Sample records for zernike modes produced

  1. Mode shape description of an aero-engine casing structure using Zernike moment descriptors

    LIU Ying-chao; ZANG Chao-ping


    Vibration mode shape description of an aero-engine casing structure using Zernike moment descriptor (ZMD) was introduced in this paper. The mode shapes of the aero-engine casing structure can be decomposed as a linear combination of a series of Zernike polynomials, with the feature of each Zernike polynomial reflecting a part of characteristic of mode shapes, based on Zernike moment transformation. Meanwhile, the reconstruction of mode shapes with ZMD was explored and its ability to filtering the noise contaminated in the mode shapes was studied. Simulation of the aero-engine casing structure indicated the advantage of this method to depict the mode shapes of a symmetric structure. Results demonstrate that the Zernike moment description of the mode shapes can effectively describe the double modes in the symmetric structure and also has the ability to remove or significantly reduce the influence of noise in the mode shapes. Such feature shows great practical value for further research on the correlation, model updating and model validation of the symmetric structure's finite element model.

  2. Identifying signature Zernike modes for efficient light delivery through brain tissue

    Sane, Sharmila; Lee, Woei Ming; Stricker, Christian; Bachor, Hans; Daria, Vincent


    Recent progress in neuroscience to image and investigate brain function has been made possible by impressive developments in optogenetic and opto-molecular tools. Such research requires advances in optical techniques for the delivery of light through brain tissue with high spatial resolution. The tissue causes distortions of the wavefront of the incoming light which broadens the focus, thereby reducing the intensity and resolution especially in techniques requiring focal illumination. Adaptive wavefront correction has been demonstrated to compensate for these distortions. However, in many situations iterative derivation of the corrective wavefront introduces time constraints that limit its usefulness when used to probe living cells. Here we demonstrate a direct and fast technique by working with a small set of Zernike modes and demonstrate that corrections derived a priori can lead to significant improvement of the focus. We verify this idea by the electrical response of whole-cell patched neurons following t...

  3. More Zernike modes' open-loop measurement in the sub-aperture of the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.

    Zhu, Zhaoyi; Mu, Quanquan; Li, Dayu; Yang, Chengliang; Cao, Zhaoliang; Hu, Lifa; Xuan, Li


    The centroid-based Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) treats the sampled wavefronts in the sub-apertures as planes, and the slopes of the sub-wavefronts are used to reconstruct the whole pupil wavefront. The problem is that the centroid method may fail to sense the high-order modes for strong turbulences, decreasing the precision of the whole pupil wavefront reconstruction. To solve this problem, we propose a sub-wavefront estimation method for SHWFS based on the focal plane sensing technique, by which more Zernike modes than the two slopes can be sensed in each sub-aperture. In this paper, the effects on the sub-wavefront estimation method of the related parameters, such as the spot size, the phase offset with its set amplitude and the pixels number in each sub-aperture, are analyzed and these parameters are optimized to achieve high efficiency. After the optimization, open-loop measurement is realized. For the sub-wavefront sensing, we achieve a large linearity range of 3.0 rad RMS for Zernike modes Z2 and Z3, and 2.0 rad RMS for Zernike modes Z4 to Z6 when the pixel number does not exceed 8 × 8 in each sub-aperture. The whole pupil wavefront reconstruction with the modified SHWFS is realized to analyze the improvements brought by the optimized sub-wavefront estimation method. Sixty-five Zernike modes can be reconstructed with a modified SHWFS containing only 7 × 7 sub-apertures, which could reconstruct only 35 modes by the centroid method, and the mean RMS errors of the residual phases are less than 0.2 rad2, which is lower than the 0.35 rad2 by the centroid method.

  4. Zernike polynomial based Rayleigh-Ritz model of a piezoelectric unimorph deformable mirror

    Long, CS


    Full Text Available , are routinely and conveniently described using Zernike polynomials. A Rayleigh-Ritz structural model, which uses Zernike polynomials directly to describe the displacements, is proposed in this paper. The proposed formulation produces a numerically inexpensive...

  5. Performance of Object Classification Using Zernike Moment

    Ariffuddin Joret; Mohammad Faiz Liew Abdullah; Muhammad Suhaimi Sulong; Asmarashid Ponniran; Siti Zuraidah Zainudin


    Moments have been used in all sorts of object classification systems based on image. There are lots of moments studied by many researchers in the area of object classification and one of the most preference moments is the Zernike moment. In this paper, the performance of object classification using the Zernike moment has been explored. The classifier based on neural networks has been used in this study. The results indicate the best performance in identifying the aggregate is at 91.4% with a ten orders of the Zernike moment. This encouraging result has shown that the Zernike moment is a suitable moment to be used as a feature of object classification systems.

  6. Practical Fast Computation of Zernike Moments

    Al-Rawi Mohammed; 杨杰


    The fast computation of Zernike moments from normalized geometric moments has been developed in this paper. The computation is multiplication free and only additions are needed to generate Zernike moments. Geometric moments are generated using Hatamian's filter up to high orders by a very simple and straightforward computation scheme. Other kinds of moments (e.g., Legendre, pseudo Zernike) can be computed using the same algorithm after giving the proper transformations that state their relations to geometric moments. Proper normalizations of geometric moments are necessary so that the method can be used in the efficient computation of Zernike moments. To ensure fair comparisons, recursive algorithms are used to generate Zernike polynomials and other coefficients. The computational complexity model and test programs show that the speed-up factor of the proposed algorithm is superior with respect to other fast and/or direct computations. It perhaps is the first time that Zernike moments can be computed in real time rates, which encourages the use of Zernike momentfeatures in different image retrieval systems that support huge databases such as the XM experimental model stated for the MPEG-7 experimental core. It is concluded that choosing direct computation would be impractical.

  7. Improved Zernike-type phase contrast for transmission electron microscopy.

    Koeck, P J B


    Zernike phase contrast has been recognized as a means of recording high-resolution images with high contrast using a transmission electron microscope. This imaging mode can be used to image typical phase objects such as unstained biological molecules or cryosections of biological tissue. According to the original proposal discussed in Danev and Nagayama (2001) and references therein, the Zernike phase plate applies a phase shift of π/2 to all scattered electron beams outside a given scattering angle and an image is recorded at Gaussian focus or slight underfocus (below Scherzer defocus). Alternatively, a phase shift of -π/2 is applied to the central beam using the Boersch phase plate. The resulting image will have an almost perfect contrast transfer function (close to 1) from a given lowest spatial frequency up to a maximum resolution determined by the wave length, the amount of defocus and the spherical aberration of the microscope. In this paper, I present theory and simulations showing that this maximum spatial frequency can be increased considerably without loss of contrast by using a Zernike or Boersch phase plate that leads to a phase shift between scattered and unscattered electrons of only π /4, and recording images at Scherzer defocus. The maximum resolution can be improved even more by imaging at extended Scherzer defocus, though at the cost of contrast loss at lower spatial frequencies. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.




    We present a review of the life and work of Frits Zernike (1888-1966), professor of mathematical and technical physics and theoretical mechanics at Groningen University, The Netherlands, inventor of phase contrast microscopy.

  9. A recursive algorithm for Zernike polynomials

    Davenport, J. W.


    The analysis of a function defined on a rotationally symmetric system, with either a circular or annular pupil is discussed. In order to numerically analyze such systems it is typical to expand the given function in terms of a class of orthogonal polynomials. Because of their particular properties, the Zernike polynomials are especially suited for numerical calculations. Developed is a recursive algorithm that can be used to generate the Zernike polynomials up to a given order. The algorithm is recursively defined over J where R(J,N) is the Zernike polynomial of degree N obtained by orthogonalizing the sequence R(J), R(J+2), ..., R(J+2N) over (epsilon, 1). The terms in the preceding row - the (J-1) row - up to the N+1 term is needed for generating the (J,N)th term. Thus, the algorith generates an upper left-triangular table. This algorithm was placed in the computer with the necessary support program also included.

  10. Zernike moments features for shape-based gait recognition

    Qin, Huanfeng; Qin, Lan; Liu, Jun; Chao, Jiang


    The paper proposes a new spatio-temporal gait representation, called cycles gait Zernike moments (CGZM), to characterize human walking properties for individual recognition. Firstly, Zernike moments as shape descriptors are used to characterize gait silhouette shape. Secondly, we generate CGZM from Zernike moments of silhouette sequences. Finally, the phase and magnitude coefficientsof CGZM are utilized to perform classification by the modified Hausdorff distance (MHD) classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed approach have an encouraging recognition performance.

  11. Imaging by Zernike phase plates in the TEM.

    Edgcombe, C J


    The images produced from simple phase objects, lenses and Zernike phase plates when all have rotational symmetry can be calculated by 1D Fourier-Bessel transforms. For a simple disc object producing a uniform phase shift over its diameter, the resulting image can be defined for any size of object phase change. The monotonic range of intensity variation with object phase is found to depend strongly on the phase change introduced by the phase plate; this property of the system is not well predicted by the weak phase approximation. The effect of spreading the phase transition at the plate over a range of radius is beneficial if the plate phase change is sufficiently small. Weak-phase calculations for a phase distribution more typical of a spherical object are also shown.

  12. Zernike aberration coefficients transformed to and from Fourier series coefficients for wavefront representation.

    Dai, Guang-Ming


    The set of Fourier series is discussed following some discussion of Zernike polynomials. Fourier transforms of Zernike polynomials are derived that allow for relating Fourier series expansion coefficients to Zernike polynomial expansion coefficients. With iterative Fourier reconstruction, Zernike representations of wavefront aberrations can easily be obtained from wavefront derivative measurements.

  13. Fresnel zone-plate based X-ray microscopy in Zernike phase contrast with sub-50 nm resolution at NSRL

    Chen Jie; Li Wenjie; Tian Jinping; Liu Longhua; Xiong Ying; Liu Gang; Wu Ziyu; Tian Yangchao [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (China); Liu Yijin [School of Physics (China); Yue Zhengbo; Yu Hanqing [Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, School of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei Anhui 230029 (China); Wang Chunru, E-mail: [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10060 (China)


    A transmission X-ray microscope using Fresnel zone-plates (FZPs) has been installed at U7A beamline of National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). The objective FZP with 45 nm outermost zone width delivers a sub-50 nm resolution. A gold phase ring with 2.5 {mu}m thickness and 4 {mu}m width was placed at the focal plane of the objective FZP at 8 keV to produce a negative Zernike phase contrast. A series of samples were used to test the performance of the Zernike phase contrast X-ray microscopy.

  14. Phase-Shifting Zernike Interferometer Wavefront Sensor

    Wallace, J. Kent; Rao, Shanti; Jensen-Clemb, Rebecca M.; Serabyn, Gene


    The canonical Zernike phase-contrast technique1,2,3,4 transforms a phase object in one plane into an intensity object in the conjugate plane. This is done by applying a static pi/2 phase shift to the central core (approx. lambda/D) of the PSF which is intermediate between the input and output planes. Here we present a new architecture for this sensor. First, the optical system is simple and all reflective. Second, the phase shift in the central core of the PSF is dynamic and or arbitrary size. This common-path, all-reflective design makes it minimally sensitive to vibration, polarization and wavelength. We review the theory of operation, describe the optical system, summarize numerical simulations and sensitivities and review results from a laboratory demonstration of this novel instrument

  15. Representation of wavefronts in free-form transmission pupils with Complex Zernike Polynomials

    Navarro, Rafael; Rivera, Ricardo; Aporta, Justiniano


    Purpose To propose and evaluate Complex Zernike polynomials (CZPs) to represent general wavefronts with non uniform intensity (amplitude) in free-from transmission pupils. Methods They consist of three stages: (1) theoretical formulation; (2) numerical implementation; and (3) two studies of the fidelity of the reconstruction obtained as a function of the number of Zernike modes used (36 or 91). In the first study, we generated complex wavefronts merging wave aberration data from a group of 11 eyes, with a generic Gaussian model of the Stiles-Crawford effective pupil transmission. In the second study we simulated the wavefront passing through different pupil stop shapes (annular, semicircular, elliptical and triangular). Results The reconstructions of the wave aberration (phase of the generalized pupil function) were always good, the reconstruction RMS error was of the order of 10−4 wave lengths, no matter the number of modes used. However, the reconstruction of the amplitude (effective transmission) was highly dependent of the number of modes used. In particular, a high number of modes is necessary to reconstruct sharp edges, due to their high frequency content. Conclusions CZPs provide a complete orthogonal basis able to represent generalized pupil functions (or complex wavefronts). This provides a unified general framework in contrast to the previous variety of ad oc solutions. Our results suggest that complex wavefronts require a higher number of CZP, but they seem especially well-suited for inhomogeneous beams, pupil apodization, etc.

  16. Demonstration of an optimised focal field with long focal depth and high transmission obtained with the Extended Nijboer-Zernike theory.

    Konijnenberg, A P; Wei, L; Kumar, N; Filho, L Couto Correa Pinto; Cisotto, L; Pereira, S F; Urbach, H P


    In several optical systems, a specific Point Spread Function (PSF) needs to be generated. This can be achieved by shaping the complex field at the pupil. The Extended Nijboer-Zernike (ENZ) theory relates complex Zernike modes on the pupil directly to functions in the focal region. In this paper, we introduce a method to engineer a PSF using the ENZ theory. In particular, we present an optimization algorithm to design an extended depth of focus with high lateral resolution, while keeping the transmission of light high (over 60%). We also have demonstrated three outcomes of the algorithm using a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM).

  17. Zernike vs. Bessel circular functions in visual optics.

    Trevino, Juan P; Gómez-Correa, Jesus E; Iskander, D Robert; Chávez-Cerda, Sabino


    We propose the Bessel Circular Functions as alternatives of the Zernike Circle Polynomials to represent relevant circular ophthalmic surfaces. We assess the fitting capabilities of the orthogonal Bessel Circular Functions by comparing them to Zernike Circle Polynomials for approximating a variety of computationally generated surfaces which can represent ophthalmic surfaces. The Bessel Circular Functions showed better modelling capabilities for surfaces with abrupt variations such as the anterior eye surface at the limbus region, and influence functions. From our studies we find that the Bessel Circular Functions can be more suitable for studying particular features of post surgical corneal surfaces. We show that given their boundary conditions and free oscillating properties, the Bessel Circular Functions are an alternative for representing specific wavefronts and can be better than the Zernike Circle Polynomials for some important cases of corneal surfaces, influence functions and the complete anterior corneal surface. © 2013 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  18. Zernike expansion of derivatives and Laplacians of the Zernike circle polynomials.

    Janssen, A J E M


    The partial derivatives and Laplacians of the Zernike circle polynomials occur in various places in the literature on computational optics. In a number of cases, the expansion of these derivatives and Laplacians in the circle polynomials are required. For the first-order partial derivatives, analytic results are scattered in the literature. Results start as early as 1942 in Nijboer's thesis and continue until present day, with some emphasis on recursive computation schemes. A brief historic account of these results is given in the present paper. By choosing the unnormalized version of the circle polynomials, with exponential rather than trigonometric azimuthal dependence, and by a proper combination of the two partial derivatives, a concise form of the expressions emerges. This form is appropriate for the formulation and solution of a model wavefront sensing problem of reconstructing a wavefront on the level of its expansion coefficients from (measurements of the expansion coefficients of) the partial derivatives. It turns out that the least-squares estimation problem arising here decouples per azimuthal order m, and per m the generalized inverse solution assumes a concise analytic form so that singular value decompositions are avoided. The preferred version of the circle polynomials, with proper combination of the partial derivatives, also leads to a concise analytic result for the Zernike expansion of the Laplacian of the circle polynomials. From these expansions, the properties of the Laplacian as a mapping from the space of circle polynomials of maximal degree N, as required in the study of the Neumann problem associated with the transport-of-intensity equation, can be read off within a single glance. Furthermore, the inverse of the Laplacian on this space is shown to have a concise analytic form.

  19. Nonlinear Radon Transform Using Zernike Moment for Shape Analysis

    Ziping Ma


    Full Text Available We extend the linear Radon transform to a nonlinear space and propose a method by applying the nonlinear Radon transform to Zernike moments to extract shape descriptors. These descriptors are obtained by computing Zernike moment on the radial and angular coordinates of the pattern image's nonlinear Radon matrix. Theoretical and experimental results validate the effectiveness and the robustness of the method. The experimental results show the performance of the proposed method in the case of nonlinear space equals or outperforms that in the case of linear Radon.

  20. Ornstein-Zernike derivative relations and thermodynamic functions

    Gan, Hin Hark; Eu, Byung Chan


    The consequences of the derivatives of the Ornstein-Zernike relation with respect to the density (ρ) and temperature (T) are examined. An approximate closure for the Ornstein-Zernike relation is used to evaluate the derivatives of the pair-correlation function to all orders without knowing explicitly the correlation functions higher in order than the pair-correlation function. The first- and second-order thermodynamic (ρ or T) derivatives of the pair-correlation function are calculated and compared with the experiments of Egelstaff et al. In addition, the thermodynamic functions involving these derivatives are evaluated to demonstrate the utility and accuracy of the method.

  1. Processing modes and parallel processors in producing familiar keying sequences

    Verwey, Willem B.


    Recent theorizing indicates that the acquisition of movement sequence skill involves the development of several independent sequence representations at the same time. To examine this for the discrete sequence production task, participants in Experiment 1 produced a highly practiced sequence of six k

  2. Orthogonal systems of Zernike type in polygons and polygonal facets

    Ferreira, Chelo; Navarro, Rafael; Sinusia, Ester Perez


    Zernike polynomials are commonly used to represent the wavefront phase on circular optical apertures, since they form a complete and orthonormal basis on the unit disk. In [Diaz et all, 2014] we introduced a new Zernike basis for elliptic and annular optical apertures based on an appropriate diffeomorphism between the unit disk and the ellipse and the annulus. Here, we present a generalization of this Zernike basis for a variety of important optical apertures, paying special attention to polygons and the polygonal facets present in segmented mirror telescopes. On the contrary to ad hoc solutions, most of them based on the Gram-Smith orthonormalization method, here we consider a piece-wise diffeomorphism that transforms the unit disk into the polygon under consideration. We use this mapping to define a Zernike-like orthonormal system over the polygon. We also consider ensembles of polygonal facets that are essential in the design of segmented mirror telescopes. This generalization, based on in-plane warping of...

  3. Transformation of Zernike coefficients: a Fourier-based method for scaled, translated, and rotated wavefront apertures.

    Tatulli, Eric


    This paper studies the effects on Zernike coefficients of aperture scaling, translation, and rotation, when a given aberrated wavefront is described on the Zernike polynomial basis. It proposes an analytical method for computing the matrix that enables the building of transformed Zernike coefficients from the original ones. The technique is based on the properties of Zernike polynomials and Fourier transform, and, in the case of a full aperture without central obstruction, the coefficients of the matrix are given in terms of integrals of Bessel functions. The integral formulas are exact and do not depend on any specific ordering of the polynomials.




    Full Text Available We present the formulation of the Replica Ornstein-Zernike equations for a model of positionally frozen disordered Heisenberg spin system. The results are obtained for various models, one in which the particle positions correspond to a frozen hard sphere fluid, another system in which the configurations are generated by a random insertion of hard spheres, a system of randomly distributed spins, and finally a system corresponding to a soft sphere fluid quenched at high and low temperatures. We will see that the orientational structure of the spin system is fairly well reproduced by the integral equation which, however, does not correctly account for the critical behaviour.

  5. 2D-Zernike Polynomials and Coherent State Quantization of the Unit Disc

    Thirulogasanthar, K., E-mail: [Concordia University, Department of Comuter Science and Software Engineering (Canada); Saad, Nasser, E-mail: [University of Prince Edward Island, Department of mathematics and Statistics (Canada); Honnouvo, G., E-mail: [McGill University, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (Canada)


    Using the orthonormality of the 2D-Zernike polynomials, reproducing kernels, reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces, and ensuring coherent states attained. With the aid of the so-obtained coherent states, the complex unit disc is quantized. Associated upper symbols, lower symbols and related generalized Berezin transforms also obtained. A number of necessary summation formulas for the 2D-Zernike polynomials proved.

  6. Image adaptive RST invariant watermark using pseudo-Zernike moments

    Leida LI; Baolong GUO


    Rotation, scaling and translation (RST) attacks can desynchronize watermark detection, which causes failure in many watermarking systems. In this paper, an image adaptive RST invariant watermark (AWPZM) is proposed by using the rotation invariant property of pseudo-Zernike moments (PZM) and odd-even quantization. PZM of the original image is computed first, and then those suitable for watermark generation are selected. Then, magnitudes of them are odd-even quantized to generate the watermark. In detection, a normalized hamming function is employed to determine the similarity of the watermark. Experimental results show its robustness to rotation and scaling. For traditional attacks, such as JPEG compression, added noise and filtering, the similarities are all above 0.95.

  7. Elemental x-ray imaging using Zernike phase contrast

    Shao, Qi-Gang; Chen, Jian; Wali, Faiz; Bao, Yuan; Wang, Zhi-Li; Zhu, Pei-Ping; Tian, Yang-Chao; Gao, Kun


    We develop an element-specific x-ray microscopy method by using Zernike phase contrast imaging near absorption edges, where a real part of refractive index changes abruptly. In this method two phase contrast images are subtracted to obtain the target element: one is at the absorption edge of the target element and the other is near the absorption edge. The x-ray exposure required by this method is expected to be significantly lower than that of conventional absorption-based x-ray elemental imaging methods. Numerical calculations confirm the advantages of this highly efficient imaging method. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB825801) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11505188, and 11305173).

  8. Rational improvement of the engineered isobutanol-producing Bacillus subtilis by elementary mode analysis

    Li Shanshan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isobutanol is considered as a leading candidate for the replacement of current fossil fuels, and expected to be produced biotechnologically. Owing to the valuable features, Bacillus subtilis has been engineered as an isobutanol producer, whereas it needs to be further optimized for more efficient production. Since elementary mode analysis (EMA is a powerful tool for systematical analysis of metabolic network structures and cell metabolism, it might be of great importance in the rational strain improvement. Results Metabolic network of the isobutanol-producing B. subtilis BSUL03 was first constructed for EMA. Considering the actual cellular physiological state, 239 elementary modes (EMs were screened from total 11,342 EMs for potential target prediction. On this basis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC were predicted as the most promising inactivation candidates according to flux flexibility analysis and intracellular flux distribution simulation. Then, the in silico designed mutants were experimentally constructed. The maximal isobutanol yield of the LDH- and PDHC-deficient strain BSUL05 reached 61% of the theoretical value to 0.36 ± 0.02 C-mol isobutanol/C-mol glucose, which was 2.3-fold of BSUL03. Moreover, this mutant produced approximately 70 % more isobutanol to the maximal titer of 5.5 ± 0.3 g/L in fed-batch fermentations. Conclusions EMA was employed as a guiding tool to direct rational improvement of the engineered isobutanol-producing B. subtilis. The consistency between model prediction and experimental results demonstrates the rationality and accuracy of this EMA-based approach for target identification. This network-based rational strain improvement strategy could serve as a promising concept to engineer efficient B. subtilis hosts for isobutanol, as well as other valuable products.

  9. Effects of Different Zernike Terms on Optical Quality and Vision of Human Eyes

    ZHAO Hao-Xin; XU Bing; LI Jing; DAI Yun; YU Xiang; ZHANG Yu-Dong; JIANG Wen-Han


    The visual quality of human eyes is much restricted by high-order aberrations as well as low-order aberrations (defocus and astigmatism), but each term of high-order aberrations contributes differently. The visual acuity and contrast of the image on the retina can be gained by inducing aberrations to each term of high orders. Based on an adaptive optics system, the visual acuity of four subjects is tested by inducing aberrations to each Zernike term after correcting all the aberrations of the subjects. Zernike terms near the center of the Zernike tree affect visual quality more than those near the edge both theoretically and experimentally, and 0.1-μm aberration of these terms can clearly degrade the optical quality and vision. The results suggest that correcting the terms near the center of Zernike tree can improve the visual quality effectively in practice.

  10. Mode of action of lactococcin R produced by Lactococcus lactis R.

    Yildirim, Zeliha; Yildirim, Metin; Johnson, Michael G


    We investigated the mode of action and factors affecting adsorption of lactoccocin R produced by Lactococcus lactis R. It was found that lactococcin R adsorbed to all Gram-positive but not to the Gram-negative bacteria tested and its adsorption was dependent on pH. It was observed that the binding of lactococcin R was prevented by anions of several salts (Cl-, PO4(-3)) and lipoteichoic acid. Pretreatments of sensitive cells and cell walls with detergents, organic solvents or enzymes did not reduce subsequent binding of lactococcin R. However, treatment of cell wall preparations with methanol:chloroform and hot 20% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) caused such walls to lose their ability to adsorb lactococcin R. Sensitive cells treated with lactococcin R lost high amounts of intracellular K+ ions, UV-absorbing materials and became more permeable to o-nitrophenol-beta-D-glactopyranoside (ONPG). In addition, different lactococcin R concentrations (0-2560 AU/mL) decreased the colony counts of Listeria monocytogenes by 99% and also a reduction in the absorbance values. These results show that the mode of action of lactococcin R is bactericidal rather than bacteriostatic.

  11. Zernike test. I - Analytical aspects. II - Experimental aspects. [interferometric phase error test

    Golden, L. J.


    The Zernike phenomenon is interpreted in general interferometric terms to gain insight into the optimum design of disks suitable for a particular experimental situation. The design of Zernike disks for measuring small low-order aberrations is considered and evaluated; optimum parameters for disks 2, 3, 4, and 5 microns in radius are determined for an f/12 large-space-telescope system with an obscuration ratio of 0.4 at 0.6 micron. It is shown that optimization in this case provides sensitivities of better than one hundredth of a wavelength for the measurement of low-order aberrations. The procedure for manufacturing a Zernike disk is then described in detail, and results are reported for tests of a laboratory Zernike figure sensor containing a disk manufactured according to this procedure. In the tests, a laboratory wavefront-error simulator was used to introduce small aberration ranges, measurements of the changes in reimaged pupil intensity introduced by the disk were made for several aberration settings, and the measured changes were compared with the values predicted by the interferometric theory of Zernike tests. The results are found to agree within an error of one two-hundredth of a wavelength.

  12. Combustion characteristics of diesel engine using producer gas and blends of Jatropha methyl ester with diesel in mixed fuel mode

    Hifjur Raheman


    Full Text Available An experimental investigation was performed to study the combustion characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with producer gas-biodiesel in dual fuel mode. Three different fuel blends of Jatropha methyl ester with high speed diesel (HSD (B10, B20 and B100 were used with producer gas obtained from the gasification of briquettes made from de-oiled Jatropha seed cake. The increments in load on the engine increased the brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and lowered the brake specific energy consumption. The ignition delays in dual-fuel mode of operation for both the fuels were longer than for single-fuel mode of operation. Combustion pressure and heat release rate (HRR patterns at different engine loads were found to be similar for biodiesel and HSD. In dual-fuel mode, the peak pressure and HRR for producer gas–biodiesel dual-fuel were slightly lower than those of producer gas–diesel combustion at full load condition. Significantly lower NOx emissions were obtained under the dual fuel mode of operation for both pilot fuels compared to the single-fuel mode especially HSD under all test conditions.

  13. Design Approach for Content-based Image Retrieval using Gabor-Zernike features

    Abhinav Deshpande


    Full Text Available The process of extraction of different features from an image is known as Content-based Image Retrieval.Color,Texture and Shape are the major features of an image and play a vital role in the representation of an image..In this paper, a novel method is proposed to extract the region of interest(ROI from an image,prior to extraction of salient features of an image.The image is subjected to normalization so that the noise components due to Gaussian or other types of noises which are present in the image are eliminated and thesuccessfull extraction of various features of an image can be accomplished. Gabor Filters are used to extract the texture feature from an image whereas Zernike Moments can be used to extract the shape feature.The combination of Gabor feature and Zernike feature can be combined to extract Gabor-Zernike Features from an image.

  14. Producing absorption mode Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectra with non-quadratic phase correction functions.

    Kilgour, David P A; Nagornov, Konstantin O; Kozhinov, Anton N; Zhurov, Konstantin O; Tsybin, Yury O


    Previously described methods for producing absorption mode Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectra have all relied on the phase correction function being quadratic. This assumption has been found to be invalid for some instruments and spectra and so it has not been possible to produce absorption mode spectra for these cases. The Autophaser algorithm has been adapted to allow nth order polynomial phase correction functions to be optimized. The data was collected on a modified Thermo LTQ FTICR mass spectrometer, using electrospray ionization and a novel ICR cell design (NADEL). Peak assignment and mass calibration were undertaken using the pyFTMS framework. An nth-order phase correction function has been used to produce an absorption mode mass spectrum of the maltene fraction of a crude oil sample which was not possible using the previous assumption that the phase correction function must be quadratic. Data processing for this spectrum in absorption mode has shown the expected benefits in terms of increasing the number of assigned peaks and also improving the mass accuracy (i.e. confidence) of the assignments. It is possible to phase-correct time-domain data in FTICRMS to yield absorption mode mass spectra representation even when the data does not correspond to the theoretical quadratic phase correction function predicted by previous studies. This will allow a larger proportion of spectra to be processed in absorption mode. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Phase contrast soft x-ray microscopy using Zernike zone plates.

    Sakdinawat, Anne; Liu, Yanwei


    Soft x-ray Zernike phase contrast microscopy was implemented using a "Zernike zone plate" (ZZP) without the use of a separate phase filter in the back focal plane. The ZZP is a single optic that integrates the appropriate +/-pi/2 radians phase shift through selective zone placement shifts in a Fresnel zone plate. Imaging using a regular zone plate, positive ZZP, and negative ZZP was performed at a wavelength of lambda = 2.163 nm. Contrast enhancement with the positive ZZP and contrast reversal with the negative ZZP were observed.

  16. Geometrically robust image watermarking using scale-invariant feature transform and Zernike moments

    Leida Li; Baolong Guo; Kai Shao


    In order to resist geometric attacks, a robust image watermarking algorithm is proposed using scaleinvariant feature transform (SIFT) and Zernike moments. As SIFT features are invariant to rotation and scaling, we employ SIFT to extract feature points. Then circular patches are generated using the most robust points. An invariant watermark is generated from each circular patch based on Zernike moments.The watermark is embedded into multiple patches for resisting locally cropping attacks. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme is robust to both geometric attacks and signal processing attacks.

  17. Study on the design and Zernike aberrations of a segmented mirror telescope

    Jiang Zhen-Yu; Li Lin; Huang Yi-Fan


    The segmented mirror telescope is widely used. The aberrations of segmented mirror systems are different from single mirror systems. This paper uses the Fourier optics theory to analyse the Zernike aberrations of segmented mirror systems. It concludes that the Zernike aberrations of segmented mirror systems obey the linearity theorem. The design of a segmented space telescope and segmented schemes are discussed, and its optical model is constructed. The computer simulation experiment is performed with this optical model to verify the suppositions. The experimental results confirm the correctness of the model.

  18. Magnetic imaging with a Zernike-type phase plate in a transmission electron microscope

    Pollard, Shawn; Malac, Marek; Beleggia, Marco


    We demonstrate the use of a hole-free phase plate (HFPP) for magnetic imaging in transmission electron microscopy by mapping the domain structure in PrDyFeB samples. The HFPP, a Zernike-like imaging method, allows for detecting magnetic signals in-focus to correlate the sample crystal structure a...

  19. 基于图像重建的Zernike矩形状特征评价%Image Zernike Moments Shape Feature Evaluation Based on Image Reconstruction

    刘茂福; 何炎祥; 叶斌


    The evaluation approach to the accuracy of the image feature descriptors plays an important role in image feature extraction. We point out that the image shape feature can be described by the Zernike moments set while briefly introducing the basic concept of the Zernike moment. After talking about the image reconstruction technique based on the inverse transformation of Zernike moment, the evaluation approach to the accuracy of the Zernike moments shape feature via the dissimilarity degree and the reconstruction ratio between the original image and the reconstructed image is proposed. The experiment results demonstrate the feasibility of this evaluation approach to image Zernike moments shape feature.

  20. A Subpixel Extraction Approach for Laser Images of Track Profile Based on LoG-Zernike Moments%基于 LoG-Zernike 矩算子的钢轨激光图像提取识别



    In laser and photogrammetry techniques for track profile measurement,the extraction accuracy and efficiency for the laser stripe centerline are two key issues.It is proposed to utilize LoG-Zernike moment operator to guarantee the localization precision.LoG operators are applied to the first and rapid localization of the track profile edge,then in the neighborhood area of the image edge,Zernike moment operators are used for the further processing,achieving the subpixel extraction precision for the track laser profile images.In this paper,the principle of LoG-Zernike moment operators for subpixel extraction is explained in detail,and LoG-Zernike moment operator computational formulas and steps are carried out.The extraction lines for the laser profile image of tracks,processed by LoG and LoG-Zernike moments operators respectively,are compared.The results show that LoG-Zernike moment operator extraction line is thinner and more continuous. Additionally,LoG-Zernike moment operators are used in the current track inspection vehicle for image processing,and the experiment demonstrates this operator is practicable.%采用激光摄像技术进行钢轨轮廓测量,图像中钢轨激光光条中心提取精度及效率,是决定钢轨轮廓测量是否可行的关键因素。提出采用 LoG-Zernike 矩算子进行钢轨激光光条中心提取,先利用 LoG 算子进行钢轨激光光条边缘粗定位,在粗定位图像边缘邻域内,再采用 Zernike 矩算子进行激光光条中心精确定位。详细论述了 LoG-Zernike 矩算子进行图像亚像素提取原理、过程,给出了 LoG-Zernike 矩算子详细计算步骤。试验结果表明,LoG-Zernike 矩算子提取的钢轨轮廓曲线较细,连续性较好。

  1. Dual fuel mode operation in diesel engines using renewable fuels: Rubber seed oil and coir-pith producer gas

    Ramadhas, A.S.; Jayaraj, S.; Muraleedharan, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut-673601 (India)


    Partial combustion of biomass in the gasifier generates producer gas that can be used as supplementary or sole fuel for internal combustion engines. Dual fuel mode operation using coir-pith derived producer gas and rubber seed oil as pilot fuel was analyzed for various producer gas-air flow ratios and at different load conditions. The engine is experimentally optimized with respect to maximum pilot fuel savings in the dual fuel mode operation. The performance and emission characteristics of the dual fuel engine are compared with that of diesel engine at different load conditions. Specific energy consumption in the dual-fuel mode of operation with oil-coir-pith operation is found to be in the higher side at all load conditions. Exhaust emission was found to be higher in the case of dual fuel mode of operation as compared to neat diesel/oil operation. Engine performance characteristics are inferior in fully renewable fueled engine operation but it suitable for stationary engine application, particularly power generation. (author)

  2. ZELDA, a Zernike wavefront sensor for the fine measurement of quasi-static aberrations in coronagraphic systems: concept studies and results with VLT/SPHERE

    N'Diaye, M.; Vigan, A.; Dohlen, K.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Caillat, A.; Costille, A.; Girard, J. H. V.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Fusco, T.; Blanchard, P.; Le Merrer, J.; Le Mignant, D.; Madec, F.; Moreaux, G.; Mouillet, D.; Puget, P.; Zins, G.


    The high-contrast imaging instruments VLT/SPHERE and GPI have been routinely observing gas giant planets, brown dwarfs, and debris disks around nearby stars since 2013-2014. In these facilities, low-wind effects or differential aberrations between the extreme Adaptive Optics sensing path and the science path represent critical limitations for the observation of exoplanets orbiting their host star with a contrast ratio larger than 106 at small separations. To circumvent this problem, we proposed ZELDA, a Zernike wavefront sensor to measure these quasistatic aberrations at a nanometric level. A prototype was installed on VLT/SPHERE during its integration in Chile. We recently performed measurements on an internal source with ZELDA in the presence of Zernike or Fourier modes introduced with the deformable mirror of the instrument. In this communication, we present the results of our experiment and report on the contrast gain obtained with a first ZELDA-based wavefront correction. We finally discuss the suitability of such a solution for a possible upgrade of VLT/SPHERE and for its use with future E-ELT instruments or space missions with high-contrast capabilities (e.g. WFIRST-AFTA, HDST).

  3. Anti-tumour cytotoxin produced by human monocytes: studies on its mode of action.

    Matthews, N.


    Human monocytes can be induced to synthesize a cytotoxin which affects certain tumour cell lines. The interaction of monocyte cytotoxin with a susceptible cell line (L929) has been studied to obtain clues to the mode of action of the cytotoxin. The cytotoxin acts directly on the cells rather than on the culture medium and is cytotoxic at higher concentrations and cytostatic at lower concentrations. First signs of cell damage appear about 20 h after contact with the cytotoxin which must be pre...

  4. Copepod flow modes and modulation: a modelling study of the water currents produced by an unsteadily swimming copepod


    Video observation has shown that feeding-current-producing calanoid copepods modulate their feeding currents by displaying a sequence of different swimming behaviours during a time period of up to tens of seconds. In order to understand the feeding-current modulation process, we numerically modelled the steady feeding currents for different modes of observed copepod motion behaviours (i.e. free sinking, partial sinking, hovering, vertical swimming upward and horizontal swimming backward or fo...

  5. Whispering-gallery-mode microdisk lasers produced by femtosecond laser direct writing.

    Ku, Jin-Feng; Chen, Qi-Dai; Zhang, Ran; Sun, Hong-Bo


    We report in this Letter fabrication of whispering-gallery-mode microdisk lasers by femtosecond laser direct writing of dye-doped resins. Not only is well-defined disk shape upheld on an inverted cone-shaped supporter, but the disk also exhibits significant lasing actions characteristic of an abrupt increase of light output and the significant narrowing of the spectral lines when the threshold is approached. This work shows that the laser micronanofabrication technology is not only applicable to passive micro-optical components, but also it may play an important role in fabrication of active optoelectronic devices and their integrated photonic circuits.

  6. Efficient source mask optimization with Zernike polynomial functions for source representation.

    Wu, Xiaofei; Liu, Shiyuan; Li, Jia; Lam, Edmund Y


    In 22nm optical lithography and beyond, source mask optimization (SMO) becomes vital for the continuation of advanced ArF technology node development. The pixel-based method permits a large solution space, but involves a time-consuming optimization procedure because of the large number of pixel variables. In this paper, we introduce the Zernike polynomials as basis functions to represent the source patterns, and propose an improved SMO algorithm with this representation. The source patterns are decomposed into the weighted superposition of some well-chosen Zernike polynomial functions, and the number of variables decreases significantly. We compare the computation efficiency and optimization performance between the proposed method and the conventional pixel-based algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that the former can obtain substantial speedup of source optimization while improving the pattern fidelity at the same time.

  7. A generalization of the Zernike circle polynomials for forward and inverse problems in diffraction theory

    Janssen, Augustus


    A generalization of the Zernike circle polynomials for expansion of functions vanishing outside the unit disk is given. These generalized Zernike functions have the form Zm,{\\alpha} n ({\\rho}, \\vartheta) = Rm,{\\alpha} n ({\\rho}) exp(im\\vartheta), 0 \\leq {\\rho} 1, where n and m are integers such that n - |m| is nonnegative and even. The radial parts are O((1 - {\\rho}2){\\alpha}) as {\\rho} \\uparrow 1 in which {\\alpha} is a real parameter > -1. The Zm,{\\alpha} n are orthogonal on the unit disk with respect to the weight function (1 - {\\rho}2)-{\\alpha}, 0 \\leq {\\rho} < 1. The Fourier transform of Zm,{\\alpha} n can be expressed explicitly in terms of (generalized) Jinc functions Jn+{\\alpha}+1(2{\\pi}r)/(2{\\pi}r){\\alpha}+1 and exhibits a decay behaviour r-{\\alpha}-3/2 as r \\rightarrow \\infty. Etc.

  8. Combined invariants to similarity transformation and to blur using orthogonal Zernike moments

    Beijing, Chen; Shu, Huazhong; Zhang, Hui; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Luo, Limin; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis


    The derivation of moment invariants has been extensively investigated in the past decades. In this paper, we construct a set of invariants derived from Zernike moments which is simultaneously invariant to similarity transformation and to convolution with circularly symmetric point spread function (PSF). Two main contributions are provided: the theoretical framework for deriving the Zernike moments of a blurred image and the way to construct the combined geometric-blur invariants. The performance of the proposed descriptors is evaluated with various PSFs and similarity transformations. The comparison of the proposed method with the existing ones is also provided in terms of pattern recognition accuracy, template matching and robustness to noise. Experimental results show that the proposed descriptors perform on the overall better. PMID:20679028




    Full Text Available In this paper a new face recognition method has been introduced. By this method face features have been extracted by pseudo-Zernike moments (PZM.Then a probabilistic neural network has applied to classify thesemoments as feature vectors. Moment features are invariant under scaling, translation, rotation and reflection. Probabilistic Neural Networks have fast computational time. Results show that PZM of order of 14 with PNN have the best performance among all the moments

  10. Application of overlay modeling and control with Zernike polynomials in an HVM environment

    Ju, JaeWuk; Kim, MinGyu; Lee, JuHan; Nabeth, Jeremy; Jeon, Sanghuck; Heo, Hoyoung; Robinson, John C.; Pierson, Bill


    Shrinking technology nodes and smaller process margins require improved photolithography overlay control. Generally, overlay measurement results are modeled with Cartesian polynomial functions for both intra-field and inter-field models and the model coefficients are sent to an advanced process control (APC) system operating in an XY Cartesian basis. Dampened overlay corrections, typically via exponentially or linearly weighted moving average in time, are then retrieved from the APC system to apply on the scanner in XY Cartesian form for subsequent lot exposure. The goal of the above method is to process lots with corrections that target the least possible overlay misregistration in steady state as well as in change point situations. In this study, we model overlay errors on product using Zernike polynomials with same fitting capability as the process of reference (POR) to represent the wafer-level terms, and use the standard Cartesian polynomials to represent the field-level terms. APC calculations for wafer-level correction are performed in Zernike basis while field-level calculations use standard XY Cartesian basis. Finally, weighted wafer-level correction terms are converted to XY Cartesian space in order to be applied on the scanner, along with field-level corrections, for future wafer exposures. Since Zernike polynomials have the property of being orthogonal in the unit disk we are able to reduce the amount of collinearity between terms and improve overlay stability. Our real time Zernike modeling and feedback evaluation was performed on a 20-lot dataset in a high volume manufacturing (HVM) environment. The measured on-product results were compared to POR and showed a 7% reduction in overlay variation including a 22% terms variation. This led to an on-product raw overlay Mean + 3Sigma X&Y improvement of 5% and resulted in 0.1% yield improvement.

  11. PIZZA: a phase-induced zonal Zernike apodization designed for stellar coronagraphy

    Martinache, Frantz


    I explore here the possibilities offered by the general formalism of coronagraphy for the very special case of phase contrast. This technique, invented by Zernike, is commonly used in microscopy, to see phase objects such as micro-organisms, and in strioscopy, to control the quality of optics polishing. It may find application in telescope pupil apodization with significant advantages over classical pupil apodization techniques, including high throughput and no off-axis resolution loss, which is essential for exoplanet imaging.

  12. Importance of coarse-mode nitrate produced via sea salt as atmospheric input to East Asian oceans

    Itahashi, Syuichi; Hayami, Hiroshi; Uno, Itsushi; Pan, Xiaole; Uematsu, Mitsuo


    The atmospheric input of anthropogenic total reactive oxygenated nitrogen (NOy) to ocean regions in East Asia during 2002-2004 was revisited with an updated regional chemical transport model and the latest emissions inventory. The updated model treats both fine- and coarse-mode nitrate (NO3-). Coarse-mode NO3- is produced by the reaction of nitric acid (HNO3) and sea salt particles. The modeling system reproduced the atmospheric concentration and wet deposition amount of NO3- quantitatively compared with observations. The fraction of coarse-mode NO3- was also well captured. NOy deposition amounts over marginal seas and open oceans were 733 and 730 Gg N/yr, which are increases of 1.6- and 2.2-fold, respectively, by including coarse-mode NO3-. Anthropogenic NOx emissions from China were 5377 Gg N/yr, and 3060 Gg N/yr was exported from China; therefore, the NOy deposition amount over ocean regions in East Asia (1463 Gg N/yr) corresponded to almost half (48%) of the export amounts.

  13. Towards top-hat spatial shaping of ultrafast laser beam based on Zernike polynomials

    Mauclair, Cyril; Faure, Nicolas; Houzet, Julien


    Femtosecond laser micro machining of surfaces knows a gain of interest as it demonstrates efficient and precise processing with reduced side effects around the irradiated zone, and also because of the remarkable costs reduction and reliability improvements of nowadays commercially available sources. Controlling the intensity distribution spatially can offer a supplementary degree of flexibility and precision in achieving user-defined ablation spatial profile, drilling, cutting of materials or in-volume laser-induced modifications. In this scope, the possibility to generate a top-hat intensity distribution by spatially shaping the beam wavefront is studied in this work. An optimization of Zernike polynomials coefficients is conducted to numerically determine an adequate phase mask that shapes the laser intensity distribution following a targeted top hat distribution in the processing plane, usually at the focal length of a converging lens. The efficiency of the method is numerically investigated in the optimization by evaluation of the root mean square error (RMS) between the top-hat target and the calculated laser distribution in the far field. We numerically verify that acceptable top-hat beam shaping of various size can be achieved with a sufficient number of Zernike polynomials, opening the way to phase mask calculations adapted to the wavefront modulator ability to reproduce Zernike polynomials.

