started directly from a shuttle parking orbit, a low-altitude mission, launched by the Shuttle and boosted by a chemical stage to its operational orbit, with subsequent disposal boost after operation. 21 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. A simple microcontroller-based sedimentation potential measurement for nanosuspension stability investigations

    Joni, I. Made; Zannuary, Ilham; Hidayat, Darmawan; Panatarani, Camellia


    This paper report the development of a simple sedimentation potential measurement system to know the state of nanoparticles (NPs) dispersion stability. The state of nanoparticles dispersion stability is very important in applications of nanoparticles since the nature of NPs is easily agglomerate. The developed sedimentation potential consist of graphite electrodes, signal conditioning, microcontroller, and interface circuits provided with a data acquisition applications. The system was designed to obtained sedimentation potential in the range -200 to 200 mV with accuracy of 0.415 mV. From the measured sedimentation potential, the zeta potential can be determined. This system was applied to investigate stability of TiO2 NPS suspension in water media to obtain the performances of the system. Those zeta potentials were determined at various condition such as vary in surface charges by controlling the pH of the suspension, vary in suspension concentrations and sedimentation time. The results show that the higher concentration of the suspension, lower zeta potential of the suspension was obtained. The zeta potential was decreased by the sedimentation time indicated that the agglomeration of particles occurred. Controlling of surface charges by controlling pH also affect the values of obtained zeta potentials. It is concluded that the developed sedimentation potential measurement successfully applied for determination of zeta potential of the TiO2 NPs suspension to evaluate the stability NPs suspension.

  10. Engineering analysis of potential photosynthetic bacterial hydrogen-production systems

    Herlevich, A.; Karpuk, M. E.


    Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) are capable of generating hydrogen from organics in effluents from food processing, pulp and paper, and chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Hydrogen evolution takes place under light in the absence of air. The rate of hydrogen production is expected to range between 300 to 600 scf of hydrogen per 1000 galloons of waste stream treated per hour. This hydrogen production system has been demonstrated at a bench-scale level and is ready for engineering development. A conceptual design for a PSB hydrogen production system is described. The system is expected to be sited adjacent to a waste stream source which will be pretreated by fermentation and pH adjustment, innoculated with bacteria, and then passed into the reactor. The reactor effluent can either be discharged into a rapid infiltration system, an irrigation ditch, and/or recycled back into the reactor. Several potential reactor designs have been developed, analyzed, and costed. A large covered pond appears to be the most economical design approach.

  11. Analysis of treated wastewater reuse potential for irrigation in Sicily.

    Barbagallo, Salvatore; Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi; Consoli, Simona; Licciardello, Feliciana; Marzo, Alessia; Toscano, Attilio


    In Mediterranean countries, water shortage is becoming a problem of high concern affecting the local economy, mostly based on agriculture. The problem is not only the scarcity of water in terms of average per capita, but the high cost to make water available at the right place, at the right time with the required quality. In these cases, an integrated approach for water resources management including wastewater is required. The management should also include treated wastewater (TWW) reclamation and reuse, especially for agricultural irrigation. In Italy, TWW reuse is regulated by a quite restrictive approach (Ministry Decree, M.D. 185/03), especially for some chemical compounds and microbiological parameters. The aim of the paper is the evaluation of TWW reuse potential in Sicily. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was built at regional level to quantify and locate the available TWW volumes. In particular, the characteristics of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were integrated, through the GIS, with data on irrigation district areas. Moreover, in order to evaluate the Italian approach for reuse practice in agriculture, the water quality of different TWW effluents was analysed on the basis of both the Italian standards and the WHO guidelines.

  12. Analysis of cracking potential and micro-elongation of linerboard

    Supattra Panthai


    Full Text Available Folding cracks of linerboards in relation to their micro-elongation and the forming conditions were studied using an industrial linerboard machine with a top former. The experiments consisted of the study of various forming conditions by manipulating the jet/wire speed ratio to produce linerboard with differences in fiber structures that were related to the cracked and uncracked products. The results showed that changes to the jet/wire speed ratio of about 0.01–0.02 to improve the tested folding endurance in the machine direction potentially produced folding cracks in the linerboard, which indicated an ambiguous interpretation of the foldability tests. The delaminated cracked layers were found to have a high folding endurance and tensile strength, while the decrease in the micro-elongation formulated in this study was found to be related to cracking. A lower micro-elongation of about 350–500 μm/N·g was found in a range of products with folding cracks.

  13. Hybrid Additive Manufacturing Technologies - An Analysis Regarding Potentials and Applications

    Merklein, Marion; Junker, Daniel; Schaub, Adam; Neubauer, Franziska

    Imposing the trend of mass customization of lightweight construction in industry, conventional manufacturing processes like forming technology and chipping production are pushed to their limits for economical manufacturing. More flexible processes are needed which were developed by the additive manufacturing technology. This toolless production principle offers a high geometrical freedom and an optimized utilization of the used material. Thus load adjusted lightweight components can be produced in small lot sizes in an economical way. To compensate disadvantages like inadequate accuracy and surface roughness hybrid machines combining additive and subtractive manufacturing are developed. Within this paper the principles of mainly used additive manufacturing processes of metals and their possibility to be integrated into a hybrid production machine are summarized. It is pointed out that in particular the integration of deposition processes into a CNC milling center supposes high potential for manufacturing larger parts with high accuracy. Furthermore the combination of additive and subtractive manufacturing allows the production of ready to use products within one single machine. Additionally actual research for the integration of additive manufacturing processes into the production chain will be analyzed. For the long manufacturing time of additive production processes the combination with conventional manufacturing processes like sheet or bulk metal forming seems an effective solution. Especially large volumes can be produced by conventional processes. In an additional production step active elements can be applied by additive manufacturing. This principle is also investigated for tool production to reduce chipping of the high strength material used for forming tools. The aim is the addition of active elements onto a geometrical simple basis by using Laser Metal Deposition. That process allows the utilization of several powder materials during one process what

  14. Zeta-Proteobacteria dominate the formation of microbial mats in low-temperature hydrothermal vents at Loihi Seamount

    Rassa, A. C.; McAllister, S. M.; Safran, S. A.; Moyer, C. L.


    Loihi Seamount is Hawaii's youngest volcano and one of the earth's most active. Loihi is located 30 km SE of the big island of Hawaii and rises over 3000m above the sea floor and summits at 1100m below sea level. An eruption in 1996 of Loihi led to the formation of Pele's Pit, a 300 meter deep caldera. The current observations have revealed diffuse hydrothermal venting causing low to intermediate temperatures (10 to 65°C). The elevated temperatures, coupled with high concentrations of Fe(II) (ranging from 50 to 750 μM) support conditions allowing for extensive microbial mat formation. The focus of this study was to identify the colonizing populations of bacteria generated by the microbial mats at Loihi Seamount. Twenty-six microbial growth chambers were deployed and recovered after placement in the flow of hydrothermal vents for 3 to 8 days from within Loihi's caldera. Genomic DNA was extracted from samples and analyzed by Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) using eight restriction enzyme treatments to generate fingerprints from bacterial amplicons of small subunit rRNA genes (SSU rDNAs). Pearson product-moment coupled with UPGMA cluster analysis of these T-RFLP fingerprints showed that these communities bifurcated into two primary clusters. The first (Group 1) had an average vent effluent temperature of 44°C, and the second (Group 2) had an average vent effluent temperature of 64°C. Representative samples from within the two clusters (or groups) were chosen for further clone library and sequencing analysis. These libraries revealing a dominance of the recently discovered zeta- Proteobacteria in the lower temperature group (Group 1) indicating that they were the dominant colonizers of the microbial mats. These microaerophilic, obligately lithotrophic, Fe-oxidizing bacteria are most closely related to Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. The higher temperature group (Group 2) was dominated by epsilon- Proteobacteria primarily of the genus

  15. Potential of Raman and Infrared Spectroscopy for Plant Analysis

    Schulz, H.


    Various mid-infrared (MIR) and Raman spectroscopic methods applied to the analysis of valuable plant substances or quality parameters in selected horticultural and agricultural crops are presented. Generally, both spectroscopy techniques allow to identify simultaneously characteristic key bands of individual plant components (e.g. carotenoids, alkaloids, polyacetylenes, fatty acids, amino acids, terpenoids). In contrast to MIR methods Raman spectroscopy mostly does not need any sample pre-treatment; even fresh plant material can be analysed without difficulty because water shows only weak Raman scattering properties. In some cases a significant sensivity enhancement of Raman signals can be achieved if the exciting laser wavelength is adjusted to the absorption range of particular plant chromophores such as carotenoids (Resonance Raman effect). Applying FT-IR or FT Raman micro-spectroscopy the distribution of certain plant constituents in the cell wall can be identified without the need for any physical separation. Furthermore it is also possible to analyse secondary metabolites occurring in the cell vacuoles if significant key bands do not coincide with the spectral background of the plant matrix.

  16. Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA): capabilities and potential developments.

    Amann, Rupert P; Waberski, Dagmar


    Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems have evolved over approximately 40 years, through advances in devices to capture the image from a microscope, huge increases in computational power concurrent with amazing reduction in size of computers, new computer languages, and updated/expanded software algorithms. Remarkably, basic concepts for identifying sperm and their motion patterns are little changed. Older and slower systems remain in use. Most major spermatology laboratories and semen processing facilities have a CASA system, but the extent of reliance thereon ranges widely. This review describes capabilities and limitations of present CASA technology used with boar, bull, and stallion sperm, followed by possible future developments. Each marketed system is different. Modern CASA systems can automatically view multiple fields in a shallow specimen chamber to capture strobe-like images of 500 to >2000 sperm, at 50 or 60 frames per second, in clear or complex extenders, and in marketing, and for the understanding of the diversity of sperm responses to changes in the microenvironment in research. The four take-home messages from this review are: (1) animal species, extender or medium, specimen chamber, intensity of illumination, imaging hardware and software, instrument settings, technician, etc., all affect accuracy and precision of output values; (2) semen production facilities probably do not need a substantially different CASA system whereas biology laboratories would benefit from systems capable of imaging and tracking sperm in deep chambers for a flexible period of time; (3) software should enable grouping of individual sperm based on one or more attributes so outputs reflect subpopulations or clusters of similar sperm with unique properties; means or medians for the total population are insufficient; and (4) a field-use, portable CASA system for measuring one motion and two or three morphology attributes of individual sperm is needed for field

  17. Characterization of Ser73 in Arabidopsis thaliana Glutathione S-transferase zeta class


    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are ubiquitous detoxifying superfamily enzymes. The zeta class GST from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtGSTZ) can efficiently degrade dichloroacetic acid (DCA), which is a common carcinogenic contaminant in drinking water. Ser73 in AtGSTZ is a conserved residue at Glutathione binding site (G-site). Compared with the equivalent residues in other GSTs, the catalytic and structural properties of Ser73 were poorly investigated. In this article, site-saturation mutagenesis was performed to characterize the detailed role of Ser73. The DCA de.chlorinating (DCA-DC) activity showed that most of the mutants had less than 3% of the wild-type activity, except S73T and $73A showing 43.48% and 21.62% of the wild-type activity, respectively, indicating that position 73 in AtGSTZ showed low mutational substitutability. Kinetic experiments revealed that mutants S73T, $73A, and S73G showed low binding affinity and catalytic efficiency toward DCA, 1.8-, 3.1-, and 10.7- fold increases in KmDcA values and 4.0-, 9.6-, and 34.1- fold decreases in KcatDCA/KmDCA values, respectively, compared to the wild type. Thermostability and refolding experiments showed that the wild type maintalned more thermostability and recovered activity. These results demonstrated the important role of Set73 in catalytic activity and structural stability of the enzyme. Such properties of Set73 could be particularly crucial to the molecular evolution of AtGSTZ and might,therefore, help explain why Ser73 is conserved in all GSTs. This conclusion might provide insights into the directed evolution of the DCA-DC activity of AtGSTZ.

  18. Zeta potential and electroosmotic mobility in microfluidic devices fabricated from hydrophobic polymers: 1. The origins of charge.

    Tandon, Vishal; Bhagavatula, Sharath K; Nelson, Wyatt C; Kirby, Brian J


    This paper combines new experimental data for electrokinetic characterization of hydrophobic polymers with a detailed discussion of the putative origins of charge at water-hydrophobe interfaces. Complexities in determining the origin of charge are discussed in the context of design and modeling challenges for electrokinetic actuation in hydrophobic microfluidic devices with aqueous working fluids. Measurements of interfacial charge are complicated by slip and interfacial water structuring phenomena (see Part 2, this issue). Despite these complexities, it is shown that (i) several hydrophobic materials, such as Teflon and Zeonor, have predictable electrokinetic properties and (ii) electrokinetic data for hydrophobic microfluidic systems is most consistent with the postulate that hydroxyl ion adsorption is the origin of charge.

  19. Ion Adsorption Parameters Determined from Zeta Potential and Titration Data for a y-Alumina Nanofiltration Membrane

    Lint, de W.B. Samuel; Benes, Nieck E.; Lyklema, Johannes; Bouwmeester, Henny J.M.; Linde, van der Ab J.; Wessling, Matthias


    Theoretical models for the prediction of nanofiltration separation performance as a function of, e.g., pH and electrolyte composition require knowledge on the ion-surface adsorption chemistry. Adsorption parameters have been extracted from electrophoretic mobility measurements on a ceramic y-alumina

  20. Zeta Potential and Aggregation of Virus-Like Particle of Human Norovirus and Feline Calicivirus Under Different Physicochemical Conditions.

    Samandoulgou, Idrissa; Fliss, Ismaïl; Jean, Julie


    Although the spread of human norovirus reportedly depends on its ability to bind to food materials, the mechanism of the phenomenon remains unknown. Since protein size and electrical charge are reportedly important parameters in their adsorption, the current work is focused on determining human noroviruses isoelectric point (IEP), electrical charge and aggregate size at different pH, ionic strength (IS), and temperature. Using the baculovirus expression vector system, we produced and purified virus-like particles (VLPs) of GI.1 and GII.4 noroviruses and feline calicivirus, determined their IEP, and examined their size and electrical charge using a Zetasizer Nano ZS apparatus. Shape and size were also visualized using transmission electron microscopy. IEPs were found close to pH 4. Net charge increased as the pH deviated from the IEP. VLPs were negatively charged at all IS tested and showed a gradual decrease in charge with increasing IS. At low temperature, VLPs were 20-45 nm in diameter at pH far from their IEP and under almost all IS conditions, while aggregates appeared at or near the IEP. At increased temperatures, aggregates appeared at or near the IEP and at high IS. Aggregation at the IEP was also confirmed by microscopy. This suggests that electrostatic interactions would be the predominant factor in VLPs adhesion at pH far from 4 and at low ionic strength. In contrast, non-electrostatic interactions would prevail at around pH 4 and would be reinforced by aggregates, since size generally favors multiple bonding with sorbents.


