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Sample records for zero-phonon emission bands

  1. Zero-phonon line and fine structure of the yellow luminescence band in GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshchikov, M. A.; McNamara, J. D.; Zhang, F.; Monavarian, M.; Usikov, A.; Helava, H.; Makarov, Yu.; Morkoç, H.

    2016-07-01

    The yellow luminescence band was studied in undoped and Si-doped GaN samples by steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence. At low temperature (18 K), the zero-phonon line (ZPL) for the yellow band is observed at 2.57 eV and attributed to electron transitions from a shallow donor to a deep-level defect. At higher temperatures, the ZPL at 2.59 eV emerges, which is attributed to electron transitions from the conduction band to the same defect. In addition to the ZPL, a set of phonon replicas is observed, which is caused by the emission of phonons with energies of 39.5 meV and 91.5 meV. The defect is called the YL1 center. The possible identity of the YL1 center is discussed. The results indicate that the same defect is responsible for the strong YL1 band in undoped and Si-doped GaN samples.

  2. On-chip plasmonic cavity-enhanced spontaneous emission rate at the zero-phonon line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siampour, Hamidreza; Kumar, Shailesh; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    Highly confined surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes can be utilized to enhance light-matter interaction at the single emitter level of quantum optical systems [1-4]. Dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides (DLSPPWs) confine SPPs laterally with relatively low propagation loss, enabling to benefit both ...... and an up to 42-fold spontaneous emission rate enhancement at the zero-phonon line (a ∼7-fold resonance enhancement in addition to a ∼6-fold broadband enhancement) is achieved, revealing the potential of our approach for on-chip realization of quantum-optical networks....... from a large Purcell factor and from a large radiative efficiency (low quenching rates) [1, 2]. In this work, we present a DLSPPW-based Bragg cavity resonator to direct emission from a single diamond nitrogen vacancy (NV) center into the zero-phonon line (Fig. 1). A quality factor of ∼70 for the cavity...

  3. Zero-phonon-line emission of single molecules for applications in quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraz, Alper; Ehrl, M.; Mustecaplioglu, O. E.; Hellerer, T.; Brauchle, C.; Zumbusch, A.

    2005-07-01

    A single photon source which generates transform limited single photons is highly desirable for applications in quantum optics. Transform limited emission guarantees the indistinguishability of the emitted single photons. This, in turn brings groundbreaking applications in linear optics quantum information processing within an experimental reach. Recently, self-assembled InAs quantum dots and trapped atoms have successfully been demonstrated as such sources for highly indistinguishable single photons. Here, we demonstrate that nearly transform limited zero-phonon-line (ZPL) emission from single molecules can be obtained by using vibronic excitation. Furthermore we report the results of coincidence detection experiments at the output of a Michelson-type interferometer. These experiments reveal Hong-Ou-Mandel correlations as a proof of the indistinguishability of the single photons emitted consecutively from a single molecule. Therefore, single molecules constitute an attractive alternative to single InAs quantum dots and trapped atoms for applications in linear optics quantum information processing. Experiments were performed with a home-built confocal microscope keeping the sample in a superfluid liquid Helium bath at 1.4K. We investigated terrylenediimide (TDI) molecules highly diluted in hexadecane (Shpol'skii matrix). A continuous wave single mode dye laser was used for excitation of vibronic transitions of individual molecules. From the integral fluorescence, the ZPL of single molecules was selected with a spectrally narrow interference filter. The ZPL emission was then sent to a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer for linewidth measurements or a Michelson-type interferometer for coincidence detection.

  4. Analysis of the shift of zero-phonon lines for f–d luminescence of lanthanides in relation to the Dorenbos model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zych, Aleksander; Ogieglo, Joanna; Ronda, Cees; Mello Donegá, Celso de; Meijerink, Andries

    2013-01-01

    The Dorenbos relation is an empirical model that relates the position of the lowest fd level of any lanthanide ion with that of Ce 3+ in the same host lattice. The relation is widely used to estimate the energy of fd levels of trivalent lanthanide ions in a given host lattice based on the peak position of the lowest fd level of at least one of the lanthanide ions in that host. The energy of fd levels is determined from peak maxima in excitation and emission spectra. In this work we use the position of zero-phonon lines (ZPLs) as input to investigate the accuracy of the Dorenbos relation. To this end, the ZPL positions of the fd bands for trivalent lanthanide ions in four different host lattices (CaF 2 , Y 3 Al 5 O 12 , LiYF 4 , and YPO 4 ) were obtained and used as input in the Dorenbos relation. The results are compared to those obtained through the standard procedure using band maxima. The data indicate that the ZPL approach gives more accurate estimates for the position of the lowest fd level with standard deviations that are 2–3 times smaller than those obtained for band maxima. The results confirm the concept of the Dorenbos model (constant energy difference between the fd levels of lanthanides) and show that the accuracy is even better than previously reported. The main cause for the larger deviation from positions of band maxima is related to a larger inaccuracy in determining band maxima compared to ZPLs. - Highlights: ► Zero-phonon lines were measured for the lanthanide series in different hosts. ► Values for the Dorenbos relation were revised for the zero-phonon line approach. ► Revised values are based on multiple materials where zero-phonon lines are observed.

  5. Circularly polarized zero-phonon transitions of vacancies in diamond at high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braukmann, D.; Glaser, E. R.; Kennedy, T. A.; Bayer, M.; Debus, J.

    2018-05-01

    signs. The magnetophotoluminescence data indicate that the electron transition from the T12 states to the 1A ground state defines the zero-phonon emission at 1.674 eV, while the T12→1E transition is responsible for the zero-phonon line at 1.666 eV. The T12 (1E ) states are characterized by an orbital Zeeman splitting with gL=0.071 (0.128).

  6. Optical properties of a single-colour centre in diamond with a green zero-phonon line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Jason M; Grazioso, Fabio; Patton, Brian R; Dolan, Philip R; Markham, Matthew L; Twitchen, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    We report the photoluminescence characteristics of a colour centre in diamond grown by plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition. The colour centre emits with a sharp zero-phonon line at 2.330 eV (λ=532 nm) and a lifetime of 3.3 ns, thus offering potential for a high-speed single-photon source with green emission. It displays a vibronic emission spectrum with a Huang-Rhys parameter of 2.48 at 77 K. Hanbury-Brown and Twiss measurements reveal that the electronic level structure of the defect includes a metastable state that can be populated from the optically excited state.

  7. Zero-phonon lines and electron–phonon interaction characteristics of near-surface layer radiation color centers in lithium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitovich, A.P.; Kalinov, V.S.; Mudryi, A.V.; Pavlovskii, V.N.; Runets, L.P.; Svitsiankou, I.E.

    2016-01-01

    Zero-phonon lines have been registered in photoluminescence spectra of near-surface layer radiation color centers in lithium fluoride nanocrystals. They have been assigned to transitions of the definite types centers. The frequencies of phonons participating in the transitions of the different type centers located both in the near-surface layer and in the crystal bulk have been measured and compared. The Huang-Rhys parameters for the transitions of these centers have been determined. It has been found that the Huang-Rhys parameters for the studied transitions in the near-surface layer centers of the certain composition are less than for those in the crystal bulk centers of the same composition. This feature is connected with the difference of the electron density distribution in defects. Temperature dependences of the zero-phonon lines widths and shifts have been measured. It has been determined that both widths and shifts grow faster with the increase of a temperature for the defects transitions with the lesser Huang-Rhys parameters. Phonons lifetimes are estimated from the experimental data.

  8. Zero-phonon lines and electron–phonon interaction characteristics of near-surface layer radiation color centers in lithium fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitovich, A.P., E-mail: voitovich@ifanbel.bas-net.by [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezavisimosti Avenue, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Kalinov, V.S. [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezavisimosti Avenue, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Mudryi, A.V. [Scientific-Practical Materials Research Center, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 19 Brovka Street, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Pavlovskii, V.N.; Runets, L.P.; Svitsiankou, I.E. [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezavisimosti Avenue, 220072 Minsk (Belarus)

    2016-04-15

    Zero-phonon lines have been registered in photoluminescence spectra of near-surface layer radiation color centers in lithium fluoride nanocrystals. They have been assigned to transitions of the definite types centers. The frequencies of phonons participating in the transitions of the different type centers located both in the near-surface layer and in the crystal bulk have been measured and compared. The Huang-Rhys parameters for the transitions of these centers have been determined. It has been found that the Huang-Rhys parameters for the studied transitions in the near-surface layer centers of the certain composition are less than for those in the crystal bulk centers of the same composition. This feature is connected with the difference of the electron density distribution in defects. Temperature dependences of the zero-phonon lines widths and shifts have been measured. It has been determined that both widths and shifts grow faster with the increase of a temperature for the defects transitions with the lesser Huang-Rhys parameters. Phonons lifetimes are estimated from the experimental data.

  9. The infrared emission bands. III. Southern IRAS sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M; Tielens, A G; Bregman, J; Witteborn, F C; Rank, D M; Allamandola, L J; Wooden, D H; de Muizon, M

    1989-06-01

    We present airborne 5-8 micrometers spectra of southern IRAS sources which reveal strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features. The good correlation between the bands, in particular the dominant 6.2 and "7.7" micrometers features, strongly imply a common carrier, reinforcing the PAH hypothesis. However, small but detectable spectral variations exist. Planetaries have a distinctly different ratio of I(6.2)/I(7.7) than other nebulae, accompanied by a redward shift in the actual wavelength of the "7.7" micrometers peak. Further, we have detected a new feature, previously predicted from laboratory spectra of PAH molecules, at 5.2 micrometers in many of these sources. Spectra of two rare [WC 10] planetary nebular nuclei indicate a very prominent plateau of emission, linking the 6.2 and 7.7 micrometers bands. Several of our sources show definite evidence for emission structure between 14 and 23 micrometers in their IRAS Low-Resolution Spectral Atlas spectra: we attribute this structure to PAH bands. too. We have defined the "generic" spectrum of emission bands relating the mean intensities of each band to that of the strongest, near 7.7 micrometers. We have added three more planetary or protoplanetary nebulae to our correlation between 7.7 micrometers band intensity and nebular gas phase C/O ratio, namely NGC 6302, HR 4049, and the highly carbon-rich [WC 10] nucleus, CPD--56 degrees 8032. For the latter we have determined a ratio for C/O of approximately 4.8 from IUE observations. The good correlation between the intensity ratio of the "7.7" micrometers feature relative to the far-infrared dust continuum and nebular C/O also supports a carbonaceous carrier for these emission features.

  10. Photo field emission spectroscopy of the tantalum band structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleint, Ch.; Radon, T.

    1978-01-01

    Photo field emission (PFE) currents of clean and barium covered tantalum tips have been measured with single lines of the mercury arc spectrum and phase-sensitive detection. Field strength and work function were determined from Fowler-Nordheim plots of the FE currents. Shoulders in the PFE current-voltage characteristics could be correlated to transitions in the band structure of tantalum according to a recently proposed two-step PFE model. A comparison with the relativistic calculations of Mattheiss and the nonrelativistic bands of Petroff and Viswanathan shows that Mattheiss' bands are more appropriate. Beside direct transitions several nondirect transitions from the different features composing the upper two density of states maxima below the Fermi edge of tantalum have been found. (Auth.)

  11. Emission bands of phosphorus and calculation of band structure of rare earth phosphides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al'perovich, G.I.; Gusatinskij, A.N.; Geguzin, I.I.; Blokhin, M.A.; Torbov, V.I.; Chukalin, V.I.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Novykh Khimicheskikh Problem)

    1977-01-01

    The method of x-ray emission spectroscopy has been used to investigate the electronic structure of monophosphides of rare-earth metals (REM). The fluorescence K bands of phosphorus have been obtained in LaP, PrP, SmP, GdP, TbP, DyP, HoP, ErP, TmP, YbP, and LuP and also the Lsub(2,3) bands of phosphorus in ErP, TmP, YbP, and LuP. Using the Green function technique involving the muffin-tin potential, the energy spectrum for ErP has been calculated in the single-electron approximation. The hystogram of electronic state distribution N(E) is compared with the experimental K and Lsub(2,3) bands of phosphorus in ErP. The agreement between the main details of N(E) and that of x-ray spectra allows to state that the model used provides a good description of the electron density distribution in crystals of REM monophosphides. In accordance with the character of the N(E) distribution the compounds under study are classified as semimetals or semiconductors with a very narrow forbidden band

  12. ALMA BAND 8 CONTINUUM EMISSION FROM ORION SOURCE I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Naoko [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Machida, Masahiro N.; Matsushita, Yuko [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Motogi, Kazuhito; Honma, Mareki [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hoshigaoka2-12, Mizusawa-ku, Oshu-shi, Iwate 023-0861 (Japan); Kim, Mi Kyoung [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Hwaam-dong 61-1, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Burns, Ross A., E-mail: tomoya.hirota@nao.ac.jp [Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands)

    2016-12-20

    We have measured continuum flux densities of a high-mass protostar candidate, a radio source I in the Orion KL region (Orion Source I) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) at band 8 with an angular resolution of 0.″1. The continuum emission at 430, 460, and 490 GHz associated with Source I shows an elongated structure along the northwest–southeast direction perpendicular to the so-called low-velocity bipolar outflow. The deconvolved size of the continuum source, 90 au × 20 au, is consistent with those reported previously at other millimeter/submillimeter wavelengths. The flux density can be well fitted to the optically thick blackbody spectral energy distribution, and the brightness temperature is evaluated to be 700–800 K. It is much lower than that in the case of proton–electron or H{sup −} free–free radiations. Our data are consistent with the latest ALMA results by Plambeck and Wright, in which the continuum emission was proposed to arise from the edge-on circumstellar disk via thermal dust emission, unless the continuum source consists of an unresolved structure with a smaller beam filling factor.

  13. Coherent control of spontaneous emission near a photonic band edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woldeyohannes, Mesfin; John, Sajeev

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate the coherent control of spontaneous emission for a three-level atom located within a photonic band gap (PBG) material, with one resonant frequency near the edge of the PBG. Spontaneous emission from the three-level atom can be totally suppressed or strongly enhanced depending on the relative phase between the steady-state control laser coupling the two upper levels and the pump laser pulse used to create an excited state of the atom in the form of a coherent superposition of the two upper levels. Unlike the free-space case, the steady-state inversion of the atomic system is strongly dependent on the externally prescribed initial conditions. This non-zero steady-state population is achieved by virtue of the localization of light in the vicinity of the emitting atom. It is robust to decoherence effects provided that the Rabi frequency of the control laser field exceeds the rate of dephasing interactions. As a result, such a system may be relevant for a single-atom, phase-sensitive optical memory device on the atomic scale. The protected electric dipole within the PBG provides a basis for a qubit to encode information for quantum computations. A detailed literature survey on the nature, fabrication and applications of PBG materials is presented to provide context for this research. (phd tutorial)

  14. MODIS on-orbit thermal emissive bands lifetime performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wu, Aisheng; Chen, Na; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-05-01

    MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), a leading heritage sensor in the fleet of Earth Observing System for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in space orbit on two spacecrafts. They are the Terra (T) and Aqua (A) platforms. Both instruments have successfully continued to operate beyond the 6 year design life time, with the T-MODIS currently functional beyond 15 years and the A-MODIS operating beyond 13 years respectively. The MODIS sensor characteristics include a spectral coverage from 0.41 μm - 14.4 μm, of which wavelengths ranging from 3.7 μm - 14. 4 μm cover the thermal infrared region also referred to as the Thermal Emissive Bands (TEBs). The TEBs is calibrated using a v-grooved BlackBody (BB) whose temperature measurements are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology temperature scales. The TEBs calibration based on the onboard BB is extremely important for its high radiometric fidelity. In this paper, we provide a complete characterization of the lifetime instrument performance of both MODIS instruments in terms of the sensor gain, the Noise Equivalent difference Temperature, key instrument telemetry such as the BB lifetime trends, the instrument temperature trends, the Cold Focal Plane telemetry and finally, the total assessed calibration uncertainty of the TEBs.

  15. Extreme ultraviolet narrow band emission from electron cyclotron resonance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Wang, H.; Ma, B. H.; Li, X. X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Sheng, L. S.; Zhang, G. B.; Tian, Y. C.

    2008-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is considered as the most promising solution at and below dynamic random access memory 32 nm half pitch among the next generation lithography, and EUV light sources with high output power and sufficient lifetime are crucial for the realization of EUVL. However, there is no EUV light source completely meeting the requirements for the commercial application in lithography yet. Therefore, ECR plasma is proposed as a novel concept EUV light source. In order to investigate the feasibility of ECR plasma as a EUV light source, the narrow band EUV power around 13.5 nm emitted by two highly charged ECR ion sources--LECR2M and SECRAL--was measured with a calibrated EUV power measurement tool. Since the emission lines around 13.5 nm can be attributed to the 4d-5p transitions of Xe XI or the 4d-4f unresolved transition array of Sn VIII-XIII, xenon plasma was investigated. The dependence of the EUV throughput and the corresponding conversion efficiency on the parameters of the ion source, such as the rf power and the magnetic confinement configurations, were preliminarily studied

  16. Nature of the emission band of Dergaon meteorite in the region ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    available colour film is used to photograph the spectrum. 3. Results and discussion. Figure 1 demonstrates the general feature of the emission band system in the region. 5700–6700 Å along with the Ar+ lasing line at 5145 Å. The emission band system and its densitometer tracing as shown in figure 2 indicate the diffuse ...

  17. Tunneling emission of electrons from semiconductors' valence bands in high electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalganov, V. D.; Mileshkina, N. V.; Ostroumova, E. V.

    2006-01-01

    Tunneling emission currents of electrons from semiconductors to vacuum (needle-shaped GaAs photodetectors) and to a metal (silicon metal-insulator-semiconductor diodes with a tunneling-transparent insulator layer) are studied in high and ultrahigh electric fields. It is shown that, in semiconductors with the n-type conductivity, the major contribution to the emission current is made by the tunneling emission of electrons from the valence band of the semiconductor, rather than from the conduction band

  18. Band-to-Band Tunneling-Dominated Thermo-Enhanced Field Electron Emission from p-Si/ZnO Nanoemitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhizhen; Huang, Yifeng; Xu, Ningsheng; Chen, Jun; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi

    2018-06-13

    Thermo-enhancement is an effective way to achieve high performance field electron emitters, and enables the individually tuning on the emission current by temperature and the electron energy by voltage. The field emission current from metal or n-doped semiconductor emitter at a relatively lower temperature (i.e., current saturation was observed in the thermo-enhanced field emission measurements. The emission current density showed about ten-time enhancement (from 1.31 to 12.11 mA/cm 2 at 60.6 MV/m) by increasing the temperature from 323 to 623 K. The distinctive performance did not agree with the interband excitation mechanism but well-fit to the band-to-band tunneling model. The strong thermo-enhancement was proposed to be benefit from the increase of band-to-band tunneling probability at the surface portion of the p-Si/ZnO nanojunction. This work provides promising cathode for portable X-ray tubes/panel, ionization vacuum gauges and low energy electron beam lithography, in where electron-dose control at a fixed energy is needed.

  19. Noise Characterization and Performance of MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Sriharsha; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wu, Aisheng; Wenny, Brian; Chiang, Kwofu; Chen, Na; Wang, Zhipeng; Li, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a premier Earth-observing sensor of the early 21st century, flying onboard the Terra (T) and Aqua (A) spacecraft. Both instruments far exceeded their six-year design life and continue to operate satisfactorily for more than 15 and 13 years, respectively. The MODIS instrument is designed to make observations at nearly a 100% duty cycle covering the entire Earth in less than two days. The MODIS sensor characteristics include a spectral coverage from 0.41micrometers to 14.4 micrometers, of which those wavelengths ranging from 3.7 micrometers to 14.4 micrometers cover the thermal infrared region which is interspaced in 16 thermal emissive bands (TEBs). Each of the TEB contains ten detectors which record samples at a spatial resolution of 1 km. In order to ensure a high level of accuracy for the TEB-measured top-of-atmosphere radiances, an onboard blackbody (BB) is used as the calibration source. This paper reports the noise characterization and performance of the TEB on various counts. First, the stability of the onboard BB is evaluated to understand the effectiveness of the calibration source. Next, key noise metrics such as the noise equivalent temperature difference and the noise equivalent dn difference (NEdN) for the various TEBs are determined from multiple temperature sources. These sources include the nominally controlled BB temperature of 290 K for T-MODIS and 285 K for A-MODIS, as well as a BB warm up-cool down cycle that is performed over a temperature range from roughly 270 to 315 K. The space-view port that measures the background signal serves as a viable cold temperature source for measuring noise. In addition, a well characterized Earth-view target, the Dome Concordia site located in the Antarctic plateau, is used for characterizing the stability of the sensor, indirectly providing a measure of the NEdN. Based on this rigorous characterization, a list of the noisy and inoperable detectors for

  20. Narrow band flame emission from dieseline and diesel spray combustion in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zengyang

    2016-08-18

    In this paper, spray combustion of diesel (No. 2) and diesel-gasoline blend (dieseline: 80% diesel and 20% gasoline by volume) were investigated in an optically accessible constant volume combustion chamber. Effects of ambient conditions on flame emissions were studied. Ambient oxygen concentration was varied from 12% to 21% and three ambient temperatures were selected: 800 K, 1000 K and 1200 K. An intensified CCD camera coupled with bandpass filters was employed to capture the quasi-steady state flame emissions at 430 nm and 470 nm bands. Under non-sooting conditions, the narrow-band flame emissions at 430 nm and 470 nm can be used as indicators of CH∗ (methylidyne) and HCHO∗ (formaldehyde), respectively. The lift-off length was measured by imaging the OH∗ chemiluminescence at 310 nm. Flame emission structure and intensity distribution were compared between dieseline and diesel at wavelength bands. Flame emission images show that both narrow band emissions become shorter, thinner and stronger with higher oxygen concentration and higher ambient temperature for both fuels. Areas of weak intensity are observed at the flame periphery and the upstream for both fuels under all ambient conditions. Average flame emission intensity and area were calculated for 430 nm and 470 nm narrow-band emissions. At a lower ambient temperature the average intensity increases with increasing ambient oxygen concentration. However, at the 1200 K ambient temperature condition, the average intensity is not increasing monotonically for both fuels. For most of the conditions, diesel has a stronger average flame emission intensity than dieseline for the 430 nm band, and similar phenomena can be observed for the 470 nm band with 800 K and 1200 K ambient temperatures. However, for the 1000 K ambient temperature cases, dieseline has stronger average flame emission intensities than diesel for all oxygen concentrations at 470 nm band. Flame emissions for the two bands have a

  1. Photonic band edge assisted spontaneous emission enhancement from all Er3+ 1-D photonic band gap structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasera, A.; Meroni, C.; Varas, S.; Valligatla, S.; Scotognella, F.; Boucher, Y. G.; Lukowiak, A.; Zur, L.; Righini, G. C.; Ferrari, M.

    2018-06-01

    All Er3+ doped dielectric 1-D Photonic Band Gap Structure was fabricated by rf-sputtering technique. The structure was constituted by of twenty pairs of SiO2/TiO2 alternated layers doped with Er3+ ions. The scanning electron microscopy was used to check the morphology of the structure. Transmission measurements put in evidence the stop band in the range 1500 nm-1950 nm. The photoluminescence measurements were obtained by optically exciting the sample and detecting the emitted light in the 1.5 μm region at different detection angles. Luminescence spectra and luminescence decay curves put in evidence that the presence of the stop band modify the emission features of the Er3+ ions.

  2. Terahertz emission from CdHgTe/HgTe quantum wells with an inverted band structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilyev, Yu. B., E-mail: Yu.Vasilyev@mail.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Mikhailov, N. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Vasilyeva, G. Yu.; Ivánov, Yu. L.; Zakhar’in, A. O.; Andrianov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Vorobiev, L. E.; Firsov, D. A. [Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Grigoriev, M. N. [Ustinov Baltic State Technical University “VOENMEKh” (Russian Federation); Antonov, A. V.; Ikonnikov, A. V.; Gavrilenko, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The terahertz electroluminescence from Cd{sub 0.7}Hg{sub 0.3}Te/HgTe quantum wells with an inverted band structure in lateral electric fields is experimentally detected and studied. The emission-spectrum maximum for wells 6.5 and 7 nm wide is near 6 meV which corresponds to interband optical transitions. The emission is explained by state depletion in the valence band and conduction band filling due to Zener tunneling, which is confirmed by power-law current–voltage characteristics.

  3. Anisotropic emission of the X-ray K-emission band of nitrogen in hexagonal boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegeler, E.; Kosuch, N.; Wiech, G.; Faessler, A.

    1977-05-01

    The intensity distribution of the N K-emission band of hexagonal boron nitride samples with partially orientated crystallites was found to be strongly dependent upon the take-off angle of the emitted radiation. The observed emission bands can be separated unambiguously into a sigma- and a π-subband. On the basis of the directional characteristic of radiating dipoles within the layers (sigma-bondings) and perpendicular to the layers (π-bonding) the angular dependence of the intensity of the subbands is quantitatively explained. In addition the degree of orientation of the crystallites on the sample can be determined. The intensity distributions of the emission bands to be expected for single crystals and for samples without any texture are determined; in the latter case the results are found to be in good agreement with experimental results. (orig.) [de

  4. Photoelectric emission from negative-electron-affinity diamond (111) surfaces: Exciton breakup versus conduction-band emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandis, C.; Pate, B.B.

    1995-01-01

    We have recently reported that bound electron-hole pairs (Mott-Wannier excitons) are the dominant source of photoelectron emission from specially prepared [''as-polished'' C(111)-(1x1):H] negative-electron-affinity diamond surfaces for near-band-gap excitation up to 0.5 eV above threshold [C. Bandis and B. B. Pate, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 777 (1995)]. It was found that photoexcited excitons transport to the surface, break up, and emit their electron. In this paper, we extend the study of exciton-derived emission to include partial yield (constant final-state) analysis as well as angular distribution measurements of the photoelectric emission. In addition, we find that exciton-derived emission does not always dominate. Photoelectric emission properties of the in situ ''rehydrogenated'' (111)-(1x1):H diamond surface are characteristically different than emission observed from the as-polished (111)-(1x1):H surface. The rehydrogenated surface has additional downward band bending as compared to the as-polished surface. In confirmation of the assignment of photoelectric yield to exciton breakup emission, we find a significant enhancement of the total electron yield when the downward band bending of the hydrogenated surface is increased. The functional form of the observed total electron yield demonstrates that, in contrast to the as-polished surface, conduction-band electrons are a significant component of the observed photoelectric yield from the in situ hydrogenated (111)-(1x1):H surface. Furthermore, electron emission characteristics of the rehydrogenated surface confirms our assignment of a Fan phonon-cascade mechanism for thermalization of excitons

  5. DISCOVERY OF SiO BAND EMISSION FROM GALACTIC B[e] SUPERGIANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, M. [Astronomický ústav, Akademie věd České republiky, Fričova 298, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Oksala, M. E. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS UMR 8109, UPMC, Université Paris Diderot, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92190, Meudon (France); Cidale, L. S.; Arias, M. L.; Torres, A. F. [Departamento de Espectroscopía Estelar, Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina); Fernandes, M. Borges, E-mail: michaela.kraus@asu.cas.cz [Observatório Nacional, Rua General José Cristino 77, 20921-400 São Cristovão, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2015-02-20

    B[e] supergiants (B[e]SGs) are evolved massive stars in a short-lived transition phase. During this phase, these objects eject large amounts of material, which accumulate in a circumstellar disk-like structure. The expelled material is typically dense and cool, providing the cradle for molecule and dust condensation and for a rich, ongoing chemistry. Very little is known about the chemical composition of these disks, beyond the emission from dust and CO revolving around the star on Keplerian orbits. As massive stars preserve an oxygen-rich surface composition throughout their life, other oxygen-based molecules can be expected to form. As SiO is the second most stable oxygen compound, we initiated an observing campaign to search for first-overtone SiO emission bands. We obtained high-resolution near-infrared L-band spectra for a sample of Galactic B[e]SGs with reported CO band emission. We clearly detect emission from the SiO first-overtone bands in CPD-52 9243 and indications for faint emission in HD 62623, HD 327083, and CPD-57 2874. From model fits, we find that in all these stars the SiO bands are rotationally broadened with a velocity lower than observed in the CO band forming regions, suggesting that SiO forms at larger distances from the star. Hence, searching for and analyzing these bands is crucial for studying the structure and kinematics of circumstellar disks, because they trace complementary regions to the CO band formation zone. Moreover, since SiO molecules are the building blocks for silicate dust, their study might provide insight in the early stage of dust formation.

  6. Origin of Spectral Band Patterns in the Cosmic Unidentified Infrared Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro Galué, Héctor; Díaz Leines, Grisell

    2017-10-01

    The cosmic unidentified infrared emission (UIE) band phenomenon is generally considered as indicative of free-flying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules in space. However, a coherent explanation of emission spectral band patterns depending on astrophysical source is yet to be resolved under this attribution. Meanwhile astronomers have restored the alternative origin as due to amorphous carbon particles, but assigning spectral patterns to specific structural elements of particles is equally challenging. Here we report a physical principle in which inclusion of nonplanar structural defects in aromatic core molecular structures (π domains) induces spectral patterns typical of the phenomenon. We show that defects in model π domains modulate the electronic-vibration coupling that activates the delocalized π -electron contribution to aromatic vibrational modes. The modulation naturally disperses C =C stretch modes in band patterns that readily resemble the UIE bands in the elusive 6 - 9 μ m range. The electron-vibration interaction mechanics governing the defect-induced band patterns underscores the importance of π delocalization in the emergence of UIE bands. We discuss the global UIE band regularity of this range as compatible with an emission from the delocalized s p2 phase, as π domains, confined in disordered carbon mixed-phase aggregates.

  7. Bulk band gaps in divalent hexaborides: A soft x-ray emission study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denlinger, Jonathan D.; Gweon, Gey-Hong; Allen, James W.; Bianchi, Andrea D.; Fisk, Zachary

    2001-01-01

    Boron K-edge soft x-ray emission and absorption are used to address the fundamental question of whether divalent hexaborides are intrinsic semimetals or defect-doped bandgap insulators. These bulk sensitive measurements, complementary and consistent with surface-sensitive angle-resolved photoemission experiments, confirm the existence of a bulk band gap and the location of the chemical potential at the bottom of the conduction band

  8. Near-infrared emission bands of TeH and TeD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, E. H.; Setzer, K. D.; Ramsay, D. A.; Vervloet, M.

    1989-11-01

    High-resolution emission spectra of TeH and TeD have been obtained in the region 4200 to 3600 cm -1 using a Bomem DA3.002 Fourier transform spectrometer. Analyses are given for the 0-0 and 1-1 bands of the X 22Π{1}/{2}-X 12Π{3}/{2} system of TeH and for the 0-0 band of TeD. In addition the 2-0 vibrational overtone bands of 130TeH, 128TeH, and 126TeH are observed and analyzed. Accurate molecular constants are given for the first time.

  9. L-Band Microwave Emission of Soil Freeze-Thaw Process in the Third Pole Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Donghai; van der Velde, R.; Su, Z.; Zeng, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Soil freeze-thaw transition monitoring is essential for quantifying climate change and hydrologic dynamics over cold regions, for instance, the Third Pole. We investigate the L-band (1.4 GHz) microwave emission characteristics of soil freeze-thaw cycle via analysis of tower-based brightness

  10. Near band edge emission characteristics of sputtered nano-crystalline ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunj, Saurabh; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-01-01

    Sputtered zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited on unheated glass substrate under different sputtering gas mixtures (Ar+O_2) have been investigated using X-ray diffraction and photo luminescence spectroscopy. Earlier reported studies on ZnO films prepared by different techniques exhibit either a sharp/broad near band edge (NBE) emission peak depending on the crystalline quality of the film. In the present study zinc oxide films, grown on unheated substrates, are seen to possess a preferred (002) orientation with a microstructure consisting of clustered nano-sized crystallites. The splitting in the near band edge emission (NBE) into three characteristic peaks is attributed to quantum confinement effect, and is observed specifically under an excitation of 270 nm. Deep level emission (DLE) in the range 400 to 700 nm is not observed indicating absence of deep level radiative defects.

  11. Near band edge emission characteristics of sputtered nano-crystalline ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunj, Saurabh; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-05-01

    Sputtered zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited on unheated glass substrate under different sputtering gas mixtures (Ar+O2) have been investigated using X-ray diffraction and photo luminescence spectroscopy. Earlier reported studies on ZnO films prepared by different techniques exhibit either a sharp/broad near band edge (NBE) emission peak depending on the crystalline quality of the film. In the present study zinc oxide films, grown on unheated substrates, are seen to possess a preferred (002) orientation with a microstructure consisting of clustered nano-sized crystallites. The splitting in the near band edge emission (NBE) into three characteristic peaks is attributed to quantum confinement effect, and is observed specifically under an excitation of 270 nm. Deep level emission (DLE) in the range 400 to 700 nm is not observed indicating absence of deep level radiative defects.

  12. Near band edge emission characteristics of sputtered nano-crystalline ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunj, Saurabh; Sreenivas, K. [Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 INDIA (India)

    2016-05-06

    Sputtered zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited on unheated glass substrate under different sputtering gas mixtures (Ar+O{sub 2}) have been investigated using X-ray diffraction and photo luminescence spectroscopy. Earlier reported studies on ZnO films prepared by different techniques exhibit either a sharp/broad near band edge (NBE) emission peak depending on the crystalline quality of the film. In the present study zinc oxide films, grown on unheated substrates, are seen to possess a preferred (002) orientation with a microstructure consisting of clustered nano-sized crystallites. The splitting in the near band edge emission (NBE) into three characteristic peaks is attributed to quantum confinement effect, and is observed specifically under an excitation of 270 nm. Deep level emission (DLE) in the range 400 to 700 nm is not observed indicating absence of deep level radiative defects.

  13. Room Temperature Direct Band Gap Emission from Ge p-i-n Heterojunction Photodiodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Room temperature direct band gap emission is observed for Si-substrate-based Ge p-i-n heterojunction photodiode structures operated under forward bias. Comparisons of electroluminescence with photoluminescence spectra allow separating emission from intrinsic Ge (0.8 eV and highly doped Ge (0.73 eV. Electroluminescence stems from carrier injection into the intrinsic layer, whereas photoluminescence originates from the highly n-doped top layer because the exciting visible laser wavelength is strongly absorbed in Ge. High doping levels led to an apparent band gap narrowing from carrier-impurity interaction. The emission shifts to higher wavelengths with increasing current level which is explained by device heating. The heterostructure layer sequence and the light emitting device are similar to earlier presented photodetectors. This is an important aspect for monolithic integration of silicon microelectronics and silicon photonics.

  14. Visible sub-band gap photoelectron emission from nitrogen doped and undoped polycrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfimchev, S., E-mail: sergeyel@tx.technion.ac.il; Chandran, M.; Akhvlediani, R.; Hoffman, A.

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Nitrogen related centers in diamond film are mainly responsible for visible sub-band-gap photoelectron emission. • The influence of film thickness and substrate on the measured photoelectron emission yields was not found. • Nanocrystalline diamonds have low electron emission yields most likely because of high amount of defects. • Visible sub-band gap photoelectron emission may increase with temperature due to electron trapping/detrapping processes. - Abstract: In this study the origin of visible sub-band gap photoelectron emission (PEE) from polycrystalline diamond films is investigated. The PEE yields as a function of temperature were studied in the wavelengths range of 360–520 nm. Based on the comparison of electron emission yields from diamond films deposited on silicon and molybdenum substrates, with different thicknesses and nitrogen doping levels, we suggested that photoelectrons are generated from nitrogen related centers in diamond. Our results show that diamond film thickness and substrate material have no significant influence on the PEE yield. We found that nanocrystalline diamond films have low electron emission yields, compared to microcrystalline diamond, due to the presence of high amount of defects in the former, which trap excited electrons before escaping into the vacuum. However, the low PEE yield of nanocrystalline diamond films was found to increase with temperature. The phenomenon was explained by the trap assisted photon enhanced thermionic emission (ta-PETE) model. According to the ta-PETE model, photoelectrons are trapped by shallow traps, followed by thermal excitation at elevated temperatures and escape into the vacuum. Activation energies of trap levels were estimated for undoped nanocrystalline, undoped microcrystalline and N-doped diamond films using the Richardson-Dushman equation, which gives 0.13, 0.39 and 0.04 eV, respectively. Such low activation energy of trap levels makes the ta-PETE process very

  15. Laser induced broad band anti-Stokes white emission from LiYbF4 nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Marciniak; R. Tomala; M. Stefanski; D. Hreniak; W. Strek

    2016-01-01

    Spectroscopic properties of tetragonal LiYbF4 nanocrystals under high dense NIR excitation at vacuum condition were in-vestigated. White, broad band emission covering whole visible part of the spectrum from LiYbF4 nanocrystals was observed. Its in-tensity strongly depended on the excitation power, excitation wavelength and ambient pressure. Temperature of the nanocrystals un-der 975 nm excitation was determined as a function of excitation power. Strong photo-induced current was observed from LiYbF4 pallet. The emission kinetic was analyzed. The mechanism of the anti-Stokes white emission was discussed in terms of the la-ser-induced charge transfer emission from Yb2+ states.

  16. Otoacoustic emissions in young adults exposed to drums noise of a college band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Botelho da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to identify cochlear dysfunction and occurrence of tinnitus in young adults exposed to drums noise of a college band. Methods: the sample included 50 subjects: 25 musicians (study group and 25 non-musicians (control group. The procedures included anamnesis, pure tone audiometry, acoustic impedance and Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions, Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions and Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions Input-Output function. Results: positive correlation between the occurrence of tinnitus and the variables exposure time and use of personal stereos was found. Overall, the study group showed significantly lower Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions, when compared to the control group. In the study group, there was a tendency toward worse response in 6 kHz(f2 in Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions in both ears. The Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions Input-Output function did not differ between groups nor did its slope. Conclusion: in general, otoacoustic emissions were worse in noise-exposed young people (study group when compared to the unexposed (control group, indicating that the test may be important in early identification of cochlear changes.

  17. Rain effect on Aquarius L-band Emissivity and Backscatter Model Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W.; Yueh, S. H.; Fore, A.; Neumann, G.; Hayashi, A.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing of sea surface salinity (SSS) is being performed by Aquarius and SMOS missions, which are using L-band radiometry to sense the microwave emissions from sea surfaces. To enable accurate SSS retrieval, it is essential to correct the impact of sea surface roughness on L-band brightness temperatures. In addition, the impact of rain has to be carefully assessed and accounted for. Although the atmospheric attenuation caused by raindrops are likely negligible at 1.4GHz, other factors must be considered because they may have indirect but important contribution to the surface roughness and consequently L-band brightness temperatures. For example, the wind speed dependent roughness correction will be corrupted when rain striking the water, creating rings, stalks, and crowns from which the signal scatters. It is also unknown how long the freshwater stays at surface while through the oceanic mixing process at various regions over global oceans. We collocated the Aquarius L-band data with various wind products, including SSM/I, NCEP, ASCAT and WindSAT, as well as the SSM/I and WindSAT rain products. During the first four months of Aquarius mission, near 1.9 million pixels are identified under rain conditions by either SSM/I or WindSAT. We derived the L-band emissivity and backscatter geophysical model functions (GMF), parameterized by SSM/I and NCEP winds for rain-free conditions. However, the residual ocean surface emissivity (the Aquarius measured minus the rain-free model predictions) reveals profound resemblance with global precipitation pattern. In region dominated by rain, e.g. ITCZ, northern hemisphere storm track, and Indian Ocean partially under the influence of summer monsoon, the GMF built using rain free data underestimates excess emissivity about 0.5 to 1 K. The dependence of residual of emissivity and backscatter is shown as a function of wind speed and rain rate. A modified GMF is developed including rain rate as one of the parameters. Due to

  18. Accounting for many-body correlation effects in the calculation of the valence band photoelectron emission spectra of ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minar, J.; Chadov, S.; Ebert, H.; Chioncel, L.; Lichtenstein, A.; De Nadai, C.; Brookes, N.B.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of dynamical correlation effects on the valence band photoelectron emission of ferromagnetic Fe, Co and Ni has been investigated. Angle-resolved as well as angle-integrated valence band photoelectron emission spectra were calculated on the basis of the one-particle Green's function, which was obtained by using the fully relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method. The correlation effects have been included in terms of the electronic self-energy which was calculated self-consistently within Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT). In addition a theoretical approach to calculate high-energy angle-resolved valence band photoelectron emission spectra is presented

  19. EXAMINING THE BROADBAND EMISSION SPECTRUM OF WASP-19b: A NEW z-BAND ECLIPSE DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, George; Bayliss, Daniel D. R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Rd, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Kedziora-Chudczer, Lucyna; Bailey, Jeremy, E-mail: george@mso.anu.edu.au [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2013-09-10

    WASP-19b is one of the most irradiated hot-Jupiters known. Its secondary eclipse is the deepest of all transiting planets and has been measured in multiple optical and infrared bands. We obtained a z-band eclipse observation with a measured depth of 0.080% {+-} 0.029%, using the 2 m Faulkes Telescope South, which is consistent with the results of previous observations. We combined our measurement of the z-band eclipse with previous observations to explore atmosphere models of WASP-19b that are consistent with its broadband spectrum. We use the VSTAR radiative transfer code to examine the effect of varying pressure-temperature profiles and C/O abundance ratios on the emission spectrum of the planet. We find that models with super-solar carbon enrichment best match the observations, which is consistent with previous model retrieval studies. We also include upper atmosphere haze as another dimension in the interpretation of exoplanet emission spectra and find that particles <0.5 {mu}m in size are unlikely to be present in WASP-19b.

  20. NON-DETECTION OF L-BAND LINE EMISSION FROM THE EXOPLANET HD189733b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandell, Avi M.; Deming, L. Drake; Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Knutson, Heather A.; Salyk, Colette

    2011-01-01

    We attempt to confirm bright non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) emission from the exoplanet HD 189733b at 3.25 μm, as recently reported by Swain et al. based on observations at low spectral resolving power (λ/δλ ∼ 30). Non-LTE emission lines from gas in an exoplanet atmosphere will not be significantly broadened by collisions, so the measured emission intensity per resolution element must be substantially brighter when observed at high spectral resolving power. We observed the planet before, during, and after a secondary eclipse event at a resolving power λ/δλ = 27, 000 using the NIRSPEC spectrometer on the Keck II telescope. Our spectra cover a spectral window near the peak found by Swain et al., and we compare emission cases that could account for the magnitude and wavelength dependence of the Swain et al. result with our final spectral residuals. To model the expected line emission, we use a general non-equilibrium formulation to synthesize emission features from all plausible molecules that emit in this spectral region. In every case, we detect no line emission to a high degree of confidence. After considering possible explanations for the Swain et al. results and the disparity with our own data, we conclude that an astrophysical source for the putative non-LTE emission is unlikely. We note that the wavelength dependence of the signal seen by Swain et al. closely matches the 2ν 2 band of water vapor at 300 K, and we suggest that an imperfect correction for telluric water is the source of the feature claimed by Swain et al.

  1. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day (MYD21A1D.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  2. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night (MOD21A1N.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  3. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night (MYD21A1N.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  4. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day (MOD21A1D.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  5. [Research on the emission spectrum of NO molecule's γ-band system by corona discharge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiao-dong; Ding, Yan-jun; Peng, Zhi-min; Luo, Rui

    2012-05-01

    The optical emission spectrum of the gamma-band system of NO molecule, A2 sigma+ --> X2 pi(r), has been analyzed and calculated based on the energy structure of NO molecule' doublet states. By employing the theory of diatomic molecular Spectra, some key parameters of equations for the radiative transition intensity were evaluated theoretically, including the potentials of the doublet states of NO molecule's upper and lower energy levels, the electronic transition moments calculated by using r-centroid approximation method, and the Einstein coefficient of different vibrational and rotational levels. The simulated spectrum of the gamma-band system was calculated as a function of different vibrational and rotational temperature. Compared to the theoretical spectroscopy, the measured results were achieved from corona discharge experiments of NO and N2. The vibrational and rotational temperatures were determined approximately by fitting the measured spectral intensities with the calculated ones.

  6. Red shift of near band edge emission in cerium implanted GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid, Abdul; Ali, Akbar

    2009-01-01

    Rare earth (RE) doping in GaN is a promising technology to control the optical properties. However, there are no reports on doping of cerium (Ce) into GaN, which is a very unique RE element. In this paper, we performed photoluminescence (PL) and optical transmission measurements on Ce-doped GaN for the first time. A significant red shift of about 120 meV was observed in the PL peak position of the donor bound excitons. This red shift of near band emission was corroborated by the red shift of the absorption edge related to GaN in the optical transmission measurements. This observation is attributed to the band gap narrowing in GaN heavily doped with Ce. The activation energy of the Ce-related shallow donor is found to be 21.9 meV in GaN.

  7. Red shift of near band edge emission in cerium implanted GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majid, Abdul; Ali, Akbar, E-mail: abdulmajid40@yahoo.co, E-mail: akbar@qau.edu.p [Advance Materials Physics Laboratory, Physics Department, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2009-02-21

    Rare earth (RE) doping in GaN is a promising technology to control the optical properties. However, there are no reports on doping of cerium (Ce) into GaN, which is a very unique RE element. In this paper, we performed photoluminescence (PL) and optical transmission measurements on Ce-doped GaN for the first time. A significant red shift of about 120 meV was observed in the PL peak position of the donor bound excitons. This red shift of near band emission was corroborated by the red shift of the absorption edge related to GaN in the optical transmission measurements. This observation is attributed to the band gap narrowing in GaN heavily doped with Ce. The activation energy of the Ce-related shallow donor is found to be 21.9 meV in GaN.

  8. Detection of Time Lags between Quasar Continuum Emission Bands Based On Pan-STARRS Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yan-Fei [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Green, Paul J.; Pancoast, Anna; MacLeod, Chelsea L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Morganson, Eric; Shen, Yue [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Anderson, Scott F.; Ruan, John J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Grier, C. J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Rix, H.-W. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Protopapas, Pavlos [Institute for Applied Computational Science, John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Scott, Caroline [Astrophysics, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Burgett, W. S.; Hodapp, K. W.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Magnier, E. A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2017-02-20

    We study the time lags between the continuum emission of quasars at different wavelengths, based on more than four years of multi-band ( g , r , i , z ) light curves in the Pan-STARRS Medium Deep Fields. As photons from different bands emerge from different radial ranges in the accretion disk, the lags constrain the sizes of the accretion disks. We select 240 quasars with redshifts of z ≈ 1 or z ≈ 0.3 that are relatively emission-line free. The light curves are sampled from day to month timescales, which makes it possible to detect lags on the scale of the light crossing time of the accretion disks. With the code JAVELIN , we detect typical lags of several days in the rest frame between the g band and the riz bands. The detected lags are ∼2–3 times larger than the light crossing time estimated from the standard thin disk model, consistent with the recently measured lag in NGC 5548 and microlensing measurements of quasars. The lags in our sample are found to increase with increasing luminosity. Furthermore, the increase in lags going from g − r to g − i and then to g − z is slower than predicted in the thin disk model, particularly for high-luminosity quasars. The radial temperature profile in the disk must be different from what is assumed. We also find evidence that the lags decrease with increasing line ratios between ultraviolet Fe ii lines and Mg ii, which may point to changes in the accretion disk structure at higher metallicity.

  9. Band-limited Green's Functions for Quantitative Evaluation of Acoustic Emission Using the Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leser, William P.; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Leser, William P.

    2013-01-01

    A method of numerically estimating dynamic Green's functions using the finite element method is proposed. These Green's functions are accurate in a limited frequency range dependent on the mesh size used to generate them. This range can often match or exceed the frequency sensitivity of the traditional acoustic emission sensors. An algorithm is also developed to characterize an acoustic emission source by obtaining information about its strength and temporal dependence. This information can then be used to reproduce the source in a finite element model for further analysis. Numerical examples are presented that demonstrate the ability of the band-limited Green's functions approach to determine the moment tensor coefficients of several reference signals to within seven percent, as well as accurately reproduce the source-time function.

  10. Simultaneous measurements of the OH(8,3) band and 015577A airglow emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.; Sahai, Y.; Clemesha, B.R.; Simonich, D.M.; Batista, P.P.; Teixeira, N.R.

    1981-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of the night airglow OH(8,3) band and OI 5577A have been made at Cachoeira Paulista (22.7 0 S, 45,2 0 W) during June-August 1976. Correlations between the nocturnal variations of these emissions and also with the OH rotational temperature are presented. It is found that OH (8,3) is correlated with the rotational temperature but with a time lag of about 1 hour. The variations of 5577A lead the OH (8,3) by about 2 to 3 hours. The rotational temperature co-varies with 5577A, rather than OH (8,3) and there is no significant time lag. Based on the correlation study, the nocturnal variations of the two emissions can be explained by the atmospheric density perturbation caused by solar tides and internal gravity waves. (Author) [pt

  11. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid (MYD21A2.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Emissivity...

  12. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid (MOD21A2.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Emissivity...

  13. Polarimetric Emission of Rain Events: Simulation and Experimental Results at X-Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Duffo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate models are used today for infrared and microwave satellite radiance simulations of the first two Stokes elements in the physical retrieval, data assimilation etc. of surface and atmospheric parameters. Although in the past a number of theoretical and experimental works have studied the polarimetric emission of some natural surfaces, specially the sea surface roughened by the wind (Windsat mission, very limited studies have been conducted on the polarimetric emission of rain cells or other natural surfaces. In this work, the polarimetric emission (four Stokes elements of a rain cell is computed using the polarimetric radiative transfer equation assuming that raindrops are described by Pruppacher-Pitter shapes and that their size distribution follows the Laws-Parsons law. The Boundary Element Method (BEM is used to compute the exact bistatic scattering coefficients for each raindrop shape and different canting angles. Numerical results are compared to the Rayleigh or Mie scattering coefficients, and to Oguchi’s ones, showing that above 1-2 mm raindrop size the exact formulation is required to model properly the scattering. Simulation results using BEM are then compared to the experimental data gathered with a X-band polarimetric radiometer. It is found that the depolarization of the radiation caused by the scattering of non-spherical raindrops induces a non-zero third Stokes parameter, and the differential phase of the scattering coefficients induces a non-zero fourth Stokes parameter.

  14. PROBING THE IONIZATION STATES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS VIA THE 15–20 μm EMISSION BANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon, M. J.; Stock, D. J.; Peeters, E., E-mail: mshann3@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2015-10-01

    We report new correlations between ratios of band intensities of the 15–20 μm emission bands of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a sample of 57 sources observed with the Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph. This sample includes Large Magellanic Cloud point sources from the SAGE-Spec survey, nearby galaxies from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey survey, two Galactic interstellar medium cirrus sources, and the spectral maps of the Galactic reflection nebulae NGC 2023 and NGC 7023. We find that the 16.4, 17.4, and 17.8 μm band intensities are inter-correlated in all environments. In NGC 2023 and NGC 7023 these bands also correlate with the 11.0 and 12.7 μm band intensities. The 15.8 μm band correlates only with the 15–18 μm plateau and the 11.2 μm emission. We examine the spatial morphology of these bands and introduce radial cuts. We find that these bands can be spatially organized into three sets: the 12.7, 16.4, and 17.8 μm bands; the 11.2, 15.8 μm bands and the 15–18 μm plateau; and the 11.0 and 17.4 μm bands. We also find that the spatial distribution of the 12.7, 16.4, and 17.8 μm bands can be reconstructed by averaging the spatial distributions of the cationic 11.0 μm and neutral 11.2 μm bands. We conclude that the 17.4 μm band is dominated by cations, the 15.8 μm band by neutral species, and the 12.7, 16.4, and 17.8 μm bands by a combination of the two. These results highlight the importance of PAH ionization for spatially differentiating sub-populations by their 15–20 μm emission variability.

  15. Analysis of the outlook for using narrow-band spontaneous emission sources for atmospheric air purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarchuk, K A; Karelin, A V; Shirokov, R V

    2003-01-01

    The outlook for using narrow-band spontaneous emission sources for purification of smoke gases from sulphur and nitrogen oxides is demonstrated by calculations based on a nonstationary kinetic model of the N 2 - O 2 - H 2 O - CO 2 - SO 2 mixture. The dependences of the mixture purification efficiency on the UV source power at different wavelengths, the exposure time, and the mixture temperature are calculated. It is shown that the radiation sources proposed in the paper will provide better purification of waste gases in the atmosphere. The most promising is a KrCl* lamp emitting an average power of no less than 100 W at 222 nm. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  16. Band rejection filter for measurement of electron cyclotron emission during electron cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwase, Makoto; Ohkubo, Kunizo; Kubo, Shin; Idei, Hiroshi.