  14. Zernike ultrasonic tomography for fluid velocity imaging based on pipeline intrusive time-of-flight measurements.

    Besic, Nikola; Vasile, Gabriel; Anghel, Andrei; Petrut, Teodor-Ion; Ioana, Cornel; Stankovic, Srdjan; Girard, Alexandre; d'Urso, Guy


    In this paper, we propose a novel ultrasonic tomography method for pipeline flow field imaging, based on the Zernike polynomial series. Having intrusive multipath time-offlight ultrasonic measurements (difference in flight time and speed of ultrasound) at the input, we provide at the output tomograms of the fluid velocity components (axial, radial, and orthoradial velocity). Principally, by representing these velocities as Zernike polynomial series, we reduce the tomography problem to an ill-posed problem of finding the coefficients of the series, relying on the acquired ultrasonic measurements. Thereupon, this problem is treated by applying and comparing Tikhonov regularization and quadratically constrained ℓ1 minimization. To enhance the comparative analysis, we additionally introduce sparsity, by employing SVD-based filtering in selecting Zernike polynomials which are to be included in the series. The first approach-Tikhonov regularization without filtering, is used because it is the most suitable method. The performances are quantitatively tested by considering a residual norm and by estimating the flow using the axial velocity tomogram. Finally, the obtained results show the relative residual norm and the error in flow estimation, respectively, ~0.3% and ~1.6% for the less turbulent flow and ~0.5% and ~1.8% for the turbulent flow. Additionally, a qualitative validation is performed by proximate matching of the derived tomograms with a flow physical model.

  15. Generalization of the Van Cittert-Zernike theorem: observers moving with respect to sources

    Braun, Daniel; Monjid, Younes; Rougé, Bernard; Kerr, Yann


    The use of the Van Cittert-Zernike theorem for the formulation of the visibility function in satellite-based Earth observation with passive radiometers does not take into account the relative motion of the observer (the satellite antenna) with respect to sources of the electro-magnetic fields at the surface of the Earth. The motion of the observer leads on the one hand to a more complex signal due to a pixel-dependent Doppler shift that is neglected in the standard derivation of the Van Cittert-Zernike theorem, but on the other hand one may hope that it could be employed for a temporal aperture synthesis, where virtual baselines are created through the motion of the satellite. Here, we generalize the formulation of the aperture synthesis concept to the case of observers moving with respect to the sources, and to the correlation of fields measured at times that differ by the travel time of the observer along a virtual baseline. Our derivation is based on first principles, starting with the wave propagation in the Earth reference frame of electro-magnetic fields arising from incoherent current sources, and Lorentz transforming the fields into the reference frame of the satellite. Our detailed study leads to the remarkable conclusion that the delay time due to observer motion cancels exactly the Doppler effect. This justifies the neglect of the Doppler effect in existing imaging systems based on the standard Van Cittert-Zernike theorem.

  16. First test experiment to produce the slowed-down RI beam with the momentum-compression mode at RIBF

    Sumikama, T., E-mail: [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Ahn, D.S.; Fukuda, N.; Inabe, N.; Kubo, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Takeda, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aoi, N. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Beaumel, D. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d’Orsay (IPNO), CNRS/IN2P3, 91405 Orsay (France); Hasegawa, K. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Ideguchi, E. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Imai, N. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, RIKEN Campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0298 (Japan); Kobayashi, T. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Matsushita, M.; Michimasa, S. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, RIKEN Campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0298 (Japan); Otsu, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Shimoura, S. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, RIKEN Campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0298 (Japan); Teranishi, T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)


    The {sup 82}Ge beam has been produced by the in-flight fission reaction of the {sup 238}U primary beam with 345 MeV/u at the RIKEN RI beam factory, and slowed down to about 15 MeV/u using the energy degraders. The momentum-compression mode was applied to the second stage of the BigRIPS separator to reduce the momentum spread. The energy was successfully reduced down to 13 ± 2.5 MeV/u as expected. The focus was not optimized at the end of the second stage, therefore the beam size was larger than the expectation. The transmission of the second stage was half of the simulated value mainly due to out of focus. The two-stage separation worked very well for the slowed-down beam with the momentum-compression mode.

  17. Multiple modes of iron uptake by the filamentous, siderophore-producing cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    Rudolf, Mareike; Kranzler, Chana; Lis, Hagar; Margulis, Ketty; Stevanovic, Mara; Keren, Nir; Schleiff, Enrico


    Iron is a member of a small group of nutrients that limits aquatic primary production. Mechanisms for utilizing iron have to be efficient and adapted according to the ecological niche. In respect to iron acquisition cyanobacteria, prokaryotic oxygen evolving photosynthetic organisms can be divided into siderophore- and non-siderophore-producing strains. The results presented in this paper suggest that the situation is far more complex. To understand the bioavailability of different iron substrates and the advantages of various uptake strategies, we examined iron uptake mechanisms in the siderophore-producing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Comparison of the uptake of iron complexed with exogenous (desferrioxamine B, DFB) or to self-secreted (schizokinen) siderophores by Anabaena sp. revealed that uptake of the endogenous produced siderophore complexed to iron is more efficient. In addition, Anabaena sp. is able to take up dissolved, ferric iron hydroxide species (Fe') via a reductive mechanism. Thus, Anabaena sp. exhibits both, siderophore- and non-siderophore-mediated iron uptake. While assimilation of Fe' and FeDFB are not induced by iron starvation, FeSchizokinen uptake rates increase with increasing iron starvation. Consequently, we suggest that Fe' reduction and uptake is advantageous for low-density cultures, while at higher densities siderophore uptake is preferred.

  18. Exciting (and detecting) gravitational waves from the tidally produced f-modes in highly eccentric neutron star binaries

    Chirenti, Cecilia; Gold, Roman; Miller, M. Coleman


    After the first recent detections of gravitational waves from binary black holes, we expect to observe next gravitational radiation from neutron stars in the near future. Most interestingly, the signal from neutron star binaries could also carry information about the equation of state of cold, catalyzed, dense matter in the interior of neutron stars, which is in a regime not accessible to nuclear and particle physics experiments on Earth. For analyzing this information, more advanced gravitational wave detectors will be needed, such as third-generation detectors like the Einstein Telescope or the Cosmic Explorer. Besides the gravitational wave signal produced by the orbital motion and merger of the binary, a rich spectrum of characteristic fluid oscillations is expected to be produced with low amplitude in the ringdown. The frequencies and physical properties of these modes have been extensively studied in linear perturbation theory (both Newtonian and relativistic) and they have already been found in numerical relativity simulations of isolated neutron stars and of hypermassive remnants of double neutron star mergers. Due to the high frequency of the fundamental (f-)modes, of the order of 1-2 kHz, the resonant excitation of these modes is not expected to be detectable in circular binaries. However, highly eccentric binaries could have the potential for exciting f-modes in their close passages, and recent numerical relativity simulations indicate that the energy deposited in the f-modes could be up to two orders of magnitude greater than predicted in the linear theory. The merger of highly eccentric neutron star binaries will be rare events, but we estimate that up to several tens could be detected per year out to the redshifts ~2-6 accessible with third-generation instruments. Finally, we note that the information from the amplitude, frequency and damping time of the f-modes can be used for simultaneously measuring the masses, moments of inertia and tidal Love

  19. High order overlay modeling and APC simulation with Zernike-Legendre polynomials

    Ju, JawWuk; Kim, MinGyu; Lee, JuHan; Sherwin, Stuart; Hoo, George; Choi, DongSub; Lee, Dohwa; Jeon, Sanghuck; Lee, Kangsan; Tien, David; Pierson, Bill; Robinson, John C.; Levy, Ady; Smith, Mark D.


    Feedback control of overlay errors to the scanner is a well-established technique in semiconductor manufacturing [1]. Typically, overlay errors are measured, and then modeled by least-squares fitting to an overlay model. Overlay models are typically Cartesian polynomial functions of position within the wafer (Xw, Yw), and of position within the field (Xf, Yf). The coefficients from the data fit can then be fed back to the scanner to reduce overlay errors in future wafer exposures, usually via a historically weighted moving average. In this study, rather than using the standard Cartesian formulation, we examine overlay models using Zernike polynomials to represent the wafer-level terms, and Legendre polynomials to represent the field-level terms. Zernike and Legendre polynomials can be selected to have the same fitting capability as standard polynomials (e.g., second order in X and Y, or third order in X and Y). However, Zernike polynomials have the additional property of being orthogonal over the unit disk, which makes them appropriate for the wafer-level model, and Legendre polynomials are orthogonal over the unit square, which makes them appropriate for the field-level model. We show several benefits of Zernike/Legendre-based models in this investigation in an Advanced Process Control (APC) simulation using highly-sampled fab data. First, the orthogonality property leads to less interaction between the terms, which makes the lot-to-lot variation in the fitted coefficients smaller than when standard polynomials are used. Second, the fitting process itself is less coupled - fitting to a lower-order model, and then fitting the residuals to a higher order model gives very similar results as fitting all of the terms at once. This property makes fitting techniques such as dual pass or cascading [2] unnecessary, and greatly simplifies the options available for the model recipe. The Zernike/Legendre basis gives overlay performance (mean plus 3 sigma of the residuals

  20. A dual mode pulsed electro-magnetic cell stimulator produces acceleration of myogenic differentiation.

    Leon-Salas, Walter D; Rizk, Hatem; Mo, Chenglin; Weisleder, Noah; Brotto, Leticia; Abreu, Eduardo; Brotto, Marco


    This paper presents the design and test of a dual-mode electric and magnetic biological stimulator (EM-Stim). The stimulator generates pulsing electric and magnetic fields at programmable rates and intensities. While electric and magnetic stimulators have been reported before, this is the first device that combines both modalities. The ability of the dual stimulation to target bone and muscle tissue simultaneously has the potential to improve the therapeutic treatment of osteoporosis and sarcopenia. The device is fully programmable, portable and easy to use, and can run from a battery or a power supply. The device can generate magnetic fields of up to 1.6 mT and output voltages of +/- 40 V. The EM-Stim accelerated myogenic differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes as evidenced by morphometric, gene expression, and protein content analyses. Currently, there are many patents concerned with the application of single electrical or magnetic stimulation, but none that combine both simultaneously. However, we applied for and obtained a provisional patent for new device to fully explore its therapeutic potential in pre-clinical models.

  1. Tandem mass spectrometry of poly(methacrylic Acid) oligomers produced by negative mode electrospray ionization.

    Giordanengo, Rémi; Viel, Stéphane; Allard-Breton, Béatrice; Thévand, André; Charles, Laurence


    Dissociation of small poly(methyl acrylic acid) (PMAA) anions produced by electrospray was characterized by tandem mass spectrometry. Upon collisional activation, singly, and doubly deprotonated PMAA oligomers were shown to fragment via two major reactions, dehydration and decarboxylation. The elimination of a water molecule would occur between two consecutive acid groups in a charged-remote mechanism, giving rise to cyclic anhydrides, and was shown to proceed as many times as pairs of neutral pendant groups were available. As a result, the number of dehydration steps, together with the abundance of the fragment ions produced after the release of all water molecules, revealed the polymerization degree of the molecule in the particular case of doubly charged oligomers. For singly deprotonated molecules, the exact number of MAA units could be reached from the number of carbon dioxide molecules successively eliminated from the fully dehydrated precursor ions. In contrast to dehydration, decarboxylation reactions would proceed via a charge-induced mechanism. The proposed dissociation mechanisms are consistent with results commonly reported in thermal degradation studies of poly(acrylic acid) resins and were supported by accurate mass measurements. These fragmentation rules were successfully applied to characterize a polymeric impurity detected in the tested PMAA sample.

  2. Methods for testing Zernike phase plates and a report on silicon-based phase plates with reduced charging and improved ageing characteristics.

    Marko, Michael; Meng, Xing; Hsieh, Chyongere; Roussie, James; Striemer, Christopher


    Imaging with Zernike phase plates is increasingly being used in cryo-TEM tomography and cryo-EM single-particle applications. However, rapid ageing of the phase plates, together with the cost and effort in producing them, present serious obstacles to widespread adoption. We are experimenting with phase plates based on silicon chips that have thin windows; such phase plates could be mass-produced and made available at moderate cost. The windows are coated with conductive layers to reduce charging, and this considerably extends the useful life of the phase plates compared to traditional pure-carbon phase plates. However, a compromise must be reached between robustness and transmission through the phase-plate film. Details are given on testing phase-plate performance by means of imaging an amorphous thin film and evaluating the power spectra of the images.

  3. Purification, properties, and mode of action of hemicellulase I produced by Ceratocystis paradoxa.

    Dekker, R F; Richards, G N


    A culture isolate (CP2) of the fungal plant pathogen Ceratocystis paradoxa produces at least five extra-cellular hemicellulases when grown on a medium containing a commercial hemicellulose as inducer. One of the five enzymes, hemicellulase I (HC-I), was purified by ammonium sulphate preceipitation, ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sephadex and then Cellex-CM), and iso-electric focusing at pH 3-10 and 8-10. HC-I behaves as a single protein on a electrophoresis at pH 6.0 and 8.4. The enzyme degrades hemicellulose B (an arabino-4-O-methylglucurono-xylan) and arabinoxylanto arabinose, xylose, xylobiose (Xyl2; beta-D-Xylp-(1 leads to 4)-D-Xyl), and a mixture of arabinose-xylose and xylose oligosaccharides (AraXyln and Xyln, where n=3, 4, or 5). The enzyme is deduced to be an endo-enzyme. Xylotetraose (Xyl4) was the lowest homologue of the xylose oligosaccharides attacked, yielding xylobiose and xylotriose (Xyl3) only. A mechanism is postulated for this reaction. AraXyl5 were slowly hydrolysed to arabinose and the respective xylose saccharide (Xyl2-Xyl5), and thence to Xyl2 and Xyl3. Hydrolysis of the arabinofuranosyl linkage probably does not occur at the same active site as for the xylose oligosaccharides. Hemicellulose B fractions from different sources appeared to be degraded by HC-I. The enzyme showed optimum activity at pH 5.5 and 40 degrees, and Km was 4.24 mg of hemicellulose/ml.

  4. Corridor of existence of thermodynamically consistent solution of the Ornstein-Zernike equation.

    Vorob'ev, V S; Martynov, G A


    We obtain the exact equation for a correction to the Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) equation based on the assumption of the uniqueness of thermodynamical functions. We show that this equation is reduced to a differential equation with one arbitrary parameter for the hard sphere model. The compressibility factor within narrow limits of this parameter variation can either coincide with one of the formulas obtained on the basis of analytical solutions of the OZ equation or assume all intermediate values lying in a corridor between these solutions. In particular, we find the value of this parameter when the thermodynamically consistent compressibility factor corresponds to the Carnahan-Stirling formula.

  5. Shaping the focal field of radially/azimuthally polarized phase vortex with Zernike polynomials

    Wei, Lei


    The focal field properties of radially/azimuthally polarized Zernike polynomials are studied. A method to design the pupil field in order to shape the focal field of radially or azimuthally polarized phase vortex is introduced. With this method, we are able to obtain a pupil field to achieve a longitudinally polarized hollow spot with a depth of focus up to $12\\lambda$ and $0.14\\lambda$ lateral resolution for a optical system with numerical aperture 0.99; A pupil field to generate 8 circularly polarized focal spots along the optical axis is also obtained with this method.

  6. Calculation of the critical exponents by a renormalization of the Ornstein-Zernike equation

    Zhang, Q.; Badiali, J. P.


    We calculate the critical exponents at the liquid-vapor critical point by using the classical ingredients of the liquid-state theory. Two coupling constants are defined at a microscopic level. The closure of the Ornstein-Zernike equation is given by the Callan-Symanzik equation from which we determine the position of the fixed point. The role of the three-body direct-correlation function is emphasized. A comparison between this work and the standard theory of critical phenomena based on the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson Hamiltonian is presented.

  7. Adaptive variable selection for extended Nijboer-Zernike aberration retrieval via lasso

    Wang, Bin; Diao, Huai-An; Guo, Jianhua; Liu, Xiyang; Wu, Yuanhao


    In this paper, we propose extended Nijboer-Zernike (ENZ) method for aberration retrieval by incorporating lasso variable selection method which can improve the accuracy of aberration retrieval. The proposed model is computed by the state-of-art algorithm of the Bregman iterative algorithm (Bregman, 1967 [1]; Cai et al., 2008 [2]; Yin et al., 2008 [3]) for L1 minimization problem with adaptive regularized parameter choice based on the strategy (Ito et al., 2011 [4]). Numerical simulations for real world and simulated phase data validate the effectiveness of the proposed ENZ AR via lasso.

  8. Extrapolating Zernike Moments to Predict Future Optical Wave-fronts in Adaptive Optics Using Real Time Data Mining

    Vyas, Akondi; Prasad, B Raghavendra


    We present the details of predicting atmospheric turbulence by mining Zernike moment data obtained from simulations as well as experiments. Temporally correlated optical wave-fronts were simulated such that they followed Kolmogorov phase statistics. The wave-fronts reconstructed either by modal or zonal methods can be represented in terms of Zernike moments. The servo lag error in adaptive optics is minimized by predicting Zernike moments in the near future by using the data from the immediate past. It is shown statistically that the prediction accuracy depends on the number of past phase screens used for prediction and servo lag time scales. The algorithm is optimized in terms of these parameters for real time and efficient operation of the adaptive optics system. On an average, we report more than 3% improvement in the wave-front compensation after prediction. This analysis helps in optimizing the design parameters for sensing and correction in closed loop adaptive optics systems.

  9. Spatiotemporal Super-Resolution Reconstruction Based on Robust Optical Flow and Zernike Moment for Video Sequences

    Meiyu Liang


    Full Text Available In order to improve the spatiotemporal resolution of the video sequences, a novel spatiotemporal super-resolution reconstruction model (STSR based on robust optical flow and Zernike moment is proposed in this paper, which integrates the spatial resolution reconstruction and temporal resolution reconstruction into a unified framework. The model does not rely on accurate estimation of subpixel motion and is robust to noise and rotation. Moreover, it can effectively overcome the problems of hole and block artifacts. First we propose an efficient robust optical flow motion estimation model based on motion details preserving, then we introduce the biweighted fusion strategy to implement the spatiotemporal motion compensation. Next, combining the self-adaptive region correlation judgment strategy, we construct a fast fuzzy registration scheme based on Zernike moment for better STSR with higher efficiency, and then the final video sequences with high spatiotemporal resolution can be obtained by fusion of the complementary and redundant information with nonlocal self-similarity between the adjacent video frames. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the existing methods in terms of both subjective visual and objective quantitative evaluations.

  10. Generalization of the Van Cittert--Zernike theorem: observers moving with respect to sources

    Braun, Daniel; Rougé, Bernard; Kerr, Yann


    The use of the Van Cittert--Zernike theorem for the formulation of the visibility function in satellite-based Earth observation with passive radiometers does not take into account the relative motion of the observer (the satellite antenna) with respect to sources of the electro-magnetic fields at the surface of the Earth. The motion of the observer leads on the one hand to a more complex signal due to a pixel-dependent Doppler shift that is neglected in the standard derivation of the Van Cittert--Zernike theorem, but on the other hand one may hope that it could be employed for a temporal aperture synthesis, where virtual baselines are created through the motion of the satellite. Here, we generalize the formulation of the aperture synthesis concept to the case of observers moving with respect to the sources, and to the correlation of fields measured at times that differ by the travel time of the observer along a virtual baseline. Our derivation is based on first principles, starting with the wave propagation i...

  11. Use of Electroencephalography (EEG) to Assess CNS Changes Produced by Pesticides with different Modes of Action: Effects of Permethrin, Deltamethrin, Fipronil, Imidacloprid, Carbaryl, and Triadimefon

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an apical measure, capable of detecting changes in brain neuronal activity produced by internal or external stimuli. We assessed whether pesticides with different modes of action produced different changes in the EEG of adult male Long-Evans rats...

  12. Use of Electroencephalography (EEG) to Assess CNS Changes Produced by Pesticides with different Modes of Action: Effects of Permethrin, Deltamethrin, Fipronil, Imidacloprid, Carbaryl, and Triadimefon

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an apical measure, capable of detecting changes in brain neuronal activity produced by internal or external stimuli. We assessed whether pesticides with different modes of action produced different changes in the EEG of adult male Long-Evans rats...

  13. Extended Nijboer-Zernike (ENZ) based mask imaging: Efficient coupling of electromagnetic field solvers and the ENZ imaging algorithm

    Janssen, O.T.A.; Van Haver, S.; Janssen, A.J.E.M.; Braat, J.J.M.; Urbach, H.P.; Pereira, S.F.


    Results are presented of mask imaging using the Extended Nijboer-Zernike (ENZ) theory of diffraction. We show that the efficiency of a mask imaging algorithm, derived from this theory, can be increased. By adjusting the basic Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) algorithm, we can calculate the near

  14. Cloning, functional characterization, and mode of action of a novel insecticidal pore-forming toxin, sphaericolysin, produced by Bacillus sphaericus.

    Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Nakashima, Kenta; Ishida, Chiharu; Kawamura, Tadayuki; Matsuda, Kazuhiko


    An insecticidal protein produced by Bacillus sphaericus A3-2 was purified to elucidate its structure and mode of action. The active principle purified from the culture broth of A3-2 was a protein with a molecular mass of 53 kDa that rapidly intoxicated German cockroaches (Blattela germanica) at a dose of about 100 ng when injected. The insecticidal protein sphaericolysin possessed the undecapeptide motif of cholesterol-dependent cytolysins and had a unique N-terminal sequence. The recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli was equally as potent as the native protein. Sphaericolysin-induced hemolysis resulted from the protein's pore-forming action. This activity as well as the insecticidal activity was markedly reduced by a Y159A mutation. Also, coapplication of sphaericolysin with cholesterol abolished the insecticidal action, suggesting that cholesterol binding plays an important role in insecticidal activity. Sphaericolysin-lysed neurons dissociated from the thoracic ganglia of the German cockroaches. In addition, sphaericolysin's activity in ganglia was suppressed by the Y159A mutation. The sphaericolysin-induced damage to the cockroach ganglia was greater than the damage to the ganglia of common cutworms (Spodoptera litura), which accounts, at least in part, for the higher sensitivity to sphaericolysin displayed by the cockroaches than that displayed by cutworms.

  15. Protein-protein docking using region-based 3D Zernike descriptors

    Sael Lee


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interactions are a pivotal component of many biological processes and mediate a variety of functions. Knowing the tertiary structure of a protein complex is therefore essential for understanding the interaction mechanism. However, experimental techniques to solve the structure of the complex are often found to be difficult. To this end, computational protein-protein docking approaches can provide a useful alternative to address this issue. Prediction of docking conformations relies on methods that effectively capture shape features of the participating proteins while giving due consideration to conformational changes that may occur. Results We present a novel protein docking algorithm based on the use of 3D Zernike descriptors as regional features of molecular shape. The key motivation of using these descriptors is their invariance to transformation, in addition to a compact representation of local surface shape characteristics. Docking decoys are generated using geometric hashing, which are then ranked by a scoring function that incorporates a buried surface area and a novel geometric complementarity term based on normals associated with the 3D Zernike shape description. Our docking algorithm was tested on both bound and unbound cases in the ZDOCK benchmark 2.0 dataset. In 74% of the bound docking predictions, our method was able to find a near-native solution (interface C-αRMSD ≤ 2.5 Å within the top 1000 ranks. For unbound docking, among the 60 complexes for which our algorithm returned at least one hit, 60% of the cases were ranked within the top 2000. Comparison with existing shape-based docking algorithms shows that our method has a better performance than the others in unbound docking while remaining competitive for bound docking cases. Conclusion We show for the first time that the 3D Zernike descriptors are adept in capturing shape complementarity at the protein-protein interface and useful for

  16. Rotation, Scaling and Translation Invariant Blind Image Watermarking Scheme Utilizing Zernike Moments

    WU Jian-zhen; XIE Jian-ying


    A novel adaptive blind image watermarking scheme resistant to Rotation, scaling and translation (RST) attacks is proposed in this paper. Based on fuzzy clustering theory and Human visual system (HVS) model, the spread spectrum watermark is adaptively embedded in Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) domain. In order to register RST transform parameters, a hierarchical neural network is utilized to learn image geometric pattern represented by low order Zernike moments. Watermark extraction is carried out after watermarked image has been synchronized without original image. It only needs a trained neural network.Experiments show that it can embed more robust watermark under certain visual distance, effectively resist Joint photographic experts group (JPEG) compression, noise and RST attacks.

  17. Courier Receipts Retrieval System Design Combining the Inverse Zernike Moments and the SIFT Features

    Wenyin Ni


    Full Text Available In response to the demand of the logistics industry’s application, a retrieval algorithm for logistics bill is proposed which combines the local feature with the global feature of images, which solved the problem of rotation positioning and applied to a set of practical courier receipts retrieval system. By using the scale invariance principle of the local features combined with Zernike invariant moments of the global features, we can quickly calculate the image rotating angle and make the exact match. Experimental results show that this method not only keeps the well precision and recall ratio ability of SIFT features, but also reduces the counting times which are required by fine matching.

  18. Path-integral and Ornstein-Zernike study of quantum fluid structures on the crystallization line

    Sesé, Luis M.


    Liquid neon, liquid para-hydrogen, and the quantum hard-sphere fluid are studied with path integral Monte Carlo simulations and the Ornstein-Zernike pair equation on their respective crystallization lines. The results cover the whole sets of structures in the r-space and the k-space and, for completeness, the internal energies, pressures and isothermal compressibilities. Comparison with experiment is made wherever possible, and the possibilities of establishing k-space criteria for quantum crystallization based on the path-integral centroids are discussed. In this regard, the results show that the centroid structure factor contains two significant parameters related to its main peak features (amplitude and shape) that can be useful to characterize freezing.

  19. Robust fitting of Zernike polynomials to noisy point clouds defined over connected domains of arbitrary shape.

    Ibañez, Diego Rodríguez; Gómez-Pedrero, José A; Alonso, Jose; Quiroga, Juan A


    A new method for fitting a series of Zernike polynomials to point clouds defined over connected domains of arbitrary shape defined within the unit circle is presented in this work. The method is based on the application of machine learning fitting techniques by constructing an extended training set in order to ensure the smooth variation of local curvature over the whole domain. Therefore this technique is best suited for fitting points corresponding to ophthalmic lenses surfaces, particularly progressive power ones, in non-regular domains. We have tested our method by fitting numerical and real surfaces reaching an accuracy of 1 micron in elevation and 0.1 D in local curvature in agreement with the customary tolerances in the ophthalmic manufacturing industry.

  20. Self-consistent Ornstein-Zernike approximation for molecules with soft cores.

    Høye, J S; Reiner, A


    The self-consistent Ornstein-Zernike approximation (SCOZA) is an accurate liquid state theory. So far it has been tied to interactions composed of hard core repulsion and long-range attraction, whereas real molecules have soft core repulsion at short distances. In the present work, this is taken into account through the introduction of an effective hard core with a diameter that depends upon temperature only. It is found that the contribution to the configurational internal energy due to the repulsive reference fluid is of prime importance and must be included in the thermodynamic self-consistency requirement on which SCOZA is based. An approximate but accurate evaluation of this contribution relies on the virial theorem to gauge the amplitude of the pair distribution function close to the molecular surface. Finally, the SCOZA equation is transformed by which the problem is reformulated in terms of the usual SCOZA with fixed hard core reference system and temperature-dependent interaction.

  1. Forward scattering from the sea surface and the van Cittert-Zernike theorem.

    Dahl, Peter H


    The van Cittert-Zernike theorem is used to generate models for the spatial coherence of a sound field that has been forward scattered from the sea surface. The theorem relates the spatial coherence of an observed wave field to the distant source intensity distribution associated with this field. In this case, the sea surface upon ensonification is taken to be the source, and the sea-surface bistatic cross section corrected for transmission loss is taken as a surrogate for the source intensity distribution. Improvements in methodology for generating an estimate of the 2D autocorrelation function for sea surface waveheight variation, necessary to compute the bistatic cross section, are documented in the Appendix. Upon invoking certain approximations, simple expressions for the characteristic length scales of vertical, horizontal, and horizontal-longitudinal coherence, are derived from the theorem. The three coherence length scales identify a coherence volume for the spatial coherence of a sound field arriving via the surface bounce channel. Models for spatial coherence derived from the van Cittert-Zernike theorem without these approximations compare reasonably well with measurements of complex vertical coherence made at 8 kHz and 20 kHz in the East China Sea as part of the 2001 ASIAEX field program. In terms of the ASIAEX field geometries and sea-surface conditions, at frequency of 20 kHz the coherence volume is a vertical layer 0.5 m thick by 3 m in each of the two horizontal dimensions; at 8 kHz these dimensions increase by a factor of 2.5, representing the ratio of the two frequencies.

  2. Light-efficient, quantum-limited interferometric wavefront estimation by virtual mode sensing.

    Lauterbach, Marcel A; Ruckel, Markus; Denk, Winfried


    We describe and analyze an interferometer-based virtual modal wavefront sensor (VMWS) that can be configured to measure, for example, Zernike coefficients directly. This sensor is particularly light efficient because the determination of each modal coefficient benefits from all the available photons. Numerical simulations show that the VMWS outperforms state-of-the-art phase unwrapping at low light levels. Including up to Zernike mode 21, aberrations can be determined with a precision of about 0.17 rad (lambda/37) using low resolution (65 x 65 pixels) images and only about 400 photons total.

  3. 基于卡尔曼滤波与Zernike-facet模型的运动小目标检测




  4. Zernike phase-contrast x-ray microscope with pseudo-Kohler illumination generated by sectored (polygon) condenser plate

    Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio, E-mail: take@spring8.or.j [JASRI / SPring-8, Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)


    Zernike phase contrast x-ray microscope has been developed at the undulator beamline 20XU and 47XU of SPring-8. The system consists of a pseudo-Koehler-illuminating system, a Fresnel zone plate objective with outermost zone width of 100 nm, a Zernike phase plate (0.96-{mu}m-thick tantalum, {lambda}/4 or 3{lambda}/4 phase-shifter at 8 keV) installed at the back-focal plane of the objective, and a visible-light conversion type cooled CCD camera as an image detector. A sectored (polygon) condenser plate is employed as the condenser in order to secure a large and flat field of view. Details and experimental results of the system will be shown.

  5. Robust Anisotropic Diffusion Based Edge Enhancement for Level Set Segmentation and Asymmetry Analysis of Breast Thermograms using Zernike Moments.

    Prabha, S; Sujatha, C M; Ramakrishnan, S


    Breast thermography plays a major role in early detection of breast cancer in which the thermal variations are associated with precancerous state of breast. The distribution of asymmetrical thermal patterns indicates the pathological condition in breast thermal images. In this work, asymmetry analysis of breast thermal images is carried out using level set segmentation and Zernike moments. The breast tissues are subjected to Tukey’s biweight robust anisotropic diffusion filtering (TBRAD) for the generation of edge map. Reaction diffusion level set method is employed for segmentation in which TBRAD edge map is used as stopping criterion during the level set evolution. Zernike moments are extracted from the segmented breast tissues to perform asymmetry analysis. Results show that the TBRAD filter is able to enhance the edges near infra mammary folds and lower breast boundaries effectively. It is observed that segmented breast tissues are found to be continuous and has sharper boundary. This method yields high degree of correlation (98%) between the segmented output and the ground truth images. Among the extracted Zernike features, higher order moments are found to be significant in demarcating normal and carcinoma breast tissues by 9%. It appears that, the methodology adopted here is useful in accurate segmentation and differentiation of normal and carcinoma breast tissues for automated diagnosis of breast abnormalities.

  6. Path-integral and Ornstein-Zernike computations of quantum fluid structures under strong fluctuations

    Luis M. Sesé


    Full Text Available This work deals with the computation of the structure factors of quantum fluids under complex conditions involving substantial density fluctuations and/or large particle delocalization effects. The method is based on the combination of path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC simulations and the pair Ornstein-Zernike framework (OZ2. PIMC provides the radial correlation functions (centroid, instantaneous, and thermalized-continuous total linear response, which are used as data input to the OZ2 calculations that lead to their associated structure factors. To undertake this project normal liquid 4He and supercritical 3He are selected, studying conditions in the range (T = 4.2 K; 0.01886 <ρN/Å-3 < 0.02687. Full inter-comparison between the structure factors determined via both OZ2 and direct PIMC calculations is made. In addition, comparison with experimental data, including thermodynamic properties, is made wherever possible. The results establish that, even under severe thermodynamic and/or quantum fluctuation conditions, OZ2 remains in the quantum domain as a highly reliable and cost-effective framework to determine accurate structure factors, also allowing one to understand the related isotopic shifts in fluid He.

  7. Replica Ornstein-Zernike self-consistent theory for mixtures in random pores.

    Pellicane, G; Caccamo, C; Wilson, D S; Lee, L L


    We present a self-consistent integral equation theory for a binary liquid in equilibrium with a disordered medium, based on the formalism of the replica Ornstein-Zernike (ROZ) equations. Specifically, we derive direct formulas for the chemical potentials and the zero-separation theorems (the latter provide a connection between the chemical potentials and the fluid cavity distribution functions). Next we solve a modified-Verlet closure to ROZ equations, which has built-in parameters that can be adjusted to satisfy the zero-separation theorems. The degree of thermodynamic consistency of the theory is also kept under control. We model the binary fluid in random pores as a symmetrical binary mixture of nonadditive hard spheres in a disordered hard-sphere matrix and consider two different values of the nonadditivity parameter and of the quenched matrix packing fraction, at different mixture concentrations. We compare the theoretical structural properties as obtained through the present approach with Percus-Yevick and Martinov-Sarkisov integral equation theories, and assess both structural and thermodynamic properties by performing canonical standard and biased grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. Our theory appears superior to the other integral equation schemes here examined and provides reliable estimates of the chemical potentials. This feature should be useful in studying the fluid phase behavior of model adsorbates in random pores in general.

  8. Automated Transient Recovery Algorithm using Discrete Zernike Polynomials on Image-Subtracted Data

    Ackley, Kendall; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Klimenko, Sergey


    We present an unsupervised algorithm for the automated identification of astrophysical transients recovered through image subtraction techniques. We use a set of discrete Zernike polynomials to decompose and characterize residual energy discovered in the final subtracted image, identifying candidate sources which appear point-like in nature. This work is motivated for use in collaboration with Advanced gravitational wave (GW) interferometers, such as Advanced LIGO and Virgo, where multiwavelength electromagnetic (EM) emission is expected in parallel with gravitational radiation from compact binary object mergers of neutron stars (NS-NS) and stellar-mass black holes (NS-BH). Imaging an EM counterpart coincident with a GW trigger will help to constrain the multi-dimensional GW parameter space as well as aid in the resolution of long-standing astrophysical mysteries, such as the true nature of the progenitor relationship between short-duration GRBs and massive compact binary mergers. We are working on making our method an open-source package optimized for low-latency response for community use during the upcoming era of GW astronomy.

  9. Application of 3D Zernike descriptors to shape-based ligand similarity searching

    Venkatraman Vishwesh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of promising drug leads from a large database of compounds is an important step in the preliminary stages of drug design. Although shape is known to play a key role in the molecular recognition process, its application to virtual screening poses significant hurdles both in terms of the encoding scheme and speed. Results In this study, we have examined the efficacy of the alignment independent three-dimensional Zernike descriptor (3DZD for fast shape based similarity searching. Performance of this approach was compared with several other methods including the statistical moments based ultrafast shape recognition scheme (USR and SIMCOMP, a graph matching algorithm that compares atom environments. Three benchmark datasets are used to thoroughly test the methods in terms of their ability for molecular classification, retrieval rate, and performance under the situation that simulates actual virtual screening tasks over a large pharmaceutical database. The 3DZD performed better than or comparable to the other methods examined, depending on the datasets and evaluation metrics used. Reasons for the success and the failure of the shape based methods for specific cases are investigated. Based on the results for the three datasets, general conclusions are drawn with regard to their efficiency and applicability. Conclusion The 3DZD has unique ability for fast comparison of three-dimensional shape of compounds. Examples analyzed illustrate the advantages and the room for improvements for the 3DZD.

  10. Design and Simulation for Producing Two Amplitude Matched Anti-phase Sine Waveforms Using ±2.5 V CMOS Current-Mode Approach

    Anil Kumar Sharma; Dipankar Pal


    In this paper the current mode approach called “Current Conveyor (CCII+)” has been incorporated to design and simulate the circuit for producing two amplitude matched anti-phase sine waveforms which are frequently used in various communication and instrumentation systems. PSpice simulation has been used to depict the output waveforms. The power supply used is ±2.5 V which can be easily incorporated with CMOS IC technology. The designed circuit has been simulated at variousfrequency ranges and...

  11. Trust your gut or think carefully? Examining whether an intuitive, versus a systematic, mode of thought produces greater empathic accuracy.

    Ma-Kellams, Christine; Lerner, Jennifer


    Cultivating successful personal and professional relationships requires the ability to accurately infer the feelings of others-that is, to be empathically accurate. Some are better at this than others, a difference which may be explained in part by mode of thought. Specifically, empathically accurate people may tend to rely more on intuitive rather than systematic thought when perceiving others. Or it may be the reverse: systematic thought may increase empathic accuracy. To determine which view is supported by the evidence, we conducted 4 studies examining relations between mode of thought (intuitive vs. systematic) and empathic accuracy. Study 1 revealed a lay belief that empathic accuracy arises from intuitive modes of thought. Studies 2 through 4, each using executive-level professionals as participants, demonstrated that, contrary to lay beliefs, people who tend to rely on intuitive thinking also tend to exhibit lower empathic accuracy. This pattern held when participants inferred others' emotional states based on (a) in-person face-to-face interactions with partners (Study 2) as well as on (b) pictures with limited facial cues (Study 3). Study 4 confirmed that the relationship is causal: experimentally inducing systematic (as opposed to intuitive) thought led to improved empathic accuracy. In sum, evidence regarding personal and social processes in these 4 samples of working professionals converges on the conclusion that, contrary to lay beliefs, empathic accuracy arises more from systematic thought than from gut intuition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Object-wave reconstruction by carbon film-based Zernike- and Hilbert-phase plate microscopy: A theoretical study not restricted to weak-phase objects

    Dries, M., E-mail: [Laboratorium fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Schultheiss, K.; Gamm, B. [Laboratorium fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Rosenauer, A. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Schroeder, R.R. [BioQuant CellNetworks, Universitaet Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Gerthsen, D. [Laboratorium fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)


    Transmission electron microscopy phase-contrast images taken by amorphous carbon film-based phase plates are affected by the scattering of electrons within the carbon film causing a modification of the image-wave function. Moreover, image artefacts are produced by non-centrosymmetric phase plate designs such as the Hilbert-phase plate. Various methods are presented to correct phase-contrast images with respect to the scattering of electrons and image artefacts induced by phase plates. The proposed techniques are not restricted to weak-phase objects and linear image formation. Phase-contrast images corrected by the presented methods correspond to those taken by an ideal centrosymmetric, matter-free phase plate and are suitable for object-wave reconstruction. -- Research Highlights: {yields} Object-wave reconstruction by phase plates considering nonlinear image formation. {yields} Requirement of three (five) images in case of Zernike- (Hilbert-) phase plates. {yields} Analytical correction of damping and/or image artefacts induced by phase plates.{yields} Validation by simulation of crystalline silicon.

  13. A two-view ultrasound CAD system for spina bifida detection using Zernike features

    Konur, Umut; Gürgen, Fikret; Varol, Füsun


    In this work, we address a very specific CAD (Computer Aided Detection/Diagnosis) problem and try to detect one of the relatively common birth defects - spina bifida, in the prenatal period. To do this, fetal ultrasound images are used as the input imaging modality, which is the most convenient so far. Our approach is to decide using two particular types of views of the fetal neural tube. Transcerebellar head (i.e. brain) and transverse (axial) spine images are processed to extract features which are then used to classify healthy (normal), suspicious (probably defective) and non-decidable cases. Decisions raised by two independent classifiers may be individually treated, or if desired and data related to both modalities are available, those decisions can be combined to keep matters more secure. Even more security can be attained by using more than two modalities and base the final decision on all those potential classifiers. Our current system relies on feature extraction from images for cases (for particular patients). The first step is image preprocessing and segmentation to get rid of useless image pixels and represent the input in a more compact domain, which is hopefully more representative for good classification performance. Next, a particular type of feature extraction, which uses Zernike moments computed on either B/W or gray-scale image segments, is performed. The aim here is to obtain values for indicative markers that signal the presence of spina bifida. Markers differ depending on the image modality being used. Either shape or texture information captured by moments may propose useful features. Finally, SVM is used to train classifiers to be used as decision makers. Our experimental results show that a promising CAD system can be actualized for the specific purpose. On the other hand, the performance of such a system would highly depend on the qualities of image preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and comprehensiveness of image data.

  14. Analytic solution of the Ornstein-Zernike relation for inhomogeneous liquids

    He, Yan; Rice, Stuart A.; Xu, Xinliang


    The properties of a classical simple liquid are strongly affected by the application of an external potential that supports inhomogeneity. To understand the nature of these property changes, the equilibrium particle distribution functions of the liquid have, typically, been calculated directly using either integral equation or density functional based analyses. In this study, we develop a different approach with a focus on two distribution functions that characterize the inhomogeneous liquid: the pair direct correlation function c(r1,r2) and the pair correlation function g(r1,r2). With g(r1,r2) considered to be an experimental observable, we solve the Ornstein-Zernike equation for the inhomogeneous liquid to obtain c(r1,r2), using information about the well studied and resolved g(0)(r1,r2) and c(0)(r1,r2) for the parent homogeneous ((0)) system. In practical cases, where g(r1,r2) is available from experimental data in a discrete form, the resulting c(r1,r2) is expressed as an explicit function of g(r1,r2) in a discrete form. A weaker continuous form of solution is also obtained, in the form of an integral equation with finite integration limits. The result obtained with our formulation is tested against the exact solutions for the correlation and distribution functions of a one-dimensional inhomogeneous hard rod liquid. Following the success of that test, the formalism is extended to higher dimensional systems with explicit consideration of the two-dimensional liquid.

  15. Co-phasing primary mirror segments of an optical space telescope using a long stroke Zernike WFS

    Jackson, Kate; Wallace, J. K.; Pellegrino, Sergio


    Static Zernike phase-contrast plates have been used extensively in microscopy for half a century and, more recently, in optical telescopes for wavefront sensing. A dynamic Zernike wavefront sensor (WFS) with four phase shifts, for reducing error due to spurious light and eliminating other asynchronous noise, has been proposed for use in adaptive optics. Here, we propose adapting this method for co-phasing the primary mirror of a segmented space telescope. In order to extend the dynamic range of the WFS, which has a maximum range of +/ - λ/2, a phase- contrast plate with multiple steps, both positive and negative, has been developed such that errors as large as +/ - 10λ can be sensed. The manufacturing tolerances have been incorporated into simulations, which demonstrate that performance impacts are minimal. We show that the addition of this small optical plate along with a high precision linear translation stage at the prime focus of a telescope and pupil viewing capability can provide extremely accurate segment phasing with a simple white-light fringe fitting algorithm and a closed-loop controller. The original focal-plane geometry of a centro-symmetric phase shifting element is replaced with a much less constrained shape, such as a slot. Also, a dedicated pupil imager is not strictly required; an existing pupil sampler such as a Shack-Hartmann (SH) WFS can be used just as effectively, allowing simultaneous detection of wavefront errors using both intensity and spot positions on the SH-WFS. This could lead to an efficient synergy between Zernike and SH-WFS, enabling segment phasing in conjunction with high-dynamic range sensing.

  16. Fine cophasing of segmented aperture telescopes with ZELDA, a Zernike wavefront sensor in the diffraction-limited regime

    Janin-Potiron, P.; N'Diaye, M.; Martinez, P.; Vigan, A.; Dohlen, K.; Carbillet, M.


    Context. Segmented aperture telescopes require an alignment procedure with successive steps from coarse alignment to monitoring process in order to provide very high optical quality images for stringent science operations such as exoplanet imaging. The final step, referred to as fine phasing, calls for a high sensitivity wavefront sensing and control system in a diffraction-limited regime to achieve segment alignment with nanometric accuracy. In this context, Zernike wavefront sensors represent promising options for such a calibration. A concept called the Zernike unit for segment phasing (ZEUS) was previously developed for ground-based applications to operate under seeing-limited images. Such a concept is, however, not suitable for fine cophasing with diffraction-limited images. Aims: We revisit ZELDA, a Zernike sensor that was developed for the measurement of residual aberrations in exoplanet direct imagers, to measure segment piston, tip, and tilt in the diffraction-limited regime. Methods: We introduce a novel analysis scheme of the sensor signal that relies on piston, tip, and tilt estimators for each segment, and provide probabilistic insights to predict the success of a closed-loop correction as a function of the initial wavefront error. Results: The sensor unambiguously and simultaneously retrieves segment piston and tip-tilt misalignment. Our scheme allows for correction of these errors in closed-loop operation down to nearly zero residuals in a few iterations. This sensor also shows low sensitivity to misalignment of its parts and high ability for operation with a relatively bright natural guide star. Conclusions: Our cophasing sensor relies on existing mask technologies that make the concept already available for segmented apertures in future space missions.

  17. Design and Simulation for Producing Two Amplitude Matched Anti-phase Sine Waveforms Using ±2.5 V CMOS Current-Mode Approach

    Anil Kumar Sharma,


    Full Text Available In this paper the current mode approach called “Current Conveyor (CCII+” has been incorporated to design and simulate the circuit for producing two amplitude matched anti-phase sine waveforms which are frequently used in various communication and instrumentation systems. PSpice simulation has been used to depict the output waveforms. The power supply used is ±2.5 V which can be easily incorporated with CMOS IC technology. The designed circuit has been simulated at variousfrequency ranges and the waveforms are obtained after the circuit is optimized.