    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...




    Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) is generally considered to be a measure of the organisms cell surface hydrophobicity. As microbial adhesion is a complicated interplay of long-range van der Waals and electrostatic forces and various short-range interactions, the above statement only holds

  3. Regulation of the Water Channel Aquaporin-2 via 14-3-3 Theta (θ) and Zeta (ζ)

    Moeller, Hanne B; Slengerik-Hansen, Joachim; Aroankins, Takwa


    . With the exception of sigma (σ), all 14-3-3 isoforms were abundantly expressed in mouse kidney and mouse kidney collecting duct cells (mpkCCD14). Long-term treatment of mpkCCD14 cells with the type 2 vasopressin receptor agonist dDAVP increased mRNA and protein levels of AQP2 alongside 14-3-3 beta (β) and zeta (ζ...

  4. Weak magnetic field, solid-envelope rotation, and wave-induced N-enrichment in the SPB star $\\zeta$ Cassiopeiae

    Briquet, M; Petit, P; Leroy, B; de Batz, B


    Aims. The main-sequence B-type star $\\zeta$ Cassiopeiae is known as a N-rich star with a magnetic field discovered with the Musicos spectropolarimeter. We model the magnetic field of the star by means of 82 new spectropolarimetric observations of higher precision to investigate the field strength, topology, and effect. Methods. We gathered data with the Narval spectropolarimeter installed at T\\'elescope Bernard Lyot (TBL, Pic du Midi, France) and applied the least-squares deconvolution technique to measure the circular polarisation of the light emitted from $\\zeta$ Cas. We used a dipole oblique rotator model to determine the field configuration by fitting the longitudinal field measurements and by synthesizing the measured Stokes V profiles. We also made use of the Zeeman-Doppler Imaging technique to map the stellar surface and to deduce the difference in rotation rate between the pole and equator. Results. $\\zeta$ Cas exhibits a polar field strength $B_{\\rm pol}$ of 100-150 G, which is the weakest polar fiel...

  5. Epoetin zeta in the management of anemia associated with chronic kidney disease, differential pharmacology and clinical utility

    Davis-Ajami ML


    Full Text Available Mary Lynn Davis-Ajami,1 Jun Wu,2 Katherine Downton,3 Emilie Ludeman,3 Virginia Noxon4 1Organizational Systems and Adult Health, University of Maryland School of Nursing, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2South Carolina College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, Greenville, SC, USA; 3Health Sciences and Human Services Library, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA; 4Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Outcomes Science, South Carolina College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA Abstract: Epoetin zeta was granted marketing authorization in October 2007 by the European Medicines Agency as a recombinant human erythropoietin erythropoiesis-stimulating agent to treat symptomatic anemia of renal origin in adult and pediatric patients on hemodialysis and adults on peritoneal dialysis, as well as for symptomatic renal anemia in adult patients with renal insufficiency not yet on dialysis. Currently, epoetin zeta can be administered either subcutaneously or intravenously to correct for hemoglobin concentrations ≤10 g/dL (6.2 mmol/L or with dose adjustment to maintain hemoglobin levels at desired levels not in excess of 12 g/dL (7.5 mmol/L. This review article focuses on epoetin zeta indications in chronic kidney disease, its use in managing anemia of renal origin, and discusses its pharmacology and clinical utility. Keywords: biosimilar, chronic kidney disease, epoetin alfa, erythropoiesis, renal anemia, Retacrit®

  6. Investigation on Fuzzy Logic Based Centralized Control in Four-Port SEPIC/ZETA Bidirectional Converter for Photovoltaic Applications



    Full Text Available In this paper, a new four-port DC-DC converter topology is proposed to interface renewable energy sources and the load along with the energy storage device. The proposed four-port SEPIC/ZETA bidirectional converter (FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC converter comprises an isolated output port with two unidirectional and one bidirectional input ports. This converter topology is obtained by the fusion of SEPIC/ZETA BDC and full-bridge converter. This converter topology ensures the non-reversal of output voltage hence it is preferred mostly for battery charging applications. In this work, photovoltaic (PV source is considered and the power balance in the system is achieved by means of distributed maximum power point tracking (DMPPT in the PV ports. The centralized controller is implemented using fuzzy logic controller (FLC and the performance is compared with conventional proportional integral (PI controller. The results offer useful information to obtain the desired output under line and load regulations. Experimental results are also provided to validate the simulation results.

  7. Zebrafish pronephros tubulogenesis and epithelial identity maintenance are reliant on the polarity proteins Prkc iota and zeta.

    Gerlach, Gary F; Wingert, Rebecca A


    The zebrafish pronephros provides an excellent in vivo system to study the mechanisms of vertebrate nephron development. When and how renal progenitors in the zebrafish embryo undergo tubulogenesis to form nephrons is poorly understood, but is known to involve a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) and the acquisition of polarity. Here, we determined the precise timing of these events in pronephros tubulogenesis. As the ternary polarity complex is an essential regulator of epithelial cell polarity across tissues, we performed gene knockdown studies to assess the roles of the related factors atypical protein kinase C iota and zeta (prkcι, prkcζ). We found that prkcι and prkcζ serve partially redundant functions to establish pronephros tubule epithelium polarity. Further, the loss of prkcι or the combined knockdown of prkcι/ζ disrupted proximal tubule morphogenesis and podocyte migration due to cardiac defects that prevented normal fluid flow to the kidney. Surprisingly, tubule cells in prkcι/ζ morphants displayed ectopic expression of the transcription factor pax2a and the podocyte-associated genes wt1a, wt1b, and podxl, suggesting that prkcι/ζ are needed to maintain renal epithelial identity. Knockdown of genes essential for cardiac contractility and vascular flow to the kidney, such as tnnt2a, or elimination of pronephros fluid output through knockdown of the intraflagellar transport gene ift88, was not associated with ectopic pronephros gene expression, thus suggesting a unique role for prkcι/ζ in maintaining tubule epithelial identity separate from the consequence of disruptions to renal fluid flow. Interestingly, knockdown of pax2a, but not wt1a, was sufficient to rescue ectopic tubule gene expression in prkcι/ζ morphants. These data suggest a model in which the redundant activities of prkcι and prkcζ are essential to establish tubule epithelial polarity and also serve to maintain proper epithelial cell type identity in the tubule by

  8. Alginate nanoparticles protect ferrous from oxidation: Potential iron delivery system.

    Katuwavila, Nuwanthi P; Perera, A D L C; Dahanayake, Damayanthi; Karunaratne, V; Amaratunga, Gehan A J; Karunaratne, D Nedra


    A novel, efficient delivery system for iron (Fe(2+)) was developed using the alginate biopolymer. Iron loaded alginate nanoparticles were synthesized by a controlled ionic gelation method and was characterized with respect to particle size, zeta potential, morphology and encapsulation efficiency. Successful loading was confirmed with Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric Analysis. Electron energy loss spectroscopy study corroborated the loading of ferrous into the alginate nanoparticles. Iron encapsulation (70%) was optimized at 0.06% Fe (w/v) leading to the formation of iron loaded alginate nanoparticles with a size range of 15-30nm and with a negative zeta potential (-38mV). The in vitro release studies showed a prolonged release profile for 96h. Release of iron was around 65-70% at pH of 6 and 7.4 whereas it was less than 20% at pH 2.The initial burst release upto 8h followed zero order kinetics at all three pH values. All the release profiles beyond 8h best fitted the Korsmeyer-Peppas model of diffusion. Non Fickian diffusion was observed at pH 6 and 7.4 while at pH 2 Fickian diffusion was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. U.S. Renewable Energy Technical Potentials. A GIS-Based Analysis

    Lopez, Anthony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blair, Nate [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This report presents the state-level results of a spatial analysis effort calculating energy technical potential, reported in square kilometers of available land, megawatts of capacity, and gigawatt-hours of generation, for six different renewable technologies. For this analysis, the system specific power density (or equivalent), efficiency (capacity factor), and land-use constraints were identified for each technology using independent research, published research, and professional contacts. This report also presents technical potential findings from previous reports.

  10. U.S. Renewable Energy Technical Potentials: A GIS-Based Analysis

    Lopez, A.; Roberts, B.; Heimiller, D.; Blair, N.; Porro, G.


    This report presents the state-level results of a spatial analysis effort calculating energy technical potential, reported in square kilometers of available land, megawatts of capacity, and gigawatt-hours of generation, for six different renewable technologies. For this analysis, the system specific power density (or equivalent), efficiency (capacity factor), and land-use constraints were identified for each technology using independent research, published research, and professional contacts. This report also presents technical potential findings from previous reports.

  11. Analysis of Large Array Surface Myoelectric Potentials for the Low Back Muscles


    ANALYSIS OF LARGE ARRAY SURFACE MYOELECTRIC POTENTIALS FOR THE LOW BACK MUSCLES Steven I Reger, Ph.D. Vinod Sahgal M.D. Department of Physical...fewer subjects. The results indicated a potential of the model for clinical patient classification. Keywords - Myoelectric potential distribution, science have improved signal processing, sensitivity and simultaneous multiple site data collection methods essential to the clinical

  12. Density analysis of the neutron structure factor and the determination of the pair potential of krypton

    Barocchi, F.; Zoppi, M.; Egelstaff, P. A.


    We propose a method of analysis of the density behavior of the experimental neutron scattering structure factor which permits us to derive directly from the experimental results an ``experimental'' pair potential. We apply the method to the recent results of Teitsma and Egelstaff in krypton gas and derive a pair potential which is in good agreement with the empirical potential of Barker et al. Some discrepancies in the range 4

  13. Analysis of uncertainties in alpha-particle optical-potential assessment below the Coulomb barrier

    Avrigeanu, V


    Background: Recent high-precision measurements of alpha-induced reaction data below the Coulomb barrier have pointed out questions of the alpha-particle optical-model potential (OMP) which are yet open within various mass ranges. Purpose: The applicability of a previous optical potential and eventual uncertainties and/or systematic errors of the OMP assessment at low energies can be further considered on this basis. Method: Nuclear model parameters based on the analysis of recent independent data, particularly gamma-ray strength functions, have been involved within statistical model calculation of the (alpha,x) reaction cross sections. Results: The above-mentioned potential provides a consistent description of the recent alpha-induced reaction data with no empirical rescaling factors of the and/or nucleon widths. Conclusions: A suitable assessment of alpha-particle optical potential below the Coulomb barrier should involve the statistical-model parameters beyond this potential on the basis of a former analysi...

  14. Mitochondrion as a novel site of dichloroacetate biotransformation by glutathione transferase zeta 1.

    Li, Wenjun; James, Margaret O; McKenzie, Sarah C; Calcutt, Nigel A; Liu, Chen; Stacpoole, Peter W


    Dichloroacetate (DCA) is a potential environmental hazard and an investigational drug. Repeated doses of DCA result in reduced drug clearance, probably through inhibition of glutathione transferase ζ1 (GSTZ1), a cytosolic enzyme that converts DCA to glyoxylate. DCA is known to be taken up by mitochondria, where it inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, its major pharmacodynamic target. We tested the hypothesis that the mitochondrion was also a site of DCA biotransformation. Immunoreactive GSTZ1 was detected in liver mitochondria from humans and rats, and its identity was confirmed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the tryptic peptides. Study of rat submitochondrial fractions revealed GSTZ1 to be localized in the mitochondrial matrix. The specific activity of GSTZ1-catalyzed dechlorination of DCA was 2.5- to 3-fold higher in cytosol than in whole mitochondria and was directly proportional to GSTZ1 protein expression in the two compartments. Rat mitochondrial GSTZ1 had a 2.5-fold higher (App)K(m) for glutathione than cytosolic GSTZ1, whereas the (App)K(m) values for DCA were identical. Rats administered DCA at a dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks showed reduced hepatic GSTZ1 activity and expression of ∼10% of control levels in both cytosol and mitochondria. We conclude that the mitochondrion is a novel site of DCA biotransformation catalyzed by GSTZ1, an enzyme colocalized in cytosol and mitochondrial matrix.

  15. The Evolution of Los Zetas in Mexico and Central America: Sadism as an Instrument of Cartel Warfare


    96. “Cae operadora financiera del crimen organizado ” (“Fi- nancial Operator of Organized Crime Captured”), Diario de Xa- lapa, October 28, 2011. 97...jefe de plaza en Saltillo” (“Zeta Plaza Boss in Saltillo Captured with 13 Federal Police”), Excélsior, November 24, 2013; and “Los Golpes al crimen ...Likely Behind New Prison Break,” Border Beat, September 19, 2012; “Entra crimen obra pública” (“Crime Enters Public Works”), Reforma, Oc- tober 14

  16. On the Distribution of the Zeros of the Riemann Zeta-Function and Existence of Large Gaps

    Saker, S H


    In this paper, we prove a new Wirtinger-type inequality and assuming that the Riemann hypothesis is true we establish a new explicit formula for the gaps between the zeros of the Riemann zeta-function. On the hypothesis that the moments of the Hardy Z-function and its derivatives are correctly predicted we establish new lower bounds for the gaps between the zeros. In particular it is proved that consecutive nontrivial zeros often differ by at least 11.249 times the average spacing.

  17. Factors that can interfere with virus concentration from wastewater when using zeta plus 60S filter membranes

    Queiroz APS


    Full Text Available Zeta plus filter membranes (ZP60S have been shown to be efficient for rotavirus concentration from wastewater and for the reduction of cytotoxicity for cell cultures. Recently a variability in both properties was observed. In view of the low costs and the high virus recovery rates obtained in the past, we re-evaluated the application of ZP60S filter membranes for virus concentration from environmental samples. Some factors that could interfere with the concentration strategy using ZP60S were also considered and assessed including the type of water to be filtered and the possible release of toxic substances from the membrane matrix during filtration.