    1996-05-01

    For the measurement of electron cyclotron emission from the high temperature plasma, a band rejection filter in the range of 40-60 GHz is designed to reject the 53.2 GHz signal with large amplitude from the gyrotron for the purpose of plasma electron heating. The filter developed with ten sets of three quarters-wavelength coupled by TE 111 mode of tunable resonant cavity has rejection of 50 dB and 3 dB bandwidth of 500 MHz. The modified model of Tschebysheff type for the prediction of rejection is proposed. It is confirmed that the measured rejection as a function of frequency agrees well with the experimental results for small coupling hole, and also clarified that the rejection ratio increases for the large coupling hole. (author)

  17. Magnetic dichroism in UV photoemission at off-normal emission: Study of the valence bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venus, D.; Kuch, W.; Lin, M.; Schneider, C.M.; Ebert, H.; Kirschner, J.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic dichroism of angle-resolved UV photoemission from fcc Co/Cu(001) thin films has been measured using linearly p-polarized light, and a coplanar geometry where the light and photoelectron wave vectors are antiparallel, and both are perpendicular to the in-plane sample magnetization. This geometry emphasizes information about state dispersion due to the crystalline symmetry. An orderly dispersion of the features in the magnetic dichroism over a wide range of off-normal angles of electron emission is related in detail to the bulk band structure of fcc Co. The measurements confirm the practical utility of magnetic dichroism experiments as a relatively simple complement to spin-resolved photoemission. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Broad-band tunable visible emission of sol-gel derived SiBOC ceramic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakuscu, Aylin; Guider, Romain; Pavesi, Lorenzo; Soraru, Gian Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Strong broad band tunable visible emission of SiBOC ceramic films is reported and the results are compared with one of boron free SiOC ceramic films. The insertion of boron into the SiOC network is verified by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Optical properties are studied by photoluminescence and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy measurements. Boron addition causes a decrease in the emission intensity attributed to defect states and shifts the emission to the visible range at lower temperatures (800-900 o C) leading to a very broad tunable emission with high external quantum efficiency.

  19. Transparency and spontaneous emission in a densely doped photonic band gap material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2006-12-28

    The susceptibility has been calculated for a photonic crystal in the presence of spontaneous cancellation and dipole-dipole interaction. The crystal is densely doped with an ensemble of four-level nano-particles in Y-type configuration. Probe and a pump laser fields are applied to manipulate the absorption coefficient of the system. The expression of the susceptibility has been calculated in the linear response regime of the probe field but nonlinear terms are included for the pump field. It is found that in the presence of spontaneous emission cancellation there is an increase in the height of the two absorption peaks however the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is not affected. On the other hand, there is a change in the height and location of the two peaks in the presence of dipole-dipole interactions. For certain values the particle density of the system can be switched from the EIT state to the non-EIT state. It is also found that when the resonance energies for two spontaneous emission channels lie close to the band edge, the EIT phenomenon disappears.

  20. Switching mechanism due to the spontaneous emission cancellation in photonic band gap materials doped with nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada N6A 3K7 (Canada)]. E-mail: msingh@uwo.ca

    2007-03-26

    We have investigated the switching mechanism due to the spontaneous emission cancellation in a photonic band gap (PBG) material doped with an ensemble of four-level nano-particles. The effect of the dipole-dipole interaction has also been studied. The linear susceptibility has been calculated in the mean field theory. Numerical simulations for the imaginary susceptibility are performed for a PBG material which is made from periodic dielectric spheres. It is predicted that the system can be switched between the absorbing state and the non-absorbing state by changing the resonance energy within the energy bands of the photonic band gap material.0.

  1. Atmospheric dayglow diagnostics involving the O2(b-X) Atmospheric band emission: Global Oxygen and Temperature (GOAT) mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slanger, T. G.; Pejaković, D. A.; Kostko, O.; Matsiev, D.; Kalogerakis, K. S.

    2017-03-01

    The terrestrial dayglow displays prominent emission features from the 0-0 and 1-1 bands of the O2 Atmospheric band system in the 760-780 nm region. We present an analysis of observations in this wavelength region recorded by the Space Shuttle during the Arizona Airglow Experiment. A major conclusion is that the dominant product of O(1D) + O2 energy transfer is O2(b, v = 1), a result that corroborates our previous laboratory studies. Moreover, critical to the interpretation of dayglow is the possible interference by N2 and N2+ bands in the 760-780 nm region, where the single-most important component is the N2 1PG 3-1 band that overlaps with the O2(b-X) 0-0 band. When present, this background must be accounted for to reveal the O2(b-X) 0-0 and 1-1 bands for altitudes at which the O2 and N2/N2+ emissions coincide. Finally, we exploit the very different collisional behavior of the two lowest O2(b) vibrational levels to outline a remote sensing technique that provides information on Atmospheric composition and temperature from space-based observations of the 0-0 and 1-1 O2 atmospheric bands.

  2. Ballistic-electron-emission spectroscopy of AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs heterostructures: Conduction-band offsets, transport mechanisms, and band-structure effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OShea, J.J.; Brazel, E.G.; Rubin, M.E.; Bhargava, S.; Chin, M.A.; Narayanamurti, V.

    1997-01-01

    We report an extensive investigation of semiconductor band-structure effects in single-barrier Al x Ga 1-x As/GaAs heterostructures using ballistic-electron-emission spectroscopy (BEES). The transport mechanisms in these single-barrier structures were studied systematically as a function of temperature and Al composition over the full compositional range (0≤x≤1). The initial (Γ) BEES thresholds for Al x Ga 1-x As single barriers with 0≤x≤0.42 were extracted using a model which includes the complete transmission probability of the metal-semiconductor interface and the semiconductor heterostructure. Band offsets measured by BEES are in good agreement with previous measurements by other techniques which demonstrates the accuracy of this technique. BEES measurements at 77 K give the same band-offset values as at room temperature. When a reverse bias is applied to the heterostructures, the BEES thresholds shift to lower voltages in good agreement with the expected bias-induced band-bending. In the indirect band-gap regime (x>0.45), spectra show a weak ballistic-electron-emission microscopy current contribution due to intervalley scattering through Al x Ga 1-x As X valley states. Low-temperature spectra show a marked reduction in this intervalley current component, indicating that intervalley phonon scattering at the GaAs/Al x Ga 1-x As interface produces a significant fraction of thisX valley current. A comparison of the BEES thresholds with the expected composition dependence of the Al x Ga 1-x As Γ, L, and X points yields good agreement over the entire composition range. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  3. Use of IRI to Model the Effect of Ionosphere Emission on Earth Remote Sensing at L-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Saji; LeVine, David M.

    2004-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing in the window at 1.413 GHz (L-band) set aside for passive use only is important for monitoring sea surface salinity and soil moisture. These parameters are important for understanding ocean dynamics and energy exchange between the surface and atmosphere, and both NASA and ESA plan to launch satellite sensors to monitor these parameters at L-band (Aquarius, Hydros and SMOS). The ionosphere is an important source of error for passive remote sensing at this frequency. In addition to Faraday rotation, emission from the ionosphere is also a potential source of error at L-band. As an aid for correcting for emission, a regression model is presented that relates ionosphere emission to the integrated electron density (TEC). The goal is to use TEC from sources such as TOPEX, JASON or GPS to obtain estimates of emission over the oceans where the electron density profiles needed to compute emission are not available. In addition, data will also be presented to evaluate the use of the IRI for computing emission over the ocean.

  4. Remote Monitoring of a Multi-Component Liquid-Phase Organic Synthesis by Infrared Emission Spectroscopy: The Recovery of Pure Component Emissivities by Band-Target Entropy Minimization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cheng, S.; Tjahjono, M.; Rajarathnam, D.; Chuanzhao, L.; Lyapkalo, Ilya; Chen, D.; Garland, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 10 (2007), s. 1057-1062 ISSN 0003-7028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : infrared emission spectroscopy * liquid phase reaction * band-target entropy minimization * BTEM * emittance Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.902, year: 2007

  5. The performance of DC restoration function for MODIS thermal emissive bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong Jack; Shrestha, Ashish

    2017-09-01

    The DC restore (DCR) process of MODIS instrument maintains the output of a detector at focal plane assembly (FPA) within the dynamic range of subsequent analog-to-digital converter, by adding a specific offset voltage to the output. The DCR offset value is adjusted per scan, based on the comparison of the detector response in digital number (DN) collected from the blackbody (BB) view with target DN saved as an on-board look-up table. In this work, the MODIS DCR mechanism is revisited, with the trends of DCR offset being provided for thermal emissive bands (TEB). Noticeable changes have been occasionally found which coincide with significant detector gain change due to various instrumental events such as safe-mode anomaly or FPA temperature fluctuation. In general, MODIS DCR functionality has been effective and the change of DCR offset has no impact to the quality of MODIS data. One exception is the Earth view (EV) data saturation of Aqua MODIS LWIR bands 33, 35 ad 36 during BB warm-up cool-down (WUCD) cycle which has been observed since 2008. The BB view of their detectors saturate when the BB temperature is above certain threshold so the DCR cannot work as designed. Therefore, the dark signal DN fluctuates with the cold FPA (CFPA) temperature and saturate for a few hours per WUCD cycle, which also saturate the EV data sector within the scan. The CFPA temperature fluctuation peaked in 2012 and has been reduced in recent years and the saturation phenomenon has been easing accordingly. This study demonstrates the importance of DCR to data generation.

  6. Wavelength-tuned light emission via modifying the band edge symmetry: Doped SnO2 as an example

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Hang; Deng, Rui; Li, Yongfeng; Yao, Bin; Ding, Zhanhui; Wang, Qingxiao; Han, Yu; Wu, Tao; Liu, Lei

    2014-01-01

    at 398 nm is observed in the indium-doped SnO2-based heterojunction. Our results demonstrate an unprecedented doping-based approach toward tailoring the symmetry of band edge states and recovering ultraviolet light emission in wide-bandgap oxides. © 2014

  7. Strong Photonic-Band-Gap Effect on the Spontaneous Emission in 3D Lead Halide Perovskite Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue; Li, Mingzhu; Wang, Kang; Li, Huizeng; Li, Yanan; Li, Chang; Yan, Yongli; Zhao, Yongsheng; Song, Yanlin

    2018-03-25

    Stimulated emission in perovskite-embedded polymer opal structures is investigated. A polymer opal structure is filled with a perovskite, and perovskite photonic crystals are prepared. The spontaneous emission of the perovskite embedded in the polymer opal structures exhibits clear signatures of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) via gain modulation. The difference in refractive-index contrast between the perovskite and the polymer opal is large enough for retaining photonic-crystals properties. The photonic band gap has a strong effect on the fluorescence emission intensity and lifetime. The stimulated emission spectrum exhibits a narrow ASE rather than a wide fluorescence peak in the thin film. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Improvement of the Water Resistance of a Narrow-Band Red-Emitting SrLiAl3 N4 :Eu(2+) Phosphor Synthesized under High Isostatic Pressure through Coating with an Organosilica Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Ting; Nguyen, Hoang-Duy; Lazarowska, Agata; Mahlik, Sebastian; Grinberg, Marek; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2016-08-08

    A SrLiAl3 N4 :Eu(2+) (SLA) red phosphor prepared through a high-pressure solid-state reaction was coated with an organosilica layer with a thickness of 400-600 nm to improve its water resistance. The observed 4f(6) 5d→4f(7) transition bands are thought to result from the existence of Eu(2+) at two different Sr(2+) sites. Luminescence spectra at 10 K revealed two zero-phonon lines at 15377 (for Eu(Sr1)) and 15780 cm(-1) (for Eu(Sr2)). The phosphor exhibited stable red emission under high pressure up to 312 kbar. The configurational coordinate diagram gave a theoretical explanation for the Eu(2+/3+) result. The coated samples showed excellent moisture resistance while retaining an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 70 % of their initial EQE after aging for 5 days under harsh conditions. White-light-emitting diodes of the SLA red phosphor and a commercial Y3 Al5 O12 :Ce(3+) yellow phosphor on a blue InGaN chip showed high color rendition (CRI=89, R9=69) and a low correlated color temperature of 2406 K. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Wavelength-tuned light emission via modifying the band edge symmetry: Doped SnO2 as an example

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Hang

    2014-03-27

    We report the observation of ultraviolet photoluminescence and electroluminescence in indium-doped SnO2 thin films with modified "forbidden" bandgap. With increasing indium concentration in SnO 2, dominant visible light emission evolves into the ultraviolet regime in photoluminescence. Hybrid functional first-principles calculations demonstrate that the complex of indium dopant and oxygen vacancy breaks "forbidden" band gap to form allowed transition states. Furthermore, undoped and 10% indium-doped SnO2 layers are synthesized on p-type GaN substrates to obtain SnO2-based heterojunction light-emitting diodes. A dominant visible emission band is observed in the undoped SnO 2-based heterojunction, whereas strong near-ultraviolet emission peak at 398 nm is observed in the indium-doped SnO2-based heterojunction. Our results demonstrate an unprecedented doping-based approach toward tailoring the symmetry of band edge states and recovering ultraviolet light emission in wide-bandgap oxides. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  10. L-Band H Polarized Microwave Emission During the Corn Growth Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, A. T.; va der Velde, R.; O'Neill, P. E.; Kim, E.; Lang, R. H.; Gish, T.

    2012-01-01

    Hourly L-band (1.4 GHz) horizontally (H) polarized brightness temperatures (T(sub B))'s measured during five episodes (more than two days of continuous measurements) of the 2002 corn growth cycle are analyzed. These T(sub B)'s measurements were acquired as a part of a combined active/passive microwave field campaign, and were obtained at five incidence and three azimuth angles relative to the row direction. In support of this microwave data collection, intensive ground sampling took place once a week. Moreover, the interpretation of the hourly T(sub B)'s could also rely on the data obtained using the various automated instruments installed in the same field. In this paper, the soil moisture and temperature measured at fixed time intervals have been employed as input for the tau-omega model to reproduce the hourly T(sub B). Through the calibration of the vegetation and surface roughness parameterizations, the impact of the vegetation morphological changes on the microwave emission and the dependence of the soil surface roughness parameter, h(sub r), on soil moisture are investigated. This analysis demonstrates that the b parameter, appearing in the representation of the canopy opacity, has an angular dependence that varies throughout the growing period and also that the parameter hr increases as the soil dries in a portion of the dry-down cycle. The angular dependence of the b parameter imposes the largest uncertainty on T(sub B) simulations near senescence as the response of b to the incidence is also affected by the crop row orientation. On the other hand, the incorporation of a soil moisture dependent h(sub r) parameterization was responsible for the largest error reduction of T(sub B) simulations in the early growth cycle.

  11. Evaluation of VIIRS and MODIS Thermal Emissive Band Calibration Stability Using Ground Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriharsha Madhavan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The S-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS instrument, a polar orbiting Earth remote sensing instrument built using a strong MODIS background, employs a similarly designed on-board calibrating source—a V-grooved blackbody for the Thermal Emissive Bands (TEB. The central wavelengths of most VIIRS TEBs are very close to those of MODIS with the exception of the 10.7 µm channel. To ensure the long term continuity of climate data records derived using VIIRS and MODIS TEB, it is necessary to assess any systematic differences between the two instruments, including scenes with temperatures significantly lower than blackbody operating temperatures at approximately 290 K. Previous work performed by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST at NASA/GSFC used the frequent observations of the Dome Concordia site located in Antarctica to evaluate the calibration stability and consistency of Terra and Aqua MODIS over the mission lifetime. The near-surface temperature measurements from an automatic weather station (AWS provide a direct reference useful for tracking the stability and determining the relative bias between the two MODIS instruments. In this study, the same technique is applied to the VIIRS TEB and the results are compared with those from the matched MODIS TEB. The results of this study show a small negative bias when comparing the matching VIIRS and Aqua MODIS TEB, implying a higher brightness temperature for S-VIIRS at the cold end. Statistically no significant drift is observed for VIIRS TEB performance over the first 3.5 years of the mission.

  12. Narrow-band tunable terahertz emission from ferrimagnetic Mn{sub 3-x}Ga thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awari, N. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); University of Groningen, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Kovalev, S., E-mail: s.kovalev@hzdr.de, E-mail: c.fowley@hzdr.de, E-mail: rodek@tcd.ie; Fowley, C., E-mail: s.kovalev@hzdr.de, E-mail: c.fowley@hzdr.de, E-mail: rodek@tcd.ie; Green, B.; Yildirim, O.; Lindner, J.; Fassbender, J.; Deac, A. M.; Gensch, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Rode, K., E-mail: s.kovalev@hzdr.de, E-mail: c.fowley@hzdr.de, E-mail: rodek@tcd.ie; Lau, Y.-C.; Betto, D.; Thiyagarajah, N.; Coey, J. M. D. [CRANN, AMBER and School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Gallardo, R. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avenida España 1680, 2390123 Valparíso (Chile)

    2016-07-18

    Narrow-band terahertz emission from coherently excited spin precession in metallic ferrimagnetic Mn{sub 3-x}Ga Heusler alloy nanofilms has been observed. The efficiency of the emission, per nanometer film thickness, is comparable or higher than that of classical laser-driven terahertz sources based on optical rectification. The center frequency of the emission from the films can be tuned precisely via the film composition in the range of 0.20–0.35 THz, making this type of metallic film a candidate for efficient on-chip terahertz emitters. Terahertz emission spectroscopy is furthermore shown to be a sensitive probe of magnetic properties of ultra-thin films.

  13. Estimating net rainfall, evaporation and water storage of a bare soil from sequential L-band emissivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroosnijder, L.; Lascano, R. J.; Newton, R. W.; Vanbavel, C. H. M.

    1984-01-01

    A general method to use a time series of L-band emissivities as an input to a hydrological model for continuously monitoring the net rainfall and evaporation as well as the water content over the entire soil profile is proposed. The model requires a sufficiently accurate and general relation between soil emissivity and surface moisture content. A model which requires the soil hydraulic properties as an additional input, but does not need any weather data was developed. The method is shown to be numerically consistent.

  14. Spontaneous emission near the band edge of a three-dimensional photonic crystal: a fractional calculus approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S-C; Wu, J-N; Tsai, M-R; Hsieh, W-F

    2009-01-01

    We suggest a better mathematical method, fractional calculus, for studying the behavior of the atom-field interaction in photonic crystals. By studying the spontaneous emission of an atom in a photonic crystal with a one-band isotropic model, we found that the long-time inducing memory of the spontaneous emission is a fractional phenomenon. This behavior could be well described by fractional calculus. The results show no steady photon-atom bound state for the atomic resonant transition frequency lying in the proximity of the allowed band edge which was encountered in a previous study (Woldeyohannes and John 2003 J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5 R43). The correctness of this result is validated by the 'cut-off smoothing' density of photon states (DOS) with fractional calculus. By obtaining a rigorous solution without the multiple-valued problem for the system, we show that the method of fractional calculus has a logically concise property.

  15. Spontaneous emission spectrum from a V-type three-level atom in a double-band photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Han Zhuang; Tang Sing Hai; Dong Po; He Jun

    2002-01-01

    The spontaneous emission spectrum from a V-type three-level atom embedded in a double-band photonic band gap (PBG) material has been investigated for the first time. Most interestingly it is shown that there is not only a black dark line, but also a narrow spontaneous line near the edges of the double photonic band. The positions of the dark line and narrow spontaneous line are near the transition from an empty upper level to a lower level. The lines stem from destructive and constructive quantum interferences, which induce population transfer between the two upper levels, in the PBG reservoirs. The effects of system parameters on the interference have been discussed in detail

  16. Tunable band gap emission and surface passivation of germanium nanocrystals synthesized in the gas phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wheeler, LM; Levij, L.M.; Kortshagen, U.R.

    2013-01-01

    The narrow bulk band gap and large exciton Bohr radius of germanium (Ge) make it an attractive material for optoelectronics utilizing band-gap-tunable photoluminescence (PL). However, realization of PL due to quantum confinement remains scarcely reported. Instead, PL is often observed from surface

  17. Volume and surface photoemission from tungsten. I. Calculation of band structure and emission spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N. Egede; Feuerbacher, B.

    1974-01-01

    is obtained from an ad hoc potential based on a Dirac-Slater atomic calculation for the ground-state configuration and with full Slater exchange in the atomic as well as in the crystal potential. The selection of this best potential is justified by comparing the calculated band structure to Fermi...... of states. The present work includes a crude estimate of this surface density of states, which is derived from the bulk band structure by narrowing the d bands according to an effective number of neighbors per surface atom. Estimates of surface relaxation effects are also included.......The electronic energy-band structure of tungsten has been calculated by means of the relativistic-augmented-plane-wave method. A series of mutually related potentials are constructed by varying the electronic configuration and the amount of Slater exchange included. The best band structure...

  18. AlxGa1--xN/GaN band offsets determined by deep-level emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, D. R.; Chen, C. H.; Chen, Y. F.; Jiang, H. X.; Lin, J. Y.

    2001-01-01

    We present studies of the compositional dependence of the optical properties of Al x Ga 1-x N(0 x Ga 1-x N. As aluminum concentration increases, the color of the band changes from yellow (2.2 eV) to blue (2.6 eV). The shift was less than that of the band gap. Together with previously published studies, it implies that the deep acceptor level is pinned to a common reference level to both materials, thus the deep level responsible for the yellow emission is used as a common reference level to determine the band alignment in Al x Ga 1-x N/GaN heterojunctions. Combining with the near-band-edge modulation spectra, the estimated ratio of conduction-to-valence band discontinuity is 65:35. Our results are close to the values obtained from PL measurements on Al 0.14 Ga 0.86 N/GaN quantum wells and those calculated by linear muffin-tin orbital method and linearized augmented plane wave method. copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  19. Emissivity Measurements of Foam-Covered Water Surface at L-Band for Low Water Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Bo Wei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For a foam-covered sea surface, it is difficult to retrieve sea surface salinity (SSS with L-band brightness temperature (1.4 GHz because of the effect of a foam layer with wind speeds stronger than 7 m/s, especially at low sea surface temperature (SST. With foam-controlled experiments, emissivities of a foam-covered water surface at low SST (−1.4 °C to 1.7 °C are measured for varying SSS, foam thickness, incidence angle, and polarization. Furthermore, a theoretical model of emissivity is introduced by combining wave approach theory with the effective medium approximation method. Good agreement is obtained upon comparing theoretical emissivities with those of experiments. The results indicate that foam parameters have a strong influence on increasing emissivity of a foam-covered water surface. Increments of experimental emissivities caused by foam thickness of 1 cm increase from about 0.014 to 0.131 for horizontal polarization and 0.022 to 0.150 for vertical polarization with SSS increase and SST decrease. Contributions of the interface between the foam layer and water surface to the foam layer emissivity increments are discussed for frequencies between 1 and 37 GHz.

  20. SCUSS u- BAND EMISSION AS A STAR-FORMATION-RATE INDICATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhimin; Zhou, Xu; Wu, Hong; Fan, Zhou; Jiang, Zhao-Ji; Ma, Jun; Nie, Jun-Dan; Wang, Jia-Li; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Tian-Meng; Zou, Hu [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China); Fan, Xiao-Hui; Lesser, Michael [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Jing, Yi-Peng [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, Cheng; Shen, Shi-Yin [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Jiang, Lin-Hua, E-mail: zmzhou@bao.ac.cn [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-01-20

    We present and analyze the possibility of using optical u- band luminosities to estimate star-formation rates (SFRs) of galaxies based on the data from the South Galactic Cap u band Sky Survey (SCUSS), which provides a deep u -band photometric survey covering about 5000 deg{sup 2} of the South Galactic Cap. Based on two samples of normal star-forming galaxies selected by the BPT diagram, we explore the correlations between u -band, H α , and IR luminosities by combing SCUSS data with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ). The attenuation-corrected u -band luminosities are tightly correlated with the Balmer decrement-corrected H α luminosities with an rms scatter of ∼0.17 dex. The IR-corrected u luminosities are derived based on the correlations between the attenuation of u- band luminosities and WISE 12 (or 22) μ m luminosities, and then calibrated with the Balmer-corrected H α luminosities. The systematic residuals of these calibrations are tested against the physical properties over the ranges covered by our sample objects. We find that the best-fitting nonlinear relations are better than the linear ones and recommended to be applied in the measurement of SFRs. The systematic deviations mainly come from the pollution of old stellar population and the effect of dust extinction; therefore, a more detailed analysis is needed in future work.

  1. The ALI-ARMS Code for Modeling Atmospheric non-LTE Molecular Band Emissions: Current Status and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutepov, A. A.; Feofilov, A. G.; Manuilova, R. O.; Yankovsky, V. A.; Rezac, L.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    The Accelerated Lambda Iteration (ALI) technique was developed in stellar astrophysics at the beginning of 1990s for solving the non-LTE radiative transfer problem in atomic lines and multiplets in stellar atmospheres. It was later successfully applied to modeling the non-LTE emissions and radiative cooling/heating in the vibrational-rotational bands of molecules in planetary atmospheres. Similar to the standard lambda iterations ALI operates with the matrices of minimal dimension. However, it provides higher convergence rate and stability due to removing from the iterating process the photons trapped in the optically thick line cores. In the current ALI-ARMS (ALI for Atmospheric Radiation and Molecular Spectra) code version additional acceleration of calculations is provided by utilizing the opacity distribution function (ODF) approach and "decoupling". The former allows replacing the band branches by single lines of special shape, whereas the latter treats non-linearity caused by strong near-resonant vibration-vibrational level coupling without additional linearizing the statistical equilibrium equations. Latest code application for the non-LTE diagnostics of the molecular band emissions of Earth's and Martian atmospheres as well as for the non-LTE IR cooling/heating calculations are discussed.

  2. Impact of Antibody Bioconjugation on Emission and Energy Band Profile of CdSeTe/ZnS Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchynska, T. V.; Gomez, J. A. Jaramillo; Polupan, G.; Macotela, L. G. Vega

    2018-03-01

    The variation of the photoluminescence (PL) and Raman scattering spectra of CdSeTe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) on conjugation to an antibody has been investigated. Two types of CdSeTe/ZnS QD with different emission wavelength (705 nm and 800 nm) were studied comparatively before and after conjugation to anti-pseudorabies virus antibody (AB). Nonconjugated QDs were characterized by Gaussian-type PL bands. PL shifts to higher energy and asymmetric shape of PL bands was detected in PL spectra of bioconjugated QDs. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering effect was exhibited by the bioconjugated CdSeTe/ZnS QDs, indicating that the excitation light used in the Raman study generated electric dipoles in the AB molecules. The optical bandgap of the CdSeTe core was calculated numerically as a function of its radius based on an effective mass approximation model. The energy band diagrams for non- and bioconjugated CdSeTe/ZnS QDs were obtained, revealing a type II quantum well in the CdSeTe core. The calculations show that AB dipoles, excited in the bioconjugated QDs, stimulate a change in the energy band diagram of the QDs that alters the PL spectrum. These results could be useful for improving the sensitivity of QD biosensors.

  3. Relations between broad-band linear polarization and Ca II H and K emission in late-type dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huovelin, Juhani; Saar, Steven H.; Tuominen, Ilkka

    1988-01-01

    Broadband UBV linear polarization data acquired for a sample of late-type dwarfs are compared with contemporaneous measurements of Ca II H and K line core emission. A weighted average of the largest values of the polarization degree is shown to be the best parameter for chromospheric activity diagnosis. The average maximum polarization in the UV is found to increase from late-F to late-G stars. It is noted that polarization in the U band is considerably more sensitive to activity variations than that in the B or V bands. The results indicate that stellar magnetic fields and the resulting saturation in the Zeeman-sensitive absorption lines are the most probably source of linear polarization in late-type main-sequence stars.

  4. Properties of the Variation of the Infrared Emission of OH/IR Stars I. The K Band Light Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To study properties of the variation of the infrared emission of OH/IR stars, we collect and analyze the infrared observational data in K band for nine OH/IR stars. We use the observational data obtained for about three decades including recent data from the two micron all sky survey (2MASS and the deep near infrared survey of the southern sky (DENIS. We use Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm to determine the pulsation period and amplitude for each star and compare them with previous results of infrared and radio investigations.

  5. Controlling emission and propagation of light with photonic band gap crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeganegi Dastgerdi, Elahe

    2014-01-01

    In certain three-dimensional crystals, a frequency range exist for all polarizations for which light is not allowed to propagate in any direction, called the 3D photonic band gap: a frequency range where the density of vacuum fluctuations vanishes in an ideal infinitely large and perfect system. The

  6. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission in Spitzer /IRS Maps. II. A Direct Link between Band Profiles and the Radiation Field Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, D. J.; Peeters, E., E-mail: dstock84@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2017-03-10

    We decompose the observed 7.7 μ m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission complexes in a large sample of over 7000 mid-infrared spectra of the interstellar medium using spectral cubes observed with the Spitzer /IRS-SL instrument. In order to fit the 7.7 μ m PAH emission complex we invoke four Gaussian components, which are found to be very stable in terms of their peak positions and widths across all of our spectra, and subsequently define a decomposition with fixed parameters, which gives an acceptable fit for all the spectra. We see a strong environmental dependence on the interrelationships between our band fluxes—in the H ii regions all four components are intercorrelated, while in the reflection nebulae (RNs) the inner and outer pairs of bands correlate in the same manner as previously seen for NGC 2023. We show that this effect arises because the maps of RNs are dominated by emission from strongly irradiated photodissociation regions, while the much larger maps of H ii regions are dominated by emission from regions much more distant from the exciting stars, leading to subtly different spectral behavior. Further investigation of this dichotomy reveals that the ratio of two of these components (centered at 7.6 and 7.8 μ m) is linearly related to the UV-field intensity (log G {sub 0}). We find that this relationship does not hold for sources consisting of circumstellar material, which are known to have variable 7.7 μ m spectral profiles.

  7. MAPPING H-BAND SCATTERED LIGHT EMISSION IN THE MYSTERIOUS SR21 TRANSITIONAL DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follette, Katherine B.; Close, Laird; Tamura, Motohide; Hashimoto, Jun; Kwon, Jungmi; Kandori, Ryo; Whitney, Barbara; Grady, Carol; Andrews, Sean M.; Wisniewski, John; Brandt, Timothy D.; Dong, Ruobing; Mayama, Satoshi; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Feldt, Markus; Carson, Joseph; Currie, Thayne; Egner, Sebastian E.; Goto, Miwa

    2013-01-01

    We present the first near infrared (NIR) spatially resolved images of the circumstellar transitional disk around SR21. These images were obtained with the Subaru HiCIAO camera, adaptive optics, and the polarized differential imaging technique. We resolve the disk in scattered light at H-band for stellocentric 0.''1 ≤ r ≤ 0.''6 (12 ∼ –6 ) are inconsistent with our H-band images when they are assumed to carry over to small grains, suggesting that surface grains scattering in the NIR either survive or are generated by whatever mechanism is clearing the disk midplane. In fact, the radial polarized intensity profile of our H-band observations is smooth and steeply inwardly-increasing (r –3 ), with no evidence of a break at the 36 AU sub-mm cavity wall. We hypothesize that this profile is dominated by an optically thin disk envelope or atmosphere component. We also discuss the compatibility of our data with the previously postulated existence of a sub-stellar companion to SR21 at r ∼ 10-20 AU, and find that we can neither exclude nor verify this scenario. This study demonstrates the power of multiwavelength imaging of transitional disks to inform modeling efforts, including the debate over precisely what physical mechanism is responsible for clearing these disks of their large midplane grains.

  8. Selective tuning of enhancement in near band edge emission in hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods coated with gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, Tejendra, E-mail: phd12110211@iiti.ac.in [Molecular and Nanoelectronics Research Group (MNRG), Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Indore, Indore, Madhya Pradesh (India); Palani, I.A., E-mail: palaniia@iiti.ac.in [Mechatronics and Instrumentation Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Indore, Indore, Madhya Pradesh (India); Centre of Material Science and Engineering, IIT Indore, Indore, Madhya Pradesh (India); Singh, Vipul, E-mail: vipul@iiti.ac.in [Molecular and Nanoelectronics Research Group (MNRG), Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Indore, Indore, Madhya Pradesh (India); Centre of Material Science and Engineering, IIT Indore, Indore, Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2016-02-15

    The room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods (NRs) coated with Au using dc sputtering and thermal evaporation were systematically investigated. Au coated (via dc sputtering) ZnO NRs were found to exhibit very large near band edge emission enhancement, on the contrary Au coated (via thermal evaporation) ZnO NRs showed suppression in the near band edge emission peak. These observed results were further confirmed by excitation intensity (EI) dependent PL spectra of different samples. Further using Raman spectra it has been observed that the longitudinal optical (LO) phonons exhibit an enhancement and a weakening by the Au coatings, using dc sputtering and thermal evaporation respectively. Finally by controlling the concentration of KMnO{sub 4} as an additive during the hydrothermal growth, selective tuning in the defect density was carried out, which was later utilized to probe the effect of defect density of the Au–ZnO plasmonic coupling. Moreover, our results strongly suggest that the EI dependent PL has a strong dependence on the metal coating technique. The findings presented in this article clearly indicate the dependence of Au–ZnO plasmonic coupling on the overall defect density and the process of Au deposition.

  9. A theoretical analysis of ballistic electron emission microscopy: band structure effects and attenuation lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, P.L. de; Reuter, K.; Garcia-Vidal, F.J.; Flores, F.; Hohenester, U.; Kocevar, P.

    1998-01-01

    Using quantum mechanical approach, we compute the ballistic electron emission microscopy current distribution in reciprocal space to compare experimental and theoretical spectroscopic I(V) curves. In the elastic limit, this formalism is a 'parameter free' representation of the problem. At low voltages, low temperatures, and for thin metallic layers, the elastic approximation is enough to explain the experiments (ballistic conditions). At low temperatures, inelastic effects can be taken into account approximately by introducing an effective electron-electron lifetime as an imaginary part in the energy. Ensemble Monte Carlo calculations were also performed to obtain ballistic electron emission microscopy currents in good agreement with the previous approach. (author)

  10. Pressure-induced emission band separation of the hybridized local and charge transfer excited state in a TPE-based crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuedan; Li, Aisen; Xu, Weiqing; Ma, Zhiyong; Jia, Xinru

    2018-05-08

    We herein report a newly synthesized simple molecule, named TPE[double bond, length as m-dash]C4, with twisted D-A structure. TPE[double bond, length as m-dash]C4 showed two intrinsic emission bands ascribed to the locally excited (LE) state and the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state, respectively. In the crystal state, the LE emission band is usually observed. However, by applying hydrostatic pressure to the powder sample and the single crystal sample of TPE[double bond, length as m-dash]C4, dual-fluorescence (445 nm and 532 nm) was emerged under high pressure, owing to the pressure-induced emission band separation of the hybridized local and charge transfer excited state (HLCT). It is found that the emission of TPE[double bond, length as m-dash]C4 is generally determined by the ratio of the LE state to the ICT state. The ICT emission band is much more sensitive to the external pressure than the LE emission band. The HLCT state leads to a sample with different responsiveness to grinding and hydrostatic pressure. This study is of significance in the molecular design of such D-A type molecules and in the control of photoluminescence features by molecular structure. Such results are expected to pave a new way to further understand the relationship between the D-A molecular structure and stimuli-responsive properties.

  11. Near-infrared Spectroscopic Observations of Comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) by WINERED: CN Red-system Band Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Yasui, Chikako; Izumi, Natsuko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kawakita, Hideyo; Kondo, Sohei; Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Hamano, Satoshi; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Fukue, Kei; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Otsubo, Shogo; Takenaka, Keiichi; Watase, Ayaka; Kawanishi, Takafumi; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Nakaoka, Tetsuya [Laboratory of Infrared High-resolution Spectroscopy, Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Mizumoto, Misaki, E-mail: yoshiharu.shinnaka@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: kawakthd@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2017-08-01

    Although high-resolution spectra of the CN red-system band are considered useful in cometary sciences, e.g., in the study of isotopic ratios of carbon and nitrogen in cometary volatiles, there have been few reports to date due to the lack of high-resolution ( R  ≡  λ /Δ λ  > 20,000) spectrographs in the near-infrared region around ∼1 μ m. Here, we present the high-resolution emission spectrum of the CN red-system band in comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy), acquired by the near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph WINERED mounted on the 1.3 m Araki telescope at the Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto, Japan. We applied our fluorescence excitation models for CN, based on modern spectroscopic studies, to the observed spectrum of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) to search for CN isotopologues ({sup 13}C{sup 14}N and {sup 12}C{sup 15}N). We used a CN fluorescence excitation model involving both a “pure” fluorescence excitation model for the outer coma and a “fully collisional” fluorescence excitation model for the inner coma region. Our emission model could reproduce the observed {sup 12}C{sup 14}N red-system band of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy). The derived mixing ratio between the two excitation models was 0.94(+0.02/−0.03):0.06(+0.03/−0.02), corresponding to the radius of the collision-dominant region of ∼800–1600 km from the nucleus. No isotopologues were detected. The observed spectrum is consistent, within error, with previous estimates in comets of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C (∼90) and {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N (∼150).

  12. Narrow band flame emission from dieseline and diesel spray combustion in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zengyang; Jing, Wei; Zhang, Weibo; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2016-01-01

    emissions were studied. Ambient oxygen concentration was varied from 12% to 21% and three ambient temperatures were selected: 800 K, 1000 K and 1200 K. An intensified CCD camera coupled with bandpass filters was employed to capture the quasi-steady state

  13. Multi-band emission in a wide wavelength range from tin oxide/Au nanocomposites grown on porous anodic alumina substrate (AAO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norek, Małgorzata; Michalska-Domańska, Marta; Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Ayala, Israel; Bombalska, Aneta; Budner, Bogusław

    2013-01-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) properties of tin oxide nanostructures are investigated. Three samples of different morphology, induced by deposition process and various geometrical features of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) substrate, are analyzed. X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS) analysis reveals the presence of two forms of tin oxide on the surface of all studied samples: SnO and SnO 2 . The former form is typical for reduced surface with bridging oxygen atoms and every other row of in-plane oxygen atoms removed. The oxygen defects give rise to a strong emission in visible region. Two intense PL peaks are observed centered at about 540 (band I) and 620 (band II) nm. The origin of these bands was ascribed to the recombination of electrons from the conduction band (band I) and shallow traps levels (band II) to the surface oxygen vacancy levels. Upon deposition of Au nanoparticles on the top of tin oxide nanostructures the emission at 540 and 620 nm disappears and a new band (band III) occurs in the range >760 nm. The PL mechanism operating in the studied systems is discussed. The tin oxide/Au nanocomposites can be used as efficient multi-band light emitters in a wide (from visible to near infrared) wavelength range.

  14. Ocean Surface Emissivity at L-band (1.4 GHz): The Dependence on Salinity and Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lang, R.; Wentz, F.; Messiner, T.

    2012-01-01

    A characterization of the emissivity of sea water at L-band is important for the remote sensing of sea surface salinity. Measurements of salinity are currently being made in the radio astronomy band at 1.413 GHz by ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission and NASA's Aquarius instrument aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D observatory. The goal of both missions is accuracy on the order of 0.1 psu. This requires accurate knowledge of the dielectric constant of sea water as a function of salinity and temperature and also the effect of waves (roughness). The former determines the emissivity of an ideal (i.e. flat) surface and the later is the major source of error from predictions based on a flat surface. These two aspects of the problem of characterizing the emissivity are being addressed in the context of the Aquarius mission. First, laboratory measurements are being made of the dielectric constant of sea water. This is being done at the George Washington University using a resonant cavity. In this technique, sea water of known salinity and temperature is fed into the cavity along its axis through a narrow tube. The sea water changes the resonant frequency and Q of the cavity which, if the sample is small enough, can be related to the dielectric constant of the sample. An extensive set of measurements have been conducted at 1.413 GHz to develop a model for the real and imaginary part of the dielectric constant as a function of salinity and temperature. The results are compared to the predictions of models based on parameterization of the Debye resonance of the water molecule. The models and measurements are close; however, the differences are significant for remote sensing of salinity. This is especially true at low temperatures where the sensitivity to salinity is lowest.

  15. Stimulated emission within the exciplex band by plasmonic-nanostructured polymeric heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinping; Li, Hongwei; Wang, Yimeng; Liu, Feifei

    2015-03-01

    Organic heterojunctions have been extensively employed in the design of light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices, and thin-film field-effect transistors, which can be achieved by constructing a bilayer or a multi-layered thin-film deposition, or by blending two or more organic semiconductors with different charge-transport performances. Charge transfer excited states or exciplex may form on the heterointerfaces. Efficient light-emitting diodes have been demonstrated using exciplex emission. However, lasing or stimulated emission processes have not been observed with exciplex formation at organic heterojunctions. In this work, we demonstrate strong coherent interaction between photons and exciplex formation in the blends of poly-9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N,N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N'-phenyl-l,4-phenylenediamine (PFB) and poly-9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole (F8BT), leading to transient stimulated exciplex emission. The responsible mechanisms involve plasmonic local-field enhancement and plasmonic feedback in a three-dimensional gold-nanoparticle matrix.Organic heterojunctions have been extensively employed in the design of light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices, and thin-film field-effect transistors, which can be achieved by constructing a bilayer or a multi-layered thin-film deposition, or by blending two or more organic semiconductors with different charge-transport performances. Charge transfer excited states or exciplex may form on the heterointerfaces. Efficient light-emitting diodes have been demonstrated using exciplex emission. However, lasing or stimulated emission processes have not been observed with exciplex formation at organic heterojunctions. In this work, we demonstrate strong coherent interaction between photons and exciplex formation in the blends of poly-9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N,N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N'-phenyl-l,4-phenylenediamine (PFB) and poly-9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole (F8BT), leading to transient

  16. An Unusual Rotationally Modulated Attenuation Band in the Jovian Hectometric Radio Emission Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Menietti, J. D.; Persoon, A. M.

    1998-01-01

    A well-defined attenuation band modulated by the rotation of Jupiter has been found in the spectrum of Jovian hectometric radiation using data from the Galileo plasma wave instrument. The center frequency of this band usually occurs in the frequency range from about 1 to 3 MHz and the bandwidth is about 10 to 20 percent. The center frequency varies systematically with the rotation of Jupiter and has two peaks per rotation, the first at a system III longitude of about 50 deg, and the second at about 185 deg. It is now believed that the attenuation occurs as the ray path from a high-latitude cyclotron maser source passes approximately parallel to the magnetic field near the northern or southern edges of the Io L-shell. The peak at 50 deg system 3 longitude is attributed to radiation from a southern hemisphere source and the peak at 185 deg is from a northern hemisphere source. The attenuation is thought to be caused by coherent scattering or shallow angle reflection from field-aligned density irregularities near the Io L-shell. The narrow bandwidth indicates that the density irregularities are confined to a very narrow range of L values (Delta L = 0.2 to 0.4) near the Io L-shell.

  17. Extreme Emission Line Galaxies in CANDELS: Broad-Band Selected, Star-Bursting Dwarf Galaxies at Z greater than 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderWel, A.; Straughn, A. N.; Rix, H.-W.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Weiner, B. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bell, E. F.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, J. R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We identify an abundant population of extreme emission line galaxies (EELGs) at redshift z approx. 1.7 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) imaging from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). 69 EELG candidates are selected by the large contribution of exceptionally bright emission lines to their near-infrared broad-band magnitudes. Supported by spectroscopic confirmation of strong [OIII] emission lines . with rest-frame equivalent widths approx. 1000A in the four candidates that have HST/WFC3 grism observations, we conclude that these objects are galaxies with approx.10(exp 8) Solar Mass in stellar mass, undergoing an enormous starburst phase with M*/M* of only approx. 15 Myr. These bursts may cause outflows that are strong enough to produce cored dark matter profiles in low-mass galaxies. The individual star formation rates and the co-moving number density (3.7x10(exp -4) Mpc(sup -3) can produce in approx.4 Gyr much of the stellar mass density that is presently contained in 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 9) Solar Mass dwarf galaxies. Therefore, our observations provide a strong indication that many or even most of the stars in present-day dwarf galaxies formed in strong, short-lived bursts, mostly at z > 1.

  18. The electrosphere of macroscopc ""nuclei"": diffuse emissions in the MeV band from dark antimatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, Michael Mcneil [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lawson, Kyle [CANADA; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R [CANADA

    2009-01-01

    Using a Thomas-Fermi model, we calculate the structure of the electrosphere of the quark antimatter nuggets postulated to comprise much of the dark matter. This provides a single self-consistent density profile from ultra-rel ativistic densities to the non-relativistic Boltzmann regime. We use this to present a microscopically justified calculation of several properties of the nuggets, including their net charge, and the ratio of MeV to 511 keV emissions from electron annihilation. We find that the calculated parameters agree with previous phenomenological estimates based on the observational supposition that the nuggets are a source of several unexplained diffuse emissions from the galaxy. This provides another nontrivial verification of the dark matter proposal. The structure of the electrosphere is quite general and will also be valid at the surface of strange-quark stars, should they exist.

  19. Scintillation crystals for positron emission tomography having a non reflecting band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates generally to positron emission tomography, a sub-field of the class of medical imaging techniques using ionizing radiation and image reconstruction techniques; and more particularly to devices which use an array of scintillation detectors to detect the annihilation radiation from positron disintegration and use this information to reconstruct an image of the distribution of positron emitting isotope within a body section. 6 figs

  20. Improving emission uniformity and linearizing band dispersion in nanowire arrays using quasi-aperiodicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P. Duke [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Ming Hsieh Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Koleske, Daniel D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Povinelli, Michelle L. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Ming Hsieh Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Subramania, Ganapathi [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    For this study, we experimentally investigate a new class of quasi-aperiodic structures for improving the emission pattern in nanowire arrays. Efficient normal emission, as well as lasing, can be obtained from III-nitride photonic crystal (PhC) nanowire arrays that utilize slow group velocity modes near the Γ-point in reciprocal space. However, due to symmetry considerations, the emitted far-field pattern of such modes are often ‘donut’-like. Many applications, including lighting for displays or lasers, require a more uniform beam profile in the far-field. Previous work has improved far-field beam uniformity of uncoupled modes by changing the shape of the emitting structure. However, in nanowire systems, the shape of nanowires cannot always be arbitrarily changed due to growth or etch considerations. Here, we investigate breaking symmetry by instead changing the position of emitters. Using a quasi-aperiodic geometry, which changes the emitter position within a photonic crystal supercell (2x2), we are able to linearize the photonic bandstructure near the Γ-point and greatly improve emitted far-field uniformity. We realize the III-nitride nanowires structures using a top-down fabrication procedure that produces nanowires with smooth, vertical sidewalls. Comparison of room-temperature micro-photoluminescence (µ-PL) measurements between periodic and quasi-aperiodic nanowire arrays reveal resonances in each structure, with the simple periodic structure producing a donut beam in the emitted far-field and the quasi-aperiodic structure producing a uniform Gaussian-like beam. We investigate the input pump power vs. output intensity in both systems and observe the simple periodic array exhibiting a non-linear relationship, indicative of lasing. We believe that the quasi-aperiodic approach studied here provides an alternate and promising strategy for shaping the emission pattern of nanoemitter systems.

  1. Confinement effect of laser ablation plume in liquids probed by self-absorption of C2 Swan band emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakka, Tetsuo; Saito, Kotaro; Ogata, Yukio H.

    2005-01-01

    The (0,0) Swan band of the C 2 molecules in a laser ablation plume produced on the surface of graphite target submerged in water was used as a probe to estimate the density of C 2 molecules in the plume. Observed emission spectra were reproduced excellently by introducing a self-absorption parameter to the theoretical spectral profile expected by a rotational population distribution at a certain temperature. The optical density of the ablation plume as a function of time was determined as a best-fit parameter by the quantitative fitting of the whole spectral profile. The results show high optical densities for the laser ablation plume in water compared with that in air. It is related to the plume confinement or the expansion, which are the important phenomena influencing the characteristics of laser ablation plumes in liquids

  2. Narrow-band light emission from a single carbon nanotube p-n diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Megumi; Mueller, Thomas; Steiner, Mathias; Perebeinos, Vasili; Bol, Ageeth; Farmer, Damon; Avouris, Phaedon

    2010-03-01

    We present the first observation of electroluminescence from electrostatically-generated carbon nanotube (CNT) p-n junctions[1]. While CNT optoelectronics has made much progress in recent years, observations of emission from electrically excited CNT devices have been limited to the high-bias regime and with low efficiency. Furthermore, the resulting broad linewidths are broad, making it difficult to investigate electronic levels and carrier dynamics. We find that p-n junctions allow for better carrier control at lower power inputs, resulting in emission with near-zero threshold, low self-heating and efficiency two to three orders of magnitude greater compared to previous device configurations. This yields higher signal-to-noise ratio and narrower linewidths (down to ˜35 meV) that allows us to identify localized excitonic transitions that have previously been observed only in photoluminescent studies. [1] T. Mueller, M. Kinoshita, M. Steiner, V. Perebeinos, A. Bol, D. Farmer, and Ph. Avouris, Nature Nanotech., web publication, November 15 2009.

  3. Sub-band gap photo-enhanced secondary electron emission from high-purity single-crystal chemical-vapor-deposited diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yater, J. E.; Shaw, J. L.; Pate, B. B.; Feygelson, T. I.

    2016-01-01

    Secondary-electron-emission (SEE) current measured from high-purity, single-crystal (100) chemical-vapor-deposited diamond is found to increase when sub-band gap (3.06 eV) photons are incident on the hydrogenated surface. Although the light does not produce photoemission directly, the SEE current increases by more than a factor of 2 before saturating with increasing laser power. In energy distribution curves (EDCs), the emission peak shows a corresponding increase in intensity with increasing laser power. However, the emission-onset energy in the EDCs remains constant, indicating that the bands are pinned at the surface. On the other hand, changes are observed on the high-energy side of the distribution as the laser power increases, with a well-defined shoulder becoming more pronounced. From an analysis of this feature in the EDCs, it is deduced that upward band bending is present in the near-surface region during the SEE measurements and this band bending suppresses the SEE yield. However, sub-band gap photon illumination reduces the band bending and thereby increases the SEE current. Because the bands are pinned at the surface, we conclude that the changes in the band levels occur below the surface in the electron transport region. Sample heating produces similar effects as observed with sub-band gap photon illumination, namely, an increase in SEE current and a reduction in band bending. However, the upward band bending is not fully removed by either increasing laser power or temperature, and a minimum band bending of ∼0.8 eV is established in both cases. The sub-band gap photo-excitation mechanism is under further investigation, although it appears likely at present that defect or gap states play a role in the photo-enhanced SEE process. In the meantime, the study demonstrates the ability of visible light to modify the electronic properties of diamond and enhance the emission capabilities, which may have potential impact for diamond-based vacuum electron

  4. InGaAs/InP quantum wires grown on silicon with adjustable emission wavelength at telecom bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu; Li, Qiang; Ng, Kar Wei; Zhu, Si; Lau, Kei May

    2018-06-01

    We report the growth of vertically stacked InGaAs/InP quantum wires on (001) Si substrates with adjustable room-temperature emission at telecom bands. Based on a self-limiting growth mode in selective area metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, crescent-shaped InGaAs quantum wires with variable dimensions are embedded within InP nano-ridges. With extensive transmission electron microscopy studies, the growth transition and morphology change from quantum wires to ridge quantum wells (QWs) have been revealed. As a result, we are able to decouple the quantum wires from ridge QWs and manipulate their dimensions by scaling the growth time. With minimized lateral dimension and their unique positioning, the InGaAs/InP quantum wires are more immune to dislocations and more efficient in radiative processes, as evidenced by their excellent optical quality at telecom-bands. These promising results thus highlight the potential of combining low-dimensional quantum wire structures with the aspect ratio trapping process for integrating III-V nano-light emitters on mainstream (001) Si substrates.

  5. Spatially resolved band alignments at Au-hexadecanethiol monolayer-GaAs(001) interfaces by ballistic electron emission microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junay, A.; Guézo, S., E-mail: sophie.guezo@univ-rennes1.fr; Turban, P.; Delhaye, G.; Lépine, B.; Tricot, S.; Ababou-Girard, S.; Solal, F. [Département Matériaux-Nanosciences, Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR 6251, CNRS-Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, Bât 11E, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2015-08-28

    We study structural and electronic inhomogeneities in Metal—Organic Molecular monoLayer (OML)—semiconductor interfaces at the sub-nanometer scale by means of in situ Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (BEEM). BEEM imaging of Au/1-hexadecanethiols/GaAs(001) heterostructures reveals the evolution of pinholes density as a function of the thickness of the metallic top-contact. Using BEEM in spectroscopic mode in non-short-circuited areas, local electronic fingerprints (barrier height values and corresponding spectral weights) reveal a low-energy tunneling regime through the insulating organic monolayer. At higher energies, BEEM evidences new conduction channels, associated with hot-electron injection in the empty molecular orbitals of the OML. Corresponding band diagrams at buried interfaces can be thus locally described. The energy position of GaAs conduction band minimum in the heterostructure is observed to evolve as a function of the thickness of the deposited metal, and coherently with size-dependent electrostatic effects under the molecular patches. Such BEEM analysis provides a quantitative diagnosis on metallic top-contact formation on organic molecular monolayer and appears as a relevant characterization for its optimization.

  6. DAY-SIDE z'-BAND EMISSION AND ECCENTRICITY OF WASP-12b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Rogers, Justin C.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Sing, David K.; Burrows, Adam; Spiegel, David S.; Apai, Daniel; Adams, Elisabeth R.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of the eclipse of the very hot Jupiter WASP-12b via z'-band time-series photometry obtained with the 3.5 m Astrophysical Research Consortium telescope at Apache Point Observatory. We measure a decrease in flux of 0.082% ± 0.015% during the passage of the planet behind the star. That planetary flux is equally well reproduced by atmospheric models with and without extra absorbers, and blackbody models with f ≥ 0.585 ± 0.080. It is therefore necessary to measure the planet at other wavelengths to further constrain its atmospheric properties. The eclipse appears centered at phase φ = 0.5100 +0.0072 -0.0061 , consistent with an orbital eccentricity of |ecos ω| = 0.016 +0.011 -0.009 (see note at the end of Section 4). If the orbit of the planet is indeed eccentric, the large radius of WASP-12b can be explained by tidal heating.