  18. New Small Target Detection Algorithm via Zernike-Facet Model and the Total Least Squares%基于Zernike-Facet模型和总体最小二乘的弱小目标检测

    胡谋法; 陈曾平



  19. Calibration of quasi-static aberrations in exoplanet direct-imaging instruments with a Zernike phase-mask sensor. II. Concept validation with ZELDA on VLT/SPHERE

    N'Diaye, M.; Vigan, A.; Dohlen, K.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Caillat, A.; Costille, A.; Girard, J. H. V.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Fusco, T.; Blanchard, P.; Le Merrer, J.; Le Mignant, D.; Madec, F.; Moreaux, G.; Mouillet, D.; Puget, P.; Zins, G.


    Warm or massive gas giant planets, brown dwarfs, and debris disks around nearby stars are now routinely observed by dedicated high-contrast imaging instruments that are mounted on large, ground-based observatories. These facilities include extreme adaptive optics (ExAO) and state-of-the-art coronagraphy to achieve unprecedented sensitivities for exoplanet detection and their spectral characterization. However, low spatial frequency differential aberrations between the ExAO sensing path and the science path represent critical limitations for the detection of giant planets with a contrast lower than a few 10-6 at very small separations (measure these quasi-static aberrations at a nanometric level. We present the design, manufacturing, and testing of ZELDA, a prototype that was installed on VLT/SPHERE during its reintegration in Chile. Using the internal light source of the instrument, we first performed measurements in the presence of Zernike or Fourier modes introduced with the deformable mirror. Our experimental results are consistent with the results in simulations, confirming the ability of our sensor to measure small aberrations (measurements and estimated a contrast gain of 10 in the coronagraphic image at 0.2'', reaching the raw contrast limit set by the coronagraph in the instrument. In addition to this encouraging result, the simplicity of the design and its phase reconstruction algorithm makes ZELDA an excellent candidate for the online measurements of quasi-static aberrations during the observations. The implementation of a ZELDA-based sensing path on the current and future facilities (ELTs, future space missions) could facilitate the observation of cold gaseous or massive rocky planets around nearby stars.

  20. Quantitative fluorescent in-situ hybridization: a hypothesized competition mode between two dominant bacteria groups in hydrogen-producing anaerobic sludge processes.

    Huang, C-L; Chen, C-C; Lin, C-Y; Liu, W-T


    Two hydrogen-producing continuous flow stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) fed respectively with glucose and sucrose were investigated by polymerase chain reaction-denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH). The substrate was fed in a continuous mode decreased from hydraulic retention time (HRT) 10 hours to 6, 5, 4, 3, and 2 hours. Quantitative fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) observations further demonstrated that two morphotypes of bacteria dominated both microbial communities. One was long rod bacteria which can be targeted either by Chis150 probe designed to hybridize the gram positive low G + C bacteria or the specific oligonucleotide probe Lg10-6. The probe Lg10-6, affiliated with Clostridium pasteurianum, was designed and then checked with other reference organisms. The other type, unknown group, which cannot be detected by Chis150 was curved rod bacteria. Notably, the population ratios of the two predominant groups reflected the different operational performance of the two reactors, such as hydrogen producing rates, substrate turnover rates and metabolites compositions. Therefore, a competition mode of the two dominant bacteria groups was hypothesized. In the study, 16S rRNA-based gene library of hydrogen-producing microbial communities was established. The efficiency of hydrogen yields was correlated with substrates (glucose or sucrose), HRT, metabolites compositions (acetate, propionate, butyrate and ethanol), thermal pre-treatment (seed biomass was heated at 100 degrees C for 45 minutes), and microbial communities in the bioreactor, not sludge sources (municipal sewage sludge, alcohol-processing sludge, or bean-processing sludge). The designed specific oligonucleotide probe Lg10-6 also provides us a useful and fast molecular tool to screen hydrogen-producing microbial communities in the future research.

  1. Use of electroencephalography (EEG) to assess CNS changes produced by pesticides with different modes of action: Effects of permethrin, deltamethrin, fipronil, imidacloprid, carbaryl, and triadimefon

    Freeborn, Danielle L., E-mail:; McDaniel, Katherine L., E-mail:; Moser, Virginia C., E-mail:; Herr, David W., E-mail:


    The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an apical measure, capable of detecting changes in brain neuronal activity produced by internal or external stimuli. We assessed whether pesticides with different modes of action produced different changes in the EEG of adult male Long–Evans rats. The EEG was recorded using two montages (visual cortex referenced to the cerebellum and to the frontal cortex) in unrestrained rats at the time of peak behavioral effects. Pesticides included: permethrin and deltamethrin (Type I and Type II pyrethroids; 2 h), fipronil (single and repeated doses; phenylpyrazole; 6 h), imidacloprid (neonicotinoid; 2 h), carbaryl (carbamate; 0.5 h), and triadimefon (triazole; 1 h), using dosages that produced approximately an ED{sub 30} or an ED{sub 50}–ED{sub 80} change in motor activity. Permethrin (43, 100 mg/kg) increased amplitudes or areas (delta, alpha, or gamma bands) in the EEG. Deltamethrin (2.5, 5.5 mg/kg) reduced the amplitudes or areas of the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands, but the changes were not dose-related. A single treatment with fipronil (25, 50 mg/kg, but not 5, 10 mg/kg) decreased gamma band area. Additional changes in the delta, theta, and gamma bands were observed when fipronil (5, 10 mg/kg) was administered for 14 days. Imidacloprid (50, 100 mg/kg) did not alter the EEG. Carbaryl (10, 50 mg/kg) decreased theta area, and decreased delta and increased beta frequency. Triadimefon (75, 150 mg/kg) produced minimal changes in the EEG. The results show that the EEG is affected differently by approximately equipotent doses of pesticides with different modes of action. - Highlights: • Pesticides with different modes of action have different effects on in vivo rodent EEG. • The EEG was also changed differently after single vs. repeated treatment with fipronil. • The data suggest that EEG may be used as an apical measure for detecting chemical effects on the central nervous system.

  2. Partial Purification and Characterization of the Mode of Action of Enterocin S37: A Bacteriocin Produced by Enterococcus faecalis S37 Isolated from Poultry Feces

    Y. Belguesmia


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to purify and characterize the mode of action of enterocin S37, a bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis S37, a strain recently isolated from the chicken feces. Enterocin S37 has a molecular weight comprised between 4 and 5 kDa. It remained active after 1 h at 80oC and at pH values ranging from 4.0 to 9.0. Furthermore, cell-free supernatant of Enterococcus faecalis S37 and purified enterocin S37 were active against Gram-positive bacteria including Listeria monocytogenes EGDe, L. innocua F, Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2, and Lactobacillus brevis F145. The purification of enterocin S37 was performed by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed up by hydrophobic-interaction chromatography procedures. Treatment of enterocin S37 with proteinase K, -chymotrypsin, and papain confirmed its proteinaceous nature, while its treatment with lysozyme and lipase resulted in no alteration of activity. Enterocin S37 is hydrophobic, anti-Listeria and likely acting by depletion of intracellular K+ ions upon action on KATP channels. This study contributed to gain more insights into the mode of action of enterocins.

  3. Partial Purification and Characterization of the Mode of Action of Enterocin S37: A Bacteriocin Produced by Enterococcus faecalis S37 Isolated from Poultry Feces

    Belguesmia, Y.; Choiset, Y.; Prévost, H.; Dalgalarrondo, M.; Chobert, J.-M.; Drider, D.


    The aim of this research was to purify and characterize the mode of action of enterocin S37, a bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis S37, a strain recently isolated from the chicken feces. Enterocin S37 has a molecular weight comprised between 4 and 5 kDa. It remained active after 1 h at 80oC and at pH values ranging from 4.0 to 9.0. Furthermore, cell-free supernatant of Enterococcus faecalis S37 and purified enterocin S37 were active against Gram-positive bacteria including Listeria monocytogenes EGDe, L. innocua F, Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2, and Lactobacillus brevis F145. The purification of enterocin S37 was performed by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed up by hydrophobic-interaction chromatography procedures. Treatment of enterocin S37 with proteinase K, α-chymotrypsin, and papain confirmed its proteinaceous nature, while its treatment with lysozyme and lipase resulted in no alteration of activity. Enterocin S37 is hydrophobic, anti-Listeria and likely acting by depletion of intracellular K+ ions upon action on KATP channels. This study contributed to gain more insights into the mode of action of enterocins. PMID:20811593

  4. Zernike phase contrast cryo-electron microscopy reveals 100 kDa component in a protein complex

    Wu, Yi-Min; Wang, Chun-Hsiung; Chang, Jen-wei; Chen, Yi-yun; Miyazaki, Naoyuki; Murata, Kazuyoshi; Nagayama, Kuniaki; Chang, Wei-Hau


    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has become a powerful technique for obtaining near atomic structures for large protein assemblies or large virus particles, but the application to protein particles smaller than 200-300 kDa has been hampered by the feeble phase contrast obtained for such small samples and the limited number of electrons tolerated by them without incurring excessive radiation damage. By implementing a thin-film quarter-wave phase plate to a cryo-EM, Nagayama, one of the present authors, has recently restored the long-lost very low spatial frequencies, generating in-focus phase contrast superior to that of conventional defocusing phase contrast, and successfully applied the so-called Zernike phase-plate cryo-EM to target various biological samples in native state. Nevertheless, the sought-after goal of using enhanced phase contrast to reveal a native protein as small as 100 kDa waits to be realized. Here, we report a study in which 200 kV Zernike phase-plate cryo-EM with a plate cut-on periodicity of 36 nm was applied to visualize 100 kDa components of various protein complexes, including the small domains on the surface of an icosahedral particle of ˜38 nm derived from the dragon grouper nervous necrosis virus (DGNNV) and the labile sub-complex dissociated from yeast RNA polymerase III of 17 nm. In the former case, we observed a phase contrast reversal phenomenon at the centre of the icosahedral particle and traced its root cause to the near matching of the cut-on size and the particle size. In summary, our work has demonstrated that Zernike phase-plate implementation can indeed expand the size range of proteins that can be successfully investigated by cryo-EM, opening the door for countless proteins. Finally, we briefly discuss the possibility of using a transfer lens system to enlarge the cut-on periodicity without further miniaturizing the plate pinhole.

  5. Towards tender X-rays with Zernike phase-contrast imaging of biological samples at 50 nm resolution.

    Vartiainen, Ismo; Warmer, Martin; Goeries, Dennis; Herker, Eva; Reimer, Rudolph; David, Christian; Meents, Alke


    X-ray microscopy is a commonly used method especially in material science application, where the large penetration depth of X-rays is necessary for three-dimensional structural studies of thick specimens with high-Z elements. In this paper it is shown that full-field X-ray microscopy at 6.2 keV can be utilized for imaging of biological specimens with high resolution. A full-field Zernike phase-contrast microscope based on diffractive optics is used to study lipid droplet formation in hepatoma cells. It is shown that the contrast of the images is comparable with that of electron microscopy, and even better contrast at tender X-ray energies between 2.5 keV and 4 keV is expected.

  6. An Efficient Feature Extraction Method with Pseudo-Zernike Moment in RBF Neural Network-Based Human Face Recognition System

    Ahmadi Majid


    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel method for the recognition of human faces in digital images using a new feature extraction method that combines the global and local information in frontal view of facial images. Radial basis function (RBF neural network with a hybrid learning algorithm (HLA has been used as a classifier. The proposed feature extraction method includes human face localization derived from the shape information. An efficient distance measure as facial candidate threshold (FCT is defined to distinguish between face and nonface images. Pseudo-Zernike moment invariant (PZMI with an efficient method for selecting moment order has been used. A newly defined parameter named axis correction ratio (ACR of images for disregarding irrelevant information of face images is introduced. In this paper, the effect of these parameters in disregarding irrelevant information in recognition rate improvement is studied. Also we evaluate the effect of orders of PZMI in recognition rate of the proposed technique as well as RBF neural network learning speed. Simulation results on the face database of Olivetti Research Laboratory (ORL indicate that the proposed method for human face recognition yielded a recognition rate of 99.3%.

  7. Calibration of quasi-static aberrations in exoplanet direct imaging instruments with a Zernike phase mask sensor

    N'Diaye, M; Fusco, T; Paul, B


    Context. Several exoplanet direct imaging instruments will soon be in operation. They use an extreme adaptive optics (XAO) system to correct the atmospheric turbulence and provide a highly-corrected beam to a near-infrared (IR) coronagraph for starlight suppression. The performance of the coronagraph is however limited by the non-common path aberrations (NCPA) due to the differential wavefront errors existing between the visible XAO sensing path and the near-IR science path, leading to residual speckles in the coronagraphic image. Aims. Several approaches have been developed in the past few years to accurately calibrate the NCPA, correct the quasi-static speckles and allow the observation of exoplanets at least 1e6 fainter than their host star. We here propose an approach based on the Zernike phase-contrast method for the measurements of the NCPA between the optical path seen by the visible XAO wavefront sensor and that seen by the near-IR coronagraph. Methods. This approach uses a focal plane phase mask of s...

  8. Low-order auditory Zernike moment: a novel approach for robust music identification in the compressed domain

    Li, Wei; Xiao, Chuan; Liu, Yaduo


    Audio identification via fingerprint has been an active research field for years. However, most previously reported methods work on the raw audio format in spite of the fact that nowadays compressed format audio, especially MP3 music, has grown into the dominant way to store music on personal computers and/or transmit it over the Internet. It will be interesting if a compressed unknown audio fragment could be directly recognized from the database without decompressing it into the wave format at first. So far, very few algorithms run directly on the compressed domain for music information retrieval, and most of them take advantage of the modified discrete cosine transform coefficients or derived cepstrum and energy type of features. As a first attempt, we propose in this paper utilizing compressed domain auditory Zernike moment adapted from image processing techniques as the key feature to devise a novel robust audio identification algorithm. Such fingerprint exhibits strong robustness, due to its statistically stable nature, against various audio signal distortions such as recompression, noise contamination, echo adding, equalization, band-pass filtering, pitch shifting, and slight time scale modification. Experimental results show that in a music database which is composed of 21,185 MP3 songs, a 10-s long music segment is able to identify its original near-duplicate recording, with average top-5 hit rate up to 90% or above even under severe audio signal distortions.

  9. Adsorption of a Hard Sphere Fluid in a Disordered Polymerized Matrix: Application of the Replica Ornstein-Zernike Equations

    Pizio; Trokhymchuk; Henderson; Labik


    A model of hard spheres adsorbed in disordered porous media is studied using the associative replica Ornstein-Zernike (ROZ) equations. Extending previous studies of adsorption in a hard sphere matrices, we investigate a polymerized matrix. We consider an associating fluid of hard spheres with two intracore attractive sites per particle; consequently chains consisting of overlapping hard spheres can be formed due to the chemical association. This is the generalization of the model with sites on the surface of Wertheim that has been studied in the bulk by Chang and Sandler. The matrix structure is obtained in the polymer Percus-Yevick approximation. We solve the ROZ equations in the associative hypernetted chain approximation. The pair distribution functions, the fluid compressibility, the equation of state and chemical potential of the adsorbed fluid are obtained and discussed. It is shown that the adsorption of a hard sphere fluid in a matrix at given density, but consisting of longer chains of overlapping hard spheres, is higher than the adsorption of this fluid in a hard sphere matrix.

  10. Frequency domain photon migration measurements of dense monodisperse charged lattices and analysis using solutions of Ornstein Zernike equations.

    Dali, Sarabjyot S; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M


    Isotropic scattering coefficient measurements were made of monodisperse polystyrene lattices of two different diameters of 144 nm and 223 nm and at volume fractions ranging from 0.15 to 0.22, using frequency domain photon migration measurements at wavelengths of 660, 685, 785 and 828 nm. The isotropic scattering coefficient measurements were shown to be sensitive to the changing ionic strength (0.5-4 mM, NaCl equiv.) of the dispersions exhibiting hindered scattering owing to structure at the lowest ionic strength values. Monte Carlo simulations and numerical solution of the Ornstein Zernike equations were used to compute isotropic scattering coefficients for comparison to measured values. The interaction potential was modeled as a hard sphere Yukawa potential and the Hypernetted Chain closure was used to solve the OZ equation. Effective particle charges were found after renormalization of the bare particle charge and used to predict the isotropic scattering coefficient. The model data were found to follow similar trends as experimental measurements. The refractive index of the particles has found to be an important factor for predicting experimental isotropic scattering coefficient values. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The multicomponent self-consistent Ornstein—Zernike application for CO2, N2, O2 shock Hugoniots simulation

    Anikeev, A. A.; Bogdanova, Yu A.; Gubin, S. A.


    A multicomponent equation of state with wide range of applicability is required to simulate shock waves in CxNyOz mixtures. This problem demands fine molecular interaction model due to competition between repulsion and attraction forces during shock compression process. A self-consistent Ornstein-Zernike application (SCOZA) based on distribution function integral equation theory can be used for it. The hypernetted-chain/soft core mean spherical approximation (HMSA) for SCOZA has been successfully applied to dense fluid systems with ambidextrous interactions. However, it was not designed to simulate mixtures, such as shock products of CxNyOz system. The convenient way to simulate multicomponent systems is the van der Waals one-fluid model (vdWlf). It has been shown, that vdWlf is not good enough for CO2 shock products at pressures higher, than 50 GPa. The multicomponent HMSA closure application based on partial version of the virial theorem has been offered in this paper. It is verified by molecular Monte-Carlo simulation at pressures up to 160 GPa with accuracy about 1-2%.

  12. 基于Zernike矩的模糊与仿射混合不变量研究%Study on Blur and Affine Combined Invariants Based on Zernike Moment

    蔡小帅; 张荣国; 李富萍; 刘小君


    Zernike moment,as a shape descriptor,has been widely used in image characteristics extraction and pattern recognition. It is low information redundancy and not sensitive to noise. To improve the shape description capability of the images which are degraded by combined blur and affine transformation,a new shape descriptor based on Zernike moment is proposed. The normalization method is used to construct affine invariants of Zernike moment. The combined blur and affine moment invariants of Zernike moment is achieved by the help of the blur invariants. The combined moment invariants is used as the shape descriptor to describe the shape feature of images,and is implemented comparison with the combined affine and blur invariants based on geometric moment with relative error. Experimental results show that the combined blur and affine invariants of Zernike moment can get better shape description and invariance in combined degrades,and robustness to noise.%Zernike矩作为形状描述子,其信息冗余度低且对噪声不敏感,在图像特征提取和模式识别中得到了广泛应用。为提高Zernike矩对含有模糊和仿射图像的形状描述能力,提出一种基于Zernike矩的形状描述子,该描述子使用规范化方法构造Zernike矩的仿射不变量,结合Zernike矩的模糊不变量得到Zernike矩的模糊和仿射混合不变量。将该矩混合不变量作为形状描述子描述图像的形状特征,并与几何矩模糊和仿射混合不变量进行对比实验,结果表明,Zernike矩的模糊和仿射混合不变量在混合形变下形状描述能力较强,具有不变性,并且对噪声的鲁棒性较好。

  13. Dynamic simulation and modeling of the motion modes produced during the 3D controlled manipulation of biological micro/nanoparticles based on the AFM.

    Saraee, Mahdieh B; Korayem, Moharam H


    Determining the motion modes and the exact position of a particle displaced during the manipulation process is of special importance. This issue becomes even more important when the studied particles are biological micro/nanoparticles and the goals of manipulation are the transfer of these particles within body cells, repair of cancerous cells and the delivery of medication to damaged cells. However, due to the delicate nature of biological nanoparticles and their higher vulnerability, by obtaining the necessary force of manipulation for the considered motion mode, we can prevent the sample from interlocking with or sticking to the substrate because of applying a weak force or avoid damaging the sample due to the exertion of excessive force. In this paper, the dynamic behaviors and the motion modes of biological micro/nanoparticles such as DNA, yeast, platelet and bacteria due to the 3D manipulation effect have been investigated. Since the above nanoparticles generally have a cylindrical shape, the cylindrical contact models have been employed in an attempt to more precisely model the forces exerted on the nanoparticle during the manipulation process. Also, this investigation has performed a comprehensive modeling and simulation of all the possible motion modes in 3D manipulation by taking into account the eccentricity of the applied load on the biological nanoparticle. The obtained results indicate that unlike the macroscopic scale, the sliding of nanoparticle on substrate in nano-scale takes place sooner than the other motion modes and that the spinning about the vertical and transverse axes and the rolling of nanoparticle occur later than the other motion modes. The simulation results also indicate that the applied force necessary for the onset of nanoparticle movement and the resulting motion mode depend on the size and aspect ratio of the nanoparticle.

  14. Observation of a JPC = 1−+ exotic signal in the π−π0π0 system diffractively produced at COMPASS, and comparison to the charged decay mode

    Nerling Frank


    Full Text Available The COMPASS experiment at the CERN SPS features good charged particle tracking and coverage by electromagnetic calorimetry, and our data provide excellent opportunity for simultaneous observation of new states in two different decay modes within the same experiment. The existence of the spin-exotic π1(1600 resonance in the ρπ decay channel is studied for the first time in COMPASS in both decay modes of the diffractively produced (3π− system: π− p → π−π0π0 p and π− p → π−π+π− p. A preliminary partial-wave analysis (PWA performed on the 2008 proton target data allows for a first conclusive comparison of both (3π− decay modes not only for main waves but also for small ones, including the spin-exotic 1−+ wave. We find the neutral versus charged mode results in good agreement with expectations from isospin symmetry. Both, the intensities and the relative phases to well-known resonances, are consistent for the neutral and the charged decay modes of the (3π− system. The status on the search for the spin-exotic π1(1600 resonance produced on a proton target is discussed.

  15. Characterisation of ferromagnetic rings for Zernike phase plates using the Aharonov-Bohm effect.

    Edgcombe, C J; Ionescu, A; Loudon, J C; Blackburn, A M; Kurebayashi, H; Barnes, C H W


    Holographic measurements on magnetised thin-film cobalt rings have demonstrated both onion and vortex states of magnetisation. For a ring in the vortex state, the difference between phases of electron paths that pass through the ring and those that travel outside it was found to agree very well with Aharonov-Bohm theory within measurement error. Thus the magnetic flux in thin-film rings of ferromagnetic material can provide the phase shift required for phase plates in transmission electron microscopy. When a ring of this type is used as a phase plate, scattered electrons will be intercepted over a radial range similar to the ring width. A cobalt ring of thickness 20 nm can produce a phase difference of π/2 from a width of just under 30 nm, suggesting that the range of radial interception for this type of phase plate can be correspondingly small.

  16. Shape descriptors for mode-shape recognition and model updating

    Wang, W.; Mottershead, J. E.; Mares, C.


    The most widely used method for comparing mode shapes from finite elements and experimental measurements is the Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC), which returns a single numerical value and carries no explicit information on shape features. New techniques, based on image processing (IP) and pattern recognition (PR) are described in this paper. The Zernike moment descriptor (ZMD), Fourier descriptor (FD), and wavelet descriptor (WD), presented in this article, are the most popular shape descriptors having properties that include efficiency of expression, robustness to noise, invariance to geometric transformation and rotation, separation of local and global shape features and computational efficiency. The comparison of mode shapes is readily achieved by assembling the shape features of each mode shape into multi-dimensional shape feature vectors (SFVs) and determining the distances separating them.

  17. 3D polarization speckle as a demonstration of tensor version of the van Cittert-Zernike theorem for stochastic electromagnetic beams

    Ma, Ning; Zhao, Juan; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    . Statistical phenomena of random electric vector fields have close relevance to the theories of speckles, polarization and coherence theory. In this paper, we investigate the correlation tensor for stochastic electromagnetic fields modulated by a depolarizer consisting of a rough-surfaced retardation plate...... plate and the coherence matrix under the free space geometry. This relation is regarded as entirely analogous to the van Cittert-Zernike theorem of classical coherence theory. Within the paraxial approximation as represented by the ABCD-matrix formalism, the three-dimensional structure of the generated...

  18. 农产品宅配送模式的竞争优势及营销策略%Competitive Advantage and Marketing Strategy of Agricultural Produce Home Delivery Mode

    张雪峰; 张斐


    In this paper, we introduced the current status of the agricultural produce circulation modes in China, pointed out the strength and competitive points of the agricultural produce home delivery mode in this respect, and at the end, proposed a series of marketing strategies for the agricultural produce home delivery mode to give it a bigger competitive edge.%介绍了我国农产品流通模式的现状,指出在我国农产品流通市场上产批模式独大、多元竞争的格局中,农产品宅配送模式因其渠道短、信息灵活、品牌形象易于塑造等优点而具竞争力,最后提出农产品宅配送模式的一系列营销策略,使这一模式的优势得以充分发挥。

  19. Image Registration Based on Zernike Moment and Feedforward Neural Network%基于Zernike矩和前馈神经网络的图像配准

    吴健珍; 李洪芹; 王宇嘉


    提出一种基于Zernike矩和多级前馈神经网络的图像配准算法.利用低阶Zernike矩表征图像的全局几何特征,通过多级前馈神经网络学习图像所经历的旋转、缩放和平移等仿射变换参数,在一级前馈神经网络的基础上添加二级前馈网络,以提高参数估计精度.仿真结果表明,与基于DCT系数的神经网络算法相比,该算法旋转、缩放和平移估计精度较高,对噪声的鲁棒性较强.%This paper proposes a novel image registration algorithm based on Zernike moments and multilevel feedforward neural networks. Low order Zernike moments are used as image global pattern features and the algorithm feeds them into multilevel feedforward neural networks to provide translation, rotation and scaling parameters. The second level feedforward neural network is utilized behind the first level neural network to improve parameter estimation accuracy. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can provide accurate registration and robust to noise attack.

  20. An inline surface measurement method for membrane mirror fabrication using two-stage trained Zernike polynomials and elitist teaching-learning-based optimization

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Zhenyu; Yang, Zhile; Li, Kang; Tan, Jiubin


    The accuracy of surface measurement determines the manufacturing quality of membrane mirrors. Thus, an efficient and accurate measuring method is critical in membrane mirror fabrication. This paper formulates this measurement issue as a surface reconstruction problem and employs two-stage trained Zernike polynomials as an inline measuring tool to solve the optical surface measurement problem in the membrane mirror manufacturing process. First, all terms of the Zernike polynomial are generated and projected to a non-circular region as the candidate model pool. The training data are calculated according to the measured values of distance sensors and the geometrical relationship between the ideal surface and the installed sensors. Then the terms are selected by minimizing the cost function each time successively. To avoid the problem of ill-conditioned matrix inversion by the least squares method, the coefficient of each model term is achieved by modified elitist teaching-learning-based optimization. Subsequently, the measurement precision is further improved by a second stage of model refinement. Finally, every point on the membrane surface can be measured according to this model, providing more the subtle feedback information needed for the precise control of membrane mirror fabrication. Experimental results confirm that the proposed method is effective in a membrane mirror manufacturing system driven by negative pressure, and the measurement accuracy can achieve 15 µm.

  1. Aberration influence and active compensation on laser mode properties for asymmetric folded resonators

    Zhang, Xiang; Hu, Zhiqiu; Yang, Wentao; Su, Likun


    We demonstrate the influence on mode features with introducing typical intracavity perturbation and results of aberrated wavefront compensation in a folded-type unstable resonator used in high energy lasers. The mode properties and aberration coefficient with intracavity misalignment are achieved by iterative calculation and Zernike polynomial fitting. Experimental results for the relation of intracavity maladjustment and mode characteristics are further obtained in terms of S-H detection and model wavefront reconstruction. It indicates that intracavity phase perturbation has significant influence on out coupling beam properties, and the uniform and symmetry of the mode is rapidly disrupted even by a slight misalignment of the resonator mirrors. Meanwhile, the far-field beam patterns will obviously degrade with increasing the distance between the convex mirror and the phase perturbation position even if the equivalent disturbation is inputted into such the resonator. The closed-loop device for compensating intracavity low order aberration is successfully fabricated. Moreover, Zernike defocus aberration is also effectively controlled by precisely adjusting resonator length, and the beam quality is noticeably improved.

  2. Wavefront measurement of single-mode quantum cascade laser beam for seed application in laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet system.

    Nowak, Krzysztof M; Ohta, Takeshi; Suganuma, Takashi; Yokotsuka, Toshio; Fujimoto, Junichi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru


    Quantum cascade laser (QCL) is a very attractive seed source for a multikilowatt pulsed CO2 lasers applied for driving extreme ultraviolet emitting plasmas. In this Letter, we investigate output beam properties of a QCL designed to address P18 and P20 lines of 10.6 micron band of CO2 molecule. In particular, output beam quality and stability are investigated for the first time. A well-defined linear polarization and a single-mode operation enabled a use of phase retrieval method for full description of QCL output beam. A direct, multi-image numerical phase retrieval technique was developed and successfully applied to the measured intensity patterns of a QCL beam. Very good agreement between the measured and reconstructed beam profiles was observed at distances ranging from QCL aperture to infinity, proving a good understanding of the beam propagation. The results also confirm a high spatial coherence and high stability of the beam parameters, the features expected from an excellent seed source.

  3. Matrix assisted ionization: new aromatic and nonaromatic matrix compounds producing multiply charged lipid, peptide, and protein ions in the positive and negative mode observed directly from surfaces.

    Li, Jing; Inutan, Ellen D; Wang, Beixi; Lietz, Christopher B; Green, Daniel R; Manly, Cory D; Richards, Alicia L; Marshall, Darrell D; Lingenfelter, Steven; Ren, Yue; Trimpin, Sarah


    Matrix assisted inlet ionization (MAII) is a method in which a matrix:analyte mixture produces mass spectra nearly identical to electrospray ionization without the application of a voltage or the use of a laser as is required in laserspray ionization (LSI), a subset of MAII. In MAII, the sample is introduced by, for example, tapping particles of dried matrix:analyte into the inlet of the mass spectrometer and, therefore, permits the study of conditions pertinent to the formation of multiply charged ions without the need of absorption at a laser wavelength. Crucial for the production of highly charged ions are desolvation conditions to remove matrix molecules from charged matrix:analyte clusters. Important factors affecting desolvation include heat, vacuum, collisions with gases and surfaces, and even radio frequency fields. Other parameters affecting multiply charged ion production is sample preparation, including pH and solvent composition. Here, findings from over 100 compounds found to produce multiply charged analyte ions using MAII with the inlet tube set at 450 °C are presented. Of the compounds tested, many have -OH or -NH(2) functionality, but several have neither (e.g., anthracene), nor aromaticity or conjugation. Binary matrices are shown to be applicable for LSI and solvent-free sample preparation can be applied to solubility restricted compounds, and matrix compounds too volatile to allow drying from common solvents. Our findings suggest that the physical properties of the matrix such as its morphology after evaporation of the solvent, its propensity to evaporate/sublime, and its acidity are more important than its structure and functional groups.

  4. 3D polarization speckle as a demonstration of tensor version of the van Cittert-Zernike theorem for stochastic electromagnetic beams

    Ma, Ning; Zhao, Juan; Hanson, Steen Grüner;


    . Statistical phenomena of random electric vector fields have close relevance to the theories of speckles, polarization and coherence theory. In this paper, we investigate the correlation tensor for stochastic electromagnetic fields modulated by a depolarizer consisting of a rough-surfaced retardation plate...... plate and the coherence matrix under the free space geometry. This relation is regarded as entirely analogous to the van Cittert-Zernike theorem of classical coherence theory. Within the paraxial approximation as represented by the ABCD-matrix formalism, the three-dimensional structure of the generated......Laser speckle has received extensive studies of its basic properties and associated applications. In the majority of research on speckle phenomena, the random optical field has been treated as a scalar optical field, and the main interest has been concentrated on their statistical properties...

  5. PCVMZM: Using the Probabilistic Classification Vector Machines Model Combined with a Zernike Moments Descriptor to Predict Protein-Protein Interactions from Protein Sequences.

    Wang, Yanbin; You, Zhuhong; Li, Xiao; Chen, Xing; Jiang, Tonghai; Zhang, Jingting


    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are essential for most living organisms' process. Thus, detecting PPIs is extremely important to understand the molecular mechanisms of biological systems. Although many PPIs data have been generated by high-throughput technologies for a variety of organisms, the whole interatom is still far from complete. In addition, the high-throughput technologies for detecting PPIs has some unavoidable defects, including time consumption, high cost, and high error rate. In recent years, with the development of machine learning, computational methods have been broadly used to predict PPIs, and can achieve good prediction rate. In this paper, we present here PCVMZM, a computational method based on a Probabilistic Classification Vector Machines (PCVM) model and Zernike moments (ZM) descriptor for predicting the PPIs from protein amino acids sequences. Specifically, a Zernike moments (ZM) descriptor is used to extract protein evolutionary information from Position-Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM) generated by Position-Specific Iterated Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (PSI-BLAST). Then, PCVM classifier is used to infer the interactions among protein. When performed on PPIs datasets of Yeast and H. Pylori, the proposed method can achieve the average prediction accuracy of 94.48% and 91.25%, respectively. In order to further evaluate the performance of the proposed method, the state-of-the-art support vector machines (SVM) classifier is used and compares with the PCVM model. Experimental results on the Yeast dataset show that the performance of PCVM classifier is better than that of SVM classifier. The experimental results indicate that our proposed method is robust, powerful and feasible, which can be used as a helpful tool for proteomics research.

  6. Autochthonous Gut Bacteria in Two Indian Air-breathing Fish, Climbing Perch (Anabas testudineus) and Walking Catfish (Clarias batrachus): Mode of Association, Identification and Enzyme Producing Ability.

    Banerjee, Goutam; Dan, Suhas K; Nandi, Ankita; Ghosh, Pinki; Ray, Arun K


    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to define the location of epithelium-associated bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of two Indian air-breathing fish, the climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) and walking catfish (Clarias batrachus). The SEM examination revealed substantial numbers of rod shaped bacterial cells associated with the microvillus brush borders of enterocytes in proximal (PI) and distal regions (DI) of the GI tract of both the fish species. Ten (two each from the PI and DI of climbing perch and three each from the PI and DI of walking catfish) isolated bacterial strains were evaluated for extracellular protease, amylase and cellulase production quantitatively. All the bacterial strains exhibited high cellulolytic activity compared to amylolytic and proteolytic activites. Only two strains, CBH6 and CBH7, isolated from the DI of walking catfish exhibited high proteolytic activity. Maximum cellulase activity was exhibited by the strain, CBF2, isolated from the PI of climbing perch. Six most promising enzyme-producing adherent bacterial strains were identified by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The strain ATH1 (isolated from climbing perch) showed high similarity fo Bacillus amyloliquefaciens whereas, the remaining five strains (isolated from walking catfish) were most closely related to Bacillus licheniformis.

  7. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis of LI-F type peptides produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa JSa-9 mode of action against Bacillus cereus.

    Han, Jinzhi; Gao, Peng; Zhao, Shengming; Bie, Xiaomei; Lu, Zhaoxin; Zhang, Chong; Lv, Fengxia


    LI-F type peptides (AMP-jsa9) produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa JSa-9 are a group of cyclic lipodepsipeptide antibiotics that exhibit a broad antimicrobial spectrum against Gram-positive bacteria and filamentous fungi, especially Bacillus cereus and Fusarium moniliforme. In this study, to better understand the antibacterial mechanism of AMP-jsa9 against B. cereus, the ultrastructure of AMP-jsa9-treated B. cereus cells was observed by both atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and quantitative proteomic analysis was performed on proteins extracted from treated and untreated bacterial cells by using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling and LC-MS/MS analysis to access differentially expressed proteins. Furthermore, multiple experiments were conducted to validate the results of the proteomic analysis, including determinations of ATP, NAD((+))H, NADP((+))H, reactive oxygen species (ROS), the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the relative expression of target genes by quantitative real-time PCR. Bacterial cells exposed to AMP-jsa9 showed irregular surfaces with bleb projections and concaves; we hypothesize that AMP-jsa9 penetrated the cell wall and was anchored on the cytoplasmic membrane and that ROS accumulated in the cell membrane after treatment with AMP-jsa9, modulating the bacterial membrane properties and increasing membrane permeability. Consequently, the blebs were formed on the cell wall by the impulsive force of the leakage of intercellular contents. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis detected a total of 1317 proteins, including 176 differentially expressed proteins (75 upregulated (fold >2) and 101 downregulated (fold <0.5)). Based on proteome analysis, the putative pathways of AMP-jsa9 action against B. cereus can be summarized as: (i) inhibition of bacterial sporulation, thiamine biosynthesis, energy metabolism, DNA transcription and translation, and cell wall biosynthesis

  8. Neural networks and statistical analysis for classification of corneal videokeratography maps based on Zernike coefficients: a quantitative comparison Redes neurais e análise estatística para classificação de mapas topográficos da córnea baseados em coeficientes de Zernike: uma comparação quantitativa

    Luis Alberto Vieira de Carvalho


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The main goal of this study was to develop and compare two different techniques for classification of specific types of corneal shapes when Zernike coefficients are used as inputs. A feed-forward artificial Neural Network (NN and discriminant analysis (DA techniques were used. METHODS: The inputs both for the NN and DA were the first 15 standard Zernike coefficients for 80 previously classified corneal elevation data files from an Eyesys System 2000 Videokeratograph (VK, installed at the Departamento de Oftalmologia of the Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo. The NN had 5 output neurons which were associated with 5 typical corneal shapes: keratoconus, with-the-rule astigmatism, against-the-rule astigmatism, "regular" or "normal" shape and post-PRK. RESULTS: The NN and DA responses were statistically analyzed in terms of precision ([true positive+true negative]/total number of cases. Mean overall results for all cases for the NN and DA techniques were, respectively, 94% and 84.8%. CONCLUSION: Although we used a relatively small database, results obtained in the present study indicate that Zernike polynomials as descriptors of corneal shape may be a reliable parameter as input data for diagnostic automation of VK maps, using either NN or DA.OBJETIVOS: Nosso principal objetivo neste trabalho foi de desenvolver e comparar duas técnicas diferentes para classificação de superfícies corneanas. Uma rede neural artificial alimentada adiante e análise descriminante foram as técnicas de classificação comparadas neste trabalho. MÉTODOS: As entradas para ambos os métodos de classificação foram os primeiros 15 coeficientes de Zernike para 80 córneas mensuradas anteriormente em um topógrafo Eyesys instalado no Departamento de Oftalmologia da Escola Paulista de Medicina - UNIFESP. A rede neural tem 5 saídas que foram associados aos cinco casos típicos contidos na base de dados: ceratocone, astigmatismo a favor da regra, astigmatismo

  9. 小球藻联产油脂和虾青素的基元模式分析%Elementary mode analysis of Chlorella sp for producing lipid and astaxanthin

    赵权宇; 于水燕; 张保国; 史吉平


    构建了包含虾青素合成途径的小球藻代谢网络模型,集成文献报道同位素标定的小球藻代谢通量数据,估算了胞内代谢通量分布。在正常和缺氮培养条件下,虾青素的代谢通量分别为0�38和0�35。计算得到基元模式共640条,通过最大熵原理算法求取了正常培养和缺氮培养条件下的基元模式概率。存在4条关键基元模式,在2种培养条件下,其基元模式概率之和分别为60�95%和77�53%。虾青素的最大理论合成产率为11�27%,但是这4条关键基元模式并不包括虾青素的合成反应。%Combined producing lipid and high value added products were possible to decrease the production cost and improve the economic benefit. The concentration of astaxanthin in Chlorella sp. was lower than that in Haematococcus pluvialis. The astaxanthin was possible for commercial development after the extraction of lipids in large scale cultivation of Chlorella sp. A metabolic network of Chlorella sp. including astaxanthin synthesis pathway was reconstructed. The intracellular flux distribution was estimated by integrating 13 C tracer metabolic fluxes. The metabolic fluxes of astaxanthin under normal and nitrogen limited conditions were 0�38 and 0�35, respectively. A total of 640 elementary modes was obtained based on this metabolic network model. The probabilities of these elementary modes were evaluated by the maximal entropy principle algorithm under normal and nitrogen limited conditions. There are four dominant elementary modes with the largest probabilities for both conditions. The total contributions of these four elementary modes were 60�95% under normal condition and 77�53% under nitrogen limited conditions. The largest yield of astaxanthin was 11�27% but the astaxanthin formation was not included in these dominant elementary modes.

  10. 含TPL的农产品供应链配送中心逆向物流模式研究%Study on Reverse Logistics Mode of TPL-included Supply Chain of Agricultural Produce Distribution Centers



    在界定农产品供应链逆向物流的范畴,并分析其特点的基础上,构建了包含有第三方参与的逆向物流活动的农产品供应链模型.并根据TPL参与程度的不同,通过建立农产品供应链配送中心库存控制模型,对该架构下的两种逆向物流模式的效益及选择依据进行了比较分析.%In this paper, on the basis of the definition of the agricultural produce supply chain reverse logistics and the analysis of its characteristic, we established the agricultural produce supply chain model of the reverse logistics activities with third party participants and then in view of the different level of participation of the TPL, formulated the inventory control model of the agricultural produce supply chain distribution center. At the end, we compared the benefits of two modes of reverse logistics under this architecture as well as the basis for their selection

  11. Establishment of Integrated Mode of Fresh Farm Produce Cold Chain Logistics in Hubei%湖北生鲜农产品冷链物流一体化模式构建研究

    李诗珍; 宁静


    In light of the reality of the development of fresh farm produce Cold chain ldgtstics in Hubei, we've proposed the line of thought for establishing the integrated mode of cold chain logistics and, based On the diversified relationship in the supply of fresh farm produce, constructed the logistics system which integrates the farm-trade docking of local low-end products, the farm-supermarket docking of regional circulation products as well as the wholesale cold-chain logistics for exported products,%根据湖北省生鲜农产品冷链物流发展的实际,提出了冷链物流一体化模式的构建思路.基于生鲜农产品多元化的供求关系,构建了地方低端产品的“农贸对接”、区域流通产品的“农超对接”以及外销出口产品的批发型冷链物流一体化模式.

  12. Calibration of quasi-static aberrations in exoplanet direct-imaging instruments with a Zernike phase-mask sensor. II. Concept validation with ZELDA on VLT/SPHERE

    N'Diaye, M; Dohlen, K; Sauvage, J -F; Caillat, A; Costille, A; Girard, J H V; Beuzit, J -L; Fusco, T; Blanchard, P; Merrer, J Le; Mignant, D Le; Madec, F; Moreaux, G; Mouillet, D; Puget, P; Zins, G


    Warm or massive gas giant planets, brown dwarfs, and debris disks around nearby stars are now routinely observed by dedicated high-contrast imaging instruments on large, ground-based observatories. These facilities include extreme adaptive optics (ExAO) and state-of-the-art coronagraphy to achieve unprecedented sensitivities for exoplanet detection and spectral characterization. However, differential aberrations between the ExAO sensing path and the science path represent a critical limitation for the detection of giant planets with a contrast lower than a few $10^{-6}$ at very small separations (<0.3\\as) from their host star. In our previous work, we proposed a wavefront sensor based on Zernike phase contrast methods to circumvent this issue and measure these quasi-static aberrations at a nanometric level. We present the design, manufacturing and testing of ZELDA, a prototype that was installed on VLT/SPHERE during its reintegration in Chile. Using the internal light source of the instrument, we performed...

  13. A pressure consistent bridge correction of Kovalenko-Hirata closure in Ornstein-Zernike theory for Lennard-Jones fluids by apparently adjusting sigma parameter

    Yuki Ebato


    Full Text Available Ornstein-Zernike (OZ integral equation theory is known to overestimate the excess internal energy, Uex, pressure through the virial route, Pv, and excess chemical potential, μex, for one-component Lennard-Jones (LJ fluids under hypernetted chain (HNC and Kovalenko-Hirata (KH approximatons. As one of the bridge correction methods to improve the precision of these thermodynamic quantities, it was shown in our previous paper that the method to apparently adjust σ parameter in the LJ potential is effective [T. Miyata and Y. Ebato, J. Molec. Liquids. 217, 75 (2016]. In our previous paper, we evaluated the actual variation in the σ parameter by using a fitting procedure to molecular dynamics (MD results. In this article, we propose an alternative method to determine the actual variation in the σ parameter. The proposed method utilizes a condition that the virial and compressibility pressures coincide with each other. This method can correct OZ theory without a fitting procedure to MD results, and possesses characteristics of keeping a form of HNC and/or KH closure. We calculate the radial distribution function, pressure, excess internal energy, and excess chemical potential for one-component LJ fluids to check the performance of our proposed bridge function. We discuss the precision of these thermodynamic quantities by comparing with MD results. In addition, we also calculate a corrected gas-liquid coexistence curve based on a corrected KH-type closure and compare it with MD results.

  14. A pressure consistent bridge correction of Kovalenko-Hirata closure in Ornstein-Zernike theory for Lennard-Jones fluids by apparently adjusting sigma parameter

    Ebato, Yuki; Miyata, Tatsuhiko


    Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) integral equation theory is known to overestimate the excess internal energy, Uex, pressure through the virial route, Pv, and excess chemical potential, μex, for one-component Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluids under hypernetted chain (HNC) and Kovalenko-Hirata (KH) approximatons. As one of the bridge correction methods to improve the precision of these thermodynamic quantities, it was shown in our previous paper that the method to apparently adjust σ parameter in the LJ potential is effective [T. Miyata and Y. Ebato, J. Molec. Liquids. 217, 75 (2016)]. In our previous paper, we evaluated the actual variation in the σ parameter by using a fitting procedure to molecular dynamics (MD) results. In this article, we propose an alternative method to determine the actual variation in the σ parameter. The proposed method utilizes a condition that the virial and compressibility pressures coincide with each other. This method can correct OZ theory without a fitting procedure to MD results, and possesses characteristics of keeping a form of HNC and/or KH closure. We calculate the radial distribution function, pressure, excess internal energy, and excess chemical potential for one-component LJ fluids to check the performance of our proposed bridge function. We discuss the precision of these thermodynamic quantities by comparing with MD results. In addition, we also calculate a corrected gas-liquid coexistence curve based on a corrected KH-type closure and compare it with MD results.