  18. Permeability dependence of streaming potential coefficient in porous media

    L.D. Thanh; R. Sprik


    In theory, the streaming potential coefficient depends not only on the zeta potential but also on the permeability of the rocks that partially determines the surface conductivity of the rocks. However, in practice, it is hard to show the permeability dependence of streaming potential coefficients be

  19. Examination of a Theoretical Model of Streaming Potential Coupling Coefficient

    Luong, D.T.; Sprik, R.


    Seismoelectric effects and streaming potentials play an important role in geophysical applications. The key parameter for those phenomena is the streaming potential coupling coefficient, which is, for example, dependent on the zeta potential of the interface of the porous rocks. Comparison of an

  20. Permeability dependence of streaming potential coefficient in porous media

    Thanh, L.D.; Sprik, R.


    In theory, the streaming potential coefficient depends not only on the zeta potential but also on the permeability of the rocks that partially determines the surface conductivity of the rocks. However, in practice, it is hard to show the permeability dependence of streaming potential coefficients

  1. Generalised analysis of the potential of an enterprise as a function of environmental parameters (theoretical approach

    Karapeychik Igor M.


    Full Text Available Within the frameworks of the author’s concept of the potential of an enterprise as the ability to conduct its immanently appropriate activity and also the idea of presentation of the size of the potential in the form of potential function from parameters of the state of an enterprise and foreign economic environment the article develops a scientific and methodical approach to construction and analysis of the potential function of an enterprise. The offered approach envisages building an economic and mathematical model of an enterprise of the optimisation type with consideration of environmental factors, determination of the size of economic potential as a maximum possible (optimal with the set condition of an enterprise and external environment of net income, statistical test of the model with possible values of external parameters (formation of statistical sampling of the graph of the potential function of an enterprise and application of statistical methods including methods of correlation, factor and regression analysis, for the study of its properties. Operability of this approach is shown on the example of the study of properties of the potential function of a model enterprise. In the course of approbation the article demonstrates its ability to reveal specific features of impact of external factors on economic potential of an enterprise; establishes, as a common regularity, differential influence of various environmental factors, caused not only by the nature of these factors, but also production and economic specific features and specific state of an enterprise. The article shows that the quantitative values of the force of influence of the said factors upon the value of economic potential, obtained during statistical analysis of the potential function of an enterprise, could serve as an instrument of ranking these factors by the priority level in the goal setting tasks at the stage of formation of the strategy of enterprise development

  2. Zeta Sperm Selection Improves Pregnancy Rate and Alters Sex Ratio in Male Factor Infertility Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    Nasr Esfahani Mohammad Hossein


    Full Text Available Background Selection of sperm for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI is usually considered as the ultimate technique to alleviate male-factor infertility. In routine ICSI, selection is based on morphology and viability which does not necessarily preclude the chance injection of DNA-damaged or apoptotic sperm into the oocyte. Sperm with high negative surface electrical charge, named “Zeta potential”, are mature and more likely to have intact chromatin. In addition, X-bearing spermatozoa carry more negative charge. Therefore, we aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of Zeta procedure with routine sperm selection in infertile men candidate for ICSI. Materials and Methods From a total of 203 ICSI cycles studied, 101 cycles were allocated to density gradient centrifugation (DGC/Zeta group and the remaining 102 were included in the DGC group in this prospective study. Clinical outcomes were com- pared between the two groups. The ratios of Xand Y bearing sperm were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR methods in 17 independent semen samples. Results In the present double-blind randomized clinical trial, a significant increase in top quality embryos and pregnancy rate were observed in DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group. Moreover, sex ratio (XY/XX at birth significantly was lower in the DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group despite similar ratio of X/Y bearings sper- matozoa following Zeta selection. Conclusion Zeta method not only improves the percentage of top embryo quality and pregnancy outcome but also alters the sex ratio compared to the conventional DGC method, despite no significant change in the ratio of Xand Ybearing sperm population (Registration number: IRCT201108047223N1.

  3. On accuracy of mathematical languages used to deal with the Riemann zeta function and the Dirichlet eta function

    Sergeyev, Yaroslav D


    The Riemann Hypothesis has been of central interest to mathematicians for a long time and many unsuccessful attempts have been made to either prove or disprove it. Since the Riemann zeta function is defined as a sum of the infinite number of items, in this paper, we look at the Riemann Hypothesis using a new applied approach to infinity allowing one to easily execute numerical computations with various infinite and infinitesimal numbers in accordance with the principle `The part is less than the whole' observed in the physical world around us. The new approach allows one to work with functions and derivatives that can assume not only finite but also infinite and infinitesimal values and this possibility is used to study properties of the Riemann zeta function and the Dirichlet eta function. A new computational approach allowing one to evaluate these functions at certain points is proposed. Numerical examples are given. It is emphasized that different mathematical languages can be used to describe mathematical...

  4. Copernicus studies of interstellar material in the Perseus II complex. III - The line of sight to Zeta Persei

    Snow, T. P., Jr.


    Ultraviolet spectrophotometric data obtained with Copernicus are used to analyze the distribution, composition, density, temperature, and kinematics of the interstellar material along the line of sight to Zeta Persei. The far-UV extinction curve for the star is evaluated along with the kinematics of the interstellar gas, observations of atomic and molecular hydrogen, curves of growth for neutral and ionized species, atomic abundances and depletions, ionization equilibria, and observations of CO and OH lines. The results show that there are apparently three clouds along the line of sight to Zeta Persei: a main cloud at approximately +13 km/s which contains most of the material and forms all the neutral and molecular lines as well as most of the ionic lines, a second component at +22 km/s which must contribute to the strong UV lines of most ions, and a third component at roughly +2 km/s which gives rise to a strong Si III line at 1206 A. It is also found that the UV extinction curve has a somewhat steep far-UV rise, indicating the presence of a substantial number of small grains, and that about 30% of the hydrogen nuclei over the entire line of sight are in molecular form.

  5. Effect of mutations mimicking phosphorylation on the structure and properties of human 14-3-3zeta.

    Sluchanko, Nikolai N; Chernik, Ivan S; Seit-Nebi, Alim S; Pivovarova, Anastasia V; Levitsky, Dmitrii I; Gusev, Nikolai B


    Effect of mutations mimicking phosphorylation on the structure of human 14-3-3zeta protein was analyzed by different methods. Mutation S58E increased intrinsic Trp fluorescence and binding of bis-ANS to 14-3-3. At low protein concentration mutation S58E increased the probability of dissociation of dimeric 14-3-3 and its susceptibility to proteolysis. Mutation S184E slightly increased Stokes radius and thermal stability of 14-3-3. Mutation T232E induced only small increase of Stokes radius and sedimentation coefficient that probably reflect the changes in the size or shape of 14-3-3. At low protein concentration the triple mutant S58E/S184E/T232E tended to dissociate, whereas at high concentration its properties were comparable with those of the wild type protein. The triple mutant was highly susceptible to proteolysis. Thus, mutation mimicking phosphorylation of Ser58 destabilized, whereas mutation of Ser184 induced stabilization of 14-3-3zeta structure.

  6. Comparison of Artificial Neural Networks and GIS Based Solar Analysis for Solar Potential Estimation

    Konakoǧlu, Berkant; Usta, Ziya; Cömert, Çetin; Gökalp, Ertan


    Nowadays, estimation of solar potential plays an important role in planning process for sustainable cities. The use of solar panels, which produces electricity directly from the sun, has become popular in accordance with developing technologies. Since the use of solar panels enables the users to decrease costs and increase yields, the use of solar panels will be more popular in the future. Production of electricity is not convenient for all circumstances. Shading effects, massive clouds and rainy weather are some factors that directly affect the production of electricity from solar energy. Hence, before the installation of solar panels, it is crucial to conduct spatial analysis and estimate the solar potential of the place that the solar panel will be installed. There are several approaches to determine the solar potential. Examination of the applications in the literature reveals that the applications conducted for determining the solar potential are divided into two main categories. Solar potential is estimated either by using artificial neural network approach in which statistical parameters such as the duration of sun shine, number of clear days, solar radiation etc. are used, or by spatial analysis conducted in GIS approaches in which spatial parameters such as, latitude, longitude, slope, aspect etc. are used. In the literature, there are several studies that use both approaches but the literature lacks of a study related to the comparison of these approaches. In this study, Karadeniz Technical University campus has been selected as study area. Monthly average values of the number of clear sky days, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, sunshine duration and solar radiation parameters obtained for the years between 2005 and 2015 will be used to perform artificial neural network analysis to estimate the solar potential of the study area. The solar potential will also be estimated by using GIS-based solar analysis modules. The results of

  7. An Economic Analysis of Potential Impacts of Climate Change in Egypt

    Onyeji, S.C.; Fischer, G.


    Projections of climate impacts on crop yields simulated for different GCM scenarios are used, in a recursively dynamic general equilibrium framework, to account for potential economy-wide impacts of climate change in Egypt. Comparing these impact projections to those obtained under a reference, business-as-usual, scenario assuming some moderate changes in the political, economic or technological sphere, indicates that global warming has potentially negative effects. The analysis is based on ...

  8. An Excel-based implementation of the spectral method of action potential alternans analysis.

    Pearman, Charles M


    Action potential (AP) alternans has been well established as a mechanism of arrhythmogenesis and sudden cardiac death. Proper interpretation of AP alternans requires a robust method of alternans quantification. Traditional methods of alternans analysis neglect higher order periodicities that may have greater pro-arrhythmic potential than classical 2:1 alternans. The spectral method of alternans analysis, already widely used in the related study of microvolt T-wave alternans, has also been used to study AP alternans. Software to meet the specific needs of AP alternans analysis is not currently available in the public domain. An AP analysis tool is implemented here, written in Visual Basic for Applications and using Microsoft Excel as a shell. This performs a sophisticated analysis of alternans behavior allowing reliable distinction of alternans from random fluctuations, quantification of alternans magnitude, and identification of which phases of the AP are most affected. In addition, the spectral method has been adapted to allow detection and quantification of higher order regular oscillations. Analysis of action potential morphology is also performed. A simple user interface enables easy import, analysis, and export of collated results.

  9. Mapping Protein–Protein Interactions of the Resistance-Related Bacterial Zeta Toxin–Epsilon Antitoxin Complex (ε2ζ2 with High Affinity Peptide Ligands Using Fluorescence Polarization

    María Isabel Fernández-Bachiller


    Full Text Available Toxin–antitoxin systems constitute a native survival strategy of pathogenic bacteria and thus are potential targets of antibiotic drugs. Here, we target the Zeta–Epsilon toxin–antitoxin system, which is responsible for the stable maintenance of certain multiresistance plasmids in Gram-positive bacteria. Peptide ligands were designed on the basis of the ε2ζ2 complex. Three α helices of Zeta forming the protein–protein interaction (PPI site were selected and peptides were designed conserving the residues interacting with Epsilon antitoxin while substituting residues binding intramolecularly to other parts of Zeta. Designed peptides were synthesized with an N-terminal fluoresceinyl-carboxy-residue for binding assays and provided active ligands, which were used to define the hot spots of the ε2ζ2 complex. Further shortening and modification of the binding peptides provided ligands with affinities <100 nM, allowing us to determine the most relevant PPIs and implement a robust competition binding assay.

  10. Spatial data analysis and integration for regional-scale geothermal potential mapping, West Java, Indonesia

    Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Barritt, Sally D. [Department of Earth Systems Analysis, International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Enschede (Netherlands); Wibowo, Hendro; Sumintadireja, Prihadi [Laboratory of Volcanology and Geothermal, Geology Department, Institute of Technology Bandung (ITB), Bandung (Indonesia)


    Conceptual modeling and predictive mapping of potential for geothermal resources at the regional-scale in West Java are supported by analysis of the spatial distribution of geothermal prospects and thermal springs, and their spatial associations with geologic features derived from publicly available regional-scale spatial data sets. Fry analysis shows that geothermal occurrences have regional-scale spatial distributions that are related to Quaternary volcanic centers and shallow earthquake epicenters. Spatial frequency distribution analysis shows that geothermal occurrences have strong positive spatial associations with Quaternary volcanic centers, Quaternary volcanic rocks, quasi-gravity lows, and NE-, NNW-, WNW-trending faults. These geological features, with their strong positive spatial associations with geothermal occurrences, constitute spatial recognition criteria of regional-scale geothermal potential in a study area. Application of data-driven evidential belief functions in GIS-based predictive mapping of regional-scale geothermal potential resulted in delineation of high potential zones occupying 25% of West Java, which is a substantial reduction of the search area for further exploration of geothermal resources. The predicted high potential zones delineate about 53-58% of the training geothermal areas and 94% of the validated geothermal occurrences. The results of this study demonstrate the value of regional-scale geothermal potential mapping in: (a) data-poor situations, such as West Java, and (b) regions with geotectonic environments similar to the study area. (author)

  11. Image analysis in the evaluation of the physiological potential of maize seeds1

    Crislaine Aparecida Gomes Pinto

    Full Text Available The Seed Analysis System (SAS is used in the image analysis of seeds and seedlings, and has the potential for use in the control of seed quality. The aim of this research was to adapt the methodology of image analysis of maize seedlings by SAS, and to verify the potential use of this equipment in the evaluation of the physiological potential of maize seeds. Nine batches of two maize hybrids were characterised by means of the following tests and determinations: germination, first count, accelerated ageing, cold test, seedling emergence at 25 and 30ºC, and speed of emergence index. The image analysis experiment was carried out in a factorial scheme of 9 batches x 4 methods of analysis of the seedling images (with and without the use of NWF as substrate, and with and without manual correction of the images. Images of the seedlings were evaluated using the average lengths of the coleoptile, roots and seedlings; and by the automatic and manual indices of vigour, uniformity and growth produced by the SAS. Use of blue NWF afffects the initial development of maize seedlings. The physiological potential of maize seeds can be evaluated in seedlings which are seeded on white paper towels at a temperature of 25 °C and evaluated on the third day. Image analysis should be carried out with the SAS software using automatic calibration and with no correction of the seedling images. Use of SAS equipment for the analysis of seedling images is a potential tool in evaluating the physiological quality of maize seeds.