  7. Anomaly in the P- and R- branches in the spectra of hydrogen Fulcher band emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Shinichiro; Yamasaki, Daisuke; Iida, Yohei; Xiao Bingjia

    2004-01-01

    Anomalies in the Fulcher-band (d 3 Π u -a 3 Σ g + ) spectra, which are widely used for the purpose of measuring ro-vibronic structure of the hydrogen molecule, are investigated using the hollow cathode glow discharge of 230 V-70 mA at 30 Pa. By making use of the recently developed analyzing scheme and experimentally determined life-time of the state involved, the historical data in the Ginsburg and Dieke's publication are reanalyzed and compared with our present data. Populations of the vibronic state v' ≥ 4 in the Q branch can be corrected to a considerable extend by taking into account the lifetime of the states, while those of any v' in the P and R branches cannot. However, the average values of the upper-Fulcher populations deduced from the P and R branches coincide with those from Q branch by taking into consideration the difference in the excitation from the ground electronic state. (author)

  8. Emission Channeling Studies on the Behaviour of Light Alkali Atoms in Wide-Band-Gap Semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Recknagel, E; Quintel, H

    2002-01-01

    % IS342 \\\\ \\\\ A major problem in the development of electronic devices based on diamond and wide-band-gap II-VI compound semiconductors, like ZnSe, is the extreme difficulty of either n- or p-type doping. The only reports of successful n-type doping of diamond involves ion implanted Li, which was found to be an intersititial donor. Recent theoretical calculations suggest that Na, P and N dopant atoms are also good candidates for n-type doping of diamond. No experimental evidence has been obtained up to now, mainly because of the complex and partly unresolved defect situation created during ion implantation, which is necessary to incorporate potential donor atoms into diamond. \\\\ \\\\In the case of ZnSe, considerable effort has been invested in trying to fabricate pn-junctions in order to make efficient, blue-light emitting diodes. However, it has proved to be very difficult to obtain p-type ZnSe, mainly because of electrical compensation related to background donor impurities. Li and Na are believed to be ampho...

  9. Enhancement of Spontaneous Erbium Emission near the Photonic Band Edge of Distributed Bragg Reflectors Based on a-Si:H/a-SiOx:H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, A.V.; Feoktistov, N.A.; Pevtsov, A.B.; Golubev, V.G.

    2005-01-01

    Results obtained in an experimental study of spontaneous emission from erbium ions in a spectral range corresponding to the lower photonic band edge of distributed Bragg reflectors (1D photonic crystals) are presented. The photonic crystals were constituted of alternating quarter-wave a-Si:H and a-SiO x :H layers grown by PECVD. Erbium was introduced into the a-Si:H layers by magnetron sputtering of an erbium target in the course of structure growth. The change observed in the intensity of spontaneous emission is due to the nonmonotonic behavior of the density of optical modes near the photonic band edge

  10. Defect induced structural inhomogeneity, ultraviolet light emission and near-band-edge photoluminescence broadening in degenerate In2O3 nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Souvik; Sarkar, Ketaki; Wiederrecht, Gary P.; Schaller, Richard D.; Gosztola, David J.; Stroscio, Michael A.; Dutta, Mitra

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate here defect induced changes on the morphology and surface properties of indium oxide (In2O3) nanowires and further study their effects on the near-band-edge (NBE) emission, thereby showing the significant influence of surface states on In2O3 nanostructure based device characteristics for potential optoelectronic applications. In2O3 nanowires with cubic crystal structure (c-In2O3) were synthesized via carbothermal reduction technique using a gold-catalyst-assisted vapor-liquid-solid method. Onset of strong optical absorption could be observed at energies greater than 3.5 eV consistent with highly n-type characteristics due to unintentional doping from oxygen vacancy ({V}{{O}}) defects as confirmed using Raman spectroscopy. A combination of high resolution transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and valence band analysis on the nanowire morphology and stoichiometry reveals presence of high-density of {V}{{O}} defects on the surface of the nanowires. As a result, chemisorbed oxygen species can be observed leading to upward band bending at the surface which corresponds to a smaller valence band offset of 2.15 eV. Temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was used to study the nature of the defect states and the influence of the surface states on the electronic band structure and NBE emission has been discussed. Our data reveals significant broadening of the NBE PL peak consistent with impurity band broadening leading to band-tailing effect from heavy doping.

  11. Defect induced structural inhomogeneity, ultraviolet light emission and near-band-edge photoluminescence broadening in degenerate In 2 O 3 nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Souvik; Sarkar, Ketaki; Wiederrecht, Gary P.; Schaller, Richard D.; Gosztola, David J.; Stroscio, Michael A.; Dutta, Mitra

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate here defect induced changes on the morphology and surface properties of indium oxide (In2O3) nanowires and further study their effects on the near-band-edge (NBE) emission, thereby showing the significant influence of surface states on In2O3 nanostructure based device characteristics for potential optoelectronic applications. In2O3 nanowires with cubic crystal structure (c-In2O3) were synthesized via carbothermal reduction technique using a gold-catalyst-assisted vapor–liquid–solid method. Onset of strong optical absorption could be observed at energies greater than 3.5 eV consistent with highly n-type characteristics due to unintentional doping from oxygen vacancy (VO) defects as confirmed using Raman spectroscopy. A combination of high resolution transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and valence band analysis on the nanowire morphology and stoichiometry reveals presence of high-density of VO defects on the surface of the nanowires. As a result, chemisorbed oxygen species can be observed leading to upward band bending at the surface which corresponds to a smaller valence band offset of 2.15 eV. Temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was used to study the nature of the defect states and the influence of the surface states on the electronic band structure and NBE emission has been discussed. Our data reveals significant broadening of the NBE PL peak consistent with impurity band broadening leading to band-tailing effect from heavy doping.

  12. Short-wavelength out-of-band EUV emission from Sn laser-produced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torretti, F.; Schupp, R.; Kurilovich, D.; Bayerle, A.; Scheers, J.; Ubachs, W.; Hoekstra, R.; Versolato, O. O.

    2018-02-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic measurements in the extreme ultraviolet regime (7-17 nm) of molten tin microdroplets illuminated by a high-intensity 3 J, 60 ns Nd:YAG laser pulse. The strong 13.5 nm emission from this laser-produced plasma (LPP) is of relevance for next-generation nanolithography machines. Here, we focus on the shorter wavelength features between 7 and 12 nm which have so far remained poorly investigated despite their diagnostic relevance. Using flexible atomic code calculations and local thermodynamic equilibrium arguments, we show that the line features in this region of the spectrum can be explained by transitions from high-lying configurations within the Sn{}8+-Sn{}15+ ions. The dominant transitions for all ions but Sn{}8+ are found to be electric-dipole transitions towards the n = 4 ground state from the core-excited configuration in which a 4p electron is promoted to the 5s subshell. Our results resolve some long-standing spectroscopic issues and provide reliable charge state identification for Sn LPP, which could be employed as a useful tool for diagnostic purposes.

  13. Improvements on Near Real Time Detection of Volcanic Ash Emissions for Emergency Monitoring with Limited Satellite Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torge Steensen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying volcanic ash emissions syneruptively is an important task for the global aviation community. However, due to the near real time nature of volcano monitoring, many parameters important for accurate ash mass estimates cannot be obtained easily. Even when using the best possible estimates of those parameters, uncertainties associated with the ash masses remain high, especially if the satellite data is only available in the traditional 10.8 and 12.0 μm bands. To counteract this limitation, we developed a quantitative comparison between the ash extents in satellite and model data. The focus is the manual cloud edge definition based on the available satellite reverse absorption (RA data as well as other knowledge like pilot reports or ground-based observations followed by an application of the Volcanic Ash Retrieval on the defined subset with an RA threshold of 0 K. This manual aspect, although subjective to the experience of the observer, can show a significant improvement as it provides the ability to highlight ash that otherwise would be obscured by meteorological clouds or, by passing over different surfaces with unaccounted temperatures, might be lost entirely and thus remains undetectable for an automated satellite approach. We show comparisons to Volcanic Ash Transport and Dispersion models and outline a quantitative match as well as percentages of overestimates based on satellite or dispersion model data which can be converted into a level of reliability for near real time volcano monitoring. 

  14. Developing the Infrared PAH Emission Bands Into Calibrated Probes of Astrophysical Conditions with The NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Christiaan

    We propose to quantitatively calibrate the PAH band strength ratios that have been traditionally used as qualitative proxies of PAH properties and linking PAH observables with local astrophysical conditions, thus developing PAHs into quantitative probes of astronomical environments. This will culminate in a toolbox (calibration charts) that can be used by PAH experts and non-PAH experts alike to unlock the information hidden in PAH emission sources that are part of the Spitzer and ISO archives. Furthermore, the proposed work is critical to mine the treasure trove of information JWST will return as it will capture, for the first time, the complete mid-infrared (IR) PAH spectrum with fully resolved features, through a single aperture, and along single lines-of-sight; making it possible to fully extract the information contained in the PAH spectra. In short, the work proposed here represents a major step in enabling the astronomical PAH model to reach its full potential as a diagnostic of the physical and chemical conditions in objects spanning the Universe. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a common and important reservoir of accessible carbon across the Universe, play an intrinsic part in the formation of stars, planets and possibly even life itself. While most PAH spectra appear quite similar, they differ in detail and contain a wealth of untapped information. Thanks to recent advances in laboratory studies and computer-based calculations of PAH spectra, the majority of which have been made at NASA Ames, coupled with the astronomical modeling tools we have developed, we can interpret the spectral details at levels never before possible. This enables us to extract local physical conditions and track subtle changes in these conditions at levels previously impossible. Building upon the tools and paradigms developed as part of the publicly available NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database (PAHdb; www.astrochem.org/pahdb/), the purpose of our proposed research is

  15. A 1.1-1.9 GHz SETI SURVEY OF THE KEPLER FIELD. I. A SEARCH FOR NARROW-BAND EMISSION FROM SELECT TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemion, Andrew P. V.; Korpela, Eric; Werthimer, Dan; Cobb, Jeff; Lebofsky, Matt; Marcy, Geoffrey W. [University of California, Berkeley, 110 Sproul Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Demorest, Paul; Maddalena, Ron J.; Langston, Glen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Rd Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Howard, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 North A' ohoku Place, 209 Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Tarter, Jill [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Ave 100 Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    We present a targeted search for narrow-band (<5 Hz) drifting sinusoidal radio emission from 86 stars in the Kepler field hosting confirmed or candidate exoplanets. Radio emission less than 5 Hz in spectral extent is currently known to only arise from artificial sources. The stars searched were chosen based on the properties of their putative exoplanets, including stars hosting candidates with 380 K > T{sub eq} > 230 K, stars with five or more detected candidates or stars with a super-Earth (R{sub p} < 3 R{sub Circled-Plus }) in a >50 day orbit. Baseband voltage data across the entire band between 1.1 and 1.9 GHz were recorded at the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope between 2011 February and April and subsequently searched offline. No signals of extraterrestrial origin were found. We estimate that fewer than {approx}1% of transiting exoplanet systems host technological civilizations that are radio loud in narrow-band emission between 1 and 2 GHz at an equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) of {approx}1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} erg s{sup -1}, approximately eight times the peak EIRP of the Arecibo Planetary Radar, and we limit the number of 1-2 GHz narrow-band-radio-loud Kardashev type II civilizations in the Milky Way to be <10{sup -6} M{sub Sun }{sup -1}. Here we describe our observations, data reduction procedures and results.

  16. High resolution emission Fourier transform infrared spectra of the 4p-5s and 5p-6s bands of ArH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskakov, O I; Civis, S; Kawaguchi, K

    2005-03-15

    In the 2500-8500 cm(-1) region several strong emission bands of (40)ArH were observed by Fourier transform spectroscopy through a dc glow discharge in a mixture of argon and hydrogen. Rotational-electronic transitions of the two previously unstudied 4p-5s and 5p-6s,v = 0-0, bands of (40)ArH were measured and assigned in the 6060 and 3770 cm(-1) regions, respectively. A simultaneous fit of the emission transitions of the 4p-5s and 5p-6s bands and an extended set of transitions of the 6s-4p band observed by Dabrowski, Tokaryk, and Watson [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 189, 95 (1998)] and remeasured in the present work yielded consistent values of the spectroscopic parameters of the electronic states under investigation. In the branch of the 4p-5s band with transitions of type (Q)Q(f(3)e) we observed a narrowing in the linewidths with increasing rotational quantum number N. The rotational dependence of the linewidth is caused by predissociation of the 5s state by the repulsive ground 4s state through homogeneous coupling and changes in overlap integrals of the vibrational wave functions with the rotational level. Analysis was based on the Fermi's golden rule approximation model. In the 4p-5s band region a vibrational sequence ofv(')-v(")=1-1, 2-2, and 3-3 were recorded and a number of transitions belonging to the strongest (Q)Q(f(3)e) form branch of the 1-1 band were analyzed.

  17. Study of Unwanted Emissions in the CENELEC-A Band Generated by Distributed Energy Resources and Their Influence over Narrow Band Power Line Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Uribe-Pérez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Energy Resources might have a severe influence on Power Line Communications, as they can generate interfering signals and high frequency emissions or supraharmonics that may cause loss of metering and control data. In this paper, the influence of various energy resources on Narrowband Power Line Communications is described and analyzed through several test measurements performed in a real microgrid. Accordingly, the paper describes the effects on smart metering communications through the Medium Access Control (MAC layer analysis. Results show that the switching frequency of inverters and the presence of battery chargers are remarkable sources of disturbance in low voltage distribution networks. In this sense, the results presented can contribute to efforts towards standardization and normative of emissions at higher frequencies higher, such as CENELEC EN 50160 and IEC/TS 62749.

  18. Photoluminescence measurements of the 1,55 eV band of Ge doped Al sub(x)Ga sub(1-x)As

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtado, M.T.; Weid, J.P. von der.

    1984-01-01

    The photoluminescence of the 1,55 eV band of Ge doped Al sub(x)Ga sub(1-x)As, with x=0.30-0.33, grown by liquid phase epitaxy is presented. The broad shape was found to be due to a lattice relaxation upon optical transitions. Resonant modes with (h/2π)ω sub(q) approx. 35 + - 2 meV and (h/2π) ω sub(q) approx. 45 + - 2 meV are found for the optical band, yielding a zero phonon transition energy - 1.73 + - 0.02 eV and a Franck-Condon shift approx. 0.17-0.20 eV for the optical center. The activation energy of thermal quenching yields an associated donnor binding energy of 0.17 + - 0.04 eV. Possible mechanisms for the radiative transitions are discussed. (Author) [pt

  19. SPATIALLY RESOLVED M-BAND EMISSION FROM IO’S LOKI PATERA–FIZEAU IMAGING AT THE 22.8 m LBT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Albert; Veillet, Christian [LBT Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kleer, Katherine de; Pater, Imke de [University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Leisenring, Jarron; Defrère, Denis; Hinz, Philip; Skemer, Andy [University of Arizona, 1428 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Camera, Andrea La; Bertero, Mario; Boccacci, Patrizia [DIBRIS, University of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 35, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Arcidiacono, Carmelo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd [Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Kürster, Martin [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Rathbun, Julie [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 E. Fort Lowell, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Skrutskie, Michael [University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Spencer, John [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Ste. Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Woodward, Charles E., E-mail: aconrad@lbto.org [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, 116 Church St., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer mid-infrared camera, LMIRcam, imaged Io on the night of 2013 December 24 UT and detected strong M-band (4.8 μm) thermal emission arising from Loki Patera. The 22.8 m baseline of the Large Binocular Telescope provides an angular resolution of ∼32 mas (∼100 km at Io) resolving the Loki Patera emission into two distinct maxima originating from different regions within Loki’s horseshoe lava lake. This observation is consistent with the presence of a high-temperature source observed in previous studies combined with an independent peak arising from cooling crust from recent resurfacing. The deconvolved images also reveal 15 other emission sites on the visible hemisphere of Io including two previously unidentified hot spots.

  20. The effect of density-of-state tails on band-to-band tunneling: Theory and application to tunnel field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, S.; Schenk, A.

    2017-10-01

    It is demonstrated how band tail states in the semiconductor influence the performance of a Tunnel Field Effect Transistor (TFET). As a consequence of the smoothened density of states (DOS) around the band edges, the energetic overlap of conduction and valence band states occurs gradually at the onset of band-to-band tunneling (BTBT), thus degrading the sub-threshold swing (SS) of the TFET. The effect of the band tail states on the current-voltage characteristics is modelled quantum-mechanically based on the idea of zero-phonon trap-assisted tunneling between band and tail states. The latter are assumed to arise from a 3-dimensional pseudo-delta potential proposed by Vinogradov [1]. This model potential allows the derivation of analytical expressions for the generation rate covering the whole range from very strong to very weak localization of the tail states. Comparison with direct BTBT in the one-band effective mass approximation reveals the essential features of tail-to-band tunneling. Furthermore, an analytical solution for the problem of tunneling from continuum states of the disturbed DOS to states in the opposite band is found, and the differences to direct BTBT are worked out. Based on the analytical expressions, a semi-classical model is implemented in a commercial device simulator which involves numerical integration along the tunnel paths. The impact of the tail states on the device performance is analyzed for a nanowire Gate-All-Around TFET. The simulations show that tail states notably impact the transfer characteristics of a TFET. It is found that exponentially decaying band tails result in a stronger degradation of the SS than tail states with a Gaussian decay of their density. The developed model allows more realistic simulations of TFETs including their non-idealities.

  1. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 108 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1 SIN 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  2. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 109

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 109, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  3. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, 08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  4. Clustering of germanium atoms in silica glass responsible for the 3.1 eV emission band studied by optical absorption and X-ray absorption fine structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tomoko; Muto, Shunsuke; Yuliati, Leny; Yoshida, Hisao; Inada, Yasuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Correlation between the 3.1 eV emission band and local atomic configuration was systematically examined for Ge + implanted silica glass by UV-vis optical absorption spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis. The 2.7 eV emission band, commonly observed in defective silica, was replaced by the sharp and intense 3.1 eV emission band for the Ge + fluence > 2 x 10 16 cm -2 , in which UV-vis absorption spectra suggested clustering of Ge atoms with the size ∼1 nm. XAFS spectroscopy indicated that the Ge atoms were under coordinated with oxygen atoms nearly at a neutral valence state on average. The present results are consistent with the previous ESR study but imply that the small Ge clusters rather than the O=Ge: complexes (point defects) are responsible for the 3.1 eV emission band.

  5. Temperature profile retrieval in axisymmetric combustion plumes using multilayer perceptron modeling and spectral feature selection in the infrared CO2 emission band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cuesta, Esteban; de Castro, Antonio J; Galván, Inés M; López, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a methodology based on the combined use of a multilayer perceptron model fed using selected spectral information is presented to invert the radiative transfer equation (RTE) and to recover the spatial temperature profile inside an axisymmetric flame. The spectral information is provided by the measurement of the infrared CO2 emission band in the 3-5 μm spectral region. A guided spectral feature selection was carried out using a joint criterion of principal component analysis and a priori physical knowledge of the radiative problem. After applying this guided feature selection, a subset of 17 wavenumbers was selected. The proposed methodology was applied over synthetic scenarios. Also, an experimental validation was carried out by measuring the spectral emission of the exhaust hot gas plume in a microjet engine with a Fourier transform-based spectroradiometer. Temperatures retrieved using the proposed methodology were compared with classical thermocouple measurements, showing a good agreement between them. Results obtained using the proposed methodology are very promising and can encourage the use of sensor systems based on the spectral measurement of the CO2 emission band in the 3-5 μm spectral window to monitor combustion processes in a nonintrusive way.

  6. Auger electron emission initiated by the creation of valence-band holes in graphene by positron annihilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirayath, V A; Callewaert, V; Fairchild, A J; Chrysler, M D; Gladen, R W; Mcdonald, A D; Imam, S K; Shastry, K; Koymen, A R; Saniz, R; Barbiellini, B; Rajeshwar, K; Partoens, B; Weiss, A H

    2017-07-13

    Auger processes involving the filling of holes in the valence band are thought to make important contributions to the low-energy photoelectron and secondary electron spectrum from many solids. However, measurements of the energy spectrum and the efficiency with which electrons are emitted in this process remain elusive due to a large unrelated background resulting from primary beam-induced secondary electrons. Here, we report the direct measurement of the energy spectra of electrons emitted from single layer graphene as a result of the decay of deep holes in the valence band. These measurements were made possible by eliminating competing backgrounds by employing low-energy positrons (holes by annihilation. Our experimental results, supported by theoretical calculations, indicate that between 80 and 100% of the deep valence-band holes in graphene are filled via an Auger transition.

  7. Broad band simulation of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) prompt emission in presence of an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaeepour, Houri; Gardner, Brian

    2011-12-01

    The origin of prompt emission in GRBs is not yet well understood. The simplest and most popular model is Synchrotron Self-Compton (SSC) emission produced by internal shocks inside an ultra-relativistic jet. However, recent observations of a delayed high energy component by the Fermi-LAT instrument have encouraged alternative models. Here we use a recently developed formulation of relativistic shocks for GRBs to simulate light curves and spectra of synchrotron and self-Compton emissions in the framework of internal shock model. This model takes into account the evolution of quantities such as densities of colliding shells, and fraction of kinetic energy transferred to electrons and to induced magnetic field. We also extend this formulation by considering the presence of a precessing external magnetic field. These simulations are very realistic and present significant improvement with respect to previous phenomenological GRB simulations. They reproduce light curves of separate peaks of real GRBs and variety of spectral slopes at E > Epeak observed by the Fermi-LAT instrument. The high energy emission can be explained by synchrotron emission and a subdominant contribution from inverse Compton. We also suggest an explanation for extended tail emission and relate it to the screening of the magnetic field and/or trapping of accelerated electrons in the electromagnetic energy structure of the plasma in the shock front. Spectral slopes of simulated bursts at E external magnetic field, we show that due to the fast variation of other quantities, its signature in the Power Distribution Spectrum (PDS) is significantly suppressed and only when the duration of the burst is few times longer than the oscillation period it can be detected, otherwise either it is confused with the Poisson noise or with intrinsic variations of the emission. Therefore, low significant oscillations observed in the PDS of GRB 090709a are most probably due to a precessing magnetic field.

  8. Bandwidths and amplitudes of chorus-like banded emissions measured by the TC-1 Double Star spacecraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macúšová, Eva; Santolík, Ondřej; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Yearby, K. H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 2 (2015), s. 1057-1071 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11122; GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/2280 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284520 - MAARBLE Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Earth's magnetosphere * geomagnetic activity * whistler-mode * chorus emissions Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014JA020440/abstract

  9. Emission lineshapes of the B850 band of light-harvesting 2 (LH2) complex in purple bacteria: a second order time-nonlocal quantum master equation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Jang, Seogjoo

    2013-04-07

    The emission lineshape of the B850 band in the light harvesting complex 2 of purple bacteria is calculated by extending the approach of 2nd order time-nonlocal quantum master equation [S. Jang and R. J. Silbey, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9312 (2003)]. The initial condition for the emission process corresponds to the stationary excited state density where exciton states are entangled with the bath modes in equilibrium. This exciton-bath coupling, which is not diagonal in either site excitation or exciton basis, results in a new inhomogeneous term that is absent in the expression for the absorption lineshape. Careful treatment of all the 2nd order terms are made, and explicit expressions are derived for both full 2nd order lineshape expression and the one based on secular approximation that neglects off-diagonal components in the exciton basis. Numerical results are presented for a few representative cases of disorder and temperature. Comparison of emission line shape with the absorption line shape is also made. It is shown that the inhomogeneous term coming from the entanglement of the system and bath degrees of freedom makes significant contributions to the lineshape. It is also found that the perturbative nature of the theory can result in negative portion of lineshape in some situations, which can be removed significantly by inclusion of the inhomogeneous term and completely by using the secular approximation. Comparison of the emission and absorption lineshapes at different temperatures demonstrates the role of thermal population of different exciton states and exciton-phonon couplings.

  10. Spectra calculations in central and wing regions of CO2 IR bands between 10 and 20 μm. III: atmospheric emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niro, F.; Clarmann, T. von; Jucks, K.; Hartmann, J.-M.

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical model for the prediction of CO 2 absorption in both central and wing regions of infrared absorption bands was presented in the companion paper I. It correctly accounts for line-mixing effects and was validated by comparisons with laboratory spectra in the 600-1000 cm -1 region. This quality was confirmed using atmospheric transmissions measured by solar occultation experiments in the second paper. The present work completes these studies by now considering atmospheric emission in the 10-20 μm range. Comparisons are made between computed atmospheric radiances and measurements obtained using four different Fourier transform experiments collecting spectra for nadir, up-looking, as well as limb (from balloon and satellite) geometries. Our results confirm that using a Voigt model can lead to very large errors that affect the spectrum more than 300 cm -1 away from the center of the CO 2 ν 2 band. They also demonstrate the capability of our model to represent accurately the radiances in the entire region for a variety of atmospheric paths. This success opens interesting perspectives for the sounding of pressure and temperature profiles, particularly at low altitudes. Another benefit of the quality of the model should be an increased accuracy in the retrieval of atmospheric state parameters from broad features in the measured spectra (clouds, aerosols, heavy trace gases)

  11. Blue and red emission in wide band gap BaZrO{sub 3}:Yb{sup 3+},Tm{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja-Urby, R. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A. C., C. P. 37150 Leon, Gto. (Mexico); Diaz-Torres, L.A., E-mail: ditlacio@cio.mx [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A. C., C. P. 37150 Leon, Gto. (Mexico); Salas, P. [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 1-1010, Queretaro 76000 (Mexico); Vega-Gonzalez, M. [Centro de Geociencias-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 1-1010, Queretaro 76000 (Mexico); Angeles-Chavez, C. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Cd. Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico)

    2010-10-25

    Under NIR excitation at 967 intense blue and red photoluminescence (PL) emissions are observed at room temperature in codoped Tm{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} barium zirconate (BaZrO{sub 3}:Yb,Tm) powders. Powders were prepared by a simple hydrothermal method, and present a wide band gap that depends on the total rare earth content due to the degree of disorder induced in the BaZrO{sub 3} lattice by the substitution of the rare earth ions. Rietveld refinements of the XRD patterns indicated the presence of primary nanocrystallites with sizes between 50 and 70 nm depending on the Tm{sup 3+} content. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) shows that these primary particles self-aggregated in larger secondary particles which present a regular morphology with sizes around 1 {mu}m. The intense blue and red PL emissions in BaZrO{sub 3} powders under 967 nm excitation are governed by energy transfer processes from Yb{sup 3+} ions to Tm{sup 3+} ions and crossrelaxation among Tm{sup 3+} ions.

  12. Exploring the origin of broad-band emissions of Mrk 501 with a two-zone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Maichang; Yang, Chuyuan; Wang, Jiancheng; Yang, Xiaolin

    2018-04-01

    We propose a two-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, including an inner gamma-ray emitting region with spherical shape and a conical radio emitting region located at the extended jet, to alleviate the long-standing "bulk Lorentz factor crisis" in blazars. In this model, the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of blazars are produced by considering the gamma-ray emitting region inverse Compton scattering of both the synchrotron photons itself and the ambient photons from the radio emitting region. Applying the model to Mrk 501, we obtain that the radio emitting region has a comoving length of ˜0.15 pc and is located at sub-parsec scale from the central engine by modeling the radio data; the flux of the Compton scattering of the ambient photons is so low that it can be neglected safely. The characteristic hard gamma-ray spectrum can be explained by the superposition of two SSC processes, and the model can approximately explain the very high energy (VHE) data. The insights into the spectral shape and the inter-band correlations under the flaring state will provide us with a diagnostic for the bulk Lorentz factor of radio emitting region, where the low and upper limits of 8 and 15 are preferred, and for the two-zone SSC model itself. In addition, our two-zone SSC model shows that the gamma-ray emitting region creates flare on the timescale of merely a few hours, and the long time outbursts more likely originate from the extended radio emitting region.

  13. Enhancement of the core near-band-edge emission induced by an amorphous shell in coaxial one-dimensional nanostructure: the case of SiC/SiO{sub 2} core/shell self-organized nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Filippo; Rossi, Francesca; Attolini, Giovanni; Salviati, Giancarlo; Iannotta, Salvatore [IMEM-CNR Institute, Viale Usberti 37/A, I-43124 Parma (Italy); Aversa, Lucrezia; Verucchi, Roberto; Nardi, Marco [IFN-CNR Institute, Via alla Cascata 56/C-Povo, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Fukata, Naoki [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science and PRESTO JST, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Dierre, Benjamin; Sekiguchi, Takashi [Nano Device Characterization Group, Advanced Electronic Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2010-08-27

    We report the influence of the native amorphous SiO{sub 2} shell on the cathodoluminescence emission of 3C-SiC/SiO{sub 2} core/shell nanowires. A shell-induced enhancement of the SiC near-band-edge emission is observed and studied as a function of the silicon dioxide thickness. Since the diameter of the investigated SiC cores rules out any direct bandgap optical transitions due to confinement effects, this enhancement is ascribed to a carrier diffusion from the shell to the core, promoted by the alignment of the SiO{sub 2} and SiC bands in a type I quantum well. An accurate correlation between the optical emission and structural and SiO{sub 2}-SiC interface properties is also reported.

  14. 1.7  μm band narrow-linewidth tunable Raman fiber lasers pumped by spectrum-sliced amplified spontaneous emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wu, Di; Du, Quanli; Li, Xiaoyan; Han, Kexuan; Zhang, Lizhong; Wang, Tianshu; Jiang, Huilin

    2017-12-10

    A 1.7 μm band tunable narrow-linewidth Raman fiber laser based on spectrally sliced amplified spontaneous emission (SS-ASE) and multiple filter structures is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In this scheme, an SS-ASE source is employed as a pump source in order to avoid stimulated Brillouin scattering. The ring configuration includes a 500 m long high nonlinear optical fiber and a 10 km long dispersion shifted fiber as the gain medium. A segment of un-pumped polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber is used to modify the shape of the spectrum. Furthermore, a nonlinear polarization rotation scheme is applied as the wavelength selector to generate lasers. A high-finesse ring filter and a ring filter are used to narrow the linewidth of the laser, respectively. We demonstrate tuning capabilities of a single laser over 28 nm between 1652 nm and 1680 nm by adjusting the polarization controller (PC) and tunable filter. The tunable laser has a 0.023 nm effective linewidth with the high-finesse ring filter. The stable multi-wavelength laser operation of up to four wavelengths can be obtained by adjusting the PC carefully when the pump power increases.

  15. Phonon-assisted optical bands of nanosized powdery SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} crystals: Evidence of a multimode Pekarian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarov, M. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Institute of Applied Physics, Academiei Street 5, Chisinau MD-2028 (Moldova, Republic of); Brik, M.G. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, Tartu 51014 (Estonia); Spassky, D. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, Tartu 51014 (Estonia); Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tsukerblat, B., E-mail: tsuker@bgu.ac.il [Department of Chemistry, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Palii, A. [Institute of Applied Physics, Academiei Street 5, Chisinau MD-2028 (Moldova, Republic of); Nazida, A. Nor [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Faculty of Art and Design, Universiti Teknologi MARA (Perak), Seri Iskandar 32610, Bandar Baru Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Ahmad-Fauzi, M.N. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2013-12-09

    A stoichiometric powder composed of nanosized grains of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} was synthesized by combustion method at 500 °C with the subsequent calcination at 1000 °C. The zero-phonon line position, parameter of the Stokes shift, heat release factor and effective phonon energy were studied experimentally and analyzed in the framework of the multimode Pekar–Huang–Rhys model. Experimental data show that the optical 4f–5d transitions in Eu{sup 2+} ion exhibit a broad asymmetric electron–vibrational bands with a pronounced structure near the maxima. The form-function of the absorption and luminescence bands are theoretically analyzed in the framework of the model of the linear electron–vibrational interaction assuming strong coupling with the local vibration (estimated Pekar–Huang–Rhys parameter a=2S=10 and frequency ℏω=509 cm{sup −1}) and relatively weak interaction with the crystal phonons. The last results in an effective temperature dependent broadening of the discrete lines corresponding to the local vibrations and to a specific shape of the whole phonon assisted band (multimode Pekarian). Providing specific interrelation between the key parameters the calculated absorption and luminescence bands exhibit peculiar temperature dependent structured peaks in a qualitative agreement with the experimental data.

  16. Quantitative analysis of UV excitation bands for red emissions in Pr3+-doped CaTiO3, SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 phosphors by peak fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Rei; Sano, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Mikio; Kuwabara, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative spectral analysis of the ultraviolet (UV) broad excitation bands, which are located in the range 300-400 nm, for red emissions at around 610 nm in Pr-doped CaTiO 3 , SrTiO 3 :Al and BaTiO 3 :Mg phosphors has been carried out using a peak fitting technique. The obtained results demonstrate that the UV broad band of CaTiO 3 :Pr consists of four primary excitation bands centered around 330, 335, 365 and 380 nm and those of both SrTiO 3 :Al and BaTiO 3 :Mg consist of three primary bands centered around 310, 345 and 370 nm. Based on the behavior patterns and the values of the respective primary excitation bands' parameters, i.e. center gravity (λ top ), maximum height (I max ) and full-width at half-maximum (FWHM), the UV-to-red relaxation processes in these titanate phosphors can be explained to be essentially the same, except for the existence of an additional relaxation pathway via electron-trap states in CaTiO 3 :Pr, which gives a characteristic shape of its UV excitation spectrum in the wavelength range of >360 nm

  17. Narrow-band emission with 0.5 to 3.5 Hz varying frequency in the background of the main phase of the 17 March 2013 magnetic storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapov A.S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present results of the analysis of an unusually long narrow-band emission in the Pc1 range with increasing carrier frequency. The event was observed against the background of the main phase of a strong magnetic storm caused by arrival of a high-speed solar wind stream with a shock wave in the stream head and a long interval of negative vertical component of the interplanetary magnetic field. Emission of approximately 9-hour duration had a local character, appearing only at three stations located in the range of geographical longitude λ=100–130 E and magnetic shells L=2.2–3.4. The signal carrier frequency grew in a stepped mode from 0.5 to 3.5 Hz. We propose an emission interpretation based on the standard model of the generation of ion cyclotron waves in the magnetosphere due to the resonant wave-particle interaction with ion fluxes of moderate energies. We suppose that a continuous shift of the generation region, located in the outer area of the plasmasphere, to smaller L-shell is able to explain both the phenomenon locality and the range of the frequency increase. A narrow emission frequency band is associated with the formation of nose-like structures in the energy spectrum of ion fluxes penetrating from the geomagnetic tail into the magnetosphere. We offer a possible scenario of the processes leading to the generation of the observed emission. The scenario contains specific values of the generation region position, plasma density, magnetic field, and resonant proton energies. We discuss morphological differences of the emissions considered from known types of geomagnetic pulsations, and reasons for the occurrence of this unusual event.

  18. Huge operation by energy gap of novel narrow band gap Tl1-x In1-x B x Se2 (B = Si, Ge): DFT, x-ray emission and photoconductivity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, M.; Myronchuk, G. L.; Zamurueva, O. V.; Khyzhun, O. Y.; Parasyuk, O. V.; Fedorchuk, A. O.; Albassam, A.; El-Naggar, A. M.; Kityk, I. V.

    2016-02-01

    It is shown that narrow band gap semiconductors Tl1-x In1-x GexSe2 are able effectively to vary the values of the energy gap. DFT simulations of the principal bands during the cationic substitutions is done. Changes of carrier transport features is explored. Relation with the changes of the near the surface states is explored . Comparison on a common energy scale of the x-ray emission Se Kβ 2 bands, representing energy distribution of the Se 4p states, indicates that these states contribute preliminary to the top of the valence band. The temperature dependence of electrical conductivity and spectral dependence photoconductivity for the Tl1-x In1-x Ge x Se2 and Tl1-x In1-x Si x Se2 single crystals were explored and compared with previously reported Tl1-x In1-x Sn x Se2. Based on our investigations, a model of centre re-charging is proposed. Contrary to other investigated crystals in Tl1-x In1-x Ge x Se2 single crystals for x = 0.1 we observe extraordinarily enormous photoresponse, which exceed more than nine times the dark current. X-ray photoelectron core-level and valence-band spectra for pristine and Ar+-ion irradiated surfaces of Tl1-x In1-x GexSe2 (x = 0.1 and 0.2) single crystals have been studied. These results indicate that the relatively low hygroscopicity of the studied single crystals is typical for the Tl1-x In1-x Ge x Se2 crystals, a property that is very important for handling these quaternary selenides as infrared materials operating at ambient conditions.

  19. Wideband thulium–holmium-doped fiber source with combined forward and backward amplified spontaneous emission at 1600–2300 nm spectral band

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honzátko, Pavel; Baravets, Yauhen; Kašík, Ivan; Podrazký, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 12 (2014), s. 3650-3653 ISSN 0146-9592 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/1840 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Bandwidth * Spontaneous emission * Holmium Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.292, year: 2014

  20. Nitrous oxide emissions in Midwest US maize production vary widely with band-injected N fertilizer rates, timing and nitrapyrin presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzaco, Juan P.; Smith, Doug R.; Vyn, Tony J.

    2013-09-01

    Nitrification inhibitors have the potential to reduce N2O emissions from maize fields, but optimal results may depend on deployment of integrated N fertilizer management systems that increase yields achieved per unit of N2O lost. A new micro-encapsulated formulation of nitrapyrin for liquid N fertilizers became available to US farmers in 2010. Our research objectives were to (i) assess the impacts of urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) management practices (timing, rate and nitrification inhibitor) and environmental variables on growing-season N2O fluxes and (ii) identify UAN treatment combinations that both reduce N2O emissions and optimize maize productivity. Field experiments near West Lafayette, Indiana in 2010 and 2011 examined three N rates (0, 90 and 180 kg N ha-1), two timings (pre-emergence and side-dress) and presence or absence of nitrapyrin. Mean cumulative N2O-N emissions (Q10 corrected) were 0.81, 1.83 and 3.52 kg N2O-N ha-1 for the rates of 0, 90 and 180 kg N ha-1, respectively; 1.80 and 2.31 kg N2O-N ha-1 for pre-emergence and side-dress timings, respectively; and 1.77 versus 2.34 kg N2O-N ha-1 for with and without nitrapyrin, respectively. Yield-scaled N2O-N emissions increased with N rates as anticipated (averaging 167, 204 and 328 g N2O-N Mg grain-1 for the 0, 90 and 180 kg N ha-1 rates), but were 22% greater with the side-dress timing than the pre-emergence timing (when averaged across N rates and inhibitor treatments) because of environmental conditions following later applications. Overall yield-scaled N2O-N emissions were 22% lower with nitrapyrin than without the inhibitor, but these did not interact with N rate or timing.

  1. Broadened band C-telecom and intense upconversion emission of Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped CaYAlO{sub 4} luminescent material obtained by an easy route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrella, R.V.; Schiavon, M.A. [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del Rei (UFSJ), Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, 36301-160 São João del Rei, MG (Brazil); Pecoraro, E.; Ribeiro, S.J.L. [UNESP, Institute of Chemistry, P.O. Box 355, 14800-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, J.L., E-mail: ferrari@ufsj.edu.br [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del Rei (UFSJ), Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, 36301-160 São João del Rei, MG (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    This work reports on photoluminescence properties of Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped CaYAlO{sub 4} in powder form, synthesized by an easy route using citric acid as ligand to form complex precursor. The 1.2 mol% of Yb{sup 3+} was fixed, while the amount of Er{sup 3+} changed in 0.5, 1.5 and 3 mol% in order to evaluate the photoluminescence properties as a function of the Er{sup 3+} concentration. The structural and thermal properties of the viscous solutions and powder materials obtained after the heat-treatment at 1000, 1100 and 1200 °C for 4 h were evaluated by XRD, FTIR and TG/DTA analysis. The results showed the formation of pure CaYAlO{sub 4} tetragonal crystalline phase after heat-treatment at 1100 °C and 1200 °C. Intense emission in the visible region under excitation at 980 nm was attributed to upconversion process, from Er{sup 3+} intra-configurational f–f transitions. The emissions were assigned to the transitions {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} (green region), and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} (red region) energy levels. The ratio between emission band integrated areas assigned to the red and green emissions increased as a function of Er{sup 3+} concentration. Under excitation at 980 nm with 100 mW of power pump, the materials also showed intense and broadening emission with maximum at 1520 nm with FWHM of 84.74 nm for the sample CaYAlO{sub 4}:1.5% Er{sup 3+}/1.2% Yb{sup 3+} heat-treated at 1000 °C for 4 h. The photoluminescence properties showed that these materials are promising for use in C-telecom band as optical amplifier biological marker or/and solid-state laser devices under excitation at 980 nm.

  2. Contamination of Broad-Band Photometry by Nebular Emission in High Redshift Galaxies: Investigations with Keck's MOSFIRE Near-Infrared Spectrograph

    OpenAIRE

    Schenker, Matthew A.; Ellis, Richard S.; Konidaris, Nick P.; Stark, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Earlier work has raised the potential importance of nebular emission in the derivation of the physical characteristics of high-redshift Lyman break galaxies. Within certain redshift ranges, and especially at z ≃ 6-7, such lines may be strong enough to reduce estimates of the stellar masses and ages of galaxies compared with those derived assuming the broadband photometry represents stellar light alone. To test this hypothesis at the highest redshifts where such lines can be probed with ground...

  3. Multicolor tuning towards single red-emission band of upconversion nanoparticles for tunable optical component and optical/x-ray imaging agents via Ce"3"+ doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Zhigao; Zeng, Tianmei; Xu, Yaru; Qian, Chao; Liu, Hongrong; Zeng, Songjun; Lu, Wei; Hao, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    A simple strategy of Ce"3"+ doping is proposed to realize multicolor tuning and predominant red emission in BaLnF_5:Yb"3"+/Ho"3"+ (Ln"3"+ = Gd"3"+, Y"3"+, Yb"3"+) systems. A tunable upconversion (UC) multicolor output from green/yellow to red can be readily achieved in a fixed Yb"3"+/Ho"3"+ composition by doping Ce"3"+, providing an effective route for multicolor tuning widely used for various optical components. Moreover, compared with Ce"3"+-free UC nanoparticles (UCNPs), a remarkable enhancement of the red-to-green (R/G) ratio is observed by doping 30% Ce"3"+, arising from the two largely promoted cross-relaxation (CR) processes between Ce"3"+ and Ho"3"+. UCNPs with pure red emission are selected as in vivo UC bioimaging agents, demonstrating the merits of deep penetration depth, the absence of autofluorescence and high contrast in small animal bioimaging. Moreover, such fluorescence imaging nanoprobes can also be used as contrast agents for three-dimensional (3D) x-ray bioimaging by taking advantage of the high K-edge values and x-ray absorption coefficients of Ba"2"+, Gd"3"+, and Ce"3"+ in our designed nanoprobes. Thus, the simultaneous realization of multicolor output, highly enhanced R/G ratio, and predominant red emission makes the Ce"3"+-doped UCNPs very useful for widespread applications in optical components and bioimaging. (paper)

  4. Multicolor tuning towards single red-emission band of upconversion nanoparticles for tunable optical component and optical/x-ray imaging agents via Ce(3+) doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhigao; Zeng, Tianmei; Xu, Yaru; Lu, Wei; Qian, Chao; Liu, Hongrong; Zeng, Songjun; Hao, Jianhua

    2015-09-25

    A simple strategy of Ce(3+) doping is proposed to realize multicolor tuning and predominant red emission in BaLnF5:Yb(3+)/Ho(3+) (Ln(3+) = Gd(3+), Y(3+), Yb(3+)) systems. A tunable upconversion (UC) multicolor output from green/yellow to red can be readily achieved in a fixed Yb(3+)/Ho(3+) composition by doping Ce(3+), providing an effective route for multicolor tuning widely used for various optical components. Moreover, compared with Ce(3+)-free UC nanoparticles (UCNPs), a remarkable enhancement of the red-to-green (R/G) ratio is observed by doping 30% Ce(3+), arising from the two largely promoted cross-relaxation (CR) processes between Ce(3+) and Ho(3+). UCNPs with pure red emission are selected as in vivo UC bioimaging agents, demonstrating the merits of deep penetration depth, the absence of autofluorescence and high contrast in small animal bioimaging. Moreover, such fluorescence imaging nanoprobes can also be used as contrast agents for three-dimensional (3D) x-ray bioimaging by taking advantage of the high K-edge values and x-ray absorption coefficients of Ba(2+), Gd(3+), and Ce(3+) in our designed nanoprobes. Thus, the simultaneous realization of multicolor output, highly enhanced R/G ratio, and predominant red emission makes the Ce(3+)-doped UCNPs very useful for widespread applications in optical components and bioimaging.

  5. Nitrous oxide emissions in Midwest US maize production vary widely with band-injected N fertilizer rates, timing and nitrapyrin presence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burzaco, Juan P; Vyn, Tony J; Smith, Doug R

    2013-01-01

    Nitrification inhibitors have the potential to reduce N 2 O emissions from maize fields, but optimal results may depend on deployment of integrated N fertilizer management systems that increase yields achieved per unit of N 2 O lost. A new micro-encapsulated formulation of nitrapyrin for liquid N fertilizers became available to US farmers in 2010. Our research objectives were to (i) assess the impacts of urea–ammonium nitrate (UAN) management practices (timing, rate and nitrification inhibitor) and environmental variables on growing-season N 2 O fluxes and (ii) identify UAN treatment combinations that both reduce N 2 O emissions and optimize maize productivity. Field experiments near West Lafayette, Indiana in 2010 and 2011 examined three N rates (0, 90 and 180 kg N ha −1 ), two timings (pre-emergence and side-dress) and presence or absence of nitrapyrin. Mean cumulative N 2 O–N emissions (Q 10 corrected) were 0.81, 1.83 and 3.52 kg N 2 O–N ha −1 for the rates of 0, 90 and 180 kg N ha −1 , respectively; 1.80 and 2.31 kg N 2 O–N ha −1 for pre-emergence and side-dress timings, respectively; and 1.77 versus 2.34 kg N 2 O–N ha −1 for with and without nitrapyrin, respectively. Yield-scaled N 2 O–N emissions increased with N rates as anticipated (averaging 167, 204 and 328 g N 2 O–N Mg grain −1 for the 0, 90 and 180 kg N ha −1 rates), but were 22% greater with the side-dress timing than the pre-emergence timing (when averaged across N rates and inhibitor treatments) because of environmental conditions following later applications. Overall yield-scaled N 2 O–N emissions were 22% lower with nitrapyrin than without the inhibitor, but these did not interact with N rate or timing. (letter)

  6. Direct band gap light emission and detection at room temperature in bulk germanium diodes with HfGe/Ge/TiN structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dong, E-mail: wang.dong.539@m.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Maekura, Takayuki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Yamamoto, Keisuke; Nakashima, Hiroshi [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2016-03-01

    Direct band gap (DBG) electroluminescence (EL) and photo detection were studied at room temperature for n-type bulk germanium (Ge) diodes with a fin type lateral HfGe/Ge/TiN structure. DBG EL spectra peaked at 1.55 μm were clearly observed due to small hole and electron barrier heights of HfGe/Ge and TiN/Ge contacts. DBG EL peak intensity increased with increasing doping level of Ge substrate due to increased electron population in direct conduction band. The integrated intensity of DBG EL spectrum is proportional to the area of active region, implying a good surface-uniformity of EL efficiency. Small dark current intensity was measured as 2.4 × 10{sup −7} A under a reverse bias voltage of − 1 V, corresponding to dark current densities of 5.3 × 10{sup −10} A/μm or 3.2 × 10{sup −10} A/μm{sup 2}. At the wavelength of 1.55 μm, a linear dependence of photo current intensity on laser power was observed with a responsivity of 0.44 A/W at a reverse bias voltage of − 1 V. - Highlights: • Lateral HfGe/Ge/TiN diodes were fabricated on bulk Ge substrates. • The highest temperature was 400 °C for the entire fabrication process. • Electroluminescence spectra were measured for HfGe/Ge/TiN diodes with different parameters. • Dark current densities were 5.3 × 10{sup −10} A/μm or 3.2 × 10{sup −10} A/μm{sup 2} at − 1 V. • Responsivity was 0.44 A/W, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 35.2%.

  7. Interactions of low-power photons with natural opals—PBG materials, photonic control, natural metamaterials, spontaneous laser emissions, and band-gap boundary responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem, Michelle R.

    2012-01-01

    Four views of each of the opal research specimens in white light (for in-article or cover), in the same order as the specimens depicted in Fig. 3 of the main manuscript. A.On the left: 1.5 carat oval cabochon precious fire opal. B.In the center: 2.5 carats faceted fancy shield precious fire contra luz with mild adularescence. C.On the right: 5.0 carats round cabochon precious crystal opal with blue adularescence. Highlights: ► Emission of micro-lasers from microspheroid cluster boundary zones (quantum dots). ► Lasers illuminated or fluoresced the intra-opal structures of microspheroid photonic glass clusters. ► Microspheroid boundaries are durable to low power light sources. ► Display of previously unknown low power photonic optic properties. ► The research specimens are natural metamaterials. - Abstract: One overall goal of this research was to examine types of naturally-occurring opals that exhibit photonic control to learn about previously-unknown properties of naturally occurring photonic control that may be developed for broader applications. Three different photon sources were applied consecutively to three different types of natural, flawless, gem-quality precious opals. Two photon sources were lasers (green and red) and one was simulated daylight tungsten white. As each type of precious opal was exposed to each of the photon sources, the respective refractions, reflections, and transmissions were studied. This research is the first to show that applying various pleochroic and laser photon sources to these types of opals revealed significant information regarding naturally occurring photonic control, metamaterials, spontaneous laser emissions, and microspheroid cluster (inter-PBG zone) boundary effects. Plus, minimizing ambient light and the use of low power photon sources were critical to observing the properties regarding this photonic materials research. This research yielded information applicable to the development of materials to advance

  8. New Kronig-Penney Equation Emphasizing the Band Edge Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmulowicz, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The Kronig-Penney problem is a textbook example for discussing band dispersions and band gap formation in periodic layered media. For example, in photonic crystals, the behaviour of bands next to the band edges is important for further discussions of such effects as inhibited light emission, slow light and negative index of refraction. However,…

  9. Brilliant blue, green and orange-red emission band on Tm{sup 3+}-, Tb{sup 3+}- and Eu{sup 3+}-doped ZrO{sub 2} nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, V H; De la Rosa, E; Lopez-Luke, T [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.P. 1-948, Leon Gto., 37160 (Mexico); Salas, P [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y TecnologIa Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 1-1010, Queretaro, Qro. 76000 (Mexico); Angeles-Chavez, C, E-mail: elder@cio.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de IngenierIa Molecular, A.P. 11-848, Mexico, D.F. 07730 (Mexico)

    2010-11-24

    Tm{sup 3+}-, Tb{sup 3+}- and Eu{sup 3+}-doped ZrO{sub 2} nanocrystals were prepared by a facile precipitation method with a hydrothermal process. Structural characterization showed a crystallite size ranging from 30 to 40 nm, and monoclinic and tetragonal zirconia phases were observed depending on the dopant concentration. The monoclinic phase was dominant for 0.5 mol% of Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}, and the tetragonal phase was 100% stabilized for 2 mol% of Tm{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+}. The structure of emission bands associated with Eu{sup 3+} confirms the substitution of Zr{sup 4+} located at C{sub 1} and D{sub 2h} symmetry sites for the monoclinic and tetragonal phases. The emission of three primary colours, red, green and blue, was obtained from Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}, respectively, which makes this nanophosphor an excellent candidate for use in photonics applications. The emitted signal was analysed as a function of ion concentration and the optimum concentration was determined.

  10. Ks-BAND DETECTION OF THERMAL EMISSION AND COLOR CONSTRAINTS TO CoRoT-1b: A LOW-ALBEDO PLANET WITH INEFFICIENT ATMOSPHERIC ENERGY REDISTRIBUTION AND A TEMPERATURE INVERSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Justin C.; Apai, Daniel; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Sing, David K.; Burrows, Adam

    2009-01-01

    We report the detection in Ks-band of the secondary eclipse of the hot Jupiter CoRoT-1b from time series photometry with the ARC 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point Observatory. The eclipse shows a depth of 0.336 ± 0.042% and is centered at phase 0.5022 +0.0023 -0.0027 , consistent with a zero eccentricity orbit (e cos ω = 0.0035 +0.0036 -0.0042 ). We perform the first optical to near-infrared multi-band photometric analysis of an exoplanet's atmosphere and constrain the reflected and thermal emissions by combining our result with the recent 0.6, 0.71, and 2.09 μm secondary eclipse detections by Snellen et al., Gillon et al., and Alonso et al. Comparing the multi-wavelength detections to state-of-the-art radiative-convective chemical-equilibrium atmosphere models, we find the near-infrared fluxes difficult to reproduce. The closest blackbody-based and physical models provide the following atmosphere parameters: a temperature T = 2460 +80 -160 K; a very low Bond albedo A B = 0.000 +0.081 -0.000 ; and an energy redistribution parameter P n = 0.1, indicating a small but nonzero amount of heat transfer from the day to nightside. The best physical model suggests a thermal inversion layer with an extra optical absorber of opacity κ e = 0.05 cm 2 g -1 , placed near the 0.1 bar atmospheric pressure level. This inversion layer is located 10 times deeper in the atmosphere than the absorbers used in models to fit mid-infrared Spitzer detections of other irradiated hot Jupiters.