  15. Single-Mode VCSELs

    Larsson, Anders; Gustavsson, Johan S.

    The only active transverse mode in a truly single-mode VCSEL is the fundamental mode with a near Gaussian field distribution. A single-mode VCSEL produces a light beam of higher spectral purity, higher degree of coherence and lower divergence than a multimode VCSEL and the beam can be more precisely shaped and focused to a smaller spot. Such beam properties are required in many applications. In this chapter, after discussing applications of single-mode VCSELs, we introduce the basics of fields and modes in VCSELs and review designs implemented for single-mode emission from VCSELs in different materials and at different wavelengths. This includes VCSELs that are inherently single-mode as well as inherently multimode VCSELs where higher-order modes are suppressed by mode selective gain or loss. In each case we present the current state-of-the-art and discuss pros and cons. At the end, a specific example with experimental results is provided and, as a summary, the most promising designs based on current technologies are identified.

  16. Editor's Highlight: Mode of Action Analysis for Rat Hepatocellular Tumors Produced by the Synthetic Pyrethroid Momfluorothrin: Evidence for Activation of the Constitutive Androstane Receptor and Mitogenicity in Rat Hepatocytes.

    Okuda, Yu; Kushida, Masahiko; Sumida, Kayo; Nagahori, Hirohisa; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Higuchi, Hashihiro; Kawamura, Satoshi; Lake, Brian G; Cohen, Samuel M; Yamada, Tomoya


    High dietary levels of momfluorothrin, a nongenotoxic synthetic pyrethroid, induced hepatocellular tumors in male and female Wistar rats in a 2-year bioassay. The mode of action (MOA) for rat hepatocellular tumors was postulated to occur via activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), as momfluorothrin is a close structural analogue of the pyrethroid metofluthrin, which is known to produce rat liver tumors through a CAR-mediated MOA. To elucidate the MOA for rat hepatocellular tumor formation by momfluorothrin, this study was conducted to examine effects on key and associative events of the CAR-mediated MOA for phenobarbital based on the International Programme on Chemical Safety framework. A 2-week in vivo study in Wistar rats revealed that momfluorothrin induced CYP2B activities, increased liver weights, produced hepatocyte hypertrophy and increased hepatocyte replicative DNA synthesis. These effects correlated with the dose-response relationship for liver tumor formation and also showed reversibility upon cessation of treatment. Moreover, momfluorothrin did not increase CYP2B1/2 mRNA expression and hepatocyte replicative DNA synthesis in CAR knockout rats. Using cultured Wistar rat hepatocytes and the RNA interference technique, knockdown of CAR resulted in a suppression of induction of CYP2B1/2 mRNA levels by momfluorothrin. Alternative MOAs for liver tumor formation were excluded. A global gene expression profile analysis of the liver of male Wistar rats treated with momfluorothrin for 2 weeks also showed similarity to the prototypic CAR activator phenobarbital. Overall, these data strongly support that the postulated MOA for momfluorothrin-induced rat hepatocellular tumors as being mediated by CAR activation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  17. Optical design of a novel instrument that uses the Hartmann-Shack sensor and Zernike polynomials to measure and simulate customized refraction correction surgery outcomes and patient satisfaction

    Yasuoka, Fatima M. M.; Matos, Luciana; Cremasco, Antonio; Numajiri, Mirian; Marcato, Rafael; Oliveira, Otavio G.; Sabino, Luis G.; Castro N., Jarbas C.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Carvalho, Luis A. V.


    An optical system that conjugates the patient's pupil to the plane of a Hartmann-Shack (HS) wavefront sensor has been simulated using optical design software. And an optical bench prototype is mounted using mechanical eye device, beam splitter, illumination system, lenses, mirrors, mirrored prism, movable mirror, wavefront sensor and camera CCD. The mechanical eye device is used to simulate aberrations of the eye. From this device the rays are emitted and travelled by the beam splitter to the optical system. Some rays fall on the camera CCD and others pass in the optical system and finally reach the sensor. The eye models based on typical in vivo eye aberrations is constructed using the optical design software Zemax. The computer-aided outcomes of each HS images for each case are acquired, and these images are processed using customized techniques. The simulated and real images for low order aberrations are compared using centroid coordinates to assure that the optical system is constructed precisely in order to match the simulated system. Afterwards a simulated version of retinal images is constructed to show how these typical eyes would perceive an optotype positioned 20 ft away. Certain personalized corrections are allowed by eye doctors based on different Zernike polynomial values and the optical images are rendered to the new parameters. Optical images of how that eye would see with or without corrections of certain aberrations are generated in order to allow which aberrations can be corrected and in which degree. The patient can then "personalize" the correction to their own satisfaction. This new approach to wavefront sensing is a promising change in paradigm towards the betterment of the patient-physician relationship.

  18. Microgeneration of electricity with producer gas in dual fuel mode operation Microgeração de eletricidade com gás de gaseificação num motor gerador dual

    Marcelo J. Silva


    Full Text Available Among the alternatives to meet the increasing of world demand for energy, the use of biomass as energy source is one of the most promising as it contributes to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Gasification is a technological process of biomass energy production of a gaseous biofuel. The fuel gas has a low calorific value that can be used in Diesel engine in dual mode for power generation in isolated communities. This study aimed to evaluate the reduction in the consumption of oil Diesel an engine generator, using gas from gasification of wood. The engine generator brand used was a BRANCO, with direct injection power of 7.36 kW (10 HP coupled to an electric generator 5.5 kW. Diesel oil mixed with intake air was injected, as the oil was injected via an injector of the engine (dual mode. The fuel gas was produced in a downdraft gasifier. The engine generator was put on load system from 0.5 kW to 3.5 kW through a set of electrical resistances. Diesel oil consumption was measured with a precision scale. It was concluded that the engine converted to dual mode when using the gas for the gasification of wood decreased Diesel consumption by up to 57%.Dentre as alternativas à crescente demanda energética mundial, o uso da biomassa como fonte de energia é uma das formas mais promissoras, pois contribui para a redução das emissões de dióxido de carbono na atmosfera. A gaseificação é uma tecnologia de transformação energética da biomassa num biocombustível gasoso. O gás de gaseificação é um combustível de baixo poder calorífico que pode ser utilizado em motor ciclo Diesel no modo dual para geração de energia elétrica em comunidades isoladas. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a redução no consumo de Diesel num motor gerador, com a utilização de gás da gaseificação da madeira. O motor avaliado foi da marca BRANCO, com injeção direta e potência de 7,36 kW (10 cv acoplado a um gerador elétrico de 5

  19. Variable aberration correction technology based on axially shifting cylinder-Zernike correcting element%基于轴向移动柱面-泽尼克校正元件的动态像差校正技术

    曲贺盟; 张新; 王灵杰


    The most significant feature of elliptical window optical system is dynamic aberration change which is dependent on the scanning field. Thus, astigmatism and coma become the main factors which influence imaging quality of the optical system and the effect of astigmatism is most prominent. In this paper, a new method for dynamic aberration correction was presented in order to solve this problem. And this so-called cylinder-Zernike element correcting method combines the characteristics of cylindrical lens and Zernike plate. The outer surfaces of cylinder-Zernike correcting element were a pair of cylindrical surfaces whose generating lines were mutual perpendicular and the corresponding internal surfaces were Zernike fringe sag surfaces. This method could adjust the distance between the two cylinder-Zernike correcting elements in real time according to the change of scanning field to realize the correcting of dynamic aberration induced by elliptical window. It breaks through the bottleneck that the fixed correcting elements cannot achieve super wide scanning field. The imaging optical system in the giving example achieves ±55° scanning field. The Zernike aberration coefficients of astigmatism and coma in each scanning field are corrected into ±0.8 wavelength and the imaging quality of the elliptical window optical system is greatly improved.%椭球形窗口光学系统最显著的特点在于其依赖扫描视场的动态像差变化特性,像散和彗差成为影响光学系统成像质量的主要因素,其中像散的影响最为突出.为解决这一难题,结合柱面透镜和泽尼克位相板的特点,提出了一种新颖的动态像差校正方法,即柱面-泽尼克元件校正方法,此元件的外表面为一对母线互相垂直的圆柱面,对应的两个内表面为泽尼克边缘矢高表面.该方法随扫描视场的变化实时地调整一对柱面-泽尼克校正元件间距以实现椭球形窗口引入像差的动态校正.突破了固定校

  20. 泽尼克多项式校正全息阵列光镊像差的实验研究%Aberrations in holographic array optical tweezers corrected with Zernike polynomials

    刘伟伟; 任煜轩; 高红芳; 孙晴; 王自强; 李银妹


    像差会影响光镊对粒子的捕获效果.全息阵列光镊中,像差不仅来自光学元件,由特定算法设计的光阱相位片也会在光路中引入像差.本文通过液晶空间光调制器加载泽尼克多项式相位图,对全息阵列光镊中由光栅透镜组型算法引起的像差进行校正.结果显示:利用三阶泽尼克多项式可有效消除光路中由光栅透镜组型算法引起的慧差,使得捕获2“m聚苯乙烯小球的阵列光阱刚度提高了约40%;对比不同项的像差校正结果发现,全息阵列光镊中由算法引起的慧差与光学元件引起的像差一样,也会对阵列光阱的捕获效果产生较大影响;同时根据一阶像差校正结果可得光栅透镜组型算法对于一阶泽尼克像差具有鲁棒性.实验结果表明,对全息阵列光镊中由算法引起的像差进行校正,对于提高光阱的捕获效果和深化对算法特性的认识都具有重要意义.%Aberrations will degrade trapping performance of optical tweezers. In the holographic optical tweezers, aberrations originate not only from optical elements but also from holographic phase hologram of optical traps designed by a certain algorithna. We utilize a spatial light modulator to imprint Zernike polynomials phase hologram for correcting some certain aberrations in holographic array optical tweezers which are caused by grating and lens algorithm. The results show that thirdorder Zernike term can effectively correct coma due to the algorithm in the optical train, and the trap stiffness for 2 tm microns diameter polystyrene beads can reach 40%. Further comparison between different Zernike term aberration correction effects demonstrates that coma caused by grating and lens algorithm in the holographic array optical tweezer has the same serious influence on tweezer trapping performance as the aberrations originating from optical elements. Meanwhile, based on firstorder Zernike term

  1. Passively mode locked Raman laser

    Liang, W; Savchenkov, A A; Matsko, A B; Seidel, D; Maleki, L


    We report on the observation of a novel mode locked optical comb generated at the Raman offset (Raman comb) in an optically pumped crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator. Mode locking is confirmed via measurement of the radio-frequency beat note produced by the optical comb on a fast photodiode. Neither the conventional Kerr comb nor hyper-parametric oscillation is observed when the Raman comb is present.

  2. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.


    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time – providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. Our data...

  3. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.


    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time—providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. The data show...

  4. Effects of different contact lens correction on Zernike aberrations of human eye%不同角膜接触镜对人眼Zernike像差的影响

    保金华; 贺极苍; 毛欣杰; 吕帆


    Background Even though the change in wavefront aberrations with correction modality is well documented in the literature,little is known about the underlying mechanism.Complete understanding of the causes responsible for the wavefront change in the combined lens-eye system is important since it provides basic knowledge for further improving the technique to correct refractive error by correcting lenses.Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of refractive correction lens on optical property of the eye by analyzing Zernike aberrations in myopic eyes with contact lens correction.Methods This study was approved by the Ethic Committee of Wenzhou Medical College.Written informed consent was obtained from each subject before entering this study.Zernike aberrations of 52 myopic eyes of 26 subjects with the spherical equivalent-1.75 to-8.50 D were measured using a Hartmann-Shock wavefront sensor.The human eye aberrations were examined at the uncorrected condition,rigid-gas-permeable contact lens (RGP-CL) corrected condition and soft contact lens (Soft-CL) corrected condition.The differences of wavefront aberrations and Zernike coefficients were compared by repeated measurement of single factor variance analysis,and correlation of the aberration changes between uncorrected condition and RGP-CL corrected condition or Sofi-CL corrected condition,between the right eyes and left eyes in different conditions were analyzed by Pearson linear correlation.Results Mean total root-mean-square (tRMS) was (0.71 ± 0.30)μm,(0.54±0.19)μm and (0.74±0.32)μm in the uncorrected condition,RGP-CL corrected condition and Soft-CL corrected condition,with a significant difference (F =8.758,P<0.001),and tRMS was significant declined under the RGP-CL corrected condition compared with uncorrected condition (t =2.746,P =0.008),and tRMS in RGP-CL corrected condition was significantly lower than that in Soft-CL corrected condition (t =3.428,P =0.001).The high RMS (h

  5. Failure Modes

    Jakobsen, K. P.; Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo;


    The present appendix contains the derivation of ten different limit state equations divided on three different failure modes. Five of the limit state equations can be used independently of the characteristics of the subsoil, whereas the remaining five can be used for either drained or undrained...

  6. 基于Zernike矩和BP网络的道路交通标志识别方法研究%Research on Method of Traffic Signs Recognition Based on Hu Invariant Moments and Zernike Invariant Moment

    田秋红; 刘成霞; 杜晓


    During real time recognition process of the traffic signs, there are color and geometric distortions because of complicated background noise. Invariant moment is a statistical property of images and widely used in the image recognition which possesses image's translation, scaling and rotation invariance. Based on the research of Hu and Zernike invariant moments, algorithm of traffic signs recognition based on Zernike invariant moments and BP neural network is presented in the paper. First, the invariable moment eigenvector of the traffic signs images is extracted as eigenvalue. Second, BP network is trained and tested. At last, the deformed traffic signs images are recognized by using the trained BP network. The experimental results show that this method is based on Zernike moments and BP neural network possesses image's translation, scaling and rotation invariance. And the method is simple, fast training and high recognition rate in image's translation, scaling and rotation; and is prior to the automatic recognition method based on Hu invariant moments.%道路交通标志的背景相当复杂,颜色失真严重并存在不同程度的几何失真现象.不变矩是图像的一种统计特征,具有平移不变性、旋转不变性和比例缩放不变性,被广泛的应用于图像识别中.在研究了Hu矩和Zernike矩基础上,提出基于Zernike矩与BP网络相结合的道路交通标志识别方法.识别过程分别对图像进行了Hu矩和Zernike矩特征提取、BP网络训练与测试、对形变图像进行分类识别.结果表明:基于Zernike矩和BP网络的交通标志识别方法具有很强的抗图像平移、缩放和旋转识别能力,实现简单、训练速度快、识别率高等特点,且识别准确率优于Hu不变矩目标自动识别.

  7. Producing Presences

    Mandagará, Pedro


    Resenha de MENDES, Victor K.; ROCHA, João Cezar de Castro (Eds.). Producing Presences: branching out from Gumbrecht’s work. Dartmouth, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, 2007. (Adamastor book series, 2)

  8. Operating Modes Of Chemical Reactors Of Polymerization

    Meruyert Berdieva


    Full Text Available In the work the issues of stable technological modes of operation of main devices of producing polysterol reactors have been researched as well as modes of stable operation of a chemical reactor have been presented, which enables to create optimum mode parameters of polymerization process, to prevent emergency situations of chemical reactor operation in industrial conditions.

  9. Hardware Assisted ROP Detection Mode (HARD Mode)


    Distribution A. Cleared for public release; unlimited distribution. USAFA-CN-2013-457 Hardware Assisted ROP Detection Mode (HARD Mode) NATHANIEL HART...457 This report, "Hardware Assisted ROP Detection Mode (HARD Mode)" is presented as a competent treatment of the subj ect, worthy of publication. The...Technical 20120810-20121215 Hardware Assisted ROP Detection Mode (HARD Mode) NATHANIEL HART MICHAEL WINSTEAD MARTIN CARLISLE RODNEY LYKINS MICHAEL

  10. Effects of Mode Shares on Mode Choice

    Carlos Carrion; Nebiyou Tilahun; David Levinson


    This study considers the influence of the knowledge of existing mode shares on travelers mode choice. This contrasts with traditional mode choice models, where the main objective is to predict the overall mode shares as the aggregate of individual mode choices according to variables encompassing attributes of the modes, and characteristics of the travelers. In this study, a computer-administered adaptive stated preference survey is developed and applied to a sample of subjects selected from t...

  11. A Study on the Development Mode of Producer Services in Regional Deputy Center City%区域副中心城市发展生产性服务业的机理分析



    宝鸡作为关中-天水经济区副中心城市,具有雄厚的工业发展基础,当前正处产业结构转型升级的关键时期,首先,西安同质第二产业向宝鸡转移,就要求宝鸡积极发展生产性服务业,实现整合后的本地制造业与生产性服务业融合互动发展;另一方面,宝鸡应该角色转换,扮演西安生产性服务业服务供给的增压辐射角色,从而最终实现副中心城市和中心城市生产性服务业发展的衔接,进而完成区域生产性服务业服务供给的专业化全覆盖。%Baoji is the deputy central city of Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone,which has strong foundation for industrial development.Currently it's a critical period that industries are restruc-turing and upgrading.On the one hand,homogenous industries in Xi'an are being transferred to Baoji, which requires the latter to actively develop producer services and achieve interactive development with manufacturing sector.On the other hand,Baoj i should actively play a pressurized and radiated role to supply producer Services for Xi'an and ultimately promote connections between producer serv-ices in the deputy central city and the urban center,and complete service supply by full coverage with high specialization in Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone.

  12. Antagonistic Activity and Mode of Action of Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid, Produced by Marine Bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA31x, Against Vibrio anguillarum In vitro and in a Zebrafish In vivo Model

    Zhang, Linlin; Tian, Xueying; Kuang, Shan; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Chengsheng; Sun, Chaomin


    Phenazine and its derivatives are very important secondary metabolites produced from Pseudomonas spp. and have exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal and antibacterial activities. However, till date, there are few reports about marine derived Pseudomonas and its production of phenazine metabolites. In this study, we isolated a marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA31x which produced natural product inhibiting the growth of Vibrio anguillarum C312, one of the most serious bacterial pathogens in marine aquaculture. Combining high-resolution electro-spray-ionization mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analyses, the functional compound against V. anguillarum was demonstrated to be phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), an important phenazine derivative. Molecular studies indicated that the production of PCA by P. aeruginosa PA31x was determined by gene clusters phz1 and phz2 in its genome. Electron microscopic results showed that treatment of V. anguillarum with PCA developed complete lysis of bacterial cells with fragmented cytoplasm being released to the surrounding environment. Additional evidence indicated that reactive oxygen species generation preceded PCA-induced microbe and cancer cell death. Notably, treatment with PCA gave highly significant protective activities against the development of V. anguillarum C312 on zebrafish. Additionally, the marine derived PCA was further found to effectively inhibit the growth of agricultural pathogens, Acidovorax citrulli NP1 and Phytophthora nicotianae JM1. Taken together, this study reveals that marine Pseudomonas derived PCA carries antagonistic activities against both aquacultural and agricultural pathogens, which broadens the application fields of PCA. PMID:28289406

  13. 农超对接模式下农产品供应链风险因素分析%Analyzing Risk Factors of Produce-Supply Chain in the Farmer-Supermarket Direct Purchase Mode

    韩丽; 王成付


    The operation of supply chain in the farmer -supermarket direct purchase mode has developed rapid-ly.However, many risk factors threaten the efficient operation of the whole system .Firstly, we divided the sup-ply chain process of farmer -supermarket direct purchase into six stages .Secondly , contract risk , supervision and guidance risk , logistics risk and information sharing risk are extracted from these segmentation stages .Fi-nally, suggestions of standard setting, legal construction , farmers'upgrading ability , farm cooperation transfor-mation, cold chain logistics'systematic investment and the construction of information platform are presented .I-dentification and prevention of the risk indicates the direction for further improvement of farmer -supermarket direct purchase .%农超对接供应链业务发展迅速,但诸多风险因素严重威胁着系统整体的高效运作。文章首先将农超对接供应链流程细分为六大阶段;然后基于各细分阶段提取出合约风险、监督指导风险、物流风险和信息共享风险几大类风险因素;最后在标准设定、法律建设、农户能力提升、合作社改造、冷链物流体系投资、信息平台建设等方面提出相关建议。识别与预防相关风险为进一步提高农超对接精细化运作水平指明了方向。

  14. Search for a Charged Higgs Boson Produced in the Vector-boson Fusion Mode with Decay $H^\\pm \\to W^\\pm Z$ using $pp$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV with the ATLAS Experiment

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Childers, John Taylor; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saimpert, Matthias; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simoniello, Rosa; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; 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    A search for a charged Higgs boson, $H^\\pm$, decaying to a $W^\\pm$ boson and a $Z$ boson is presented. The search is based on 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The $H^\\pm$ boson is assumed to be produced via vector-boson fusion and the decays $W^\\pm \\to q\\bar{q^\\prime}$ and $Z\\rightarrow e^+e^-/\\mu^+\\mu^-$ are considered. The search is performed in a range of charged Higgs boson masses from 200 to 1000 GeV. No evidence for the production of an $H^\\pm$ boson is observed. Upper limits of 31--1020 fb at 95\\% CL are placed on the cross section for vector-boson fusion production of an $H^\\pm$ boson times its branching fraction to $W^\\pm Z$. The limits are compared with predictions from the Georgi-Machacek Higgs Triplet Model.

  15. Search for a Charged Higgs Boson Produced in the Vector-Boson Fusion Mode with Decay H(±)→W(±)Z using pp Collisions at √s=8  TeV with the ATLAS Experiment.

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Schwartzman, A; Schwarz, T A; Schwegler, Ph; Schwemling, Ph; Schwienhorst, R; Schwindling, J; Schwindt, T; Schwoerer, M; Sciacca, F G; Scifo, E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Scutti, F; Searcy, J; Sedov, G; Sedykh, E; Seema, P; Seidel, S C; Seiden, A; Seifert, F; Seixas, J M; Sekhniaidze, G; Sekhon, K; Sekula, S J; Selbach, K E; Seliverstov, D M; Semprini-Cesari, N; Serfon, C; Serin, L; Serkin, L; Serre, T; Sessa, M; Seuster, R; Severini, H; Sfiligoj, T; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shan, L Y; Shang, R; Shank, J T; Shapiro, M; Shatalov, P B; Shaw, K; Shaw, S M; Shcherbakova, A; Shehu, C Y; Sherwood, P; Shi, L; Shimizu, S; Shimmin, C O; Shimojima, M; Shiyakova, M; Shmeleva, A; Shoaleh Saadi, D; Shochet, M J; Shojaii, S; Shrestha, S; Shulga, E; Shupe, M A; Shushkevich, S; Sicho, P; Sidiropoulou, O; Sidorov, D; Sidoti, A; Siegert, F; Sijacki, Dj; Silva, J; Silver, Y; Silverstein, S B; Simak, V; Simard, O; Simic, Lj; Simion, S; Simioni, E; Simmons, B; Simon, D; Simoniello, R; Sinervo, P; Sinev, N B; Siragusa, G; Sisakyan, A N; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Sjölin, J; Sjursen, T B; Skinner, M B; Skottowe, H P; Skubic, P; Slater, M; Slavicek, T; Slawinska, M; Sliwa, K; Smakhtin, V; Smart, B H; Smestad, L; Smirnov, S Yu; Smirnov, Y; Smirnova, L N; Smirnova, O; Smith, M N K; Smizanska, M; Smolek, K; Snesarev, A A; Snidero, G; Snyder, S; Sobie, R; Socher, F; Soffer, A; Soh, D A; Solans, C A; Solar, M; Solc, J; Soldatov, E Yu; Soldevila, U; Solodkov, A A; Soloshenko, A; Solovyanov, O V; Solovyev, V; Sommer, P; Song, H Y; Soni, N; Sood, A; Sopczak, A; Sopko, B; Sopko, V; Sorin, V; Sosa, D; Sosebee, M; Sotiropoulou, C L; Soualah, R; Soueid, P; Soukharev, A M; South, D; Spagnolo, S; Spalla, M; Spanò, F; Spearman, W R; Spettel, F; Spighi, R; Spigo, G; Spiller, L A; Spousta, M; Spreitzer, T; St Denis, R D; Staerz, S; Stahlman, J; Stamen, R; Stamm, S; Stanecka, E; Stanescu, C; Stanescu-Bellu, M; Stanitzki, M M; Stapnes, S; Starchenko, E A; Stark, J; Staroba, P; Starovoitov, P; Staszewski, R; Stavina, P; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, B; Stelzer, H J; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stenzel, H; Stern, S; Stewart, G A; Stillings, J A; Stockton, M C; Stoebe, M; Stoicea, G; Stolte, P; Stonjek, S; Stradling, A R; Straessner, A; Stramaglia, M E; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strandlie, A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Strizenec, P; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D M; Stroynowski, R; Strubig, A; Stucci, S A; Stugu, B; Styles, N A; Su, D; Su, J; Subramaniam, R; Succurro, A; Sugaya, Y; Suhr, C; Suk, M; Sulin, V V; Sultansoy, S; Sumida, T; Sun, S; Sun, X; Sundermann, J E; Suruliz, K; Susinno, G; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, Y; Svatos, M; Swedish, S; Swiatlowski, M; Sykora, I; Sykora, T; Ta, D; Taccini, C; Tackmann, K; Taenzer, J; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Taiblum, N; Takai, H; Takashima, R; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Takubo, Y; Talby, M; Talyshev, A A; Tam, J Y C; Tan, K G; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, S; Tannenwald, B B; Tannoury, N; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tashiro, T; Tassi, E; Tavares Delgado, A; Tayalati, Y; Taylor, F E; Taylor, G N; Taylor, W; Teischinger, F A; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M; Teixeira-Dias, P; Temming, K K; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P K; Teoh, J J; Tepel, F; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Terzo, S; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Therhaag, J; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thomas, J P; Thomas-Wilsker, J; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, R J; Thompson, A S; Thomsen, L A; Thomson, E; Thomson, M; Thun, R P; Tibbetts, M J; Ticse Torres, R E; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Yu A; Timoshenko, S; Tiouchichine, E; Tipton, P; Tisserant, S; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tolley, E; Tomlinson, L; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Trischuk, W; Trocmé, B; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trovatelli, M; True, P; Truong, L; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tsarouchas, C; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsionou, D; Tsipolitis, G; Tsirintanis, N; Tsiskaridze, S; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuna, A N; Tupputi, S A; Turchikhin, S; Turecek, D; Turra, R; Turvey, A J; Tuts, P M; Tykhonov, A; Tylmad, M; Tyndel, M; Ueda, I; Ueno, R; Ughetto, M; Ugland, M; Uhlenbrock, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Ungaro, F C; Unno, Y; Unverdorben, C; Urban, J; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Usanova, A; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Valderanis, C; Valencic, N; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valery, L; Valkar, S; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Den Wollenberg, W; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Geer, R; van der Graaf, H; Van Der Leeuw, R; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; Van Nieuwkoop, J; van Vulpen, I; van Woerden, M C; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vanguri, R; Vaniachine, A; Vannucci, F; Vardanyan, G; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; 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Wasicki, C; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, B M; Webb, S; Weber, M S; Weber, S W; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weinert, B; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Weits, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Whalen, K; Wharton, A M; White, A; White, M J; White, R; White, S; Whiteson, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wildauer, A; Wilkens, H G; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, C; Willocq, S; Wilson, A; Wilson, J A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winklmeier, F; Winter, B T; Wittgen, M; Wittkowski, J; Wollstadt, S J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wu, M; Wu, M; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yakabe, R; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, S; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, Y; Yao, L; Yao, W-M; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Yau Wong, K H; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yeletskikh, I; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Yusuff, I; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zalieckas, J; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, R; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, X; Zhao, Y; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, C; Zhou, L; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhukov, K; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zwalinski, L


    A search for a charged Higgs boson, H(±), decaying to a W(±) boson and a Z boson is presented. The search is based on 20.3  fb(-1) of proton-proton collision data at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The H(±) boson is assumed to be produced via vector-boson fusion and the decays W(±)→qq' and Z→e(+)e(-)/μ(+)μ(-) are considered. The search is performed in a range of charged Higgs boson masses from 200 to 1000 GeV. No evidence for the production of an H(±) boson is observed. Upper limits of 31-1020 fb at 95% C.L. are placed on the cross section for vector-boson fusion production of an H(±) boson times its branching fraction to W(±)Z. The limits are compared with predictions from the Georgi-Machacek Higgs triplet model.

  16. A hybrid framework of first principles molecular orbital calculations and a three-dimensional integral equation theory for molecular liquids: Multi-center molecular Ornstein–Zernike self-consistent field approach

    Kido, Kentaro, E-mail: [Nuclear Safety Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kasahara, Kento [Department of Molecular Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Yokogawa, Daisuke [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules (WPI-ITbM), Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8062 (Japan); Sato, Hirofumi [Department of Molecular Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Elements Strategy Institute for Catalysts and Batteries (ESICB), Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)


    In this study, we reported the development of a new quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM)-type framework to describe chemical processes in solution by combining standard molecular-orbital calculations with a three-dimensional formalism of integral equation theory for molecular liquids (multi-center molecular Ornstein–Zernike (MC-MOZ) method). The theoretical procedure is very similar to the 3D-reference interaction site model self-consistent field (RISM-SCF) approach. Since the MC-MOZ method is highly parallelized for computation, the present approach has the potential to be one of the most efficient procedures to treat chemical processes in solution. Benchmark tests to check the validity of this approach were performed for two solute (solute water and formaldehyde) systems and a simple S{sub N}2 reaction (Cl{sup −} + CH{sub 3}Cl → ClCH{sub 3} + Cl{sup −}) in aqueous solution. The results for solute molecular properties and solvation structures obtained by the present approach were in reasonable agreement with those obtained by other hybrid frameworks and experiments. In particular, the results of the proposed approach are in excellent agreements with those of 3D-RISM-SCF.

  17. Voltage Mode-to-Current Mode Transformation

    Tejmal S. Rathore


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a procedure for converting a class of Op Amp-, FTFN-, CC- and CFAbased voltage mode circuits to corresponding current mode circuits without requiring any additional circuit elements and finally from Op Amp-based voltage mode circuits to any of the FTFN, CC and CFA current mode circuits. The latter circuits perform better at high frequency than the former ones. The validity of the transformation has been checked on simulated circuits with PSPICE.

  18. 110x110 optical mode transfer matrix inversion.

    Carpenter, Joel; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Schröder, Jochen


    The largest complete mode transfer matrix of a fiber is measured consisting of 110 spatial and polarization modes. This matrix is then inverted and the pattern required to produce a desired output at the receiver are launched at the transmitter.

  19. Modes of fossil preservation

    Schopf, J.M.


    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  20. Normal modes and mode transformation of pure electron vortex beams

    Thirunavukkarasu, G.; Mousley, M.; Babiker, M.; Yuan, J.


    Electron vortex beams constitute the first class of matter vortex beams which are currently routinely produced in the laboratory. Here, we briefly review the progress of this nascent field and put forward a natural quantum basis set which we show is suitable for the description of electron vortex beams. The normal modes are truncated Bessel beams (TBBs) defined in the aperture plane or the Fourier transform of the transverse structure of the TBBs (FT-TBBs) in the focal plane of a lens with the said aperture. As these modes are eigenfunctions of the axial orbital angular momentum operator, they can provide a complete description of the two-dimensional transverse distribution of the wave function of any electron vortex beam in such a system, in analogy with the prominent role Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams played in the description of optical vortex beams. The characteristics of the normal modes of TBBs and FT-TBBs are described, including the quantized orbital angular momentum (in terms of the winding number l) and the radial index p>0. We present the experimental realization of such beams using computer-generated holograms. The mode analysis can be carried out using astigmatic transformation optics, demonstrating close analogy with the astigmatic mode transformation between LG and Hermite-Gaussian beams. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.

  1. Wall force produced during disruptions

    Strauss, H.; Paccagnella, R.; Breslau, J.


    The study of disruptions is of great importance for ITER. Previous work on disruptions [1] is extended to compute toroidally asymmetric wall force in ITER, using the M3D code. The disruptions are produced by n = 1 resistive wall modes or external kink modes. A thin wall resistive boundary model is used to calculate the wall forces. The symmetric wall force, produced by a VDE, and the asymmetric wall force, produced by n = 1 modes, are comparable in magnitude. It is found that the asymmetric and axisymmetric forces scale with the growth rate of the instability multiplied by the square of the current divided by magnetic field. A similar scaling was reported for VDEs in JET [2]. Numerically, the study of disruptions is very challenging. In the M3D extended MHD code, dealiasing was applied in the toroidal direction. Advection terms were treated with a numerical upwind method. These techniques provided sufficient numerical stability to simulate entire disruption events. [4pt] [1] R. Paccagnella, H. R. Strauss, and J. Breslau, Nucl. Fusion (2009) 49 035003. [2] V. Riccardo, T. C. Hender, P. J. Lomas, et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion (2004)

  2. Additional Raman Scattering Mechanism due to Transverse Polar Modes

    CHENG Ze


    Longitudinal polar modes generate a macroscopic electric field in piezoelectric crystals and cause an additional mechanism of Raman scattering. The classical theory holds that transverse polar modes cannot produce such an additional mechanism. Our quantum theory shows that there is an additional Raman scattering mechanism arising from the electro-optic effect of transverse polar modes.``

  3. Few-mode fibers for mode division multiplexing transmission

    Kubota, Hirokazu; Morioka, Toshio


    A study is presented of the fiber properties needed to achieve 10-mode multiplexing transmission. A combination of MIMO processing with optical LP mode separation is proposed to prevent the need for massive MIMO computation. The impact of mode crosstalk, differential mode delay, and the mode dependent loss of the few-mode fibers on mode multiplexing are discussed.

  4. Efeito e modo de ação das bacteriocinas produzidas por Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ITAL 383, ATCC 11454 e CNRZ 150 contra Listeria innocua LIN 11 Effect and mode of action of the bacterioncin produced by Lactococcus. lactis subsp. lactis ITAL 383, ATCC 11454 e CNRZ 150 against Listeria innocua LIN 11

    Izildinha MORENO


    Full Text Available O efeito e o modo de ação das bacteriocinas produzidas por L. lactis subsp. lactis ITAL 383 e CNRZ 150 são similares à nisina de L. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454. Estas bacteriocinas apresentaram um modo de ação bactericida, causando a lise de células de L. innocua LIN 11, associada ao decréscimo da absorbância e da viabilidade celular. O efeito letal foi maior para células em fase exponencial comparativamente à fase estacionária de crescimento. A adsorção dessas bacteriocinas às células de L. innocua LIN 11 foi muito rápida e influenciada pelo pH do meio de suspensão; adsorção máxima foi verificada a pH 6,0 e logo após o contato inicial. Perda completa de adsorção ocorreu em pH 2,0.The effect and mode of action of the bacteriocin produced by L. lactis subsp. lactis ITAL 383 and CNRZ 150 are similar to the nisin produced by L. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454. It was clearly bactericidal, and caused lysis of a strain of L. innocua LIN 11 detected by the decrease of absorbance values and the cell viability. Their lethal effect was considerably higher during the logarithmic growth when compared to the stationary phase. Adsorption developed rapidly and was influenced by the pH value of the suspension medium. Maximum adsorption was observed at pH 6,0 and immediately after initial contact and loss at pH 2,0.

  5. Streaming tearing mode

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.


    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  6. Mode selection laser


    The invention relates to a semiconductor mode selection laser, particularly to a VCSEL laser (200) having mode selection properties. The mode selection capability of the laser is achieved by configuring one of the reflectors (15,51) in the resonance cavity so that a reflectivity of the reflector...... (15) varies spatially in one dimension or two dimensions. Accordingly, the reflector (15) with spatially varying reflectivity is part both of the resonance cavity and the mode selection functionality of the laser. A plurality of the lasers configured with different mode selectors, i.e. different...... spatial reflector variations, may be combined to generate a laser beam containing a plurality of orthogonal modes. The laser beam may be injected into a few- mode optical fiber, e.g. for the purpose of optical communication. The VCSEL may have intra-cavity contacts (31,37) and a Tunnel junction (33...

  7. Streaming tearing mode

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.


    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  8. Electron acceleration by a localized Bernstein mode

    Kumar, Asheel


    An analytical framework for electron acceleration by an axially localized large amplitude electron Bernstein mode in a magnetized plasma is developed. The mode is localized due to plasma density profile or magnetic field profile and could be excited by launching an electron cyclotron wave from out side. A mildly pre-accelerated electron beam of finite Larmor radius resonantly interacts with the mode and gains axial energy as well as transverse energy. The scheme is suitable for producing electron beams of energy upto several MeV.

  9. Asymmetric Bessel modes.

    Kotlyar, V V; Kovalev, A A; Soifer, V A


    We propose a new, three-parameter family of diffraction-free asymmetric elegant Bessel modes (aB-modes) with an integer and fractional orbital angular momentum (OAM). The aB-modes are described by the nth-order Bessel function of the first kind with complex argument. The asymmetry degree of the nonparaxial aB-mode is shown to depend on a real parameter c≥0: when c=0, the aB-mode is identical to a conventional radially symmetric Bessel mode; with increasing c, the aB-mode starts to acquire a crescent form, getting stretched along the vertical axis and shifted along the horizontal axis for c≫1. On the horizontal axis, the aB-modes have a denumerable number of isolated intensity zeros that generate optical vortices with a unit topological charge of opposite sign on opposite sides of 0. At different values of the parameter c, the intensity zeros change their location on the horizontal axis, thus changing the beam's OAM. An isolated intensity zero on the optical axis generates an optical vortex with topological charge n. The OAM per photon of an aB-mode depends near-linearly on c, being equal to ℏ(n+cI1(2c)/I0(2c)), where ℏ is the Planck constant and In(x) is a modified Bessel function.

  10. Predictability of the Dynamic Mode Decomposition in Coastal Processes

    Wang, Ruo-Qian; Herdman, Liv; Stacey, Mark; Barnard, Patrick


    Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) is a model order reduction technique that helps reduce the complexity of computational models. DMD is frequently easier to interpret physically than the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition. The DMD can also produce the eigenvalues of each mode to show the trend of the mode, establishing the rate of growth or decay, but the original DMD cannot produce the contributing weights of the modes. The challenge is selecting the important modes to build a reduced order model. DMD variants have been developed to estimate the weights of each mode. One of the popular methods is called Optimal Mode Decomposition (OMD). This method decomposes the data matrix into a product of the DMD modes, the diagonal weight matrix, and the Vandermonde matrix. The weight matrix can be used to rank the importance of the mode contributions and ultimately leads to the reduced order model for prediction and controlling purpose. We are currently applying DMD to a numerical simulation of the San Francisco Bay, which features complicated coastal geometry, multiple frequency components, and high periodicity. Since DMD defines modes with specific frequencies, we expect DMD would produce a good approximation, but the preliminary results show that the predictability of the DMD is poor if unimportant modes are dropped according to the OMD. We are currently testing other DMD variants and will report our findings in the presentation.

  11. From Lyapunov modes to their exponents for hard disk systems.

    Chung, Tony; Truant, Daniel; Morriss, Gary P


    We demonstrate the preservation of the Lyapunov modes in a system of hard disks by the underlying tangent space dynamics. This result is exact for the Zero modes and correct to order ϵ for the Transverse and Longitudinal-Momentum modes, where ϵ is linear in the mode number. For sufficiently large mode numbers, the ϵ terms become significant and the dynamics no longer preserves the mode structure. We propose a modified Gram-Schmidt procedure based on orthogonality with respect to the center zero space that produces the exact numerical mode. This Gram-Schmidt procedure can also exploit the orthogonality between conjugate modes and their symplectic structure in order to find a simple relation that determines the Lyapunov exponent from the Lyapunov mode. This involves a reclassification of the modes into either direction preserving or form preserving. These analytic methods assume a knowledge of the ordering of the modes within the Lyapunov spectrum, but gives both predictive power for the values of the exponents from the modes and describes the modes in greater detail than was previously achievable. Thus the modes and the exponents contain the same information.

  12. Mode decomposition evolution equations.

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang


    Partial differential equation (PDE) based methods have become some of the most powerful tools for exploring the fundamental problems in signal processing, image processing, computer vision, machine vision and artificial intelligence in the past two decades. The advantages of PDE based approaches are that they can be made fully automatic, robust for the analysis of images, videos and high dimensional data. A fundamental question is whether one can use PDEs to perform all the basic tasks in the image processing. If one can devise PDEs to perform full-scale mode decomposition for signals and images, the modes thus generated would be very useful for secondary processing to meet the needs in various types of signal and image processing. Despite of great progress in PDE based image analysis in the past two decades, the basic roles of PDEs in image/signal analysis are only limited to PDE based low-pass filters, and their applications to noise removal, edge detection, segmentation, etc. At present, it is not clear how to construct PDE based methods for full-scale mode decomposition. The above-mentioned limitation of most current PDE based image/signal processing methods is addressed in the proposed work, in which we introduce a family of mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs) for a vast variety of applications. The MoDEEs are constructed as an extension of a PDE based high-pass filter (Europhys. Lett., 59(6): 814, 2002) by using arbitrarily high order PDE based low-pass filters introduced by Wei (IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 6(7): 165, 1999). The use of arbitrarily high order PDEs is essential to the frequency localization in the mode decomposition. Similar to the wavelet transform, the present MoDEEs have a controllable time-frequency localization and allow a perfect reconstruction of the original function. Therefore, the MoDEE operation is also called a PDE transform. However, modes generated from the present approach are in the spatial or time domain and can be

  13. Excursions through KK modes

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki


    In this article we study Kaluza-Klein (KK) dimensional reduction of massive Abelian gauge theories with charged matter fields on a circle. Since local gauge transformations change position dependence of the charged fields, the decomposition of the charged matter fields into KK modes is gauge dependent. While whole KK mass spectrum is independent of the gauge choice, the mode number depends on the gauge. The masses of the KK modes also depend on the field value of the zero-mode of the extra dimensional component of the gauge field. In particular, one of the KK modes in the KK tower of each massless 5D charged field becomes massless at particular values of the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field. When the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field is identified with the inflaton, this structure leads to recursive cosmological particle productions.

  14. Mode choice model parameters estimation

    Strnad, Irena


    The present work focuses on parameter estimation of two mode choice models: multinomial logit and EVA 2 model, where four different modes and five different trip purposes are taken into account. Mode choice model discusses the behavioral aspect of mode choice making and enables its application to a traffic model. Mode choice model includes mode choice affecting trip factors by using each mode and their relative importance to choice made. When trip factor values are known, it...

  15. Mode Conversion of Solar p-Modes in Non-Vertical Magnetic Fields

    Crouch, A. D.; Cally, P. S.


    Sunspots absorb and scatter incident f- and p-modes. Until recently, the responsible absorption mechanism was uncertain. The most promising explanation appears to be mode conversion to slow magnetoacoustic-gravity waves, which carry energy down the magnetic field lines into the interior. In vertical magnetic field, mode conversion can adequately explain the observed f-mode absorption, but is too inefficient to account for the absorption of p-modes. In the first paper of the present series we calculated the efficiency of fast-to-slow magnetoacoustic-gravity wave conversion in uniform non-vertical magnetic fields. We assumed two-dimensional propagation, where the Alfvén waves decouple. In comparison to vertical field, it was found that mode conversion is significantly enhanced in moderately inclined fields, especially at higher frequencies. Using those results, Cally, Crouch, and Braun showed that the resultant p-mode absorption produced by simple sunspot models with non-vertical magnetic fields is ample to explain the observations. In this paper, we further examine mode conversion in non-vertical magnetic fields. In particular, we consider three-dimensional propagation, where the fast and slow magnetoacoustic-gravity waves and the Alfvén waves are coupled. Broadly speaking, the p-mode damping rates are not substantially different to the two-dimensional case. However, we do find that the Alfvén waves can remove similar quantities of energy to the slow MAG waves.

  16. Surface modes in physics

    Sernelius, Bo E


    Electromagnetic surface modes are present at all surfaces and interfaces between material of different dielectric properties. These modes have very important effects on numerous physical quantities: adhesion, capillary force, step formation and crystal growth, the Casimir effect etc. They cause surface tension and wetting and they give rise to forces which are important e.g. for the stability of colloids.This book is a useful and elegant approach to the topic, showing how the concept of electromagnetic modes can be developed as a unifying theme for a range of condensed matter physics. The

  17. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    . The research presented in this thesis falls in three parts. In the first part, a first time demonstration of the break of the azimuthal symmetry of the Bessel-like LP0X modes is presented. This effect, known as the bowtie effect, causes the mode to have an azimuthal dependence as well as a quasi...... and polarization state are investigated. For this fiber, the onset of the bowtie effect is shown numerically to be LP011. The characteristics usually associated with Bessel-likes modes such as long diffraction free length and selfhealing are shown to be conserved despite the lack of azimuthal symmetry...

  18. Quadratic B-mode (QB-Mode) Ultrasonic Imaging with Coded Transmit Waveforms.

    Cecchini, Daniele; Yao, Hui; Phukpattaranont, Pornchai; Ebbini, Emad


    In this paper, the use of coded transmit waveforms with post-beamforming nonlinear filtering of echo data in diagnostic ultrasound is presented. The nonlinear filter based on the second-order Volterra filter (SoVF) model separates the linear and quadratic echo components. The grayscale representation of the latter results in a new mode of imaging we refer to as quadratic B-mode (QB-mode). The use of chirp transmit waveforms in imaging contrast agents allows for nonlinear excitation of microbubble contrast agents (UCA) at a range of frequencies throughout the bandwidth of the transducer. The QB-mode image is shown to produce significant increase in UCA contrast over standard B-mode images from conventional and chirp excitation with and without compression. This contrast enhancement is achieved without loss in spatial resolution.