  12. Analysis of brain-stem auditory evoked potential and visual evoked potential in patients with Parkinson disease

    Qiaorong Deng; Jianzhong Deng; Yanmin Zhao; Xiaohai Yan; Pin Chen


    BACKGROUND: With the development of neuroelectrophysiology, it had been identified that all kinds of evoked potentials might reflect the functional status of corresponding pathway. Evoked potentials recruited in the re search of PD, it can be known whether other functional pathway of nervous system is impaired. OBJECTIVE: To observe whether brainstem auditory and visual passageway are impaired in patients with Parkinson disease (PD), and compare with non-PD patients concurrently. DESIGN: A non-randomized concurrent controlled observation. SETTINGS: Henan Provincial Tumor Hospital; Anyang District Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-two cases of PD outpatients and inpatients, who registered in the Department of Neurology, Anyang District Hospital from October 1997 to February 2006, were enrolled as the PD group, including 20 males and 12 females, aged 50-72 years old. Inclusive criteria: In accordance with the diagnostic criteria of PD recommended by the dyskinesia and PD group of neurology branch of Chinese Medical Association. Patients with diseases that could cause Parkinson syndrome were excluded by CT scanning or MRI examination. Meanwhile, 30 cases with non-neurological disease were selected from the Department of Internal Medicine of our hospital as the control group, including 19 males and 11 females, aged 45-70 years old. Including criteria: Without history of neurological disease or psychiatric disease; showing normal image on CT. And PD, Parkinson syndrome and Parkinsonism-plus were excluded by professional neurologist. All the patients were informed and agreed with the examination and clinical observation. METHODS: The electrophysiological examination and clinical observation of the PD patients and controls were conducted. The Reporter type 4-channel evoked potential machine (Italy) was used to check brain-stem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) and visual evoked potential (VEP). Why to be examined was explained to test taker. BAEP recording electrode was plac

  13. On the potential of uncertainty analysis for prediction of brake squeal propensity

    Zhang, Zhi; Oberst, Sebastian; Lai, Joseph C. S.


    Brake squeal is a source of significant warranty-related claims for automotive manufacturers because it is annoying and is often perceived by customers as a safety concern. A brake squeal analysis is complex due to changing environmental and operating conditions, high sensitivity to manufacturing and assembly tolerances as well as the not so well understood role of nonlinearities. Although brake squeal is essentially a nonlinear problem, the standard analysis tool in industry is the linear complex eigenvalue analysis (CEA) which may under-predict or over-predict the number of unstable vibration modes. A nonlinear instability analysis is more predictive than CEA but is still computationally too expensive to be used routinely in industry for a full brake finite element model. Also, although the net work analysis of a linearised brake system has shown potential in predicting the origin of brake squeal, it has not been extensively used. In this study, the net work of an analytical viscously damped self-excited 4-dof friction oscillator with cubic contact force nonlinearity is compared with the instability prediction using the CEA and a nonlinear instability analysis. Results show that both the net work analysis and CEA under-predict the instability because of their inability to detect the sub-critical Hopf bifurcation. Then, the uncertainty analysis is applied to examine if it can improve instability prediction of a nonlinear system using linear methods and its limitations. By applying a variance-based global sensitivity analysis to parameters of the oscillator, suitable candidates for an uncertainty analysis are identified. Results of uncertainty analyses by applying polynomial chaos expansions to net work and CEA correlate well with those of the nonlinear analysis, hence demonstrating the potential of an uncertainty analysis in improving the prediction of brake squeal propensity using a linear method.

  14. Effects of surface charge on interfacial interactions related to membrane fouling in a submerged membrane bioreactor based on thermodynamic analysis.

    Cai, Huihui; Fan, Hao; Zhao, Leihong; Hong, Huachang; Shen, Liguo; He, Yiming; Lin, Hongjun; Chen, Jianrong


    Effects of both membrane and sludge foulant surface zeta potentials on interfacial interactions between membrane and sludge foulant in different interaction scenarios were systematically investigated based on thermodynamic methods. Under conditions in this study, it was found that zeta potential had marginal effects on total interfacial interaction between two infinite planar surfaces, and the total interfacial interaction between foulant particles and membrane would be more repulsive with increase of absolute value of zeta potential. Adhesion of foulant particles on membrane surface should overcome an energy barrier. There exists a critical zeta potential below which energy barrier would disappear. Results also showed that rough surface membrane corresponded to significantly low strength of interfacial interactions. This study not only provided a series of methods to quantitatively assess the interfacial interactions between membrane and sludge foulants, but also reconciled the contradictory conclusions regarding effects of zeta potential in literature, giving important implications for membrane fouling mitigation.

  15. Shadow effect on photovoltaic potentiality analysis using 3D city models

    Alam, N.; Coors, V.; Zlatanova, S.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.


    Due to global warming, green-house effect and various other drawbacks of existing energy sources, renewable energy like Photovoltaic system is being popular for energy production. The result of photovoltaic potentiality analysis depends on data quality and parameters. Shadow rapidly decreases perfor


    Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility Research and ScreeningDavid Miller1, David Dix2, Robert Reid3, Susan Wykes3 and Stephen Krawetz3 1Reproductive Biology Group, University of Leeds, UK2Reproductive Toxicology Division, U.S. Environmenta...

  17. An Analysis of the Educational Potential of Augmented Reality Games for Learning

    Schmitz, Birgit; Specht, Marcus; Klemke, Roland


    Schmitz, B., Specht, M., & Klemke, R. (2012). An Analysis of the Educational Potential of Augmented Reality Games for Learning. In M. Specht, J. Multisilta, & M. Sharples (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning 2012 (pp. 140-147). October, 16-18, 2012, Hels

  18. An olfactory input to the hippocampus of the cat: Field potential analysis

    Habets, A.M.M.C.; Lopes Da Silva, F.H.; Mollevanger, W.J.


    Hippocampal responses to electrical stimulation of the prepyriform cortex in the cat were studied both in acute experiments under halothane anesthesia and in awake cats with chronically indwelling electrodes. Analysis of field potentials and unit activity indicated the extent to which different hipp

  19. Spatial stochastic simulation offers potential as a quantitative method for pest risk analysis.

    Rafoss, Trond


    Pest risk analysis represents an emerging field of risk analysis that evaluates the potential risks of the introduction and establishment of plant pests into a new geographic location and then assesses the management options to reduce those potential risks. Development of new and adapted methodology is required to answer questions concerning pest risk analysis of exotic plant pests. This research describes a new method for predicting the potential establishment and spread of a plant pest into new areas using a case study, Ralstonia solanacearum, a bacterial disease of potato. This method combines current quantitative methodologies, stochastic simulation, and geographic information systems with knowledge of pest biology and environmental data to derive new information about pest establishment potential in a geographical region where a pest had not been introduced. This proposed method extends an existing methodology for matching pest characteristics with environmental conditions by modeling and simulating dissemination behavior of a pest organism. Issues related to integrating spatial variables into risk analysis models are further discussed in this article.

  20. An Analysis of the Educational Potential of Augmented Reality Games for Learning

    Schmitz, Birgit; Specht, Marcus; Klemke, Roland


    Schmitz, B., Specht, M., & Klemke, R. (2012). An Analysis of the Educational Potential of Augmented Reality Games for Learning. In M. Specht, J. Multisilta, & M. Sharples (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning 2012 (pp. 140-147). October, 16-18, 2012, Hels

  1. An Analysis of the Educational Potential of Augmented Reality Games for Learning

    Schmitz, Birgit; Specht, Marcus; Klemke, Roland


    Schmitz, B., Specht, M., & Klemke, R. (2012). An Analysis of the Educational Potential of Augmented Reality Games for Learning. In M. Specht, J. Multisilta, & M. Sharples (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning 2012 (pp. 140-147). October, 16-18, 2012,

  2. Correlating liposomal adjuvant characteristics to in-vivo cell-mediated immunity using a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis fusion protein: a multivariate analysis study.

    Kastner, Elisabeth; Hussain, M Jubair; Bramwell, Vincent W; Christensen, Dennis; Perrie, Yvonne


    In this study, we have used a chemometrics-based method to correlate key liposomal adjuvant attributes with in-vivo immune responses based on multivariate analysis. The liposomal adjuvant composed of the cationic lipid dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DDA) and trehalose 6,6-dibehenate (TDB) was modified with 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine at a range of mol% ratios, and the main liposomal characteristics (liposome size and zeta potential) was measured along with their immunological performance as an adjuvant for the novel, postexposure fusion tuberculosis vaccine, Ag85B-ESAT-6-Rv2660c (H56 vaccine). Partial least square regression analysis was applied to correlate and cluster liposomal adjuvants particle characteristics with in-vivo derived immunological performances (IgG, IgG1, IgG2b, spleen proliferation, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ). While a range of factors varied in the formulations, decreasing the 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine content (and subsequent zeta potential) together built the strongest variables in the model. Enhanced DDA and TDB content (and subsequent zeta potential) stimulated a response skewed towards a cell mediated immunity, with the model identifying correlations with IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-6. This study demonstrates the application of chemometrics-based correlations and clustering, which can inform liposomal adjuvant design. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Oltu District of Erzurum Province to Determine the Potential Ecotourism for SWOT Analysis

    Elif Akpınar Külekçi


    Full Text Available Oltu district of Erzurum selected as research region has important potential with regards of ecotourism with historical riches and regional architecture, canyons and interesting geological forms, traditional productions and handicrafts, variable soil structures between the elevations of 850 and 3000 m, variable flora and fauna riches includes so many biological diversities, natural assets such as mountains, plates, plateaus, valens and brooks. This study was conducted to determine ecotourism potential in Oltu district. In this respect, a SWOT analysis was conducted with experts in order to evaluate the questionnaires prepared with 5 scaled Likert type questions on the dates of August 14 and 22, 2010. With this SWOT analysis, it is aimed to determine what strengths, weaknesses and possible opportunities and threats in the future of research area could be in terms of ecotourism potentials.

  4. Parametric distribution approach for flow availability in small hydro potential analysis

    Abdullah, Samizee; Basri, Mohd Juhari Mat; Jamaluddin, Zahrul Zamri; Azrulhisham, Engku Ahmad; Othman, Jamel


    Small hydro system is one of the important sources of renewable energy and it has been recognized worldwide as clean energy sources. Small hydropower generation system uses the potential energy in flowing water to produce electricity is often questionable due to inconsistent and intermittent of power generated. Potential analysis of small hydro system which is mainly dependent on the availability of water requires the knowledge of water flow or stream flow distribution. This paper presented the possibility of applying Pearson system for stream flow availability distribution approximation in the small hydro system. By considering the stochastic nature of stream flow, the Pearson parametric distribution approximation was computed based on the significant characteristic of Pearson system applying direct correlation between the first four statistical moments of the distribution. The advantage of applying various statistical moments in small hydro potential analysis will have the ability to analyze the variation shapes of stream flow distribution.

  5. Parametric sensitivity analysis for the helium dimers on a model potential

    Nelson Henrique Teixeira Lemes


    Full Text Available Potential parameters sensitivity analysis for helium unlike molecules, HeNe, HeAr, HeKr and HeXe is the subject of this work. Number of bound states these rare gas dimers can support, for different angular momentum, will be presented and discussed. The variable phase method, together with the Levinson's theorem, is used to explore the quantum scattering process at very low collision energy using the Tang and Toennies potential. These diatomic dimers can support a bound state even for relative angular momentum equal to five, as in HeXe. Vibrational excited states, with zero angular momentum, are also possible for HeKr and HeXe. Results from sensitive analysis will give acceptable order of magnitude on potentials parameters.

  6. The potential of lacquer-peel soil profiles for palaeo-geochemical analysis using XRF analysis

    Arnoldussen, Stijn; van Os, B.J.H.


    This paper discusses the suitability of hand-held XRF analysis to extract palaeo-geochemical information from lacquer-peel soil sections that have been taken to document pedological information at geological and archaeological sites. This not only allows the study of sections from archaeological and

  7. Preliminary phytochemical screening, Antibacterial potential and GC-MS analysis of two medicinal plant extracts.

    Vijayaram, Seerangaraj; Kannan, Suruli; Saravanan, Konda Mani; Vasantharaj, Seerangaraj; Sathiyavimal, Selvam; P, Palanisamy Senthilkumar


    The presence study was aimed to catalyze the primary metabolites and their confirmation by using GC-MS analysis and antibacterial potential of leaf extract of two important medicinal plant viz., Eucalyptus and Azadirachta indica. The antibacterial potential of the methanol leaf extract of the studied species was tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiellap neumoniae, Streptococcus pyogens, Staphylococcus aureus using by agar well diffusion method. The higher zone of inhibition (16mm) was observed against the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 100μl concentration of methanol leaf extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of studied species shows that presence of phytochemical compounds like steroids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. GC-MS analysis confirms the occurrence of 20 different compounds in the methanol leaf extract of the both studied species.

  8. Development of a screening approach for exploring cell factory potential through metabolic flux analysis and physiology

    Knudsen, Peter Boldsen; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Thykær, Jette


    The recent developments within the field of metabolic engineering have significantly increased the speed by which fungal recombinant strains are being constructed, pushing focus towards physiological characterisation and analysis. This raises demand for a tool for diligent analysis of the recombi...... and work-load connected with screening and selection of potential cell factories with attractive properties, compared with more “traditional” methodologies where metabolic flux analysis is applied at a much later state in the characterisation process.......The recent developments within the field of metabolic engineering have significantly increased the speed by which fungal recombinant strains are being constructed, pushing focus towards physiological characterisation and analysis. This raises demand for a tool for diligent analysis...... on a Hamilton robotic system. This method aimed at characterising physiology at two levels: (1) An approach focusing on the traditional growth related parameters, i.e. growth rate, yield coefficients and extracellular metabolites. (2) 13C-labelling experiments, where metabolic fluxes are quantified...

  9. An Investigation into the Potential Application of Wavelets to Modal Testing and Analysis

    Gwinn, A. Fort, Jr.