  11. Optical Absorption and Emission Mechanisms of Single Defects in Hexagonal Boron Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungwirth, Nicholas R.; Fuchs, Gregory D.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the polarization selection rules of sharp zero-phonon lines (ZPLs) from isolated defects in hexagonal boron nitride (HBN) and compare our findings with the predictions of a Huang-Rhys model involving two electronic states. Our survey, which spans the spectral range ˜550 - 740 nm , reveals that, in disagreement with a two-level model, the absorption and emission dipoles are often misaligned. We relate the dipole misalignment angle (Δ θ ) of a ZPL to its energy shift from the excitation energy (Δ E ) and find that Δ θ ≈0 ° when Δ E corresponds to an allowed HBN phonon frequency and that 0 ° ≤Δ θ ≤90 ° when Δ E exceeds the maximum allowed HBN phonon frequency. Consequently, a two-level Huang-Rhys model succeeds at describing excitations mediated by the creation of one optical phonon but fails at describing excitations that require the creation of multiple phonons. We propose that direct excitations requiring the creation of multiple phonons are inefficient due to the low Huang-Rhys factors in HBN and that these ZPLs are instead excited indirectly via an intermediate electronic state. This hypothesis is corroborated by polarization measurements of an individual ZPL excited with two distinct wavelengths that indicate a single ZPL may be excited by multiple mechanisms. These findings provide new insight on the nature of the optical cycle of novel defect-based single-photon sources in HBN.

  12. Congenital Constriction Band Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Gupta, Fareed Malik, Rishabh Gupta, M.A.Basit, Dara Singh

    2008-01-01

    Congenital constriction bands are anomalous bands that encircle a digit or an extremity. Congenitalconstriction band syndrome is rare condition and is mostly associated with other musculoskeletaldisorders.We report such a rare experience.

  13. Blue Emission in Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Sohini; Sengupta, Abhigyan; Hazra, Partha; Mandal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Recent literatures reported blue-green emission from amyloid fibril as exclusive signature of fibril formation. This unusual visible luminescence is regularly used to monitor fibril growth. Blue-green emission has also been observed in crystalline protein and in solution. However, the origin of this emission is not known exactly. Our spectroscopic study of serum proteins reveals that the blue-green emission is a property of protein monomer. Evidences suggest that semiconductor-like band struc...

  14. Radiated Emissions Test Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-02

    1. Draft Department of Transportation (DOT) Test Plan to Develop : Interference Tolerance Masks for GNSS Receivers in the L1 : Radiofrequency Band (1559 1610 MHz) provides high level : overview of radiated emissions test setup : 2. Presenta...

  15. Band structure of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Tsidilkovski, I M

    2013-01-01

    Band Structure of Semiconductors provides a review of the theoretical and experimental methods of investigating band structure and an analysis of the results of the developments in this field. The book presents the problems, methods, and applications in the study of band structure. Topics on the computational methods of band structure; band structures of important semiconducting materials; behavior of an electron in a perturbed periodic field; effective masses and g-factors for the most commonly encountered band structures; and the treatment of cyclotron resonance, Shubnikov-de Haas oscillatio

  16. Cryogenic Yb:YGAG ceramic laser pumped at 940 nm and zero-phonon-line: a comparative study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jambunathan, Venkatesan; Navrátil, Petr; Miura, Taisuke; Yue, Fangxin; Endo, Akira; Lucianetti, Antonio; Mocek, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2017), s. 477-483 ISSN 2159-3930 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1602; GA MŠk LM2015086; GA ČR GA14-01660S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : solid-state lasers * high average * Yb-YAG * temperatures Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 2.591, year: 2016

  17. Wide Band to ''Double Band'' upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, P.; Currier, R.; Garbincius, P.; Butler, J.

    1988-06-01

    The Wide Band beam currently uses electrons obtained from secondary photon conversions to produce the photon beam incident on the experimental targets. By transporting the positrons produced in these conversions as well as the electrons it is possible to almost double the number of photons delivered to the experiments per primary beam proton. 11 figs

  18. Surface Resonance Bands on (001)W: Experimental Dispersion Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willis, R. F.; Feuerbacher, B.; Christensen, N. Egede

    1977-01-01

    A band of unbound surface states (resonances), located in an energy region above the vacuum threshold corresponding to an energy band gap in the electron states of the bulk crystal, has been observed by angle-resolved secondary-electron-emission spectroscopy. The experimental dispersion behavior...... is in agreement with the two-dimensional band structure of a clean (001)W surface recently proposed by Smith and Mittheiss....

  19. Development of a Control Banding Tool for Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Riediker, M.; Ostiguy, C.; Triolet, J.; Troisfontaine, P.; Vernez, D.; Bourdel, G.; Thieriet, N.; Cadène, A.

    2012-01-01

    Control banding (CB) can be a useful tool for managing the potential risks of nanomaterials. The here proposed CB, which should be part of an overall risk control strategy, groups materials by hazard and emission potential. The resulting decision matrix proposes control bands adapted to the risk potential levels and helps define an action plan. If this plan is not practical and financially feasible, a full risk assessment is launched. The hazard banding combines key concepts of nanomaterial t...

  20. Wurtzite gallium phosphide has a direct-band gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assali, S.; Zardo, I.; Plissard, S.; Verheijen, M.A.; Haverkort, J.E.M.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Gallium Phosphide (GaP) with the normal cubic crystal structure has an indirect band gap, which severely limits the emission efficiency. We report the fabrication of GaP nanowires with pure hexagonal crystal structure and demonstrate the direct nature of the band gap. We observe strong

  1. Amniotic constriction bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Amniotic band sequence URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ... birth. The baby should be delivered in a medical center that has specialists experienced in caring for babies ... or partial loss of function of a body part. Congenital bands affecting large parts of the body cause the ...

  2. Band parameters of phosphorene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew Yan Voon, L C; Wang, J; Zhang, Y; Willatzen, M

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with a direct band-gap at the Brillouin zone center. In this paper, we present a recently derived effective-mass theory of the band structure in the presence of strain and electric field, based upon group theory. Band parameters for this theory are computed using a first-principles theory based upon the generalized-gradient approximation to the density-functional theory. These parameters and Hamiltonian will be useful for modeling physical properties of phosphorene. (paper)

  3. Infrared diffuse interstellar bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galazutdinov, G. A.; Lee, Jae-Joon; Han, Inwoo; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Valyavin, G.; Krełowski, J.

    2017-05-01

    We present high-resolution (R ˜ 45 000) profiles of 14 diffuse interstellar bands in the ˜1.45 to ˜2.45 μm range based on spectra obtained with the Immersion Grating INfrared Spectrograph at the McDonald Observatory. The revised list of diffuse bands with accurately estimated rest wavelengths includes six new features. The diffuse band at 15 268.2 Å demonstrates a very symmetric profile shape and thus can serve as a reference for finding the 'interstellar correction' to the rest wavelength frame in the H range, which suffers from a lack of known atomic/molecular lines.

  4. Band parameters of phosphorene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with a direct band-gap at the Brillouin zone center. In this paper, we present a recently derived effective-mass theory of the band structure in the presence of strain and electric field, based upon group theory. Band parameters for this theory...... are computed using a first-principles theory based upon the generalized-gradient approximation to the density-functional theory. These parameters and Hamiltonian will be useful for modeling physical properties of phosphorene....

  5. O2 atmospheric band measurements with WINDII: Performance of a narrow band filter/wide angle Michelson combination in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, W.E.; Hersom, C.H.; Tai, C.C.; Gault, W.A.; Shepherd, G.G.; Solheim, B.H.

    1994-01-01

    Among the emissions viewed by the Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are selected lines in the (0-0) transition of the O2 atmospheric band. These lines are viewed simultaneously using a narrow band filter/wide-angle Michelson interferometer combination. The narrow band filter is used to separate the lines on the CCD (spectral-spatial scanning) and the Michelson used to modulate the emissions so that winds and rotational temperatures may be measured from the Doppler shifts and relative intensities of the lines. In this report this technique will be outlined and the on-orbit behavior since launch summarized

  6. Modeling the Broad-Band Emission from the Gamma-Ray Emitting Narrow-Line Seyfert-1 Galaxies 1H 0323+342 and B2 0954+25A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrieta-Lobo, Maialen; Boisson, Catherine; Zech, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Prior to the Fermi-LAT era, only two classes of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) were thought to harbor relativistic jets that radiate up to gamma-ray energies: blazars and radio galaxies. The detection of variable gamma-ray emission from Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies has put them on the spotlight as a new class of gamma-ray emitting AGN. In this respect, gamma-ray emitting NLSy1s seem to be situated between blazars (dominated by non-thermal emission) and Seyferts (accretion disc dominated). In this work, we model the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) of two gamma-loud NLSy1s, 1H 0323+342 and B2 0954+25A, during quiescent and flaring episodes via a multi-component radiative model that features a relativistic jet and external photon fields from the torus, disc, corona and Broad Line Region (BLR). We find that the interpretation of the high-energy emission of jetted NLSy1s requires taking into account Inverse Compton emission from particles in the relativistic jet that interact with external photon fields. Minimal changes are applied to the model parameters to transition from average to flaring states. In this scenario, the observed variability is explained mainly by means of changes in the jet density and Doppler factor.

  7. Modeling the Broad-Band Emission from the Gamma-Ray Emitting Narrow-Line Seyfert-1 Galaxies 1H 0323+342 and B2 0954+25A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrieta-Lobo, Maialen; Boisson, Catherine; Zech, Andreas, E-mail: maialen.arrieta@obspm.fr [Laboratoire Univers et Theories, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Université Paris-Diderot, PSL Research University, Meudon (France)

    2017-12-08

    Prior to the Fermi-LAT era, only two classes of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) were thought to harbor relativistic jets that radiate up to gamma-ray energies: blazars and radio galaxies. The detection of variable gamma-ray emission from Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies has put them on the spotlight as a new class of gamma-ray emitting AGN. In this respect, gamma-ray emitting NLSy1s seem to be situated between blazars (dominated by non-thermal emission) and Seyferts (accretion disc dominated). In this work, we model the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) of two gamma-loud NLSy1s, 1H 0323+342 and B2 0954+25A, during quiescent and flaring episodes via a multi-component radiative model that features a relativistic jet and external photon fields from the torus, disc, corona and Broad Line Region (BLR). We find that the interpretation of the high-energy emission of jetted NLSy1s requires taking into account Inverse Compton emission from particles in the relativistic jet that interact with external photon fields. Minimal changes are applied to the model parameters to transition from average to flaring states. In this scenario, the observed variability is explained mainly by means of changes in the jet density and Doppler factor.

  8. CSF oligoclonal banding - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100145.htm CSF oligoclonal banding - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 5 out of 5 Overview The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serves to supply nutrients to the central nervous ...

  9. Decay of superdeformed bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.

    1995-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the study of superdeformation is to directly connect the large number of superdeformed bands now known to the yrast states. In this way, excitation energies, spins and parities can be assigned to the levels in the second well which is essential to establish the collective and single-particle components of these bands. This paper will review some of the progress which has been made to understand the decay of superdeformed bands using the new arrays including the measurement of the total decay spectrum and the establishment of direct one-step decays from the superdeformed band to the yrast line in 194 Hg. 42 refs., 5 figs

  10. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eat by making you feel full after eating small amounts of food. After surgery, your doctor can adjust the band ... You will feel full after eating just a small amount of food. The food in the small upper pouch will ...

  11. Evoked acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, C; Parbo, J; Johnsen, N J

    1985-01-01

    Stimulated acoustic emissions were recorded in response to tonal stimuli at 60 dB p.e. SPL in a small group of normal-hearing adults. Power spectral analysis reveals that the evoked activity from each ear contains energy in preferential frequency bands and the change of stimulus frequency has only...

  12. 77 FR 48097 - Operation of Radar Systems in the 76-77 GHz Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... modify the emission limits for vehicular radar systems operating within the 76-77 GHz band. Specifically.... 15.253 of the rules for vehicular radar systems operating in the 76-77 GHz band. Vehicular radars can... sensors operating in the 76-77 GHz band, the spectrum shall be investigated up to 231 GHz. (f) Fundamental...

  13. Strong Carrier–Phonon Coupling in Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We highlight the importance of carrier–phonon coupling in inorganic lead halide perovskite nanocrystals. The low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of CsPbBr3 has been investigated under a nonresonant and a nonstandard, quasi-resonant excitation scheme, and phonon replicas of the main PL band have been identified as due to the Fröhlich interaction. The energy of longitudinal optical (LO) phonons has been determined from the separation of the zero phonon band and phonon replicas. We reason that the observed LO phonon coupling can only be related to an orthorhombically distorted crystal structure of the perovskite nanocrystals. Additionally, the strength of carrier–phonon coupling has been characterized using the ratio between the intensities of the first phonon replica and the zero-phonon band. PL emission from localized versus delocalized carriers has been identified as the source of the observed discrepancies between the LO phonon energy and phonon coupling strength under quasi-resonant and nonresonant excitation conditions, respectively. PMID:29019652

  14. F centers emission in KCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkura, H.; Carmo, L.C.S. do; Kalinowski, H.J.; Ribeiro, S.C.

    1976-01-01

    The emission spectrum of F centers in KCN is reported. The temperature dependence of this emission between 62 K and 178K was measured and the energy gap between the relaxed excited state and conduction band could be determined as 070 eV. Below the antiferroelectric transition temperature at 83K a blue shift in the peak of the emission spectrum is observed due partially to the internal Stark effect

  15. Ultra wide band antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Begaud, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Ultra Wide Band Technology (UWB) has reached a level of maturity that allows us to offer wireless links with either high or low data rates. These wireless links are frequently associated with a location capability for which ultimate accuracy varies with the inverse of the frequency bandwidth. Using time or frequency domain waveforms, they are currently the subject of international standards facilitating their commercial implementation. Drawing up a complete state of the art, Ultra Wide Band Antennas is aimed at students, engineers and researchers and presents a summary of internationally recog

  16. New Kronig-Penney equation emphasizing the band edge conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmulowicz, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The Kronig-Penney problem is a textbook example for discussing band dispersions and band gap formation in periodic layered media. For example, in photonic crystals, the behaviour of bands next to the band edges is important for further discussions of such effects as inhibited light emission, slow light and negative index of refraction. However, the standard Kronig-Penney equation does not explicitly state the band edge conditions. This paper derives a new solution for the Kronig-Penney problem that explicitly displays the band edge conditions as well as contains all other essential physics of band formation. Therefore, the present exposition should show the student that the band edge conditions are not simply special cases of the familiar Kronig-Penney equation but, instead, are an integral part of the band theory. For the computationally minded student, the new equation is particularly convenient for calculating the positions of closely spaced band edges. The present results can be taught alongside the Kronig-Penney equation in advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate quantum mechanics, solid state theory and photonics courses dealing with wave propagation through periodic layered media

  17. 47 CFR 90.669 - Emission limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 896-901/935-940 Mhz Band § 90.669 Emission limits. (a) On any frequency in an MTA licensee's spectrum block that is adjacent to a non-MTA frequency, the power of any emission shall be attenuated below the... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission limits. 90.669 Section 90.669...

  18. 47 CFR 22.359 - Emission limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provided the measured power is integrated over the full required measurement bandwidth (i.e., 30 kHz or 1..., to the FCC. (d) Interference caused by out of band emissions. If any emission from a transmitter..., the FCC may require a greater attenuation of that emission than specified in this section. [70 FR...

  19. 47 CFR 22.861 - Emission limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... improve measurement accuracy provided the measured power is integrated over the full required measurement... transferees and, upon request, to the FCC. (d) Interference caused by out of band emissions. If any emission..., the FCC may require a greater attenuation of that emission than specified in this section. [70 FR...

  20. Band-notched spiral antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jae; Chang, John

    2018-03-13

    A band-notched spiral antenna having one or more spiral arms extending from a radially inner end to a radially outer end for transmitting or receiving electromagnetic radiation over a frequency range, and one or more resonance structures positioned adjacent one or more segments of the spiral arm associated with a notch frequency band or bands of the frequency range so as to resonate and suppress the transmission or reception of electromagnetic radiation over said notch frequency band or bands.

  1. A Solar-Pumped Fluorescence Model for Line-By-Line Emission Intensities in the B-X, A-X, and X-X Band Systems of 12C14N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganini, L.; Mumma, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new quantitative model for detailed solar-pumped fluorescent emission of the main isotopologue of CN. The derived fluorescence efficiencies permit estimation and interpretation of ro-vibrational infrared line intensities of CN in exospheres exposed to solar (or stellar) radiation. Our g-factors are applicable to astronomical observations of CN extending from infrared to optical wavelengths, and we compare them with previous calculations in the literature. The new model enables extraction of rotational temperature, column abundance, and production rate from astronomical observations of CN in the inner coma of comets. Our model accounts for excitation and de-excitation of rotational levels in the ground vibrational state by collisions, solar excitation to the A(sup 2)Pi(sub I) and B(sup 2)Sum(sup +) electronically excited states followed by cascade to ro-vibrational levels of X(sup 2)Sum(sup +), and direct solar infrared pumping of ro-vibrational levels in the X(sup 2)Sum(sup +) state. The model uses advanced solar spectra acquired at high spectral resolution at the relevant infrared and optical wavelengths and considers the heliocentric radial velocity of the comet (the Swings effect) when assessing the exciting solar flux for a given transition. We present model predictions for the variation of fluorescence rates with rotational temperature and heliocentric radial velocity. Furthermore, we test our fluorescence model by comparing predicted and measured line-by-line intensities for X(sup 2)Sum(sup +) (1-0) in comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy), thereby identifying multiple emission lines observed at IR wavelengths.

  2. Auroral nitric oxide concentration and infrared emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, W. P.; Degges, T. C.; Hurd, A. G.; Stair, A. T., Jr.; Ulwick, J. C.

    1982-05-01

    Rocket-borne measurements of infrared auroral emission by nitric oxide are analyzed. Four rocket flights provided opportunities to measure 5.3- and 2.7-micron NO emission by means of infrared fixed band radiometers and CVF spectrometers, narrow band photometers, and incident energy spectra on various occasions. Analysis of infrared emission profiles and electron flux data indicates the NO density to be significantly enhanced with respect to midlatitude values. NO emission in the fundamental 5.3-micron band is attributed to resonance excitation by warm earth radiation, collisional excitation primarily by O atoms and chemiluminescence from the reaction of N with O2; with an energy efficiency of 0.015. The overtone band emission at 2.7 microns is accounted for by chemiluminescence produced with an energy efficiency of 0.0054. Total photon yield for the chemiluminescence reaction is estimated to range from 1.2 to 2.4 vibrational quanta per NO molecule.

  3. Optical emission of InAs nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Möller, M; De Lima Jr, M M; Cantarero, A; Chiaramonte, T; Cotta, M A; Iikawa, F

    2012-01-01

    Wurtzite InAs nanowire samples grown by chemical beam epitaxy have been analyzed by photoluminescence spectroscopy. The nanowires exhibit two main optical emission bands at low temperatures. They are attributed to the recombination of carriers in quantum well structures, formed by zincblende–wurtzite alternating layers, and to the donor–acceptor pair. The blue-shift observed in the former emission band when the excitation power is increased is in good agreement with the type-II band alignment between the wurtzite and zincblende sections predicted by previous theoretical works. When increasing the temperature and the excitation power successively, an additional band attributed to the band-to-band recombination from wurtzite InAs appears. We estimated a lower bound for the wurtzite band gap energy of approximately 0.46 eV at low temperature. (paper)

  4. Optical emission of InAs nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, M.; de Lima, M. M., Jr.; Cantarero, A.; Chiaramonte, T.; Cotta, M. A.; Iikawa, F.

    2012-09-01

    Wurtzite InAs nanowire samples grown by chemical beam epitaxy have been analyzed by photoluminescence spectroscopy. The nanowires exhibit two main optical emission bands at low temperatures. They are attributed to the recombination of carriers in quantum well structures, formed by zincblende-wurtzite alternating layers, and to the donor-acceptor pair. The blue-shift observed in the former emission band when the excitation power is increased is in good agreement with the type-II band alignment between the wurtzite and zincblende sections predicted by previous theoretical works. When increasing the temperature and the excitation power successively, an additional band attributed to the band-to-band recombination from wurtzite InAs appears. We estimated a lower bound for the wurtzite band gap energy of approximately 0.46 eV at low temperature.

  5. Optofluidic tuning of photonic crystal band edge lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal, Felipe; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate optofluidic tuning of polymer photonic crystal band edge lasers with an imposed rectangular symmetry. The emission wavelength depends on both lattice constant and cladding refractive index. The emission wavelength is shown to change 1 nm with a cladding refractive index change of 10......−2. The rectangular symmetry modification alters the emission characteristics of the devices and the relative emission intensities along the symmetry axes depend on cladding refractive index, suggesting a sensor concept based on detection of intensity rather than wavelength....

  6. Lu{sub 3}(Al,Si){sub 5}(O,N){sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+} phosphors with broad emission band and high thermal stability for white LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiaqing; Wang, Xiaojun; Xuan, Tongtong; Wang, Chunbo; Li, Huili, E-mail: hlli@phy.ecnu.edu.cn; Sun, Zhuo

    2015-02-15

    A yellow-orange emitting Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5−x}Si{sub x}O{sub 12−x}N{sub x}:Ce{sup 3+} phosphor with excellent color rendering, high luminescent efficiency and high thermal stability was reported in this paper. It was synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction method. The effect of Si{sup 4+}–N{sup 3−} incorporation on the optical properties of Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+} phosphor was investigated and compared to YAG:Ce{sup 3+} with the same compositions. Similarly, the addition of α-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} leads to a distinct redshift and broadening of photoluminescent spectrum, which is assigned to the increased covalency and crystal field strength caused by N{sup 3−}. Nevertheless, an excellent thermal stability and a higher integrated intensity presented by α-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-doped LuAG:Ce{sup 3+} are distinctive. Further, the emission intensity can be greatly enhanced by adding NaF flux. Finally, the white LED flat lamp with a CRI as high as 83 and a luminous efficiency of 85 lm/W is successfully realized by using a single LuAG-based oxynitride phosphor combined with a blue LED chip, which is completely feasible for general indoor illuminations to replace the traditional fluorescent or incandescent lamps. - Highlights: • Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-doped LuAG:Ce{sup 3+} oxynitride phosphors were synthesized by a solid-state reaction. • The effect of Si{sup 4+}–N{sup 3−} incorporation on the optical properties was investigated. • The addition of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} leads to an obvious redshift of the emission spectra. • Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5−x}Si{sub x}O{sub 12−x}N{sub x}:Ce{sup 3+} shows an excellent thermal stability and a higher intensity. • A warm white LED with CRI=83 is achieved by a single oxynitride phosphor.

  7. The hierarchically organized splitting of chromosome bands into sub-bands analyzed by multicolor banding (MCB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, H; Weise, A; Michel, S; Starke, H; Mrasek, K; Heller, A; Kuechler, A; Claussen, U; Liehr, T

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the nature of chromosome sub-bands in more detail, the multicolor banding (MCB) probe-set for chromosome 5 was hybridized to normal metaphase spreads of GTG band levels at approximately 850, approximately 550, approximately 400 and approximately 300. It could be observed that as the chromosomes became shorter, more of the initial 39 MCB pseudo-colors disappeared, ending with 18 MCB pseudo-colored bands at the approximately 300-band level. The hierarchically organized splitting of bands into sub-bands was analyzed by comparing the disappearance or appearance of pseudo-color bands of the four different band levels. The regions to split first are telomere-near, centromere-near and in 5q23-->q31, followed by 5p15, 5p14, and all GTG dark bands in 5q apart from 5q12 and 5q32 and finalized by sub-band building in 5p15.2, 5q21.2-->q21.3, 5q23.1 and 5q34. The direction of band splitting towards the centromere or the telomere could be assigned to each band separately. Pseudo-colors assigned to GTG-light bands were resistant to band splitting. These observations are in concordance with the recently proposed concept of chromosome region-specific protein swelling. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Statistical study of auroral omega bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Partamies

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of very few statistical studies on auroral omega bands motivated us to test-use a semi-automatic method for identifying large-scale undulations of the diffuse aurora boundary and to investigate their occurrence. Five identical all-sky cameras with overlapping fields of view provided data for 438 auroral omega-like structures over Fennoscandian Lapland from 1996 to 2007. The results from this set of omega band events agree remarkably well with previous observations of omega band occurrence in magnetic local time (MLT, lifetime, location between the region 1 and 2 field-aligned currents, as well as current density estimates. The average peak emission height of omega forms corresponds to the estimated precipitation energies of a few keV, which experienced no significant change during the events. Analysis of both local and global magnetic indices demonstrates that omega bands are observed during substorm expansion and recovery phases that are more intense than average substorm expansion and recovery phases in the same region. The omega occurrence with respect to the substorm expansion and recovery phases is in a very good agreement with an earlier observed distribution of fast earthward flows in the plasma sheet during expansion and recovery phases. These findings support the theory that omegas are produced by fast earthward flows and auroral streamers, despite the rarity of good conjugate observations.

  9. Whistler Triggered Upper Band Chorus Observed in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, P.; Golkowski, M.

    2017-12-01

    VLF radiation from lightning discharges is one of several sources of energy injection into the inner magnetosphere from the Earth. Lightning discharges initially produce a broadband impulse or `sferic' but after propagation in the dispersive magnetosphere this waveform soon becomes quasi narrow band with the characteristic spectrographic form of the whistler. Most of the lightning induced VLF wave energy injected into the magnetosphere will be unducted with a k-vector which becomes increasingly oblique. Although unducted radiation is ubiquitous throughout the inner magnetosphere, it is generally of a low amplitude due to Landau damping and is not expected to produce strong nonlinear phenomena such as triggered emissions and chorus waves. However, VLF wave energy ducted or trapped in field-aligned plasma density enhancements can have relatively large amplitudes due to focusing and also linear cyclotron resonance growth. Therefore high amplitude ducted whistler waves can trigger a number of complex nonlinear phenomena. These include the triggering of VLF emissions and triggering of VLF hiss or chorus. Such phenomena are generally considered to result from nonlinear electron cyclotron phase trapping. Observation of such VLF emissions triggered by natural whistlers have been reported since the 1970s in Antarctica. We present observations of whistlers triggered upper band chorus emission from Alaska. Dispersion analyze of whistlers determine the L-shell range to be 4.5 clear frequency band gap between upper and lower band of the observed chorus emissions. The observations point to ducted chorus generation in the vicinity of the plasmapause boundary.

  10. Cooperative emission in ion implanted Yb:YAG waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, G V; Desirena, H; De la Rosa, E [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Loma del Bosque 115, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Flores-Romero, E; Rickards, J; Trejo-Luna, R [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20364, 01000 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Marquez, H, E-mail: gvvazquez@cio.mx [Departamento de Optica, CICESE, Km 107 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report the analysis of spectroscopic properties of waveguides fabricated by ion implantation in YAG doped with Yb{sup 3+} ions. Three emission bands were detected in the blue, green and red regions under 970-nm excitation. The strong blue-green emission can be explained by a cooperative process between ytterbium ion pairs, leading to emission centered at 514 nm. The additional blue bands as well as green and red emission bands are attributed to the presence of Tm{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+} traces. The results include absorption and emission curves as well as decay time rates.

  11. Cooperative emission in ion implanted Yb:YAG waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, G V; Desirena, H; De la Rosa, E; Flores-Romero, E; Rickards, J; Trejo-Luna, R; Marquez, H

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report the analysis of spectroscopic properties of waveguides fabricated by ion implantation in YAG doped with Yb 3+ ions. Three emission bands were detected in the blue, green and red regions under 970-nm excitation. The strong blue-green emission can be explained by a cooperative process between ytterbium ion pairs, leading to emission centered at 514 nm. The additional blue bands as well as green and red emission bands are attributed to the presence of Tm 3+ and Er 3+ traces. The results include absorption and emission curves as well as decay time rates.

  12. Noise exposure in marching bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Joseph

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies involving orchestras have shown that music ensembles can produce hazardous noise levels. There are no similar data for marching bands and pep bands. In order to evaluate the noise levels produced by marching and pep bands, 1/3-octave-band sound-pressure levels were measured while these groups rehearsed and performed. Data were collected while marching with the bands to ensure a realistic environment. Comparing these data to OSHA and NIOSH criteria, marching and pep band exposures often exceed safe values. For typical exposures, OSHA doses range from 11% to 295%, while NIOSH doses range from 35% to 3055%. Exposures that would be considered hazardous in the workplace are common in marching and pep bands; students and band directors should take steps to recognize the risk posed by various instruments and various locations, and should implement hearing conservation efforts.

  13. Semiconductors bonds and bands

    CERN Document Server

    Ferry, David K

    2013-01-01

    As we settle into this second decade of the twenty-first century, it is evident that the advances in micro-electronics have truly revolutionized our day-to-day lifestyle. The technology is built upon semiconductors, materials in which the band gap has been engineered for special values suitable to the particular application. This book, written specifically for a one semester course for graduate students, provides a thorough understanding of the key solid state physics of semiconductors. It describes how quantum mechanics gives semiconductors unique properties that enabled the micro-electronics revolution, and sustain the ever-growing importance of this revolution.

  14. Acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The volume contains six papers which together provide an overall review of the inspection technique known as acoustic emission or stress wave emission. The titles are: a welder's introduction to acoustic emission technology; use of acoustic emission for detection of defects as they arise during fabrication; examples of laboratory application and assessment of acoustic emission in the United Kingdom; (Part I: acoustic emission behaviour of low alloy steels; Part II: fatigue crack assessment from proof testing and continuous monitoring); inspection of selected areas of engineering structures by acoustic emission; Japanese experience in laboratory and practical applications of acoustic emission to welded structures; and ASME acoustic emission code status. (U.K.)

  15. True photonic band-gap mode-control in VCSEL structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romstad, F.; Madsen, M.; Birkedal, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Photonic band-gap mode confinement in novel nano-structured large area VCSEL structures is confirmed by the amplified spontaneous emission spectrum. Both guide and anti-guide VCSEL structures are experimentally characterised to verify the photonic band-gap effect.......Photonic band-gap mode confinement in novel nano-structured large area VCSEL structures is confirmed by the amplified spontaneous emission spectrum. Both guide and anti-guide VCSEL structures are experimentally characterised to verify the photonic band-gap effect....

  16. Excitation dependence of photoluminescence in silicon quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xiaoming; Lap Van Dao; Hannaford, Peter; Cho, E-C; Cho, Young H; Green, Martin A

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the optical properties of silicon quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a silicon oxide matrix using photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL. A broad luminescence band is observed in the red region, in which the time evolution exhibits a stretched exponential decay. With increasing excitation intensity a significant saturation effect is observed. Direct electron-hole recombination is the dominant effect in the red band. A relatively narrow peak appears around 1.5 eV, which is attributed to the interface states overlapping with transition from the ground state of the silicon QDs. The saturation factor increases slowly with detection photon energy between 1.5 and 1.8 eV, which is attributed to the emission from zero-phonon electron-hole recombination. At higher photon energies the significantly increased saturation factor suggests a different emission mechanism, most likely the defect states from silicon, silicon oxide or silicon rich oxide

  17. Planck 2013 results. XIV. Zodiacal emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2013-01-01

    , three asteroidal dust bands, a circumsolar ring, and an Earth-trailing feature. The emissivity of the diuse cloud decreases with increasing wavelength, as expected from earlier analyses. The emissivities of the dust bands, however, decrease less rapidly, indicating that the properties of the grains......The Planck satellite provides a set of all-sky maps at nine frequencies from 30 GHz to 857 GHz. Planets, minor bodies, and diuse interplanetary dust emission (IPD) are all observed. The IPD can be separated from Galactic and other emissions because Planck views a given point on the celestial sphere...

  18. Gain flattened L-band EDFA based on upgraded C-band EDFA using forward ASE pumping in an EDF section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buxens Azcoaga, Alvaro Juan; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov; Clausen, Anders

    2000-01-01

    A novel method is presented for implementing an L-band erbium doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) making use of forward amplified spontaneous emission pumping, from a commercially available c-band EDFA, in an erbium doped fibre. Tuning of the length of erbium doped fibre enables a flat gain characteristic...... to be obtained with a low noise figure over the entire L-band window....

  19. Degenerate band edge laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veysi, Mehdi; Othman, Mohamed A. K.; Figotin, Alexander; Capolino, Filippo

    2018-05-01

    We propose a class of lasers based on a fourth-order exceptional point of degeneracy (EPD) referred to as the degenerate band edge (DBE). EPDs have been found in parity-time-symmetric photonic structures that require loss and/or gain; here we show that the DBE is a different kind of EPD since it occurs in periodic structures that are lossless and gainless. Because of this property, a small level of gain is sufficient to induce single-frequency lasing based on a synchronous operation of four degenerate Floquet-Bloch eigenwaves. This lasing scheme constitutes a light-matter interaction mechanism that leads also to a unique scaling law of the laser threshold with the inverse of the fifth power of the laser-cavity length. The DBE laser has the lowest lasing threshold in comparison to a regular band edge laser and to a conventional laser in cavities with the same loaded quality (Q ) factor and length. In particular, even without mirror reflectors the DBE laser exhibits a lasing threshold which is an order of magnitude lower than that of a uniform cavity laser of the same length and with very high mirror reflectivity. Importantly, this novel DBE lasing regime enforces mode selectivity and coherent single-frequency operation even for pumping rates well beyond the lasing threshold, in contrast to the multifrequency nature of conventional uniform cavity lasers.

  20. Model Development for MODIS Thermal Band Electronic Crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tiejun; Wu, Aisheng; Geng, Xu; Li, Yonghonh; Brinkman, Jake; Keller, Graziela; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has 36 bands. Among them, 16 thermal emissive bands covering a wavelength range from 3.8 to 14.4 m. After 16 years on-orbit operation, the electronic crosstalk of a few Terra MODIS thermal emissive bands developed substantial issues that cause biases in the EV brightness temperature measurements and surface feature contamination. The crosstalk effects on band 27 with center wavelength at 6.7 m and band 29 at 8.5 m increased significantly in recent years, affecting downstream products such as water vapor and cloud mask. The crosstalk effect is evident in the near-monthly scheduled lunar measurements, from which the crosstalk coefficients can be derived. The development of an alternative approach is very helpful for independent verification.In this work, a physical model was developed to assess the crosstalk impact on calibration as well as in Earth view brightness temperature retrieval. This model was applied to Terra MODIS band 29 empirically to correct the Earth brightness temperature measurements. In the model development, the detectors nonlinear response is considered. The impact of the electronic crosstalk is assessed in two steps. The first step consists of determining the impact on calibration using the on-board blackbody (BB). Due to the detectors nonlinear response and large background signal, both linear and nonlinear coefficients are affected by the crosstalk from sending bands. The second step is to calculate the effects on the Earth view brightness temperature retrieval. The effects include those from affected calibration coefficients and the contamination of Earth view measurements. This model links the measurement bias with crosstalk coefficients, detector non-linearity, and the ratio of Earth measurements between the sending and receiving bands. The correction of the electronic cross talk can be implemented empirically from the processed bias at different brightness temperature. The implementation

  1. Calibration of VIIRS F1 Sensor Fire Detection Band Using lunar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Jeff; Efremova, Boryana; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2012-01-01

    Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Fight 1 (Fl) sensor includes a fire detection band at roughly 4 microns. This spectral band has two gain states; fire detection occurs in the low gain state above approximately 345 K. The thermal bands normally utilize an on-board blackbody to provide on-orbit calibration. However, as the maximum temperature of this blackbody is 315 K, the low gain state of the 4 micron band cannot be calibrated in the same manner as the rest of the thermal bands. Regular observations of the moon provide an alternative calibration source. The lunar surface temperature has been recently mapped by the DIVINER sensor on the LRO platform. The periodic on-board high gain calibration along with the DIVINER surface temperatures was used to determine the emissivity and solar reflectance of the lunar surface at 4 microns; these factors and the lunar data are then used to fit the low gain calibration coefficients of the 4 micron band. Furthermore, the emissivity of the lunar surface is well known near 8.5 microns due to the Christiansen feature (an emissivity maximum associated with Si-O stretching vibrations) and the solar reflectance is negligible. Thus, the 8.5 micron band is used for relative calibration with the 4 micron band to de-trend any temporal variations. In addition, the remaining thermal bands are analyzed in a similar fashion, with both calculated emissivities and solar reflectances produced.

  2. Wide band ENDOR spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca Filho, C.

    1973-01-01

    The construction of an ENDOR spectrometer operating from 0,5 to 75 MHz within a single band, with ore Klystron and homodine detection, and no fundamental changes on the electron spin resonance spectrometer was described. The ENDOR signal can be detected both by amplitude modulation of the frequency field, or direct detection of the ESR output, which is taken to a signal analyser. The signal-to-noise ratio is raised by averaging rather than filtering avoiding the use of long time constants, providing natural line widths. The experimental apparatus and the spectra obtained are described. A discussion, relating the ENDOR line amplitudes with the experimental conditions is done and ENDOR mechanism, in which there is a relevant presence of cross relaxation is proposed

  3. Electronic band structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosso, G.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to present, in detail, some theoretical methods used to calculate electronic band structures in crystals. The basic strategies employed to attack the problem of electronic-structure calculations are presented. Successive sections present the basic formulations of the tight-binding, orthogonalized-plane-wave, Green'sfunction, and pseudopotential methods with a discussion of their application to perfect solids. Exemplifications in the case of a few selected problems provide further insight by the author into the physical aspects of the different methods and are a guide to the use of their mathematical techniques. A discussion is offered of completely a priori Hartree-Fock calculations and attempts to extend them. Special aspects of the different methods are also discussed in light of recently published related work

  4. First-principles determination of band-to-band electronic transition energies in cubic and hexagonal AlGaInN alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. Freitas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We provide approximate quasiparticle-corrected band gap energies for quaternary cubic and hexagonal AlxGayIn1–x–yN semiconductor alloys, employing a cluster expansion method to account for the inherent statistical disorder of the system. Calculated values are compared with photoluminescence measurements and discussed within the currently accepted model of emission in these materials by carrier localization. It is shown that bowing parameters are larger in the cubic phase, while the range of band gap variation is bigger in the hexagonal one. Experimentally determined transition energies are mostly consistent with band-to-band excitations.

  5. First-principles determination of band-to-band electronic transition energies in cubic and hexagonal AlGaInN alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, F. L., E-mail: felipelopesfreitas@gmail.com; Marques, M.; Teles, L. K. [Grupo de Materiais Semicondutores e Nanotecnologia, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, 12228-900 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    We provide approximate quasiparticle-corrected band gap energies for quaternary cubic and hexagonal Al{sub x}Ga{sub y}In{sub 1–x–y}N semiconductor alloys, employing a cluster expansion method to account for the inherent statistical disorder of the system. Calculated values are compared with photoluminescence measurements and discussed within the currently accepted model of emission in these materials by carrier localization. It is shown that bowing parameters are larger in the cubic phase, while the range of band gap variation is bigger in the hexagonal one. Experimentally determined transition energies are mostly consistent with band-to-band excitations.

  6. Electronic band structure in porous silicon studied by photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki-Won; Kim, Young-You

    2004-01-01

    In this research, we used photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) to visualize the electronic band structure in porous silicon (PS). From the combined results of the PLE measurements at various PL emission energies and the PL measurements under excitation at various PLE absorption energies, we infer that three different electronic band structures, originating from different luminescent origins, give rise to the PL spectrum. Through either thermal activation or diffusive transfer, excited carriers are moved to each of the electronic band structures.

  7. Automation and results of Adjacent Band Emission testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Problem Statement : Multiple groups conduct tests in various ways - Outcomes vary based on test setup and assumptions - No standard has been established to conduct such tests - Spectrum is scarce and the need for compliance testing will only increase...

  8. 47 CFR 15.250 - Operation of wideband systems within the band 5925-7250 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of wideband systems within the band 5925-7250 MHz. (a) The −10 dB bandwidth of a device operating... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of wideband systems within the band... variations in temperature and supply voltage. (b) The −10 dB bandwidth of the fundamental emission shall be...

  9. High gain L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier with two-stage ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stage erbium-doped fiber amplifier; amplified spontaneous emission. Abstract. An experiment on gain enhancement in the long wavelength band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (L-band EDFA) is demonstrated using dual forward pumping scheme ...

  10. Infrared emission from supernova condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwek, E.; Werner, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    We examine the possibility of detecting grains formed in supernovae by observations of their emission in the infrared. The basic processes determining the temperature and infrared radiation of grains in supernovae environments are analyzed, and the results are used to estimate the infrared emission from the highly metal enriched ''fast moving knots'' in Cas A. The predicted fluxes lie within the reach of current ground-based facilities at 10 μm, and their emission should be detectable throughout the infrared band with cryogenic space telescopes

  11. Report from the banding lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautin, J.

    1995-01-01

    Mr. Tautin reported on the seemingly everchanging structure of biological science units within the Interior Department. Current Congressional proposals would either change the name of the Bird Banding Lab's parent agency or make it part of the Geological Survey. The current Congress has not looked favorably on science budgets within the Interior Department, and the Banding Lab's budget is being squeezed ever tighter.

  12. Dual-band infrared camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, H.; Schlemmer, H.

    2005-10-01

    Every year, numerous accidents happen on European roads due to bad visibility (fog, night, heavy rain). Similarly, the dramatic aviation accidents of year 2001 in Milan and Zurich have reminded us that aviation safety is equally affected by reduced visibility. A dual-band thermal imager was developed in order to raise human situation awareness under conditions of reduced visibility especially in the automotive and aeronautical context but also for all transportation or surveillance tasks. The chosen wavelength bands are the Short Wave Infrared SWIR and the Long Wave Infrared LWIR band which are less obscured by reduced visibility conditions than the visible band. Furthermore, our field tests clearly show that the two different spectral bands very often contain complementary information. Pyramidal fusion is used to integrate complementary and redundant features of the multi-spectral images into a fused image which can be displayed on a monitor to provide more and better information for the driver or pilot.

  13. Development of a Control Banding Tool for Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riediker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Control banding (CB can be a useful tool for managing the potential risks of nanomaterials. The here proposed CB, which should be part of an overall risk control strategy, groups materials by hazard and emission potential. The resulting decision matrix proposes control bands adapted to the risk potential levels and helps define an action plan. If this plan is not practical and financially feasible, a full risk assessment is launched. The hazard banding combines key concepts of nanomaterial toxicology: translocation across biological barriers, fibrous nature, solubility, and reactivity. Already existing classifications specific to the nanomaterial can be used “as is.” Otherwise, the toxicity of bulk or analogous substances gives an initial hazard band, which is increased if the substance is not easily soluble or if it has a higher reactivity than the substance. The emission potential bands are defined by the nanomaterials' physical form and process characteristics. Quantities, frequencies, and existing control measures are taken into account during the definition of the action plan. Control strategies range from room ventilation to full containment with expert advice. This CB approach, once validated, can be easily embedded in risk management systems. It allows integrating new toxicity data and needs no exposure data.

  14. Measurement of valence band structure in arbitrary dielectric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Choi, Eun H.

    2012-01-01

    A new way of measuring the band structure of various dielectric materials using the secondary electron emission from Auger neutralization of ions is introduced. The first example of this measurement scheme is the magnesium oxide (MgO) films with respect to the application of the films in the display industries. The density of state in the valence bands of MgO film and MgO film with a functional layer (FL) deposited over a dielectric surface reveals that the density peak of film with a FL is considerably less than that of film, thereby indicating a better performance of MgO film with functional layer in display devices. The second example of the measurement is the boron-zinc oxide (BZO) films with respect to the application of the films to the development of solar cells. The measurement of density of state in BZO film suggests that a high concentration of boron impurity in BZO films may enhance the transition of electrons and holes through the band gap from the valence to the conduction band in zinc oxide crystals; thereby improving the conductivity of the film. Secondary electron emission by the Auger neutralization of ions is highly instrumental for the determination of the density of states in the valence band of dielectric materials.

  15. Unidentified bands lambda lambda 6830, 7088 in symbiotic stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D A [Anglo-Australian Observatory, Epping (Australia)

    1980-01-01

    About 60 stars are known which show broad emission bands centred at wavelengths of 6830 and 7088 A. The stars are all classified as symbiotic, since they combine high-excitation emission and M-type absorption spectra. From the behaviour of the bands in the evolution of slow novae as they approach the symbiotic phase, and from the occurrence of the bands in stars of different excitation, it is concluded that the ions responsible have ionization potentials near 100 eV. The similarity of behaviour and profile of the two suggests that both arise in the same species. No suitable identification appears possible at this time, because of the lack of data on highly ionized species. Arguments are presented which narrow the range of possibilities, the most notable argument being the absence of O VI emission. It is suggested that Fe VII or Fe VI may be responsible. In particular, it is recommended that transitions from the z/sup 3/P/sup 0/ and z/sup 1/F/sup 0/ levels of Fe VII be examined in detail. The differing, and time-varying profiles of the 6830 and 7088 bands in the stars observed are best explained in terms of velocity broadening. Velocities in excess of 1000 km s/sup -1/ are present. Rotation is a more credible form of the mass motion than expansion, because of the tendency to double profiles in these bands. If rotation is responsible, these velocities imply that the objects central to the emission nebulae are more compact than main sequence stars.

  16. SINGLE-BAND, TRIPLE-BAND, OR MULTIPLE-BAND HUBBARD MODELS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ESKES, H; SAWATZKY, GA

    1991-01-01

    The relevance of different models, such as the one-band t-J model and the three-band Emery model, as a realistic description of the electronic structure of high-T(c) materials is discussed. Starting from a multiband approach using cluster calculations and an impurity approach, the following

  17. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  18. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  19. Emission inventory; Inventaire des emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontelle, J.P. [CITEPA, Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d`Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    Statistics on air pollutant (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and ammonium) emissions, acid equivalent emissions and their evolution since 1990 in the various countries of Europe and the USA, are presented. Emission data from the industrial, agricultural, transportation and power sectors are given, and comparisons are carried out between countries based on Gnp and population, pollution import/export fluxes and compliance to the previous emission reduction objectives

  20. Determination of temperature dependent parameters of zero-phonon line in photo-luminescence spectrum of silicon-vacancy centre in CVD diamond thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dragounová, Kateřina; Potůček, Z.; Potocký, Štěpán; Bryknar, Z.; Kromka, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2017), s. 74-78 ISSN 1335-3632 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04790S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon-vacancy centres * photoluminescence * low temperature * diamond * CVD Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.483, year: 2016

  1. The cyanogen band of Comet Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, J. B.; Campbell, E. C.

    The results of improved whole disk solar irradiance spectrum calculations performed for projected Halley's Comet heliocentric radial velocity and distance are provided. The computations were carried out to account for Doppler effects in the Fraunhofer lines of rotational excitation bands of violet CN emissions from the comet in its encounters with solar radiation. The calculations spanned every half-day for 200 days before and after perihelion. The 801 computer images of the expected intensities were photographed in sequence to form an animated film paced by background music from Liszt's Second Hungarian Rhapsody. The results are intended for accounting for spectral changes observed due to Doppler effects induced by changing velocity and distance, rather than physical mechanisms of the emitting processes.

  2. Rocket-borne EUV-visible emission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidtke, G.; Baker, K.D.; Stasek, G.

    1982-01-01

    Two rocket-borne experiments for measuring EUV atmospheric emissions have been conducted. The first measured emissions at 391.4 nm and 557.7 nm, and the second measured emissions in the range from 50 to 650 nm. Height profiles of selected auroral emissions from atomic oxygen at 130.4 nm (exhibiting resonant radiation diffusion) and from atomic oxygen at 557.7 nm, and from neutral and ionized molecular nitrogen are shown. Some details of the recorded spectra are given. In the shorter wavelength regions, emissions from atomic oxygen and nitrogen dominate. Over 140 nm, Lyman-Birge-Hopfield bands, second positive bands and Vegard-Kaplan bands of molecular nitrogen contribute most strongly except for some atomic lines. The Lyman-Birge-Hopfield bands of molecular nitrogen are relatively weak during the auroral arc as compared to the diffuse aurora

  3. The 3 micron ice band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, J.M.; Bult, C.E.P.M. van de

    1984-01-01

    Ever since it was proposed that H 2 O could be a dominant constituent of interstellar grains, its detection, or lack thereof, has played a large role in theories of grains and their evolution. It now appears possible to provide a basic theoretical structure for the evolution of grains in molecular clouds based on current observational evidence and laboratory experiments on the ice band. Both band strengths and shapes can be reasonably predicted by grain models. (U.K.)

  4. Superdeformed bands in 130Ce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, E.S.; Semple, A.T.; Boston, A.J.; Joss, D.T.; Nolan, P.J.; Shepherd, S.L.

    1997-01-01

    Four superdeformed bands have been assigned to 130 Ce following a high-statistics γ-ray study using the EUROGAM II spectrometer. The strongest band exhibits two distinct backbends which, in one scenario, may be interpreted as crossings between high-j N = 6 neutron orbitals (νi 13/2 ) and low-j N = 4 orbitals (νd 3/2 ) in an unpaired system. (author)

  5. Dipole Bands in 196Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrie, J. J.; Lawrie, E. A.; Newman, R. T.; Sharpey-Schafer, J. F.; Smit, F. D.; Msezane, B.; Benatar, M.; Mabala, G. K.; Mutshena, K. P.; Federke, M.; Mullins, S. M.; Ncapayi, N. J.; Vymers, P.

    2011-01-01

    High spin states in 196 Hg have been populated in the 198 Pt(α,6n) reaction at 65 MeV and the level scheme has been extended. A new dipole band has been observed and a previously observed dipole has been confirmed. Excitation energies, spins and parities of these bands were determined from DCO ratio and linear polarization measurements. Possible quasiparticle excitations responsible for these structures are discussed.

  6. Band-gap measurements of bulk and nanoscale hematite by soft x-ray spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, B.; Frandsen, Cathrine; Maxey, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and photochemical processes at semiconductor surfaces are highly influenced by the size of the band gap, and ability to control the band gap by particle size in nanomaterials is part of their promise. The combination of soft x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies provides band......-gap determination in bulk and nanoscale itinerant electron semiconductors such as CdS and ZnO, but this approach has not been established for materials such as iron oxides that possess band-edge electronic structure dominated by electron correlations. We performed soft x-ray spectroscopy at the oxygen K...

  7. Band gap narrowing and fluorescence properties of nickel doped SnO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Arham S.; Shafeeq, M. Muhamed; Singla, M.L.; Tabassum, Sartaj; Naqvi, Alim H.; Azam, Ameer

    2011-01-01

    Nickel-doped tin oxide nanoparticles (sub-5 nm size) with intense fluorescence emission behavior have been synthesized by sol-gel route. The structural and compositional analysis has been carried out by using XRD, TEM, FESEM and EDAX. The optical absorbance spectra indicate a band gap narrowing effect and it was found to increase with the increase in nickel concentration. The band gap narrowing at low dopant concentration ( 2 -SnO 2-x alloying effect and for higher doping it may be due to the formation of defect sub-bands below the conduction band.

  8. Band gap narrowing and fluorescence properties of nickel doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Arham S; Shafeeq, M Muhamed [Centre of Excellence in Materials Science (Nanomaterials), Department of Applied Physics, Z. H. College of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002 (India); Singla, M L [Central Scientific Instruments Organization (CSIO), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Materials Research and Bio-Nanotechnology Division, Sector - 30/C, Chandigarh-160030 (India); Tabassum, Sartaj [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002 (India); Naqvi, Alim H [Centre of Excellence in Materials Science (Nanomaterials), Department of Applied Physics, Z. H. College of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002 (India); Azam, Ameer [Centre of Excellence in Materials Science (Nanomaterials), Department of Applied Physics, Z. H. College of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002 (India)

    2011-01-15

    Nickel-doped tin oxide nanoparticles (sub-5 nm size) with intense fluorescence emission behavior have been synthesized by sol-gel route. The structural and compositional analysis has been carried out by using XRD, TEM, FESEM and EDAX. The optical absorbance spectra indicate a band gap narrowing effect and it was found to increase with the increase in nickel concentration. The band gap narrowing at low dopant concentration (<5%) can be assigned to SnO{sub 2}-SnO{sub 2-x} alloying effect and for higher doping it may be due to the formation of defect sub-bands below the conduction band.

  9. Infrared radiation parameterizations for the minor CO2 bands and for several CFC bands in the window region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, David P.; Chou, Ming-Dah; Yan, Michael M.-H.

    1993-01-01

    Fast and accurate parameterizations have been developed for the transmission functions of the CO2 9.4- and 10.4-micron bands, as well as the CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-22 bands located in the 8-12-micron region. The parameterizations are based on line-by-line calculations of transmission functions for the CO2 bands and on high spectral resolution laboratory measurements of the absorption coefficients for the CFC bands. Also developed are the parameterizations for the H2O transmission functions for the corresponding spectral bands. Compared to the high-resolution calculations, fluxes at the tropopause computed with the parameterizations are accurate to within 10 percent when overlapping of gas absorptions within a band is taken into account. For individual gas absorption, the accuracy is of order 0-2 percent. The climatic effects of these trace gases have been studied using a zonally averaged multilayer energy balance model, which includes seasonal cycles and a simplified deep ocean. With the trace gas abundances taken to follow the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Low Emissions 'B' scenario, the transient response of the surface temperature is simulated for the period 1900-2060.