  19. Resonance vector mode locking

    Kolpakov, Stanislav A; Loika, Yuri; Tarasov, Nikita; Kalashnikov, Vladimir; Agrawal, Govind P


    A mode locked fibre laser as a source of ultra-stable pulse train has revolutionised a wide range of fundamental and applied research areas by offering high peak powers, high repetition rates, femtosecond range pulse widths and a narrow linewidth. However, further progress in linewidth narrowing seems to be limited by the complexity of the carrier-envelope phase control. Here for the first time we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically a new mechanism of resonance vector self-mode locking where tuning in-cavity birefringence leads to excitation of the longitudinal modes sidebands accompanied by the resonance phase locking of sidebands with the adjacent longitudinal modes. An additional resonance with acoustic phonons provides the repetition rate tunability and linewidth narrowing down to Hz range that drastically reduces the complexity of the carrier-envelope phase control and so will open the way to advance lasers in the context of applications in metrology, spectroscopy, microwave photonics, astronomy...

  20. Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)—positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis—produces commercially...

  1. Production of Heavy Ion Beams by Operating Serse in DC Mode and Afterglow Mode

    Gammino, S; Celona, L; Girard, A; Hitz, D; Melin, G


    The superconducting ECR ion source SERSE is going to be coupled to a 28 GHz generator, in order to achieve higher current of intermediate and high charge states of heavy ions. Some preliminary tests have been carried out to $9 demonstrate the capability to produce currents of heavy ion beams in the order of hundreds emA in dc mode and afterglow mode. In particular, the latter tests in afterglow mode ùay play a relevant role in the design of the new source $9 for the LHC heavy ion injector.

  2. Supersymmetric mode converters

    Heinrich, Matthias; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Stützer, Simon; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.


    In recent years, the ever-increasing demand for high-capacity transmission systems has driven remarkable advances in technologies that encode information on an optical signal. Mode-division multiplexing makes use of individual modes supported by an optical waveguide as mutually orthogonal channels. The key requirement in this approach is the capability to selectively populate and extract specific modes. Optical supersymmetry (SUSY) has recently been proposed as a particularly elegant way to resolve this design challenge in a manner that is inherently scalable, and at the same time maintains compatibility with existing multiplexing strategies. Supersymmetric partners of multimode waveguides are characterized by the fact that they share all of their effective indices with the original waveguide. The crucial exception is the fundamental mode, which is absent from the spectrum of the partner waveguide. Here, we demonstrate experimentally how this global phase-matching property can be exploited for efficient mode conversion. Multimode structures and their superpartners are experimentally realized in coupled networks of femtosecond laser-written waveguides, and the corresponding light dynamics are directly observed by means of fluorescence microscopy. We show that SUSY transformations can readily facilitate the removal of the fundamental mode from multimode optical structures. In turn, hierarchical sequences of such SUSY partners naturally implement the conversion between modes of adjacent order. Our experiments illustrate just one of the many possibilities of how SUSY may serve as a building block for integrated mode-division multiplexing arrangements. Supersymmetric notions may enrich and expand integrated photonics by versatile optical components and desirable, yet previously unattainable, functionalities.

  3. Mode Gaussian beam tracing

    Trofimov, M. Yu.; Zakharenko, A. D.; Kozitskiy, S. B.


    A mode parabolic equation in the ray centered coordinates for 3D underwater sound propagation is developed. The Gaussian beam tracing in this case is constructed. The test calculations are carried out for the ASA wedge benchmark and proved an excellent agreement with the source images method in the case of cross-slope propagation. But in the cases of wave propagation at some angles to the cross-slope direction an account of mode interaction becomes necessary.

  4. Producing Against Poverty

    Ypeij, Annelou


    Producing against Poverty is an anthropological research on micro-entrepreneurs in Lima, Peru. It analyses the way micro-producers accumulate capital. The anthropological approach of the book starts with an analysis of the daily lives of the micro-producers. Its gender approach makes a comparison be

  5. Gyrotron whispering gallery mode coupler with a mode conversion reflector for exciting a circular symmetric uniform phase RF beam in a corrugated waveguide

    Neilson, Jeffrey M.


    A cylindrical waveguide with a mode converter transforms a whispering gallery mode from a gyrotron cylindrical waveguide with a helical cut launch edge to a quasi-Gaussian beam suitable for conveyance through a corrugated waveguide. This quasi-Gaussian beam is radiated away from the waveguide using a spiral cut launch edge, which is in close proximity to a first mode converting reflector. The first mode converting reflector is coupled to a second mode converting reflector which provides an output free-space HE11 mode wave suitable for direct coupling into a corrugated waveguide. The radiated beam produced at the output of the second mode converting reflector is substantially circular.

  6. Low arc drop hybrid mode thermionic converter

    Shimada, K.


    The hybrid mode operation for the reduction of plasma drops is being investigated. This report discusses the results obtained from two molybdenum emitter converters. One converter had a molybdenum collector and the other a nickel collector. The molybdenum collector converter was operated in a hybrid mode (at an interelectrode distance of 1.7 mm) and produced a minimum barrier index of 1.96 eV at an emitter temperature of 1500 K. The arc drop was calculated to be 0.14 eV, using the published results for a molybdenum collector. On the other hand, the nickel collector converter was operated in a conventional ignited mode (at an interelectrode distance of 0.5 mm) and produced a minimum barrier index of 2.1 eV at an emitter temperature of 1700 K. It is tentatively concluded that a large-gap operation of the hybrid mode converter permits the diffusion of cesium ions to a distance in the order of one millimeter for an effective neutralization of electron space charge. By employing a low work function collector (1.55 eV) in a hybrid mode converter with an arc drop of 0.14 eV, it appears that a barrier index as low as 1.69 eV could be achieved.

  7. CMB Polarization B-mode Delensing with SPTpol and Herschel

    Manzotti, A.; Story, K. T.; Wu, W. L. K.; Austermann, J. E.; Beall, J. A.; Bender, A. N.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bock, J. J.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiang, H. C.; Cho, H.-M.; Citron, R.; Conley, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dodelson, S.; Everett, W.; Gallicchio, J.; George, E. M.; Gilbert, A.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N.; Henning, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hoover, S.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Huang, N.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K. D.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Li, D.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L. M.; Natoli, T.; Nibarger, J. P.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Smecher, G.; Stark, A. A.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Viero, M. P.; Wang, G.; Whitehorn, N.; Yefremenko, V.; Zemcov, M.


    We present a demonstration of delensing the observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode polarization anisotropy. This process of reducing the gravitational-lensing-generated B-mode component will become increasingly important for improving searches for the B modes produced by primordial gravitational waves. In this work, we delens B-mode maps constructed from multi-frequency SPTpol observations of a 90 deg2 patch of sky by subtracting a B-mode template constructed from two inputs: SPTpol E-mode maps and a lensing potential map estimated from the Herschel 500 μm map of the cosmic infrared background. We find that our delensing procedure reduces the measured B-mode power spectrum by 28% in the multipole range 300importance of including realistic experimental non-idealities in the delensing forecasts used to inform instrument and survey-strategy planning of upcoming lower-noise experiments, such as CMB-S4.

  8. Dispersion-managed semiconductor mode-locked ring laser.

    Resan, Bojan; Archundia, Luis; Delfyett, Peter J; Alphonse, Gerard


    A novel breathing-mode external sigma-ring-cavity semiconductor mode-locked laser is developed. Intracavity pulse compression and stretching produce linearly chirped pulses with an asymmetric exponential temporal profile. External dispersion compensation reduces the pulse duration to 274 fs (within 10% of the bandwidth limit).

  9. Simulation of valveless micropump and mode analysis

    Lan, W P; Wu, K C; Shih, Y C


    In this work, a 3-D simulation is performed to study for the solid-fluid coupling effect driven by piezoelectric materials and utilizes asymmetric obstacles to control the flow direction. The result of simulation is also verified. For a micropump, it is crucial to find the optimal working frequency which produce maximum net flow rate. The PZT plate vibrates under the first mode, which is symmetric. Adjusting the working frequency, the maximum flow rate can be obtained. For the micrpump we studied, the optimal working frequency is 3.2K Hz. At higher working frequency, say 20K Hz, the fluid-solid membrane may come out a intermediate mode, which is different from the first mode and the second mode. It is observed that the center of the mode drifts. Meanwhile, the result shows that a phase shift lagging when the excitation force exists in the vibration response. Finally, at even higher working frequency, say 30K Hz, a second vibration mode is observed.

  10. Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes

    White, R. B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.


    Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincare plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold.

  11. Beam Distribution Modification By Alfven Modes

    White, R. B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.


    Modification of a deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes in a toroidal magnetic confinement device is examined. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam transport, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold. The modes produce a substantial central flattening of the beam distribution.

  12. Beam Distribution Modification by Alfven Modes

    White, R. B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.


    Modification of a deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes in a toroidal magnetic confinement device is examined. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam transport, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold. The modes produce a substantial central flattening of the beam distribution.

  13. Sliding mode control and observation

    Shtessel, Yuri; Fridman, Leonid; Levant, Arie


    The sliding mode control methodology has proven effective in dealing with complex dynamical systems affected by disturbances, uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics. Robust control technology based on this methodology has been applied to many real-world problems, especially in the areas of aerospace control, electric power systems, electromechanical systems, and robotics. Sliding Mode Control and Observation represents the first textbook that starts with classical sliding mode control techniques and progresses toward newly developed higher-order sliding mode control and observation algorithms and their applications. The present volume addresses a range of sliding mode control issues, including: *Conventional sliding mode controller and observer design *Second-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Frequency domain analysis of conventional and second-order sliding mode controllers *Higher-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Higher-order sliding mode observers *Sliding mode disturbanc...

  14. Mode-dependent attenuation of optical fibers: excess loss.

    Olshansky, R; Nolan, D A


    A theory is presented for calculating the excess loss produced by random perturbations of optical fibers. The theory is applicable to perturbations whose longitudinal spatial frequencies are below the range required for mode coupling. To illustrate the method, losses due to diameter variations are calculated for the case of a step-index optical fiber. The diameter variations are found to produce a strong attenuation of the higher order modes. The total excess loss is approximately wavelength independent.

  15. Thermodynamics of radiation modes

    Pina, Eduardo; De la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, PO Box 55 534, Mexico, D F, 09340 (Mexico)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the frequencies. One equation relating frequency and volume is used to define the thermodynamics of one mode, and to explain the mystery of the frequency-dependent quantities having a similar behaviour to the non-frequency-dependent quantities for some thermodynamic equations and different behaviour for others. Besides, this frequency-volume relation is used to count the number of modes in a band of frequency.

  16. Boosting Farm Produce Supply


    In the wake of escalating inflation,securing farm produce supply and stablizing grain prices could help to alleviate economic pressure The Chinese Government has pledged to secure a stable supply of farm produce.According to a document released after the annual Central Rural Work Conference held on December 22-23 in Beijing,preventing short supplies of farm produce and avoiding"ex-

  17. Mode og mozzarella

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak


    Under en samtale i Paolo Sorrentinos La grande bellezza/da. Den store skønhed (2013) anføres det, at Italiens primære eksportvarer er mode og mozzarella. Selve filmen vidner om, at Italien har andet at byde på – heriblandt filmkunst og Roms righoldige kulturhistorie.......Under en samtale i Paolo Sorrentinos La grande bellezza/da. Den store skønhed (2013) anføres det, at Italiens primære eksportvarer er mode og mozzarella. Selve filmen vidner om, at Italien har andet at byde på – heriblandt filmkunst og Roms righoldige kulturhistorie....

  18. Mode correlation and coherent-mode decomposition of laser beams

    张彬; 文侨; 楚晓亮


    Theory of the coherent-mode decomposition of laser beams is proposed.The new model for the flat-topped beams proposed by Li recently is taken as an example.The analytical expressions for the M2-factor and mode coherence coefficients of flat-topped beams have been derived in the rectangular coordinate system,by means of which the mode correlation,mode structure,and coherent-mode decomposition of flat-topped beams can be analysed.

  19. 4 X 20 Gbit/s mode division multiplexing over free space using vector modes and a q-plate mode (de)multiplexer

    Milione, Giovanni; Huang, Hao; Ren, Yongxiong; Xie, Guodong; Nguyen, Thien An; Karimi, Ebrahim; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Nolan, Daniel A; Alfano, Robert R; Willner, Alan E


    Vector modes are spatial modes that have spatially inhomogeneous states of polarization, such as, radial and azimuthal polarization. They can produce smaller spot sizes and stronger longitudinal polarization components upon focusing. As a result, they are used for many applications, including optical trapping and nanoscale imaging. In this work, vector modes are used to increase the information capacity of free space optical communication via the method of optical communication referred to as mode division multiplexing. A mode (de)multiplexer for vector modes based on a liquid crystal technology referred to as a q-plate is introduced. As a proof of principle, using the mode (de)multiplexer four vector modes each carrying a 20 Gbit/s quadrature phase shift keying signal on a single wavelength channel (~1550nm), comprising an aggregate 80 Gbit/s, were transmitted ~1m over the lab table with <-16.4 dB (<2%) mode crosstalk. Bit error rates for all vector modes were measured at the forward error correction t...

  20. Biologically produced sulfur

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.


    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are stabil

  1. Mode Gaussian beam tracing

    Trofimov, M Yu; Kozitskiy, S B


    An adiabatic mode Helmholtz equation for 3D underwater sound propagation is developed. The Gaussian beam tracing in this case is constructed. The test calculations are carried out for the crosswedge benchmark and proved an excellent agreement with the source images method.

  2. Free carboxylate stretching modes

    Oomens, J.; Steill, J. D.


    We report the first IR spectroscopic observation of carboxylate stretching modes in free space, i.e., in the complete absence of solvent or counterions. Gas-phase spectra of a series of benzoate anions have been recorded and compared to condensed-phase spectra, revealing the profound influence of th

  3. Modes of Communication

    Dewatripont, Mathias; Tirole, Jean


    The paper develops a theory of costly communication in which the sender's and receiver's motivations and abilities endogenously determine the communication mode and the transfer of knowledge. Communication is modeled as a problem of moral hazard in teams, in which the sender and receiver select persuasion and message elaboration efforts. The model…

  4. Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes

    Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa


    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…

  5. Tunable Single-Longitudinal-Mode High-Power Fiber Laser

    Jonas K. Valiunas


    Full Text Available We report a novel CW tunable high-power single-longitudinal-mode fiber laser with a linewidth of ∼9 MHz. A tunable fiber Bragg grating provided wavelength selection over a 10 nm range. An all-fiber Fabry-Perot filter was used to increase the longitudinal mode spacing of the laser cavity. An unpumped polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber was used inside the cavity to eliminate mode hopping and increase stability. A maximum output power of 300 mW was produced while maintaining single-longitudinal-mode operation.

  6. Layer-guided shear acoustic plate mode sensor


    Experimental data are presented for an acoustic wave sensor based on a layer-guided shear acoustic plate mode excited on a thin quartz substrate. The effect of coating the front and back faces with polymer waveguiding layers is shown to convert the plate modes into layer-guided plate modes in a manner analogous to Love waves and to produce a similar enhancement of mass sensitivity. These layer-guided plate mode devices offer the possibility of liquid-phase sensing with transducers situated on...


    ZHANG Can-hui; HUANG Qian; FENG Wei


    The new methods to determine the zero-energy deformation modes in the hybrid elements and the zero-energy stress modes in their assumed stress fields are presented by the natural deformation modes of the elements. And the formula of the additional element deformation rigidity due to additional mode into the assumed stress field is derived.Based on, it is concluded in theory that the zero-energy stress mode cannot suppress the zero-energy deformation modes but increase the extra rigidity to the nonzero-energy deformation modes of the element instead. So they should not be employed to assume the stress field. In addition, the parasitic stress modes will produce the spurious parasitic energy and result the element behaving over rigidity. Thus, they should not be used into the assumed stress field even though they can suppress the zero-energy deformation modes of the element. The numerical examples show the performance of the elements including the zero-energy stress modes or the parasitic stress modes.

  8. Analysis of oversized sliding waveguide by mode matching and multi-mode network theory

    Ohkubo, K.; Kubo, S.; Idei, H.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Sato, M.; Takita, Y. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Leuterer, F. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)


    Transmission and reflection coefficients of HE{sub 11} hybrid modes in the sliding waveguide are discussed on the basis of mode matching method and multi-mode network theory. The sliding waveguide is composed of the corrugated waveguide with 88.9 mm{phi} and the smooth-wall waveguide with 110 mm{phi} in inner diameter. It is confirmed that the decrease in power of <0.2% at 84 GHz is obtained for 2 cm in gap of the sliding waveguide. At the sliding length near multi-half-wavelength in vacuum, transmission and reflection powers in the sliding waveguide change slightly, because the very small amount of standing wave of higher-order TE or TM modes is produced resonantly. (author)

  9. Coupler for coupling gyrotron whispering gallery mode RF into HE11 waveguide

    Neilson, Jeffrey M


    A cylindrical waveguide with a mode converter transforms a whispering gallery mode from a gyrotron cylindrical waveguide with a helical cut launch edge to a quasi-Gaussian beam suitable for conveyance through a corrugated waveguide. This quasi-Gaussian beam is radiated away from the waveguide using a spiral cut launch edge, which is in close proximity to a first mode converting reflector. The first mode converting reflector is coupled to a second mode converting reflector which provides an output free-space HE11 mode wave suitable for direct coupling into a corrugated waveguide. The radiated beam produced at the output of the second mode converting reflector is substantially circular.

  10. Measuring and testing the interview mode effect in mixed mode surveys

    Furio Camillo


    Full Text Available Many studies are showing an increased tendency to use more than one data collection mode for a particular survey. However, mixed data collection modes may influence responses given by interviewees and require researchers to verify if differences in responses, when present, are ascribable to the type of data collection mode. Often, random assignment is not feasible and requires researchers to solve an additional and not negligible problem, namely to verify if differences in responses are ascribable to the self selection or to the type of data collection mode being used. The aim of the present paper is to measure the mode effect on the answers using a new data driven multivariate approach, that allows to disentangle the interview mode effect on answers from the effect of self selection. We will work through the use of the new multivariate method with AlmaLaurea case concerning the evaluation of two different data collection methods: the CAWI (Computer Assisted Web Interviewing and the CATI (Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing. As with any new statistical method, the success of this method depends on its efficacy in relation to that of the existing methods. Therefore, results of the multivariate approach will be compared to the Propensity Score method that AlmaLaurea usually applies to identify the presence of an interview mode effect. Both methods produce similar results.

  11. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  12. Methods for producing diterpenes


    The present invention discloses that by combining different di TPS enzymes of class I and class II different diterpenes may be produced including diterpenes not identified in nature. Surprisingly it is revealed that a di TPS enzyme of class I of one species may be combined with a di TPS enzyme...... of class II from a different species, resulting in a high diversity of diterpenes, which can be produced....

  13. Polarization Mode Dispersion Probability Distribution for Arbitrary Mode Coupling


    The probability distribution of the differential group delay for arbitrary mode coupling is simulated with Monte-Carlo method. Fitting the simulation results, we obtain probability distribution function for arbitrary mode coupling.

  14. Resonance modes in optical fibres

    余寿绵; 余恬


    The weakly nonlinear boundary value problem of wave propagation in an optical fibre (for the transverse electric mode, for example) is formulated and a modified linear solution is obtained. It is shown that a self-consistent theory of fibre optics should be weakly nonlinear. The mode of critical refraction that does not exist in the linear theory is obtained, showing that it is a mode consisting of resonance modes. It is shown that the signal carriers in a long fibre are of resonance modes, not normal modes. Some experimental data are given for comparison with the theoretical predictions, and the agreement seems satisfactory.

  15. Trivelpiece-Gould modes in a uniform unbounded plasma

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.


    Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) modes originally described electrostatic surface waves on an axially magnetized cylindrical plasma column. Subsequent studies of electromagnetic waves in such plasma columns revealed two modes, a predominantly magnetic helicon mode (H) and the mixed magnetic and electrostatic Trivelpiece-Gould modes (TG). The latter are similar to whistler modes near the oblique cyclotron resonance in unbounded plasmas. The wave propagation in cylindrical geometry is assumed to be paraxial while the modes exhibit radial standing waves. The present work shows that TG modes also arise in a uniform plasma without radial standing waves. It is shown experimentally that oblique cyclotron resonance arises in large mode number helicons. Their azimuthal wave number far exceeds the axial wave number which creates whistlers near the oblique cyclotron resonance. Cyclotron damping absorbs the TG mode and can energize electrons in the center of a plasma column rather than the edge of conventional TG modes. The angular orbital field momentum can produce new perpendicular wave-particle interactions.

  16. Constraining primordial vector mode from B-mode polarization

    Saga, Shohei; Ichiki, Kiyotomo [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Shiraishi, Maresuke, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Università degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy)


    The B-mode polarization spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) may be the smoking gun of not only the primordial tensor mode but also of the primordial vector mode. If there exist nonzero vector-mode metric perturbations in the early Universe, they are known to be supported by anisotropic stress fluctuations of free-streaming particles such as neutrinos, and to create characteristic signatures on both the CMB temperature, E-mode, and B-mode polarization anisotropies. We place constraints on the properties of the primordial vector mode characterized by the vector-to-scalar ratio r{sub v} and the spectral index n{sub v} of the vector-shear power spectrum, from the Planck and BICEP2 B-mode data. We find that, for scale-invariant initial spectra, the ΛCDM model including the vector mode fits the data better than the model including the tensor mode. The difference in χ{sup 2} between the vector and tensor models is Δχ{sup 2} = 3.294, because, on large scales the vector mode generates smaller temperature fluctuations than the tensor mode, which is preferred for the data. In contrast, the tensor mode can fit the data set equally well if we allow a significantly blue-tilted spectrum. We find that the best-fitting tensor mode has a large blue tilt and leads to an indistinct reionization bump on larger angular scales. The slightly red-tilted vector mode supported by the current data set can also create O(10{sup -22})-Gauss magnetic fields at cosmological recombination. Our constraints should motivate research that considers models of the early Universe that involve the vector mode.

  17. Experimentally produced calf pneumonia.

    Gourlay, R N; Howard, C J; Thomas, L H; Stott, E J


    Experimental pneumonia was produced in calves by the endobronchial inoculation of pneumonic lung homogenates. Irradiated homogenates produced minimal pneumonia. Ampicillin treatment of the homogenates and the experimental calves reduced the extent of pneumonia. Treatment with tylosin tartrate prevented experimental pneumonia. These results suggest that the total pneumonia was due to organisms susceptible to tylosin tartrate and that the residual pneumonia remaining after ampicillin treatment was due to organisms susceptible to tylosin tartrate but not to ampicillin. Of the organisms isolated from the lungs, the ones in this latter category most likely to be responsible are Mycoplasma dispar and ureaplasmas (T-mycoplasmas).

  18. Two-mode clustering of genotype by trait and genotype by environment data

    Hageman, J.A.; Malosetti, M.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.


    In this paper, we demonstrate the use of two-mode clustering for genotype by trait and genotype by environment data. In contrast to two separate (one mode) clusterings on genotypes or traits/environments, two-mode clustering simultaneously produces homogeneous groups of genotypes and traits/environm

  19. Technology Innovation Mode of Agricultural Leading Enterprise——Based on the Virtual Organization Mode


    Based on the definition of technology innovation of agricultural leading enterprises by domestic and foreign experts and scholars,technology innovation of agricultural enterprises is a process of new market increment,which uses new knowledge,technology,process and production mode,produces new products,offers new services and realizes commercialization. Characteristics of agricultural technology innovation are introduced,such as obvious regionality,relatively high risk,long-term periodicity and public attribute. Predicament for technology innovation of leading enterprises is analyzed,such as technical constraints,financial constraints and personnel constraints. Technological Innovation Mode can be classified into three modes of independent innovation,imitative innovation and cooperative innovation by the method of technology innovation. Among them,since there are some defects in the technology innovation process,independent innovation and imitative innovation are generally not used for the innovation of agricultural enterprises. Cooperative Innovation Mode can rely on foreign aid,can realize complementary advantages and achievement sharing,and can be widely applied in the agricultural innovation enterprise. Virtual organization in cooperation innovation mode is described,which makes up for technology,capital and human resources barriers in the process of agricultural enterprise innovation. Therefore,this mode is popular among the agricultural innovation enterprise.

  20. Relevance between Supply Chain Organizational Mode and Farm Produce Quality and Safety Based on Info Economic Person Hypothesis%基于信息经济人假设的农产品供应链组织模式与质量安全的关联

    张敏; 迟正刚


    针对我国农产品质量安全问题的现实和理论困境,提出了具有主动合作意识的信息经济人假设,构建了基于信息场模型的经济组织合作理论.运用此理论对我国农产品供应链几种常见组织模式进行了分析,找出了不同供应链组织模式对农产品质量安全影响的关键因素,最后给出了相关政策建议.%In view of the practical and theoretical difficulty in the quality and safety problem of agricultural products in China, the paper proposes the hypothetical info economic person with awareness of proactive cooperation and establishes the theory of cooperation of economic organizations based on information field model. Then it uses this theory to analyze the common organizational modes of the agricultural supply chain in China, identifies the key factors influencing the quality and safety of agricultural products in different organizational modes and finally gives corre-spondingsuggestionson policy-making.

  1. Atomic dynamics in the mode-mode competition system

    Wu Qin; Fang Mao-Fa


    The atomic dynamical properties in the system with competing k-photon and l-photon transitions are studied fully by means of quantum theory. We discuss the influences of the mode-mode competition, the relative competing strengths of the atom and the two-mode field, and the initial state of the system on the atomic dynamics. We show that the presence of the mode-mode competition can result in quite a periodical collapses-revivals of the atomic inversion and the increase of the initial photons of the system can lead to the collapse-revival phenomenon and prolong the revival time of the atomic inversion.

  2. Producing CD-ROMs.

    Hyams, Peter, Ed.


    This issue presents 11 articles that address issues relating to the production of CD-ROMs. Highlights include current uses of CD-ROM; standards; steps involved in producing CD-ROMs, including data capture, conversion, and tagging, product design, and indexing; authoring; selecting indexing and retrieval software; costs; multimedia CD-ROMs; and…

  3. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    Carrascosa, Luis A. M.; Facio, Dario S.; Mosquera, Maria J.


    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating.

  4. Localized Acoustic Surface Modes

    Farhat, Mohamed


    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes (ASMs). We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  5. Depeche Mode – 101


    Für den Tourfilm 101 der Synthie-Pop-Gruppe Depeche Mode wurde der bekannte Musikdokumentarfilmer D.A. Pennebaker zusammen mit seiner Ehefrau Chris Hedegus sowie David Dawkins engagiert, um die letzten Etappen der Tour filmisch im Stile des Direct Cinema zu begleiten. Die Wahl fiel deshalb auf genau dieses Filmteam, weil die Band einen unmanipulierten Einblick ins Tourleben geben wollte und man in Pennebaker und seinen Mitstreitern dafür die richtigen Leute vermutete. Der Sänger Dave Gahan er...

  6. Damage mechanics - failure modes

    Krajcinovic, D.; Vujosevic, M. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)


    The present study summarizes the results of the DOE sponsored research program focused on the brittle failure of solids with disordered microstructure. The failure is related to the stochastic processes on the microstructural scale; namely, the nucleation and growth of microcracks. The intrinsic failure modes, such as the percolation, localization and creep rupture, are studied by emphasizing the effect of the micro-structural disorder. A rich spectrum of physical phenomena and new concepts that emerges from this research demonstrates the reasons behind the limitations of traditional, deterministic, and local continuum models.

  7. ACCA College English Teaching Mode

    Ding, Renlun


    This paper elucidates a new college English teaching mode--"ACCA" (Autonomous Cooperative Class-teaching All-round College English Teaching Mode). Integrated theories such as autonomous learning and cooperative learning into one teaching mode, "ACCA", which is being developed and advanced in practice as well, is the achievement…

  8. Fluxon modes in superconducting multilayers

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Madsen, Søren Peder


    We show how to construct fluxon modes from plasma modes in the inductively coupled stacked Josephson junctions, and consider some special cases of these fluxon modes analytically. In some cases we can find exact analytical solutions when we choose the bias current in a special way. We also consid...

  9. Standardization of Keyword Search Mode

    Su, Di


    In spite of its popularity, keyword search mode has not been standardized. Though information professionals are quick to adapt to various presentations of keyword search mode, novice end-users may find keyword search confusing. This article compares keyword search mode in some major reference databases and calls for standardization. (Contains 3…

  10. Minimum fuel mode evaluation

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.


    The minimum fuel mode of the NASA F-15 research aircraft is designed to minimize fuel flow while maintaining constant net propulsive force (FNP), effectively reducing thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), during cruise flight conditions. The test maneuvers were at stabilized flight conditions. The aircraft test engine was allowed to stabilize at the cruise conditions before data collection initiated; data were then recorded with performance seeking control (PSC) not-engaged, then data were recorded with the PSC system engaged. The maneuvers were flown back-to-back to allow for direct comparisons by minimizing the effects of variations in the test day conditions. The minimum fuel mode was evaluated at subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers and focused on three altitudes: 15,000; 30,000; and 45,000 feet. Flight data were collected for part, military, partial, and maximum afterburning power conditions. The TSFC savings at supersonic Mach numbers, ranging from approximately 4% to nearly 10%, are in general much larger than at subsonic Mach numbers because of PSC trims to the afterburner.

  11. Non-ergodicity transition and multiple glasses in binary mixtures: on the accuracy of the input static structure in the mode coupling theory.

    Tchangnwa Nya, F; Ayadim, A; Germain, Ph; Amokrane, S


    We examine the question of the accuracy of the static correlation functions used as input in the mode coupling theory (MCT) of non-ergodic states in binary mixtures. We first consider hard-sphere mixtures and compute the static pair structure from the Ornstein-Zernike equations with the Percus-Yevick closure and more accurate ones that use bridge functions deduced from Rosenfeld's fundamental measures functional. The corresponding MCT predictions for the non-ergodicity lines and the transitions between multiple glassy states are determined from the long-time limit of the density autocorrelation functions. We find that while the non-ergodicity transition line is not very sensitive to the input static structure, up to diameter ratios D(2)/D(1) = 10, quantitative differences exist for the transitions between different glasses. The discrepancies with the more accurate closures become even qualitative for sufficiently asymmetric mixtures. They are correlated with the incorrect behavior of the PY structure at high size asymmetry. From the example of ultra-soft potential it is argued that this issue is of general relevance beyond the hard-sphere model.

  12. Intermodal four-wave mixing in a higher-order-mode fiber

    Cheng, Ji; Pedersen, Martin E. V.; Charan, Kriti; Wang, Ke; Xu, Chris; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Jakobsen, Dan


    We demonstrate a high-efficiency intermodal four-wave-mixing process in an all-fiber system, comprising a picosecond fiber laser and a high-order-mode (HOM) fiber. Two pump photons in the LP01 mode of the fiber can generate an anti-Stokes photon in the LP01 mode and a Stokes photon in the LP02 mode. The wavelength dependent mode profiles of the HOM fiber produce significant spatial overlap between the modes involved. The anti-Stokes wave at 941 nm is generated with 20% conversion efficiency w...

  13. Further Development of Rotating Rake Mode Measurement Data Analysis

    Dahl, Milo D.; Hixon, Ray; Sutliff, Daniel L.


    The Rotating Rake mode measurement system was designed to measure acoustic duct modes generated by a fan stage. After analysis of the measured data, the mode amplitudes and phases were quantified. For low-speed fans within axisymmetric ducts, mode power levels computed from rotating rake measured data would agree with the far-field power levels on a tone by tone basis. However, this agreement required that the sound from the noise sources within the duct propagated outward from the duct exit without reflection at the exit and previous studies suggested conditions could exist where significant reflections could occur. To directly measure the modes propagating in both directions within a duct, a second rake was mounted to the rotating system with an offset in both the axial and the azimuthal directions. The rotating rake data analysis technique was extended to include the data measured by the second rake. The analysis resulted in a set of circumferential mode levels at each of the two rake microphone locations. Radial basis functions were then least-squares fit to this data to obtain the radial mode amplitudes for the modes propagating in both directions within the duct. The fit equations were also modified to allow evanescent mode amplitudes to be computed. This extension of the rotating rake data analysis technique was tested using simulated data, numerical code produced data, and preliminary in-duct measured data.

  14. Method of producing imines

    Sithambaram, Shanthakumar; Son, Young-Chan; Suib, Steven L.


    A method for forming an imine comprises reacting a first reactant comprising a hydroxyl functionality, a carbonyl functionality, or both a hydroxyl functionality and a carbonyl functionality with a second reactant having an amine functionality in the presence of ordered porous manganese-based octahedral molecular sieves and an oxygen containing gas at a temperature and for a time sufficient for the imine to be produced.

  15. Modes of thrust generation in flying animals

    Luo, Haoxiang; Song, Jialei; Tobalske, Bret; Luo Team; Tobalske Team


    For flying animals in forward flight, thrust is usually much smaller as compared with weight support and has not been given the same amount of attention. Several modes of thrust generation are discussed in this presentation. For insects performing slow flight that is characterized by low advance ratios (i.e., the ratio between flight speed and wing speed), thrust is usually generated by a "backward flick" mode, in which the wings moves upward and backward at a faster speed than the flight speed. Paddling mode is another mode used by some insects like fruit flies who row their wings backward during upstroke like paddles (Ristroph et al., PRL, 2011). Birds wings have high advance ratios and produce thrust during downstroke by directing aerodynamic lift forward. At intermediate advance ratios around one (e.g., hummingbirds and bats), the animal wings generate thrust during both downstroke and upstroke, and thrust generation during upstroke may come at cost of negative weight support. These conclusions are supported by previous experiment studies of insects, birds, and bats, as well as our recent computational modeling of hummingbirds. Supported by the NSF.

  16. Modes of deformation of walled cells.

    Dumais, Jacques


    The bewildering morphological diversity found in cells is one of the starkest illustrations of life's ability to self-organize. Yet the morphogenetic mechanisms that produce the multifarious shapes of cells are still poorly understood. The shared similarities between the walled cells of prokaryotes, many protists, fungi, and plants make these groups particularly appealing to begin investigating how morphological diversity is generated at the cell level. In this review, I attempt a first classification of the different modes of surface deformation used by walled cells. Five modes of deformation were identified: inextensional bending, equi-area shear, elastic stretching, processive intussusception, and chemorheological growth. The two most restrictive modes-inextensional and equi-area deformations-are embodied in the exine of pollen grains and the wall-like pellicle of euglenoids, respectively. For these modes, it is possible to express the deformed geometry of the cell explicitly in terms of the undeformed geometry and other easily observable geometrical parameters. The greatest morphogenetic power is reached with the processive intussusception and chemorheological growth mechanisms that underlie the expansive growth of walled cells. A comparison of these two growth mechanisms suggests a possible way to tackle the complexity behind wall growth.

  17. g-modes and the solar neutrino problem

    Bahcall, John N.; Kumar, Pawan


    We show that low-order g-modes with large enough amplitudes to affect significantly the solar neutrino fluxes would produce surface velocities that are 10 exp 4 times larger than the observed upper limits and hence are ruled out by existing data. We also demonstrate that any large-amplitude, short-period oscillations that grow on a Kelvin-Helmholtz time scale will require, to affect solar neutrino fluxes, a large amount of energy (for g-modes, 10 exp 9 times the energy in the observed p-mode oscillations) and a tiny amount of dissipation (for g modes, 10 exp -8 the fractional dissipation rate of the p-modes).

  18. Viscous, Resistive Magnetorotational Modes

    Pessah, Martin E


    We carry out a comprehensive analysis of the behavior of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in viscous, resistive plasmas. We find exact, non-linear solutions of the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations describing the local dynamics of an incompressible, differentially rotating background threaded by a vertical magnetic field when disturbances with wavenumbers perpendicular to the shear are considered. We provide a geometrical description of these viscous, resistive MRI modes and show how their physical structure is modified as a function of the Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds numbers. We demonstrate that when finite dissipative effects are considered, velocity and magnetic field disturbances are no longer orthogonal (as it is the case in the ideal MHD limit) unless the magnetic Prandtl number is unity. We generalize previous results found in the ideal limit and show that a series of key properties of the mean Reynolds and Maxwell stresses also hold for the viscous, resistive MRI. In particular, ...

  19. Unconditional two-mode squeezing of separated atomic ensembles

    Parkins, A S; Solano, E


    We propose schemes for the unconditional preparation of a two-mode squeezed state of effective bosonic modes realized in a pair of atomic ensembles interacting collectively with optical cavity and laser fields. The scheme uses Raman transitions between stable atomic ground states and under ideal conditions produces pure entangled states in the steady state. The scheme works both for ensembles confined within a single cavity and for ensembles confined in separate, cascaded cavities.

  20. Examination of a ’Web Mode Effect’

    Shamshiri-Petersen, Ditte; Clement, Sanne Lund

    and sampling errors, Web surveys presumably produce more measurement errors than other modes due to respondents’ lack of cognitive effort to answer the survey questions carefully. However, a comparison of two groups of students, one asked to fill out a questionnaire on paper and the other asked to complete...... a Web version suggests that such “Web mode effect” does not exist, since Web respondents are not more prone to satisficing....

  1. Adaptive mode control in few mode fibers and its applications

    Ashry, Islam; Lu, Peng; Xu, Yong


    With the development of mode-division-multiplexing (MDM), few mode fibers (FMFs) have found a wide range of applications in optical sensing and communications. However, how to precisely control the mode composition of optical signals in FMFs remains a difficult challenge. In this paper, we present an adaptive mode control method that can selectively excite the linearly polarized (LP) mode within the FMF. The method is based on using optical pulses reflected by a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) for wavefront optimization. Two potential applications are discussed. First, we theoretically demonstrate the feasibility of large scale multiplexing of absorption based fiber optical sensors. Second, we discuss the possibility of using mode dependent loss to reconstruct the spatial distributions of absorptive chemicals diffused within a FMF.

  2. Mode evolution in polarization maintain few mode fibers and applications in mode-division-multiplexing systems

    Li, Yan; Zeng, Xinglin; Mo, Qi; Li, Wei; Liu, Zhijian; Wu, Jian


    In few-mode polarization-maintaining-fiber (FM-PMF), the effective-index splitting exists not only between orthogonally polarization state but also between degenerated modes within a high-order mode group. Hence besides the polarization state evolution, the mode patterns in each LP set are need to be analyzed. In this letter, the completed firstorder mode (LP11 mode) evolution in PM-FMF is analyzed and represented by analogous Jones vector and Poincarésphere respectively. Furthermore, with Jones matrix analysis, the modal dynamics in FM-PMFs is conveniently analyzed. The conclusions are used to propose a PM-FMF based LP11 mode rotator and an PM-FMF based OAM generator. Both simulation and experiments are conducted to investigate performance of the two devices.

  3. Produce Sanitation System Evaluation


    the  amount in each product’s case.     Table 2: Produce Packaging  Product   Amount  Tomatoes  25 lb  Broccoli   20 lb  Iceberg lettuce  6 heads...aftertaste through it computer-based cleansing process and use of a citrus-based “green” cleansing product . Microbiologists from CFD performed...several tests of bacteria counts and pathogen log rate reductions of various FF&V products before and after they passed through the sanitizing sink process

  4. Producing Civil Society

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes...... of the century. 2, the laws and strategies of implementing regarding the regulation of civil societal institutions (folkeoplysningsloven) since the 1970’s this paper shows how civil society in 20th century Denmark was produced both conceptually and practically and how this entailed a specific vision and version...

  5. Efficient estimation of burst-mode LDA power spectra

    Velte, Clara Marika; George, William K


    requirements for good statistical convergence due to the random sampling of the data. In the present work, the theory for estimating burst-mode LDA spectra using residence time weighting is discussed and a practical estimator is derived and applied. A brief discussion on the self-noise in spectra...... (axisymmetric turbulent jet). The burst-mode LDA spectra are compared to corresponding spectra from hot-wire data obtained in the same experiments, and to LDA spectra produced by the sample-and-hold methodology. The spectra computed from the residence-time weighted burst-mode algorithm proposed herein compare...

  6. Angular and radial mode analyzer for optical beams.

    Abouraddy, Ayman F; Yarnall, Timothy M; Saleh, Bahaa E A


    We describe an approach to determining both the angular and the radial modal content of a scalar optical beam in terms of optical angular momentum modes. A modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer that incorporates a spatial rotator to determine the angular modes and an optical realization of the fractional Hankel transform (fHT) to determine the radial modes is analyzed. Varying the rotation angle and the order of the fHT produces a two-dimensional (2D) interferogram from which we extract the modal coefficients by simple 2D Fourier analysis.

  7. Examination of the 'web mode effect'

    Clement, Sanne Lund; Shamshiri-Petersen, Ditte

    Declining response rates is one of the most significant challenges for survey based research today. Seen in isolation, traditional interviewer based data collection methods are still the most effective but also the most expensive, especially the greater difficulty in gaining responses taken...... into account. As a solution, mixed-mode designs have been employed as a way to achieve higher response rates, while keeping the overall costs low. In particular, the use of web based surveys has expanded considerably during the last few years, both as a single data collection method and as a component in mixed...... mode designs. But web surveys are subject to points of criticism. In addition to obvious errors in relation to coverage, sampling and non-response, the underlying construct is that web surveys produce measurement errors per se due to more superficial cognitive processing by respondents. Thus, including...

  8. Automatic determination of important mode-mode correlations in many-mode vibrational wave functions.

    König, Carolin; Christiansen, Ove


    We introduce new automatic procedures for parameterizing vibrational coupled cluster (VCC) and vibrational configuration interaction wave functions. Importance measures for individual mode combinations in the wave function are derived based on upper bounds to Hamiltonian matrix elements and/or the size of perturbative corrections derived in the framework of VCC. With a threshold, this enables an automatic, system-adapted way of choosing which mode-mode correlations are explicitly parameterized in the many-mode wave function. The effect of different importance measures and thresholds is investigated for zero-point energies and infrared spectra for formaldehyde and furan. Furthermore, the direct link between important mode-mode correlations and coordinates is illustrated employing water clusters as examples: Using optimized coordinates, a larger number of mode combinations can be neglected in the correlated many-mode vibrational wave function than with normal coordinates for the same accuracy. Moreover, the fraction of important mode-mode correlations compared to the total number of correlations decreases with system size. This underlines the potential gain in efficiency when using optimized coordinates in combination with a flexible scheme for choosing the mode-mode correlations included in the parameterization of the correlated many-mode vibrational wave function. All in all, it is found that the introduced schemes for parameterizing correlated many-mode vibrational wave functions lead to at least as systematic and accurate calculations as those using more standard and straightforward excitation level definitions. This new way of defining approximate calculations offers potential for future calculations on larger systems.

  9. Principal modes in fiber amplifiers

    Fridman, Moti; Dubinskii, Mark; Friesem, Asher A; Davidson, Nir


    The dynamics of the state of polarization in single mode and multimode fiber amplifiers are presented. The experimental results reveal that although the state of polarizations at the output can vary over a large range when changing the temperatures of the fiber amplifiers, the variations are significantly reduced when resorting to the principal states of polarization in single mode fiber amplifiers and principal modes in multimode fiber amplifiers.

  10. Zero Modes and Entanglement Entropy

    Yazdi, Yasaman K


    Ultraviolet divergences are widely discussed in studies of entanglement entropy. Also present, but much less understood, are infrared divergences due to zero modes in the field theory. In this note, we discuss the importance of carefully handling zero modes in entanglement entropy. We give an explicit example for a chain of harmonic oscillators in 1D, where a mass regulator is necessary to avoid an infrared divergence due to a zero mode. We also comment on a surprising contribution of the zero mode to the UV-scaling of the entanglement entropy.

  11. Intelligence and musical mode preference

    Bonetti, Leonardo; Costa, Marco


    The relationship between fluid intelligence and preference for major–minor musical mode was investigated in a sample of 80 university students. Intelligence was assessed by the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. Musical mode preference was assessed by presenting 14 pairs of musical stimuli th...... differences at the cognitive and personality level related to the enjoyment of sad music.......The relationship between fluid intelligence and preference for major–minor musical mode was investigated in a sample of 80 university students. Intelligence was assessed by the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. Musical mode preference was assessed by presenting 14 pairs of musical stimuli...

  12. Tomography of Spatial Mode Detectors

    Bobrov, Ivan; Markov, Anton; Straupe, Stanislav; Kulik, Sergey


    Transformation and detection of photons in higher-order spatial modes usually requires complicated holographic techniques. Detectors based on spatial holograms suffer from non-idealities and should be carefully calibrated. We report a novel method for analyzing the quality of projective measurements in spatial mode basis inspired by quantum detector tomography. It allows us to calibrate the detector response using only gaussian beams. We experimentally investigate the inherent inaccuracy of the existing methods of mode transformation and provide a full statistical reconstruction of the POVM (positive operator valued measure) elements for holographic spatial mode detectors.

  13. Spraying modes in coaxial jet electrospray with outer driving liquid

    Chen, Xiaopeng; Jia, Laibing; Yin, Xiezhen; Cheng, Jiusheng; Lu, Jian


    Coaxial jet electrospray is a technique to generate microencapsules, which uses electric forces to create a coaxial microjet from two immiscible liquids. Compound droplets with narrow size distribution are produced after the jet breaks up. In this paper, the spraying modes are investigated experimentally with proper flow rates of the inner and outer liquids. Ethanol/glycerol/tween mixture (outer liquid) and cooking oil (inner liquid) are fed into the gap between outer and inner capillaries and the inner capillary, respectively. The spraying modes presented in our experiments are "dripping mode," "dripping mode in spindle," "cone-jet mode," "pulse mode in cone," and "multijets mode" sequentially, as the applied voltage increases. The region of stable cone-jet mode extends with decrease of the outer liquid flow rate and increase of the inner one. It is found that the spray phenomena are mainly determined by properties of the outer liquid, which is viscous and electric conductive enough. A rudimentary physical model is developed, in which both the viscosity and liquid interface tension are taken into account.