    The analysis of transient data of the type found in vibrating mechanical systems has been greatly improved through the use of modern techniques such as Fourier analysis. This is especially true when considered in conjunction with the development of the so-called Fast Fourier Transform algorithm by Cooley and the tremendous strides in computational power of the last several decades. The usefulness of the discrete Fourier Transform is its ability to transform sampled data from the "time-domain" to the "frequency domain," thereby allowing the analyst to decompose a signal into its frequency content. More recent developments have led to the wavelet transform. The strength of wavelet analysis is its ability to maintain both time and frequency information, thus making it an attractive candidate for the analysis of non-stationary signals. This report is an overview of wavelet theory and the potential use of the wavelet transform as an alternative to Fourier analysis in modal identification.

  10. Overexpression of DNA polymerase zeta reduces the mitochondrial mutability caused by pathological mutations in DNA polymerase gamma in yeast.

    Enrico Baruffini

    Full Text Available In yeast, DNA polymerase zeta (Rev3 and Rev7 and Rev1, involved in the error-prone translesion synthesis during replication of nuclear DNA, localize also in mitochondria. We show that overexpression of Rev3 reduced the mtDNA extended mutability caused by a subclass of pathological mutations in Mip1, the yeast mitochondrial DNA polymerase orthologous to human Pol gamma. This beneficial effect was synergistic with the effect achieved by increasing the dNTPs pools. Since overexpression of Rev3 is detrimental for nuclear DNA mutability, we constructed a mutant Rev3 isoform unable to migrate into the nucleus: its overexpression reduced mtDNA mutability without increasing the nuclear one.

  11. Stress-energy tensor correlators in N-dimensional hot flat spaces via the generalized zeta-function method

    Cho, H. T.; Hu, B. L.


    We calculate the expectation values of the stress-energy bitensor defined at two different spacetime points x, x‧ of a massless, minimally coupled scalar field with respect to a quantum state at finite temperature T in a flat N-dimensional spacetime by means of the generalized zeta-function method. These correlators, also known as the noise kernels, give the fluctuations of energy and momentum density of a quantum field which are essential for the investigation of the physical effects of negative energy density in certain spacetimes or quantum states. They also act as the sources of the Einstein-Langevin equations in stochastic gravity which one can solve for the dynamics of metric fluctuations as in spacetime foams. In terms of constitutions these correlators are one rung above (in the sense of the correlation—BBGKY or Schwinger-Dyson—hierarchies) the mean (vacuum and thermal expectation) values of the stress-energy tensor which drive the semiclassical Einstein equation in semiclassical gravity. The low- and the high-temperature expansions of these correlators are also given here: at low temperatures, the leading order temperature dependence goes like TN while at high temperatures they have a T2 dependence with the subleading terms exponentially suppressed by e-T. We also discuss the singular behavior of the correlators in the x‧ → x coincident limit as was done before for massless conformal quantum fields. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker’s 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’.

  12. The Potential for Renewable Energy Development to Benefit Restoration of the Salton Sea. Analysis of Technical and Market Potential

    Gagne, Douglas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oakleaf, Brett [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hurlbut, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wall, Anna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pienkos, Philip [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melius, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This report summarizes the potential for renewable energy development in the Salton Sea region, as well as the potential for revenues from this development to contribute financially to Salton Sea restoration costs. It considers solar, geothermal, biofuels or nutraceutical production from algae pond cultivation, desalination using renewable energy, and mineral recovery from geothermal fluids.

  13. Assembly, intracellular processing, and expression at the cell surface of the human alpha beta T cell receptor/CD3 complex. Function of the CD3-zeta chain

    Geisler, C; Kuhlmann, J; Rubin, B


    The TCR/CD3 complex is a multimeric protein complex composed of a minimum of seven transmembrane chains (TCR alpha beta-CD3 gamma delta epsilon zeta 2). Whereas earlier studies have demonstrated that both the TCR-alpha and -beta chains are required for the cell surface expression of the TCR/CD3 c...... to form the heptameric complex (TCR alpha beta-CD3 gamma delta epsilon----TCR alpha beta-CD3 gamma delta epsilon 2); and 5) CD3-zeta is required for the export of the TCR/CD3 complex from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus for subsequent processing....

  14. Metabonomic analysis of potential biomarkers and drug targets involved in diabetic nephropathy mice.

    Wei, Tingting; Zhao, Liangcai; Jia, Jianmin; Xia, Huanhuan; Du, Yao; Lin, Qiuting; Lin, Xiaodong; Ye, Xinjian; Yan, Zhihan; Gao, Hongchang


    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the lethal manifestations of diabetic systemic microvascular disease. Elucidation of characteristic metabolic alterations during diabetic progression is critical to understand its pathogenesis and identify potential biomarkers and drug targets involved in the disease. In this study, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR)-based metabonomics with correlative analysis was performed to study the characteristic metabolites, as well as the related pathways in urine and kidney samples of db/db diabetic mice, compared with age-matched wildtype mice. The time trajectory plot of db/db mice revealed alterations, in an age-dependent manner, in urinary metabolic profiles along with progression of renal damage and dysfunction. Age-dependent and correlated metabolite analysis identified that cis-aconitate and allantoin could serve as biomarkers for the diagnosis of DN. Further correlative analysis revealed that the enzymes dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH), guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH I), and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HMG-CoA lyase) were involved in dimethylamine metabolism, ketogenesis and GTP metabolism pathways, respectively, and could be potential therapeutic targets for DN. Our results highlight that metabonomic analysis can be used as a tool to identify potential biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of diseases.

  15. Methods for meta-analysis in genetic association studies: a review of their potential and pitfalls.

    Kavvoura, Fotini K; Ioannidis, John P A


    Meta-analysis offers the opportunity to combine evidence from retrospectively accumulated or prospectively generated data. Meta-analyses may provide summary estimates and can help in detecting and addressing potential inconsistency between the combined datasets. Application of meta-analysis in genetic associations presents considerable potential and several pitfalls. In this review, we present basic principles of meta-analytic methods, adapted for human genome epidemiology. We describe issues that arise in the retrospective or the prospective collection of relevant data through various sources, common traps to consider in the appraisal of evidence and potential biases that may interfere. We describe the relative merits and caveats for common methods used to trace inconsistency across studies along with possible reasons for non-replication of proposed associations. Different statistical models may be employed to combine data and some common misconceptions may arise in the process. Several meta-analysis diagnostics are often applied or misapplied in the literature, and we comment on their use and limitations. An alternative to overcome limitations arising from retrospective combination of data from published studies is to create networks of research teams working in the same field and perform collaborative meta-analyses of individual participant data, ideally on a prospective basis. We discuss the advantages and the challenges inherent in such collaborative approaches. Meta-analysis can be a useful tool in dissecting the genetics of complex diseases and traits, provided its methods are properly applied and interpreted.

  16. The potentials of the third generation of flow injection analysis for nutrient monitoring and fractionation analysis

    Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald; Buanuam, Janya


    In the present communication, the third generation of flow injection analysis, the so-called micro sequential-injection Laboratory-on-Valve (μSI-LOV), is presented as a miniaturized, automated approach for on-line monitoring of nutrients in different environmental compartments as effected under...... enclosed and strictly controlled conditions. Special emphasis is placed on coupling μSI-LOV on-line with a recently developed microcolumn to perform dynamic fractionation schemes for ascertaining the availability of phosphorous forms in solid substrates for biota uptake under simulated environmental...

  17. Potential applications of global protein expression analysis (proteomics) in morbid obesity and bariatric surgery.

    Brandacher, Gerald; Golderer, Georg; Kienzl, Katrin; Werner, Ernst R; Margreiter, Raimund; Weiss, Helmut G


    Global protein expression analysis, known as proteomics, has emerged as a novel scientific technology currently successfully applied to several fields of medicine including cancer and transplantation. Thereby, a thorough exploration of the pathogenic mechanisms and a better understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases as well as identification of diagnostic biomarkers have been achieved. In this paper, we outline the basic principles and potential applications of this promising tool in bariatric surgery where proteomics might hold great potential for new insights into diagnostic and therapeutic decision making based on improved knowledge of metabolic regulations pre- and postsurgical interventions in morbidly obese patients.

  18. Phospholipase C-zeta deficiency as a cause for repetitive oocyte fertilization failure during ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization with ICSI: a case report.

    Chithiwala, Zahabiya H; Lee, Hoi Chang; Hill, David L; Jellerette-Nolan, Teru; Fissore, Rafael; Grow, Daniel; Dumesic, Daniel A


    The purpose of this study is to describe impaired oocyte fertilization from phospholipase C-zeta (PLC-ζ) deficiency in normal-appearing sperm that was successfully treated using calcium (Ca(2+)) ionophore with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of oocytes matured in vitro. An infertile couple undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) experienced failed oocyte fertilization following ICSI with normal-appearing sperm. A semen sample collected from the patient was used to assess the expression of sperm PLC- ζ protein by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence and PLC-ζ bioactivity by an in vitro model of Ca(2+) release. A second IVF cycle was performed using Ca(2+) ionophore with ICSI to enhance Ca(2+)-induced oocyte activation of oocytes matured in vitro. Sperm PLC-ζ protein deficiency was demonstrated by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence and confirmed by reduced PLC-ζ bioactivity using an in vitro model of Ca(2+) release. Nevertheless, with this sperm and supplementation of Ca(2+) ionophore following ICSI, fertilization of four of six oocytes matured in vitro was obtained. In addition, four embryos underwent cleavage and two of them reached the blastocyst stage. Transfer of these blastocysts into the uterus led to a single pregnancy and live birth. Deficiency of PLC-ζ in normal-appearing human sperm is associated with impaired Ca(2+)-dependent oocyte activation during ICSI. Under this condition, use of Ca(2+) ionophore following ICSI of oocytes matured in vitro improves embryo developmental competence, possibly through the activation of Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms governing fertilization and preimplantation embryogenesis.

  19. Human REV3 DNA Polymerase Zeta Localizes to Mitochondria and Protects the Mitochondrial Genome.

    Singh, Bhupendra; Li, Xiurong; Owens, Kjerstin M; Vanniarajan, Ayyasamy; Liang, Ping; Singh, Keshav K


    To date, mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) is the only polymerase known to be present in mammalian mitochondria. A dogma in the mitochondria field is that there is no other polymerase present in the mitochondria of mammalian cells. Here we demonstrate localization of REV3 DNA polymerase in the mammalian mitochondria. We demonstrate localization of REV3 in the mitochondria of mammalian tissue as well as cell lines. REV3 associates with POLG and mitochondrial DNA and protects the mitochondrial genome from DNA damage. Inactivation of Rev3 leads to reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced OXPHOS activity, and increased glucose consumption. Conversely, inhibition of the OXPHOS increases expression of Rev3. Rev3 expression is increased in human primary breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines. Inactivation of Rev3 decreases cell migration and invasion, and localization of Rev3 in mitochondria increases survival and the invasive potential of cancer cells. Taken together, we demonstrate that REV3 functions in mammalian mitochondria and that mitochondrial REV3 is associated with the tumorigenic potential of cells.

  20. The analysis of the wind potential in selected locations in the southeastern Poland

    Sornek Krzysztof


    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of analysis of the wind potential in selected locations in the southern Poland (placed in the Małopolskie, Świętokrzyskie and Podkarpackie Voivodships. The measurements and analysis of the wind resources in potential locations of the wind turbines are important part of the investment process. The statistical analysis involves the creation of histograms (e.g. histogram of the wind speed and direction and fitting those histograms to theoretical distributions (e.g. Weilbull distributions of wind speed. Such analysis has been described and conducted using measurement data for four selected locations. Basis on the conducted analysis, the economy efficiency and environmental impact of wind turbine operation has been estimated. Three market available wind turbines have been included to calculate NPV, IRR and SPBT indicators. Then, the avoided emissions of CO2, NOx, SO2 and dust have been calculated. There were also conducted some calculation using TRNSYS simulation software. The results of simulations have been compared with measurement data and the level of convergence have been found.

  1. Analysis of Renewable Energy Potential on U. S. National Forest Lands

    Zvolanek, E. [Environmental Science Division; Kuiper, J. [Environmental Science Division; Carr, A. [Environmental Science Division; Hlava, K.


    In 2005, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) completed an assessment of the potential for solar and wind energy development on National Forest System (NFS) public lands managed by the US Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service (USFS). This report provides an update of the analysis in the NREL report, and extends the analysis with additional siting factors for solar and wind energy. It also expands the scope to biomass and geothermal energy resources. Hydropower is acknowledged as another major renewable energy source on NFS lands; however, it was not analyzed in this project primarily because of the substantially different analysis that would be needed to identify suitable locations. Details about each renewable energy production technology included in the study are provided following the report introduction, including how each resource is converted to electrical power, and examples of existing power plants. The analysis approach was to use current and available Geographic Information System (GIS) data to map the distribution of the subject renewable energy resources, major siting factors, and NFS lands. For each major category of renewable energy power production, a set of siting factors were determined, including minimum levels for the renewable energy resources, and details for each of the other siting factors. Phase 1 of the analysis focused on replicating and updating the 2005 NREL analysis, and Phase 2 introduced additional siting factors and energy resources. Source data were converted to a cell-based format that helped create composite maps of locations meeting all the siting criteria. Acreages and potential power production levels for NFS units were tabulated and are presented throughout this report and the accompanying files. NFS units in the southwest United States were found to have the most potentially suitable land for concentrating solar power (CSP), especially in Arizona and New Mexico. In total, about 136,032 acres of NFS lands

  2. How to avoid potential pitfalls in recurrence plot based data analysis

    Marwan, Norbert


    Recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis have become popular in the last two decades. Recurrence based methods have on the one hand a deep foundation in the theory of dynamical systems and are on the other hand powerful tools for the investigation of a variety of problems. The increasing interest encompasses the growing risk of misuse and uncritical application of these methods. Therefore, we point out potential problems and pitfalls related to different aspects of the application of recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis.


    Artur Piński


    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants in order to cleanup pollutants including xenobiotics and heavy metals from soil, water and air. Inoculation of plants with plant growth promoting endophytic and rhizospheric bacteria can enhance efficiency of phytoremediation. Genomic analysis of four plant-associated strains belonging to the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia species revealed the presence of genes encoding proteins involved in plant growth promotion, biocontrol of phytopathogens, biodegradation of xenobiotics, heavy metals resistance and plant-bacteria-environment interaction. The results of this analysis suggest great potential of bacteria belonging to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia species in enhancing phytoremediation efficiency.