  10. Transient Infrared Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roger W.; McClelland, John F.

    1989-12-01

    Transient Infrared Emission Spectroscopy (TIRES) is a new technique that reduces the occurrence of self-absorption in optically thick solid samples so that analytically useful emission spectra may be observed. Conventional emission spectroscopy, in which the sample is held at an elevated, uniform temperature, is practical only for optically thin samples. In thick samples the emission from deep layers of the material is partially absorbed by overlying layers.1 This self-absorption results in emission spectra from most optically thick samples that closely resemble black-body spectra. The characteristic discrete emission bands are severely truncated and altered in shape. TIRES bypasses this difficulty by using a laser to heat only an optically thin surface layer. The increased temperature of the layer is transient since the layer will rapidly cool and thicken by thermal diffusion; hence the emission collection must be correlated with the laser heating. TIRES may be done with both pulsed and cw lasers.2,3 When a pulsed laser is used, the spectrometer sampling must be synchronized with the laser pulsing so that only emission during and immediately after each laser pulse is observed.3 If a cw laser is used, the sample must move rapidly through the beam. The hot, transient layer is then in the beam track on the sample at and immediately behind the beam position, so the spectrometer field of view must be limited to this region near the beam position.2 How much self-absorption the observed emission suffers depends on how thick the heated layer has grown by thermal diffusion when the spectrometer samples the emission. Use of a pulsed laser synchronized with the spectrometer sampling readily permits reduction of the time available for heat diffusion to about 100 acs .3 When a cw laser is used, the heat-diffusion time is controlled by how small the spectrometer field of view is and by how rapidly the sample moves past within this field. Both a very small field of view and a

  11. Optimum design of band-gap beam structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olhoff, Niels; Niu, Bin; Cheng, Gengdong

    2012-01-01

    The design of band-gap structures receives increasing attention for many applications in mitigation of undesirable vibration and noise emission levels. A band-gap structure usually consists of a periodic distribution of elastic materials or segments, where the propagation of waves is impeded...... or significantly suppressed for a range of external excitation frequencies. Maximization of the band-gap is therefore an obvious objective for optimum design. This problem is sometimes formulated by optimizing a parameterized design model which assumes multiple periodicity in the design. However, it is shown...... in the present paper that such an a priori assumption is not necessary since, in general, just the maximization of the gap between two consecutive natural frequencies leads to significant design periodicity. The aim of this paper is to maximize frequency gaps by shape optimization of transversely vibrating...

  12. Spectroscopic analysis of coal plasma emission produced by laser ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Vera-Londoño, Liliana Patricia; Pérez-Taborda, Jaime Andrés; Riascos-Landázuri, Henry

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of plasma produced by laser ablation using 1,064 nm of laser radiation from a Q-switched Nd:YAG on coal mineral samples under air ambient, was performed. The emission of molecular band systems such as C2 Swan System , the First Negative System N2 (Band head at 501.53 nm) and different emission lines were investigated using the optical emission spectroscopy technique. The C2 molecular spectra (Swan band) were analyzed to determine vibrational temperature (0.62 eV). The density and ...

  13. Nonlinear Bloch waves in metallic photonic band-gap filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaso, Artan; John, Sajeev

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate the occurrence of nonlinear Bloch waves in metallic photonic crystals (PCs). These periodically structured filaments are characterized by an isolated optical pass band below an effective plasma gap. The pass band occurs in a frequency range where the metallic filament exhibits a negative, frequency-dependent dielectric function and absorption loss. The metallic losses are counterbalanced by gain in two models of inhomogeneously broadened nonlinear oscillators. In the first model, we consider close-packed quantum dots that fill the void regions of a two-dimensional (2D) metallic PC, and whose inhomogeneously broadened emission spectrum spans the original optical pass band of the bare filament. In the second model, we consider thin (10-50 nm) layers of inhomogeneously broadened two-level resonators, with large dipole oscillator strength, that cover the interior surfaces of 2D metallic (silver and tungsten) PCs. These may arise from localized surface plasmon resonances due to small metal particles or an otherwise rough metal surface. For simplicity, we treat electromagnetic modes with electric field perpendicular to the plane of metal periodicity. In both models, a pumping threshold of the resonators is found, above which periodic nonlinear solutions of Maxwell's equations with purely real frequency within the optical pass band emerge. These nonlinear Bloch waves exhibit a laserlike input pumping to output amplitude characteristic. For strong surface resonances, these nonlinear waves may play a role in light emission from a hot tungsten (suitably microstructured) filament

  14. Nonlinear Bloch waves in metallic photonic band-gap filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaso, Artan; John, Sajeev

    2007-11-01

    We demonstrate the occurrence of nonlinear Bloch waves in metallic photonic crystals (PCs). These periodically structured filaments are characterized by an isolated optical pass band below an effective plasma gap. The pass band occurs in a frequency range where the metallic filament exhibits a negative, frequency-dependent dielectric function and absorption loss. The metallic losses are counterbalanced by gain in two models of inhomogeneously broadened nonlinear oscillators. In the first model, we consider close-packed quantum dots that fill the void regions of a two-dimensional (2D) metallic PC, and whose inhomogeneously broadened emission spectrum spans the original optical pass band of the bare filament. In the second model, we consider thin (10 50 nm) layers of inhomogeneously broadened two-level resonators, with large dipole oscillator strength, that cover the interior surfaces of 2D metallic (silver and tungsten) PCs. These may arise from localized surface plasmon resonances due to small metal particles or an otherwise rough metal surface. For simplicity, we treat electromagnetic modes with electric field perpendicular to the plane of metal periodicity. In both models, a pumping threshold of the resonators is found, above which periodic nonlinear solutions of Maxwell’s equations with purely real frequency within the optical pass band emerge. These nonlinear Bloch waves exhibit a laserlike input pumping to output amplitude characteristic. For strong surface resonances, these nonlinear waves may play a role in light emission from a hot tungsten (suitably microstructured) filament.

  15. Single-Band and Dual-Band Infrared Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor); Nguyen, Jean (Inventor); Khoshakhlagh, Arezou (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Bias-switchable dual-band infrared detectors and methods of manufacturing such detectors are provided. The infrared detectors are based on a back-to-back heterojunction diode design, where the detector structure consists of, sequentially, a top contact layer, a unipolar hole barrier layer, an absorber layer, a unipolar electron barrier, a second absorber, a second unipolar hole barrier, and a bottom contact layer. In addition, by substantially reducing the width of one of the absorber layers, a single-band infrared detector can also be formed.

  16. Adhesives for fixed orthodontic bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Declan T; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Mattick, Rye Cr; Hickman, Joy; Mandall, Nicky A

    2016-10-25

    Orthodontic treatment involves using fixed or removable appliances (dental braces) to correct the positions of teeth. It has been shown that the quality of treatment result obtained with fixed appliances is much better than with removable appliances. Fixed appliances are, therefore, favoured by most orthodontists for treatment. The success of a fixed orthodontic appliance depends on the metal attachments (brackets and bands) being attached securely to the teeth so that they do not become loose during treatment. Brackets are usually attached to the front and side teeth, whereas bands (metal rings that go round the teeth) are more commonly used on the back teeth (molars). A number of adhesives are available to attach bands to teeth and it is important to understand which group of adhesives bond most reliably, as well as reducing or preventing dental decay during the treatment period. To evaluate the effectiveness of the adhesives used to attach bands to teeth during fixed appliance treatment, in terms of:(1) how often the bands come off during treatment; and(2) whether they protect the banded teeth against decay during fixed appliance treatment. The following electronic databases were searched: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (searched 2 June 2016), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 5) in the Cochrane Library (searched 2 June 2016), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 2 June 2016) and EMBASE Ovid (1980 to 2 June 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised and controlled clinical trials (RCTs and CCTs) (including split-mouth studies) of adhesives used to attach orthodontic bands to molar teeth were selected. Patients with full arch fixed orthodontic appliance(s) who had bands attached to molars were included. All review authors

  17. Investigation into some regularities in acoustic emission during deformation of the 16 GNMA steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelyshev, N.A.; Chervov, G.A.; Petrov, V.I.; Yakovenko, V.S.; Kazakov, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    A device with variable band of transmission and regulated width of emission band (3-20 kHz) is the most optimal variant of acoustic emission recorder. Change of signal registration frequency of acoustic emission results in change of both qualitative and quantitative peculiarities of summary emission during deformation. A zone of elastic deformation transition to elastic-plastic for the given steel is well marked out according to the data of summary acoustic emission and intensity of signals. Application of devices with variable registration frequency requires usage of wide-band transformers [ru

  18. Single photon infrared emission spectroscopy: a study of IR emission from UV laser excited PAHs between 3 and 15 micrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D. J.; Schlemmer, S.; Balucani, N.; Wagner, D. R.; Harrison, J. A.; Steiner, B.; Saykally, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    Single-photon infrared emission spectroscopy (SPIRES) has been used to measure emission spectra from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A supersonic free-jet expansion has been used to provide emission spectra of rotationally cold and vibrationally excited naphthalene and benzene. Under these conditions, the observed width of the 3.3-micrometers (C-H stretch) band resembles the bandwidths observed in experiments in which emission is observed from naphthalene with higher rotational energy. To obtain complete coverage of IR wavelengths relevant to the unidentified infrared bands (UIRs), UV laser-induced desorption was used to generate gas-phase highly excited PAHs. Lorentzian band shapes were convoluted with the monochromator-slit function in order to determine the widths of PAH emission bands under astrophysically relevant conditions. Bandwidths were also extracted from bands consisting of multiple normal modes blended together. These parameters are grouped according to the functional groups mostly involved in the vibration, and mean bandwidths are obtained. These bandwidths are larger than the widths of the corresponding UIR bands. However, when the comparison is limited to the largest PAHs studied, the bandwidths are slightly smaller than the corresponding UIR bands. These parameters can be used to model emission spectra from PAH cations and cations of larger PAHs, which are better candidate carriers of the UIRs.

  19. Design and analysis of X-band femtosecond linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesaka, M; Kozawa, T; Takeshita, A; Kobayashi, T; Ueda, T; Miya, K [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.

    1997-03-01

    Femtosecond quantum phenomena research project is proposed at Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo. The research facility consists of an X-band (11.424GHz) femtosecond electron linac, a femtosecond wavelength tunable laser, two S-band (2.856GHz) picosecond electron linacs and measuring equipments. Especially, we aim to generate a 100 fs (FWHM) electron single bunch with more than 1 nC at the X-band femtosecond linac. Ultrafast processes in radiation physics, chemistry, material science and microscopic electromagnetic phenomena are going to be analyzed there. Here the design and analysis of an X-band femtosecond linac is presented. The simulation of electron dynamics is carried out including magnetic pulse compression by using PARMELA and SUPERFISH. It is found by the simulation that the 600 ps (tail-to-tail) electron emission from a 200 kV thermionic gun can be bunched and compressed to 110 fs (FWHM) with the charge of 0.8 nC which gives 7.3 kA. We plan to use one high power X-band klystron which can supply 60 MW with more than 200 ns pulse duration. The flatness of plateau of the pulse should be 0.2% for stable ultrashort bunch generation. (author)

  20. Thermal evolution of the band edges of 6H-SiC: X-ray methods compared to the optical band gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miedema, P.S.; Beye, M.; Könnecke, R.; Schiwietz, G.; Föhlisch, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Conduction band minima (CBM) of 6H-SiC are estimated with Si 2p XAS. • Valence band maxima (VBM) of 6H-SiC are estimated with non-resonant Si 2p XES. • Temperature-dependent VBM and CBM of 6H-SiC show asymmetric band gap closing. • XAS, XES and RIXS band gap estimates are compared with the optical band gap. • XAS + XES versus optical band gap provides core-excitonic screening energies. - Abstract: The band gap of semiconductors like silicon and silicon carbide (SiC) is the key for their device properties. In this research, the band gap of 6H-SiC and its temperature dependence were analyzed with silicon 2p X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) allowing for a separate analysis of the conduction-band minimum (CBM) and valence-band maximum (VBM) components of the band gap. The temperature-dependent asymmetric band gap shrinking of 6H-SiC was determined with a valence-band slope of +2.45 × 10 −4 eV/K and a conduction-band slope of −1.334 × 10 −4 eV/K. The apparent asymmetry, e.g., that two thirds of the band-gap shrinking with increasing temperature is due to the VBM evolution in 6H-SiC, is similar to the asymmetry obtained for pure silicon before. The overall band gap temperature-dependence determined with XAS and non-resonant XES is compared to temperature-dependent optical studies. The core-excitonic binding energy appearing in the Si 2p XAS is extracted as the main difference. In addition, the energy loss of the onset of the first band in RIXS yields to values similar to the optical band gap over the tested temperature range

  1. Planck 2013 results. XIV. Zodiacal emission

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colley, J.-M.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Mottet, S.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; O'Sullivan, C.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polegre, A. M.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Smoot, G. F.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Planck satellite provides a set of all-sky maps at nine frequencies from 30 GHz to 857 GHz. Planets, minor bodies, and diffuse interplanetary dust emission (IPD) are all observed. The IPD can be separated from Galactic and other emissions because Planck views a given point on the celestial sphere multiple times, through different columns of IPD. We use the Planck data to investigate the behaviour of zodiacal emission over the whole sky at sub-millimetre and millimetre wavelengths. We fit the Planck data to find the emissivities of the various components of the COBE zodiacal model -- a diffuse cloud, three asteroidal dust bands, a circumsolar ring, and an Earth-trailing feature. The emissivity of the diffuse cloud decreases with increasing wavelength, as expected from earlier analyses. The emissivities of the dust bands, however, decrease less rapidly, indicating that the properties of the grains in the bands are different from those in the diffuse cloud. We fit the small amount of Galactic emission seen t...

  2. Electronic spectroscopy and ligand-field analysis of cis-carbonato (rac-5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) chromium(III) chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-Ha; Oh, In-Gyung; Linder, Rolf; Schoenherr, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The absorption spectra of microcrystalline salts of cis-[Cr(cycb)(O 2 CO)] + (cycb=rac-5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) have been measured between 13,000 and 50,000 cm -1 at temperatures down to 2 K. The vibrational intervals of the electronic ground state were extracted by recording emission and far-IR spectra. The zero-phonon line in the sharp-line absorption spectrum splits into two components by 144 cm -1 . The nine electronic bands due to spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions were assigned. Using the observed transitions, a ligand-field analysis has been performed to probe the ligand-field properties of carbonato group in the chromium(III) complex. It is found that the carbonato oxygen has moderately strong σ- and π-donor properties toward chromium(III) ion

  3. 47 CFR 90.531 - Band plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Band plan. 90.531 Section 90.531...-805 MHz Bands § 90.531 Band plan. This section sets forth the band plan for the 763-775 MHz and 793... and portables subject to Commission-approved regional planning committee regional plans. Transmitter...

  4. Metaphyseal bands in osteogenesis imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta are undergoing pamidronate therapy to prevent the incidence of fragility fractures. The authors herein report a child aged 3 years who received five cycles of pamidronate, resulting in metaphyseal bands, known as "zebra lines."

  5. Metaphyseal bands in osteogenesis imperfecta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, SS; Thomas, John K

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta are undergoing pamidronate therapy to prevent the incidence of fragility fractures. The authors herein report a child aged 3 years who received five cycles of pamidronate, resulting in metaphyseal bands, known as “zebra lines.”

  6. The X-ray emission spectrum of gaseous acetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, R.; Rubensson, J.E.; Wassdahl, N.; Nordgren, J.

    1987-01-01

    The X-ray emission spectrum of acetylene in the gas phase has been recorded using a 10 m grazing incidence spectrometer. Analysis of the spectrum is made based on calculations of total energies, potential curves and Franck-Condon vibrational intensities. Four emission bands are seen with the 1 π u band exhibiting vibrational structure. Analysis of the vibrations gives the CIs ionization energy. High energy satellite structure is observed and interpreted. (orig.)

  7. Selective laser spectroscopy of molecules and ions in solids: a history, fundamentals and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikov, Michael

    2018-03-01

    A history of the development of selective laser spectroscopy is presented, beginning with a pioneering work by Yu. V. Denisov and V. A. Kizel in 1967, who were the first to demonstrate the possibility of removing the inhomogeneous broadening of luminescence spectra of impurity ions in glasses upon monochromatic resonance excitation. Selective excitation of optical centers can be achieved due to existence of zero-phonon transitions corresponding to narrow homogeneous zero-phonon lines in the spectra of impurity centers in solids, which are hidden in broad inhomogeneous optical bands upon usual nonselective excitation. The fundamentals of zero-phonon transition spectroscopy are considered and the mechanism of removing the inhomogeneous broadening of optical spectra of ions and molecules in crystals and amorphous solids under selective laser excitation of luminescence and persistent hole burning in absorption spectra is presented in detail. Various applications of selective laser spectroscopy for fundamental and applied studies are discussed.

  8. X-ray-emission studies of chemical bonding in transition-metal silicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, P.J.W.; Leuken, H. van; Groot, R.A. de; Fuggle, J.C.; Reiter, S.; Wiech, G.; Buschow, K.H.J.

    1991-01-01

    We present Si L2,3 emission-band spectra of a series of 3d and 4d transition-metal (TM) silicides, together wtih Si K emission-band spectra of four 3d TM disilicides. The data are compared with augmented-spherical-wave density-of-states (DOS) calculations, and good agreement is found. The trends we

  9. Exciplex emission from amphiphilic polysilanes bearing ammonium moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaki, T.; Nakashiba, Y.; Asai, K.; Ishigure, K.; Shibata, H.

    1997-01-01

    We were the first to observe two emission bands in the visible region for some kinds of ammonium-type amphiphilic polysilanes both in solutions and in thin films. One, a broad emission band at 400-500 nm not due to a σ * →σ transition, was observed only for methylphenylsilane-based polymer solutions. The appearance of this low-energy emission is reasonably explained by considering the intramolecular exciplex formation between a Si-conjugated main chain and an ammonium site in the same monomer unit. The other, an emission band at the longer wavelength (around 560 nm), was found in the solvent-cast films where each molecule is randomly located, in addition to that observed for the solutions. This emission, which was not observed for the oriented LB films, is considered to originate from an intermolecular interaction. (orig.)

  10. Entrance-channel effects in the population of superdeformed bands in sup 147,148 Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flibotte, S.; Andrews, H.R.; Drake, T.E.; Galindro-Uribarri, A.; Haas, B.; Janzen, V.P.; Prevost, D.; Radford, D.C.; Rodriguez, J.; Romain, P.; Vivien, J.P.; Waddington, J.C.; Ward, D.; Zwartz, G. (Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, F-67037 Strasbourg CEDEX (France) AECL Research, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada) Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 (Canada) Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada))

    1992-03-01

    Discrete superdeformed bands in {sup 147,148}Gd have been populated with asymmetric and symmetric fusion-evaporation reactions. The yields of the superdeformed bands compared with the total yield of the channel exhibit a large increase for symmetric reactions. We suggest an explanation for this effect in terms of the competition between neutron emission and fission at the early stage of the deexcitation process of the composite system.

  11. Entrance-channel effects in the population of superdeformed bands in 147,148Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flibotte, S.; Andrews, H.R.; Drake, T.E.; Galindro-Uribarri, A.; Haas, B.; Janzen, V.P.; Prevost, D.; Radford, D.C.; Rodriguez, J.; Romain, P.; Vivien, J.P.; Waddington, J.C.; Ward, D.; Zwartz, G.

    1992-01-01

    Discrete superdeformed bands in 147,148 Gd have been populated with asymmetric and symmetric fusion-evaporation reactions. The yields of the superdeformed bands compared with the total yield of the channel exhibit a large increase for symmetric reactions. We suggest an explanation for this effect in terms of the competition between neutron emission and fission at the early stage of the deexcitation process of the composite system

  12. Identical and shifted identical bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodder, R.S; Jones, E.F.; Hamilton, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous fission of 252 Cm was studied with 72 large Compton suppressed Ge detectors in Gamma sphere. New isotopes 160 Sm and 162 Gd were identified. Through X-ray-γ and γ-γ-γ) coincidence measurements, level energies were established to spins 14 + to 20 + in 152 , 154 156 60 Nd 92 94 96 , 156 , 158 , 160 62 Sm 94 , 96 , 98 , and 160 , 162 64 Gd 96 , 98 . These nuclei exhibit a remarkable variety of identical bands and bands where the energies and moments of inertia are shifted by the same constant amount for every spin state from 2 + to 12 + for various combinations of nuclei differing by 2n, 4n, 2p, 4p, and α

  13. Photonic band gap materials: design, synthesis, and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, S.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Unlike semiconductors which facilitate the coherent propagation of electrons, photonic band gap (PBG) materials execute their novel functions through the coherent localization of photons. I review and discuss our recent synthesis of a large scale three-dimensional silicon photonic crystal with a complete photonic band gap near 1.5 microns. When a PBG material is doped with impurity atoms which have an electronic transition that lies within the gap, spontaneous emission of light from the atom is inhibited. Inside the gap, the photon forms a bound state to the atom. Outside the gap, radiative dynamics in the colored vacuum is highly non Markovian. I discuss the influence of these memory effects on laser action. When spontaneous emission is absent, the next order radiative effect (resonance dipole dipole interaction between atoms) must be incorporated leading to anomalous nonlinear optical effects which occur at a much lower threshold than in ordinary vacuum. I describe the collective switching of two-level atoms near a photonic band edge, by external laser field, from a passive state to one exhibiting population inversion. This effect is forbidden in ordinary vacuum. However, in the context of a PBG material, this effect may be utilized for an all-optical transistor. Finally, I discuss the prospects for a phase sensitive, single atom quantum memory device, onto which information may be written by an external laser pulse

  14. NCenter wide band neutrino beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutte, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    This memo describes the physical properties of the currently operating N-Center wide band neutrino beam---commonly called the triplet train, following a past tradition of a triplet lens configuration. In reality, in order to gain a larger momentum acceptance and to minimize the angular divergence of the beam, a quadruplet beam (4 lenses) employing point-to-parallel optics at a central momentum of 300 GeV was built. 6 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  15. [Gastric band erosion: Alternative management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echaverry-Navarrete, Denis José; Maldonado-Vázquez, Angélica; Cortes-Romano, Pablo; Cabrera-Jardines, Ricardo; Mondragón-Pinzón, Erwin Eduardo; Castillo-González, Federico Armando

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a public health problem, for which the prevalence has increased worldwide at an alarming rate, affecting 1.7 billion people in the world. To describe the technique employed in incomplete penetration of gastric band where endoscopic management and/or primary closure is not feasible. Laparoscopic removal of gastric band was performed in five patients with incomplete penetrance using Foley catheterization in the perforation site that could lead to the development of a gastro-cutaneous fistula. The cases presented include a leak that required surgical lavage with satisfactory outcome, and one patient developed stenosis 3 years after surgical management, which was resolved endoscopically. In all cases, the penetration site closed spontaneously. Gastric band erosion has been reported in 3.4% of cases. The reason for inserting a catheter is to create a controlled gastro-cutaneous fistula, allowing spontaneous closure. Various techniques have been described: the totally endoscopic, hybrid techniques (endoscopic/laparoscopic) and completely laparoscopic. A technique is described here that is useful and successful in cases where the above-described treatments are not viable. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  16. Image plane detector spectrophotometer - Application to O2 atmospheric band nightglow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mingzhao; Yee, Jeng-Hwa; Hays, Paul B.

    1988-01-01

    A new variety of low resolution spectrometer is described. This device, an image plane detector spectrophotometer, has high sensitivity and modest resolution sufficient to determine the rotational temperature and brightness of molecular band emissions. It uses an interference filter as a dispersive element and a multichannel image plane detector as the photon collecting device. The data analysis technqiue used to recover the temperature of the emitter and the emission brightness is presented. The atmospheric band of molecular oxygen is used to illustrate the use of the device.

  17. Observations of 40-70 micron bands of ice in IRAS 09371 + 1212 and other stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omont, A.; Forveille, T.; Moseley, S. H.; Glaccum, W. J.; Harvey, P. M.; Likkel, L.; Loewenstein, R. F.; Lisse, C. M.

    1990-01-01

    IRAS 09371 + 1212 is still an absolutely unique object. This M giant star, with circumstellar CO and a spectacular bipolar nebula, displays unique IRAS FIR colors which had been attributed to strong emission in the 40-70-micron bands of ice, as subsequently supported by the observation of a strong 3.1-micron absorption band. The results of the KAO observations have confirmed its unusual nature: the far-infrared bands of ice are by far the strongest known. Its dust temperature, 50 K or less, is by far the lowest known for a late-type circumstellar envelope.

  18. Study of III-V semiconductor band structure by synchrotron photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.P.; Cerrina, F.; Anderson, J.; Lapeyre, G.J.; Smith, R.J.; Hermanson, J.; Knapp, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Angle-resolved synchrotron photoemission studies of six III-V semiconductors have been carried out. For emission normal to the (110) plane of these materials, peaks in the experimental spectra were identified with the bands involved in the transitions, and the critical point energies X 3 , X 5 , and Σ 1 /sup min/, were determined. The data indicate that k perpendicular is conserved in the transitions. Comparison of the data with theoretical bands permits an evaluation of k perpendicular associated with the experimentally observed transition, and from this information the bands were plotted out

  19. More on Estimation of Banded and Banded Toeplitz Covariance Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Berntsson, Fredrik; Ohlson, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we consider two different linear covariance structures, e.g., banded and bended Toeplitz, and how to estimate them using different methods, e.g., by minimizing different norms. One way to estimate the parameters in a linear covariance structure is to use tapering, which has been shown to be the solution to a universal least squares problem. We know that tapering not always guarantee the positive definite constraints on the estimated covariance matrix and may not be a suitable me...

  20. Characterising and modelling extended conducted electromagnetic emission

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, Inus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available , such as common mode and differential mode separation, calibrated with an EMC ETS-Lindgren current probe. Good and workable model accuracies were achieved with the basic Step-Up and Step-Down circuits over the conducted emission frequency band and beyond...

  1. Acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straus, A.; Lopez Pumarega, M.I.; Di Gaetano, J.O.; D'Atellis, C.E.; Ruzzante, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is related to our activities on acoustic emission (A.E.). The work is made with different materials: metals and fibre reinforced plastics. At present, acoustic emission transducers are being developed for low and high temperature. A test to detect electrical discharges in electrical transformers was performed. Our experience in industrial tests to detect cracks or failures in tanks or tubes is also described. The use of A.E. for leak detection is considered. Works on pattern recognition of A.E. signals are also being performed. (Author)

  2. High macro rubber band ligature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Reis Neto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of a rubber band ligature is to promote fibrosis of the submucosa with subsequent fixation of the anal epithelium to the underlying sphincter. Following this principle, a new technique of ligature was developed based on two aspects: 1. macro banding: to have a better fibrosis and fixation by banding a bigger volume of mucosa and 2. higher ligature: to have this fixation at the origin of the hemorrhoidal cushion displacement. Methods: 1634 patients with internal hemorrhoidal disease grade II or III were treated by the technique called high macro rubber band. There was no distinction as to age, gender or race. To perform this technique a new hemorrhoidal device was specially designed with a larger diameter and a bigger capacity for mucosal volume aspiration. It is recommended to utilize a longer and wider anoscope to obtain a better view of the anal canal, which will facilitate the injection of submucosa higher in the anal canal and the insertion of the rubber band device. The hemorrhoidal cushion must be banded higher in the anal canal (4 cm above the pectinate line. It is preferable to treat all the hemorrhoids in one single session (maximum of three areas banded. Results: The analysis was retrospective without any comparison with conventional banding. The period of evaluation extended from one to twelve years. The analysis of the results showed perianal edema in 1.6% of the patients, immediate tenesmus in 0.8%, intense pain (need for parenteral analgesia in 1.6%, urinary retention in 0.1% of the patients and a symptomatic recurrence rate of 4.2%. All patients with symptomatic recurrence were treated with a new session of macro rubber banding. None of the patients developed anal or rectal sepsis. Small post-ligature bleeding was observed only in 0.8% of the patients. Conclusions: The high macro rubber banding technique represents an alternative method for the treatment of hemorrhoidal disease grades II or III, with good

  3. Multiflash whistlers in ELF-band observed at low latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiflash whistler-like event in the ELF-band, observed during March 1998 at low latitude station Jammu, is reported. The most prominent feature of these events is the multiflash nature along with the decrease in frequency within a very short span of time resembling similar to terrestrial whistlers. The events have a significantly smaller time duration (0.5–3.5 s than those reported earlier from high, mid and low latitudes and also display a diurnal maximum occurring around 09:30 h (IST. There have been similar reportings from other latitudes, but whistlers in the ELF-band with a multiflash nature along with a precursor emission have never been reported. Lightning seems to be the dominant source for the ELF whistlers reported here.

  4. Band Subset Selection for Hyperspectral Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a new approach to band subset selection (BSS for hyperspectral image classification (HSIC which selects multiple bands simultaneously as a band subset, referred to as simultaneous multiple band selection (SMMBS, rather than one band at a time sequentially, referred to as sequential multiple band selection (SQMBS, as most traditional band selection methods do. In doing so, a criterion is particularly developed for BSS that can be used for HSIC. It is a linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV derived from adaptive beamforming in array signal processing which can be used to model misclassification errors as the minimum variance. To avoid an exhaustive search for all possible band subsets, two numerical algorithms, referred to as sequential (SQ and successive (SC algorithms are also developed for LCMV-based SMMBS, called SQ LCMV-BSS and SC LCMV-BSS. Experimental results demonstrate that LCMV-based BSS has advantages over SQMBS.

  5. The DSS-14 C-band exciter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, D. R.

    1989-01-01

    The development and implementation of a C-band exciter for use with the Block IV Receiver-Exciter Subsystem at Deep Space Station 14 (DSS-14) has been completed. The exciter supplements the standard capabilities of the Block IV system by providing a drive signal for the C-band transmitter while generating coherent translation frequencies for C-band (5-GHz) to S-band (2.2- to 2.3-GHz) Doppler extraction, C-band to L-band (1.6-GHz) zero delay measurements, and a level calibrated L-band test signal. Exciter functions are described, and a general explanation and description of the C-band uplink controller is presented.

  6. 47 CFR 15.209 - Radiated emission limits; general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...), fundamental emissions from intentional radiators operating under this section shall not be located in the... fundamental emission. For intentional radiators which operate under the provisions of other sections within... incorporated digital device. (g) Perimeter protection systems may operate in the 54-72 MHz and 76-88 MHz bands...

  7. Study of rotational band in 111Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, S.; Banerjee, P.; Ray, I.; Kshetri, R.; Raut, R.; Goswami, A.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Bhattacharya, S.; Mukherjee, A.; Mukherjee, G.; Basu, S.K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2006-01-01

    The motivation of the present work is to study the negative-parity rotational band in 111 Sn. Study of the lifetimes of the states of the rotational band is expected to provide information on their structures as well as the band termination phenomenon

  8. Prenatal diagnosis of amniotic band syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi Devi Padmanabhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic band can cause a broad spectrum of anomalies ranging from simple band constrictions to major craniofacial and visceral defects. It can cause significant neonatal morbidity. Accurate diagnosis will help in the management of the present pregnancy and in counseling with regard to future pregnancies. Here we report three cases of amniotic band syndrome detected in the prenatal period.

  9. Complex band structure and electronic transmission eigenchannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders; Strange, Mikkel; Smidstrup, Soren

    2017-01-01

    and complex band structure, in this case individual eigenchannel transmissions and different complex bands. We present calculations of decay constants for the two most conductive states as determined by complex band structure and standard DFT Landauer transport calculations for one semi-conductor and two...

  10. High-energy band structure of gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N. Egede

    1976-01-01

    The band structure of gold for energies far above the Fermi level has been calculated using the relativistic augmented-plane-wave method. The calculated f-band edge (Γ6-) lies 15.6 eV above the Fermi level is agreement with recent photoemission work. The band model is applied to interpret...

  11. Multi-band Modelling of Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Larsen, Rasmus

    2003-01-01

    the appearance of both derived feature bands and an intensity band. As a special case of feature-band augmented appearance modelling we propose a dedicated representation with applications to face segmentation. The representation addresses a major problem within face recognition by lowering the sensitivity...

  12. Multi-band Modelling of Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Larsen, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    the appearance of both derived feature bands and an intensity band. As a special case of feature-band augmented appearance modelling we propose a dedicated representation with applications to face segmentation. The representation addresses a major problem within face recognition by lowering the sensitivity...

  13. Carbon stars with alpha-C:H emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbault, Florence; Goebel, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Many carbon stars in the IRS low resolution spectra (LRS) catalog were found which display emission spectra that compare favorable with the absorption spectrum of alpha-C:H. These stars have largely been classified as 4X in the LRS which has led to their interpretation by others in terms of displaying a mixture of the UIRF's 8.6 micron band and SiC at 11.5 microns. It was also found that many of these stars have a spectral upturn at 20+ microns which resembles the MgS band seen in carbon stars and planetary nebulae. It was concluded that this group of carbon stars will evolve into planetary nebulae like NGC 7027 and IC 418. In the presence of hard ultraviolet radiation the UIRF's will light up and be displayed as narrow emission bands on top of the broad alpha-C:H emission bands.

  14. Thermoluminescence emission spectra and optical bleaching of oligoclase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, A.J.J.; Piters, T.M.; Ypma, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) spectra of oligoclase samples have been recorded in the temperature range from 300 to 700 K and the wavelength range from 300 to 850 nm. Like other feldspars, oligoclase produces blue (peaking at 460 nm) and red (peaking at 765 nm) emission bands. The maximum of the red emission occurs 20 K lower than that of the blue band. Optical bleaching was performed at wavelengths varying from 360 to 800 nm. Bleaching of artificially irradiated oligoclase causes a decrease of the TL signal. The bleaching efficiency increases with decreasing wavelength. Bleaching does not only influence the height of the glow curve but also the shape. An interesting observation is that the ratio of the blue and red band intensities is not affected by a bleaching procedure. No evidence has been found that bleaching influences the shape of the emission spectra. The correlation between the blue and red bands is discussed. (Author)

  15. OPTICAL I-BAND LINEAR POLARIMETRY OF THE MAGNETAR 4U 0142+61 WITH SUBARU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhongxiang; Tziamtzis, Anestis [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Kawabata, Koji S. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Wang, Chen [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, A20 Datun Road, Beijing 100012 (China); Fukazawa, Yasushi; Itoh, Ryosuke [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2015-12-01

    Magnetars are known to have optical and/or infrared (IR) emission, but the origin of the emission is not well understood. In order to fully study their emission properties, we have carried out for the first time optical linear polarimetry of the magnetar 4U 0142+61, which has been determined from different observations to have a complicated broadband spectrum over optical and IR wavelengths. From our I-band imaging polarimetric observation, conducted with the 8.2-m Subaru telescope, we determine the degree of linear polarization to be P = 1.0 ± 3.4%, or P ≤ 5.6% (90% confidence level). Considering models that were suggested for optical emission from magnetars, we discuss the implications of our result. The upper limit measurement indicates that, differing from radio pulsars, magnetars probably would not have strongly polarized optical emission if the emission arises from their magnetosphere as suggested.

  16. Diode laser spectroscopy of oxygen electronic band at 760 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchesini, A.; De Rosa, M.; Gozzini, S.

    1998-01-01

    Collisional broadening and shift coefficients have been obtained by analyzing the line shapes of oxygen absorptions in the 760 nm electronic band. By using a diode laser spectrometer with commercially available etherostructure Al x Ga 1-x As diode lasers operating in 'free-running mode', line shape parameters have been collected at room temperature by varying the gas pressure. A systematic study has been carried on seven absorption lines by scanning the diode laser emission wavelength around the gas resonances. The weak absorption lines have been detected by using the wavelength modulation (WM) spectroscopy technique with second-harmonic detection

  17. L-band brightness temperature disaggregation for use with S-band and C-band radiometer data for WCOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, P.; Shi, J.; Zhao, T.; Cosh, M. H.; Bindlish, R.

    2017-12-01

    There are two passive microwave sensors onboard the Water Cycle Observation Mission (WCOM), which includes a synthetic aperture radiometer operating at L-S-C bands and a scanning microwave radiometer operating from C- to W-bands. It provides a unique opportunity to disaggregate L-band brightness temperature (soil moisture) with S-band C-bands radiometer data. In this study, passive-only downscaling methodologies are developed and evaluated. Based on the radiative transfer modeling, it was found that the TBs (brightness temperature) between the L-band and S-band exhibit a linear relationship, and there is an exponential relationship between L-band and C-band. We carried out the downscaling results by two methods: (1) downscaling with L-S-C band passive measurements with the same incidence angle from payload IMI; (2) downscaling with L-C band passive measurements with different incidence angle from payloads IMI and PMI. The downscaling method with L-S bands with the same incident angle was first evaluated using SMEX02 data. The RMSE are 2.69 K and 1.52 K for H and V polarization respectively. The downscaling method with L-C bands is developed with different incident angles using SMEX03 data. The RMSE are 2.97 K and 2.68 K for H and V polarization respectively. These results showed that high-resolution L-band brightness temperature and soil moisture products could be generated from the future WCOM passive-only observations.

  18. Broad band exciplex dye lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienes, A.; Shank, C.V.; Trozzolo, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    The disclosure is concerned with exciplex dye lasers, i.e., lasers in which the emitting species is a complex formed only from a constituent in an electronically excited state. Noting that an exciplex laser, favorable from the standpoint of broad tunability, results from a broad shift in the peak emission wavelength for the exciplex relative to the unreacted species, a desirable class resulting in such broad shift is described. Preferred classes of laser media utilizing specified resonant molecules are set forth. (auth)

  19. Emission polarization study on quartz and calcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, R. K.

    1972-01-01

    Calculation of the spectral emission polarization of quartz and calcite polished plates for observation angles of 20 and 70 deg by the substitution of complex index of refraction values for each mineral into Fresnel's equations. The emission polarization is shown to be quite wavelength-dependent, demonstrating that selected narrow or medium-width spectral bands exhibit a significantly higher percentage of polarization than a broad spectral band for these two minerals. Field measurements with a broadband infrared radiometer yield polarizations on the order of 2% for a coarse-grained granite rock and beach sand (both quartz-rich). This implies that a more sensitive detector with a selected medium-width filter may be capable of measuring emission polarization accurately enough to make this parameter useful as a remote sensing tool for discrimination among rocks on the basis of texture.

  20. Thematic mapper studies band correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, S. G.; Kiang, R.

    1976-01-01

    Spectral data representative of thematic mapper candidate bands 1 and 3 to 7 were obtained by selecting appropriate combinations of bands from the JSC 24 channel multispectral scanner. Of all the bands assigned, only candidate bands 4 (.74 mu to .80 mu) and 5 (.80 mu to .91 mu) showed consistently high intercorrelation from region to region and time to time. This extremely high correlation persisted when looking at the composite data set in a multitemporal, multilocation domain. The GISS investigations lend positive confirmation to the hypothesis, that TM bands 4 and 5 are redundant.

  1. Dust bands in the asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, M.V.; Greenberg, R.; Dermott, S.F.; Nicholson, P.D.; Burns, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the original IRAS observations leading to the discovery of the three dust bands in the asteroid belt and the analysis of data. Special attention is given to an analytical model of the dust band torus and to theories concerning the origin of the dust bands, with special attention given to the collisional equilibrium (asteroid family), the nonequilibrium (random collision), and the comet hypotheses of dust-band origin. It is noted that neither the equilibrium nor nonequilibrium models, as currently formulated, present a complete picture of the IRAS dust-band observations. 32 refs

  2. Analysis and Modeling of Jovian Radio Emissions Observed by Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menietti, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    Our studies of Jovian radio emission have resulted in the publication of five papers in refereed journals, with three additional papers in progress. The topics of these papers include the study of narrow-band kilometric radio emission; the apparent control of radio emission by Callisto; quasi-periodic radio emission; hectometric attenuation lanes and their relationship to Io volcanic activity; and modeling of HOM attenuation lanes using ray tracing. A further study of the control of radio emission by Jovian satellites is currently in progress. Abstracts of each of these papers are contained in the Appendix. A list of the publication titles are also included.

  3. Table of members of quasi-bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Mitsuo.

    1984-04-01

    The probable members of the quasi-bands in even-even nuclei for Z between 6 and 100 are listed in this table. The terms quasi-bands have been introduced in the so-called spherical regions as the counter parts of the collective bands in the deformed regions. In the present compilation, the data for deformed nuclei are classified for convenience under the same titles, Quasi-Ground Band, Quasi-Beta Band and Quasi-Gamma Band, as are used for other nuclear regions. The present edition covers the literature through September, 1983. Fifteen newly discovered nuclides are included. The classification of energy level into quasi-bands is made on the basis of the systematic trend in the data over large groups of nuclei. (Kato, T.)

  4. A Novel Ku-Band/Ka-Band and Ka-Band/E-Band Multimode Waveguide Couplers for Power Measurement of Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier Harmonic Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.; Simons, Rainee N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and test results for a novel waveguide multimode directional coupler (MDC). The coupler, fabricated from two dissimilar frequency band waveguides, is capable of isolating power at the second harmonic frequency from the fundamental power at the output port of a traveling-wave tube (TWT) amplifier. Test results from proof-of-concept demonstrations are presented for a Ku-band/Ka-band MDC and a Ka-band/E-band MDC. In addition to power measurements at harmonic frequencies, a potential application of the MDC is in the design of a satellite borne beacon source for atmospheric propagation studies at millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequencies (Ka-band and E-band).

  5. Dilatancy induced ductile-brittle transition of shear band in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, F.; Jiang, M. Q.; Dai, L. H.

    2018-04-01

    Dilatancy-generated structural disordering, an inherent feature of metallic glasses (MGs), has been widely accepted as the physical mechanism for the primary origin and structural evolution of shear banding, as well as the resultant shear failure. However, it remains a great challenge to determine, to what degree of dilatation, a shear banding will evolve into a runaway shear failure. In this work, using in situ acoustic emission monitoring, we probe the dilatancy evolution at the different stages of individual shear band in MGs that underwent severely plastic deformation by the controlled cutting technology. A scaling law is revealed that the dilatancy in a shear band is linearly related to its evolution degree. A transition from ductile-to-brittle shear bands is observed, where the formers dominate stable serrated flow, and the latter lead to a runaway instability (catastrophe failure) of serrated flow. To uncover the underlying mechanics, we develop a theoretical model of shear-band evolution dynamics taking into account an atomic-scale deformation process. Our theoretical results agree with the experimental observations, and demonstrate that the atomic-scale volume expansion arises from an intrinsic shear-band evolution dynamics. Importantly, the onset of the ductile-brittle transition of shear banding is controlled by a critical dilatation.

  6. Dual-band frequency selective surface with large band separation and stable performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hang; Qu, Shao-Bo; Peng, Wei-Dong; Lin, Bao-Qin; Wang, Jia-Fu; Ma, Hua; Zhang, Jie-Qiu; Bai, Peng; Wang, Xu-Hua; Xu, Zhuo

    2012-05-01

    A new technique of designing a dual-band frequency selective surface with large band separation is presented. This technique is based on a delicately designed topology of L- and Ku-band microwave filters. The two band-pass responses are generated by a capacitively-loaded square-loop frequency selective surface and an aperture-coupled frequency selective surface, respectively. A Faraday cage is located between the two frequency selective surface structures to eliminate undesired couplings. Based on this technique, a dual-band frequency selective surface with large band separation is designed, which possesses large band separation, high selectivity, and stable performance under various incident angles and different polarizations.

  7. VIIRS Reflective Solar Band Radiometric and Stability Evaluation Using Deep Convective Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tiejun; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Mu, Qiaozhen

    2016-01-01

    This work takes advantage of the stable distribution of deep convective cloud (DCC) reflectance measurements to assess the calibration stability and detector difference in Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) reflective bands. VIIRS Sensor Data Records (SDRs) from February 2012 to June 2015 are utilized to analyze the long-term trending, detector difference, and half angle mirror (HAM) side difference. VIIRS has two thermal emissive bands with coverage crossing 11 microns for DCC pixel identification. The comparison of the results of these two processing bands is one of the indicators of analysis reliability. The long-term stability analysis shows downward trends (up to approximately 0.4 per year) for the visible and near-infrared bands and upward trends (up to 0.5per year) for the short- and mid-wave infrared bands. The detector difference for each band is calculated as the difference relative to the average reflectance overall detectors. Except for the slightly greater than 1 difference in the two bands at 1610 nm, the detector difference is less than1 for other solar reflective bands. The detector differences show increasing trends for some short-wave bands with center wavelengths from 400 to 600 nm and remain unchanged for the bands with longer center wavelengths. The HAM side difference is insignificant and stable. Those short-wave bands from 400 to 600 nm also have relatively larger HAM side difference, up to 0.25.Comparing the striped images from SDR and the smooth images after the correction validates the analyses of detector difference and HAM side difference. These analyses are very helpful for VIIRS calibration improvement and thus enhance product quality

  8. Photonic band gap structure simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiping; Shapiro, Michael A.; Smirnova, Evgenya I.; Temkin, Richard J.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.

    2006-10-03

    A system and method for designing photonic band gap structures. The system and method provide a user with the capability to produce a model of a two-dimensional array of conductors corresponding to a unit cell. The model involves a linear equation. Boundary conditions representative of conditions at the boundary of the unit cell are applied to a solution of the Helmholtz equation defined for the unit cell. The linear equation can be approximated by a Hermitian matrix. An eigenvalue of the Helmholtz equation is calculated. One computation approach involves calculating finite differences. The model can include a symmetry element, such as a center of inversion, a rotation axis, and a mirror plane. A graphical user interface is provided for the user's convenience. A display is provided to display to a user the calculated eigenvalue, corresponding to a photonic energy level in the Brilloin zone of the unit cell.

  9. Broad-band beam buncher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, D.A.; Flood, W.S.; Arthur, A.A.; Voelker, F.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a broad-band beam buncher. This beam buncher consists of: a housing adapted to be eacuated, an electron gun in the housing for producing a beam of electrons, buncher means in the housing forming a buncher cavity which has an entrance opening for receiving the electron beam and an exit opening through which the electron beam passes out of the buncher cavity, a drift tube electrode in the buncher cavity and disposed between the entrance opening and the exit opening with first and second gaps between the drift tube electrode and the entrance and exit openings, the drift tube electrode which has a first drift space through which the electron beam passes in traveling between the entrance and exit openings, modulating means for supplying an ultrahigh frequeny modulating signal to the drift tube electrode for producing velocity modulation of the electrons in the electron beam as the electrons pass through the buncher cavity and the drift tube electrode between the entrance opening and the exit opening, drift space means in the housing forming a second drift space for receiving the velocity modulated electron beam from the exit opening, the velocity modulated electron beam being bunched as it passes along the second drift space, the drift space means has a discharge opening through which the electron beam is discharged from the second drift space after being bunched therein, the modulating means containing a signal source for producing an ultrahigh frequency signal, a transmission line connected between the signal source and the drift tube electrode, and terminating means connected to the drift tube electrode for terminating the transmission line in approximately its characteristic impedance to afford a broad response band with minimum 6 variations therein

  10. Visible light emission from silicon implanted and annealed SiO2layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghislotti, G.; Nielsen, B.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.; Di Mauro, L.F.; Bottani, C.E.; Corni, F.; Tonini, R.; Ottaviani, G.P.

    1997-01-01

    Silicon implanted and annealed SiO 2 layers are studied using photoluminescence (PL) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). Two PL emission bands are observed. A band centered at 560 nm is present in as-implanted samples and it is still observed after 1,000 C annealing. The emission time is fast. A second band centered at 780 nm is detected after 1,000 C annealing. The intensity of the 780 nm band further increased when hydrogen annealing was performed. The emission time is long (1 micros to 0.2 ms). PAS results show that defects produced by implantation anneal at 600 C. Based on the annealing behavior and on the emission times, the origin of the two bands is discussed

  11. Observations of the Galaxy NGC 3077 in the Narrow-Band [S II] and Hα Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andjelić M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of the H I tidal arm near a dwarf galaxy NGC 3077 (member of the M81 galaxy group in the narrow-band [S II] and Hα filters. Observations were carried out in 2011 March with the 2 m RCC telescope at the NAO Rozhen, Bulgaria. Our search for possible supernova remnant candidates (identified as sources with enhanced [S II] emission relative to their Hα emission in this region yielded no sources of this kind. Nevertheless, we found a number of objects with significant Hα emission that probably represent uncatalogued, low brightness H II regions.

  12. Band 3 in aging and neurological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, M M

    1991-01-01

    Senescent cell antigen appears on old cells and marks them for death by initiating the binding of IgG autoantibody and subsequent removal by phagocytes in mammals and other vertebrates. We have created a synthetic aging antigen that blocks binding of IgG to senescent cells in vitro. Synthetic senescent cell antigen might be effective in preventing cellular destruction in vivo in certain diseases, and can be used to manipulate cellular life span in situ. Senescent cell antigen is generated by the modification of an important structural and transport membrane molecule, protein band 3. Band 3 is present in cellular, nuclear, Golgi, and mitochondrial membranes as well as in cell membranes. Band 3 proteins in nucleated cells participate in cell surface patching and capping. Band 3 maintains acid-base balance by mediating the exchange of anions (e.g., chloride, bicarbonate), and is the binding site for glycolytic enzymes. It is responsible for CO2 exchange in all tissues and organs. Thus, it is the most heavily used anion transport system in the body. Band 3 is a major transmembrane structural protein which attaches the plasma membrane to the internal cell cytoskeleton by binding to band 2.1 (ankyrin). Oxidation generates senescent cell antigen in situ. Band 3 is present in the central nervous system, and differences have been described in band 3 between young and aging brain tissue. One autosomal recessive neurological disease, choreoacanthocytosis, is associated with band 3 abnormalities. The 150 residues of the carboxyl terminus segment of band 3 appear to be altered. In brains from Alzheimer's disease patients, antibodies to aged band 3 label the amyloid core of classical plaques and the microglial cells located in the middle of the plaque in tissue sections, and an abnormal band 3 in immunoblots. Band 3 protein(s) in mammalian brain performs the same functions as that of erythroid band 3. These functions is anion transport, ankyrin binding, and generation of

  13. The dynamics of a shear band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarola, Diana; Capuani, Domenico; Bigoni, Davide

    2018-03-01

    A shear band of finite length, formed inside a ductile material at a certain stage of a continued homogeneous strain, provides a dynamic perturbation to an incident wave field, which strongly influences the dynamics of the material and affects its path to failure. The investigation of this perturbation is presented for a ductile metal, with reference to the incremental mechanics of a material obeying the J2-deformation theory of plasticity (a special form of prestressed, elastic, anisotropic, and incompressible solid). The treatment originates from the derivation of integral representations relating the incremental mechanical fields at every point of the medium to the incremental displacement jump across the shear band faces, generated by an impinging wave. The boundary integral equations (under the plane strain assumption) are numerically approached through a collocation technique, which keeps into account the singularity at the shear band tips and permits the analysis of an incident wave impinging a shear band. It is shown that the presence of the shear band induces a resonance, visible in the incremental displacement field and in the stress intensity factor at the shear band tips, which promotes shear band growth. Moreover, the waves scattered by the shear band are shown to generate a fine texture of vibrations, parallel to the shear band line and propagating at a long distance from it, but leaving a sort of conical shadow zone, which emanates from the tips of the shear band.

  14. Electronic materials with a wide band gap: recent developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlef Klimm

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of semiconductor electronics is reviewed briefly, beginning with the development of germanium devices (band gap Eg = 0.66 eV after World War II. A tendency towards alternative materials with wider band gaps quickly became apparent, starting with silicon (Eg = 1.12 eV. This improved the signal-to-noise ratio for classical electronic applications. Both semiconductors have a tetrahedral coordination, and by isoelectronic alternative replacement of Ge or Si with carbon or various anions and cations, other semiconductors with wider Eg were obtained. These are transparent to visible light and belong to the group of wide band gap semiconductors. Nowadays, some nitrides, especially GaN and AlN, are the most important materials for optical emission in the ultraviolet and blue regions. Oxide crystals, such as ZnO and β-Ga2O3, offer similarly good electronic properties but still suffer from significant difficulties in obtaining stable and technologically adequate p-type conductivity.

  15. Intruder bands in Z = 51 nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFosse, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    Recent investigations of h 11/2 proton intruder bands in odd 51 Sb nuclei are reported. In addition to experiments performed at SUNY Stony Brook and Chalk River, data from Early Implementation of GAMMASPHERE (analysis in progress) are presented. In particular, the nuclei 109 Sb and 111 Sb are discussed. Rotational bands based on the πh 11/2 orbital coupled to a 2p2h deformed state of the 50 Sn core have been observed. These bands have been observed to high spin, and in the case of 109 Sb to a rotational frequency of 1.4 MeV, the highest frequency observed in a heavy nucleus. The dynamic moments of inertia in these bands decrease slowly with frequency, suggesting a gradual band termination. The systematics of such bands in 109-119 Sb will be discussed

  16. Band-gap engineering by molecular mechanical strain-induced giant tuning of the luminescence in colloidal amorphous porous silicon nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Asad Jahangir; El Demellawi, Jehad K.; Chaieb, Saharoui

    2014-01-01

    reported. In this letter, we report on a 100 nm modulation in the emission of freestanding colloidal amorphous porous silicon nanostructures via band-gap engineering. The mechanism responsible for this tunable modulation, which is independent of the size

  17. Effectiveness of Near-Grazing Incidence Reflection in Creating the Rotationally Modulated Lanes in the Jovian Hectometric Radio Emission Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menietti, J. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Groene, J. B.