  14. Geometric Effects on the Amplification of First Mode Instability Waves

    Kirk, Lindsay C.; Candler, Graham V.


    The effects of geometric changes on the amplification of first mode instability waves in an external supersonic boundary layer were investigated using numerical techniques. Boundary layer stability was analyzed at Mach 6 conditions similar to freestream conditions obtained in quiet ground test facilities so that results obtained in this study may be applied to future test article design to measure first mode instability waves. The DAKOTA optimization software package was used to optimize an axisymmetric geometry to maximize the amplification of the waves at first mode frequencies as computed by the 2D STABL hypersonic boundary layer stability analysis tool. First, geometric parameters such as nose radius, cone half angle, vehicle length, and surface curvature were examined separately to determine the individual effects on the first mode amplification. Finally, all geometric parameters were allowed to vary to produce a shape optimized to maximize the amplification of first mode instability waves while minimizing the amplification of second mode instability waves. Since first mode waves are known to be most unstable in the form of oblique wave, the geometries were optimized using a broad range of wave frequencies as well as a wide range of oblique wave angles to determine the geometry that most amplifies the first mode waves. Since first mode waves are seen most often in flows with low Mach numbers at the edge of the boundary layer, the edge Mach number for each geometry was recorded to determine any relationship between edge Mach number and the stability of first mode waves. Results indicate that an axisymmetric cone with a sharp nose and a slight flare at the aft end under the Mach 6 freestream conditions used here will lower the Mach number at the edge of the boundary layer to less than 4, and the corresponding stability analysis showed maximum first mode N factors of 3.

  15. Single-mode squeezing in arbitrary spatial modes

    Semmler, Marion; Chille, Vanessa; Gabriel, Christian; Banzer, Peter; Aiello, Andrea; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd


    As the generation of squeezed states of light has become a standard technique in laboratories, attention is increasingly directed towards adapting the optical parameters of squeezed beams to the specific requirements of individual applications. It is known that imaging, metrology, and quantum information may benefit from using squeezed light with a tailored transverse spatial mode. However, experiments have so far been limited to generating only a few squeezed spatial modes within a given setup. Here, we present the generation of single-mode squeezing in Laguerre-Gauss and Bessel-Gauss modes, as well as an arbitrary intensity pattern, all from a single setup using a spatial light modulator (SLM). The degree of squeezing obtained is limited mainly by the initial squeezing and diffractive losses introduced by the SLM, while no excess noise from the SLM is detectable at the measured sideband. The experiment illustrates the single-mode concept in quantum optics and demonstrates the viability of current SLMs as fl...

  16. Engineering modes in optical fibers with metamaterial

    Yan, Min; Mortensen, Asger; Qiu, Min


    as an extension from the previously much publicized microstructured optical fibers. Metamaterials can have optical properties not obtainable in naturally existing materials, including artificial anisotropy as well as graded material properties. Therefore, incorporation of metamaterial in optical fiber designs can...... produce a new range of fiber properties. With a particular example, we will show how mode discrimination can be achieved in a multimode Bragg fiber with the help of metamaterial. We also look into the mean field theory as well as Maxwell-Garnett theory for homogenizing a fine metamaterial structure...

  17. New Modes of Citizenship

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt


    Would you want to be fed by a robot? This question may or may not sound attractive to a severely disabled citizen striving for self-reliance. Recently assistive robotics have become a new factor to rely on in relation to a number of aspects of social work and health care. These initiatives have...... study, I discuss the ways humans engage with them, how they co-produce everyday life in housing institutions, and the sensitivity of assistive robotics. During the latest years, Feeding Assistive Robotics (FAR) have enjoyed strong political endorsement in Denmark. Nevertheless, I argue, it is difficult...

  18. Electrically controlled optical-mode switch for fundamental mode and first order mode

    Imansyah, Ryan; Tanaka, Tatsushi; Himbele, Luke; Jiang, Haisong; Hamamoto, Kiichi


    We have proposed an optical mode switch, the principle of which is based on the partial phase shift of injected light; therefore, one important issue is to clarify the proper design criteria for the mode combiner section. We focused on the bending radius of the S-bend waveguide issue that is connected to the multi mode waveguide in the Y-junction section that acts as mode combiner. Long radius leads to undesired mode coupling before the Y-junction section, whereas a short radius causes radiation loss. Thus, we simulated this mode combiner by the beam-propagation method to obtain the proper radius. In addition, we used a trench pin structure to simplify the fabrication process into a single-step dry-etching process. As a result, we successfully fabricated an optical-mode switch with the bending radius R = 610 µm. It showed the successful electrical mode switching and the achieved mode crosstalk was approximately -10 dB for 1550 nm wavelength with the injection current of 60 mA (5.7 V).

  19. Power Producer Production Valuation

    M. Kněžek


    Full Text Available The ongoing developments in the electricity market, in particular the establishment of the Prague Energy Exchange (PXE and the associated transfer from campaign-driven sale to continuous trading, represent a significant change for power companies.  Power producing companies can now optimize the sale of their production capacities with the objective of maximizing profit from wholesale electricity and supporting services. The Trading Departments measure the success rate of trading activities by the gross margin (GM, calculated by subtracting the realized sales prices from the realized purchase prices and the production cost, and indicate the profit & loss (P&L to be subsequently calculated by the Control Department. The risk management process is set up on the basis of a business strategy defining the volumes of electricity that have to be sold one year and one month before the commencement of delivery. At the same time, this process defines the volume of electricity to remain available for spot trading (trading limits. 

  20. Properties of multilayer coatings produced by coaxial laser cladding

    Petrovskiy, V. N.; Bykovskiy, D. P.; Dzhumaev, P. S.; Polskiy, V. I.; Prokopova, N. M.; Chirikov, S. N.


    This article contains results of the study of multilayer coatings produced by laser cladding on the substrate steel 34HMA using iron based powder PR-10R6M5 as the filler material. The coatings were produced with consistent application of the tracks with fixed overlapping. The dependencies between the characteristics of tracks and the technological mode of deposition were revealed. Properties of coatings were determined for various overlapping of tracks and directions of the cladding layers.

  1. Vibrational Modes of Trumpet Bells



    We report on an investigation of the normal modes of vibration of the bells of several modern trumpets. We describe the results of experiments using electronic speckle-pattern interferometry to visualize the modal structure and we show that the mode frequencies follow a generalized version of Chladni's law.

  2. Transformation and Modes of Production

    Høst, Jeppe Engset


    modes of production and examine the ways of life that are enabled by the two modes of production. The central questions are around how market-based fisheries management transforms the principal preconditions for the self-employed fishers; and, in turn, why capitalist organized large-scale fisheries...

  3. Multi-Mode-Biased Wavefront Sensor Employing Multiplexed Computer-Generated Holographic Element%基于复用计算全息元件的多阶模式偏置波前传感器

    刘长海; 习锋杰; 黄盛炀; 姜宗福; 马浩统


    提出利用复用计算全息元件实现多阶模式同步的偏置模式波前传感器.对基于复用计算全息元件的多阶模式经编置前传感器进行了理论分析.为了实现复用计算全息元件,分别编码设计了包含4阶,10阶和20阶Zernike像差模式的复用计算全息图,讨论了复用计算全息图设计中几个关键问题.数值模拟研究了复用计算全息图对单阶和多阶像差模式的探测性能.结果表明.在一定探测范围内,传感器能够响应与全息图内预先记录像差模式相同的待测像差模式,且每一个模式的灵敏度都不同.全息图内记录模式数较少时,单阶模式探测的灵敏度较大;记录模式数越多,模式之间擦除效应越严重,单阶和多阶模式灵敏度都受到一定影响.%We propose to implement simultaneous multi-mode-biased modal wavefront sensor (MMBWS) by utilizing a multiplexed computer-generated holographic element (MCGHE). The theoretical treatments of MCGHE used as MMBWS is presented. To realize the MCGHE, three multiplexed computer-generated holograms (MCGHs) are designed by coding 4, 10 and 20 Zernike aberration modes, respectively. Several critical problems relevant with the designing of MCGH are discussed. The performance of detecting single and multiple aberration modes by employing MCGH is numerically simulated. The results indicate that, within typical range of amplitude, the tested aberration modes can be responded by MMBWS if they are identical with those coded in the MCGH, and the sensitivities corresponding to each mode are different. Once the number of coded aberration modes is small, the sensitivity of the single mode will be large enough; the more the aberration modes are coded , the more severe erasure effect among the aberration modes will exist, thus the sensitivity of both the single and the multiple modes will be affected.

  4. Causality and Primordial Tensor Modes

    Baumann, Daniel


    We introduce the real space correlation function of $B$-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a probe of superhorizon tensor perturbations created by inflation. By causality, any non-inflationary mechanism for gravitational wave production after reheating, like global phase transitions or cosmic strings, must have vanishing correlations for angular separations greater than the angle subtended by the particle horizon at recombination, i.e. $\\theta \\gtrsim 2^\\circ$. Since ordinary $B$-modes are defined non-locally in terms of the Stokes parameters $Q$ and $U$ and therefore don't have to respect causality, special care is taken to define `causal $\\tilde B$-modes' for the analysis. We compute the real space $\\tilde B$-mode correlation function for inflation and discuss its detectability on superhorizon scales where it provides an unambiguous test of inflationary gravitational waves. The correct identification of inflationary tensor modes is crucial since it relates directly to the energy s...

  5. Inflatonic baryogenesis with large tensor mode

    Naoyuki Takeda


    Full Text Available We consider a complex inflaton field with a CP asymmetric term for its potential. This CP asymmetric term produces the global charge of the inflaton after inflation. With the assignment of the baryon number to the inflaton, the baryon asymmetry of the universe is produced by inflaton's decay. In addition to this, the U(1 breaking term modulates the curvature of the inflaton radial direction depending on its phase, which affects the tensor-to-scalar ratio. In this paper, we have studied the relation between the baryon asymmetry and the tensor-to-scalar ratio, then verified that the future CMB observation could test this baryogenesis scenario with large tensor modes.

  6. Raman modes in transferred bilayer CVD graphene

    Niilisk Ahti


    Full Text Available A systematic experimental Raman spectroscopic study of twisted bilayer graphene (tBLG domains localized inside wide-area single layer graphene (SLG produced by low-pressure CVD on Cu foil and transferred onto SiO2/Si substrate has been performed. According to the Raman characterization the tBLG domains had a great variety of twisting angles θ between the bottom and top graphene layers (6° < θ < 25°. The twisting angle θ was estimated from the spectral position of the rotating R and R' modes in the Raman spectrum.Under G band resonance conditions the breathing mode ZO' with a frequency of 95- 97 cm−1 was detected, and a breathing mode ZO was found in the spectra between 804 cm−1 and 836 cm−1, its position depending on the twisting angle θ. An almost linear relationship was found between the frequencies ωZO and ωR. Also a few other spectral peculiarities were found, e.g. a high-energy excitation of the G band resonance, the 2G overtone appearing at 3170-3180 cm−1 by the G band resonance, revealing a linear dispersion of 80 cm−1/eV of the 2D band in tBLG

  7. Motility modes of the parasite Trypanosoma brucei

    Temel, Fatma Zeynep; Qu, Zijie; McAllaster, Michael; de Graffenried, Christopher; Breuer, Kenneth


    The parasitic single-celled protozoan Trypanosoma brucei causes African Sleeping Sickness, which is a fatal disease in humans and animals that threatens more than 60 million people in 36 African countries. Cell motility plays a critical role in the developmental phases and dissemination of the parasite. Unlike many other motile cells such as bacteria Escherichia coli or Caulobacter crescentus, the flagellum of T. brucei is attached along the length of its awl-like body, producing a unique mode of motility that is not fully understood or characterized. Here, we report on the motility of T. brucei, which swims using its single flagellum employing both rotating and undulating propulsion modes. We tracked cells in real-time in three dimensions using fluorescent microscopy. Data obtained from experiments using both short-term tracking within the field of view and long-term tracking using a tracking microscope were analyzed. Motility modes and swimming speed were analyzed as functions of cell size, rotation rate and undulation pattern. Research supported by NSF.

  8. Integrated optics dissipative soliton mode-locked laser on glass

    Charlet, Bertrand; Bastard, Lionel; Broquin, Jean-Emmanuel


    Mode-lock lasers have been studied a lot in the past years for producing pulses as short as possible. These devices have mostly been realized in bulk optics and they are consequently cumbersome and sensitive to vibrations. There are only a few studies on integrated optics mode-lock lasers, though this technology is very promising because of its stability, compactness and the possibility to integrate several functions on a single chip. In this paper, we present an ion-exchange passively mode-locked laser in dissipative soliton operation. One of the key characteristics of this structure is its mechanical stability. Indeed, no bulk optics is needed because the saturable absorber is hybridized on the top of the waveguide in order to interact with the evanescent part of the guided mode. Indeed, the device that has been obtained is composed of an ion-exchanged single mode waveguide realized in a Neodymium doped phosphate glass. The laser feedback is produced by a Fabry-Perot cavity realized with two multilayers dielectric mirrors stuck on the waveguides facets. We implemented a bis(4- dimethylaminodithiobenzil)nickel (BDN) dye included in a cellulose acetate thick film, which presents a saturable absorber behaviour around 1.06 μm. With this structure, pulses with repetition rates of 3.3 GHz and a single mode output have been measured. Moreover, the use of an autocorrelation set-up allowed us measuring picosecond pulse durations.

  9. Hyperthermophilic archaea produce membrane vesicles that can transfer DNA

    Gaudin, M.; Gauliard, E.; Schouten, S.; Houel-Renault, L.; Lenormand, P.; Marguet, E.; Forterre, P.


    Thermococcales are hyperthermophilic archaea found in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. They have been recently reported to produce membrane vesicles (MVs) into their culture medium. Here, we have characterized the mode of production and determined the biochemical composition of MVs from two species of

  10. Mode-by-mode hydrodynamics: Ideas and concepts

    Floerchinger, Stefan


    The main ideas, technical concepts and perspectives for a mode resolved description of the hydrodynamical regime of relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed. A background-fluctuation splitting and a Bessel–Fourier expansion for the fluctuating part of the hydrodynamical fields allows for a complete characterization of initial conditions, the fluid dynamical propagation of single modes, the study of interaction effects between modes, the determination of the associated particle spectra and the generalization of the whole program to event-by-event correlations and probability distributions.

  11. Examining the Modes Malware Suppliers Use to Provide Goods and Services

    Tony Bailetti


    Full Text Available Malware suppliers use various modes to provide goods and services to customers. By mode, we mean “the way” the malware supplier chooses to function. These modes increase monetization opportunities and enable many security breaches worldwide. A theoretically sound framework that can be used to examine the various modes that malware suppliers use to produce and sell malware is needed. We apply a general model specified recently by Hagiu and Wright to study five modes that malware suppliers use to deliver goods and services to their customers. The framework presented in this article can be used to predict the mode in which a malware supplier will function; to study which types of malware suppliers, agents, and customers are attracted to each mode; to discover new modes; and to better understand the threat a malware supplier presents.

  12. Decoherence and mode-hopping in spin-torque oscillators

    Muduli, Pranaba


    A Spin Torque Oscillator (STO) is a nano-sized magneto-resistive device that can produce microwave signals in the GHz range as a result of spin transfer torque- a phenomena which is receiving increasing importance in contemporary spintronics research both for fundamental spin physics as well as a number of possible microwave applications e.g., oscillator, detectors and modulators. A very important question, both for fundamental physics as well for applications, is what limits the coherence time of the STO. This is a subject of significant interest recently. Until now theoretical studies have investigated decoherence through thermal noise assuming that only a single mode is excited. On the other hand, experiments clearly show both the existence of multiple modes and persistent mode-hopping between several modes. The impact on coherence time of such mode-hopping has been largely unexplored and a theoretical study of its origin is entirely lacking. In this work, we will present first ever systematic experimental investigations of mode hopping, and its impact on the coherence time in a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator. We will discuss micromagnetic simulations and a theoretical treatment to show that the non-conservative fields due to finite damping-either positive or negative (spin torque) -couple individual modes and, in the presence of thermal noise, govern the experimentally observed mode-hopping. Using quantitative analysis of both coherence and dwell times, we will show that mode-hopping could be a limiting factor for STO coherence. Finally we show how our theoretical treatment can be extended to the case of a metallic nanocontact based STO, where anomalous temperature dependence of linewidth is found as result of the mode coupling. and Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016, India

  13. Analysis of Abnormal Modes of Hoisting DC Electric Drive System

    Kosmas Zdrozis


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Host number of publications in which special attention was given to the behavior of the hoisting drives in abnormal modes was found. The effect of the failure of the main power supply on the electrical and mechanical parts of the hoisting drive when the motor is operating in the regenerative braking mode was not enough studied. Approach: In this study, the effect of the failure of the main power supply on the electrical and mechanical parts of the hoisting drive when the motor was operating in the regenerative braking mode and give recommendations and solutions to minimize the negative consequences of that abnormal mode. A special comprehensive mathematical mode was developed. The model comprised different submodels that describe the real operation of the power supply, four-quadrant thyristor AC/DC dual converter, firing system, protective devices and mechanism including the elastic elements like ropes and long shafts. This comprehensive model was used to study the behavior of the drive and choose the optimum protective device against the corresponding abnormal mode. Results: The failure of the supplying voltage of the dc hoisting drive at power regeneration leads to a significant increase in the motor armature current due to the formed closed loop comprising the armature winding, pair of thyristors and the secondary coil of the supplying transformer, in this mode the converter counter EMF will disappear. The protective device should protect the converter and the motor against such abnormal mode. The produced inrush current in role generates a huge motor torque that result in possible ropes and crane boom deformation, thus the mechanism design should include such possible abnormal mode. Conclusion: These results were implemented in the design of a special fast-responding circuit breaker which guarantees the exclusion of the armature current increase in the mentioned mode.

  14. Methods for producing complex films, and films produced thereby

    Duty, Chad E.; Bennett, Charlee J. C.; Moon, Ji -Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Blue, Craig A.; Dai, Quanqin; Hu, Michael Z.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jellison, Jr., Gerald E.; Love, Lonnie J.; Ott, Ronald D.; Parish, Chad M.; Walker, Steven


    A method for producing a film, the method comprising melting a layer of precursor particles on a substrate until at least a portion of the melted particles are planarized and merged to produce the film. The invention is also directed to a method for producing a photovoltaic film, the method comprising depositing particles having a photovoltaic or other property onto a substrate, and affixing the particles to the substrate, wherein the particles may or may not be subsequently melted. Also described herein are films produced by these methods, methods for producing a patterned film on a substrate, and methods for producing a multilayer structure.

  15. Geodesic acoustic modes with poloidal mode couplings ad infinitum

    Singh, Rameswar; Garbet, X; Hennequin, P; Vermare, L; Morel, P; Singh, R


    Geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) are studied, for the first time, including all poloidal mode $(m)$ couplings using drift reduced fluid equations. The nearest neighbor coupling pattern, due to geodesic curvature, leads to a semi-infinite chain model of the GAM with the mode-mode coupling matrix elements proportional to the radial wave number $k_{r}$. The infinite chain can be reduced to a renormalized bi-nodal chain with a matrix continued fractions. Convergence study of linear GAM dispersion with respect to $k_{r}$ and the $m$-spectra confirms that high m couplings become increasingly important with $k_{r}$. The radially sorted roots overlap with experimentally measured GAM frequency profile in low collisionality shots in Tore Supra thus explaining the reduced frequency of GAM in Tore Supra.

  16. Mode Competition in Dual-Mode Quantum Dots Semiconductor Microlaser

    Chusseau, Laurent; Viktorovitch, P; Letartre, Xavier


    This paper describes the modeling of quantum dots lasers with the aim of assessing the conditions for stable cw dual-mode operation when the mode separation lies in the THz range. Several possible models suited for InAs quantum dots in InP barriers are analytically evaluated, in particular quantum dots electrically coupled through a direct exchange of excitation by the wetting layer or quantum dots optically coupled through the homogeneous broadening of their optical gain. A stable dual-mode regime is shown possible in all cases when quantum dots are used as active layer whereas a gain medium of quantum well or bulk type inevitably leads to bistable behavior. The choice of a quantum dots gain medium perfectly matched the production of dual-mode lasers devoted to THz generation by photomixing.

  17. Resonant mode for gravitational wave detectors based on atom interferometry

    Graham, Peter W.; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A.; Rajendran, Surjeet


    We describe an atom interferometric gravitational wave detector design that can operate in a resonant mode for increased sensitivity. By oscillating the positions of the atomic wave packets, this resonant detection mode allows for coherently enhanced, narrow-band sensitivity at target frequencies. The proposed detector is flexible and can be rapidly switched between broadband and narrow-band detection modes. For instance, a binary discovered in broadband mode can subsequently be studied further as the inspiral evolves by using a tailored narrow-band detector response. In addition to functioning like a lock-in amplifier for astrophysical events, the enhanced sensitivity of the resonant approach also opens up the possibility of searching for important cosmological signals, including the stochastic gravitational wave background produced by inflation. We give an example of detector parameters which would allow detection of inflationary gravitational waves down to ΩGW˜10-14 for a two-satellite space-based detector.

  18. Multiresonance modes in sine–Gordon brane models

    Cruz, W.T., E-mail: [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará (IFCE), Campus Juazeiro do Norte, 63040-540 Juazeiro do Norte-Ceará (Brazil); Maluf, R.V., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza - CE, C.P. 6030, 60455-760 (Brazil); Dantas, D.M., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza - CE, C.P. 6030, 60455-760 (Brazil); Almeida, C.A.S., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza - CE, C.P. 6030, 60455-760 (Brazil)


    In this work, we study the localization of the vector gauge field in two five-dimensional braneworlds generated by scalar fields coupled to gravity. The sine–Gordon like potentials are employed to produce different thick brane setups. A zero mode localized is obtained, and we show the existence of reverberations with the wave solutions indicating a quasi-localized massive mode. More interesting results are achieved when we propose a double sine–Gordon potential to the scalar field. The resulting thick brane shows a more detailed topology with the presence of an internal structure composed by two kinks. The massive spectrum of the gauge field is revalued on this scenario revealing the existence of various resonant modes. Furthermore, we compute the corrections to Coulomb law coming from these massive KK vector modes in these thick scenarios, which is concluded that the dilaton parameter regulates these corrections.

  19. Multiresonance modes in sine-Gordon brane models

    Cruz, W. T.; Maluf, R. V.; Dantas, D. M.; Almeida, C. A. S.


    In this work, we study the localization of the vector gauge field in two five-dimensional braneworlds generated by scalar fields coupled to gravity. The sine-Gordon like potentials are employed to produce different thick brane setups. A zero mode localized is obtained, and we show the existence of reverberations with the wave solutions indicating a quasi-localized massive mode. More interesting results are achieved when we propose a double sine-Gordon potential to the scalar field. The resulting thick brane shows a more detailed topology with the presence of an internal structure composed by two kinks. The massive spectrum of the gauge field is revalued on this scenario revealing the existence of various resonant modes. Furthermore, we compute the corrections to Coulomb law coming from these massive KK vector modes in these thick scenarios, which is concluded that the dilaton parameter regulates these corrections.

  20. Single transverse mode selectively oxidized vertical cavity lasers



    Vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) sources have been adopted into Gigabit Ethernet applications in a remarkably short time period. VCSELs are particularly suitable for multimode optical fiber local area networks (LANs), due to their reduced threshold current, circular output beam, and inexpensive and high volume manufacture. Moreover, selectively oxidized VCSELs are nearly ideal LAN sources since the oxide aperture within the laser cavity produces strong electrical and optical confinement which enables high electrical to optical conversion efficiency and minimal modal discrimination allowing emission into multiple transverse optical modes. In addition to the large demand for multimode lasers, VCSELs which emit into a single optical mode are also increasingly sought for emerging applications, which include data communication with single mode optical fiber, bar code scanning, laser printing, optical read/write heads, and modulation spectroscopy. To achieve single mode selectively oxidized VCSELs is a challenging task, since the inherent index confinement within these high performance lasers is very large.

  1. Observation of Localized Multi-Spatial-Mode Quadrature Squeezing

    C. S. Embrey


    Full Text Available Quantum states of light can improve imaging whenever the image quality and resolution are limited by the quantum noise of the illumination. In the case of a bright illumination, quantum enhancement is obtained for a light field composed of many squeezed transverse modes. A possible realization of such a multi-spatial-mode squeezed state is a field which contains a transverse plane in which the local electric field displays reduced quantum fluctuations at all locations, on any one quadrature. Using a traveling-wave amplifier, we have generated a multi-spatial-mode squeezed state and showed that it exhibits localized quadrature squeezing at any point of its transverse profile, in regions much smaller than its size. We observe 75 independently squeezed regions. The amplification relies on nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a hot vapor and produces a bichromatic squeezed state. The result confirms the potential of this technique for producing illumination suitable for practical quantum imaging.

  2. Causality and primordial tensor modes

    Baumann, Daniel; Zaldarriaga, Matias, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Harvard University, 17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A. and Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    We introduce the real space correlation function of B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a probe of superhorizon tensor perturbations created by inflation. By causality, any non-inflationary mechanism for gravitational wave production after reheating, like global phase transitions or cosmic strings, must have vanishing correlations for angular separations greater than the angle subtended by the particle horizon at recombination, i.e. θ ∼> 2°. Since ordinary B-modes are defined non-locally in terms of the Stokes parameters Q and U and therefore don't have to respect causality, special care is taken to define 'causal B-tilde -modes' for the analysis. We compute the real space B-tilde -mode correlation function for inflation and discuss its detectability on superhorizon scales where it provides an unambiguous test of inflationary gravitational waves. The correct identification of inflationary tensor modes is crucial since it relates directly to the energy scale of inflation. Wrongly associating tensor modes from causal seeds with inflation would imply an incorrect inference of the energy scale of inflation. We find that the superhorizon B-tilde -mode signal is above cosmic variance for the angular range 2° < θ < 4° and is therefore in principle detectable. In practice, the signal will be challenging to measure since it requires accurately resolving the recombination peak of the B-mode power spectrum. However, a future CMB satellite (CMBPol), with noise level Δ{sub P} ≅ 1μK-arcmin and sufficient resolution to efficiently correct for lensing-induced B-modes, should be able to detect the signal at more than 3σ if the tensor-to-scalar ratio isn't smaller than r ≅ 0.01.

  3. CMB Polarization B-mode Delensing with SPTpol and Herschel

    Manzotti, A.; et al.


    We present a demonstration of delensing the observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode polarization anisotropy. This process of reducing the gravitational-lensing generated B-mode component will become increasingly important for improving searches for the B modes produced by primordial gravitational waves. In this work, we delens B-mode maps constructed from multi-frequency SPTpol observations of a 90 deg$^2$ patch of sky by subtracting a B-mode template constructed from two inputs: SPTpol E-mode maps and a lensing potential map estimated from the $\\textit{Herschel}$ $500\\,\\mu m$ map of the CIB. We find that our delensing procedure reduces the measured B-mode power spectrum by 28% in the multipole range $300 < \\ell < 2300$; this is shown to be consistent with expectations from theory and simulations and to be robust against systematics. The null hypothesis of no delensing is rejected at $6.9 \\sigma$. Furthermore, we build and use a suite of realistic simulations to study the general properties of the delensing process and find that the delensing efficiency achieved in this work is limited primarily by the noise in the lensing potential map. We demonstrate the importance of including realistic experimental non-idealities in the delensing forecasts used to inform instrument and survey-strategy planning of upcoming lower-noise experiments, such as CMB-S4.

  4. Producing Runaway Stars

    Kohler, Susanna


    How are the hypervelocity stars weve observed in our galaxy produced? A recent study suggests that these escapees could be accelerated by a massive black hole in the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud.A Black Hole SlingshotSince their discovery in 2005, weve observed dozens of candidate hypervelocity stars stars whose velocity in the rest frame of our galaxy exceeds the local escape velocity of the Milky Way. These stars present a huge puzzle: how did they attain these enormous velocities?One potential explanation is known as the Hills mechanism. In this process, a stellar binary is disrupted by a close encounter with a massive black hole (like those thought to reside at the center of every galaxy). One member of the binary is flung out of the system as a result of the close encounter, potentially reaching very large velocities.A star-forming region known as LHA 120-N 11, located within the LMC. Some binary star systems within the LMC might experience close encounters with a possible massive black hole at the LMCs center. [ESA/NASA/Hubble]Blame the LMC?Usually, discussions of the Hills mechanism assume that Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, is the object guilty of accelerating the hypervelocity stars weve observed. But what if the culprit isnt Sgr A*, but a massive black hole at the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one of the Milky Ways satellite galaxies?Though we dont yet have evidence of a massive black hole at the center of the LMC, the dwarf galaxy is large enough to potentially host one as large as 100,000 solar masses. Assuming that it does, two scientists at the University of Cambridge, Douglas Boubert and Wyn Evans, have now modeled how this black hole might tear apart binary star systems and fling hypervelocity stars around the Milky Way.Models for AccelerationBoubert and Evans determined that the LMCs hypothetical black hole could easily eject stars at ~100 km/s, which is the escape velocity of the

  5. The Interaction of Optical Guided Modes with Waveguide Diffraction Gratings.

    Weller-Brophy, Laura Ann

    In this thesis the results of a theoretical and experimental investigation of the coupling of guided modes by waveguide gratings are presented. This work is motivated by the potential application of waveguide gratings to integrated optical devices. The coupling of guided modes obliquely incident to both periodic and aperiodic gratings is a mechanism basic to the operation of integrated optical components such as filters, reflectors, beamsplitters, and modulators. It is shown in the Introduction to this thesis, that this mechanism is not modeled consistently by the analyses presented in the literature. For the case of TM-TM coupling, virtually each analytical treatment predicts a different value for the grating reflectivity. In addition, it is found that the typical Coupled-Mode formalisms used to derive the grating reflectivity do not offer an intuitive picture of the operation of waveguide gratings. These two particular problem areas serve as the focal points of this thesis. The latter of these is addressed through the development of a thin film model of the operation of waveguide gratings. This model presents an intuitively appealing picture of the interaction of waveguide gratings and guided modes. It also yields grating reflectivities which are in excellent agreement with those obtained through the numerical solution of the Coupled-Mode equations for both periodic and aperiodic gratings. The bulk of this research project is directed towards resolving the conflicting theoretical grating analyses presented in the literature. A new derivation of the coupling of guided modes obliquely incident to periodic gratings is presented in Chapter II of this thesis. This derivation is based on the Local Normal Mode expansion used by Marcuse for the case of normal incidence. It produces coupling coefficients which are nearly identical to those derived using the rigorous Boundary Perturbation technique. The coupling coefficients predicted by this Local Normal Mode formalism

  6. Few-mode fiber technology for mode division multiplexing

    Mori, Takayoshi; Sakamoto, Taiji; Wada, Masaki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Nakajima, Kazuhide


    We review recent progress on few-mode fiber (FMF) technologies for mode-division multiplexing (MDM) transmission. First, we introduce fibers for use without and with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) digital signal processing (DSP) to compensate for modal crosstalk, and briefly report recent work on FMF for use without/with a MIMO DSP system. We next discuss in detail a fiber for MIMO transmission systems, and show numerically that a graded-index core can flexibly tune the differential mode group delay (DMD) and a cladding trench can flexibly control the guiding mode number. We optimized the spacing of the core and trench. Accordingly, we can achieve a 6 LP (10 spatial) mode operation and a low DMD while preventing the high index difference that leads to manufacturing difficulties and any loss increase. We finally describe our experimental results for a 6 LP (10 spatial) mode transmission line for use in a C + L band wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) MDM transmission with MIMO DSP.

  7. Current barriers to confine high frequency common mode currents

    Moonen, Dominicus Johannes Guilielmus; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes


    A commercially produced three phase power line filter is submitted to a Current Barrier (CB) Electro-Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) zoning strategy as an attempt to confine high frequency common mode currents. The intent of the paper is not to show how to build a ’perfect’ filter, since this is known.

  8. Programmable Current-Mode Universal Active Filters Employing Current Conveyors

    Muhammad Taher Abuelma'atti


    Novel current-mode active filter circuits using current-conveyors are presented. The proposed circuits can realize all standard second-order filter functions. The circuits enjoy high output impedances and can, therefore, be easily cascaded to produce higher order filters. Moreover, the realized filter function can be easily programmed using at most a 13-bit digital number without changing the circuit topology.

  9. Nonlinearity and disorder: Classification and stability of nonlinear impurity modes

    Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Bang, Ole


    We study the effects produced by competition of two physical mechanisms of energy localization in inhomogeneous nonlinear systems. As an example, we analyze spatially localized modes supported by a nonlinear impurity in the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and describe three types of no...

  10. Inflation, symmetry, and B-modes

    Mark P. Hertzberg


    Full Text Available We examine the role of using symmetry and effective field theory in inflationary model building. We describe the standard formulation of starting with an approximate shift symmetry for a scalar field, and then introducing corrections systematically in order to maintain control over the inflationary potential. We find that this leads to models in good agreement with recent data. On the other hand, there are attempts in the literature to deviate from this paradigm by envoking other symmetries and corrections. In particular: in a suite of recent papers, several authors have made the claim that standard Einstein gravity with a cosmological constant and a massless scalar carries conformal symmetry. They claim this conformal symmetry is hidden when the action is written in the Einstein frame, and so has not been fully appreciated in the literature. They further claim that such a theory carries another hidden symmetry; a global SO(1,1 symmetry. By deforming around the global SO(1,1 symmetry, they are able to produce a range of inflationary models with asymptotically flat potentials, whose flatness is claimed to be protected by these symmetries. These models tend to give rise to B-modes with small amplitude. Here we explain that standard Einstein gravity does not in fact possess conformal symmetry. Instead these authors are merely introducing a redundancy into the description, not an actual conformal symmetry. Furthermore, we explain that the only real (global symmetry in these models is not at all hidden, but is completely manifest when expressed in the Einstein frame; it is in fact the shift symmetry of a scalar field. When analyzed systematically as an effective field theory, deformations do not generally produce asymptotically flat potentials and small B-modes as suggested in these recent papers. Instead, deforming around the shift symmetry systematically, tends to produce models of inflation with B-modes of appreciable amplitude. Such simple models

  11. Scissors Mode in Gd Nuclei

    Wu C.Y.


    Full Text Available Spectra of γ rays following neutron capture at isolated resonances of 6 stable Gd isotopes were measured with highly segmented BaF2 detector DANCE at the Los Alamos LANSCE spallation neutron source. The main emphasis was put on studying the γ-cascade decay of neutron resonances to get unique information on photon strength. An analysis of the accumulated γ-ray spectra within the extreme statistical model leads to an inescapable conclusion that scissors mode resonances are built not only on the ground-state, but also on excited levels in all product nuclei studied. The results on summed B(M1↑ strength and energy of the scissors mode are compared with systematics of scissors mode parameters for the ground-state transitions deduced from nuclear resonance fluorescence measurements. A specific feature of our experiments is the investigation of scissors mode of odd nuclei, for which the nuclear resonance fluorescence provides only limited information.

  12. Scissors Mode in Gd Nuclei

    Kroll, J.; Baramsai, B.; Becker, J. A.; Bečvář, F.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Chyzh, A.; Dashdorj, D.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Krtička, M.; Mitchell, G. E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Parker, W.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, G. J.; Walker, C. L.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Wu, C. Y.


    Spectra of γ rays following neutron capture at isolated resonances of 6 stable Gd isotopes were measured with highly segmented BaF2 detector DANCE at the Los Alamos LANSCE spallation neutron source. The main emphasis was put on studying the γ-cascade decay of neutron resonances to get unique information on photon strength. An analysis of the accumulated γ-ray spectra within the extreme statistical model leads to an inescapable conclusion that scissors mode resonances are built not only on the ground-state, but also on excited levels in all product nuclei studied. The results on summed B(M1)↑ strength and energy of the scissors mode are compared with systematics of scissors mode parameters for the ground-state transitions deduced from nuclear resonance fluorescence measurements. A specific feature of our experiments is the investigation of scissors mode of odd nuclei, for which the nuclear resonance fluorescence provides only limited information.

  13. Mode selection in pulsating stars

    Smolec, R


    In this review we focus on non-linear phenomena in pulsating stars the mode selection and amplitude limitation. Of many linearly excited modes only a fraction is detected in pulsating stars. Which of them and why (the problem of mode selection) and to what amplitude (the problem of amplitude limitation) are intrinsically non-linear and still unsolved problems. Tools for studying these problems are briefly discussed and our understanding of mode selection and amplitude limitation in selected groups of self-excited pulsators is presented. Focus is put on classical pulsators (Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars) and main sequence variables (delta Scuti and beta Cephei stars). Directions of future studies are briefly discussed.

  14. Acoustic modes in fluid networks

    Michalopoulos, C. D.; Clark, Robert W., Jr.; Doiron, Harold H.

    Pressure and flow rate eigenvalue problems for one-dimensional flow of a fluid in a network of pipes are derived from the familiar transmission line equations. These equations are linearized by assuming small velocity and pressure oscillations about mean flow conditions. It is shown that the flow rate eigenvalues are the same as the pressure eigenvalues and the relationship between line pressure modes and flow rate modes is established. A volume at the end of each branch is employed which allows any combination of boundary conditions, from open to closed, to be used. The Jacobi iterative method is used to compute undamped natural frequencies and associated pressure/flow modes. Several numerical examples are presented which include acoustic modes for the Helium Supply System of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Main Propulsion System. It should be noted that the method presented herein can be applied to any one-dimensional acoustic system involving an arbitrary number of branches.

  15. Lyapunov modes in extended systems.

    Yang, Hong-Liu; Radons, Günter


    Hydrodynamic Lyapunov modes, which have recently been observed in many extended systems with translational symmetry, such as hard sphere systems, dynamic XY models or Lennard-Jones fluids, are nowadays regarded as fundamental objects connecting nonlinear dynamics and statistical physics. We review here our recent results on Lyapunov modes in extended system. The solution to one of the puzzles, the appearance of good and 'vague' modes, is presented for the model system of coupled map lattices. The structural properties of these modes are related to the phase space geometry, especially the angles between Oseledec subspaces, and to fluctuations of local Lyapunov exponents. In this context, we report also on the possible appearance of branches splitting in the Lyapunov spectra of diatomic systems, similar to acoustic and optical branches for phonons. The final part is devoted to the hyperbolicity of partial differential equations and the effective degrees of freedom of such infinite-dimensional systems.

  16. Adaptive Structural Mode Control Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — M4 Engineering proposes the development of an adaptive structural mode control system. The adaptive control system will begin from a "baseline" dynamic model of the...

  17. Quality of milk produced by small and large dairy producers

    Jose Carlos Ribeiro Junior


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the microbiological and physicochemical quality of raw milk produced by small and large dairy producers in Paraná, Brazil. Samples of raw milk were collected from small (49 and large (21 dairy producers. Dairy farms were characterized by observation and application of questionnaires. The total bacterial count (TBC was obtained by flow cytometry and Petrifilm® AC, while the somatic cell count (SCC was obtained by only flow cytometry. The content of fat, proteins, lactose, and solids in the mil were determined by infrared. Differences were observed in the techniques employed by small and large dairy producers, which may have influenced the microbiological quality of raw milk. Milk contamination significantly greater in milk produced by small farmers, which is evident from the average TBC of 3.8 × 106 CFU/mL obtained from milk produced by small farmers as compared to the TBC of 1.5 × 104 CFU/mL obtained from larger dairy farms. Twenty-four (49% small diary producers are no-compliant with the current standards for microbiological quality of refrigerated raw milk established by the law, while all larger producers were compliant with the standards. The average SCC of milk obtained from small producers was 2.2 × 105 SC/mL, while that of large milk producers was 3.9 × 105 SC/mL. Milk produced by small producers contained significantly higher fat, protein, lactose, and solids content. Milk produced by larger dairy farmers was mainly composed of lactose. In brief, the microbiological quality of milk from larger producers was higher, and SCC is proportional to the productivity. In addition, milk obtained from small dairy producers has a higher solid content.

  18. Rubble Mound Breakwater Failure Modes

    Burcharth, H. F.; Z., Liu


    The RMBFM-Project (Rubble Mound Breakwater Failure Modes) is sponsored by the Directorate General XII of the Commission of the European Communities under the Contract MAS-CT92- 0042, with the objective of contributing to the development of rational methods for the design of rubble mound breakwaters...... modes, plus development of related partial coefficients which make it possible to design according to preselected reliability levels. Due to limited space only the major activities are described....




    The innovation of spiritual production mode is an eclectic open-ended project. Promoting innovation of spiritual production mode involves numerous intricate specific measures, including both the top-level design(macro-level) and the inno-vation of specific spiritual products (micro-level), complete with promotion of population quality and the regulation and gover-nance of spiritual products distribution, consumption and other aspects.

  20. Breathing Modes in Dusty Plasma

    王晓钢; 王爽; 潘秋惠; 刘悦; 贺明峰


    Acoustic breathing modes of dusty plasmas have been investigated in a cylindricalsystem with an axial symmetry. The linear wave solution and a "dispersion" relation were derived.It was found that in an infinite area, the mode is reduced to a "classical" dust acoustic wave inthe region away from the center. If the dusty plasma is confined in a finite region, however, thebreathing (or heart-beating) behavior would be found as observed in many experiments.

  1. The Fifth Mode of Representation

    Behrendt, Poul; Krogh Hansen, Per


    “The fifth mode of representation: Ambiguous voices in unreliable third person narration”. Sammen med Poul Behrendt. In Per Krogh Hansen, Stefan Iversen, Henrik Skov Nielsen og Rolf Reitan (red.): Strange Voices. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin & New York......“The fifth mode of representation: Ambiguous voices in unreliable third person narration”. Sammen med Poul Behrendt. In Per Krogh Hansen, Stefan Iversen, Henrik Skov Nielsen og Rolf Reitan (red.): Strange Voices. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin & New York...

  2. Bound Modes in Dielectric Microcavities

    Visser, P M; Lenstra, D


    We demonstrate how exactly bound cavity modes can be realized in dielectric structures other than 3d photonic crystals. For a microcavity consisting of crossed anisotropic layers, we derive the cavity resonance frequencies, and spontaneous emission rates. For a dielectric structure with dissipative loss and central layer with gain, the beta factor of direct spontaneous emission into a cavity mode and the laser threshold is calculated.

  3. Efficient conversion of surface-plasmon-like modes to spatial radiated modes

    Xu, Jun Jun; Zhang, Hao Chi; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Tie Jun, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves, School of Information Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)


    We propose a spoof surface plasmon polariton (SPP) emitter which is composed of ultrathin corrugated metallic strips, exhibiting the directional radiation property. The spoof SPP emitter provides a way to quickly convert the SPP mode to a radiated mode. By controlling phase modulations produced by the phase-gradient metasurface on the ultrathin metallic strips, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that spoof SPP waves are converted into spatial propagating waves with high efficiency, which are further radiated with flexible beam steering. The proposed method sets up a link between SPP waves and radiation waves in a highly controllable way, which would possibly open an avenue in designing new kinds of microwave and optical elements in engineering.

  4. The evolution of transmission mode

    Forbes, Mark R.; Hauffe, Heidi C.; Kallio, Eva R.; Okamura, Beth; Sait, Steven M.


    This article reviews research on the evolutionary mechanisms leading to different transmission modes. Such modes are often under genetic control of the host or the pathogen, and often in conflict with each other via trade-offs. Transmission modes may vary among pathogen strains and among host populations. Evolutionary changes in transmission mode have been inferred through experimental and phylogenetic studies, including changes in transmission associated with host shifts and with evolution of the unusually complex life cycles of many parasites. Understanding the forces that determine the evolution of particular transmission modes presents a fascinating medley of problems for which there is a lack of good data and often a lack of conceptual understanding or appropriate methodologies. Our best information comes from studies that have been focused on the vertical versus horizontal transmission dichotomy. With other kinds of transitions, theoretical approaches combining epidemiology and population genetics are providing guidelines for determining when and how rapidly new transmission modes may evolve, but these are still in need of empirical investigation and application to particular cases. Obtaining such knowledge is a matter of urgency in relation to extant disease threats. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission’. PMID:28289251

  5. Assembly modes of dragonfly wings.

    Zhao, Hong-Xiao; Yin, Ya-Jun; Zhong, Zheng


    The assembly modes of dragonfly wings are observed through FEG-ESEM. Different from airplane wings, dragonfly wings are found to be assembled through smooth transition mode and global package mode. First, at the vein/membrane conjunctive site, the membrane is divided into upper and lower portions from the center layer and transited smoothly to the vein. Then the two portions pack the vein around and form the outer surface of the vein. Second, at the vein/spike conjunctive site, the vein and spike are connected smoothly into a triplet. Last, at the vein/membrane/spike conjunctive site, the membrane (i.e., the outer layer of the vein) transits smoothly to the spike, packs it around, and forms its outer layer. In short, the membrane looks like a closed coat packing the wing as a whole. The smooth transition mode and the global package mode are universal assembly modes in dragonfly wings. They provide us the references for better understanding of the functions of dragonfly wings and the bionic manufactures of the wings of flights with mini sizes.