  4. Self-Potential data inversion through the integration of spectral analysis and tomographic approaches

    Di Maio, Rosa; Piegari, Ester; Rani, Payal; Avella, Adolfo


    An integrated approach to interpret Self-Potential (SP) anomalies based on spectral analysis and tomographic methods is presented. The Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) is used for providing accurate estimates of the depth of the anomaly source. The 2-D tomographic inversion technique, based on the underground charge occurrence probability (COP) function, is, then, used to fully characterize the anomalous body, as the MEM is not helpful in delineating the shape of the anomaly source. The proposed integrated approach is applied for the inversion of synthetic SP data generated by geometrically simple anomalous bodies, such as cylinders and inclined sheets. This numerical study has allowed the determination of mathematical relationships between zero lines of the COP distributions, the polarization angles and the positions along the profile of the causative sources, which have been of great help for interpreting the related SP anomalies. Finally, the analysis of field examples shows the high potential applicability of the proposed integrated approach for SP data inversion.

  5. Analysis of the potential for hydrogen production in the province of Cordoba, Argentina, from wind resources

    Rodriguez, C.R.; Santa Cruz, R.; Aisa, S. [Universidad Empresarial Siglo 21, Monsenor Pablo Cabrera s/n calle, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Riso, M.; Jimenez Yob, G.; Ottogalli, R. [Subsecretaria de Infraestructuras y Programas, Ministerio de Obras y Servicios Publicos del Gobierno de la Provincia de Cordoba, Av. Poeta Lugones 12, 2do. Piso, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Jeandrevin, G. [Instituto Universitario Aeronautico, Avenida Fuerza Aerea km 6 1/2, 5022 Cordoba (Argentina); Leiva, E.P.M. [INFIQC, Unidad de Matematica y Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Haya de la Torre s/n, 5010 Cordoba (Argentina)


    The potential for hydrogen production from wind resources in the province of Cordoba, second consumer of fossil fuels for transportation in Argentina, is analyzed. Three aspects of the problem are considered: the evaluation of the hydrogen resource from wind power, the analysis of the production costs via electrolysis and the annual requirements of wind energy to generate hydrogen to fuel the vehicular transport of the province. Different scenarios were considered, including pure hydrogen as well as the so-called CNG plus, where hydrogen is mixed with compressed natural gas in a 20% V/V dilution of the former. The potential for hydrogen production from wind resources is analyzed for each department of the province, excluding those regions not suited for wind farms. The analysis takes into account the efficiency of the electrolyzer and the capacity factor of the wind power system. It is concluded that the automotive transportation could be supplied by hydrogen stemming from wind resources via electrolysis. (author)

  6. Antimicrobial potentials and phytochemical analysis of desert cotton (A. Javanica) and flax (L. Ustitatissimum).

    Shad, Anwar Ali; Asmat, Seemab; Bakht, Jehan; Jan, Saleem; Khan, Muhammad Azim


    The present study reveals antimicrobial potentials and phytochemical analysis of A. javanica and L. ustitatissimum. Phytochemical analysis indicated that the tested plants contained a substantial amount of flavonoids, terpenoids and steroids while saponins and tannins were absent in L. ustitatissimum, however, tannins were present in A. javanica. L. ustitatissimum contained maximum total phenolic content of 166.36mg/g in methylated spirit fraction while its ethyl acetate fraction contained highest quantity of flavonoids 27.6mg/g in case of Aerva javanica. Antimicrobial potentials of the subject plants revealed that L. ustitatissimum had maximum antibacterial activity (MIC=4.33μg/ml) while A. javanica was most effective against fungal strains (MIC=2.66μg/ml).

  7. Phytoremediation potential of Arabidopsis with reference to acrylamide and microarray analysis of acrylamide-response genes.

    Gao, Jian-Jie; Peng, Ri-He; Zhu, Bo; Wang, Bo; Wang, Li-Juan; Xu, Jing; Sun, Miao; Yao, Quan-Hong


    Acrylamide (ACR) is a widely used industrial chemical. However, it is a dangerous compound because it showed neurotoxic effects in humans and act as reproductive toxicant and carcinogen in many animal species. In the environment, acrylamide has high soil mobility and may travel via groundwater. Phytoremediation is an effective method to remove the environmental pollutants, but the mechanism of plant response to acrylamide remains unknown. With the purpose of assessing remediation potentials of plants for acrylamide, we have examined acrylamide uptake by the model plant Arabidopsis grown on contaminated substrates with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The result revealed that acrylamide could be absorbed and degraded by Arabidopsis. Further microarray analysis showed that 527 transcripts were up-regulated within 2-days under acrylamide exposure condition. We have found many potential acrylamide-induced genes playing a major role in plant metabolism and phytoremediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Multifocal visual evoked potential latency analysis: predicting progression to multiple sclerosis.

    Fraser, Clare; Klistorner, Alexander; Graham, Stuart; Garrick, Raymond; Billson, Francis; Grigg, John


    To monitor the difference in conversion rates to multiple sclerosis (MS) in 46 patients with optic neuritis between patients with multifocal visual evoked potential latency delay and those with normal latency. Prospective case series. Metropolitan neuro-ophthalmology clinic. Forty-six patients with optic neuritis who did not have a diagnosis of MS on enrollment in the study. Conversion to MS according to the McDonald criteria. Analysis revealed that only 22 subjects had multifocal visual evoked potential latency delay. Over 1 year, 36.4% of patients with optic neuritis with latency delays progressed clinically to MS compared with 0% of those with normal latencies (P = .03, chi2). This may indicate that multifocal visual evoked potential latency delay can assist in predicting progression to future MS.

  9. Dynamic extraction of visual evoked potentials through spatial analysis and dipole localization.

    Wang, Y; Yang, F


    The dynamic extraction of evoked potential is a problem of great interest in EEG signal processing. In this paper, a comprehensive method is presented which integrates spatial analysis and dipole localization to make full use of the spatial-temporal information contained in the multichannel stimulation records. A realistic double boundary head model is constructed through CT scans and a two-step method devised to overcome the ill-posed nature of the forward problem of EEG caused by the low conductivity of the skull. As a result, visual evoked potentials can be effectively extracted from only two consecutive records and the dynamic information of visual evoked potential thus procured. The efficiency of the presented method has been verified by means of computer simulation and a clinical experiment.


    N.G. Sokolova


    Full Text Available Social trends and preferences of potential consumer of retail services when selling food products in Izhevsk, based on the data of marketing research are being studied. Sectional analysis for the given market is held. The trend of selected market section is described. The article contains the calculation of total market demand for retail trading services in Izhevsk for a moment in 2008.

  11. How to avoid potential pitfalls in recurrence plot based data analysis

    Marwan, Norbert


    Recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis have become popular in the last two decades. Recurrence based methods have on the one hand a deep foundation in the theory of dynamical systems and are on the other hand powerful tools for the investigation of a variety of problems. The increasing interest encompasses the growing risk of misuse and uncritical application of these methods. Therefore, we point out potential problems and pitfalls related to different aspects of the applicat...

  12. Potential Analysis of Regulating Power from Electric Vehicle (EV) Integration in Denmark

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob


    The potential analysis of having electric vehicles (EVs) provide regulating power has been implemented. The possible regulating power capacity from EVs and the economic return for EV users by providing regulating power are obtained. A spot price based charging schedule scenario has been used to do....... The activated regulating power and regulating power prices in the Denmark West System in 2010 have been used to calculate the economic return for EV users if all the regulating power is provided by EVs....

  13. Hypophosphatemia. From retrospective analysis to the analysis of the potential role of phosphatemia in panic disorders

    Alessandro Riccardi


    Full Text Available The detection of a low serum phosphate level is not unusual in an Emergency Department, especially in clinical conditions linked to hyperventilation and subsequent respiratory alkalosis, asthma, sepsis, severe pain, anxiety. Symptoms of hypophosphatemia are typically not specific when the imbalance is not particularly severe, but if hyphophosphatemia does not resolve rhabdomyolisis, hemolysis, decreased tissue oxygenation and respiratory failure can be observed. Only recently some authors have pointed out that the level of serum phosphate in patient with anxiety and panic disorders can give information on the severity of the attacks as well on the clinical course of the disease. In a retrospective analysis on 599 case of hypophosphatemia observed in our ED, the percentage of case of panic disorders was particularly high among patients with lower phosphatemia. Therefore, we decided to examine this aspect closely, assessing if the determination of serum phosphate could be useful in the management of panic attacks at first approach in emergency room. Our observation are consistent with the statement that hypophosphatemia is one of the main clinical aspect of panic attack, and strongly support the hypothesis that hypophosphatemia correlates with the most severe symptoms of panic attack and should be itself considered as one of the most important aspect of this syndrome. Serum phosphate levels appear to mirror its clinical course, and can be used in the clinical setting of an Emergency Department, for the confirmation of a diagnosis of anxiety-panic disorder and as marker of the response to therapy

  14. Texas State Building Energy Code: Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Commercial Lighting Requirements

    Richman, Eric E.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.


    The State Energy Conservation Office of Texas has asked the U.S. Department of Energy to analyze the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in the 2003 IECC as they consider adoption of this energy code. The new provisions of interest in the lighting section of IECC 2003 include new lighting power densities (LPD) and requirements for automatic lighting shutoff controls. The potential effect of the new LPD values is analyzed as a comparison with previous values in the nationally available IECC codes and ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1. The basis for the analysis is a set of lighting models developed as part of the ASHRAE/IES code process, which is the basis for IECC 2003 LPD values. The use of the models allows for an effective comparison of values for various building types of interest to Texas state. Potential effects from control requirements are discussed, and available case study analysis results are provided but no comprehensive numerical evaluation is provided in this limited analysis effort.

  15. Stability Analysis and Variational Integrator for Real-Time Formation Based on Potential Field

    Shengqing Yang


    Full Text Available This paper investigates a framework of real-time formation of autonomous vehicles by using potential field and variational integrator. Real-time formation requires vehicles to have coordinated motion and efficient computation. Interactions described by potential field can meet the former requirement which results in a nonlinear system. Stability analysis of such nonlinear system is difficult. Our methodology of stability analysis is discussed in error dynamic system. Transformation of coordinates from inertial frame to body frame can help the stability analysis focus on the structure instead of particular coordinates. Then, the Jacobian of reduced system can be calculated. It can be proved that the formation is stable at the equilibrium point of error dynamic system with the effect of damping force. For consideration of calculation, variational integrator is introduced. It is equivalent to solving algebraic equations. Forced Euler-Lagrange equation in discrete expression is used to construct a forced variational integrator for vehicles in potential field and obstacle environment. By applying forced variational integrator on computation of vehicles' motion, real-time formation of vehicles in obstacle environment can be implemented. Algorithm based on forced variational integrator is designed for a leader-follower formation.

  16. Geothermal direct heat use: Market potential/penetration analysis for Federal Region 9

    Powell, W. (Editor); Tang, K. (Editor)


    A preliminary study was made of the potential for geothermal direct heat use in Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Nevada (Federal Region 9). An analysis was made of each state to: (1) define the resource, based on the latest available data; (2) assess the potential market growth for geothermal energy; and (3) estimate the market penetration, projected to 2020. Findings of the study include the following: (1) Potentially economical hydrothermal resources exist in all four states of the Region: however, the resource data base is largely incomplete, particularly for low to moderate temperature resources. (2) In terms of beneficial heat, the total hydrothermal resource identified so far for the four states is on the order of 43 Quads, including an estimated 34 Quads of high temperature resources which are suitable for direct as well as electrical applications. (3) In California, Hawaii, and Nevada, the industrial market sector has somewhat greater potential for penetration than the residential/commercial sector. In Arizona, however, the situation is reversed, due to the collocation of two major metropolitan areas (Phoenix and Tucson) with potential geothermal resources.

  17. Acoustic and temporal analysis of speech: A potential biomarker for schizophrenia.

    Rapcan, Viliam


    Currently, there are no established objective biomarkers for the diagnosis or monitoring of schizophrenia. It has been previously reported that there are notable qualitative differences in the speech of schizophrenics. The objective of this study was to determine whether a quantitative acoustic and temporal analysis of speech may be a potential biomarker for schizophrenia. In this study, 39 schizophrenic patients and 18 controls were digitally recorded reading aloud an emotionally neutral text passage from a children\\'s story. Temporal, energy and vocal pitch features were automatically extracted from the recordings. A classifier based on linear discriminant analysis was employed to differentiate between controls and schizophrenic subjects. Processing the recordings with the algorithm developed demonstrated that it is possible to differentiate schizophrenic patients and controls with a classification accuracy of 79.4% (specificity=83.6%, sensitivity=75.2%) based on speech pause related parameters extracted from recordings carried out in standard office (non-studio) environments. Acoustic and temporal analysis of speech may represent a potential tool for the objective analysis in schizophrenia.

  18. Further potentials in the joint implementation of life cycle assessment and data envelopment analysis.

    Iribarren, Diego; Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo


    The combined application of Life Cycle Assessment and Data Envelopment Analysis has been recently proposed to provide a tool for the comprehensive assessment of the environmental and operational performance of multiple similar entities. Among the acknowledged advantages of LCA+DEA methodology, eco-efficiency verification and avoidance of average inventories are usually highlighted. However, given the novelty of LCA+DEA methods, a high number of additional potentials remain unexplored. In this sense, there are some features that are worth detailing given their wide interest to enhance LCA performance. Emphasis is laid on the improved interpretation of LCA results through the complementary use of DEA with respect to: (i) super-efficiency analysis to facilitate the selection of reference performers, (ii) inter- and intra-assessments of multiple data sets within any specific sector with benchmarking and trend analysis purposes, (iii) integration of an economic dimension in order to enrich sustainability assessments, and (iv) window analysis to evaluate environmental impact efficiency over a certain period of time. Furthermore, the capability of LCA+DEA methodology to be generally implemented in a wide range of scenarios is discussed. These further potentials are explained and demonstrated via the presentation of brief case studies based on real data sets.