    1999-01-01

    The Galileo plasma wave instrument has identified a narrow (in frequency) attenuation band in the hectometric emission that varies in frequency with system 3 longitude. It is possible to model this emission band assuming a high-latitude cyclotron source region with emission that is efficiently attenuated when the ray path is nearly tangent to an L shell that is close to the Io flux tube. The data suggest that the mechanism for attenuating the emission is very efficient, with the ratio of attenuated to unattenuated emission I/I(sub o) emission from an L shell that is near the Io flux tube (a caustic surface).

  18. Amniotic band syndrome: A clinical brief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasaradha Ramireddy Malireddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic band syndrome (ABS results from bands of amnion entangling fetal parts. They may manifest as constriction rings or complex congenital anomalies resulting in stillbirth. Karyotyping is important for exclusion of inherited disorders and proper counseling. Two case reports one stillbirth and the other with constriction ring of fingers and mild hydronephrosis are presented. The aim of this paper is to make awareness and stress the need for doing thorough work-up in all cases of constriction bands.

  19. Fade Mitigation Techniques at Ka-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Asoka (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Rain fading is the dominant propagation impairment affecting Ka-band satellite links and rain fade mitigation is a key element in the design of Ka-band satellite networks. Some of the common fade mitigation techniques include: power control, diversity, adaptive coding, and resource sharing. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) provides an excellent opportunity to develop and test Ka-band rain impairment amelioration techniques. Up-link power control and diversity are discussed in this paper.

  20. Propionaldehyde infrared cross-sections and band strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köroğlu, Batikan; Loparo, Zachary; Nath, Janardan; Peale, Robert E.; Vasu, Subith S.

    2015-02-01

    The use of oxygenated biofuels reduces the greenhouse gas emissions; however, they also result in increased toxic aldehyde by-products, mainly formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and propionaldehyde. These aldehydes are carcinogenic and/or toxic and therefore it is important to understand their formation and destruction pathways in combustion and atmospheric systems. Accurate information about their infrared cross-sections and integrated strengths are crucially needed for development of quantitative detection schemes and modeling tools. Critical to the development of such diagnostics are accurate characterization of the absorption features of these species. In this study, the gas phase infrared spectra of propionaldehyde (also called propanal, CH3-CH2-CHO), a saturated three carbon aldehyde found in the exhaust emissions of biodiesel or diesel fuels, was studied using high resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy over the wavenumber range of 750-3300 cm-1 and at room temperature 295 K. The absorption cross sections of propionaldehyde were recorded at resolutions of 0.08 and 0.096 cm-1 and at seven different pressures (4-33 Torr). The calculated band-strengths were reported and the integrated band intensity results were compared with values taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) database (showing less than 2% discrepancy). The peak positions of the 19 different vibrational bands of propionaldehyde were also compared with previous studies taken at a lower resolution of 1 cm-1. To the best of our knowledge, the current FTIR measurements provide the first highest resolution infrared cross section data for propionaldehyde.

  1. Propionaldehyde infrared cross-sections and band strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köroğlu, Batikan; Loparo, Zachary; Nath, Janardan; Peale, Robert E.; Vasu, Subith S.

    2015-01-01

    The use of oxygenated biofuels reduces the greenhouse gas emissions; however, they also result in increased toxic aldehyde by-products, mainly formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and propionaldehyde. These aldehydes are carcinogenic and/or toxic and therefore it is important to understand their formation and destruction pathways in combustion and atmospheric systems. Accurate information about their infrared cross-sections and integrated strengths are crucially needed for development of quantitative detection schemes and modeling tools. Critical to the development of such diagnostics are accurate characterization of the absorption features of these species. In this study, the gas phase infrared spectra of propionaldehyde (also called propanal, CH 3 –CH 2 –CHO), a saturated three carbon aldehyde found in the exhaust emissions of biodiesel or diesel fuels, was studied using high resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy over the wavenumber range of 750−3300 cm −1 and at room temperature 295 K. The absorption cross sections of propionaldehyde were recorded at resolutions of 0.08 and 0.096 cm −1 and at seven different pressures (4−33 Torr). The calculated band-strengths were reported and the integrated band intensity results were compared with values taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) database (showing less than 2% discrepancy). The peak positions of the 19 different vibrational bands of propionaldehyde were also compared with previous studies taken at a lower resolution of 1 cm −1 . To the best of our knowledge, the current FTIR measurements provide the first highest resolution infrared cross section data for propionaldehyde. - Highlights: • High resolution IR spectra of propionaldehyde were measured by FTIR spectrometer. • The discrepancy between the present study and PNNL database was less than 2%. • The fundamental vibrational frequencies were reported at high resolution. • The rovibrational Q

  2. Computational Design of Flat-Band Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, I.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kawashima, K.

    2018-02-01

    Quantum mechanics states that hopping integral between local orbitals makes the energy band dispersive. However, in some special cases, there are bands with no dispersion due to quantum interference. These bands are called as flat band. Many models having flat band have been proposed, and many interesting physical properties are predicted. However, no real compound having flat band has been found yet despite the 25 years of vigorous researches. We have found that some pyrochlore oxides have quasi-flat band just below the Fermi level by first principles calculation. Moreover, their valence bands are well described by a tight-binding model of pyrochlore lattice with isotropic nearest neighbor hopping integral. This model belongs to a class of Mielke model, whose ground state is known to be ferromagnetic with appropriate carrier doping and on-site repulsive Coulomb interaction. We have also performed a spin-polarized band calculation for the hole-doped system from first principles and found that the ground state is ferromagnetic for some doping region. Interestingly, these compounds do not include magnetic element, such as transition metal and rare-earth elements.

  3. Reward banding to determine reporting rate of recovered mourning dove bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, R.E.

    1968-01-01

    Reward bands placed on the other leg of certain regularly banded immature mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura) were used to develop information on reporting rates of recovered dove bands. Reports from 15 widely separated sections of the United States showed considerable variation in recovery rate of doves both with and without reward bands. The overall percentages of banded doves that were reported as recovered were 9.69% for those with reward bands and 3.83% for controls. The bandreporting rate for states influenced by publicity was 66%; that for states not influenced was 32%.

  4. Modeling and analysis of renewable energy obligations and technology bandings in the UK electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürkan, Gül; Langestraat, Romeo

    2014-01-01

    In the UK electricity market, generators are obliged to produce part of their electricity with renewable energy resources in accordance with the Renewable Obligation Order. Since 2009 technology banding has been added, meaning that different technologies are rewarded with a different number of certificates. We analyze these two different renewable obligation policies in a mathematical representation of an electricity market with random availabilities of renewable generation outputs and random electricity demand. We also present another, alternative, banding policy. We provide revenue adequate pricing schemes for the three obligation policies. We carry out a simulation study via sampling. A key finding is that the UK banding policy cannot guarantee that the original obligation target is met, hence potentially resulting in more pollution. Our alternative provides a way to make sure that the target is met while supporting less established technologies, but it comes with a significantly higher consumer price. Furthermore, as an undesirable side effect, we observe that a cost reduction in a technology with a high banding (namely offshore wind) leads to more CO 2 emissions under the UK banding policy and to higher consumer prices under the alternative banding policy. - Highlights: • We model and analyze three renewable obligation policies in a mathematical framework. • We provide revenue adequate pricing schemes for the three policies. • We carry out a simulation study via sampling. • The UK policy cannot guarantee that the original obligation target is met. • Cost reductions can lead to more pollution or higher prices under banding policies

  5. RRI-GBT MULTI-BAND RECEIVER: MOTIVATION, DESIGN, AND DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maan, Yogesh; Deshpande, Avinash A.; Chandrashekar, Vinutha; Chennamangalam, Jayanth; Rao, K. B. Raghavendra; Somashekar, R.; Ezhilarasi, M. S.; Sujatha, S.; Kasturi, S.; Sandhya, P.; Duraichelvan, R.; Amiri, Shahram; Aswathappa, H. A.; Sarabagopalan, G.; Ananda, H. M.; Anderson, Gary; Bauserman, Jonah; Beaudet, Carla; Bloss, Marty; Barve, Indrajit V.

    2013-01-01

    We report the design and development of a self-contained multi-band receiver (MBR) system, intended for use with a single large aperture to facilitate sensitive and high time-resolution observations simultaneously in 10 discrete frequency bands sampling a wide spectral span (100-1500 MHz) in a nearly log-periodic fashion. The development of this system was primarily motivated by need for tomographic studies of pulsar polar emission regions. Although the system design is optimized for the primary goal, it is also suited for several other interesting astronomical investigations. The system consists of a dual-polarization multi-band feed (with discrete responses corresponding to the 10 bands pre-selected as relatively radio frequency interference free), a common wide-band radio frequency front-end, and independent back-end receiver chains for the 10 individual sub-bands. The raw voltage time sequences corresponding to 16 MHz bandwidth each for the two linear polarization channels and the 10 bands are recorded at the Nyquist rate simultaneously. We present the preliminary results from the tests and pulsar observations carried out with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope using this receiver. The system performance implied by these results and possible improvements are also briefly discussed.

  6. RRI-GBT MULTI-BAND RECEIVER: MOTIVATION, DESIGN, AND DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maan, Yogesh; Deshpande, Avinash A.; Chandrashekar, Vinutha; Chennamangalam, Jayanth; Rao, K. B. Raghavendra; Somashekar, R.; Ezhilarasi, M. S.; Sujatha, S.; Kasturi, S.; Sandhya, P.; Duraichelvan, R.; Amiri, Shahram; Aswathappa, H. A.; Sarabagopalan, G.; Ananda, H. M. [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore (India); Anderson, Gary; Bauserman, Jonah; Beaudet, Carla; Bloss, Marty [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV (United States); Barve, Indrajit V. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore (India); and others

    2013-01-15

    We report the design and development of a self-contained multi-band receiver (MBR) system, intended for use with a single large aperture to facilitate sensitive and high time-resolution observations simultaneously in 10 discrete frequency bands sampling a wide spectral span (100-1500 MHz) in a nearly log-periodic fashion. The development of this system was primarily motivated by need for tomographic studies of pulsar polar emission regions. Although the system design is optimized for the primary goal, it is also suited for several other interesting astronomical investigations. The system consists of a dual-polarization multi-band feed (with discrete responses corresponding to the 10 bands pre-selected as relatively radio frequency interference free), a common wide-band radio frequency front-end, and independent back-end receiver chains for the 10 individual sub-bands. The raw voltage time sequences corresponding to 16 MHz bandwidth each for the two linear polarization channels and the 10 bands are recorded at the Nyquist rate simultaneously. We present the preliminary results from the tests and pulsar observations carried out with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope using this receiver. The system performance implied by these results and possible improvements are also briefly discussed.

  7. Highly Efficient Defect Emission from ZnO:Zn and ZnO:S Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, Henry

    2013-03-01

    Bulk Zinc Oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconductor with an ultraviolet direct band gap energy of 3.4 eV and a broad, defect-related visible wavelength emission band centered near 2 eV. We have shown that the external quantum efficiency can exceed 50% for this nearly white emission band that closely matches the human dark-adapted visual response. To explore the potential of ZnO as a rare earth-free white light phosphor, we investigated the mechanism of efficient defect emission in three types of ZnO powders: unannealed, annealed, and sulfur-doped. Annealing and sulfur-doping of ZnO greatly increase the strength of defect emission while suppressing the UV band edge emission. Continuous wave and ultrafast one- and two-photon excitation spectroscopy are used to examine the defect emission mechanism. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation (PLE) spectra were measured for all three compounds, and it was found that bound excitons mediate the defect emission. Temperature-dependent PLE spectra for the defect and band edge emission were measured to estimate trapping and activation energies of the bound excitons and clarify the role they play in the defect emission. Time-resolved techniques were used to ascertain the role of exciton diffusion, the effects of reabsorption, and the spatial distributions of radiative and non-radiative traps. In unannealed ZnO we find that defect emission is suppressed and UV band edge emission is inefficient (reduced, and a high density of defects responsible for the broad visible emission are created near the surface. Interestingly, nearly identical PLE spectra are found for both the band edge and the defect emission, one of many indications that the defect emission is deeply connected to bound excitons. Quantum efficiency, also measured as a function of excitation wavelength, closely mirrors the PLE spectra for both emission bands. Sulfur-doped ZnO exhibits additional PLE and X-ray features indicative of a ZnS-rich surface

  8. Impact of extended defects on recombination in CdTe heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaunbrecher, Katherine N. [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Kuciauskas, Darius; Dippo, Pat; Barnes, Teresa M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Swartz, Craig H.; Edirisooriya, Madhavie; Ogedengbe, Olanrewaju S.; Sohal, Sandeep; Hancock, Bobby L.; LeBlanc, Elizabeth G.; Jayathilaka, Pathiraja A. R. D.; Myers, Thomas H. [Materials Science, Engineering and Commercialization Program, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States)

    2016-08-29

    Heterostructures with CdTe and CdTe{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} (x ∼ 0.01) absorbers between two wider-band-gap Cd{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Te barriers (x ∼ 0.25–0.3) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy to study carrier generation and recombination in bulk materials with passivated interfaces. Using a combination of confocal photoluminescence (PL), time-resolved PL, and low-temperature PL emission spectroscopy, two extended defect types were identified and the impact of these defects on charge-carrier recombination was analyzed. The dominant defects identified by confocal PL were dislocations in samples grown on (211)B CdTe substrates and crystallographic twinning-related defects in samples on (100)-oriented InSb substrates. Low-temperature PL shows that twin-related defects have a zero-phonon energy of 1.460 eV and a Huang-Rhys factor of 1.50, while dislocation-dominated samples have a 1.473-eV zero-phonon energy and a Huang-Rhys factor of 1.22. The charge carrier diffusion length near both types of defects is ∼6 μm, suggesting that recombination is limited by diffusion dynamics. For heterostructures with a low concentration of extended defects, the bulk lifetime was determined to be 2.2 μs with an interface recombination velocity of 160 cm/s and an estimated radiative lifetime of 91 μs.

  9. Characterization of adiabatic shear bands in the zirconium alloy impacted by split Hopkinson pressure bar at a strain rate of 6000 s−1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, D.L.; Luan, B.F.; Liu, Q.; Chai, L.J.; Chen, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    The adiabatic shear bands formed in the zirconium alloy impacted by split Hopkinson pressure bar at a strain rate of about 6000 s −1 were characterized systemically by means of a high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with electron backscatter diffraction probe. The results show that the transformed bands were distinguished on the cross-section view of the impacted specimens, and the ultrafine and equiaxed grains formed in the transformed bands were confirmed. The gradient variation of the grains across the transformed bands from the boundary to the center of the bands was observed, and the grains at the center of the transformed bands were finer than other zones. Based on the characterization of the deformed microstructure adjacent to the transformed bands, the formation mechanism of the ultrafine and equiaxed grains in the transformed bands was revealed, and the rotational dynamic recrystallization mechanism should be responsible for the formation of the ultrafine and equiaxed grains in the transformed bands. According to the collection of the cumulative misorientation at different strain levels, the formation and evolution process of the ultrafine and equiaxed grains in the transformed bands were speculated. The microhardness measurements show that high microhardness value in the transformed bands was obtained because of the grain refining, and the large standard deviation of the microhardness at the center of the transformed bands was confirmed due to the gradient microstructural distribution in the bands.

  10. Solid State KA-Band, Solid State W-Band and TWT Amplifiers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I of the proposal describes plans to develop a state of the art transmitter for the W-Band and KA -Band Cloud Radar system. Our focus will be concentrated in...

  11. Multiple band structure in 156Er

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunyar, A.W.; Der Mateosian, E.; Kistner, O.C.; Johnson, A.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Thieberger, P.

    1976-01-01

    The 142 Nd( 18 O,4n) 156 Er reaction at 90-95 MeV was used to study 156 Er high-spin states to spin 24. In addition to the background ground-state band, two well developed off-spin side bands, one of each parity, were observed. (Auth.)

  12. 47 CFR 90.1213 - Band plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Band plan. 90.1213 Section 90.1213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND... § 90.1213 Band plan. The following channel center frequencies are permitted to be aggregated for...

  13. Signature effects in 2-qp rotational bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, A.K.; Goel, A.

    1992-01-01

    The authors briefly review the progress in understanding the 2-qp rotational bands in odd-odd nuclei. Signature effects and the phenomenon of signature inversion are discussed. The Coriolis coupling appears to have all the ingredients to explain the inversion. Some recent work on signature dependence in 2-qp bands of even-even nuclei is also discussed; interesting features are pointed out

  14. Does the chromatic Mach bands effect exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsofe, Avital; Spitzer, Hedva; Einav, Shmuel

    2009-06-30

    The achromatic Mach bands effect is a well-known visual illusion, discovered over a hundred years ago. This effect has been investigated thoroughly, mainly for its brightness aspect. The existence of Chromatic Mach bands, however, has been disputed. In recent years it has been reported that Chromatic Mach bands are not perceived under controlled iso-luminance conditions. However, here we show that a variety of Chromatic Mach bands, consisting of chromatic and achromatic regions, separated by a saturation ramp, can be clearly perceived under iso-luminance and iso-brightness conditions. In this study, observers' eye movements were recorded under iso-brightness conditions. Several observers were tested for their ability to perceive the Chromatic Mach bands effect and its magnitude, across different cardinal and non-cardinal Chromatic Mach bands stimuli. A computational model of color adaptation, which predicted color induction and color constancy, successfully predicts this variation of Chromatic Mach bands. This has been tested by measuring the distance of the data points from the "achromatic point" and by calculating the shift of the data points from predicted complementary lines. The results suggest that the Chromatic Mach bands effect is a specific chromatic induction effect.

  15. Low band gap polymers for organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Eva; Krebs, Frederik C

    2007-01-01

    Low band gap polymer materials and their application in organic photovoltaics (OPV) are reviewed. We detail the synthetic approaches to low band gap polymer materials starting from the early methodologies employing quinoid homopolymer structures to the current state of the art that relies...

  16. Band mixing in /sup 160/Dy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasiza, M L; Singh, K; Sahota, H S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1982-11-01

    The intensities of the gamma transitions in /sup 160/Dy have been measured precisely by a 45 cc Ge(Li) detector. Unequal quadrupole moments for the ground and gamma vibrational bands have been proposed in order to remove the inconsistencies in the values of band mixing parameter Z sub(gamma) for this doubly even deformed nucleus of /sup 160/Dy.

  17. Convex Banding of the Covariance Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, Jacob; Bunea, Florentina; Xiao, Luo

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new sparse estimator of the covariance matrix for high-dimensional models in which the variables have a known ordering. Our estimator, which is the solution to a convex optimization problem, is equivalently expressed as an estimator which tapers the sample covariance matrix by a Toeplitz, sparsely-banded, data-adaptive matrix. As a result of this adaptivity, the convex banding estimator enjoys theoretical optimality properties not attained by previous banding or tapered estimators. In particular, our convex banding estimator is minimax rate adaptive in Frobenius and operator norms, up to log factors, over commonly-studied classes of covariance matrices, and over more general classes. Furthermore, it correctly recovers the bandwidth when the true covariance is exactly banded. Our convex formulation admits a simple and efficient algorithm. Empirical studies demonstrate its practical effectiveness and illustrate that our exactly-banded estimator works well even when the true covariance matrix is only close to a banded matrix, confirming our theoretical results. Our method compares favorably with all existing methods, in terms of accuracy and speed. We illustrate the practical merits of the convex banding estimator by showing that it can be used to improve the performance of discriminant analysis for classifying sound recordings.

  18. Atomic-Monolayer MoS2 Band-to-Band Tunneling Field-Effect Transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Yann Wen

    2016-09-05

    The experimental observation of band-to-band tunneling in novel tunneling field-effect transistors utilizing a monolayer of MoS2 as the conducting channel is demonstrated. Our results indicate that the strong gate-coupling efficiency enabled by two-dimensional materials, such as monolayer MoS2, results in the direct manifestation of a band-to-band tunneling current and an ambipolar transport.

  19. Quantitative analysis of directional spontaneous emission spectra from light sources in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, Ivan S.; Lodahl, Peter; Vos, Willem L.

    2005-01-01

    We have performed angle-resolved measurements of spontaneous-emission spectra from laser dyes and quantum dots in opal and inverse opal photonic crystals. Pronounced directional dependencies of the emission spectra are observed: angular ranges of strongly reduced emission adjoin with angular ranges of enhanced emission. It appears that emission from embedded light sources is affected both by the periodicity and by the structural imperfections of the crystals: the photons are Bragg diffracted by lattice planes and scattered by unavoidable structural disorder. Using a model comprising diffuse light transport and photonic band structure, we quantitatively explain the directional emission spectra. This work provides detailed understanding of the transport of spontaneously emitted light in real photonic crystals, which is essential in the interpretation of quantum optics in photonic-band-gap crystals and for applications wherein directional emission and total emission power are controlled

  20. Energy correlations for mixed rotational bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doessing, T.

    1985-01-01

    A schematic model for the mixing of rotational bands above the yrast line in well deformed nuclei is considered. Many-particle configurations of a rotating mean field form basis bands, and these are subsequently mixed due to a two body residual interaction. The energy interval over which a basis band is spread out increases with increasing excitation energy above the yrast line. Conversely, the B(E2) matrix element for rotational decay out of one of the mixed band states is spread over an interval which is predicted to become more narrow with increasing excitation energy. Finally, the implication of band mixing for γ-ray energy correlations is briefly discussed. (orig.)

  1. Fluctuation diamagnetism in two-band superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kyosuke; Ikeda, Ryusuke

    2016-04-01

    Anomalously large fluctuation diamagnetism around the superconducting critical temperature has been recently observed in iron selenide (FeSe) [Kasahara et al. (unpublished)]. This indicates that superconducting fluctuations (SCFs) play a more significant role in FeSe, which supposedly has a two-band structure, than in the familiar single-band superconductors. Motivated by the data on FeSe, SCF-induced diamagnetism is examined in a two-band system, on the basis of a phenomenological approach with a Ginzburg-Landau functional. The obtained results indicate that the SCF-induced diamagnetism may be more enhanced than that in a single-band system due to the existence of two distinct fluctuation modes. Such enhancement of diamagnetism unique to a two-band system seems consistent with the large diamagnetism observed in FeSe, though still far from a quantitative agreement.

  2. Design of a side-band-separating heterodyne mixer for band 9 of ALMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baryshev, AM; Kooi, J; Mena, FR; Lodewijk, CRJ; Wild, W

    2005-01-01

    A side-band-separating (SBS) heterodyne mixer has been designed for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) 602-720 GHz band, as it will present a great improvement over the current double-side-band configuration under development at the moment. Here we present design details and the results of

  3. Dual-band infrared capabilities for imaging buried object sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Gorvad, M.R.; Perkins, D.E.; Clark, G.A.; Hernandez, J.E.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1993-04-02

    We discuss dual-band infrared (DBIR) capabilities for imaging buried object sizes. We identify physical features affecting thermal contrast needed to distinguish buried object sites from undisturbed sites or surface clutter. Apart from atmospheric transmission and system performance, these features include: object size, shape, and burial depth; ambient soil, disturbed soil and object site thermal diffusivity differences; surface temperature, emissivity, plant-cover, slope, albedo and roughness variations; weather conditions and measurement times. We use good instrumentation to measure the time-varying temperature differences between buried object sites and undisturbed soil sites. We compare near surface soil temperature differences with radiometric infrared (IR) surface temperature differences recorded at 4.7 {plus_minus} 0.4 {mu}m and at 10.6 {plus_minus} 1.0 {mu}m. By producing selective DBIR image ratio maps, we distinguish temperature-difference patterns from surface emissivity effects. We discuss temperature differences between buried object sites, filled hole site (without buried objects), cleared (undisturbed) soil sites, and grass-covered sites (with and without different types of surface clutter). We compare temperature, emissivity-ratio, visible and near-IR reflectance signatures of surface objects, leafy plants and sod. We discuss the physical aspects of environmental, surface and buried target features affecting interpretation of buried targets, surface objects and natural backgrounds.

  4. Electron and hole photoemission detection for band offset determination of tunnel field-effect transistor heterojunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Qin; Kirillov, Oleg A.; Levin, Igor; Richter, Curt A.; Gundlach, David J.; Nguyen, N. V.; Bijesh, R.; Datta, S.; Liang, Yiran; Peng, Lian-Mao; Liang, Xuelei

    2014-01-01

    We report experimental methods to ascertain a complete energy band alignment of a broken-gap tunnel field-effect transistor based on an InAs/GaSb hetero-junction. By using graphene as an optically transparent electrode, both the electron and hole barrier heights at the InAs/GaSb interface can be quantified. For a Al 2 O 3 /InAs/GaSb layer structure, the barrier height from the top of the InAs and GaSb valence bands to the bottom of the Al 2 O 3 conduction band is inferred from electron emission whereas hole emissions reveal the barrier height from the top of the Al 2 O 3 valence band to the bottom of the InAs and GaSb conduction bands. Subsequently, the offset parameter at the broken gap InAs/GaSb interface is extracted and thus can be used to facilitate the development of predicted models of electron quantum tunneling efficiency and transistor performance

  5. Absorption band Q model for the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.L.; Given, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Body wave, surface wave, and normal mode data are used to place constraints on the frequency dependence of Q in the mantle. With a simple absorption band model it is possible to satisfy the shear sensitive data over a broad frequency range. The quality factor Q/sub s/(ω) is proportional to ω/sup α/ in the band and to ω and ω -1 at higher and lower frequencies, respectively, as appropriate for a relaxation mechanism with a spectrum of relaxation time. The parameters of the band are Q(min) = 80, α = 0.15, and width, 5 decades. The center of the band varies from 10 1 seconds in the upper mantle, to 1.6 x 10 3 seconds in the lower mantle. The shift of the band with depth is consistent with the expected effects of temperature, pressure and stress. High Q, regions of the mantle are attributed to a shift of the absorption band to longer periods. To satisfy the gravest fundamental spheroidal modes and the ScS data, the absorption band must shift back into the short-period seismic band at the base of the mantle. This may be due to a high temperature gradient or high shear stresses. A preliminary attempt is also made to specify bulk dissipation in the mantle and core. Specific features of the absorption band model are low Q in the body wave band at both the top and the base of the mantle, low Q for long-period body waves in the outer core, an inner core Q 2 that increases with period, and low Q/sub p//Q/sub s/ at short periods in the middle mantel. The short-period Q/sub s/ increases rapidly at 400 km and is relatively constant from this depth to 2400 km. The deformational Q of the earth at a period of 14 months is predicted to be 463

  6. Band-type microelectrodes for amperometric immunoassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ga-Yeon; Chang, Young Wook; Ko, Hyuk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Min-Jung [Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pyun, Jae-Chul, E-mail: jcpyun@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-20

    A band-type microelectrode was made using a parylene-N film as a passivation layer. A circular-type, mm-scale electrode with the same diameter as the band-type microelectrode was also made with an electrode area that was 5000 times larger than the band-type microelectrode. By comparing the amperometric signals of 3,5,3′,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) samples at different optical density (OD) values, the band-type microelectrode was determined to be 9 times more sensitive than the circular-type electrode. The properties of the circular-type and the band-type electrodes (e.g., the shape of their cyclic voltammograms, the type of diffusion layer used, and the diffusion layer thickness per unit electrode area) were characterized according to their electrode area using the COMSOL Multiphysics software. From these simulations, the band-type electrode was estimated to have the conventional microelectrode properties, even when the electrode area was 100 times larger than a conventional circular-type electrode. These results show that both the geometry and the area of an electrode can influence the properties of the electrode. Finally, amperometric analysis based on a band-type electrode was applied to commercial ELISA kits to analyze human hepatitis B surface antigen (hHBsAg) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies. - Highlights: • A band-type microelectrode was made using a parylene-N film as a passivation layer. • The band-type microelectrode was 14-times more sensitive than circular-type electrode. • The influence of geometry on microelectrode properties was simulated using COMSOL. • The band-type electrode was applied to ELISA kits for hHBsAg and hHIV-antibodies.

  7. Peak frequency and linewidth of the optical bands of F2 and F3+ centers in Lif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldacchini, G.; De Nicola, E.; Montereali, R.M.; Scacco, A.; Kalinov, V.

    1999-01-01

    Optical absorption and emission spectra have been measured in LiF crystals colored with γ ray. The optical bands of various samples, suitably treated in order to create different relative concentrations of F 2 and F 3 + defects in the crystal lattice, have been studied in detail at 77 K and at room temperature, and resolved into their components. An accurate determination of the spectroscopic parameters of the absorption and emission bands of the aggregated defects in LiF has been achieved, and a critical comparison with previous data has been performed [it

  8. ‘Double cortex’ sign on FDG-PET/CT in diffuse band heterotopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, Madhavi; Tripathi, Manjari; Kumar, Ganesh; Malhotra, Arun; Bal, Chandra Sekhar

    2013-01-01

    F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron emission tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) has come to play an increasingly important role for the pre-surgical evaluation of drug resistant epilepsy and complements Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of grey matter heterotopias. This case illustrates the characteristic pattern of metabolic abnormality in diffuse band heterotopia (DBH) which is otherwise called double cortex syndrome. The presence of metabolic activity in the heterotopic inner cortical band and in the overlying true cortex gives rise to the ‘double cortex’ sign on FDG-PET, concurrent CT provides a good anato-metabolic coregistration

  9. ‘Double cortex’ sign on FDG-PET/CT in diffuse band heterotopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Madhavi; Tripathi, Manjari; Kumar, Ganesh; Malhotra, Arun; Bal, Chandra Sekhar

    2013-01-01

    F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron emission tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) has come to play an increasingly important role for the pre-surgical evaluation of drug resistant epilepsy and complements Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of grey matter heterotopias. This case illustrates the characteristic pattern of metabolic abnormality in diffuse band heterotopia (DBH) which is otherwise called double cortex syndrome. The presence of metabolic activity in the heterotopic inner cortical band and in the overlying true cortex gives rise to the ‘double cortex’ sign on FDG-PET, concurrent CT provides a good anato-metabolic coregistration. PMID:24379541

  10. 47 CFR 87.139 - Emission limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GPS, the mean power of any emission must be attenuated below the mean power of the transmitter (pY) as... lines through the above points. (j) When using G7D for differential GPS in the 112-118 MHz band, the... channel bandwidth centered on the first adjacent 25 kHz channel shall not exceed −18 dBm. (l)(1) For...

  11. Two-band superconductor magnesium diboride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, X X

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on the most important features of the 40 K superconductor MgB 2 -the weakly interacting multiple bands (the σ and π bands) and the distinct multiple superconducting energy gaps (the σ and π gaps). Even though the pairing mechanism of superconductor MgB 2 is the conventional electron-phonon coupling, the prominent influence of the two bands and two gaps on its properties sets it apart from other superconductors. It leads to markedly different behaviors in upper critical field, vortex structure, magnetoresistance and many other superconducting and normal-state properties in MgB 2 from single-band superconductors. Further, it gives rise to new physics that does not exist in single-band superconductors, such as the internal Josephson effects between the two order parameters. These unique phenomena depend sensitively on scattering inside and between the two bands, and the intraband and interband scattering can be modified by chemical substitution and irradiation. MgB 2 has brought unprecedented attention to two-band superconductivity, which has been found to exist in other old and new superconductors. The legacy of MgB 2 will be long lasting because of this, as well as the lessons it teaches in terms of the search for new phonon-mediated higher T c superconductors

  12. 8-band and 14-band kp modeling of electronic band structure and material gain in Ga(In)AsBi quantum wells grown on GaAs and InP substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladysiewicz, M.; Wartak, M. S. [Faculty of Fundamental Problems of Technology, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Department of Physics and Computer Science, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Kudrawiec, R. [Faculty of Fundamental Problems of Technology, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2015-08-07

    The electronic band structure and material gain have been calculated for GaAsBi/GaAs quantum wells (QWs) with various bismuth concentrations (Bi ≤ 15%) within the 8-band and 14-band kp models. The 14-band kp model was obtained by extending the standard 8-band kp Hamiltonian by the valence band anticrossing (VBAC) Hamiltonian, which is widely used to describe Bi-related changes in the electronic band structure of dilute bismides. It has been shown that in the range of low carrier concentrations n < 5 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}, material gain spectra calculated within 8- and 14-band kp Hamiltonians are similar. It means that the 8-band kp model can be used to calculate material gain in dilute bismides QWs. Therefore, it can be applied to analyze QWs containing new dilute bismides for which the VBAC parameters are unknown. Thus, the energy gap and electron effective mass for Bi-containing materials are used instead of VBAC parameters. The electronic band structure and material gain have been calculated for 8 nm wide GaInAsBi QWs on GaAs and InP substrates with various compositions. In these QWs, Bi concentration was varied from 0% to 5% and indium concentration was tuned in order to keep the same compressive strain (ε = 2%) in QW region. For GaInAsBi/GaAs QW with 5% Bi, gain peak was determined to be at about 1.5 μm. It means that it can be possible to achieve emission at telecommunication windows (i.e., 1.3 μm and 1.55 μm) for GaAs-based lasers containing GaInAsBi/GaAs QWs. For GaInAsBi/Ga{sub 0.47}In{sub 0.53}As/InP QWs with 5% Bi, gain peak is predicted to be at about 4.0 μm, i.e., at the wavelengths that are not available in current InP-based lasers.

  13. Dual-band frequency selective surface with large band separation and stable performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hang; Qu Shao-Bo; Lin Bao-Qin; Wang Jia-Fu; Ma Hua; Zhang Jie-Qiu; Peng Wei-Dong; Bai Peng; Wang Xu-Hua; Xu Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    A new technique of designing a dual-band frequency selective surface with large band separation is presented. This technique is based on a delicately designed topology of L- and Ku-band microwave filters. The two band-pass responses are generated by a capacitively-loaded square-loop frequency selective surface and an aperture-coupled frequency selective surface, respectively. A Faraday cage is located between the two frequency selective surface structures to eliminate undesired couplings. Based on this technique, a dual-band frequency selective surface with large band separation is designed, which possesses large band separation, high selectivity, and stable performance under various incident angles and different polarizations. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  14. INTERPRETING THE SUBTLE SPECTRAL VARIATIONS OF THE 11.2 AND 12.7 μ m POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON BANDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, M. J.; Stock, D. J.; Peeters, E.

    2016-01-01

    We report new properties of the 11 and 12.7 μ m emission complexes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by applying a Gaussian-based decomposition technique. Using high-resolution Spitzer Space Telescope data, we study in detail the spectral and spatial characteristics of the 11 and 12.7 μ m emission bands in maps of reflection nebulae NGC 7023 and NGC 2023 (north and south) and the star-forming region M17. Profile variations are observed in both the 11 and 12.7 μ m emission bands. We identify a neutral contribution to the traditional 11.0 μ m PAH band and a cationic contribution to the traditional 11.2 μ m band, the latter of which affects the PAH class of the 11.2 μ m emission in our sample. The peak variations of the 12.7 μ m complex are explained by the competition between two underlying blended components. The spatial distributions of these components link them to cations and neutrals. We conclude that the 12.7 μ m emission originates in both neutral and cationic PAHs, lending support to the use of the 12.7/11.2 intensity ratio as a charge proxy.

  15. INTERPRETING THE SUBTLE SPECTRAL VARIATIONS OF THE 11.2 AND 12.7 μ m POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON BANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon, M. J.; Stock, D. J.; Peeters, E., E-mail: mshann3@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2016-06-20

    We report new properties of the 11 and 12.7 μ m emission complexes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by applying a Gaussian-based decomposition technique. Using high-resolution Spitzer Space Telescope data, we study in detail the spectral and spatial characteristics of the 11 and 12.7 μ m emission bands in maps of reflection nebulae NGC 7023 and NGC 2023 (north and south) and the star-forming region M17. Profile variations are observed in both the 11 and 12.7 μ m emission bands. We identify a neutral contribution to the traditional 11.0 μ m PAH band and a cationic contribution to the traditional 11.2 μ m band, the latter of which affects the PAH class of the 11.2 μ m emission in our sample. The peak variations of the 12.7 μ m complex are explained by the competition between two underlying blended components. The spatial distributions of these components link them to cations and neutrals. We conclude that the 12.7 μ m emission originates in both neutral and cationic PAHs, lending support to the use of the 12.7/11.2 intensity ratio as a charge proxy.

  16. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in multiple frequency bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hong-xiang, E-mail: jsdxshx@ujs.edu.cn [Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yuan, Shou-qi, E-mail: Shouqiy@ujs.edu.cn [Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhang, Shu-yi [Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-11-23

    We report both experimentally and numerically that the multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission is realized by placing two periodic gratings with different periods on both sides of two brass plates immersed in water. The asymmetric acoustic transmission can exist in four frequency bands below 1500 kHz, which arises from the interaction between various diffractions from the two gratings and Lamb modes in the brass plates immersed in water. The results indicate that the device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and simpler structure. Our finding should have great potential applications in ultrasonic devices.

  17. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in multiple frequency bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hong-xiang; Yuan, Shou-qi; Zhang, Shu-yi

    2015-01-01

    We report both experimentally and numerically that the multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission is realized by placing two periodic gratings with different periods on both sides of two brass plates immersed in water. The asymmetric acoustic transmission can exist in four frequency bands below 1500 kHz, which arises from the interaction between various diffractions from the two gratings and Lamb modes in the brass plates immersed in water. The results indicate that the device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and simpler structure. Our finding should have great potential applications in ultrasonic devices

  18. Emission Inventory for Fugitive Emissions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Nielsen, Malene

    This report presents the methodology and data used in the Danish inventory of fugitive emissions from fuels for the years until 2007. The inventory of fugitive emissions includes CO2, CH4, N2O, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2, dioxin, PAH and particulate matter. In 2007 the total Danish emission of greenhouse...

  19. Electron field emission for ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, A. R.; Auciello, O.; Ding, M. Q.; Gruen, D. M.; Huang, Y.; Zhirnov, V. V.; Givargizov, E. I.; Breskin, A.; Chechen, R.; Shefer, E. (and others)

    2001-03-01

    Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films 0.1--2.4 {mu}m thick were conformally deposited on sharp single Si microtip emitters, using microwave CH{sub 4}--Ar plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition in combination with a dielectrophoretic seeding process. Field-emission studies exhibited stable, extremely high (60--100 {mu}A/tip) emission current, with little variation in threshold fields as a function of film thickness or Si tip radius. The electron emission properties of high aspect ratio Si microtips, coated with diamond using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) process were found to be very different from those of the UNCD-coated tips. For the HFCVD process, there is a strong dependence of the emission threshold on both the diamond coating thickness and Si tip radius. Quantum photoyield measurements of the UNCD films revealed that these films have an enhanced density of states within the bulk diamond band gap that is correlated with a reduction in the threshold field for electron emission. In addition, scanning tunneling microscopy studies indicate that the emission sites from UNCD films are related to minima or inflection points in the surface topography, and not to surface asperities. These data, in conjunction with tight binding pseudopotential calculations, indicate that grain boundaries play a critical role in the electron emission properties of UNCD films, such that these boundaries: (a) provide a conducting path from the substrate to the diamond--vacuum interface, (b) produce a geometric enhancement in the local electric field via internal structures, rather than surface topography, and (c) produce an enhancement in the local density of states within the bulk diamond band gap.

  20. The Potential for a Ka-band (32 GHz) Worldwide VLBI Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C. S.; Bach, U.; Colomer, F.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J.; Gulyaev, S.; Horiuchi, S.; Ichikawa, R.; Kraus, A.; Kronschnabl, G.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Ka-band (32 GHz, 9mm) Very Long Baseline Interferometric (VLBI) networking has now begun and has tremendous potential for expansion over the next few years. Ka-band VLBI astrometry from NASA's Deep Space Network has already developed a catalog of 470 observable sources with highly accurate positions. Now, several antennas worldwide are planning or are considering adding Ka-band VLBI capability. Thus, there is now an opportunity to create a worldwide Ka-band network with potential for high resolution imaging and astrometry. With baselines approaching a Giga-lambda, a Ka-band network would be able to probe source structure at the nano-radian (200 as) level ( 100X better than Hubble) and thus gain insight into the astrophysics of the most compact regions of emission in active galactic nuclei. We discuss the advantages of Ka-band, show the known sources and candidates, simulate projected baseline (uv) coverage, and discuss potential radio frequency feeds. The combination of these elements demonstrates the feasibility of a worldwide Ka network within the next few years!

  1. Broad band energy distribution of UV-bright BL Lac objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraschi, L.; Tanzi, E.G.; Treves, A.

    1984-01-01

    IUE satellite data in the 1200-2000 and 1900-3200 A intervals of BL Lac objects are analyzed in terms of two discernible groups. A total of 25 BL Lac objects were observed, with differences between groups displayed in terms of the power slope of the energy of the UV emissions, i.e., slopes of 1 and 2. Comparisons of the spectra with those of quasars showed that quasars have a small spectral index in the 1000-6000 A band and no correlation exists between the spectral index and UV flux of the BL Lac objects. The comparisons underscore the lack of a thermal component for BL Lac objects. Steep spectral components in both BL Lac objects and highly polarized quasars emissions could both be due to synchrotron emission. Compton scattering of relativistic electrons off synchrotron photons could produce the X ray emissions. 44 references

  2. Broad band energy distribution of UV-bright BL Lac objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maraschi, L.; Tanzi, E.G.; Treves, A.

    1984-01-01

    IUE satellite data in the 1200-2000 and 1900-3200 A intervals of BL Lac objects are analyzed in terms of two discernible groups. A total of 25 BL Lac objects were observed, with differences between groups displayed in terms of the power slope of the energy of the UV emissions, i.e., slopes of 1 and 2. Comparisons of the spectra with those of quasars showed that quasars have a small spectral index in the 1000-6000 A band and no correlation exists between the spectral index and UV flux of the BL Lac objects. The comparisons underscore the lack of a thermal component for BL Lac objects. Steep spectral components in both BL Lac objects and highly polarized quasars emissions could both be due to synchrotron emission. Compton scattering of relativistic electrons off synchrotron photons could produce the X ray emissions. 44 references.

  3. Vibrational emission analysis of the CN molecules in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Bravo, Ángel; Delgado, Tomás; Lucena, Patricia; Laserna, J. Javier, E-mail: laserna@uma.es

    2013-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of organic materials is based on the analysis of atomic and ionic emission lines and on a few molecular bands, the most important being the CN violet system and the C{sub 2} Swan system. This paper is focused in molecular emission of LIBS plasmas based on the CN (B{sup 2}Σ–X{sup 2}Σ) band, one of the strongest emissions appearing in all carbon materials when analyzed in air atmosphere. An analysis of this band with sufficient spectral resolution provides a great deal of information on the molecule, which has revealed that valuable information can be obtained from the plume chemistry and dynamics affecting the excitation mechanisms of the molecules. The vibrational emission of this molecular band has been investigated to establish the dependence of this emission on the molecular structure of the materials. The paper shows that excitation/emission phenomena of molecular species observed in the plume depend strongly on the time interval selected and on the irradiance deposited on the sample surface. Precise time resolved LIBS measurements are needed for the observation of distinctive CN emission. For the organic compounds studied, larger differences in the behavior of the vibrational emission occur at early stages after plasma ignition. Since molecular emission is generally more complex than that involving atomic emission, local plasma conditions as well as plume chemistry may induce changes in vibrational emission of molecules. As a consequence, alterations in the distribution of the emissions occur in terms of relative intensities, being sensitive to the molecular structure of every single material. - Highlights: • Vibrational emission of CN species in laser-induced plasmas has been investigated. • Distribution of vibrational emission of CN has been found to be time dependent. • Laser irradiance affects the vibrational distribution of the CN molecules. • Plume chemistry controls the excitation mechanisms of CN

  4. Observation of dipole bands in 144Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, R.; Ganguly, S.; Kshetri, R.; Banerjee, P.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dasmahapatra, B.; Mukherjee, A.; Sahasarkar, M.; Goswami, A.; Basu, S.K.; Bhattacharjee, T.; Mukherjee, G.; Chakraborty, A.; Ghughre, S.S.; Krishichayan; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Gangopadhyay, G.; Singh, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    The nucleus 144 Sm (Z=62, N=82), with its proximity to the shell closure and possibilities of particles and holes occupying high j orbitals, following appropriate excitations, is a suitable system for observation of dipole (MR) bands

  5. Silicone rubber band for laparoscopic tubal sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A H; Sealey, R M; Gay, J W; Kang, I

    1977-12-01

    In 1974, Yoon and associates (Am J Obstet Gynecol 120:132, 1974) described a new approach in which laparoscopic tubal occlusion was accomplished by utilizing the silicone rubber band technique. Recognizing the great advantages of the new technique in eliminating potential thermal injury associated with electrocoagulation, the authors have utilized the Yoon silicone rubber band technique in these institutions over the past 20 months. Thus far the procedure has been performed in 304 patients without any major complications. In the hope of eliminating and/or reducing possible pregnancy-failure rates, in 110 cases. In addition to application of the silicone band, the tube within the band was transected with non-electrical Seigler biopsy forceps. This, we believe, should provide an interesting long-term comparative study.

  6. Microbial processes in banded iron formation deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole; Konhauser, Kurt; Kappler, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    , remains unresolved. Evidence of an anoxic Earth with only localized oxic areas until the Great Oxidation Event ca 2·45 to 2·32 Ga makes the investigation of O2-independent mechanisms for banded iron formation deposition relevant. Recent studies have explored the long-standing proposition that Archean......Banded iron formations have been studied for decades, particularly regarding their potential as archives of the Precambrian environment. In spite of this effort, the mechanism of their deposition and, specifically, the role that microbes played in the precipitation of banded iron formation minerals...... banded iron formations may have been formed, and diagenetically modified, by anaerobic microbial metabolisms. These efforts encompass a wide array of approaches including isotope, ecophysiological and phylogeny studies, molecular and mineral marker analysis, and sedimentological reconstructions. Herein...

  7. Simulating Precambrian banded iron formation diagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R.; K??hler, Inga; D. Swanner, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Post-depositional diagenetic alteration makes the accurate interpretation of key precipitation processes in ancient sediments, such as Precambrian banded iron formations (BIFs), difficult. While microorganisms are proposed as key contributors to BIF deposition, the diagenetic transformation...

  8. The Novel Microwave Stop-Band Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Chernobrovkin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The stop-band filter with the new band-rejection element is proposed. The element is a coaxial waveguide with the slot in the centre conductor. In the frame of this research, the numerical and experimental investigations of the amplitude-frequency characteristics of the filter are carried out. It is noted that according to the slot parameters the two typical resonances (half-wave and quarter-wave can be excited. The rejection band of the single element is defined by the width, depth, and dielectric filling of the slot. Fifth-order Chebyshev filter utilizing the aforementioned element is also synthesized, manufactured, and tested. The measured and simulated results are in good agreement. The experimental filter prototype exhibits the rejection band 0.86 GHz at the level −40 dB.

  9. Experimental study on the adiabatic shear bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affouard, J.

    1984-07-01

    Four martensitic steels (Z50CDV5 steel, 28CND8 steel, 35NCDV16 steel and 4340 steel) with different hardness between 190 and 600 Hsub(B) (Brinell hardness), have been studied by means of dynamic compressive tests on split Hopkinson pressure bar. Microscopic observations show that the fracture are associated to the development of adiabatic shear bands (except 4340 steel with 190 Hsub(B) hardness). By means of tests for which the deformation is stopped at predetermined levels, the measurement of shear and hardness inside the band and the matrix indicates the chronology of this phenomenon: first the localization of shear, followed by the formation of adiabatic shear band and ultimatly crack initiation and propagation. These results correlated with few simulations by finite elements have permitted to suggest two mecanisms of deformation leading to the formation of adiabatic shear bands in this specific test [fr

  10. The cellular approach to band structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verwoerd, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    A short introduction to the cellular approach in band structure calculations is given. The linear cellular approach and its potantial applicability in surface structure calculations is given some consideration in particular

  11. Full L-S Band Telemetry System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jensen, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Recent changes in spectrum availability as well as higher demands for spectrum have motivated the development of telemetry transmit systems capable of fully operating over both L and S telemetry bands...

  12. Full L-S Band Telemetry System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jensen, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Recent changes in spectrum availability as well as higher demands for spectrum have motivated the development of telemetry transmit systems capable of fully operating over both L and S telemetry bands...

  13. Full L-S Band Telemetry System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jensen, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Recent changes in spectrum availability as well as higher demands for spectrum have motivated the development of telemetry transmit systems capable of fully operating over both L and S telemetry bands...

  14. Deployable Ka-Band Reflectarray, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tyvak, in collaboration with UCLA, proposes a novel approach to the challenge of creating a large reflector for Ka-band high data rate links. We propose to attach...

  15. Confidence bands for inverse regression models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birke, Melanie; Bissantz, Nicolai; Holzmann, Hajo

    2010-01-01

    We construct uniform confidence bands for the regression function in inverse, homoscedastic regression models with convolution-type operators. Here, the convolution is between two non-periodic functions on the whole real line rather than between two periodic functions on a compact interval, since the former situation arguably arises more often in applications. First, following Bickel and Rosenblatt (1973 Ann. Stat. 1 1071–95) we construct asymptotic confidence bands which are based on strong approximations and on a limit theorem for the supremum of a stationary Gaussian process. Further, we propose bootstrap confidence bands based on the residual bootstrap and prove consistency of the bootstrap procedure. A simulation study shows that the bootstrap confidence bands perform reasonably well for moderate sample sizes. Finally, we apply our method to data from a gel electrophoresis experiment with genetically engineered neuronal receptor subunits incubated with rat brain extract

  16. Red-luminescence band: A tool for the quality assessment of germanium and silicon nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraj, I.; Favre, L.; David, T.; Abbarchi, M.; Liu, K.; Claude, J. B.; Ronda, A.; Naffouti, M.; Saidi, F.; Hassen, F.; Maaref, H.; Aqua, J. N.; Berbezier, I.

    2017-10-01

    We present the photoluminescence (PL) emission of Silicon and Germanium nanocrystals (NCs) of different sizes embedded in two different matrices. Formation of the NCs is achieved via solid-state dewetting during annealing in a molecular beam epitaxy ultra-high vacuum system of ultrathin amorphous Si and Ge layers deposited at room temperature on SiO2. During the dewetting process, the bi-dimensional amorphous layers transform into small pseudo-spherical islands whose mean size can be tuned directly with the deposited thickness. The nanocrystals are capped either ex situ by silicon dioxide or in situ by amorphous Silicon. The surface-state dependent emission (typically in the range 1.74 eV-1.79 eV) exhibited higher relative PL quantum yields compared to the emission originating from the band gap transition. This red-PL emission comes from the radiative transitions between a Si band and an interface level. It is mainly ascribed to the NCs and environment features deduced from morphological and structural analyses. Power dependent analysis of the photoluminescence intensity under continuous excitation reveals a conventional power law with an exponent close to 1, in agreement with the type II nature of the emission. We show that Ge-NCs exhibit much lower quantum efficiency than Si-NCs due to non-radiative interface states. Low quantum efficiency is also obtained when NCs have been exposed to air before capping, even if the exposure time is very short. Our results indicate that a reduction of the non-radiative surface states is a key strategy step in producing small NCs with increased PL emission for a variety of applications. The red-PL band is then an effective tool for the quality assessment of NCs based structures.

  17. Recombination luminescence in irradiated silicon-effects of uniaxial stress and temperature variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Compton, W. D.

    1971-01-01

    Demonstration that luminescence in irradiated silicon consists of a spectral group between 0.80 and 1.0 eV which seems to be independent of impurities, while a lower energy group between 0.60 and 0.80 eV is seen only in pulled crystals. The small halfwidth and temperature dependence of the sharp zero-phonon lines observed in these spectra indicate that the luminescence arises from a bound-to-bound transition. A model is proposed for the transition mechanism. Stress data taken on the 0.79-eV zero-phonon line in pulled crystals can be fit by either a tetragonal 100 (in brackets) defect symmetry or by conduction-band splitting effects. It is suggested that the 0.79-eV zero-phonon line and the 0.60- to 0.80-eV spectral group arise from the EPR G-15 center. Stress data on a zero-phonon line at 0.97 eV associated with the 0.80- to 1.0-eV spectral group can be explained by a trigonal 111 (in brackets) defect. The divacancy is tentatively suggested as responsible for this luminescence spectra.