  6. Analysis and Testing of Microvibrations Produced by Momentum Wheel Assemblies

    ZHOU Weiyong; LI Dongxu; LUO Qing; LIU Kun


    The microvibrations produced by momentum wheel assemblies (MWA) can degrade the performance of instruments with high pointing precision and stability on spacecraft.This paper concentrates on analyzing and testing the microvibrations produced by MWA.We analyze the disturbance sources produced by mass imbalance,structural mode,beating irregularity and nonlinear stiffness,and random noise; then,test a well-balanced MWA by a highly sensitive measurement system consisting of a Kistler table and an optical tabletop.The results show that the test system has a resolution of less than 0.003 N in the frequency range of 3-300 Hz.The dynamic imbalance of the MWA cannot excite the radial rocking mode,but there are dynamic amplifications when the poly-harmonic disturbances intersect with the structural modes.Especially at high rotational speed (>3 000 rev/min),the main disturbance sources of the MWA come from the bearing irregularity interacting with radial translation mode in the high frequency range.Thus,bearing noise deserves more attention for the well-balanced MWA,and alternative of high quality bearings are proposed to reduce the microvibrations.

  7. Analytical Solution and Production of Coherent State of the Generalized Dissipative Two-Mode Optical System

    HOU Bang-Pin; WANG Shun-Jin; YU Wan-Lun; SUN Wei-Li; WANG Gang


    @@ We obtain the analytical solution to the master equation in the photon number representation by using algebraic dynamical method in the nonautonomous case. Based on the solution we find that a two-mode coherent sate can be produced within dissipative background, and the averaged photon number for each mode is related to the damping constant, external field amplitude and coupling constant between two modes.

  8. Dynamic Sliding Mode Control based on Fractional calculus subject to uncertain delay based chaotic pneumatic robot

    P., Sara Gholipour; Sh, Heydar Toosian


    This paper considers the chattering problem of sliding mode control while delay in robot manipulator caused chaos in such electromechanical systems. Fractional calculus as a powerful theorem to produce a novel sliding mode; which has a dynamic essence is used for chattering elimination. To realize the control of a class of chaotic systems in master-slave configuration this novel fractional dynamic sliding mode control scheme is presented and examined on delay based chaotic robot in joint and ...

  9. Magnetic antenna excitation of whistler modes. II. Antenna arrays

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)


    The excitation of whistler modes from magnetic loop antennas has been investigated experimentally. The field topology of the excited wave driven by a single loop antenna has been measured for different loop orientations with respect to the uniform background field. The fields from two or more antennas at different locations are then created by superposition of the single-loop data. It is shown that an antenna array can produce nearly plane waves which cannot be achieved with single antennas. By applying a phase shift along the array, oblique wave propagation is obtained. This allows a meaningful comparison with plane wave theory. The Gendrin mode and oblique cyclotron resonance are demonstrated. Wave helicity and polarization in space and time are demonstrated and distinguished from the magnetic helicity of the wave field. The superposition of two oblique plane whistler modes produces in a “whistler waveguide” mode whose polarization and helicity properties are explained. The results show that single point measurements cannot properly establish the wave character of wave packets. The laboratory observations are relevant for excitation and detection of whistler modes in space plasmas.

  10. The effective degeneracy of protein normal modes.

    Na, Hyuntae; Song, Guang


    Normal modes are frequently computed and used to portray protein dynamics and interpret protein conformational changes. In this work, we investigate the nature of normal modes and find that the normal modes of proteins, especially those at the low frequency range (0-600 cm(-1)), are highly susceptible to degeneracy. Two or more modes are degenerate if they have the same frequency and consequently any orthogonal transformation of them also is a valid representation of the mode subspace. Thus, degenerate modes can no longer characterize unique directions of motions as regular modes do. Though the normal modes of proteins are usually of different frequencies, the difference in frequency between neighboring modes is so small that, under even slight structural uncertainty that unavoidably exists in structure determination, it can easily vanish and as a result, a mode becomes effectively degenerate with its neighboring modes. This can be easily observed in that some modes seem to disappear and their matching modes cannot be found when the structure used to compute the modes is modified only slightly. We term this degeneracy the effective degeneracy of normal modes. This work is built upon our recent discovery that the vibrational spectrum of globular proteins is universal. The high density of modes observed in the vibrational frequency spectra of proteins renders their normal modes highly susceptible to degeneracy, under even the smallest structural uncertainty. Indeed, we find the degree of degeneracy of modes is proportional to the density of modes in the vibrational spectrum. This means that for modes at the same frequency, degeneracy is more severe for larger proteins. Degeneracy exists also in the modes of coarse-grained models, but to a much lesser extent than those of all-atom models. In closing, we discuss the implications of the effective degeneracy of normal modes: how it may significantly affect the ways in which normal modes are used in various normal modes

  11. Challenges in higher order mode Raman amplifiers

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Nielsen, Kristian; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk;


    A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed......A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed...

  12. Mode characteristics of hollow core Bragg fiber

    Minning Ji; Zhidong Shi; Qiang Guo


    Analytical expression to calculate propagation constant and mode field of the hollow core Bragg fiber is derived. Numerical results are presented. It is shown that the fundamental mode of the hollow core Bragg fiber is circularly symmetric TE01 mode with no polarization degeneracy, while the higher order mode may be HE11, TM01, or TE02 etc.. This property is different from conventional optical fiber that its fundamental mode is the linearly polarized HE11 mode and is polarization degeneracy.

  13. Challenges in higher order mode Raman amplifiers

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Nielsen, Kristian; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk


    A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed......A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed...

  14. Exotic decay transition from cluster mode to fission mode

    Santhosh, K P


    Exotic decay of some heavy nuclei with Z >= 100 formed in heavy ion 'cold fusion' reaction were studied taking interacting barrier consisting of Coulomb and proximity potential. Calculated half-life time shows that some modes of decay are well within the present upper limit for measurements (T sub 1 sub / sub 2 < 10 sup 3 sup 0 s). Cluster formation probabilities are calculated for different clusters within fission model. It is found that transition from cluster mode to fission mode take place at mass of the cluster, A sub 2 = 20 in exotic decay which is comparable with the value A sub 2 = 16 of Shanmugam et al based on cubic plus Yukawa plus exponential model (CYEM). (author)

  15. All-fiber passively mode-locked Ho-laser pumped by ytterbium fiber laser

    Filatova, S. A.; Kamynin, V. A.; Zhluktova, I. V.; Trikshev, A. I.; Tsvetkov, V. B.


    We report an all-fiber mode-lock holmium-doped ring laser passively mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation without dispersion compensation. The laser produced picosecond pulses at 2.057 µm. The average output power was 4.5 mW.

  16. Repetition rate continuously tunable 10-GHz picosecond mode-locked fiber ring laser

    Fang Wan; Ziyu Wang


    A couple of simple-structure phase modulators were used in active mode-locked fiber laser to implement repetition rate continuous tuning. The laser produces pulse as short as 5.7 ps whose repetition rate tuning can cover the spacing of the adjoining order mode-locking frequencies.

  17. Audit mode change, corporate governance

    Limei Cao


    Full Text Available This study investigates changes in audit strategy in China following the introduction of risk-based auditing standards rather than an internal control-based audit mode. Specifically, we examine whether auditors are implementing the risk-based audit mode to evaluate corporate governance before distributing audit resources. The results show that under the internal control-based audit mode, the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance was weak. However, implementation of the risk-based mode required by the new auditing standards has significantly enhanced the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance. Since the change in audit mode, the Big Ten have demonstrated a significantly better grasp of governance risk and allocated their audit effort accordingly, relative to smaller firms. The empirical evidence indicates that auditors have adjusted their audit strategy to meet the regulations, risk-based auditing is being achieved to a degree, reasonable and effective corporate governance helps to optimize audit resource allocation, and smaller auditing firms in particular should urgently strengthen their risk-based auditing capability. Overall, our findings imply that the mandatory switch to risk-based auditing has optimized audit effort in China.

  18. Mode I stress intensity factors of slanted cracks in plates

    Ismail, Al Emran; Ghazali, Mohd Zubir Mohd; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd


    This paper presents the roles of slanted cracks on the stress intensity factors (SIF) under mode I tension and bending loading. Based on the literature survey, lack of solution of SIFs of slanted cracks in plain strain plates are available. In this work, the cracks are modelled numerically using ANSYS finite element program. There are two important parameters such as slanted angles and relative crack length. SIFs at the crack tips are calculated according to domain integral method. Before the model is further used, it is validated with the existing model. It is found that the present model is well agreed with the previous model. According to finite element analysis, there are not only mode I SIFs produced but also mode II. As expected the SIFs increased as the relative crack length increased. However, when slanted angles are introduced (slightly higher than normal crack), the SIFs increased. Once the angles are further increased, the SIFs decreased gradually however they are still higher than the SIFs of normal cracks. For mode II SIFs, higher the slanted angels higher the SIFs. This is due to the fact that when the cracks are slanted, the cracked plates are not only failed due to mode I but a combination between both modes I and II.

  19. How Mobility Systems Produce Inequality

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.


    . This approach is illustrated in a case study of one urban transit system: the BTS Sky Train, Bangkok, Thailand. The analysis reveals the subtle hegemony of an elite mobility system that slowly becomes not only the ‘norm' but increasingly the desired mode of mobility, emphasising how mobile elites...

  20. Mode locking and spatiotemporal chaos in periodically driven Gunn diodes

    Mosekilde, Erik; Feldberg, Rasmus; Knudsen, Carsten;


    Numerical simulation is applied to study the highly nonlinear-dynamic phenomena that can arise in Gunn diodes by interaction between the internally generated domain mode and an external microwave signal. By adjusting the time of domain formation and the speed of propagation, the internal...... oscillation entrains with the external signal. This produces a devil’s staircase of frequency-locked solutions. At higher microwave amplitudes, period doubling and other forms of mode-converting bifurcations can be seen. In this interval the diode also exhibits spatiotemporal chaos. At still higher microwave...

  1. Reconfigurable Mixed Mode Universal Filter

    Neelofer Afzal


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mixed mode universal filter configuration capable of working in voltage and transimpedance mode. The proposed single filter configuration can be reconfigured digitally to realize all the five second order filter functions (types at single output port. Other salient features of proposed configuration include independently programmable filter parameters, full cascadability, and low sensitivity figure. However, all these features are provided at the cost of quite large number of active elements. It needs three digitally programmable current feedback amplifiers and three digitally programmable current conveyors. Use of six active elements is justified by introducing three additional reduced hardware mixed mode universal filter configurations and its comparison with reported filters.

  2. Macroscopic (and microscopic massless modes

    Michael C. Abbott


    Full Text Available We study certain spinning strings exploring the flat directions of AdS3×S3×S3×S1, the massless sector cousins of su(2 and sl(2 sector spinning strings. We describe these, and their vibrational modes, using the D(2,1;α2 algebraic curve. By exploiting a discrete symmetry of this structure which reverses the direction of motion on the spheres, and alters the masses of the fermionic modes s→κ−s, we find out how to treat the massless fermions which were previously missing from this formalism. We show that folded strings behave as a special case of circular strings, in a sense which includes their mode frequencies, and we are able to recover this fact in the worldsheet formalism. We use these frequencies to calculate one-loop corrections to the energy, with a version of the Beisert–Tseytlin resummation.

  3. Tapping mode microwave impedance microscopy

    Lai, K.


    We report tapping mode microwave impedance imaging based on atomic force microscope platforms. The shielded cantilever probe is critical to localize the tip-sample interaction near the tip apex. The modulated tip-sample impedance can be accurately simulated by the finite-element analysis and the result agrees quantitatively to the experimental data on a series of thin-film dielectric samples. The tapping mode microwave imaging is also superior to the contact mode in that the thermal drift in a long time scale is totally eliminated and an absolute measurement on the dielectric properties is possible. We demonstrated tapping images on working nanodevices, and the data are consistent with the transport results. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  4. Quasiadiabatic modes from viscous inhomogeneities

    Giovannini, Massimo


    The viscous inhomogeneities of a relativistic plasma determine a further class of entropic modes whose amplitude must be sufficiently small since curvature perturbations are observed to be predominantly adiabatic and Gaussian over large scales. When the viscous coefficients only depend on the energy density of the fluid the corresponding curvature fluctuations are shown to be almost adiabatic. After addressing the problem in a gauge-invariant perturbative expansion, the same analysis is repeated at a non-perturbative level by investigating the nonlinear curvature inhomogeneities induced by the spatial variation of the viscous coefficients. It is demonstrated that the quasiadiabatic modes are suppressed in comparison with a bona fide adiabatic solution. Because of its anomalously large tensor to scalar ratio the quasiadiabatic mode cannot be a substitute for the conventional adiabatic paradigm so that, ultimately, the present findings seems to exclude the possibility of a successful accelerated dynamics solely...

  5. Leaky Modes of Dielectric Cavities

    Mansuripur, Masud; Jakobsen, Per


    In the absence of external excitation, light trapped within a dielectric medium generally decays by leaking out (and also by getting absorbed within the medium). We analyze the leaky modes of a parallel-plate slab, a solid glass sphere, and a solid glass cylinder, by examining those solutions of Maxwell's equations (for dispersive as well as non-dispersive media) which admit of a complex-valued oscillation frequency. Under certain circumstances, these leaky modes constitute a complete set into which an arbitrary distribution of the electromagnetic field residing inside a dielectric body can be expanded. We provide completeness proofs, and also present results of numerical calculations that illustrate the relationship between the leaky modes and the resonances of dielectric cavities formed by a simple parallel-plate slab, a glass sphere, and a glass cylinder.

  6. Nonlinear dynamics by mode superposition

    Nickell, R.E.


    A mode superposition technique for approximately solving nonlinear initial-boundary-value problems of structural dynamics is discussed, and results for examples involving large deformation are compared to those obtained with implicit direct integration methods such as the Newmark generalized acceleration and Houbolt backward-difference operators. The initial natural frequencies and mode shapes are found by inverse power iteration with the trial vectors for successively higher modes being swept by Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization at each iteration. The subsequent modal spectrum for nonlinear states is based upon the tangent stiffness of the structure and is calculated by a subspace iteration procedure that involves matrix multiplication only, using the most recently computed spectrum as an initial estimate. Then, a precise time integration algorithm that has no artificial damping or phase velocity error for linear problems is applied to the uncoupled modal equations of motion. Squared-frequency extrapolation is examined for nonlinear problems as a means by which these qualities of accuracy and precision can be maintained when the state of the system (and, thus, the modal spectrum) is changing rapidly. The results indicate that a number of important advantages accrue to nonlinear mode superposition: (a) there is no significant difference in total solution time between mode superposition and implicit direct integration analyses for problems having narrow matric half-bandwidth (in fact, as bandwidth increases, mode superposition becomes more economical), (b) solution accuracy is under better control since the analyst has ready access to modal participation factors and the ratios of time step size to modal period, and (c) physical understanding of nonlinear dynamic response is improved since the analyst is able to observe the changes in the modal spectrum as deformation proceeds.

  7. Photovoltaic failure and degradation modes: PV failure and degradation modes

    Jordan, Dirk C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden Colorado 80401 USA; Silverman, Timothy J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden Colorado 80401 USA; Wohlgemuth, John H. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden Colorado 80401 USA; Kurtz, Sarah R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden Colorado 80401 USA; VanSant, Kaitlyn T. [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street Golden Colorado 8040 USA


    The extensive photovoltaic field reliability literature was analyzed and reviewed. Future work is prioritized based upon information assembled from recent installations, and inconsistencies in degradation mode identification are discussed to help guide future publication on this subject. Reported failure rates of photovoltaic modules fall mostly in the range of other consumer products; however, the long expected useful life of modules may not allow for direct comparison. In general, degradation percentages are reported to decrease appreciably in newer installations that are deployed after the year 2000. However, these trends may be convoluted with varying manufacturing and installation quality world-wide. Modules in hot and humid climates show considerably higher degradation modes than those in desert and moderate climates, which warrants further investigation. Delamination and diode/j-box issues are also more frequent in hot and humid climates than in other climates. The highest concerns of systems installed in the last 10 years appear to be hot spots followed by internal circuitry discoloration. Encapsulant discoloration was the most common degradation mode, particularly in older systems. In newer systems, encapsulant discoloration appears in hotter climates, but to a lesser degree. Thin-film degradation modes are dominated by glass breakage and absorber corrosion, although the breadth of information for thin-film modules is much smaller than for x-Si.

  8. English Organic Producer Survey 2013

    Catherine L. Gerrard; Padel, Susanne; Lampkin, Nic


    This report summarises the results of a survey carried out with English organic producers in November and December 2013 as part of the Organic Data Network Project. There are approximately 2724 English organic producers and 223 of these participated in the survey, a response rate of just over 8%. The sample is not representative of the total population of English organic producers, see the data collection and analysis section for more details, but gives a snapshot of the situation for...

  9. Decay of Quantum Accelerator Modes

    Sheinman, M; Guarneri, I; Rebuzzini, L; Fishman, Shmuel; Guarneri, Italo; Rebuzzini, Laura; Sheinman, Michael


    Experimentally observable Quantum Accelerator Modes are used as a test case for the study of some general aspects of quantum decay from classical stable islands immersed in a chaotic sea. The modes are shown to correspond to metastable states, analogous to the Wannier-Stark resonances. Different regimes of tunneling, marked by different quantitative dependence of the lifetimes on 1/hbar, are identified, depending on the resolution of KAM substructures that is achieved on the scale of hbar. The theory of Resonance Assisted Tunneling introduced by Brodier, Schlagheck, and Ullmo [9], is revisited, and found to well describe decay whenever applicable.

  10. Channel estimation in TDD mode

    ZHANG Yi; GU Jian; YANG Da-cheng


    An efficient solution is proposed in this article for the channel estimation in time division duplex (TDD) mode wireless communication systems. In the proposed solution, the characteristics of fading channels in TDD mode systems are fully exploited to estimate the path delay of the fading channel.The corresponding amplitude is estimated using the minimum mean square error (MMSE) criterion. As a result, it is shown that the proposed novel solution is more accurate and efficient than the traditional solution, and the improvement is beneficial to the performance of Joint Detection.

  11. Azimuthal decomposition of optical modes

    Dudley, Angela L


    Full Text Available of Optical Modes Angela Dudley1, Igor Litvin1, Filippus S. Roux1 and Andrew Forbes1,2,3 1 CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa 2 School of Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa 3 Laser Research Institute, University... of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa Presented at the 2012 South African Institute of Physics Conference University of Pretoria Pretoria, South Africa 12 July 2012 To decompose the azimuthal modes we need two steps: generation and decomposition...

  12. Failure Mode/Mechanism Distributions


    nsc. Modas /Mach Dist. Dist. Suurce(,%)/Detai19 Bolt, MahineSources :1 Brcikon 𔃺.1% 59.0% Broken Bolt(s) (25j01-(000,Qty:l) C25101-000,Qty:Ij., Part...Center (RAC) * 201 Mill St., Rome, NY 13440 * 315-337-0900 3-114 Failure Distribution Summaries FMD-91 ? art Failure Norm Fail Data Docm. Mode/Moch Dist... Deco . Mode/Mech Dist. Dist. Source(s)/Details Lamp,Bulb Sourcent 4 Lamp Failure 68.8% 53.8% Light Bulb Failure (23038-00l,Qty:3) (23038-004,Qty:l

  13. Transformation and Modes of Production

    Høst, Jeppe Engset


    modes of production and examine the ways of life that are enabled by the two modes of production. The central questions are around how market-based fisheries management transforms the principal preconditions for the self-employed fishers; and, in turn, why capitalist organized large-scale fisheries......The introduction of private and individual transferable quotas is widely considered to have a negative impact on small- and medium-sized fishing operations. In this chapter, I set out to explore this in a theoretical manner. I discuss the differences in the fishing operations as two contrasting...... are promoted by this type of fisheries management....

  14. Circular bacteriocins: biosynthesis and mode of action.

    Gabrielsen, Christina; Brede, Dag A; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B


    Circular bacteriocins are a group of N-to-C-terminally linked antimicrobial peptides, produced by Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. Circular bacteriocins generally exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, including against common food-borne pathogens, such as Clostridium and Listeria spp. These peptides are further known for their high pH and thermal stability, as well as for resistance to many proteolytic enzymes, properties which make this group of bacteriocins highly promising for potential industrial applications and their biosynthesis of particular interest as a possible model system for the synthesis of highly stable bioactive peptides. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on this group of bacteriocins, with emphasis on the recent progress in understanding circular bacteriocin genetics, biosynthesis, and mode of action; in addition, we highlight the current challenges and future perspectives for the application of these peptides.

  15. Engineering modes in optical fibers with metamaterial

    Min YAN; Niels Asger MORTENSEN; Min QIU


    In this paper, we report a preliminary theoret-ical study on optical fibers with fine material inclusions whose geometrical inhomogeneity is almost indistinguish-able by the operating wavelength. We refer to such fibers as metamaterial optical fibers, which can conceptually be considered as an extension from the previously much publicized microstructured optical fibers. Metamaterials can have optical properties not obtainable in naturally existing materials, including artificial anisotropy as well as graded material properties. Therefore, incorporation of metamaterial in optical fiber designs can produce a new range of fiber properties. With a particular example, we will show how mode discrimination can be achieved in a multimode Bragg fiber with the help of metamaterial. We also look into the mean field theory as well as Maxwell-Garner theory for homogenizing a fine metamaterial structure to a homogeneous one. The accuracies of the two homogenization approaches are compared with full-structure calculation.


    Vladimír RIEVAJ


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of the amount of emissions produced by vehicles with a combustion engine and electric cars. The comparison, which is based on the LCA factor results, indicates that an electric car produces more emissions than a vehicle with combustion engine. The implementation of electric cars will lead to an increase in the production of greenhouse gases.

  17. Microtearing modes in tokamak discharges

    Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Weiland, J. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University, S41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Luo, L. [IBM Research, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pankin, A. Y. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80308 (United States)


    Microtearing modes (MTMs) have been identified as a source of significant electron thermal transport in tokamak discharges. In order to describe the evolution of these discharges, it is necessary to improve the prediction of electron thermal transport. This can be accomplished by utilizing a model for transport driven by MTMs in whole device predictive modeling codes. The objective of this paper is to develop the dispersion relation that governs the MTM driven transport. A unified fluid/kinetic approach is used in the development of a nonlinear dispersion relation for MTMs. The derivation includes the effects of electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations, arbitrary electron-ion collisionality, electron temperature and density gradients, magnetic curvature, and the effects associated with the parallel propagation vector. An iterative nonlinear approach is used to calculate the distribution function employed in obtaining the nonlinear parallel current and the nonlinear dispersion relation. The third order nonlinear effects in magnetic fluctuations are included, and the influence of third order effects on a multi-wave system is considered. An envelope equation for the nonlinear microtearing modes in the collision dominant limit is introduced in order to obtain the saturation level. In the limit that the mode amplitude does not vary along the field line, slab geometry, and strong collisionality, the fluid dispersion relation for nonlinear microtearing modes is found to agree with the kinetic dispersion relation.

  18. Quasiadiabatic modes from viscous inhomogeneities

    Giovannini, Massimo


    The viscous inhomogeneities of a relativistic plasma determine a further class of entropic modes whose amplitude must be sufficiently small since curvature perturbations are observed to be predominantly adiabatic and Gaussian over large scales. When the viscous coefficients only depend on the energy density of the fluid the corresponding curvature fluctuations are shown to be almost adiabatic. After addressing the problem in a gauge-invariant perturbative expansion, the same analysis is repeated at a nonperturbative level by investigating the nonlinear curvature inhomogeneities induced by the spatial variation of the viscous coefficients. It is demonstrated that the quasiadiabatic modes are suppressed in comparison with a bona fide adiabatic solution. Because of its anomalously large tensor to scalar ratio the quasiadiabatic mode cannot be a substitute for the conventional adiabatic paradigm so that, ultimately, the present findings seems to exclude the possibility of a successful accelerated dynamics solely based on relativistic viscous fluids. If the dominant adiabatic mode is not affected by the viscosity of the background a sufficiently small fraction of entropic fluctuations of viscous origin cannot be a priori ruled out.

  19. Microtearing modes in tokamak discharges

    Rafiq, T.; Weiland, J.; Kritz, A. H.; Luo, L.; Pankin, A. Y.


    Microtearing modes (MTMs) have been identified as a source of significant electron thermal transport in tokamak discharges. In order to describe the evolution of these discharges, it is necessary to improve the prediction of electron thermal transport. This can be accomplished by utilizing a model for transport driven by MTMs in whole device predictive modeling codes. The objective of this paper is to develop the dispersion relation that governs the MTM driven transport. A unified fluid/kinetic approach is used in the development of a nonlinear dispersion relation for MTMs. The derivation includes the effects of electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations, arbitrary electron-ion collisionality, electron temperature and density gradients, magnetic curvature, and the effects associated with the parallel propagation vector. An iterative nonlinear approach is used to calculate the distribution function employed in obtaining the nonlinear parallel current and the nonlinear dispersion relation. The third order nonlinear effects in magnetic fluctuations are included, and the influence of third order effects on a multi-wave system is considered. An envelope equation for the nonlinear microtearing modes in the collision dominant limit is introduced in order to obtain the saturation level. In the limit that the mode amplitude does not vary along the field line, slab geometry, and strong collisionality, the fluid dispersion relation for nonlinear microtearing modes is found to agree with the kinetic dispersion relation.

  20. Single-mode optical fibres

    Cancellieri, G


    This book describes signal propagation in single-mode optical fibres for telecommunication applications. Such description is based on the analysis of field propagation, considering waveguide properties and also some of the particular characteristics of the material fibre. The book covers such recent advances as, coherent transmissions; optical amplification; MIR fibres; polarization maintaining; polarization diversity and photon counting.

  1. Mode of Action of Glyphosate

    Although glyphosate is the most used and studied herbicide in the world, the available information is not enough to fully understand its mode of action. The molecular site of action of glyphosate is the enzyme 5-enolpyruvlyshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). It is the only known compound that ...

  2. An acoustic mode measurement technique

    Joppa, P. D.


    Turbomachinery noise propagates in aircraft jet engine ducts in a complicated manner. Measurement of this propagation is useful both to identify source mechanisms and to design efficient linings. A practical method of making these measurements has been developed, using linear arrays of equally spaced microphones mounted flush with the duct wall. Circumferential or axial arrays are analyzed by spatial Fourier transform, giving sound level as a function of spinning order or axial wavenumber respectively. Complex demodulation is used to acquire data in a modest bandwidth around a high frequency of interest. A joint NASA/Boeing test of the system used 32 microphones in a JT15D turbofan engine inlet. A 400-Hz bandwidth centered at blade passage frequency and at half blade passage frequency was studied. The theoretically predicted modes were clearly seen at blade passage frequency; broadband noise at half blade passage frequency was biased towards modes corotating with the fan. Interference between similar modes was not a significant problem. A lining design study indicated a 15 percent improvement in lining efficiency was possible when mode data were used, for this particular engine. The technique has proven reliable and useful for source diagnostics and lining design.

  3. Generation of high order modes

    Ngcobo, S


    Full Text Available This work deals with the generation of symmetrical high order Laguerre Gaussian modes. These high order Laguerre-Gaussian beams are generated by forcing the laser using an annular binary Diffractive Optical Element whose geometry is in connection...

  4. Poor fluorinated graphene sheets carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser

    Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; Lobach, Anatoly S.; Khudyakov, Dmitry V.; Spitsina, Nataliya G.; Kazakov, Valery A.; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey


    We report poor fluorinated graphene sheets produced by thermal exfoliation embedding in carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite (GCMC) as an efficient mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser. Two GCMC mode lockers with different concentration have been fabricated. The GCMC based mode locked fiber laser shows stable soliton output pulse shaping with repetition rate of 28.5 MHz and output power of 5.5 mW was achieved with the high concentration GCMC, while a slightly higher output power of 6.9 mW was obtained using the low concentration GCMC mode locker.

  5. Poor fluorinated graphene sheets carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser

    Mou, Chengbo, E-mail:, E-mail:; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey, E-mail:, E-mail: [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Arif, Raz [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region (Iraq); Lobach, Anatoly S.; Spitsina, Nataliya G. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics RAS, Ac. Semenov Av. 1, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region 142432 (Russian Federation); Khudyakov, Dmitry V. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics RAS, Ac. Semenov Av. 1, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region 142432 (Russian Federation); Physics Instrumentation Center of the Institute of General Physics A.M. Prokhorov Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow Region 142190 (Russian Federation); Kazakov, Valery A. [Keldysh Center, Onezhskaya 8, Moscow 125438 (Russian Federation)


    We report poor fluorinated graphene sheets produced by thermal exfoliation embedding in carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite (GCMC) as an efficient mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser. Two GCMC mode lockers with different concentration have been fabricated. The GCMC based mode locked fiber laser shows stable soliton output pulse shaping with repetition rate of 28.5 MHz and output power of 5.5 mW was achieved with the high concentration GCMC, while a slightly higher output power of 6.9 mW was obtained using the low concentration GCMC mode locker.

  6. Mode shape combination in a two-dimensional vibration energy harvester through mass loading structural modification

    Sharpes, Nathan; Kumar, Prashant [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Abdelkefi, Abdessattar; Abdelmoula, Hichem [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Adler, Jan [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Institute of Dynamics and Vibration Research (IDS), Leibniz Universität, Hannover 30167 (Germany); Priya, Shashank [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)


    Mode shapes in the design of mechanical energy harvesters, as a means of performance increase, have been largely overlooked. Currently, the vast majority of energy harvester designs employ some variation of a single-degree-of-freedom cantilever, and the mode shapes of such beams are well known. This is especially true for the first bending mode, which is almost exclusively the chosen vibration mode for energy harvesting. Two-dimensional beam shapes (those which curve, meander, spiral, etc., in a plane) have recently gained research interest, as they offer freedom to modify the vibration characteristics of the harvester beam for achieving higher power density. In this study, the second bending mode shape of the “Elephant” two-dimensional beam shape is examined, and its interaction with the first bending mode is evaluated. A combinatory mode shape created by using mass loading structural modification to lower the second bending modal frequency was found to interact with the first bending mode. This is possible since the first two bending modes do not share common areas of displacement. The combined mode shape is shown to produce the most power of any of the considered mode shapes.

  7. Comparison of mode estimation methods and application in molecular clock analysis

    Hedges, S. Blair; Shah, Prachi


    BACKGROUND: Distributions of time estimates in molecular clock studies are sometimes skewed or contain outliers. In those cases, the mode is a better estimator of the overall time of divergence than the mean or median. However, different methods are available for estimating the mode. We compared these methods in simulations to determine their strengths and weaknesses and further assessed their performance when applied to real data sets from a molecular clock study. RESULTS: We found that the half-range mode and robust parametric mode methods have a lower bias than other mode methods under a diversity of conditions. However, the half-range mode suffers from a relatively high variance and the robust parametric mode is more susceptible to bias by outliers. We determined that bootstrapping reduces the variance of both mode estimators. Application of the different methods to real data sets yielded results that were concordant with the simulations. CONCLUSION: Because the half-range mode is a simple and fast method, and produced less bias overall in our simulations, we recommend the bootstrapped version of it as a general-purpose mode estimator and suggest a bootstrap method for obtaining the standard error and 95% confidence interval of the mode.

  8. Mode-division multiplexed transmission with inline few-mode fiber amplifier.

    Bai, Neng; Ip, Ezra; Huang, Yue-Kai; Mateo, Eduardo; Yaman, Fatih; Li, Ming-Jun; Bickham, Scott; Ten, Sergey; Liñares, Jesús; Montero, Carlos; Moreno, Vicente; Prieto, Xesús; Tse, Vincent; Man Chung, Kit; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Lu, Chao; Luo, Yanhua; Peng, Gang-Ding; Li, Guifang; Wang, Ting


    We demonstrate mode-division multiplexed WDM transmission over 50-km of few-mode fiber using the fiber's LP01 and two degenerate LP11 modes. A few-mode EDFA is used to boost the power of the output signal before a few-mode coherent receiver. A 6×6 time-domain MIMO equalizer is used to recover the transmitted data. We also experimentally characterize the 50-km few-mode fiber and the few-mode EDFA.

  9. Mode

    Mackinney-Valentin, Maria


    A textbook for school children 13-16 on fashion. Ethics, designers, social identity, zeitgeist, and gender are among the key themes.......A textbook for school children 13-16 on fashion. Ethics, designers, social identity, zeitgeist, and gender are among the key themes....

  10. Whistler-mode radiation from the Spacelab 2 electron beam

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Steinberg, J. T.; Banks, P. M.; Bush, R. I.


    During the Spacelab 2 mission the Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP) performed a fly-around of the Shuttle at distances of up to 300 meters while an electron beam was being ejected from the Shuttle. A magnetic conjunction of the Shuttle and the PDP while the electron gun was operating in a steady (DC) mode is discussed. During this conjunction, the PDP detected a clear funnel-shaped emission that is believed to be caused by whistler-mode emission from the beam. Ray-path calculations show that the shape of the funnel can be accounted for by whistler-mode waves propagating near the resonance cone. Because the beam and waves are propagating in the same direction, the radiation must be produced by a Landau interaction with the beam. Other types of waves generated by the beam are also described.

  11. Multiresonance modes in sine-Gordon brane models

    Cruz, W T; Almeida, C A S


    In this work, we study the localization of the vector gauge field in two five-dimensional braneworlds generated by scalar fields coupled to gravity. The sine-Gordon like potentials are employed to produce different thick brane setups. A zero mode localized is obtained, and we show the existence of reverberations with the wave solutions indicating a quasi-localized massive mode. More interesting results are achieved when we propose a double sine-Gordon potential to the scalar field. The resulting thick brane shows a more detailed topology with the presence of an internal structure composed by two kinks. The massive spectrum of the gauge field is revalued on this scenario revealing the existence of various resonant modes

  12. Low-Q whispering gallery modes in anisotropic metamaterial shells

    Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Torrent, Daniel; Sánchez-Dehesa, José


    Anisotropic and inhomogeneous metamaterial shells are studied in order to exploit all their resonant mode richness. These multilayer structures are based on a cylindrical distribution of radially dependent constitutive parameters including an inner void cavity. Shell, cavity and whispering gallery modes are characterized, and special attention is paid to the latter ones. The whispering gallery modes are created at the boundary layers of the shell with the background and energy localization is produced with highly radiative characteristics. These low-Q resonant states have frequencies that are independent of the shell thickness. However, their quality factors can be controlled by the number of layers forming the shell, which allows confining electromagnetic waves at the interface layers (internal or external), and make them suitable for the harvesting of electromagnetic energy.

  13. Pulsed squeezed light: simultaneous squeezing of multiple modes

    Wasilewski, W; Banaszek, K; Radzewicz, C; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Banaszek, Konrad; Radzewicz, Czeslaw


    We analyze the spectral properties of squeezed light produced by means of pulsed, single-pass degenerate parametric down-conversion. The multimode output of this process can be decomposed into characteristic modes undergoing independent squeezing evolution akin to the Schmidt decomposition of the biphoton spectrum. The main features of this decomposition can be understood using a simple analytical model developed in the perturbative regime. In the strong pumping regime, for which the perturbative approach is not valid, we present a numerical analysis, specializing to the case of one-dimensional propagation in a beta-barium borate waveguide. Characterization of the squeezing modes provides us with an insight necessary for optimizing homodyne detection of squeezing. For a weak parametric process, efficient squeezing is found in a broad range of local oscillator modes, whereas the intense generation regime places much more stringent conditions on the local oscillator. We point out that without meeting these cond...

  14. A laboratory study of low-mode internal tide scattering by finite-amplitude topography

    Peacock, Thomas; Didelle, Henri; Viboud, Samuel; Dauxois, Thierry


    We present the first laboratory experimental results concerning the scattering of a low-mode internal tide by a gaussian topography. Experiments performed at the Coriolis Platform in Grenoble used a recently-conceived internal wave generator as a means of producing a high-quality mode-1 wave field. The evolution of the wave field in the absence and presence of a supercritical Gaussian was studied by performing spatiotemporal modal decompositions of velocity field data obtained using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The results support predictions that large-amplitude supercritical topography produces significant reflection of the internal tide and transfer of energy from low to high modes.

  15. Broadband mode conversion via gradient index metamaterials.

    Wang, HaiXiao; Xu, YaDong; Genevet, Patrice; Jiang, Jian-Hua; Chen, HuanYang


    We propose a design for broadband waveguide mode conversion based on gradient index metamaterials (GIMs). Numerical simulations demonstrate that the zeroth order of transverse magnetic mode or the first order of transverse electric mode (TM0/TE1) can be converted into the first order of transverse magnetic mode or the second order of transverse electric mode (TM1/TE2) for a broadband of frequencies. As an application, an asymmetric propagation is achieved by integrating zero index metamaterials inside the GIM waveguide.

  16. Broadband mode conversion via gradient index metamaterials

    Wang, HaiXiao; Genevet, Patrice; Jiang, Jian-Hua; Chen, HuanYang


    We propose a design for broadband waveguide mode conversion based on gradient index metamaterials (GIMs). Numerical simulations demonstrate that the zeroth order of transverse magnetic mode or the first order of transverse electric mode (TM0/TE1) can be converted into the first order of transverse magnetic mode or the second order of transverse electric mode (TM1/TE2) for a broadband of frequencies. As an application, an asymmetric propagation is achieved by integrating zero index metamaterials inside the GIM waveguide.

  17. The quest for the solar g modes

    Appourchaux, T.; Belkacem, K.; Broomhall, A.-M.; Chaplin, W. J.; Gough, D. O.; Houdek, G.; Provost, J.; Baudin, F.; Boumier, P.; Elsworth, Y.; García, R. A.; Andersen, B. N.; Finsterle, W.; Fröhlich, C.; Gabriel, A.; Grec, G.; Jiménez, A.; Kosovichev, A.; Sekii, T.; Toutain, T.; Turck-Chièze, S.


    Solar gravity modes (or g modes)—oscillations of the solar interior on which buoyancy acts as the restoring force—have the potential to provide unprecedented inference on the structure and dynamics of the solar core, inference that is not possible with the well-observed acoustic modes (or p modes). The relative high amplitude of the g-mode eigenfunctions in the core and the evanesence of the modes in the convection zone make the modes particularly sensitive to the physical and dynamical conditions in the core. Owing to the existence of the convection zone, the g modes have very low amplitudes at photospheric levels, which makes the modes extremely hard to detect. In this article, we review the current state of play regarding attempts to detect g modes. We review the theory of g modes, including theoretical estimation of the g-mode frequencies, amplitudes and damping rates. Then we go on to discuss the techniques that have been used to try to detect g modes. We review results in the literature, and finish by looking to the future, and the potential advances that can be made—from both data and data-analysis perspectives—to give unambiguous detections of individual g modes. The review ends by concluding that, at the time of writing, there is indeed a consensus amongst the authors that there is currently no undisputed detection of solar g modes.

  18. An Eavesdropping Detecting Approach Based on Mode-Mode Correlation

    XIONG Jin; ZENG Gui-Hua; ZHOU Nan-Run


    @@ We find that second-order coherence as well as a Hanbury-Brown-Twiss intensity interferometer may provide an optimal approach for eavesdropping detection in the quantum key distribution based on two-mode squeezed'vacuum states. With this approach, eavesdropping can be easily detected without sacrificing extra secret bits as the test key. In addition, the efficiency of the quantum key distribution protocol is enhanced greatly.

  19. Mode-to-mode energy transfers in convective patterns

    Mahendra K Verma; Krishna Kumar; Bhaskar Kamble


    We investigate the energy transfer between various Fourier modes in a low-dimensional model for thermal convection. We have used the formalism of mode-to-mode energy transfer rate in our calculation. The evolution equations derived using this scheme is the same as those derived using the hydrodynamical equations for thermal convection in Boussinesq fluids. Numerical and analytical studies of this model show that convective rolls appear as the Rayleigh number is raised above its critical value c. Further increase of Rayleigh number generates rolls in the perpendicular directions as well, and we obtain a dynamic asymmetric square pattern. This pattern is due to Hopf bifurcation. There are two sets of limit cycles corresponding to the two competing asymmetric square patterns. When the Rayleigh number is increased further, the limit cycles become unstable simultaneously, and chaotic motion sets in. The onset of chaos is via intermittent route. The trajectories wander for quite a long time almost periodically before jumping irregularly to one of the two ghost limit cycles.

  20. The Extended Nijboer-Zernike Diffraction Theory and its Applications

    Van Haver, S.


    In present-day society, we encounter optical systems on a daily basis. Most people have a DVD player capable of playing content stored on an optical disc, Big Brother is watching us nearly everywhere using surveillance cameras and we consider it to be normal to take photographs with our mobile

  1. The Extended Nijboer-Zernike Diffraction Theory and its Applications

    Van Haver, S.


    In present-day society, we encounter optical systems on a daily basis. Most people have a DVD player capable of playing content stored on an optical disc, Big Brother is watching us nearly everywhere using surveillance cameras and we consider it to be normal to take photographs with our mobile phone

  2. Mechanism of Edge Localized Mode Mitigation by Resonant Magnetic Perturbations

    Bécoulet, M.; Orain, F.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Pamela, S.; Cahyna, P.; Hoelzl, M.; Garbet, X.; Franck, E.; Sonnendrücker, E.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.; Morales, J.; Nardon, E.; Fil, A.; Nkonga, B.; Ratnani, A.; Grandgirard, V.


    A possible mechanism of edge localized modes (ELMs) mitigation by resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) is proposed based on the results of nonlinear resistive magnetohydrodynamic modeling using the jorek code, realistic JET-like plasma parameters and an RMP spectrum of JET error-field correction coils (EFCC) with a main toroidal number n =2 were used in the simulations. Without RMPs, a large ELM relaxation is obtained mainly due to the most unstable medium-n ballooning mode. The externally imposed RMP drives nonlinearly the modes coupled to n =2 RMP which produce small multimode relaxations, mitigated ELMs. The modes driven by RMPs exhibit a tearinglike structure and produce additional islands. Mitigated ELMs deposit energy into the divertor mainly in the structures ("footprints") created by n =2 RMPs, however, slightly modulated by other nonlinearly driven even harmonics. The divertor power flux during a ELM phase mitigated by RMPs is reduced almost by a factor of 10. The mechanism of ELM mitigation by RMPs proposed here reproduces generic features of high collisionality RMP experiments, where large ELMs are replaced by small, much more frequent ELMs or magnetic turbulence. Total ELM suppression was also demonstrated in modeling at higher RMP amplitude.

  3. Magnetorheological Damper Working in Squeeze Mode

    Xinglong Gong


    Full Text Available This research is focused on evaluation of the magnetorheological fluids (MRFs based damper which works in squeeze mode. The operation direction of this damper is parallel to the direction of the external magnetic field. Before testing, commercial software ANSYS was used to analyze the magnetic field distribution inside the damper generated by charging current in the coil. The performance of the damper was tested by using the MTS809 (produced by MTS Systems Corporation, USA. For simulation of this damper, a mathematical model was set up. Experimental results showed that the small squeezed MR damper could produce large damping force; for example, the maximum damping force is nearly 6 kN, while the amplitude is 1.2 mm, the frequency is 1.0 Hz, and the current is 2.0 A, and the damping force was controllable by changing the current in the coil. The damping force versus displacement curves are complex. We divide them into four regions for simulation. The maximum damper force increased quickly with the increasing of the current in coil. This kind of damper can be used in vibration isolation for precise equipment.

  4. Sideways force due to coupled kink modes in tokamaks

    Mironov, D. V.; Pustovitov, V. D.


    The paper is devoted to calculation of the sideways force on the vacuum vessel wall in tokamaks at the early stage of disruptions before possible appearance of the halo currents. The theory developed so far predicts quite a large force due to a single-helicity kink mode. This concept is revisited here. It is demonstrated that the existing single-mode models are incompatible with the natural requirement that the sideways force on the plasma must be practically zero. The latter can be satisfied by incorporating a secondary coupled mode, which is the main new element here compared to the earlier analytical approaches. With this difference, the derivations are performed in the standard cylindrical model that is widely used in the resistive wall mode studies. The resistive wall effects are accounted for as determining the wall reaction on the plasma-driven perturbations. The derived expressions explicitly reveal the sideways force dependence on γτw with a maximum at γτw=O (1 ) , where γ is the kink growth rate and τw is the resistive wall time. It is proved that the amplitude of the sideways force produced by the kink modes must be much smaller than expected from the existing scalings.

  5. Stratospheric Annular Modes Induced By Stationary Wave Forcing

    Körnich, H.; Schmitz, G.

    The variability of the winter stratosphere shows distinguishable features in the north- ern and southern hemisphere. Since these differences are based on the different plan- etary waves of the underlying atmosphere, we explore the mechanism how stationary wave forcing in the troposphere can induce a stratospheric Annular Mode using a simple GCM. The model KMCM (Kühlungsborn Mechanistic Circulation Model) extends from the ground up to 60 km height and produces a reasonable winter climate. It takes into account the different large-scale wave forcings in the troposphere as prescribed pro- cesses. This allows us to examine the stratospheric Annular-Mode generation depend- ing on different wave forcings under perpetual January conditions. Principal com- ponent analysis is applied to identify the variability patterns of the geopotential and of the zonally averaged zonal wind. By this way, it is shown that the amplitude and composition of the orographic and thermal eddy forcing determines the stratospheric Annular Mode and the related downward propagation in the temperature field. Further model simplifications are introduced in order to understand the mechanism of the stratospheric AM-generation. Using a linear model version we illuminate the influence of the different wave forcing processes on the Annular Modes. Addition- ally, a constant-troposphere model is used to clarify the importance of transient and stationary waves. Finally, the Annular Mode is interpreted in terms of the dynamical coupling of the troposphere and stratosphere.

  6. User producer interaction in context

    Nahuis, R.; Moors, E.H.M.; Smits, R.E.H.M.