  19. Modelling and Analysis of Electrical Potentials Recorded in Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs).

    Ness, Torbjørn V; Chintaluri, Chaitanya; Potworowski, Jan; Łęski, Szymon; Głąbska, Helena; Wójcik, Daniel K; Einevoll, Gaute T


    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs), substrate-integrated planar arrays of up to thousands of closely spaced metal electrode contacts, have long been used to record neuronal activity in in vitro brain slices with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, the analysis of the MEA potentials has generally been mainly qualitative. Here we use a biophysical forward-modelling formalism based on the finite element method (FEM) to establish quantitatively accurate links between neural activity in the slice and potentials recorded in the MEA set-up. Then we develop a simpler approach based on the method of images (MoI) from electrostatics, which allows for computation of MEA potentials by simple formulas similar to what is used for homogeneous volume conductors. As we find MoI to give accurate results in most situations of practical interest, including anisotropic slices covered with highly conductive saline and MEA-electrode contacts of sizable physical extensions, a Python software package (ViMEAPy) has been developed to facilitate forward-modelling of MEA potentials generated by biophysically detailed multicompartmental neurons. We apply our scheme to investigate the influence of the MEA set-up on single-neuron spikes as well as on potentials generated by a cortical network comprising more than 3000 model neurons. The generated MEA potentials are substantially affected by both the saline bath covering the brain slice and a (putative) inadvertent saline layer at the interface between the MEA chip and the brain slice. We further explore methods for estimation of current-source density (CSD) from MEA potentials, and find the results to be much less sensitive to the experimental set-up.

  20. Surface Potential Analysis of Nanoscale Biomaterials and Devices Using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy

    Hyungbeen Lee


    Full Text Available In recent years, Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM has emerged as a versatile toolkit for exploring electrical properties on a broad range of nanobiomaterials and molecules. An analysis using KPFM can provide valuable sample information including surface potential and work function of a certain material. Accordingly, KPFM has been widely used in the areas of material science, electronics, and biomedical science. In this review, we will briefly explain the setup of KPFM and its measuring principle and then survey representative results of various KPFM applications ranging from material analysis to device analysis. Finally, we will discuss some possibilities of KPFM on whether it is applicable to various sensor systems. Our perspective shed unique light on how KPFM can be used as a biosensor as well as equipment to measure electrical properties of materials and to recognize various molecular interactions.

  1. Hot spot analysis applied to identify ecosystem services potential in Lithuania

    Pereira, Paulo; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva


    Hot spot analysis are very useful to identify areas with similar characteristics. This is important for a sustainable use of the territory, since we can identify areas that need to be protected, or restored. This is a great advantage in terms of land use planning and management, since we can allocate resources, reduce the economical costs and do a better intervention in the landscape. Ecosystem services (ES) are different according land use. Since landscape is very heterogeneous, it is of major importance understand their spatial pattern and where are located the areas that provide better ES and the others that provide less services. The objective of this work is to use hot-spot analysis to identify areas with the most valuable ES in Lithuania. CORINE land-cover (CLC) of 2006 was used as the main spatial information. This classification uses a grid of 100 m resolution and extracted a total of 31 land use types. ES ranking was carried out based on expert knowledge. They were asked to evaluate the ES potential of each different CLC from 0 (no potential) to 5 (very high potential). Hot spot analysis were evaluated using the Getis-ord test, which identifies cluster analysis available in ArcGIS toolbox. This tool identifies areas with significantly high low values and significant high values at a p level of 0.05. In this work we used hot spot analysis to assess the distribution of providing, regulating cultural and total (sum of the previous 3) ES. The Z value calculated from Getis-ord was used to statistical analysis to access the clusters of providing, regulating cultural and total ES. ES with high Z value show that they have a high number of cluster areas with high potential of ES. The results showed that the Z-score was significantly different among services (Kruskal Wallis ANOVA =834. 607, pcultural (0.080±1.979) and regulating (0.076±1.961). These results suggested that providing services are more clustered than the remaining. Ecosystem Services Z score were

  2. Tracing the Potential Flow of Consumer Data: A Network Analysis of Prominent Health and Fitness Apps.

    Grundy, Quinn; Held, Fabian P; Bero, Lisa A


    A great deal of consumer data, collected actively through consumer reporting or passively through sensors, is shared among apps. Developers increasingly allow their programs to communicate with other apps, sensors, and Web-based services, which are promoted as features to potential users. However, health apps also routinely pose risks related to information leaks, information manipulation, and loss of information. There has been less investigation into the kinds of user data that developers are likely to collect, and who might have access to it. We sought to describe how consumer data generated from mobile health apps might be distributed and reused. We also aimed to outline risks to individual privacy and security presented by this potential for aggregating and combining user data across apps. We purposively sampled prominent health and fitness apps available in the United States, Canada, and Australia Google Play and iTunes app stores in November 2015. Two independent coders extracted data from app promotional materials on app and developer characteristics, and the developer-reported collection and sharing of user data. We conducted a descriptive analysis of app, developer, and user data collection characteristics. Using structural equivalence analysis, we conducted a network analysis of sampled apps' self-reported sharing of user-generated data. We included 297 unique apps published by 231 individual developers, which requested 58 different permissions (mean 7.95, SD 6.57). We grouped apps into 222 app families on the basis of shared ownership. Analysis of self-reported data sharing revealed a network of 359 app family nodes, with one connected central component of 210 app families (58.5%). Most (143/222, 64.4%) of the sampled app families did not report sharing any data and were therefore isolated from each other and from the core network. Fifteen app families assumed more central network positions as gatekeepers on the shortest paths that data would have to

  3. LIBS: a potential tool for industrial/agricultural waste water analysis

    Karpate, Tanvi; K. M., Muhammed Shameem; Nayak, Rajesh; V. K., Unnikrishnan; Santhosh, C.


    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a multi-elemental analysis technique with various advantages and has the ability to detect any element in real time. This technique holds a potential for environmental monitoring and various such analysis has been done in soil, glass, paint, water, plastic etc confirms the robustness of this technique for such applications. Compared to the currently available water quality monitoring methods and techniques, LIBS has several advantages, viz. no need for sample preparation, fast and easy operation, and chemical free during the process. In LIBS, powerful pulsed laser generates plasma which is then analyzed to get quantitative and qualitative details of the elements present in the sample. Another main advantage of LIBS technique is that it can perform in standoff mode for real time analysis. Water samples from industries and agricultural strata tend to have a lot of pollutants making it harmful for consumption. The emphasis of this project is to determine such harmful pollutants present in trace amounts in industrial and agricultural wastewater. When high intensity laser is made incident on the sample, a plasma is generated which gives a multielemental emission spectra. LIBS analysis has shown outstanding success for solids samples. For liquid samples, the analysis is challenging as the liquid sample has the chances of splashing due to the high energy of laser and thus making it difficult to generate plasma. This project also deals with determining the most efficient method for testing of water sample for qualitative as well as quantitative analysis using LIBS.

  4. Insight into the maintenance of odontogenic potential in mouse dental mesenchymal cells based on transcriptomic analysis

    Yunfei Zheng


    Full Text Available Background. Mouse dental mesenchymal cells (mDMCs from tooth germs of cap or later stages are frequently used in the context of developmental biology or whole-tooth regeneration due to their odontogenic potential. In vitro-expanded mDMCs serve as an alternative cell source considering the difficulty in obtaining primary mDMCs; however, cultured mDMCs fail to support tooth development as a result of functional failures of specific genes or pathways. The goal of this study was to identify the genes that maintain the odontogenic potential of mDMCs in culture. Methods. We examined the odontogenic potential of freshly isolated versus cultured mDMCs from the lower first molars of embryonic day 14.5 mice. The transcriptome of mDMCs was detected using RNA sequencing and the data were validated by qRT-PCR. Differential expression analysis and pathway analysis were conducted to identify the genes that contribute to the loss of odontogenic potential. Results. Cultured mDMCs failed to develop into well-structured tooth when they were recombined with dental epithelium. Compared with freshly isolated mDMCs, we found that 1,004 genes were upregulated and 948 were downregulated in cultured mDMCs. The differentially expressed genes were clustered in the biological processes and signaling pathways associated with tooth development. Following in vitro culture, genes encoding a wide array of components of MAPK, TGF-β/BMP, and Wnt pathways were significantly downregulated. Moreover, the activities of Bdnf, Vegfα, Bmp2, and Bmp7 were significantly inhibited in cultured mDMCs. Supplementation of VEGFα, BMP2, and BMP7 restored the expression of a subset of downregulated genes and induced mDMCs to form dentin-like structures in vivo. Conclusions. Vegfα, Bmp2, and Bmp7 play a role in the maintenance of odontogenic potential in mDMCs.


    France, Kevin; Nell, Nicholas; Kane, Robert; Green, James C. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Burgh, Eric B. [SOFIA/USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, M/S N232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Beasley, Matthew, E-mail: [Planetary Resources, Inc., 93 S Jackson St 50680, Seattle, WA 98104-2818 (United States)


    We present the first science results from the Sub-orbital Local Interstellar Cloud Experiment (SLICE): moderate resolution 1020-1070 A spectroscopy of four sightlines through the local interstellar medium. High signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of {eta} Uma, {alpha} Vir, {delta} Sco, and {zeta} Oph were obtained during a 2013 April 21 rocket flight. The SLICE observations constrain the density, molecular photoexcitation rates, and physical conditions present in the interstellar material toward {delta} Sco and {zeta} Oph. Our spectra indicate a factor of two lower total N(H{sub 2}) than previously reported for {delta} Sco, which we attribute to higher S/N and better scattered light control in the new SLICE observations. We find N(H{sub 2}) = 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -2} on the {delta} Sco sightline, with kinetic and excitation temperatures of 67 and 529 K, respectively, and a cloud density of n{sub H} = 56 cm{sup -3}. Our observations of the bulk of the molecular sightline toward {zeta} Oph are consistent with previous measurements (N(H{sub 2}) Almost-Equal-To 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2} at T{sub 01}(H{sub 2}) = 66 K and T{sub exc} = 350 K). However, we detect significantly more rotationally excited H{sub 2} toward {zeta} Oph than previously observed. We infer a cloud density in the rotationally excited component of n{sub H} Almost-Equal-To 7600 cm{sup -3} and suggest that the increased column densities of excited H{sub 2} are a result of the ongoing interaction between {zeta} Oph and its environment; also manifest as the prominent mid-IR bowshock observed by WISE and the presence of vibrationally excited H{sub 2} molecules observed by the Hubble Space Telescope.

  6. Network analysis-based approach for exploring the potential diagnostic biomarkers of acute myocardial infarction.

    Jiaqi Chen


    Full Text Available Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is a severe cardiovascular disease that is a serious threat to human life. However, the specific diagnostic biomarkers have not been fully clarified and candidate regulatory targets for AMI have not been identified. In order to explore the potential diagnostic biomarkers and possible regulatory targets of AMI, we used a network analysis-based approach to analyze microarray expression profiling of peripheral blood in patients with AMI. The significant differentially-expressed genes (DEGs were screened by Limma and constructed a gene function regulatory network (GO-Tree to obtain the inherent affiliation of significant function terms. The pathway action network was constructed, and the signal transfer relationship between pathway terms was mined in order to investigate the impact of core pathway terms in AMI. Subsequently, constructed the transcription regulatory network of DEGs. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA was employed to identify significantly altered gene modules and hub genes in two groups. Subsequently, the transcription regulation network of DEGs was constructed. We found that specific gene modules may provide a better insight into the potential diagnostic biomarkers of AMI. Our findings revealed and verified that NCF4, AQP9, NFIL3, DYSF, GZMA, TBX21, PRF1 and PTGDR genes by RT-qPCR. TBX21 and PRF1 may be potential candidates for diagnostic biomarker and possible regulatory targets in AMI.

  7. Analysis of light-induced transmembrane ion gradients and membrane potential in Photosystem I proteoliposomes.

    Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Greenbaum, Elias; Yoshida, Ken


    Photosystem I (PSI) complexes can support a light-driven electrochemical gradient for protons, which is the driving force for energy-conserving reactions across biological membranes. In this work, a computational model that enables a quantitative description of the light-induced proton gradients across the membrane of PSI proteoliposomes is presented. Using a set of electrodiffusion equations, a compartmental model of a vesicle suspended in aqueous medium was studied. The light-mediated proton movement was modeled as a single proton pumping step with backpressure of the electric potential. The model fits determinations of pH obtained from PSI proteoliposomes illuminated in the presence of mediators of cyclic electron transport. The model also allows analysis of the proton gradients in relation to the transmembrane ion fluxes and electric potential. Sensitivity analysis enabled a determination of the parameters that have greater influence on steady-state levels and onset/decay rates of transmembrane pH and electric potential. This model could be used as a tool for optimizing PSI proteoliposomes for photo-electrochemical applications.

  8. Analysis of Light-Induced Transmembrane Ion Gradients and Membrane Potential in Photosystem I Proteoliposomes

    Pennisi, Cristian P. [Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark; Greenbaum, Elias [ORNL; Yoshida, Ken [Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark


    Photosystem I (PSI) complexes can support a light-driven electrochemical gradient for protons, which is the driving force for energy-conserving reactions across biological membranes. In this work, a computational model that enables a quantitative description of the light-induced proton gradients across the membrane of PSI proteoliposomes is presented. Using a set of electrodiffusion equations, a compartmental model of a vesicle suspended in aqueous medium was studied. The light-mediated proton movement was modeled as a single proton pumping step with backpressure of the electric potential. The model fits determinations of pH obtained from PSI proteoliposomes illuminated in the presence of mediators of cyclic electron transport. The model also allows analysis of the proton gradients in relation to the transmembrane ion fluxes and electric potential. Sensitivity analysis enabled a determination of the parameters that have greater influence on steady-state levels and onset/decay rates of transmembrane pH and electric potential. This model could be used as a tool for optimizing PSI proteoliposomes for photo-electrochemical applications.

  9. Full dynamical analysis of anisotropic scalar-field cosmology with arbitrary potentials

    Fadragas, Carlos R; Saridakis, Emmanuel N


    We perform a detailed dynamical analysis of anisotropic scalar-field cosmologies, and in particular of the most significant Kantowski-Sachs, Bianchi I and Bianchi III cases. We follow the new and powerful method of $f$-devisers, which allows us to perform the whole analysis for arbitrary potentials. Thus, one can just substitute the specific potential form in the final results and obtain the corresponding behavior, without the need of new calculations. We find a very rich behavior, and amongst others the universe can result in isotropized solutions with observables in agreement with observations, such as de Sitter, quintessence-like, or stiff-dark energy solutions. Additionally, in the case of Kantowski-Sachs geometry we find that a cosmological bounce and turnaround are realized in a part of the parameter-space. Finally, applying the general results to the well-studied exponential and power-law potentials, we find that some of the general stable solutions disappear. This feature may be an indication that suc...