  18. Control Banding and Nanotechnology Synergist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalk, D; Paik, S

    2009-12-15

    The average Industrial Hygienist (IH) loves a challenge, right? Okay, well here is one with more than a few twists. We start by going through the basics of a risk assessment. You have some chemical agents, a few workers, and the makings of your basic exposure characterization. However, you have no occupational exposure limit (OEL), essentially no toxicological basis, and no epidemiology. Now the real handicap is that you cannot use sampling pumps, cassettes, tubes, or any of the media in your toolbox, and the whole concept of mass-to-dose is out the window, even at high exposure levels. Of course, by the title, you knew we were talking about nanomaterials (NM). However, we wonder how many IHs know that this topic takes everything you know about your profession and turns it upside down. It takes the very foundations that you worked so hard in college and in the field to master and pulls it out from underneath you. It even takes the gold standard of our profession, the quantitative science of exposure assessment, and makes it look pretty darn rusty. Now with NM there is the potential to get some aspect of quantitative measurements, but the instruments are generally very expensive and getting an appropriate workplace personal exposure measurement can be very difficult if not impossible. The potential for workers getting exposures, however, is very real, as evidenced by a recent publication reporting worker exposures to polyacrylate nanoparticles in a Chinese factory (Song et al. 2009). With something this complex and challenging, how does a concept as simple as Control Banding (CB) save the day? Although many IHs have heard of CB, most of their knowledge comes from its application in the COSHH Essentials toolkit. While there is conflicting published research on COSHH Essentials and its value for risk assessments, almost all of the experts agree that it can be useful when no OELs are available (Zalk and Nelson 2008). It is this aspect of CB, its utility with

  19. Modification in band gap of zirconium complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Mayank, E-mail: mayank30134@gmail.com; Singh, J.; Chouhan, S. [Department of Physics, ISLE, IPS Academy, Indore (M.P.) (India); Mishra, A. [School of Physics, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (M.P.) (India); Shrivastava, B. D. [Govt. P. G. College, Biora (M.P.) (India)

    2016-05-06

    The optical properties of zirconium complexes with amino acid based Schiff bases are reported here. The zirconium complexes show interesting stereo chemical features, which are applicable in organometallic and organic synthesis as well as in catalysis. The band gaps of both Schiff bases and zirconium complexes were obtained by UV-Visible spectroscopy. It was found that the band gap of zirconium complexes has been modified after adding zirconium compound to the Schiff bases.

  20. Theoretical Prediction of the Forming Limit Band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banabic, D.; Paraianu, L.; Vos, M.; Jurco, P.

    2007-01-01

    Forming Limit Band (FLB) is a very useful tool to improve the sheet metal forming simulation robustness. Until now, the study of the FLB was only experimental. This paper presents the first attempt to model the FLB. The authors have established an original method for predicting the two margins of the limit band. The method was illustrated on the AA6111-T43 aluminum alloy. A good agreement with the experiments has been obtained

  1. Theoretical Prediction of the Forming Limit Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banabic, D.; Vos, M.; Paraianu, L.; Jurco, P.

    2007-04-01

    Forming Limit Band (FLB) is a very useful tool to improve the sheet metal forming simulation robustness. Until now, the study of the FLB was only experimental. This paper presents the first attempt to model the FLB. The authors have established an original method for predicting the two margins of the limit band. The method was illustrated on the AA6111-T43 aluminum alloy. A good agreement with the experiments has been obtained.

  2. Home-use cancer detecting band aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalevsky, Zeev; Rudnitsky, Arkady; Sheinman, Victor; Tzoy, Andrey; Toktosunov, Aitmamat; Adashov, Arkady

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present a novel concept in which special band aid is developed for early detection of cancer. The band aid contains an array of micro needles with small detection array connected to each needle which inspects the color of the surface of the skin versus time after being pinched with the needles. We were able to show in pre-clinical trials that the color varies differently if the skin is close to tumor tissue.

  3. A superdeformed band in {sup 142}Sm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackman, G; Mullins, J M; Kuehner, J A; Prevost, D; Waddington, J C [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Janzen, V P; Radford, D C; Schmeing, N; Ward, D [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

    1992-08-01

    Observation of {gamma}-{gamma} coincidences from the reaction {sup 124}Sn({sup 24}Mg,6n){sup 142}Sm at 145 MeV indicates the existence of a rotational band with dynamic moment of inertia J{sup (2)} similar to that of the superdeformed band in the isotone {sup 143}Eu. This result is consistent with calculations predicting superdeformed structures in N = 80, Z {approx} 64 nuclei. (author). 8 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Broadband transmission grating spectrometer for measuring the emission spectrum of EUV sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayraktar, Muharrem; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Bruineman, Caspar; Vratzov, Boris; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light sources and their optimization for emission within a narrow wavelength band are essential in applications such as photolithography. Most light sources however also emit radiation outside this wavelength band and have a spectrum extending up to deep ultraviolet (DUV)

  5. Band structures in near spherical 138Ce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, T.; Chanda, S.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Basu, S. K.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Das, J. J.; Pramanik, U. Datta; Ghugre, S. S.; Madhavan, N.; Mukherjee, A.; Mukherjee, G.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.

    2009-06-01

    The high spin states of N=80138Ce have been populated in the fusion evaporation reaction 130Te( 12C, 4n) 138Ce at E=65 MeV. The γ transitions belonging to various band structures were detected and characterized using an array of five Clover Germanium detectors. The level scheme has been established up to a maximum spin and excitation energy of 23 ℏ and 9511.3 keV, respectively, by including 53 new transitions. The negative parity ΔI=1 band, developed on the 6536.3 keV 15 level, has been conjectured to be a magnetic rotation band following a semiclassical analysis and comparing the systematics of similar bands in the neighboring nuclei. The said band is proposed to have a four quasiparticle configuration of [πgh]⊗[. Other band structures are interpreted in terms of multi-quasiparticle configurations, based on Total Routhian Surface (TRS) calculations. For the low and medium spin states, a shell model calculation using a realistic two body interaction has been performed using the code OXBASH.

  6. Electron correlations in narrow band systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, R.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of the electron correlations in narrow bands, such as d(f) bands in the transition (rare earth) metals and their compounds and the impurity bands in doped semiconductors is studied. The narrow band systems is described, by the Hubbard Hamiltonian. By proposing a local self-energy for the interacting electron, it is found that the results are exact in both atomic and band limits and reduce to the Hartree Fock results for U/Δ → 0, where U is the intra-atomic Coulomb interaction and Δ is the bandwidth of the noninteracting electrons. For the Lorentzian form of the density of states of the noninteracting electrons, this approximation turns out to be equivalent to the third Hubbard approximation. A simple argument, based on the mean free path obtained from the imaginary part of the self energy, shows how the electron correlations can give rise to a discontinous metal-nonmetal transition as proposed by Mott. The band narrowing and the existence of the satellite below the Fermi energy in Ni, found in photoemission experiments, can also be understood. (Author) [pt

  7. Acoustic emission from hydrogen saturated Type 304L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Acoustic emission is attributed to energy release within a material body by localized plastic deformation or failure processes. The elastic stress waves may come from slip band formation, mechanical twinning, martensite transformation, or crack propagation. Each of these processes has slightly different acoustic characteristics allowing for easy identification. Acoustic emission was monitored during tensile tests of Type 304L austenitic stainless steel to explore the applicability of the technique to hydrogen-assisted fracture

  8. Narrow-band radio flares from red dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, S.M.; Kundu, M.R.; Jackson, P.D.

    1986-12-01

    VLA observations of narrow-band behavior in 20 cm flares from two red dwarf stars, L726 - 8A and AD Leo, are reported. The flare on L726 - 8A was observed at 1415 and 1515 MHz; the flux and the evolution differed significantly at the two frequencies. The flare on AD Leo lasted for 2 hr at 1415 MHz but did not appear at 1515 MHz. The AD Leo flare appears to rule out a source drifting through the stellar corona and is unlikely to be due to plasma emission. In the cyclotron maser model the narrow-band behavior reflects the range of magnetic fields present within the source. The apparent constancy of this field for 2 hr is difficult to understand if magnetic reconnection is the source of energy for the flare. The consistent polarization exhibited by red dwarf flares at 20 cm may be related to stellar activity cycles, and changes in this polarization will permit measuring the length of these cycles. 22 references.

  9. Narrow-band radio flares from red dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen M.; Kundu, Mukul R.; Jackson, Peter D.

    1986-01-01

    VLA observations of narrow-band behavior in 20 cm flares from two red dwarf stars, L726 - 8A and AD Leo, are reported. The flare on L726 - 8A was observed at 1415 and 1515 MHz; the flux and the evolution differed significantly at the two frequencies. The flare on AD Leo lasted for 2 hr at 1415 MHz but did not appear at 1515 MHz. The AD Leo flare appears to rule out a source drifting through the stellar corona and is unlikely to be due to plasma emission. In the cyclotron maser model the narrow-band behavior reflects the range of magnetic fields present within the source. The apparent constancy of this field for 2 hr is difficult to understand if magnetic reconnection is the source of energy for the flare. The consistent polarization exhibited by red dwarf flares at 20 cm may be related to stellar activity cycles, and changes in this polarization will permit measuring the length of these cycles.

  10. SLAC High Gradient Testing of a KEK X-Band Accelerator Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewen, Rod

    2000-01-01

    The high accelerating gradients required for future linear colliders demands a better study of field emission and RF breakdown in accelerator structures. Changes in structure geometry, vacuum pumping, fabrication methods, and surface finish can all potentially impact the conditioning process, dark current emission, and peak RF power handling capability. Recent tests at SLAC of KEK's ''M2'' travelling wave x-band accelerator section provides an opportunity to investigate some of these effects by comparing its performance to previously high power tested structures at SLAC. In addition to studying ultimate power limitations, this test also demonstrates the use of computer automated conditioning to reach practical, achievable gradients

  11. Mapping Forest Cover and Forest Cover Change with Airborne S-Band Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh K. Ningthoujam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of forest cover, forest carbon stocks and carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation are increasingly important components of sustainable resource management, for combating biodiversity loss and in climate mitigation policies. Satellite remote sensing provides the only means for mapping global forest cover regularly. However, forest classification with optical data is limited by its insensitivity to three-dimensional canopy structure and cloud cover obscuring many forest regions. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR sensors are increasingly being used to mitigate these problems, mainly in the L-, C- and X-band domains of the electromagnetic spectrum. S-band has not been systematically studied for this purpose. In anticipation of the British built NovaSAR-S satellite mission, this study evaluates the benefits of polarimetric S-band SAR for forest characterisation. The Michigan Microwave Canopy Scattering (MIMICS-I radiative transfer model is utilised to understand the scattering mechanisms in forest canopies at S-band. The MIMICS-I model reveals strong S-band backscatter sensitivity to the forest canopy in comparison to soil characteristics across all polarisations and incidence angles. Airborne S-band SAR imagery over the temperate mixed forest of Savernake Forest in southern England is analysed for its information content. Based on the modelling results, S-band HH- and VV-polarisation radar backscatter and the Radar Forest Degradation Index (RFDI are used in a forest/non-forest Maximum Likelihood classification at a spatial resolution of 6 m (70% overall accuracy, κ = 0.41 and 20 m (63% overall accuracy, κ = 0.27. The conclusion is that S-band SAR such as from NovaSAR-S is likely to be suitable for monitoring forest cover and its changes.

  12. B(M1) values in the band-crossing of shears bands in 197Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krücken, R.; Cooper, J. R.; Beausang, C. W.; Novak, J. R.; Dewald, A.; Klug, T.; Kemper, G.; von Brentano, P.; Carpenter, M.; Wiedenhöver, I.

    We present details of the band crossing mechanism of shears bands using the example of 197Pb. Absolute reduced matrix elements B(M1) were determined by means of a RDM lifetime measurement in one of the shears bands in 197Pb. The experiment was performed using the New Yale Plunger Device (NYPD) in conjunction with the Gammasphere array. Band mixing calculations on the basis of the semi-classical model of the shears mechanism are used to describe the transition matrix elements B(M1) and energies throughout the band-crossing regions. Good agreement with the data was obtained and the detailed composition of the states in the shears band are discussed.

  13. ISM band to U-NII band frequency transverter and method of frequency transversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Jeffrey David [Grandview, MO; Hensley, Dale [Grandview, MO

    2006-09-12

    A frequency transverter (10) and method for enabling bi-frequency dual-directional transfer of digitally encoded data on an RF carrier by translating between a crowded or otherwise undesirable first frequency band, such as the 2.4 GHz ISM band, and a less-crowded or otherwise desirable second frequency band, such as the 5.0 GHz 6.0 GHz U-NII band. In a preferred embodiment, the transverter (10) connects between an existing data radio (11) and its existing antenna (30), and comprises a bandswitch (12); an input RF isolating device (14); a transmuter (16); a converter (18); a dual output local oscillator (20); an output RF isolating device (22); and an antenna (24) tuned to the second frequency band. The bandswitch (12) allows for bypassing the transverter (10), thereby facilitating its use with legacy systems. The transmuter (14) and converter (16) are adapted to convert to and from, respectively, the second frequency band.

  14. Creation of near-infrared emitting optical center related to nickel–silicon impurity complex in nanodiamond grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tóth, S.; Himics, L.; Koós, M.

    2016-01-01

    Nanodiamond grains having intensive light emission in the near-infrared region even at room temperature carry an important application potential. Advantages of light emitting optical centers formed in nanodiamond grains are the emission concentrated into a narrow band and that they are mostly single photon emitter. Transition metal related impurity centers formed in nanodiamond grains exhibit these favorable properties. In this work we report on the creation of Ni–Si impurity related complex defect center in nanodiamond grains under microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MW CVD) growth process. This complex center accounts for the previously undocumented fluorescence system with zero phonon line (ZPL) emission at 865 nm (1.433 eV) and band width of 1.5 nm (2.4 meV) at room temperature. By varying deposition conditions the Ni–Si impurity related complex defect center was formed in nanodiamond grains of 80–200 nm average sizes. Some variation of ZPL peak position and line width have been detected in nanodiamond grains prepared at different conditions, as well as in numerous nanodiamond grains prepared at the same conditions. The variations of local stress field may explain the spread of ZPL spectral parameters.

  15. Creation of near-infrared emitting optical center related to nickel–silicon impurity complex in nanodiamond grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tóth, S., E-mail: toth.sara@wigner.mta.hu; Himics, L.; Koós, M.

    2016-08-15

    Nanodiamond grains having intensive light emission in the near-infrared region even at room temperature carry an important application potential. Advantages of light emitting optical centers formed in nanodiamond grains are the emission concentrated into a narrow band and that they are mostly single photon emitter. Transition metal related impurity centers formed in nanodiamond grains exhibit these favorable properties. In this work we report on the creation of Ni–Si impurity related complex defect center in nanodiamond grains under microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MW CVD) growth process. This complex center accounts for the previously undocumented fluorescence system with zero phonon line (ZPL) emission at 865 nm (1.433 eV) and band width of 1.5 nm (2.4 meV) at room temperature. By varying deposition conditions the Ni–Si impurity related complex defect center was formed in nanodiamond grains of 80–200 nm average sizes. Some variation of ZPL peak position and line width have been detected in nanodiamond grains prepared at different conditions, as well as in numerous nanodiamond grains prepared at the same conditions. The variations of local stress field may explain the spread of ZPL spectral parameters.

  16. Photoexcited emission efficiencies of zinc oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, John Vincent

    Optoelectronic properties of the II-VI semiconductor zinc oxide (ZnO) have been studied scientifically for almost 60 years; however, many fundamental questions remain unanswered about its two primary emission bands--the exciton-related luminescence in the ultraviolet and the defect-related emission band centered in the green portion of the visible spectrum. The work in this dissertation was motivated by the surprising optical properties of a ZnO nanowire sample grown by the group of Prof. Jie Liu, Department of Chemistry, Duke University. We found that this nanowire sample exhibited defect-related green/white emission of unprecedented intensity relative to near-band-edge luminescence. The experimental work comprising this dissertation was designed to explain the optical properties of this ZnO nanowire sample. Understanding the physics underlying such exceptional intensity of green emission addresses many of the open questions of ZnO research and assesses the possibility of using ZnO nanostructures as an ultraviolet-excited, broadband visible phosphor. The goal of this dissertation is to provide insight into what factors influence the radiative and nonradiative recombination efficiencies of ZnO by characterizing simultaneously the optical properties of the near-band-edge ultraviolet and the defect-related green emission bands. Specifically, we seek to understand the mechanisms of ultraviolet and green emission, the mechanism of energy transfer between them, and the evolution of their emission efficiencies with parameters such as excitation density and sample temperature. These fundamental but unanswered questions of ZnO emission are addressed here by using a novel combination of ultrafast spectroscopic techniques in conjunction with a systematic set of ZnO samples. Through this systematic investigation, ZnO may be realistically assessed as a potential green/white light phosphor. Photoluminescence techniques are used to characterize the thermal quenching behavior of

  17. Lyman Break Galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field through Deep U-Band Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafelski, Marc; Wolfe, A. M.; Cooke, J.; Chen, H. W.; Armandroff, T. E.; Wirth, G. D.

    2009-12-01

    We introduce an extremely deep U-band image taken of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), with a one sigma depth of 30.7 mag arcsec-2 and a detection limiting magnitude of 28 mag arcsec-2. The observations were carried out on the Keck I telescope using the LRIS-B detector. The U-band image substantially improves the accuracy of photometric redshift measurements of faint galaxies in the HUDF at z=[2.5,3.5]. The U-band for these galaxies is attenuated by lyman limit absorption, allowing for more reliable selections of candidate Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) than from photometric redshifts without U-band. We present a reliable sample of 300 LBGs at z=[2.5,3.5] in the HUDF. Accurate redshifts of faint galaxies at z=[2.5,3.5] are needed to obtain empirical constraints on the star formation efficiency of neutral gas at high redshift. Wolfe & Chen (2006) showed that the star formation rate (SFR) density in damped Ly-alpha absorption systems (DLAs) at z=[2.5,3.5] is significantly lower than predicted by the Kennicutt-Schmidt law for nearby galaxies. One caveat to this result that we wish to test is whether LBGs are embedded in DLAs. If in-situ star formation is occurring in DLAs, we would see it as extended low surface brightness emission around LBGs. We shall use the more accurate photometric redshifts to create a sample of LBGs around which we will look for extended emission in the more sensitive and higher resolution HUDF images. The absence of extended emission would put limits on the SFR density of DLAs associated with LBGs at high redshift. On the other hand, detection of faint emission on scales large compared to the bright LBG cores would indicate the presence of in situ star formation in those DLAs. Such gas would presumably fuel the higher star formation rates present in the LBG cores.

  18. Anomalous optical emission in hot dense oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; Gregoryanz, Eugene; Mao, Ho-kwang; Hemley, Russell J.

    2007-11-01

    We report the observation of unusually strong, broad-band optical emission peaked between 590 and 650 nm when solid and fluid oxygen are heated by a near infrared laser at pressures from 3 to 46 GPa. In situ Raman spectra of oxygen were collected and corresponding temperatures were measured from the Stokes/anti-Stokes intensity ratios of vibrational transitions. The intense optical emission overwhelmed the Raman spectrum at temperatures exceeding 750 K. The spectrum was found to be much narrower than Planck-type thermal emission, and the intensity increase with input power was much steeper than expected for the thermal emission. The result places an important general caveat on calculating temperatures based on optical emission spectra in high-pressure laser-heating experiments. The intense emission in oxygen is photo-induced rather than being purely thermal, through multiphoton or multi-step single photon absorption processes related to the interaction with infrared radiation. The results suggest that short lived ionic species are induced by this laser-matter interaction.

  19. Spectrally narrowed emissions in 2,5-bis(4-biphenylyl)thiophene crystals pumped by fs laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, S.; Sasaki, F.; Yanagi, H.; Hotta, S.; Ichikawa, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Spectrally narrowed emission (SNE) in 2,5-bis(4-biphenylyl)thiophene (BP1T) crystals is investigated using fs laser pulse. Two different types of narrowing are observed at different vibronic emission bands with increasing pump intensities. Based on their pump intensity dependence and illumination area dependence, we assign the SNE at 20,200 cm -1 (β-band) to amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and the SNE at 21,600 cm -1 (α-band) to superfluorescence rather than ASE

  20. Microscopic bosonization of band structures: x-ray processes beyond the Fermi edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, Izak; Florens, Serge

    2017-11-01

    Bosonization provides a powerful analytical framework to deal with one-dimensional strongly interacting fermion systems, which makes it a cornerstone in quantum many-body theory. However, this success comes at the expense of using effective infrared parameters, and restricting the description to low energy states near the Fermi level. We propose a radical extension of the bosonization technique that overcomes both limitations, allowing computations with microscopic lattice Hamiltonians, from the Fermi level down to the bottom of the band. The formalism rests on the simple idea of representating the fermion kinetic term in the energy domain, after which it can be expressed in terms of free bosonic degrees of freedom. As a result, one- and two-body fermionic scattering processes generate anharmonic boson-boson interactions, even in the forward channel. We show that up to moderate interaction strengths, these non-linearities can be treated analytically at all energy scales, using the x-ray emission problem as a showcase. In the strong interaction regime, we employ a systematic variational solution of the bosonic theory, and obtain results that agree quantitatively with an exact diagonalization of the original one-particle fermionic model. This provides a proof of the fully microscopic character of bosonization, on all energy scales, for an arbitrary band structure. Besides recovering the known x-ray edge singularity at the emission threshold, we find strong signatures of correlations even at emission frequencies beyond the band bottom.

  1. Observation of intermediate bands in Eu3+ doped YPO4 host: Li+ ion effect and blue to pink light emitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kareem Parchur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the tuning of blue to pink colour generation from Li+ ion co-doped YPO4:5Eu nanoparticles prepared by polyol method at ∼100-120 °C with ethylene glycol (EG as a capping agent. Interaction of EG molecules capped on the surface of the nanoparticles and/or created oxygen vacancies induces formation of intermediate/mid gap bands in the host structure, which is supported by UV-Visible absorption data. Strong blue and pink colors can be observed in the cases of as-prepared and 500 °C annealed samples, respectively. Co-doping of Li+ enhances the emission intensities of intermediate band as well as Eu3+. On annealing as-prepared sample to 500 °C, the intermediate band emission intensity decreases, whereas Eu3+ emission intensity increases suggesting increase of extent of energy transfer from the intermediate band to Eu3+ on annealing. Emission intensity ratio of electric to magnetic dipole transitions of Eu3+ can be varied by changing excitation wavelength. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS study of as-prepared samples confirms the presence of oxygen vacancies and Eu3+ but absence of Eu2+. Dispersed particles in ethanol and polymer film show the strong blue color, suggesting that these materials will be useful as probes in life science and also in light emitting device applications.

  2. Electrons in feldspar II: A consideration of the influence of conduction band-tail states on luminescence processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poolton, H.R.J.; Ozanyan, K.B.; Wallinga, J.

    2002-01-01

    consider what influence the band tails have on the luminescence properties of feldspar, where electrons travel through the sample prior to recombination. The work highlights the dominant role that 0.04-0.05-eV phonons play in both the luminescence excitation and emission processes of these materials...

  3. Plasma emission mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melrose, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Only three emission processes are thought to play a role in solar radio emission: plasma emission, gyromagnetic emission and bremsstrahlung. In this chapter plasma emission is discussed and the processes involved in its production are treated, namely, the generation of Langmuir turbulence, the partial conversion into fundamental transverse radiation, production of secondary Langmuir waves and the generation of second-harmonic transverse radiation. (U.K.)

  4. Ferritin associates with marginal band microtubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infante, Anthony A.; Infante, Dzintra; Chan, M.-C.; How, P.-C.; Kutschera, Waltraud; Linhartova, Irena; Muellner, Ernst W.; Wiche, Gerhard; Propst, Friedrich

    2007-01-01

    We characterized chicken erythrocyte and human platelet ferritin by biochemical studies and immunofluorescence. Erythrocyte ferritin was found to be a homopolymer of H-ferritin subunits, resistant to proteinase K digestion, heat stable, and contained iron. In mature chicken erythrocytes and human platelets, ferritin was localized at the marginal band, a ring-shaped peripheral microtubule bundle, and displayed properties of bona fide microtubule-associated proteins such as tau. Red blood cell ferritin association with the marginal band was confirmed by temperature-induced disassembly-reassembly of microtubules. During erythrocyte differentiation, ferritin co-localized with coalescing microtubules during marginal band formation. In addition, ferritin was found in the nuclei of mature erythrocytes, but was not detectable in those of bone marrow erythrocyte precursors. These results suggest that ferritin has a function in marginal band formation and possibly in protection of the marginal band from damaging effects of reactive oxygen species by sequestering iron in the mature erythrocyte. Moreover, our data suggest that ferritin and syncolin, a previously identified erythrocyte microtubule-associated protein, are identical. Nuclear ferritin might contribute to transcriptional silencing or, alternatively, constitute a ferritin reservoir

  5. Excited negative parity bands in 160Yb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A.; Bhattacharjee, T.; Curien, D.; Dedes, I.; Mazurek, K.; Banerjee, S. R.; Rajbanshi, S.; Bisoi, A.; de Angelis, G.; Bhattacharya, Soumik; Bhattacharyya, S.; Biswas, S.; Chakraborty, A.; Das Gupta, S.; Dey, B.; Goswami, A.; Mondal, D.; Pandit, D.; Palit, R.; Roy, T.; Singh, R. P.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Saha, S.; Sethi, J.

    2018-03-01

    Negative parity rotational bands in {} 70160Yb{}90 nucleus have been studied. They were populated in the 148Sm(16O, 4n)160Yb reaction at 90 MeV. The gamma-coincidence data have been collected using Indian National Gamma Array composed of twenty Compton suppressed clover germanium (Ge) detectors. Double gating on triple gamma coincidence data were selectively used to develop the decay scheme for these negative parity bands by identifying and taking care of the multiplet transitions. The even- and odd-spin negative parity bands in 160Yb have been studied by comparing the reduced transition probability ratios with the similar bands in neighbouring even-even rare earth nuclei. It is concluded that the concerned odd-spin and even-spin bands are not signature partners and that their structures are compatible with those of the ‘pear-shape’ and ‘pyramid-shape’ oscillations, respectively, the octupole shapes superposed with the quadrupole shape of the ground-state.

  6. Ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa, O [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Gresillon, D [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1994-07-01

    The goal of the study is to examine whether the spontaneous emission can account for ICE (ion cyclotron emission) experimental results, or part of them. A straightforward approach to plasma emission is chosen, investigating the near equilibrium wave radiation by gyrating ions, and thus building from the majority and fast fusion ions the plasma fluctuations and emission on the fast magnetoacoustic or compressional Alfven wave mode in the IC frequency range. Similarities with the ICE experiments are shown: the emission temperature in the presence of fast ions (even in a very small amount), the strong fast ion emission increase with the harmonic, the fine double-line splitting of each peak, the linear but not proportional increase of the peak width with the harmonic. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Costa, O.; Gresillon, D.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the study is to examine whether the spontaneous emission can account for ICE (ion cyclotron emission) experimental results, or part of them. A straightforward approach to plasma emission is chosen, investigating the near equilibrium wave radiation by gyrating ions, and thus building from the majority and fast fusion ions the plasma fluctuations and emission on the fast magnetoacoustic or compressional Alfven wave mode in the IC frequency range. Similarities with the ICE experiments are shown: the emission temperature in the presence of fast ions (even in a very small amount), the strong fast ion emission increase with the harmonic, the fine double-line splitting of each peak, the linear but not proportional increase of the peak width with the harmonic. 3 refs., 2 figs

  8. DNA abasic site-selective enhancement of sanguinarine fluorescence with a large emission shift.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wu

    Full Text Available Small molecules that can specifically bind to a DNA abasic site (AP site have received much attention due to their importance in DNA lesion identification, drug discovery, and sensor design. Herein, the AP site binding behavior of sanguinarine (SG, a natural alkaloid, was investigated. In aqueous solution, SG has a short-wavelength alkanolamine emission band and a long-wavelength iminium emission band. At pH 8.3, SG experiences a fluorescence quenching for both bands upon binding to fully matched DNAs without the AP site, while the presence of the AP site induces a strong SG binding and the observed fluorescence enhancement for the iminium band are highly dependent on the nucleobases flanking the AP site, while the alkanolamine band is always quenched. The bases opposite the AP site also exert some modifications on the SG's emission behavior. It was found that the observed quenching for DNAs with Gs and Cs flanking the AP site is most likely caused by electron transfer between the AP site-bound excited-state SG and the nearby Gs. However, the flanking As and Ts that are not easily oxidized favor the enhanced emission. This AP site-selective enhancement of SG fluorescence accompanies a band conversion in the dominate emission from the alkanolamine to iminium band thus with a large emission shift of about 170 nm. Absorption spectra, steady-state and transient-state fluorescence, DNA melting, and electrolyte experiments confirm that the AP site binding of SG occurs and the stacking interaction with the nearby base pairs is likely to prevent the converted SG iminium form from contacting with water that is thus emissive when the AP site neighbors are bases other than guanines. We expect that this fluorophore would be developed as a promising AP site binder having a large emission shift.

  9. Optical Observations of M81 Galaxy Group in Narrow Band [SII] and H_alpha Filters: Holmberg IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbutina, B.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of the nearby tidal dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX in M81 galaxy group in narrow band [SII] and H$alpha$ filters, carried out in March and November 2008 with the 2m RCC telescope at NAO Rozhen, Bulgaria. Our search for resident supernova remnants (identified as sources with enhanced [SII] emission relative to their H$alpha$ emission in this galaxy yielded no sources of this kind, besides M&H 10-11 or HoIX X-1. Nevertheless, we found a number of objects with significant H$alpha$ emission that probably represent uncatalogued HII regions.

  10. Laser-produced lithium plasma as a narrow-band extended ultraviolet radiation source for photoelectron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriever, G; Mager, S; Naweed, A; Engel, A; Bergmann, K; Lebert, R

    1998-03-01

    Extended ultraviolet (EUV) emission characteristics of a laser-produced lithium plasma are determined with regard to the requirements of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The main features of interest are spectral distribution, photon flux, bandwidth, source size, and emission duration. Laser-produced lithium plasmas are characterized as emitters of intense narrow-band EUV radiation. It can be estimated that the lithium Lyman-alpha line emission in combination with an ellipsoidal silicon/molybdenum multilayer mirror is a suitable EUV source for an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy microscope with a 50-meV energy resolution and a 10-mum lateral resolution.

  11. Study of land surface temperature and spectral emissivity using multi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tral emissivities over a hard rock terrain using multi-sensor satellite data. The study area, of .... Georeferenced MODIS level 1B data (bands 31 and. 32) and Landsat ETM+ data .... the optical properties of the atmosphere. In the present study ...

  12. 47 CFR 22.917 - Emission limitations for cellular equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... permitted in all cases to improve measurement accuracy provided the measured power is integrated over the... prospective assignees or transferees and, upon request, to the FCC. (d) Interference caused by out of band... another radio service, the FCC may require a greater attenuation of that emission than specified in this...

  13. Decameter radio emission of Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabov, B.P.; Arkhipov, A.V.; Shevchenko, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent observations (1980 to 1982) at frequency band from 10 to 23 MHz have allowed large-scale dynamic spectra of S storms to be obtained for the overall duration of each storm. The observations were carried out with the East-West arm of the broad band decametric telescope UTB-2. The minimum-detectable flux density of the emission was 10 Jy. The occurrence probability of S-bursts has shown a periodic dependence on the observation frequency, with a period about 3.5 MHz. S-bursts appear at almost all values of the Jovian central meridian longitude and Io's phase angle PHIsub(Isub(0)), except the area PHIsub(i)O)=160 deg +- 40 deg. The appearance of powerful S-burst storms is controled by Io's orbital position. They concentrate near two values of PHIsub(Isub(0)), namely PHIsub9(Isub(01))=86 deg and PHIsub(Isub(02))=234 deg. All the S-bursts show a group frequency drift, with the rate varying from storm to storm between 60 and 600 kHz/min. The drift rate is positive in the strip near PHIsub(Isub(01)) and negative near PHIsub(Isub(02)). This implies that the conical radiation pattern of the decametric S-component is characterized by a frequency dependent angular structure

  14. Band gaps for the relativistic Mathieu potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerk, G.J.; McKellar, B.H.J.

    1992-01-01

    A study of the band structure of a massless particle in a cosine potential is made via the Dirac equation. It is shown that every alternate band gap disappears as a consequence of a periodicity of the potential combined with a peculiar symmetry of the Dirac equation. This basic potential is then used to study a simple one-dimensional model of the nucleus from which it is ascertained that modelling the mean field of the quarks in the nucleus via a pure scalar potential is unsatisfactory. A simple extension involving a combined scalar and vector potential is then proposed as a possible solution to this problem. The effect of the addition of this vector component to the band structure is also investigated. 32 refs

  15. What band rocks the MTB? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, J.; García-Rubio, I.; Gehring, A. U.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a polyphyletic group of bacteria that have been found in marine and lacustrine environments and soils [e.g. 1]. The hallmark of MTB is their intracellular formation of magnetosomes, single-domain ferrimagnetic particles that are aligned in chains. The chain configuration generates a strong magnetic dipole, which is used as magnetic compass to move the MTB into their favorable habit. The term band corresponds to a frequency window of microwaves in the gigahertz (GHz) range. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy uses the microwave absorption in a magnetic field to analyze the anisotropy properties and the domain state of magnetic materials. Specific microwave frequency causes absorption in a characteristic magnetic field range. For the investigation of MTB we use S-band (4.02 GHz), X-band (9.47 GHz), and Q-band (34.16 GHz). Experiments on cultured MTB and on sediment samples of Holocene age showed that absorption in X- and Q-band occurs when the sample is in a saturated or nearly saturated state [2, 3]. By contrast, absorption in the S-band appears in lower magnetic fields, where the sample is far from saturation. All FMR spectra show two distinct low-field features that can be assigned to magnetite particles in chains, aligned parallel and perpendicular to the external magnetic field. The detailed separation of the parallel and perpendicular components in the bulk samples is hampered, because of the random orientation of the chains in the sample. The comparison of S-, X-, and Q-band shows that the lower the frequency the better the separation of the components. In the S-band FMR spectroscopy, the separation of chains parallel to the external magnetic field is supported by the internal field of the sample. This field is caused by the remanence that contributes to the external magnetic field to fulfill the resonance condition [3,4]. Considering the different FMR responses, it can be postulated that a lower microwave frequency

  16. Some general constraints on identical band symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidry, M.W.; Strayer, M.R.; Wu, C.; Feng, D.H.

    1993-01-01

    We argue on general grounds that nearly identical bands observed for superdeformation and less frequently for normal deformation must be explicable in terms of a symmetry having a microscopic basis. We assume that the unknown symmetry is associated with a Lie algebra generated by terms bilinear in fermion creation and annihilation operators. Observed features of these bands and the general properties of Lie groups are then used to place constraints on acceptable algebras. Additional constraints are placed by assuming that the collective spectrum is associated with a dynamical symmetry, and examining the subgroup structure required by phenomenology. We observe that requisite symmetry cannot be unitary, and that the simplest known group structures consistent with these minimal criteria are associated with the Ginocchio algebras employed in the fermion dynamical symmetry model. However, our arguments are general in nature, and we propose that they imply model-independent constraints on any candidate explanation for identical bands

  17. Simplicial band depth for multivariate functional data

    KAUST Repository

    López-Pintado, Sara

    2014-03-05

    We propose notions of simplicial band depth for multivariate functional data that extend the univariate functional band depth. The proposed simplicial band depths provide simple and natural criteria to measure the centrality of a trajectory within a sample of curves. Based on these depths, a sample of multivariate curves can be ordered from the center outward and order statistics can be defined. Properties of the proposed depths, such as invariance and consistency, can be established. A simulation study shows the robustness of this new definition of depth and the advantages of using a multivariate depth versus the marginal depths for detecting outliers. Real data examples from growth curves and signature data are used to illustrate the performance and usefulness of the proposed depths. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  18. Exact folded-band chaotic oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corron, Ned J; Blakely, Jonathan N

    2012-06-01

    An exactly solvable chaotic oscillator with folded-band dynamics is shown. The oscillator is a hybrid dynamical system containing a linear ordinary differential equation and a nonlinear switching condition. Bounded oscillations are provably chaotic, and successive waveform maxima yield a one-dimensional piecewise-linear return map with segments of both positive and negative slopes. Continuous-time dynamics exhibit a folded-band topology similar to Rössler's oscillator. An exact solution is written as a linear convolution of a fixed basis pulse and a discrete binary sequence, from which an equivalent symbolic dynamics is obtained. The folded-band topology is shown to be dependent on the symbol grammar.

  19. Kπ=0+ band moment of inertia anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, J.Y.; Wu, C.S.; Cheng, L.; Lin, C.Z.; China Center of Advanced Science and Technology

    1990-01-01

    The moments of inertia of K π =0 + bands in the well-deformed nuclei are calculated by a particle-number-conserving treatment for the cranked shell model. The very accurate solutions to the low-lying K π =0 + bands are obtained by making use of an effective K truncation. Calculations show that the main contribution to the moments of inertia comes from the nucleons in the intruding high-j orbits. Considering the fact that no free parameter is involved in the calculation and no extra inert core contribution is added, the agreement between the calculated and the observed moments of inertia of 0 + bands in 168 Er is very satisfactory

  20. Band Edge Dynamics and Multiexciton Generation in Narrow Band Gap HgTe Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livache, Clément; Goubet, Nicolas; Martinez, Bertille; Jagtap, Amardeep; Qu, Junling; Ithurria, Sandrine; Silly, Mathieu G; Dubertret, Benoit; Lhuillier, Emmanuel

    2018-04-11

    Mercury chalcogenide nanocrystals and especially HgTe appear as an interesting platform for the design of low cost mid-infrared (mid-IR) detectors. Nevertheless, their electronic structure and transport properties remain poorly understood, and some critical aspects such as the carrier relaxation dynamics at the band edge have been pushed under the rug. Some of the previous reports on dynamics are setup-limited, and all of them have been obtained using photon energy far above the band edge. These observations raise two main questions: (i) what are the carrier dynamics at the band edge and (ii) should we expect some additional effect (multiexciton generation (MEG)) as such narrow band gap materials are excited far above the band edge? To answer these questions, we developed a high-bandwidth setup that allows us to understand and compare the carrier dynamics resonantly pumped at the band edge in the mid-IR and far above the band edge. We demonstrate that fast (>50 MHz) photoresponse can be obtained even in the mid-IR and that MEG is occurring in HgTe nanocrystal arrays with a threshold around 3 times the band edge energy. Furthermore, the photoresponse can be effectively tuned in magnitude and sign using a phototransistor configuration.

  1. Side-band-separating heterodyne mixer for band 9 of ALMA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mena, F. P.; Baryshev, A. M.; Kooi, J.; Lodewijk, C. F. J.; Gerlofsma, G.; Hesper, R.; Wild, W.; Shen, XC; Lu, W; Zhang, J; Dou, WB

    2006-01-01

    Here we present the realization of a side-band-separating (2SB) heterodyne mixer for the frequency range from 602 to 720 GHz (corresponding to ALMA band 9). The mixer, in brief, consists of a quadrature hybrid, two LO injectors, two SIS junctions, and three dumping loads. All the parts were modeled

  2. Elastic band prediction equations for combined free-weight and elastic band bench presses and squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoepe, Todd C; Ramirez, David A; Almstedt, Hawley C

    2010-01-01

    Elastic bands added to traditional free-weight techniques have become a part of suggested training routines in recent years. Because of the variable loading patterns of elastic bands (i.e., greater stretch produces greater resistance), it is necessary to quantify the exact loading patterns of bands to identify the volume and intensity of training. The purpose of this study was to determine the length vs. tension properties of multiple sizes of a set of commonly used elastic bands to quantify the resistance that would be applied to free-weight plus elastic bench presses (BP) and squats (SQ). Five elastic bands of varying thickness were affixed to an overhead support beam. Dumbbells of varying weights were progressively added to the free end while the linear deformation was recorded with each subsequent weight increment. The resistance was plotted as a factor of linear deformation, and best-fit nonlinear logarithmic regression equations were then matched to the data. For both the BP and SQ loading conditions and all band thicknesses tested, R values were greater than 0.9623. These data suggest that differences in load exist as a result of the thickness of the elastic band, attachment technique, and type of exercise being performed. Facilities should adopt their own form of loading quantification to match their unique set of circumstances when acquiring, researching, and implementing elastic band and free-weight exercises into the training programs.

  3. Band-gap and band-edge engineering of multicomponent garnet scintillators from first principles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yadav, S.K.; Uberuaga, B.P.; Nikl, Martin; Jiang, C.; Stanek, C.R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 5 (2015), "054012-1"-"054012-9" ISSN 2331-7019 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0805 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillator * electronic band gap structure * garnets * band gap engineering Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.061, year: 2015

  4. Interpolation of band-limited discrete-time signals by minimising out-of-band energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.E.M.; Vries, L.B.

    1984-01-01

    An interpolation method for restoring burst errors in discrete—time, band—limited signals is presented. The restoration is such that the restored signal has minimal out—of—band energy. The filter coefficients depend Only on the burst length and on the size of the band to which the signal is assumed

  5. Band to Band Tunneling (BBT) Induced Leakage Current Enhancement in Irradiated Fully Depleted SOI Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adell, Phillipe C.; Barnaby, H. J.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Vermeire, B.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a model, validated with simulations, describing how band-to-band tunneling (BBT) affects the leakage current degradation in some irradiated fully-depleted SOI devices. The dependence of drain current on gate voltage, including the apparent transition to a high current regime is explained.

  6. Modelling band-to-band tunneling current in InP-based heterostructure photonic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Engelen, J.P.; Shen, L.; van der Tol, J.J.G.M.; Smit, M.K.; Kockaert, P.; Emplit, P.; Gorza, S.-P.; Massar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Some semiconductor photonic devices show large discontinuities in the band structure. Short tunnel paths caused by this band structure may lead to an excessive tunneling current, especially in highly doped layers. Modelling of this tunnelling current is therefore important when designing photonic

  7. Photoelectron emission from metal surfaces by ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraggi, M. N.; Gravielle, M. S.; Silkin, V. M.

    2006-01-01

    Electron emission from metal surfaces produced by short laser pulses is studied within the framework of the distorted-wave formulation. The proposed approach, named surface-Volkov (SV) approximation, makes use of the band-structure based (BSB) model and the Volkov phase to describe the interaction of the emitted electron with the surface and the external electric field, respectively. The BSB model provides a realistic representation of the surface, based on a model potential that includes the main features of the surface band structure. The SV method is applied to evaluate the photoelectron emission from the valence band of Al(111). Angular and energy distributions are investigated for different parameters of the laser pulse, keeping in all cases the carrier frequency larger than the plasmon one

  8. Classification spectra of Sanduleak and Stephenson emission-line stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Low dispersion slit spectra of 89 emission-line stars are described; these stars were originally located and classified by Sanduleak and Stephenson in an objective-prism survey. The new data broadly confirm the classification scheme adopted by Sanduleak and Stephenson. In particular most of the large number of symbiotic stars they classified have been confirmed and others found. Many of these contain strong, broad emission bands in their red spectra. Two new Wolf-Rayet stars, one new planetary nebula and two new bipolar reflection nebulae involving hidden emission-line stars have been found. (author)

  9. Classification spectra of Sanduleak and Stephenson emission-line stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D A [Anglo-Australian Observatory, Epping (Australia)

    1978-09-01

    Low dispersion slit spectra of 89 emission-line stars are described; these stars were originally located and classified by Sanduleak and Stephenson in an objective-prism survey. The new data broadly confirm the classification scheme adopted by Sanduleak and Stephenson. In particular most of the large number of symbiotic stars they classified have been confirmed and others found. Many of these contain strong, broad emission bands in their red spectra. Two new Wolf-Rayet stars, one new planetary nebula and two new bipolar reflection nebulae involving hidden emission-line stars have been found.

  10. Spatially and spectrally resolved 10 mu m emission in Herbig Ae/Be stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boekel, R; Waters, LBFM; Dominik, C; Dullemond, CP; Tielens, AGGM; de Koter, A

    We present new mid-infrared spectroscopy of the emission from warm circumstellar dust grains in the Herbig Ae stars HD 100546. HD 97048 and HD 104237, with a spatial resolution Of of approximate to0."9. We find that the emission in the UIR bands at 8.6, 11.3 and (HD 97048 only) 12.7 mum is extended

  11. PREDICTION OF FORBIDDEN ULTRAVIOLET AND VISIBLE EMISSIONS IN COMET 67P/CHURYUMOV–GERASIMENKO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghuram, Susarla; Galand, Marina; Bhardwaj, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Remote observation of spectroscopic emissions is a potential tool for the identification and quantification of various species in comets. The CO Cameron band (to trace CO 2 ) and atomic oxygen emissions (to trace H 2 O and/or CO 2 , CO) have been used to probe neutral composition in the cometary coma. Using a coupled-chemistry-emission model, various excitation processes controlling the CO Cameron band and different atomic oxygen and atomic carbon emissions have been modeled in comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko at 1.29 AU (perihelion) and at 3 AU heliocentric distances, which is being explored by ESA's Rosetta mission. The intensities of the CO Cameron band, atomic oxygen, and atomic carbon emission lines as a function of projected distance are calculated for different CO and CO 2 volume mixing ratios relative to water. Contributions of different excitation processes controlling these emissions are quantified. We assess how CO 2 and/or CO volume mixing ratios with respect to H 2 O can be derived based on the observed intensities of the CO Cameron band, atomic oxygen, and atomic carbon emission lines. The results presented in this work serve as baseline calculations to understand the behavior of low out-gassing cometary coma and compare them with the higher gas production rate cases (e.g., comet Halley). Quantitative analysis of different excitation processes governing the spectroscopic emissions is essential to study the chemistry of inner coma and to derive neutral gas composition

  12. Morphological Processing of Ultraviolet Emissions of Electrical Corona Discharge for Analysis and Diagnostic Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew R.; Moore, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Electron cascades from electrical discharge produce secondary emissions from atmospheric plasma in the ultraviolet band. For a single point of discharge, these emissions exhibit a stereotypical discharge morphology, with latent information about the discharge location. Morphological processing can uncover the location and therefore can have diagnostic utility.

  13. 47 CFR 90.691 - Emission mask requirements for EA-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission mask requirements for EA-based systems. 90.691 Section 90.691 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... of Ea-Based Smr Systems in the 809-824/851-869 Mhz Band § 90.691 Emission mask requirements for EA...

  14. Structure of dipole bands in 106In

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, A. Y.; Palit, R.; Naik, Z.; Joshi, P. K.; Mazumdar, I.; Sihotra, S.; Mehta, D.; Kumar, S.; Chakrabarti, R.; Kshetri, R.; Jain, H. C.

    2009-01-01

    High spin states in neutron-deficient 106 In were investigated using 78 Se( 32 S,p3n) reaction at 125 MeV. The level scheme is extended up to 7 MeV of excitation energy for the negative parity states constituting four dipole bands, and the positive parity states which mainly exhibit single-particle excitations are extended up to 5 MeV. Projected deformed Hartree-Fock calculations were carried out to understand the configurations of different bands in this nucleus.

  15. Maximizing band gaps in plate structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated......Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...... theoretically and experimentally and the issue of finite size effects is addressed....

  16. Itinerant ferromagnetism in the narrow band limit

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, S H

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that in the narrow band, strong interaction limit the paramagnetic state of an itinerant ferromagnet is described by the disordered local moment state. As a result, the Curie temperature is orders of magnitude lower than what is expected from the large exchange splitting of the spin bands. An approximate analysis has also been carried out for the partially ordered state, and the result explains the temperature evolvement of the magnetic contributions to the resistivity and low-energy optical conductivity of CrO sub 2.

  17. Proximal iliotibial band syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Guadagnini Falotico

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The overuse injuries in the hip joint occur commonly in sports practitioners and currently due to technical advances in diagnostic imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, are often misdiagnosed. Recently, a group of people were reported, all female, with pain and swelling in the pelvic region.T2-weighted MRI showed increased signal in the enthesis of the iliotibial band (ITB along the lower border of the iliac tubercle. We report a case of a 34 year old woman, non-professional runner, with pain at the iliac crest with no history of trauma and whose MRI was compatible with the proximal iliotibial band syndrome.

  18. Electron currents associated with an auroral band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiger, R.J.; Anderson, H.R.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements of electron pitch angle distributions and energy spectra over a broad auroral band were used to calculate net electric current carried by auroral electrons in the vicinity of the band. The particle energy spectrometers were carried by a Nike-Tomahawk rocket launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, at 0722 UT on February 25, 1972. Data are presented which indicate the existence of upward field-aligned currents of electrons in the energy range 0.5-20 keV. The spatial relationship of these currents to visual structure of the auroral arc and the characteristics of the electrons carrying the currents are discussed

  19. Electron currents associated with an auroral band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiger, R. J.; Anderson, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements of electron pitch angle distributions and energy spectra over a broad auroral band were used to calculate net electric current carried by auroral electrons in the vicinity of the band. The particle energy spectrometers were carried by a Nike-Tomahawk rocket launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, at 0722 UT on February 25, 1972. Data are presented which indicate the existence of upward field-aligned currents of electrons in the energy range 0.5-20 keV. The spatial relationship of these currents to visual structure of the auroral arc and the characteristics of the electrons carrying the currents are discussed.

  20. Ka-band waveguide rotary joint

    KAUST Repository

    Yevdokymov, Anatoliy

    2013-04-11

    The authors present a design of a waveguide rotary joint operating in Ka-band with central frequency of 33 GHz, which also acts as an antenna mount. The main unit consists of two flanges with a clearance between them; one of the flanges has three circular choke grooves. Utilisation of three choke grooves allows larger operating clearance. Two prototypes of the rotary joint have been manufactured and experimentally studied. The observed loss is from 0.4 to 0.8 dB in 1.5 GHz band.

  1. Band theory of metals the elements

    CERN Document Server

    Altmann, Simon L

    1970-01-01

    Band Theory of Metals: The Elements focuses on the band theory of solids. The book first discusses revision of quantum mechanics. Topics include Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, normalization, stationary states, wave and group velocities, mean values, and variational method. The text takes a look at the free-electron theory of metals, including heat capacities, density of states, Fermi energy, core and metal electrons, and eigenfunctions in three dimensions. The book also reviews the effects of crystal fields in one dimension. The eigenfunctions of the translations; symmetry operations of t

  2. Banding of connection standards for distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-04

    This report presents the views of distributed network operators (DNOs), developers, equipment manufacturers and consultants on the current banding of distributed generation in terms of connection standards and recommendations. The Documents ER G59/1, ER G75/1, ER G83/1 and ETR 113/1 covering recommendations for the connection of embedded generating plant to distribution systems and guidance notes for the protection of embedded generating plant are examined. The way in which the recommendations are applied in practice is investigated. Multiple distribution generator installations, fault ride through, and banding are considered as well as both protection required and maximum generator sizes at respective voltage levels.

  3. Quantum numbers and band topology of nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damnjanovic, M [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 368, 11001 Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Milosevic, I [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 368, 11001 Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Vukovic, T [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 368, 11001 Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Maultzsch, J [Institut fuer Festkoerper Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2003-05-30

    Nanotubes as well as polymers and quasi-1D subsystems of 3D crystals have line group symmetry. This allows two types of quantum numbers: roto-translational and helical. The roto-translational quantum numbers are linear and total angular (not conserved) momenta, while the helical quantum numbers are helical and complementary angular momenta. Their mutual relations determine some topological properties of energy bands, such as systematic band sticking or van Hove singularities related to parities. The importance of these conclusions is illustrated by the optical absorption in carbon nanotubes: parity may prevent absorption peaks at van Hove singularities.

  4. Quantum numbers and band topology of nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damnjanovic, M; Milosevic, I; Vukovic, T; Maultzsch, J

    2003-01-01

    Nanotubes as well as polymers and quasi-1D subsystems of 3D crystals have line group symmetry. This allows two types of quantum numbers: roto-translational and helical. The roto-translational quantum numbers are linear and total angular (not conserved) momenta, while the helical quantum numbers are helical and complementary angular momenta. Their mutual relations determine some topological properties of energy bands, such as systematic band sticking or van Hove singularities related to parities. The importance of these conclusions is illustrated by the optical absorption in carbon nanotubes: parity may prevent absorption peaks at van Hove singularities

  5. Quantum numbers and band topology of nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Damnjanovic, M; Vukovic, T; Maultzsch, J

    2003-01-01

    Nanotubes as well as polymers and quasi-1D subsystems of 3D crystals have line group symmetry. This allows two types of quantum numbers: roto-translational and helical. The roto-translational quantum numbers are linear and total angular (not conserved) momenta, while the helical quantum numbers are helical and complementary angular momenta. Their mutual relations determine some topological properties of energy bands, such as systematic band sticking or van Hove singularities related to parities. The importance of these conclusions is illustrated by the optical absorption in carbon nanotubes: parity may prevent absorption peaks at van Hove singularities.

  6. Neutron transmission bands in one dimensional lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsivais, G.; Moshinsky, M.

    1999-01-01

    The original Kronig-Penney lattice, which had delta function interactions at the end of each of the equal segments, seems a good model for the motion of neutrons in a linear lattice if the strength b of the δ functions depends of the energy of the neutrons, i.e., b(E). We derive the equation for the transmission bands and consider the relations of b(E) with the R(E) function discussed in a previous paper. We note the great difference in the behavior of the bands when b(E) is constant and when it is related with a single resonance of the R function. (Author)

  7. Band gap and band offset of (GaIn)(PSb) lattice matched to InP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, F.; Böhm, G.; Meyer, R.; Amann, M.-C.

    2005-07-01

    Metastable (GaxIn1-x)(PySb1-y) layers were grown on (001) InP substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. Low-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy was applied to these heterostructures and revealed spatially indirect band-to-band recombination of electrons localized in the InP with holes in the (GaxIn1-x)(PySb1-y). In addition, samples with layer thicknesses larger than 100nm showed direct PL across the band gap of (GaxIn1-x)(PySb1-y). Band-gap energies and band offset energies of (GaxIn1-x)(PySb1-y) relative to InP were derived from these PL data. A strong bowing parameter was observed.