  10. Automatic roof plane detection and analysis in airborne lidar point clouds for solar potential assessment.

    Jochem, Andreas; Höfle, Bernhard; Rutzinger, Martin; Pfeifer, Norbert


    A relative height threshold is defined to separate potential roof points from the point cloud, followed by a segmentation of these points into homogeneous areas fulfilling the defined constraints of roof planes. The normal vector of each laser point is an excellent feature to decompose the point cloud into segments describing planar patches. An object-based error assessment is performed to determine the accuracy of the presented classification. It results in 94.4% completeness and 88.4% correctness. Once all roof planes are detected in the 3D point cloud, solar potential analysis is performed for each point. Shadowing effects of nearby objects are taken into account by calculating the horizon of each point within the point cloud. Effects of cloud cover are also considered by using data from a nearby meteorological station. As a result the annual sum of the direct and diffuse radiation for each roof plane is derived. The presented method uses the full 3D information for both feature extraction and solar potential analysis, which offers a number of new applications in fields where natural processes are influenced by the incoming solar radiation (e.g., evapotranspiration, distribution of permafrost). The presented method detected fully automatically a subset of 809 out of 1,071 roof planes where the arithmetic mean of the annual incoming solar radiation is more than 700 kWh/m(2).

  11. Analysis of Renewable Energy Potential on U. S. National Forest Lands

    Zvolanek, E. [Environmental Science Division; Kuiper, J. [Environmental Science Division; Carr, A. [Environmental Science Division; Hlava, K.


    In 2005, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) completed an assessment of the potential for solar and wind energy development on National Forest System (NFS) public lands managed by the US Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service (USFS). This report provides an update of the analysis in the NREL report, and extends the analysis with additional siting factors for solar and wind energy. It also expands the scope to biomass and geothermal energy resources. Hydropower is acknowledged as another major renewable energy source on NFS lands; however, it was not analyzed in this project primarily because of the substantially different analysis that would be needed to identify suitable locations. Details about each renewable energy production technology included in the study are provided following the report introduction, including how each resource is converted to electrical power, and examples of existing power plants. The analysis approach was to use current and available Geographic Information System (GIS) data to map the distribution of the subject renewable energy resources, major siting factors, and NFS lands. For each major category of renewable energy power production, a set of siting factors were determined, including minimum levels for the renewable energy resources, and details for each of the other siting factors. Phase 1 of the analysis focused on replicating and updating the 2005 NREL analysis, and Phase 2 introduced additional siting factors and energy resources. Source data were converted to a cell-based format that helped create composite maps of locations meeting all the siting criteria. Acreages and potential power production levels for NFS units were tabulated and are presented throughout this report and the accompanying files. NFS units in the southwest United States were found to have the most potentially suitable land for concentrating solar power (CSP), especially in Arizona and New Mexico. In total, about 136,032 acres of NFS lands

  12. Time-frequency analysis of event-related potentials: a brief tutorial.

    Herrmann, Christoph S; Rach, Stefan; Vosskuhl, Johannes; Strüber, Daniel


    Event-related potentials (ERPs) reflect cognitive processes and are usually analyzed in the so-called time domain. Additional information on cognitive functions can be assessed when analyzing ERPs in the frequency domain and treating them as event-related oscillations (EROs). This procedure results in frequency spectra but lacks information about the temporal dynamics of EROs. Here, we describe a method-called time-frequency analysis-that allows analyzing both the frequency of an ERO and its evolution over time. In a brief tutorial, the reader will learn how to use wavelet analysis in order to compute time-frequency transforms of ERP data. Basic steps as well as potential artifacts are described. Rather than in terms of formulas, descriptions are in textual form (written text) with numerous figures illustrating the topics. Recommendations on how to present frequency and time-frequency data in journal articles are provided. Finally, we briefly review studies that have applied time-frequency analysis to mismatch negativity paradigms. The deviant stimulus of such a paradigm evokes an ERO in the theta frequency band that is stronger than for the standard stimulus. Conversely, the standard stimulus evokes a stronger gamma-band response than does the deviant. This is interpreted in the context of the so-called match-and-utilization model.

  13. Microarray analysis of potential genes in the pathogenesis of recurrent oral ulcer.

    Han, Jingying; He, Zhiwei; Li, Kun; Hou, Lu


    Recurrent oral ulcer seriously threatens patients' daily life and health. This study investigated potential genes and pathways that participate in the pathogenesis of recurrent oral ulcer by high throughput bioinformatic analysis. RT-PCR and Western blot were applied to further verify screened interleukins effect. Recurrent oral ulcer related genes were collected from websites and papers, and further found out from Human Genome 280 6.0 microarray data. Each pathway of recurrent oral ulcer related genes were got through chip hybridization. RT-PCR was applied to test four recurrent oral ulcer related genes to verify the microarray data. Data transformation, scatter plot, clustering analysis, and expression pattern analysis were used to analyze recurrent oral ulcer related gene expression changes. Recurrent oral ulcer gene microarray was successfully established. Microarray showed that 551 genes involved in recurrent oral ulcer activity and 196 genes were recurrent oral ulcer related genes. Of them, 76 genes up-regulated, 62 genes down-regulated, and 58 genes up-/down-regulated. Total expression level up-regulated 752 times (60%) and down-regulated 485 times (40%). IL-2 plays an important role in the occurrence, development and recurrence of recurrent oral ulcer on the mRNA and protein levels. Gene microarray can be used to analyze potential genes and pathways in recurrent oral ulcer. IL-2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of recurrent oral ulcer.

  14. Shale Hydrocarbon Potential of Brown Shale, Central Sumatera Basin Based on Seismic and Well Data Analysis

    Haris, Abdul; Agil Almunawwar, Husein; Riyanto, Agus; Bachtiar, Andang


    The development of unconventional shale hydrocarbon is really depending on integrating approach of wide range disciplines. The integrated approach for analysing organic-rich shale reservoirs involves calibration of core and well-log data, building petrophysical and rock-physics models, and finally characterizing the key reservoir parameters (TOC, porosity, and natural fractures) and mechanical properties evaluation from seismic data. In this research, integrated approach of geochemical, geomechanical, mineralogy, petrophysical, and geophysical analysis are carried out in Brown Shale, Central Sumatera Basin. Total Organic Carbon (TOC), maturity, and brittleness index are the main parameters used in this study to analyse the shale hydrocarbon potential. The result of geochemical analysis shows that the maturity level of shale in the interest zone in oil window, which means it can generate shale oil in early mature phase at depth of 6400 ft. Quantity of shale hydrocarbon potential is indicated by the TOC value of 0.5-1.2 wt. % (fair to good), with average of shale thickness for over 50 ft. The result of geomechanical analysis shows that brittleness index of interest zone for over 0.48 and rock strength below 10000 Psi.

  15. HPLC analysis of potentially harmful substances released from dental filing aterials available on the EU market

    Konrad Małkiewicz


    Full Text Available Introduction. Incomplete cross-linking of composite dental materials leads to their susceptibility to degradation in the environment of non-organic and organic solvents, contributing to the release of chemical compounds which are potentially harmful to living organisms. Objective. The aim of the study was an evaluation in in vitro conditions of releasing of potentially toxic substances from six dental composite materials available in EU countries. Materials and methods. The following compounds released from the samples stored in water were analyzed: bisphenol A (BPA, triethylene glycol-dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDGMA. Analysis of the substances was performed with the use of high performance liquid chromatography, after the following incubation periods: 1 hour, 24 hours, 7 days and 30 days. Results. Among the analyzed substances, after 1 hour of incubation, the highest average concentration was found for TEGDMA – 2045 μg cm-3 (in Herculite XRV material, after 24 hours – for UDMA 4.402 μg cm-3 (in Gradia Direct Anterior material and after 7 and 30 days for TEGDMA: 8.112 and 6.458 μg•cm-3 respectively (in Charisma material. Conclusions. The examined composites used for reconstruction of hard tissues of teeth remain chemically unstable after polymerization, and release potentially harmful substances in conditions of the present study. The dynamics of the releasing of potentially harmful substances is correlated with the period of sample storage in water.

  16. Focal Mechanism Analysis for Determination of Potential Source Zones in South China and Its Adjacent Regions

    Zheng Yuejun; Zhang Shimin; Cui Xiaofeng; Huang Zhongxian


    Based on the results of focal mechanism solutions in southeastern areas of China (south of 34°N and east of 105°E), this article analyzes the correlation of focal mechanism solutions with seismogenic structures of moderate strong earthquakes and the direction of potential source zones. The data show that the nodal planes of focal mechanism solutions and the principle stresses in southern China are of predominantly similar directions, most of the solutions for M ≥4.0 earthquakes correspond to the main structure directions as well as the directions of potential source zones. The statistical results of multiple small earthquakes concerning nodal planes and main stress axes are also reliable for determining the direction of potential source zones. According to the analysis of focal mechanism solutions, long-axis direction of isoseismais distribution of aftershocks, geologic structures, and seismic activity in two areas of the Ms6.1earthquake in the south Yellow Sea in 1996 and the Ms5.2 earthquake in Fujian in 1997, the potential source zone division is discussed.

  17. RHDM procedure for analysis of the potential specific risk due to a rockfall hazard

    Blažo Đurović


    Full Text Available Theoretical basis and practical legislation (Water Law and regulation acts would allow in future the determination and classification of endangered territorial zones due to various natural hazards, among them also due to rock collapse and rockfall hazard as forms of the mass movement hazard. Interdisciplinary risk analysis, assessment and management of natural hazard are factors of harmonious spatial development in future. Especially risk analysis is the essential part of preventive mitigation actions and forms the basis for evaluation of the spatial plans, programs and policies.In accordance with the basic principles of the risk analysis the Rockfall Hazard Determination Method (RHDM for estimation of the potential specific risk degree due to a rock fall hazard along roadways and in hinterland is introduced. The method is derivedfrom the Rockfall Hazard Rating System (RHRS and adjusted to a holistic concept of the risk analysis procedure. The outcomes of the phenomenon simulation with a computer programme for rock mass movement analysis at local scale are included as well as climateand seismic conditions criteria which are newly introduced, thus making this method more adequate for specific geologic conditions in Slovenia.

  18. Breath analysis as a potential and non-invasive frontier in disease diagnosis: an overview.

    Pereira, Jorge; Porto-Figueira, Priscilla; Cavaco, Carina; Taunk, Khushman; Rapole, Srikanth; Dhakne, Rahul; Nagarajaram, Hampapathalu; Câmara, José S


    Currently, a small number of diseases, particularly cardiovascular (CVDs), oncologic (ODs), neurodegenerative (NDDs), chronic respiratory diseases, as well as diabetes, form a severe burden to most of the countries worldwide. Hence, there is an urgent need for development of efficient diagnostic tools, particularly those enabling reliable detection of diseases, at their early stages, preferably using non-invasive approaches. Breath analysis is a non-invasive approach relying only on the characterisation of volatile composition of the exhaled breath (EB) that in turn reflects the volatile composition of the bloodstream and airways and therefore the status and condition of the whole organism metabolism. Advanced sampling procedures (solid-phase and needle traps microextraction) coupled with modern analytical technologies (proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, e-noses, etc.) allow the characterisation of EB composition to an unprecedented level. However, a key challenge in EB analysis is the proper statistical analysis and interpretation of the large and heterogeneous datasets obtained from EB research. There is no standard statistical framework/protocol yet available in literature that can be used for EB data analysis towards discovery of biomarkers for use in a typical clinical setup. Nevertheless, EB analysis has immense potential towards development of biomarkers for the early disease diagnosis of diseases.

  19. Breath Analysis as a Potential and Non-Invasive Frontier in Disease Diagnosis: An Overview

    Jorge Pereira


    Full Text Available Currently, a small number of diseases, particularly cardiovascular (CVDs, oncologic (ODs, neurodegenerative (NDDs, chronic respiratory diseases, as well as diabetes, form a severe burden to most of the countries worldwide. Hence, there is an urgent need for development of efficient diagnostic tools, particularly those enabling reliable detection of diseases, at their early stages, preferably using non-invasive approaches. Breath analysis is a non-invasive approach relying only on the characterisation of volatile composition of the exhaled breath (EB that in turn reflects the volatile composition of the bloodstream and airways and therefore the status and condition of the whole organism metabolism. Advanced sampling procedures (solid-phase and needle traps microextraction coupled with modern analytical technologies (proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, e-noses, etc. allow the characterisation of EB composition to an unprecedented level. However, a key challenge in EB analysis is the proper statistical analysis and interpretation of the large and heterogeneous datasets obtained from EB research. There is no standard statistical framework/protocol yet available in literature that can be used for EB data analysis towards discovery of biomarkers for use in a typical clinical setup. Nevertheless, EB analysis has immense potential towards development of biomarkers for the early disease diagnosis of diseases.

  20. In silico Analysis of the Potential Infection Mechanisms of Magnaporthe grisea from Horizontal Gene Transfer Hypothesis

    Chunyang Li; Ying Wang; Hao Peng; Hejiao Bian; Mingwei Min; Longfei Chen; Qian Liu; Jinku Bao


    Horizontal gene transfer(HGT)has long been considered as a principal force for an organism to gain novel genes in genome evolution. Homology search, phylogenetic analysis and nucleotide composition analysis are three major objective approaches to arguably determine the occurrence and directionality of HGT. Here, 21 genes that possess the potential to horizontal transfer were acquired from the whole genome of Magnaporthe grisea according to annotation, among which three can-didate genes(corresponding protein accession numbers are EAA55123, EAA47200 and EAA52136)were selected for further analysis. According to BLAST homology results, we subsequently conducted phylogenetic analysis of the three candidate HGT genes. Moreover, nucleotide composition analysis was conducted to further validate these HGTs. In addition, the functions of the three candidate genes were searched in COG database. Consequently, we conclude that the gene encoding protein EAA55123 is transferred from Clostridium perfringens. Another HGT event is between EAA52136 and a certain metazoan's corresponding gene, but the direction remains uncertain. Yet, EAA47200 is not a transferred gene.