  8. M DWARF LUMINOSITY, RADIUS, AND α-ENRICHMENT FROM I-BAND SPECTRAL FEATURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Bender, Chad F.; Deshpande, Rohit; Robertson, Paul, E-mail: rct151@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Despite the ubiquity of M dwarfs and their growing importance to studies of exoplanets, Galactic evolution, and stellar structure, methods for precisely measuring their fundamental stellar properties remain elusive. Existing techniques for measuring M dwarf luminosity, mass, radius, or composition are calibrated over a limited range of stellar parameters or require expensive observations. We find a strong correlation between the K{sub S}-band luminosity (M{sub K}), the observed strength of the I-band sodium doublet absorption feature, and [Fe/H] in M dwarfs without strong Hα emission. We show that the strength of this feature, coupled with [Fe/H] and spectral type, can be used to derive M dwarf M{sub K} and radius without requiring parallax. Additionally, we find promising evidence that the strengths of the I-band sodium doublet and the nearby I-band calcium triplet may jointly indicate α-element enrichment. The use of these I-band features requires only moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy to provide valuable information about the potential habitability of exoplanets around M dwarfs, and surface gravity and distance for M dwarfs throughout the Galaxy. This technique has immediate applicability for both target selection and candidate planet–host system characterization for exoplanet missions such as TESS and K2.

  9. VIIRS day-night band gain and offset determination and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, J.; Florio, C.; Moyer, D.; Rausch, K.; De Luccia, F. J.

    2012-09-01

    On October 28th, 2011, the Visible-Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) was launched on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft. The instrument has 22 spectral bands: 14 reflective solar bands (RSB), 7 thermal emissive bands (TEB), and a Day Night Band (DNB). The DNB is a panchromatic, solar reflective band that provides visible through near infrared (IR) imagery of earth scenes with radiances spanning 7 orders of magnitude. In order to function over this large dynamic range, the DNB employs a focal plane array (FPA) consisting of three gain stages: the low gain stage (LGS), the medium gain stage (MGS), and the high gain stage (HGS). The final product generated from a DNB raw data record (RDR) is a radiance sensor data record (SDR). Generation of the SDR requires accurate knowledge of the dark offsets and gain coefficients for each DNB stage. These are measured on-orbit and stored in lookup tables (LUT) that are used during ground processing. This paper will discuss the details of the offset and gain measurement, data analysis methodologies, the operational LUT update process, and results to date including a first look at trending of these parameters over the early life of the instrument.

  10. M DWARF LUMINOSITY, RADIUS, AND α-ENRICHMENT FROM I-BAND SPECTRAL FEATURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Bender, Chad F.; Deshpande, Rohit; Robertson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of M dwarfs and their growing importance to studies of exoplanets, Galactic evolution, and stellar structure, methods for precisely measuring their fundamental stellar properties remain elusive. Existing techniques for measuring M dwarf luminosity, mass, radius, or composition are calibrated over a limited range of stellar parameters or require expensive observations. We find a strong correlation between the K S -band luminosity (M K ), the observed strength of the I-band sodium doublet absorption feature, and [Fe/H] in M dwarfs without strong Hα emission. We show that the strength of this feature, coupled with [Fe/H] and spectral type, can be used to derive M dwarf M K and radius without requiring parallax. Additionally, we find promising evidence that the strengths of the I-band sodium doublet and the nearby I-band calcium triplet may jointly indicate α-element enrichment. The use of these I-band features requires only moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy to provide valuable information about the potential habitability of exoplanets around M dwarfs, and surface gravity and distance for M dwarfs throughout the Galaxy. This technique has immediate applicability for both target selection and candidate planet–host system characterization for exoplanet missions such as TESS and K2

  11. Vehicle Emissions Risk Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahem, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Vehicle emissions are considered as a main source for air pollution. Emissions regulation is now well developed in most countries to meet cleaner air quality. Reducing emissions by using cleaner fuels, which meet certain specification, is not enough to get cleaner air, yet the vehicle technology is not improved. Here we will outline the following: - development in fuel specification and emissions regulation. main facts linking vehicle emissions, fuel properties and air quality. catalytic converter technology. Emissions sources: In modem cities, vehicle traffic is potentially a major source of emissions. However sometimes other sources of emissions from industry and other stationary sources can be equally important and include emissions that are of greater toxicity than those from vehicles

  12. Life-time resolved emission spectra in CdCl2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, S.; Nakagawa, H.; Kitaura, M.

    2005-01-01

    The emission spectrum of CdCl 2 is composed of ultraviolet (UV) and yellow (Y) bands peaking at 3.70 and 2.30 eV, respectively. In order to determine the initial states of the Y-luminescence, decay curves of the Y-emission were measured at 8K by varying emission energy in the range from 1.64 eV to 3.13 eV. The observed decay curves are composed of two or three exponential components. The values of lifetime for them were 900, 460 and 60 μs. The emission spectrum for each decay component, i.e., life-time resolved emission spectrum, was analyzed by the observed decay curves. The emission spectrum for the component of 460 μs lifetime exhibits a dominant band at 2.30 eV and a satellite band at 3.03 eV. The emission spectrum for the component of 60 μs lifetime is reproduced by the three Gaussian bands peaking at 2.21, 2.65 and 2.87 eV. For the component of 900 μs lifetime, only a single band appears at 1.73 eV. The origin of the emission bands in life-time resolved emission spectra is briefly discussed, and the initial states of Y-luminescence are explained by the excited states of a [Cd 2+ Cl - 6 ] 4- complex molecular ion. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Effect of aromatic compounds on radiation resistance of polymers studied by optical emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Shunichi; Hagiwara, Miyuki

    1987-10-01

    To clarify the effects of condensed bromoacenaphthylene (con-BACN) as a newly developed flame retardant on the radiation resistance of ethylene-propylene-diene-terpolymer (EPDM), optical emission behavior of aromatic compounds, acenaphthylene and acenaphthene as model compound of con-BACN was studied. The energy absorbed in polymer matrix is transferred to the aromatic molecules very fast within 1 ns, and introduces excited states of aromatic compound. The fluorescence from naphthalene units of the additives with peak at 337 and 350 nm (named AT emission band) was observed in EPDM containing acenaphthene or acenaphthylene. When aromatic peroxide was used as a crosslinking agent, another emission band (Xn band) was observed at 400 nm. It was found that these emission bands play a role in trapping sites in which a part of radiation energy release in the form of fluorescence. The energy level of the excited state was correlated to the radiation stability measured with coloration and oxidation reaction of the polymer. Furthermore, acenaphthylene having a reactive vinyl bond forms excimer emission band Ex whose level is lower than those of AT and Xn bands, and therefore, enhances radiation stability of matrix polymer by giving effective routes for energy release. (author)

  14. Secondary Emission From Synthetic Opal Infiltrated by Colloidal Gold and Glycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovbeshko, G.I.; Fesenko, O.M.; Boyko, V.V.; Romanyuk, V.R.; Gorelik, V.S.; Moiseyenko, V.N.; Sobolev, V.B.; Shvalagin, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    A comparison of the secondary emission (photoluminescence) and Bragg reflection spectra of photonic crystals (PC), namely, synthetic opals, opals infiltrated by colloidal gold, glycine, and a complex of colloidal gold with glycine is performed. The infiltration of colloidal gold and a complex of colloidal gold with glycine into the pores of PC causes a short-wavelength shift (about 5-15 nm) of the Bragg reflection and increases the intensity of this band by 1.5-3 times. In photoluminescence, the infiltration of PC by colloidal gold and colloidal gold with glycine suppresses the PC emission band near 375-450 nm and enhances the shoulder of the stop-zone band of PC in the region of 470-510 nm. The shape of the observed PC emission band connected with defects in synthetic opal is determined by the type of infiltrates and the excitation wavelength. Possible mechanisms of the effects are discussed.

  15. ANALISIS TIPOGRAFI PADA LOGOTYPE BAND FORGOTTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atang Riyan Isnandar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Forgotten merupakan band asal kota Bandung yang beraliran death metal. Band ini telah memiliki beberapa album yang cukup sukses. Salah satu faktor yang turut berperan penting dalam album-album Forgotten adalah desain sampul album. Sampul album merupakan identitas dan pesan dari musik yang dibawakan oleh Forgotten. Dalam sampul album, terdapat salah satu elemen visual yaitu Tipografi. Salah satu peran tipografi dalam sampul album Forgotten adalah sebagai logotype dari band. Yang menarik, dari lima album yang telah dirilis Forgotten yaitu “Future Syndrome” (1997, “Obsesi Mati” (2000, “Tuhan Telah Mati” (2001, “Tiga Angka Enam” (2003 dan “Laras Perlaya” (2011 adalah tampilan logotype band yang selalu berbeda. Perubahan logotype Forgotten disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor seperti adanya perubahan selera, transformasi musik dan pergantian personil yang dialami oleh band Forgotten. Perubahan ini berakibat pada munculnya kesan visual yang berbeda-beda dari masing-masing logotype di setiap sampul albumnya. Apalagi logotype band dengan genre death metal memiliki kecendrungan yang unik, dekoratif, bahkan sulit untuk dibaca. Oleh karena itu untuk mengetahui kesan visual yang dimunculkan oleh setiap logotype akan dilakukan penelitian dengan pendekatan tipografi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah selain untuk mengetahui perubahan logotype dari kelima sampul album yang telah dirilis oleh Forgotten juga ingin mengetahui kesan visual terhadap tipografi terkait dengan prinsip kejelasan (legibility, keterbacaan (readability dan kemampuannya untuk dilihat pada jarak tertentu (visibility. Kata Kunci: Sampul Album, Tipografi, Logotype, Forgotten Abstract Forgotten is a band from Bandung, the death metal genre. The band has had some fairly successful album. One of important factor in albums Forgotten is the album cover design. The album cover are the identity and the message of the music performed by the Forgotten. In the cover of the album

  16. Electrostatic noise bands associated with the electron gyrofrequency and plasma frequency in the outer magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    Naturally occurring noise bands near the electron plasma frequency are frequently detected by the University of Iowa plasma wave experiment on the IMP 6 satellite in the region from just inside the plasmapause to radial distances of about 10 earth radii in the outer magnetosphere. The electric field strength of these noise bands is usually small with electric field spectral densities near 10 -15 volts 2 meter -2 Hz -1 . A wave magnetic field has been detected only in a few unusually intense cases, and in these cases the magnetic field energy density is several orders of magnitude smaller than the electric field energy density. The bands are observed at all magnetic latitudes covered by the IMP 6 orbit (parallelγ/sub m/parallel less than or equal to 45 0 ) and appear to be a permanent feature of the outer magnetosphere. They are found at all local times and occur least frequently in the quadrant from 18 to 24 hours. The bands appear to consist of two distinct spectral types, diffuse and narrow. In both types the center frequency of the noise band is bounded by consecutive harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency, and the bands occur most often between harmonics that are near the local electron plasma frequency. These bands appear to merge continuously into two types of plasma wave emissions that are found in dissimilar regions of the magnetosphere (upper hybrid resonance noise, also called Region 3 noise, inside the plasmasphere and (n + 1/2)f/sub g/ harmonics in the outer magnetosphere). It is suggested that this smooth merging is caused by changes in the plasma wave dispersion relation that occur as the spacecraft moves from the cold plasma within the plasmasphere into the warm non-Maxwellian plasma found in the outer magnetosphere

  17. Ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    The NEC (National Emission Ceiling) directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the la......The NEC (National Emission Ceiling) directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries...

  18. Self-absorption theory applied to rocket measurements of the nitric oxide (1, 0) gamma band in the daytime thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eparvier, F. G.; Barth, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of the UV fluorescent emissions of the NO (1, 0) and (0, 1) gamma bands in the lower-thermospheric dayglow, made with a sounding rocket launched on March 7, 1989 from Poker Flat, Alaska, were analyzed. The resonant (1, 0) gamma band was found to be attenuated below an altitude of about 120 km. A self-absorption model based on Holstein transmission functions was developed for the resonant (1, 0) gamma band under varying conditions of slant column density and temperature and was applied for the conditions of the rocket flight. The results of the model agreed with the measured attenuation of the band, indicating the necessity of including self-absorption theory in the analysis of satellite and rocket limb data of NO.

  19. Classification of hydromagnetic emissions based on frequency--time spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunishi, H.; Toya, T.; Koike, K.; Kuwashima, M.; Kawamura, M.

    1981-01-01

    By using 3035 hydromagnetic emission events observed in the frequency range of 0.1--2.0 Hz at Syowa (Lapprox.6), HM emissions have been classified into eight subtypes based on their spectral structures, i.e., HM whistler, periodic HM emission, HM chorus, HM emission burst, IPDP, morning IPDP, Pc 1--2 band, and irregular HM emission. It is seen that each subtype has a preferential magnetic local time interval and also a frequency range for its occurrence. Morning IPDP events and irregular HM emissions occur in the magnetic morning hours, while dispersive periodic HM emissions and HM emission bursts occur around magnetic local noon, then HM chorus emissions occur in the afternoon hours and IPDP events occur in the evening hours. Furthermore, it is noticed that the mid-frequencies of these emissions vary from high frequencies in the morning hours to low frequencies in the afternoon hours. On the basis of these results, the generation mechanisms of each subtype are discussed

  20. 47 CFR 15.715 - TV bands database administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV bands database administrator. 15.715 Section... Band Devices § 15.715 TV bands database administrator. The Commission will designate one or more entities to administer a TV bands database. Each database administrator shall: (a) Maintain a database that...

  1. 47 CFR 15.714 - TV bands database administration fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV bands database administration fees. 15.714... Television Band Devices § 15.714 TV bands database administration fees. (a) A TV bands database administrator may charge a fee for provision of lists of available channels to fixed and personal/portable TVBDs and...

  2. 47 CFR 15.713 - TV bands database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV bands database. 15.713 Section 15.713... TV bands database. (a) Purpose. The TV bands database serves the following functions: (1) To... databases. (b) Information in the TV bands database. (1) Facilities already recorded in Commission databases...

  3. Life-time resolved emission spectra in CdI2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Seiji; Nakagawa, Hideyuki

    2007-01-01

    The emission spectrum of CdI 2 is composed of ultraviolet (UV), green (G) and yellow (Y and Y') bands peaking at 3.38, 2.50, 2.16 and 2.25 eV, respectively. In order to determine the initial states of the Y- and G-luminescence, decay curves have been measured at 6 and 80 K by varying emission energy. The observed decay curves are composed of two or three exponential components. These decay components were named τ 1 , τ 2 , τ 3 , τ 3' and τ 4 . The emission spectrum for each decay component, i.e., the life-time resolved emission spectrum, was constructed from the observed decay curves. At 6 K, three bands at 2.12, 2.49 and 2.64 eV are obtained for τ 1 , τ 2 and τ 3 components, respectively. At 80 K, a dominant band for the τ 4 component and a weak band for the τ 3' component appear on the same energy position at 2.25 eV. The origin of each emission band in the life-time resolved emission spectra will be briefly discussed

  4. Study of Ultraviolet Emission Spectra in ZnO Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photoluminescence (PL of ZnO thin films prepared on c-Al2O3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD are investigated. For all samples, roomtemperature (RT spectra show a strong band-edge ultraviolet (UV emission with a pronounced low-energy band tail. The origin of this UV emission is analyzed by the temperature dependence of PL spectra. The result shows that the UV emission at RT contains different recombination processes. At low temperature donor-bound exciton (D0X emission plays a major role in PL spectra, while the free exciton transition (FX gradually dominates the spectrum with increasing temperatures. It notes that at low temperature an emission band (FA appears in low energy side of D0X and FX and can survive up to RT. Further confirmation shows that the origin of the band FA can be attributed to the transitions of conduction band electrons to acceptors (e, A0, in which the acceptor binding energy is estimated to be approximately 121 meV. It is concluded that at room temperature UV emission originates from the corporate contributions of the free exciton and free electrons-to-acceptor transitions.

  5. Bands and chromosome arrangement in interphase nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, N.O.; Bianchi, M.A.; Matayoshi, T.

    1977-01-01

    Chromosomes from the vole mouse Akodon dolores and from laboratory mouse showed the presence of G-bands after 3 minutes digestion with trypsin and Giemsa stain. Simultaneously, 30- to 40% of the interphase nuclei exhibited a dark ring parallel to the nuclear contour and a radial array of the chromatin in the internal and external regions of the ring. The origin and meaning of this ring image was analyzed by combining progressive trypsinizations with other methods such as C-banding procedures, autoradiography with 3 HTdR, staining with quinacrine mustard and 33258 Hoechst fluorochromes. Moreover, the presence of the dark ring was also investigated in cells treated with actinomycin and in control cells not subjected to any treatment. The results obtained allowed to assume that in interphase nuclei the chromosomes have chromatin bridges which connect the dark G-bands and that these bridges are probably involved in maintaining an ordered architecture of the nucleus with fixed chromosome positions in regard to the nuclear envelope and in regard to other chromosomes. Trypsinization produces a disruption of the interphase chromatin arrangement and the subsequent appearance of a dark ring formed by the combination of constitutive heterochromatin and dark G-bands. (auth.)

  6. Deformed configurations, band structures and spectroscopic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-20

    Mar 20, 2014 ... The deformed configurations and rotational band structures in =50 Ge and Se nuclei are studied by deformed Hartree–Fock with quadrupole constraint and angular momentum projection. Apart from the `almost' spherical HF solution, a well-deformed configuration occurs at low excitation. A deformed ...

  7. VIBRONIC PROGRESSIONS IN SEVERAL DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duley, W. W.; Kuzmin, Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    A number of vibronic progressions based on low-energy vibrational modes of a large molecule have been found in the diffuse interstellar band (DIB) spectrum of HD 183143. Four active vibrational modes have been identified with energies at 5.18 cm -1 , 21.41 cm -1 , 31.55 cm -1 , and 34.02 cm -1 . The mode at 34.02 cm -1 was previously recognized by Herbig. Four bands are associated with this molecule, with origins at 6862.61 A, 6843.64 A, 6203.14 A, and 5545.11 A (14589.1 cm -1 , 14608.08 cm -1 , 16116.41 cm -1 , and 18028.9 cm -1 , respectively). The progressions are harmonic and combination bands are observed involving all modes. The appearance of harmonic, rather than anharmonic, terms in these vibronic progressions is consistent with torsional motion of pendant rings, suggesting that the carrier is a 'floppy' molecule. Some constraints on the type and size of the molecule producing these bands are discussed.

  8. Collective states in 230Th: band structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Levon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental data for the excited states in the deformed nucleus 230Th studied in the (p, t reaction are analyzed. Sequences of the states are selected which can be treated as rotational bands and as multiplets of excitations. Experimental data are compared with the interacting boson model (IBM and the quasiparticle-phonon model (QPM calculations.

  9. Study on electromagnetic constants of rotational bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurazakov, A.A.; Adib, Yu.Sh.; Karakhodzhaev, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    Values of electromagnetic constant S and rotation bands of odd nuclei with Z=64-70 within the mass number change interval A=153-173 are determined. Values of γ-transition mixing parameter with M1+E2 multipolarity are presented. ρ parameter dependence on mass number A is discussed

  10. High spin rotational bands in Zn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present here some preliminary results from our studies in the. ~ ¼ region in which we have observed an yrast band structure in Zn extending to spin (41/2 ). ... gaps implies that nuclei may exhibit different shapes at different excitation energies. .... uration, identifying previously unobserved states up to an excitation energy ...

  11. Energy bands and gaps near an impurity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mihóková, Eva; Schulman, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 380, č. 41 (2016), s. 3430-3433 ISSN 0375-9601 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09876S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : crystal structure * impurity * modeling * energy bands Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.772, year: 2016

  12. Ka-band waveguide rotary joint

    KAUST Repository

    Yevdokymov, Anatoliy; Sirenko, Kostyantyn; Kryzhanovskiy, Volodymyr; Pazynin, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    The authors present a design of a waveguide rotary joint operating in Ka-band with central frequency of 33 GHz, which also acts as an antenna mount. The main unit consists of two flanges with a clearance between them; one of the flanges has three

  13. A Shear Banding Model for Penetration Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    mechanism of strength reduction to zero within a shear band in three different steels, includ- ing AISI 4340 with RHC 44, which is reasonably similar to RHA...TECH LIB CHINA LAKE CA 93555-6001 CDR NAVAL SUR WAR CTR C S COFFEY PPARK FZERILLI CODE 4140 R K GARRET JR JMCKIRGAN TECH LIB 101 STRAUSS AVE

  14. Electron band theory 1952-1962

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomer, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Work undertaken by the Theoretical Physics Division between 1952 and 1965 to obtain an understanding of electrons in metals, with uranium and the actinides and the structurally-important transition metals as the main targets is examined. A main result of that period was a conviction that the majority of the physical properties of all metals, except the 4f rare-earth series and the actinides beyond uranium, were dominated by band effects which could be described well enough for most purposes by simple one-electron calculations with simple self-consistent fields. The period from 1960 on showed increasingly clearly the necessity of incorporating relativistic spin-orbit coupling terms in the heavy metals, and some 'local exchange field' correction to the fields close to nuclei. The problems of the non-local interaction of spins - highly important for alloy theory and for antiferromagnetic instability -required the evolution of computers large enough to produce wave-functions at all wave-vectors for all bands so that the susceptibility at arbitrary wave-vector could be computed. This work has not proved to be very illuminating so far, and much interest again focusses today on heuristic arguments that give qualitative descriptions of band structures, such as canonical d-bands to account for crystal structure. (UK)

  15. Phononic band gap structures as optimal designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use topology optimization to design phononic band gap structures. We consider 2D structures subjected to periodic loading and obtain the distribution of two materials with high contrast in material properties that gives the minimal vibrational response of the structure. Both in...

  16. The end of the unique myocardial band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacIver, David H; Partridge, John B; Agger, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Two of the leading concepts of mural ventricular architecture are the unique myocardial band and the myocardial mesh model. We have described, in an accompanying article published in this journal, how the anatomical, histological and high-resolution computed tomographic studies strongly favour th...

  17. Piecewise planar Möbius bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens

    2005-01-01

    t is shown that a closed polygon with an odd number of vertices is the median of exactly one piecewise planar cylinder and one piecewise planar Möbius band, intersecting each other orthogonally. A closed polygon with an even number of vertices is in the generic case neither the median...

  18. PHARUS: A C-band Airborne SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, P.; Koomen, P.J.; Pouwels, H.; Snoeij, P.

    1990-01-01

    In The Netherlands a plan to design aircraft and build a polarimetric C-band SAR system of a novel design, called PHARUS (PHased Array Universal SAR) is carried out by three institutes. These institutes are the Physics and Electronics Laboratory TNO in The Hague (prime contractor and project

  19. Faraday Rotation and L Band Oceanographic Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    2003-01-01

    Spaceborne radiometric measurements of the L band brightness temperature over the oceans make it possible to estimate sea surface salinity. However, Faraday rotation in the ionosphere disturbs the signals and must be corrected. Two different ways of assessing the disturbance directly from...

  20. Design of a double-anode magnetron-injection gun for the W-band gyrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kwang Ho; Choi, Jin Joo; So, Joon Ho

    2015-07-01

    A double-anode magnetron-injection gun (MIG) was designed. The MIG is for a W-band 10-kW gyrotron. Analytic equations based on adiabatic theory and angular momentum conservation were used to examine the initial design parameters such as the cathode angle, and the radius of the beam emitting surface. The MIG's performances were predicted by using an electron trajectory code, the EGUN code. The beam spread of the axial velocity, Δvz/vz, obtained from the EGUN code was observed to be 1.34% at α = 1.3. The cathode edge emission and the thermal effect were modeled. The cathode edge emission was found to have a major effect on the velocity spread. The electron beam's quality was significantly improved by affixing non-emissive cylinders to the cathode.

  1. Fossil shell emission in dying radio loud AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, M.; Ito, H.; Kawakatu, N.; Orienti, M.; Nagai, H.; Wajima, K.; Itoh, R.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate shell emission associated with dying radio loud AGNs. First, based on our recent work by Ito et al. (2015), we describe the dynamical and spectral evolution of shells after stopping the jet energy injection. We find that the shell emission overwhelms that of the radio lobes soon after stopping the jet energy injection because fresh electrons are continuously supplied into the shell via the forward shock, while the radio lobes rapidly fade out without jet energy injection. We find that such fossil shells can be a new class of target sources for SKA telescope. Next, we apply the model to the nearby radio source 3C84. Then, we find that the fossil shell emission in 3C84 is less luminous in the radio band while it is bright in the TeV γ-ray band and can be detectable by CTA. Data from STELLA

  2. Multilayer Photonic Crystal for Spectral Narrowing of Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanfang LIU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Multilayer colloidal crystal has been prepared by the layer-by-layer deposition of silica microspheres on a glass slide. Each layer is a slab consisting of a fcc close-packed colloidal arrays. By properly choosing the sizes of spheres, the whole spectral feature of multilayer colloidal crystal can be tuned. Here, we engineered a multilayer superlattice structure with an effective passband between two stop bands. This gives a strong narrowing effect on emission spectrum. With the stop bands at the shortwave and longwave edges of emission spectrum, the passband in the central wavelength region can be regarded as a strong decrease of suppression effect and enhancement of a narrow wavelength region of emission. The spectral narrowing modification effect of suitably engineered colloidal crystals shows up their importance in potential application as optical filters and lasing devices.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.3.16320

  3. Studies of soft x-ray emission during solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anandaram, M.N.

    1973-01-01

    Solar flare soft x-ray emission from 0.5 A to 8.5 A was observed during 1967-68 by Bragg crystal (LiF and EDDT) spectrometers aboard the OSO-4 satellite and also by NRL broad-band ionization detectors aboard the OGO-4 satellite. In this work, instrumental parameters for the LiF crystal spectrometer based on experimental values have been determined and used in the data analysis. The total continuum emission in the 0.5 to 3 A and the 1 to 8 A broad band segments has been determined from OGO-4 data for 21 flares. In doing this, a simple and approximate method of converting the total emission based on the gray body approximation (in which the OGO-4 data are reported) to one based on the thermal continuum spectrum has been developed. (author)

  4. The carrier transport mechanism and band offset at the interface of ZnO/n-Si(111) heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yapeng, E-mail: liyp1984@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001 (China); Li, Yingfeng [School of Electrical Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001 (China); Wang, Jianyuan [School of Nature and Applied Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); He, Zhirong; Zhang, Yonghong; Yu, Qi; Hou, Juncai [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The carrier transport deviated from ideal thermionic emission model. • One deep level present at the interface of ZnO/n-Si(111) heterojunction. • The band offsets of ZnO/n-Si(111) heterojunction are a type-II band alignment. - Abstract: The ZnO films were deposited on the surface of n-Si(111) substrate by pulsed laser deposition for fabrication of ZnO/n-Si(111) heterojunction. The carrier transport mechanism, deep level defects and band offsets at the interface of ZnO/n-Si(111) heterojunction were investigated by current- voltage measurement, deep level transient spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results showed that the barrier height and ideality factor values varied in the different linear voltage range by using the thermionic emission model, which was due to the deep level participated in carrier transport. Meanwhile, it was found that one deep level appeared at the interface of ZnO/n-Si(111) heterojunction with densities of the deep level about 8.5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} and activation energies about 224 m eV, which originated from O{sup 2−} vacancies of ZnO films. In addition, the valence band offset of the ZnO/n-Si(111) heterojunction can be calculated to be −2.4 ± 0.15 eV. The conduction band offset is deduced to be −3.5 ± 0.15 eV from the valence band offset value, indicating that the band offsets of ZnO/n-Si(111) heterojunction is a type-II band alignment.

  5. FeO "Orange Arc" Emission Detected in Optical Spectrum of Leonid Persistent Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Lacey, Matt; Allan, Beverly J.; Self, Daniel E.; Plane, John M. C.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We report the detection of a broad continuum emission dominating the visual spectrum of a Leonid persistent train. A comparison with laboratory spectra of FeO 1 "orange arc" emission at I mbar shows a general agreement of the band position and shape. The detection of FeO confirms the classical mechanism of metal atom catalyzed recombination of ozone and oxygen atoms as the driving force behind optical emission from persistent trains. Sodium and iron atoms are now confirmed catalysts.

  6. Rf Gun with High-Current Density Field Emission Cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-01-01

    High current-density field emission from an array of carbon nanotubes, with field-emission-transistor control, and with secondary electron channel multiplication in a ceramic facing structure, have been combined in a cold cathode for rf guns and diode guns. Electrodynamic and space-charge flow simulations were conducted to specify the cathode configuration and range of emission current density from the field emission cold cathode. Design of this cathode has been made for installation and testing in an existing S-band 2-1/2 cell rf gun. With emission control and modulation, and with current density in the range of 0.1-1 kA/cm2, this cathode could provide performance and long-life not enjoyed by other currently-available cathodes

  7. Spectroscopic study of emission coal mineral plasma produced by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, L P; Pérez, J A; Riascos, H

    2014-01-01

    Spectroscopic analysis of plasma produced by laser ablation of coal samples using 1064 nm radiation pulses from a Q-switched Nd:YAG on different target under air ambient, was performed. The emission of molecular band systems such as C 2 Swan System (d 3 Π g →a 3 Π u ), the First Negative System N 2 (Band head at 501,53 nm) and emission lines of the C I, C II, were investigated using the optical emission spectroscopy technique. The C 2 molecular spectra (Swan band) were analyzed to determine vibrational temperature (0,62 eV); the density and electron temperature of the plasma have been evaluated using Stark broadening and the intensity of the nitrogen emission lines N II, the found values of 1,2 eV and 2,2 x10 18 cm −3 respectively.

  8. Emissions Modeling Clearinghouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Emissions Modeling Clearinghouse (EMCH) supports and promotes emissions modeling activities both internal and external to the EPA. Through this site, the EPA...

  9. National Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Emission Inventory contains measured, modeled, and estimated data for emissions of all known source categories in the US (stationary sources, fires,...

  10. Emissions Trading Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about emissions trading programs, also known as cap and trade programs, which are market-based policy tools for protecting human health and the environment by controlling emissions from a group of sources.

  11. What Is Emissions Trading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the basics about how emissions trading uses a market-based policy tool used to control large amounts of pollution emissions from a group of sources in order to protect human health and the environment.

  12. World Emission RETRO ANTHRO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — Anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions data were generated monthly covering a period of 1960 to 2000. Anthropogenic emissions in the RETRO inventory are derived...

  13. Emissions & Measurements - Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions and Measurement (EM) research activities performed within the National Risk Management Research Lab NRMRL) of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) support measurement and laboratory analysis approaches to accurately characterize source emissions, and near sour...

  14. Biodiesel Emissions Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using existing data, the EPA's biodiesel emissions analysis program sought to quantify the air pollution emission effects of biodiesel for diesel engines that have not been specifically modified to operate on biodiesel.

  15. Dioxin emissions and sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The papers presented at the seminar discussed dioxin emissions and sources, dioxin pollution of soils, waste water and sewage sludge, stocktaking of emission sources, and exposure and risk analyses for dioxin and other pollutants. (EF) [de

  16. National Emission Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajtakova, E.; Spisakova, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation the Slovak National Emission Information System (NEIS) is presented. The NEIS represents hierarchical oriented modular system of acquisition, verification, saving and reporting of data about annual emissions and payments for pollution of atmosphere

  17. Exoelectron emission and its application for dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Masaharu

    1975-01-01

    The research on exoelectron emission has been recently very active in its fundamentals and applications. In the basic study, exoelectron emission and thermo-luminescence are explained by using energy band model. Physical and chemical properties of material surface, specifically surface adsorption phenomena, have been proven experimentally to give important effect on exoelectron emission by several people. It will be necessary in future that the identification of emitted particles and energy measurement become common in exoelectron physics. In spite of the difficulty to fabricate the uniformly stable materials emitting exoelectrons, much efforts are being made in the researches on the application to radiation dosimeters. The principal materials used to date are BeO, LiF, Al 2 O 3 , CaF 2 and CaSO 4 , the last one being most sensitive. On the other hand, the detectors for thermally stimulated exoelectron emission are important not only as dosimeters but for basic research promotion. The most convenient detector is a gas flow GM tube. Q gas or methane is used as flow gas. Though there remains many unknown fields in exoelectron emission mechanism, success in the application researches to effectively utilize their peculiarity and advantages is expected. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Probing the graphite band structure with resonant soft-x-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, J.A.; Shirley, E.L.; Hudson, E.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation offers several advantages over surface sensitive spectroscopies for probing the electronic structure of complex multi-elemental materials. Due to the long mean free path of photons in solids ({approximately}1000 {angstrom}), SXF is a bulk-sensitive probe. Also, since core levels are involved in absorption and emission, SXF is both element- and angular-momentum-selective. SXF measures the local partial density of states (DOS) projected onto each constituent element of the material. The chief limitation of SXF has been the low fluorescence yield for photon emission, particularly for light elements. However, third generation light sources, such as the Advanced Light Source (ALS), offer the high brightness that makes high-resolution SXF experiments practical. In the following the authors utilize this high brightness to demonstrate the capability of SXF to probe the band structure of a polycrystalline sample. In SXF, a valence emission spectrum results from transitions from valence band states to the core hole produced by the incident photons. In the non-resonant energy regime, the excitation energy is far above the core binding energy, and the absorption and emission events are uncoupled. The fluorescence spectrum resembles emission spectra acquired using energetic electrons, and is insensitive to the incident photon`s energy. In the resonant excitation energy regime, core electrons are excited by photons to unoccupied states just above the Fermi level (EF). The absorption and emission events are coupled, and this coupling manifests itself in several ways, depending in part on the localization of the empty electronic states in the material. Here the authors report spectral measurements from highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

  19. UWB Filtering Power Divider with Two Narrow Notch-bands and Wide Stop-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Feng; Wang, Xin-Yi; Zou, Xin Tong; Shi, Xiao Wei

    2017-12-01

    A compact filtering ultra-wideband (UWB) microstrip power divider (PD) with two sharply rejected notch-bands and wide stopband is analyzed and designed in this paper. The proposed UWB PD is based on a conventional Wilkinson power divider, while two stub loaded resonators (SLRs) are coupled into two symmetrical output ports to achieve a bandpass filtering response. The simplified composite right/left-handed (SCRLH) resonators are employed to generate the dual notched bands. Defected ground structure (DGS) is introduced to improve the passband performance. Good insertion/return losses, isolation and notch-band rejection are achieved as demonstrated in both simulation and experiment.

  20. Noise source emissions, Davis Canyon site, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This report has been prepared for the purpose of documenting the development of the data provided to the Repository Project Management (RPM) organization. The data provided encompass all phases of activity, from site preparation through the exploratory shaft facility (ESF) and repository construction and operation, and decommissioning. Noise environments expected from construction and operation of transportation corridors associated with the activity were also modeled. The data for the construction of transportation corridors were provided by Bechtel National, Inc. Use of the quietest equipment available within the proven state of the art was assumed, as was the use of acoustical enclosures to the extent practical. The programmatic assumptions are based on the noise-sensitive nature of the Canyonlands National Park. Another feature of the data is the use of 1/3-octave-band rather than 1/1-octave-band resolution of emission spectra. This was done to permit evaluation of audibility of sounds reaching the park

  1. The marginal band system in nymphalid butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Wataru; Kinjo, Seira; Otaki, Joji M

    2015-01-01

    Butterfly wing color patterns are highly complex and diverse, but they are believed to be derived from the nymphalid groundplan, which is composed of several color pattern systems. Among these pattern systems, the marginal band system, including marginal and submarginal bands, has rarely been studied. Here, we examined the color pattern diversity of the marginal band system among nymphalid butterflies. Marginal and submarginal bands are usually expressed as a pair of linear bands aligned with the wing margin. However, a submarginal band can be expressed as a broken band, an elongated oval, or a single dot. The marginal focus, usually a white dot at the middle of a wing compartment along the wing edge, corresponds to the pupal edge spot, one of the pupal cuticle spots that signify the locations of color pattern organizing centers. A marginal band can be expressed as a semicircle, an elongated oval, or a pair of eyespot-like structures, which suggest the organizing activity of the marginal focus. Physical damage at the pupal edge spot leads to distal dislocation of the submarginal band in Junonia almana and in Vanessa indica, suggesting that the marginal focus functions as an organizing center for the marginal band system. Taken together, we conclude that the marginal band system is developmentally equivalent to other symmetry systems. Additionally, the marginal band is likely a core element and the submarginal band a paracore element of the marginal band system, and both bands are primarily specified by the marginal focus organizing center.

  2. Emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Emission Computed Tomography is a technique used for producing single or multiple cross-sectional images of the distribution of radionuclide labelled agents in vivo. The techniques of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) are described with particular regard to the function of the detectors used to produce images and the computer techniques used to build up images. (UK)

  3. Dosimetry of narrow band UVB treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goode, D.H.; Mannering, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: For many years psoriasis has been treated with broad band UVB lamps. These lamps have a bell shaped spectrum which peaks at 305 nm and extends from 280 nm to 350 nm. However research with monochromatic UV radiation has shown that wavelengths between 300 nm and 320 nm are the most efficacious for clearing psoriasis while wavelengths below 305 nm are most effective for producing the undesirable side effect of erythema (sunburn). In response to these findings Philips developed a narrow band UVB tube in which a large fraction of the output was confined to a narrow peak (bandwidth 2.5 nm) situated at 311 nm. Christchurch Hospital replaced broad band UVB with narrow band treatments in August 1995 and as this required UV exposures to be substantially increased new protocols had to be developed. Three aspects needed to be addressed. These were translating the dose from broad band to narrow band for current patients, determining the initial dose for new patients and developing a formula for increasing subsequent exposures to both types of patient. To translate doses the spectral irradiance (μW/cm 2 /nm) that would fall on the patient was measured in both the old broad band and the new narrow band treatment units and from this UV doses were calculated. All doses were expressed in mJ/cm 2 of unweighted UV over the range 250 nm to 400 nm. The erythemal effectiveness of the two units were compared by using the CIE 1987 curve to express doses in terms of the equivalent exposure of monochromatic 297 nm radiation. It was found that an exposure of 3.96 mJ/cm 2 from the broad band FS40 tubes and 12.79 mJ/cm 2 from the narrow band TL/01 tubes were both equivalent to 1.00 mJ/cm 2 of monochromatic 297 nm radiation so when transferring patients all broad band doses needed to be increased by a factor of 3.2. Before transferring any patients this factor was confirmed by conducting two minimal erythema dose (MED) tests on a normal subject, one in each unit. For new patients a

  4. Variability of OH(3-1) and OH(6-2) emission altitude and volume emission rate from 2003 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teiser, Georg; von Savigny, Christian

    2017-08-01

    In this study we report on variability in emission rate and centroid emission altitude of the OH(3-1) and OH(6-2) Meinel bands in the terrestrial nightglow based on spaceborne nightglow measurements with the SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) instrument on the Envisat satellite. The SCIAMACHY observations cover the time period from August 2002 to April 2012 and the nighttime observations used in this study are performed at 10:00 p.m. local solar time. Characterizing variability in OH emission altitude - particularly potential long-term variations - is important for an appropriate interpretation of ground-based OH rotational temperature measurements, because simultaneous observations of the vertical OH volume emission rate profile are usually not available for these measurements. OH emission altitude and vertically integrated emission rate time series with daily resolution for the OH(3-1) band and monthly resolution for the OH(6-2) band were analyzed using a standard multilinear regression approach allowing for seasonal variations, QBO-effects (Quasi-Biennial Oscillation), solar cycle (SC) variability and a linear long-term trend. The analysis focuses on low latitudes, where SCIAMACHY nighttime observations are available all year. The dominant sources of variability for both OH emission rate and altitude are the semi-annual and annual variations, with emission rate and altitude being highly anti-correlated. There is some evidence for a 11-year solar cycle signature in the vertically integrated emission rate and in the centroid emission altitude of both the OH(3-1) and OH(6-2) bands.

  5. White light emission of carbon dots by creating different emissive traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Julin; Anappara, Aji A.

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a facile and rapid synthetic strategy for white light emitting carbon dots (CDs) by creating inhomogeneity in the surface-moieties by carbonizing ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) and ethylene glycol (EG) which are having different functional groups. The aqueous solution of the as-synthesised nanoparticles exhibits broad-band emission at several excitation wavelengths, with CIE parameters in the white gamut. Furthermore, white light emission is demonstrated through remote-phosphor technology, by capping 365 nm UV chip with PMMA, after dispersing the polymer with CDs. The resulting emission from the white-LED reported colour parameters such as CIE (0.34, 0.38), CRI of 84 and CCT of 5078 K.

  6. White light emission of carbon dots by creating different emissive traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Julin; Anappara, Aji A., E-mail: aji@nitc.ac.in

    2016-10-15

    Here we report a facile and rapid synthetic strategy for white light emitting carbon dots (CDs) by creating inhomogeneity in the surface-moieties by carbonizing ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) and ethylene glycol (EG) which are having different functional groups. The aqueous solution of the as-synthesised nanoparticles exhibits broad-band emission at several excitation wavelengths, with CIE parameters in the white gamut. Furthermore, white light emission is demonstrated through remote-phosphor technology, by capping 365 nm UV chip with PMMA, after dispersing the polymer with CDs. The resulting emission from the white-LED reported colour parameters such as CIE (0.34, 0.38), CRI of 84 and CCT of 5078 K.

  7. Process for testing noise emission from containers or pipelines made of steel, particularly for nuclear reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Votava, E.; Stipsits, G.; Sommer, R.

    1982-01-01

    In a process for noise emission testing of steel containers or pipelines, particularly for testing primary circuit components of nuclear reactor plants, measuring sensors and/or associated electronic amplifiers are used, which are tuned for receiving the frequency band of the sound emission spectrum above a limiting frequency f G , but are limited or non-resonant for frequency bands less than f G . (orig./HP) [de

  8. 50 MW C-band pulse klystron; 50MW C band pulse klystron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    C-band pulse klystron E3746 with an output of 50 MW class was developed jointly with the High-Energy Accelerator Research Organization in the Ministry of Education as the klystron for a linear accelerator. For a large-sized linear accelerator in the next generation, a klystron with higher operating frequency has been required to obtain a compact and efficient accelerator. In E3746, the problem of power resistance during high-frequency operation was solved by mounting a traveling-wave multi-cell output circuit. Moreover, stable operation in the pulse width of 2.5 {mu}s and the output of 54 MW was performed at the same operation efficiency (44%) as the conventional S-band tube by using the frequency (in a C-band frequency band) that is two times as high as the conventional general accelerator. (translated by NEDO)

  9. Comparison of band-to-band tunneling models in Si and Si—Ge junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Yipeng; Wang Taihuan; Wei Kangliang; Du Gang; Liu Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    We compared several different band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) models with both Sentaurus and the two-dimensional full-band Monte Carlo simulator in Si homo-junctions and Si—Ge hetero-junctions. It was shown that in Si homo-junctions, different models could achieve similar results. However, in the Si—Ge hetero-junctions, there were significant differences among these models at high reverse biases (over 2 V). Compared to the nonlocal model, the local models in Sentaurus underrated the BTBT rate distinctly, and the Monte Carlo method was shown to give a better approximation. Additionally, it was found that in the Si region near the interface of the Si—Ge hetero-junctions, the direct tunneling rates increased largely due to the interaction of the band structures of Si and Ge. (semiconductor physics)

  10. Design of Dual-Band Two-Branch-Line Couplers with Arbitrary Coupling Coefficients in Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Prudyus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to design dual-band two-branch couplers with arbitrary coupling coefficients at two operating frequency bands is proposed in this article. The method is based on the usage of equivalent subcircuits input reactances of the even-mode and odd-mode excitations. The exact design formulas for three options of the dual-band coupler with different location and number of stubs are received. These formulas permit to obtain the different variants for each structure in order to select the physically realizable solution and can be used in broad range of frequency ratio and power division ratio. For verification, three different dual-band couplers, which are operating at 2.4/3.9 GHz with different coupling coefficients (one with 3/6 dB, and 10/3 dB two others are designed, simulated, fabricated and tested. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulated ones.

  11. Band connectivity for topological quantum chemistry: Band structures as a graph theory problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradlyn, Barry; Elcoro, L.; Vergniory, M. G.; Cano, Jennifer; Wang, Zhijun; Felser, C.; Aroyo, M. I.; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2018-01-01

    The conventional theory of solids is well suited to describing band structures locally near isolated points in momentum space, but struggles to capture the full, global picture necessary for understanding topological phenomena. In part of a recent paper [B. Bradlyn et al., Nature (London) 547, 298 (2017), 10.1038/nature23268], we have introduced the way to overcome this difficulty by formulating the problem of sewing together many disconnected local k .p band structures across the Brillouin zone in terms of graph theory. In this paper, we give the details of our full theoretical construction. We show that crystal symmetries strongly constrain the allowed connectivities of energy bands, and we employ graph theoretic techniques such as graph connectivity to enumerate all the solutions to these constraints. The tools of graph theory allow us to identify disconnected groups of bands in these solutions, and so identify topologically distinct insulating phases.

  12. Band head spin assignment of superdeformed bands in 133Pr using two-parameter formulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Honey; Mittal, H. M.

    2018-03-01

    The two-parameter formulae viz. the power index formula, the nuclear softness formula and the VMI model are adopted to accredit the band head spin (I0) of four superdeformed rotational bands in 133Pr. The technique of least square fitting is used to accredit the band head spin for four superdeformed rotational bands in 133Pr. The root mean deviation among the computed transition energies and well-known experimental transition energies are attained by extracting the model parameters from the two-parameter formulae. The determined transition energies are in excellent agreement with the experimental transition energies, whenever exact spins are accredited. The power index formula coincides well with the experimental data and provides minimum root mean deviation. So, the power index formula is more efficient tool than the nuclear softness formula and the VMI model. The deviation of dynamic moment of inertia J(2) against the rotational frequency is also examined.

  13. Modeling of Photonic Band Gap Crystals and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Kady, Ihab Fathy [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    research that involves the interplay of metallic-PBG rejection and photonic band edge absorption. They propose that an absolute metallic-PBG may be used to suppress the infrared part of the blackbody emission and, emit its energy only through a sharp absorption band. Potential applications of this new PBG mechanism include highly efficient incandescent lamps and enhanced thermophotovoltaic energy conversion. The suggested lamp would be able to recycle the energy that would otherwise go into the unwanted heat associated with usual lamps, into light emitted in the visible spectrum. It is estimated this would increase the efficiency over conventional lamps by about 40%.

  14. Influence of cathode emission uniformity on microwave generation in relativistic backward wave oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping; Sun, Jun; Teng, Yan

    2017-12-01

    The emission uniformity of explosive emission cathodes is important to the operation of high power microwave generators. Although this concept seems to be widely accepted, the concrete influence of cathode emission uniformity on microwave generation has not been researched in detail and many conclusions on this matter are ambiguous due to the lack of solid evidence. This paper makes an effort to research this issue with particle-in-cell simulations about an X-band relativistic backward wave oscillator. To keep the diode impedance unchanged, an emission model in which each emission cell is artificially assigned a specific current density is adopted. The emission non-uniformity is simulated in three ways: spaced emission, large-area no-emission, and local enhanced emission. The simulation results uncover three phenomena: first, no significant influence is found for the cathode emission uniformity on the microwave starting time as long as no obvious mode competition is excited by emission non-uniformity; second, bad emission uniformity may bring about reduction of microwave power, but this may not happen when the emission non-uniformity is just localized to a few discrete strong emission points; third, under specific circumstances, the emission non-uniformity may lead to the excitation of mode competition, which can significantly delay the starting time and lower the microwave power.

  15. Transport in bilayer and trilayer graphene: band gap engineering and band structure tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Controlling the stacking order of atomically thin 2D materials offers a powerful tool to control their properties. Linearly dispersed bands become hyperbolic in Bernal (AB) stacked bilayer graphene (BLG). Both Bernal (ABA) and rhombohedral (ABC) stacking occur in trilayer graphene (TLG), producing distinct band structures and electronic properties. A symmetry-breaking electric field perpendicular to the sample plane can further modify the band structures of BLG and TLG. In this talk, I will describe our experimental effort in these directions using dual-gated devices. Using thin HfO2 film deposited by ALD as gate dielectric, we are able to apply large displacement fields D > 6 V/nm and observe the opening and saturation of the field-induced band gap Eg in bilayer and ABC-stacked trilayer graphene, where the conduction in the mid gap changes by more than six decades. Its field and temperature dependence highlights the crucial role played by Coulomb disorder in facilitating hopping conduction and suppressing the effect of Eg in the tens of meV regime. In contrast, mid-gap conduction decreases with increasing D much more rapidly in clean h-BN dual-gated devices. Our studies also show the evolution of the band structure in ABA-stacked TLG, in particular the splitting of the Dirac-like bands in large D field and the signatures of two-band transport at high carrier densities. Comparison to theory reveals the need for more sophisticated treatment of electronic screening beyond self-consistent Hartree calculations to accurately predict the band structures of trilayer graphene and graphenic materials in general.

  16. International emissions trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices....... The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissions trading may lead to higher overall emissions, which may make it a less attractive instrument....

  17. Shipping emissions in ports

    OpenAIRE

    Merk, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Shipping emissions in ports are substantial, accounting for 18 million tonnes of CO2 emissions, 0.4 million tonnes of NOx, 0.2 million of SOx and 0.03 million tonnes of PM10 in 2011. Around 85% of emissions come from containerships and tankers. Containerships have short port stays, but high emissions during these stays. Most of CO2 emissions in ports from shipping are in Asia and Europe (58%), but this share is low compared to their share of port calls (70%). European ports have much less emi...

  18. Development of softcopy environment for primary color banding visibility assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byungseok; Pizlo, Zygmunt; Allebach, Jan P.

    2008-01-01

    Fine-pitch banding is one of the most unwanted artifacts in laser electrophotographic (EP) printers. It is perceived as a quasiperiodic fluctuation in the process direction. Therefore, it is essential for printer vendors to know how banding is perceived by humans in order to improve print quality. Monochrome banding has been analyzed and assessed by many researchers; but there is no literature that deals with the banding of color laser printers as measured from actual prints. The study of color banding is complicated by the fact that the color banding signal is physically defined in a three-dimensional color space, while banding perception is described in a one-dimensional sense such as more banding or less banding. In addition, the color banding signal arises from the independent contributions of the four primary colorant banding signals. It is not known how these four distinct signals combine to give rise to the perception of color banding. In this paper, we develop a methodology to assess the banding visibility of the primary colorant cyan based on human visual perception. This is our first step toward studying the more general problem of color banding in combinations of two or more colorants. According to our method, we print and scan the cyan test patch, and extract the banding profile as a one dimensional signal so that we can freely adjust the intensity of banding. Thereafter, by exploiting the pulse width modulation capability of the laser printer, the extracted banding profile is used to modulate a pattern consisting of periodic lines oriented in the process direction, to generate extrinsic banding. This avoids the effect of the halftoning algorithm on the banding. Furthermore, to conduct various banding assessments more efficiently, we also develop a softcopy environment that emulates a hardcopy image on a calibrated monitor, which requires highly accurate device calibration throughout the whole system. To achieve the same color appearance as the hardcopy

  19. Structural Evolution of a Warm Frontal Precipitation Band During GCPEx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Brian A.; Naeger, Aaron; Molthan, Andrew; Nesbitt, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    A warm frontal precipitation band developed over a few hours 50-100 km to the north of a surface warm front. The 3-km WRF was able to realistically simulate band development, although the model is somewhat too weak. Band genesis was associated with weak frontogenesis (deformation) in the presence of weak potential and conditional instability feeding into the band region, while it was closer to moist neutral within the band. As the band matured, frontogenesis increased, while the stability gradually increased in the banding region. Cloud top generating cells were prevalent, but not in WRF (too stable). The band decayed as the stability increased upstream and the frontogenesis (deformation) with the warm front weakened. The WRF may have been too weak and short-lived with the band because too stable and forcing too weak (some micro issues as well).

  20. 50W CW output power and 12mJ pulses from a quasi-2-level Yb:YAG ceramic rod laser end-pumped at the 969nm zero-phonon line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Christian; Weitz, Marco; Theobald, Christian; v. Löwis of Menar, Patric; Bartschke, Jürgen; L'huillier, Johannes A.

    2015-02-01

    With the advent of high power and narrow bandwidth 969 nm pump diodes, direct pumping into the upper laser level of Yb:YAG and hence quasi-2-level lasers became possible. Pumping directly into the emitting level leads to higher quantum efficiency and reduction of non-radiative decay. Consequently, thermal load, thermal lensing and risk of fracture are reduced significantly. Moreover pump saturation and thermal population of uninvolved energy-levels in ground and excited states are benefical for a homogenous distribution of the pump beam as well as the reduction of reabsorption loss compared to 3-level systems, which allows for high-power DPSS lasers. Beside continuous-wave (cw) operation, nanosecond pulses with a repetition rate between 1 and 5 kHz are an attractive alternative to flashlamp-pumped systems (10-100 Hz) in various measurement applications that require higher data acquisition rates because of new faster detectors. Based on measurements of the absorption and a detailed numerical model for pump beam distribution, including beam propagation and saturation factors, power-scaling of a ceramic rod Yb:YAG oscillator was possible. Finally a cw output power of 50 W with 33 % pump efficiency at 1030 nm has been demonstrated (M2 dumping of this system. The cavity-dumped setup allowed for 3-10 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 12.5 mJ at 1 kHz (M2 < 1.1). In order to achieve these results a systematic experimental and numerical investigation on gain dynamics and the identification of different stable operating regimes has been carried out.