    User producer interaction (UPI) increases chances for successful innovations. It is not always clear, however, what type of interaction is necessary in a particular context. This article identifies seven different types of UPI: constructing linkages, broadening, characterizing users, upstream

  7. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    Nair, Vijay; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony; Bauldreay, Joanna M.


    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between C. and C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between C. and C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  8. Properties of the ribosomes of antibiotic producers: effects thiostrepton and micrococcin on the organisms which produce them.

    Dixon, P G; Beven, J E; Cundliffe, E


    Ribosomes of Streptomyces azureus, which produces thiostrepton, are resistant to thiostrepton by virtue of being unable to bind the antibiotic. These ribosomes are also resistant to a number of other antibiotics (the thiostrepton group) which may share a common ribosomal binding site and a common mode of action with thiostrepton. Conversely, Bacillus pumilis and a strain of micrococcus, which produce the (probably identical) antibiotics micrococcin P and micrococcin, respectively, possess ribosomes which are susceptible to these antibiotics in vitro, although the organisms themselves are resistant.

  9. Acoustic mode measurements in the inlet of a model turbofan using a continuously rotating rake

    Heidelberg, Laurence J.; Hall, David G.


    Comprehensive measurements of the spinning acoustic mode structure in the inlet of the Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) have been completed. These measurements were taken using a unique and previously untried method which was first proposed by T.G. Sofrin. A continuously rotating microphone system was employed. The ADP model was designed and built by Pratt & Whitney and tested in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Three inlet configurations were tested with cut-on and cutoff stator vane sets. The cutoff stator was designed to suppress all modes at the blade passing frequency. Rotating rake measurements indicate that several extraneous circumferential modes were active. The mode orders suggest that their source was an interaction between the rotor and small interruptions in the casing tip treatment. The cut-on stator produced the expected circumferential modes plus higher levels of the unexpected modes seen with the cutoff stator.

  10. Intermodal four-wave mixing in a higher-order-mode fiber.

    Cheng, Ji; Pedersen, Martin E V; Charan, Kriti; Wang, Ke; Xu, Chris; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Jakobsen, Dan


    We demonstrate a high-efficiency intermodal four-wave-mixing process in an all-fiber system, comprising a picosecond fiber laser and a high-order-mode (HOM) fiber. Two pump photons in the LP(01) mode of the fiber can generate an anti-Stokes photon in the LP(01) mode and a Stokes photon in the LP(02) mode. The wavelength dependent mode profiles of the HOM fiber produce significant spatial overlap between the modes involved. The anti-Stokes wave at 941 nm is generated with 20% conversion efficiency with input pulse energy of 20 nJ. The guidance of the anti-Stokes and Stokes waves in the HOM fiber enhances system stability.

  11. Comparison on welding mode characteristics of arc heat source for heat input control in hybrid welding of aluminum alloy

    Song, Moo-Keun; Kim, Jong-Do; Oh, Jae-Hwan


    Presently in shipbuilding, transportation and aerospace industries, the potential to apply welding using laser and laser-arc hybrid heat sources is widely under research. This study has the purpose of comparing the weldability depending on the arc mode by varying the welding modes of arc heat sources in applying laser-arc hybrid welding to aluminum alloy and of implementing efficient hybrid welding while controlling heat input. In the experimental study, we found that hybrid welding using CMT mode produced deeper penetration and sounder bead surface than those characteristics produced during only laser welding, with less heat input compared to that required in pulsed arc mode.

  12. Atmospheric type modes in laser fusion targets

    Scannapieco, A. J.


    The fluid stability of laser-fusion targets is considered as a stability problem of a pseudo-planetary atmosphere. Three atmospheric type modes are studied; acoustic, gravity, and Lamb modes. The changing character (i.e., growing, oscillatory, or growing-oscillatory) of each is investigated as a function of the density-gradient scale length H of the fluid. A growing class of modes is found which is distinct from the gravity (i.e., Taylor) mode if a gradient in entropy exists in the fluid. These modes are shown to be overstable Lamb modes. Also, the gravity mode is only stable for a distinct band of values of H. These values, at which the density and Lamb modes change character, are derived from the dispersion relation for the modes. Finally, the consequences for laser targets are discussed.

  13. A New CMOS Current-Mode Folding Amplifier

    M.A Al-Absi


    Full Text Available In this paper, a new CMOS current-mode folding amplifier is proposed. The circuit is designed using MOSFETs operating in strong inversion. The design produces a nearly ideal saw-tooth input-output characteristic which is a mandatory requirement in folding analog-to-digital converters. The functionality of the proposed circuit was confirmed using Tanner simulation tools in 0.35 µm CMOS technology. Simulation results are in excellent agreement with the theory.

  14. Glucose level regulation via integral high-order sliding modes.

    Dorel, Lela


    Diabetes is a condition in which the body either does not produce enough insulin, or does not properly respond to it. This causes the glucose level in blood to increase. An algorithm based on Integral High-Order Sliding Mode technique is proposed, which keeps the normal blood glucose level automatically releasing insulin into the blood. The system is highly insensitive to inevitable parametric and model uncertainties, measurement noises and small delays.

  15. Quasinormal modes of semiclassical electrically charged black holes

    Fernandez Piedra, Owen Pavel [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica, Facultad de Mecanica, Universidad de Cienfuegos, Carretera a Rodas, km 4, Cuatro Caminos, Cienfuegos (Cuba); De Oliveira, Jeferson, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil)


    We report the results concerning the influence of vacuum polarization due to quantum massive vector, scalar and spinor fields on the scalar sector of quasinormal modes in spherically symmetric charged black holes. The vacuum polarization from quantized fields produces a shift in the values of the quasinormal frequencies, and correspondingly the semiclassical system becomes a better oscillator with respect to the classical Reissner-Nordstroem black hole.

  16. Three-mode mode-division-multiplexing passive optical network over 12-km low mode-crosstalk FMF using all-fiber mode MUX/DEMUX

    Ren, Fang; Li, Juhao; Wu, Zhongying; Hu, Tao; Yu, Jinyi; Mo, Qi; He, Yongqi; Chen, Zhangyuan; Li, Zhengbin


    We propose three-mode mode-division-multiplexing passive optical network (MDM-PON) based on low mode-crosstalk few-mode fiber (FMF) and all-fiber mode multiplexer/demultiplexer (MUX/DEMUX). The FMF with step-index profile is designed and fabricated for effectively three-independent-spatial-mode transmission and low mode-crosstalk for MDM-PON transmission. The all-fiber mode MUX/DEMUX are composed of cascaded mode selective couplers (MSCs), which simultaneously multiplex or demultiplex multiple modes. Based on the low mode-crosstalk of the FMF and all-fiber mode MUX/DEMUX, each optical network unit (ONU) communicates with the optical line terminal (OLT) independently utilizing a different optical linearly polarized (LP) spatial mode in MDM-PON system. We experimentally demonstrate MDM-PON transmission of three independent-spatial-modes over 12-km FMF with 10-Gb/s optical on-off keying (OOK) signal and direct detection.

  17. Decay modes in spontaneous fission

    Gönnenwein, F


    Spontaneous fission (SF) is considered to be the choice reaction for studying the influence of shell and pairing effects in fission in general, and in particular their impact on the mass and energy distributions of fission fragments. For the time being some 35 SF reactions have been analysed in detail for elements ranging from Pu up to Rf. Going from the lighter to the heavier actinides both, the distributions of fragment mass (or charge) and of total kinetic energy undergo dramatic changes. It is observed in experiment, however, that these distributions may be well described as a superposition of a few fission modes, each with its own characteristic mass an energy pattern. The experimental modes are traced in theory to fine structures in the potential energy surface of a fissioning nucleus, provided shell and pairing corrections to the basic liquid drop model are accounted for.

  18. Climate Modes of the Phanerozoic

    Frakes, Lawrence A.; Francis, Jane E.; Syktus, Jozef I.


    This book views the Earth's climate as a global system, by describing the evolution of climate throughout the past 600 million years, from the Cambrian to the Quaternary. Palaeoclimates are examined in terms of Cold and Warm modes--phases during which the Earth's climates were either relatively cool with ice forming in high latitudes or when high levels of CO2 led to "greenhouse" warmings and temperate floras and faunas inhabited polar regions. Evidence for climate changes, such as biological indicators, geochemical parameters, and the presence of ice, are compared between these modes. These studies have highlighted the crucial role of tectonics and continental distribution in governing ocean circulation, the distribution of sea ice, sea level changes and global temperature distribution. Orbital forcing and the carbon cycle are also shown as important influences, particularly on short term climatic variations.

  19. Fission modes of mercury isotopes

    Warda, M; Nazarewicz, W


    Recent experiments on beta-delayed fission in the mercury-lead region and the discovery of asymmetric fission in $^{180}$Hg [1] have stimulated renewed interest in the mechanism of fission in heavy nuclei. Here we study fission modes and fusion valleys in $^{180}$Hg and $^{198}$Hg using the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory employing Skyrme and Gogny energy density functionals. We show that the observed transition from asymmetric fission in $^{180}$Hg towards more symmetric distribution of fission fragments in $^{198}$Hg can be explained in terms of competing fission modes of different geometries that are governed by shell effects in pre-scission configurations. The density distributions at scission configurations are studied and related to the experimentally observed mass splits.

  20. Hypersonic modes in nanophononic semiconductors.

    Hepplestone, S P; Srivastava, G P


    Frequency gaps and negative group velocities of hypersonic phonon modes in periodically arranged composite semiconductors are presented. Trends and criteria for phononic gaps are discussed using a variety of atomic-level theoretical approaches. From our calculations, the possibility of achieving semiconductor-based one-dimensional phononic structures is established. We present results of the location and size of gaps, as well as negative group velocities of phonon modes in such structures. In addition to reproducing the results of recent measurements of the locations of the band gaps in the nanosized Si/Si{0.4}Ge{0.6} superlattice, we show that such a system is a true one-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystal.

  1. Dual Mode Slotted Monopole Antenna


    of 15 DUAL MODE SLOTTED MONOPOLE ANTENNA STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by...REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0002] None. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the Invention [0003] The present invention is directed...such as this that is capable of radiating at a different frequency below this cutoff. The present invention provides a means by which the overall

  2. Mode S Baseline Radar Tracking.


    range units and 20 azimuth units) overlaying the position of the beacon reports. In the cases analyzed where beacon reports were not radar reinforced ...82/53 j~ C ~ 7 C _ _ _ _ _ _ 4. Title end Su.btitle 5. Neget at. November 1982 MDDE S BASELINE RADAR TRACKIN4G 6. Poelin Orgeuianti.. Cede ACT-100...Ground Clutter 33 Mode S/ARTS III 100-Scan False Radar Track Summary 74 34 Percent Beacon Radar Reinforcement 77 vii INTRODUCTION PURPOSE. The purpose of

  3. Quasiadiabatic modes from viscous inhomogeneities

    Giovannini, Massimo


    The viscous inhomogeneities of a relativistic plasma determine a further class of entropic modes whose amplitude must be sufficiently small since curvature perturbations are observed to be predominantly adiabatic and Gaussian over large scales. When the viscous coefficients only depend on the energy density of the fluid the corresponding curvature fluctuations are shown to be almost adiabatic. After addressing the problem in a gauge-invariant perturbative expansion, the same analysis is repea...

  4. Fast Response Liquid Crystal Mode


    Journal of Applied Physics , vol. 39, No. 6A, Jun. 1, 2000, pp. 527-530. Hajime...Nakamura, et a!., "Bend Transition in Pi-cell" Journal of Applied Physics , vol. 39, No. 11, Nov. 1, 2000, pp. 6368-6375. "Electro-Optical Performance of a...Characteristic of Fringe-Field Switching Mode Depending on Rubbing Direction," S.H. Hong et a!, Journal of Applied Physics vol. 39, No. 6A, Jun. 1, 2000,

  5. Subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking.

    Eigenwillig, Christoph M; Wieser, Wolfgang; Biedermann, Benjamin R; Huber, Robert


    We demonstrate a subharmonically Fourier domain mode-locked wavelength-swept laser source with a substantially reduced cavity fiber length. In contrast to a standard Fourier domain mode-locked configuration, light is recirculated repetitively in the delay line with the optical bandpass filter used as switch. The laser has a fundamental optical round trip frequency of 285 kHz and can be operated at integer fractions thereof (subharmonics). Sweep ranges up to 95 nm full width centred at 1317 nm are achieved at the 1/5th subharmonic. A maximum sensitivity of 116 dB and an axial resolution of 12 microm in air are measured at an average sweep power of 12 mW. A sensitivity roll-off of 11 dB over 4 mm and 25 dB over 10 mm is observed and optical coherence tomography imaging is demonstrated. Besides the advantage of a reduced fiber length, subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking (shFDML) enables simple scaling of the sweep speed by extracting light from the delay part of the resonator. A sweep rate of 570 kHz is achieved. Characteristic features of shFDML operation, such as power leakage during fly-back and cw breakthrough, are investigated.

  6. A History of Emerging Modes?

    Schmitz Michael


    Full Text Available In this paper I first introduce Tomasello’s notion of thought and his account of its emergence and development through differentiation, arguing that it calls into question the theory bias of the philosophical tradition on thought as well as its frequent atomism. I then raise some worries that he may be overextending the concept of thought, arguing that we should recognize an area of intentionality intermediate between action and perception on the one hand and thought on the other. After that I argue that the co-operative nature of humans is reflected in the very structure of their intentionality and thought: in co-operative modes such as the mode of joint attention and action and the we-mode, they experience and represent others as co-subjects of joint relations to situations in the world rather than as mere objects. In conclusion, I briefly comment on what Tomasello refers to as one of two big open questions in the theory of collective intentionality, namely that of the irreducibility of jointness.

  7. Two modes for dune orientation

    Courrech Du Pont, Sylvain; Narteau, Clément; Gao, Xin


    Earth sand seas experience winds that blow with different strengths and from different directions in line with the seasons. In response, dune fields show a rich variety of shapes from small crescentic barchans to big star and linear dunes. Linear dunes often exhibit complex and compound patterns with different length scales and orientations, which seem difficult to relate to a single wind cycle. We present results of underwater experiments and numerical simulations where a single wind regime can lead to two different dunes orientation depending on sediment availability. Sediment availability selects the overriding mechanism for the formation of dunes: increasing in height from the destabilization of a sand bed or elongating in a finger on a non-erodible ground from a localized sand source. These mechanisms drive the dunes orientation. Therefore, dunes alignment maximizes dunes orthogonality to sand fluxes in the bed instability mode, while dunes are aligned with the sand transport direction in the fingering mode. Then, we derive a model for dunes orientation, which explains the coexistence of bedforms with different alignments and quantitatively predicts the orientation of dunes in Earth deserts. Finally, we explore the phase diagram and the stability of the fingering mode.

  8. Characteristics of magnetoacoustic sausage modes

    Inglis, A R; Brady, C S; Nakariakov, V M; 10.1051/0004-6361/200912088


    Aims: We perform an advanced study of the fast magnetoacoustic sausage oscillations of coronal loops in the context of MHD coronal seismology to establish the dependence of the sausage mode period and cut-off wavenumber on the plasma-beta of the loop-filling plasma. A parametric study of the ratios for different harmonics of the mode is also carried out. Methods: Full magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations were performed using Lare2d, simulating hot, dense loops in a magnetic slab environment. The symmetric Epstein profile and a simple step-function profile were both used to model the density structure of the simulated loops. Analytical expressions for the cut-off wavenumber and the harmonic ratio between the second longitudinal harmonic and the fundamental were also examined. Results: It was established that the period of the global sausage mode is only very weakly dependent on the value of the plasma-beta inside a coronal loop, which justifies the application of this model to hot flaring loops. The cut-o...

  9. A Lagrangian Dynamic Mode Decomposition

    Sesterhenn, Jörn


    Temporal or spatial structures are readily extracted from complex data by modal decompositions like POD or DMD. Subspaces of that decompositions serve as reduced order models and define spatial structures in time or temporal structures in space. Convecting phenomena pose a major problem to those decompositions. A structure travelling with a certain group velocity will be perceived as a plethora of modes in time or space respectively. This manifests itself for example in poorly decaying Singular Values when using a POD. The poor decay is very counter-intuitive, since we expect a single structure to be represented by a few modes. The intuition proves to be correct and we show that in a properly chosen reference frame along the characteristic defined by the group velocity, a POD or DMD reduces moving structures to a few modes, as expected. Beyond serving as a reduced model, the re- sulting entity can be used to define a constant or minimally changing structure in turbulent flows. This can be interpreted as an em...

  10. Protected Edge Modes without Symmetry

    Michael Levin


    Full Text Available We discuss the question of when a gapped two-dimensional electron system without any symmetry has a protected gapless edge mode. While it is well known that systems with a nonzero thermal Hall conductance, K_{H}≠0, support such modes, here we show that robust modes can also occur when K_{H}=0—if the system has quasiparticles with fractional statistics. We show that some types of fractional statistics are compatible with a gapped edge, while others are fundamentally incompatible. More generally, we give a criterion for when an electron system with Abelian statistics and K_{H}=0 can support a gapped edge: We show that a gapped edge is possible if and only if there exists a subset of quasiparticle types M such that (1 all the quasiparticles in M have trivial mutual statistics, and (2 every quasiparticle that is not in M has nontrivial mutual statistics with at least one quasiparticle in M. We derive this criterion using three different approaches: a microscopic analysis of the edge, a general argument based on braiding statistics, and finally a conformal field theory approach that uses constraints from modular invariance. We also discuss the analogous result for two-dimensional boson systems.

  11. Mode-dependent characterization of photonic lanterns.

    Yu, Dawei; Fu, Songnian; Cao, Zizheng; Tang, Ming; Liu, Deming; Giles, Ian; Koonen, Ton; Okonkwo, Chigo


    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple method for characterizing the power transfer matrix of photonic lanterns (PLs) used for mode division multiplexing (MDM) transmission. Due to the optical reflection arising at output facet of the few-mode fiber (FMF), we are able to detect the power at the individual single-mode fiber (SMF) input port and exploit a series of equations based on the theory of energy conservation to obtain mode-dependent characteristics of the PL, including the property of mode selectivity, insertion loss (IL), and channel-dependent loss (CDL). The proposed method is experimentally verified for both the mode selective and the nonmode selective photonic lanterns.

  12. High Polarization Single Mode Photonic Crystal Microlaser

    CHEN Wei; XING Ming-Xin; ZHOU Wen-Jun; LIU An-Jin; ZHENG Wan-Hua


    Generally,dipole mode is a doubly degenerate mode.Theoretical calculations have indicated that the single dipole mode of two-dimensional photonic crystal single point defect cavity shows high polarization property.We present a structure with elongated lattice,which only supports a single y-dipole mode.With this structure we can eliminate the degeneracy,control the lasing action of the cavity and demonstrate the high polarization property of the single dipole mode.In our experiment,the polarization extinction ratio of the y-dipole mode is as high as 51:1.

  13. Dipole modes with depressed amplitudes in red giants are mixed modes

    Mosser, B; Pincon, C; Takata, M; Vrard, M; Barban, C; Goupil, M-J; Kallinger, T; Samadi, R


    Seismic observations have shown that a number of evolved stars exhibit low-amplitude dipole modes, which are referred to as depressed modes. Recently, these low amplitudes have been attributed to the presence of a strong magnetic field in the stellar core of those stars. We intend to study the properties of depressed modes in evolved stars, which is a necessary condition before concluding on the physical nature of the mechanism responsible for the reduction of the dipole mode amplitudes. We perform a thorough characterization of the global seismic parameters of depressed dipole modes and show that these modes have a mixed character. The observation of stars showing dipole mixed modes that are depressed is especially useful for deriving model-independent conclusions on the dipole mode damping. Observations prove that depressed dipole modes in red giants are not pure pressure modes but mixed modes. This result invalidates the hypothesis that the depressed dipole modes result from the suppression of the oscillat...

  14. Slot-Mode Optomechanical Crystals: A Versatile Platform for Multimode Optomechanics

    Grutter, Karen E; Srinivasan, Kartik


    We demonstrate slot-mode optomechanical crystals, a class of device in which photonic and phononic crystal nanobeam resonators separated by a narrow slot are coupled through optomechanical interactions. In these geometries, nanobeam pairs are patterned so that a mechanical breathing mode is confined at the center of one beam, and a high quality factor (Qo>10^5) optical mode is confined in the slot between the beams. Here, we produce slot-mode devices in a stoichiometric Si3N4 platform, with optical modes in the 980 nm band, coupled to breathing mechanical modes at 3.4 GHz, 1.8 GHz, and 400 MHz. We exploit the high Si3N4 tensile stress to achieve slot widths down to 24 nm, which leads to enhanced optomechanical coupling, sufficient for the observation of optomechanical self-oscillations at all studied frequencies. We utilize the slot mode concept to develop multimode optomechanical systems with triple-beam geometries, in which two optical modes are coupled to a single mechanical mode, and two mechanical modes ...

  15. Characterisation of multi-mode propagation in silicon nitride slab waveguides

    Jennings, B. D.; McCloskey, D.; Gough, J. J.; Hoang, T.; Abadía, N.; Zhong, C.; Karademir, E.; Bradley, A. L.; Donegan, J. F.


    A simple experimental method for determining the number of modes in planar dielectric multi-mode waveguides, and the effective index difference of these modes, is presented. Applying a thin, dye-doped polymer cladding, the fluorescence excited by multiple modes propagating in a silicon nitride slab waveguide is imaged to extract information. Interference between the modes produces a structured intensity profile along the waveguide which is constant in time. The spatial frequencies of this intensity profile are directly linked to the propagation constants of the underlying modes. Through a discrete Fourier transform, the modes’ effective index differences are found and compare well with analytically calculated values. Furthermore, the amplitudes in the Fourier transform are directly related to the power in each mode. Comparing the amplitudes of the Fourier components as a function of propagation distance, an estimate of the propagation losses of the individual modes relative to one another is made. The method discussed could be applied to analysing mode behaviour in integrated photonic devices, most notably in mode-division multiplexing.

  16. Voice of the dragon: the mystery of the missing fundamental mode

    Tonon, D.; Nakiboglu, G.; Golliard, J.; Hirschberg, A.


    When a corrugated pipe is swirled it produces a musically interesting sound. By increasing its rotational speed one can produce a series of frequencies corresponding to the modes of the open-open pipe. An interesting issue, raised since the early studies on the whistling of corrugated pipes, is that

  17. Quantum simulation of Dirac fermion mode, Majorana fermion mode and Majorana-Weyl fermion mode in cavity QED lattice

    Sarkar, Sujit


    Quantum simulation aims to simulate a quantum system using a controble laboratory system that underline the same mathematical model. Cavity QED lattice system is that prescribe system to simulate the relativistic quantum effect. We quantum simulate the Dirac fermion mode, Majorana fermion mode and Majorana-Weyl fermion mode and a crossover between them in cavity QED lattice. We also present the different analytical relations between the field operators for different mode excitations.

  18. Interferometric detection of mode splitting for whispering gallery mode biosensors

    Knittel, Joachim; Lee, Kwan H; Bowen, Warwick P


    Sensors based on whispering gallery mode resonators can detect single nanoparticles and even single molecules. Particles attaching to the resonator induce a doublet in the transmission spectrum which provides a self-referenced detection signal. However, in practice this spectral feature is often obscured by the width of the resonance line which hides the doublet structure. This happens particularly in liquid environments that reduce the effective Q factor of the resonator. In this paper we demonstrate an interferometric set-up that allows the direct detection of the hidden doublet and thus provides a pathway for developing practical sensor applications.


    Chen Dan; Wu Qianhong; Wang Yumin


    Due to the lack of a unified authentication model certain mistakes occurred in the use of the watermarking authentication methods. To clarify the confusion, authentication models of robust and fragile watermarking are developed respectively in the paper. Concrete algorithms are proposed to prove the models that different Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domains are utilized to embed the watermarks and quantization method is presented with Just Notice Differences (JNDs) threshold as the quantization size. After the key technologies about the two methods are discussed, we detail the comparison of the two modes and recommend their respective application scenarios as applicable results.

  20. All-fiber mode selective couplers for mode-division-multiplexed optical transmission

    Chang, Sun Hyok; Kim, Kwangjoon; Lee, Joon Ki


    All-fiber mode selective coupler (MSC) is comprised of a few mode fiber (FMF) and a single mode fiber (SMF), coupling the LP01 mode of the SMF to a specific higher-order mode (HOM) of the FMF. In order to achieve high coupling ratio and low insertion loss, phase-matching condition between the LP01 mode of SMF arm and the HOM of FMF arm should be satisfied. A polished-type MSC is made by getting their cores into intimate contact. Prism coupling with a polished coupler block can measure the effective refractive index of the mode accurately. We propose and demonstrate three kinds of allfiber mode multiplexer that is composed of consecutive MSCs. 4-mode multiplexer can multiplex 4 modes of LP01, LP11, LP21, and LP02 by cascading LP11, LP21, and LP02 MSCs. It is used for MDM transmission of three modes with 120 Gb/s DP-QPSK signals. In order to enhance the signal transmission performance by receiving degenerate LP modes simultaneously, a mode multiplexer to utilize two-fold degenerate LP11 modes is proposed. It is composed of two consecutive LP11 MSCs that allows the multiplexing of LP01 mode and two orthogonal LP11 modes. We demonstrates WDM transmission of 30 wavelength channels with 33.3 GHz spacing, each carrying 3 modes, over 560 km of FMF. 6- mode multiplexer can multiplex 6 modes of LP01, LP11a, LP11b, LP21a, LP21b, LP02 modes. We demonstrated WDM-MDM transmission with the all-fiber 6-mode multiplexer. In this paper, the manufacturing method and the recent advancements of the all-fiber mode multiplexer based on the MSCs are reviewed. Long-distance mode division multiplexing (MDM) optical signal transmissions with the all-fiber mode multiplexer are experimentally demonstrated.

  1. Optically controllable dual-mode switching in single-mode Fabry-Pérot laser diode subject to one side-mode feedback and external single mode injection

    Wu, Jian-Wei; Won, Yong Hyub


    In this paper, broadly tunable dual-mode lasing system is presented and demonstrated based on single-mode Fabry-Pérot laser diode subject to the feedback of one side mode amplified by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier in the external feedback cavity. The spacing between two resonance modes in output lasing spectrum is broadly tuned by introducing differently amplified side mode into the single-mode laser via the external cavity consisted of amplifier, filter, and polarization controller so that two difference frequencies of 1 THz and 0.6 THz are given to display the tunable behavior of dual-mode emission in this work. Therefore, under an external injection mode into the laser condition, the power dependent injection locking and optical bistability of generated dual-mode emission are discussed in detail. At different wavelength detunings, the emitted two resonance modes including the dominant and feedback modes are switched to on- or off-state by selecting proper high-low power level of the external injection mode. As a consequence, the maximum value of achieved dual-mode on-off ratio is as high as up to 45 dB.

  2. The quest for the solar g modes

    Appourchaux, T; Broomhall, A M; Chaplin, W J; Gough, D O; Houdek, G; Provost, J; Baudin, F; Boumier, P; Elsworth, Y; García, R A; Andersen, B; Finsterle, W; Fröhlich, C; Gabriel, A; Grec, G; Jiménez, A; Kosovichev, A; Sekii, T; Toutain, T; Turck-Chièze, S


    Solar gravity modes (or g modes) -- oscillations of the solar interior for which buoyancy acts as the restoring force -- have the potential to provide unprecedented inference on the structure and dynamics of the solar core, inference that is not possible with the well observed acoustic modes (or p modes). The high amplitude of the g-mode eigenfunctions in the core and the evanesence of the modes in the convection zone make the modes particularly sensitive to the physical and dynamical conditions in the core. Owing to the existence of the convection zone, the g modes have very low amplitudes at photospheric levels, which makes the modes extremely hard to detect. In this paper, we review the current state of play regarding attempts to detect g modes. We review the theory of g modes, including theoretical estimation of the g-mode frequencies, amplitudes and damping rates. Then we go on to discuss the techniques that have been used to try to detect g modes. We review results in the literature, and finish by looki...

  3. Price satisfaction and producer loyalty

    Mutonyi, Sarah; Beukel, Karin; Gyau, Amos


    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design/methodology/approach......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design...... reliability, and relative price are dimensions of price satisfaction that affect producers’ trust in the buyer. Moreover, trust between the producer and the buyer is found to be a strong mediator between price satisfaction and producer loyalty. The findings support recent studies about trust and its mediating...... between the multi-dimensional nature of price satisfaction and producer loyalty with trust as a mediating variable in the business-to-business (B2B) context. Although B2B relationships have been shown to be of great importance for smallholders in enhancing business performance with their buyers, little...

  4. Producing liquid fuels from biomass

    Solantausta, Yrjo; Gust, Steven

    The aim of this survey was to compare, on techno-economic criteria, alternatives of producing liquid fuels from indigenous raw materials in Finland. Another aim was to compare methods under development and prepare a proposal for steering research related to this field. Process concepts were prepared for a number of alternatives, as well as analogous balances and production and investment cost assessments for these balances. Carbon dioxide emissions of the alternatives and the price of CO2 reduction were also studied. All the alternatives for producing liquid fuels from indigenous raw materials are utmost unprofitable. There are great differences between the alternatives. While the production cost of ethanol is 6 to 9 times higher than the market value of the product, the equivalent ratio for substitute fuel oil produced from peat by pyrolysis is 3 to 4. However, it should be borne in mind that the technical uncertainties related to the alternatives are of different magnitude. Production of ethanol from barley is of commercial technology, while biomass pyrolysis is still under development. If the aim is to reach smaller carbon dioxide emissions by using liquid biofuels, the most favorable alternative is pyrolysis oil produced from wood. Fuels produced from cultivated biomass are more expensive ways of reducing CO2 emissions. Their potential of reducing CO2 emissions in Finland is insignificant. Integration of liquid fuel production to some other production line is more profitable.

  5. Compensation method for ultra precision turning error of high relative aperture surface based on coefficients of Zernike polynomial%基于泽尼克多项式系数的大相对孔径表面超精密车削误差的补偿方法

    王毅; 余景池


    超精密车削误差补偿是提高超精密车削工艺水平的关键技术.首先对超精密车削中的各种误差进行了简单的分析与归纳,指出刀具刃口几何形状误差与机床导轨非线性误差具有相同的表现形式,可以通过车削零件的面形检测结果进行综合补偿.然后,提出了一种根据干涉仪检测结果对上述误差进行高精度补偿的方法,并进行了理论推导.最后的实验结果证明:基于面形误差泽尼克多项式球差及高级球差系数(最高到36项系数)对国产刀具刃口(波纹度误差大于0.2 μm)与机床(Nanotech UPL250)系统误差进行综合补偿的方法正确而高效,仅3次补偿循环,即可使一大相对口径实验球面件的面形误差收敛到PV=0.24λ,rms=0.021λ,符合理论推导及计算机模拟的分析.%Compensation of ultra precision turning error is the key technology for development of ultra precision turning process. Firstly, normal diamond turning errors were analyzed and generalized, which showed the geometrical form errors from diamond tool and nonlinear form errors from machine kinematics axis' s had the same format,and both of them could be compensated according to the measurement result of surface shape after diamond turning. Then, a precise compensation method according to measurement result from digital interferometer was proposed, and theoretical calculation related with this compensation method was deduced. The correction of such turning errors was done based on coefficients which represented spherical error and high order spherical error (up to thirty six terms) of Zernike polynomial. In the end, results from turning experiment by home made diamond tool (waviness of more than 0.2 μm)and Nanotech 250 UPL prove the new compensation method's effectiveness, with high accuracy (PV=0.24λ,rms=0.021 λ) and fast speed of error convergence (three compensation cycles), which is agreed with predictive analysis.

  6. State, Culture and Life-modes. The foundations of Life-mode analysis

    Højrup, Thomas

    livsformsanalyse, statsteori, life-mode analysis, statsforms, dialectics, philosophy, war, culture......livsformsanalyse, statsteori, life-mode analysis, statsforms, dialectics, philosophy, war, culture...

  7. Identifying modes of large whispering-gallery mode resonators from the spectrum and emission pattern

    Schunk, Gerhard; Fuerst, Josef U.; Förtsch, Michael;


    Identifying the mode numbers in whispering-gallery mode resonators (WGMRs) is important for tailoring them to experimental needs. Here we report on a novel experimental mode analysis technique based on the combination of frequency analysis and far-field imaging for high mode numbers of large WGMRs....... The radial mode numbers q and the angular mode numbers p = l-m are identified and labeled via far-field imaging. The polar mode numbers l are determined unambiguously by fitting the frequency differences between individual whispering gallery modes (WGMs). This allows for the accurate determination...

  8. Discrete-time nonlinear sliding mode controller


    : Discrete-time delay system, Sliding mode control, nonlinear sliding ... The concept of the sliding mode control in recent years has drawn the ...... His area of interest is dc-dc converters, electrical vehicle and distributed generation application.

  9. Automobile Road Vibration Reproduction using Sliding Modes

    Monsees, G.; Scherpen, J.M.A.


    Sliding mode controllers have a reputation for their robustness against parameter variations, modeling errors and disturbances. They have been successfully applied in several practical situations which demonstrated the potential of sliding mode control for other control problems. However research ha

  10. Path planning during combustion mode switch

    Jiang, Li; Ravi, Nikhil


    Systems and methods are provided for transitioning between a first combustion mode and a second combustion mode in an internal combustion engine. A current operating point of the engine is identified and a target operating point for the internal combustion engine in the second combustion mode is also determined. A predefined optimized transition operating point is selected from memory. While operating in the first combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion engine to approach the selected optimized transition operating point. When the engine is operating at the selected optimized transition operating point, the combustion mode is switched from the first combustion mode to the second combustion mode. While operating in the second combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion to approach the target operating point.

  11. Higher order mode optical fiber Raman amplifiers

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.


    We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations.......We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations....

  12. Guaranteed performance in reaching mode of sliding mode controlled systems

    G K Singh; K E Holé


    Conventionally, the parameters of a sliding mode controller (SMC) are selected so as to reduce the time spent in the reaching mode. Although, an upper bound on the time to reach (reaching time) the sliding surface is easily derived, performance guarantee in the state/error space needs more consideration. This paper addresses the design of constant plus proportional rate reaching law-based SMC for second-order nonlinear systems. It is shown that this controller imposes a bounding second-order error-dynamics, and thus guarantees robust performance during the reaching phase. The choice of the controller parameters based on the time to reach a desirable level of output tracking error (OTE), rather than on the reaching time is proposed. Using the Lyapunov theory, it is shown that parameter selections, based on the reaching time criterion, may need substantially larger time to achieve the OTE. Simulation results are presented for a nonlinear spring-massdamper system. It is seen that parameter selections based on the proposed OTE criterion, result in substantially quicker tracking, while using similar levels of control effort.

  13. Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia coli.

    Bryan, Allen; Youngster, Ilan; McAdam, Alexander J


    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is among the common causes of foodborne gastroenteritis. STEC is defined by the production of specific toxins, but within this pathotype there is a diverse group of organisms. This diversity has important consequences for understanding the pathogenesis of the organism, as well as for selecting the optimum strategy for diagnostic testing in the clinical laboratory. This review includes discussions of the mechanisms of pathogenesis, the range of manifestations of infection, and the several different methods of laboratory detection of Shiga toxin-producing E coli.

  14. Producing miniature threads. Final report

    Gillespie, L.K.; Robb, J.M.


    Miniature precision actuators, timers, and switches typically utilize miniature threads to provide convenient assembly, disassembly and adjustment. Thread rolling provides high-quality external threads with greater strength and lower cost than other thread-producing techniques. Tap breakage is a significant problem when 0.5 and 0.6 Unified National Miniature (UNM) threads must be produced in hard materials such as SAE K95100 high-permeability magnetic steel. Aluminum parts can be tapped with no difficulty in these sizes. Stainless steel 0.5 UNM screws break at loads of 21 lb (53 N). Thread failure occurs at thread heights of 62% full thread or lower.

  15. Nanowire Plasmon Excitation by Adiabatic Mode Transformation

    Verhagen, Ewold; Spasenović, Marko; Polman, Albert; Kuipers, L. (Kobus)


    We show with both experiment and calculation that highly confined surface plasmon polaritons can be efficiently excited on metallic nanowires through the process of mode transformation. One specific mode in a metallic waveguide is identified that adiabatically transforms to the confined nanowire mode as the waveguide width is reduced. Phase- and polarization-sensitive near-field investigation reveals the characteristic antisymmetric polarization nature of the mode and explains the coupling mechanism.

  16. Selfhealing of asymmetric Bessel-like modes

    Israelsen, Stine Møller; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Rottwitt, Karsten


    We numerically investigate asymmetric Bessel-like modes in an aircladding fiber. The selfhealing ability of asymmetric Bessel-like modes is demonstrated and quantified including the angular dependency of this ability.......We numerically investigate asymmetric Bessel-like modes in an aircladding fiber. The selfhealing ability of asymmetric Bessel-like modes is demonstrated and quantified including the angular dependency of this ability....

  17. Acoustic Rotation Modes in Complex Plasmas

    白冬雪; 王正汹; 王晓钢


    Acoustic rotation modes in complex plasmas are investigated in a cylindrical system with an axial symmetry.The linear mode solution is derived. The mode in an infinite area is reduced to a classical dust acoustic wave in the region away from the centre. When the dusty plasma is confined in a finite region, the breathing and rotating-void behaviour are observed. Vivid structures of different mode number solutions are illustrated.

  18. Modeling and characterization of a few-mode EDFA supporting four mode groups for mode division multiplexing.

    Le Cocq, Guillaume; Bigot, Laurent; Le Rouge, Antoine; Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Sillard, Pierre; Koebele, Clemens; Salsi, Massimilliano; Quiquempois, Yves


    Numerical and experimental study of a Few-Mode (FM) Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) suitable for mode division multiplexing (MDM) is reported. Based on numerical simulations, a Few-Mode Erbium Doped Fiber (FM-EDF) has been designed to amplify four mode groups and to equally amplify LP11 and LP21 mode groups with gains greater than 20 dB and with a differential modal gain of less than 1 dB. Experimental results confirmed the simulations with a good concordance. This modal gain equalization is obtained by tailoring the erbium spatial distribution in the fiber core with a ring-shaped profile.

  19. New Modes of Nuclear Excitations

    Tsoneva, Nadia


    We present a theoretical approach based on density functional theory supplemented by a microscopic multi-phonon model which is applied for investigations of pygmy resonances and other excitations of different multipolarities in stable and exotic nuclei. The possible relation of low-energy modes to the properties of neutron or proton skins is systematically studied in isotonic and isotopic chains. The fine structure of nuclear electric and magnetic response functions is analyzed and compared to experimental data. Their relevance to nuclear astrophysics is discussed.

  20. Applications of sliding mode control

    Ghommam, Jawhar; Zhu, Quanmin


    This book presents essential studies and applications in the context of sliding mode control, highlighting the latest findings from interdisciplinary theoretical studies, ranging from computational algorithm development to representative applications. Readers will learn how to easily tailor the techniques to accommodate their ad hoc applications. To make the content as accessible as possible, the book employs a clear route in each paper, moving from background to motivation, to quantitative development (equations), and lastly to case studies/illustrations/tutorials (simulations, experiences, curves, tables, etc.). Though primarily intended for graduate students, professors and researchers from related fields, the book will also benefit engineers and scientists from industry. .

  1. Language Differences and Operation Mode

    Dasi, Angels; Pedersen, Torben


    for a foreign market, so that language distance matters in the case of a home-based sales force, while language incidence is key when operating through a local agent. The hypotheses are tested on a large data set encompassing 462 multinational corporations headquartered in Finland, South Korea, New Zealand......Language serves different purposes depending on the international activity in question. Language has many dimensions and firms’ communicative requirements vary by operational platform. We argue that different dimensions of language vary in their importance depending on the operation mode chosen...

  2. Silicon Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes

    M. Mazzillo; S. Billotta; G. Bonanno; A. Campisi; L. Cosentino; P. Finocchiaro; F. Musumeci; S.Privitera; S. Tudisco; G. Condorelli; D. Sanfilippo; G. Fallica; E. Sciacca; S. Aurite; S. Lombardo; E. Rlmini; M. Belluso


    In this letter we present the results regarding the electrical and optical characterization of Geiger mode silicon avalanche photodiodes (GMAP) fabricated by silicon standard planar technology. Low dark count rates, negligible afterpulsing effects,good timing resolution and high quantum detection efficiency in all the visible range have been measured. The very good electro-optical performances of our photodiodes make them attractive for the fabrication of arrays with a large number of GMAP to be used both in the commercial and the scientific fields, as telecommunications and nuclear medical imaging.

  3. Modes of relating to music

    Luís Melo Campos


    Full Text Available The concept of modes of relating to music is presented, consisting of three conceptual levels and organized into thirteen analytical dimensions that may be operationalized for the purposes of observing empirical situations. It involves closely examining a diversified set of relationships specific to musical practices, in an integrated manner, qualitatively typifying the forms of enjoying them around two poles: the essential and the relational. Although formulated to analyze professional musicians, it is maintained that the concept is also suitable (with adaptations for the analysis of musical consumptions and other spheres of cultural production (intellectual and artistic.

  4. Principal modes in multimode fibers: exploring the crossover from weak to strong mode coupling

    Xiong, Wen; Bromberg, Yaron; Redding, Brandon; Rotter, Stefan; Cao, Hui


    We present experimental and numerical studies on principal modes in a multimode fiber with mode coupling. By applying external stress to the fiber and gradually adjusting the stress, we have realized a transition from weak to strong mode coupling, which corresponds to the transition from single scattering to multiple scattering in mode space. Our experiments show that principal modes have distinct spatial and spectral characteristic in the weak and strong mode coupling regimes. We also investigate the bandwidth of the principal modes, in particular, the dependence of the bandwidth on the delay time, and the effects of the mode-dependent loss. By analyzing the path-length distributions, we discover two distinct mechanisms that are responsible for the bandwidth of principal modes in weak and strong mode coupling regimes. Taking into account the mode-dependent loss in the fiber, our numerical results are in good agreement with our experimental observations. Our study paves the way for exploring potential applica...

  5. Multimode optical fibers: steady state mode exciter.

    Ikeda, M; Sugimura, A; Ikegami, T


    The steady state mode power distribution of the multimode graded index fiber was measured. A simple and effective steady state mode exciter was fabricated by an etching technique. Its insertion loss was 0.5 dB for an injection laser. Deviation in transmission characteristics of multimode graded index fibers can be avoided by using the steady state mode exciter.

  6. The ion kinetic D'Angelo mode

    Chibisov, D. V.; Mikhailenko, V. S.; Stepanov, K. N.


    An extension of hydrodynamic D'Angelo mode of inhomogeneous sheared plasma flow along the magnetic field into the short wavelength range, where the hydrodynamic treatment is not valid, has been considered. We find that D'Angelo mode in this wavelength range is excited by inverse ion Landau damping and is a shear flow driven ion-kinetic mode.

  7. Inertial modes of slowly rotating isentropic stars

    Yoshida, S; Yoshida, Shijun; Lee, Umin


    We investigate inertial mode oscillations of slowly and uniformly rotating, isentropic, Newtonian stars. Inertial mode oscillations are induced by the Coriolis force due to the star's rotation, and their characteristic frequencies are comparable with the rotation frequency $\\Omega$ of the star. So called r-mode oscillations form a sub-class of the inertial modes. In this paper, we use the term ``r-modes'' to denote the inertial modes for which the toroidal motion dominates the spheroidal motion, and the term ``inertial modes'' to denote the inertial modes for which the toroidal and spheroidal motions have comparable amplitude to each other. Using the slow rotation approximation consistent up to the order of $\\Omega^3$, we study the properties of the inertial modes and r-modes, by taking account of the effect of the rotational deformation of the equilibrium on the eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions. The eigenfrequencies of the r-modes and inertial modes calculated in this paper are in excellent agreement with...

  8. Turbo Codes with Hybrid Interleaving Mode


    In the investigation of turbo codes, either random interleavers or structured interleavers are used. Combined two kinds of interleavers in one turbo encoder, a hybrid interleaving mode is proposed in this paper. Computer simulations show that the performance of turbo codes with the hybrid interleaving mode is better than that with the typical interleaving mode.

  9. Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuit Mode Multiplexer

    Ding, Yunhong; Ou, Haiyan; Xu, Jing


    We propose and demonstrate a novel silicon photonic integrated circuit enabling multiplexing of orthogonal modes in a few-mode fiber (FMF). By selectively launching light to four vertical grating couplers, all six orthogonal spatial and polarization modes supported by the FMF are successfully...

  10. Forms of knowledge and modes of innovation

    Jensen, Morten Berg; Johnson, Björn; Lorenz, Edward


    This paper contrasts two modes of innovation. One, the Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) mode, is based on the production and use of codified scientific and technical knowledge. The other, the Doing, Using and Interacting (DUI) mode, relies on informal processes of learning and experience...

  11. Internal mode of incoherent photovoltaic vector solitons

    Zhang Bing-Zhi; Wang Hong-Cheng; She Wei-Long


    The internal modes of incoherent vector solitons (IVSs) in photovoltaic photorefractive materials are investigated in the framework of coupled nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equations. It is found that there is a pair of internal modes corresponding to a bright-bright IVS. The propagation dynamics of the bright-bright IVS perturbed by the internal modes is simulated by numerical method.

  12. The Top Theological Degree Producers

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012


    Each year, "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education" publishes a list of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This year, for the first…

  13. A new producer of mevastatin

    Chu; Yiwen; Yang; Xi


    Mevastatin (compactin)was isolated form culture broth of a fungal strain SIIA-F3933,The strain SIIA-F3933 was isolated from a soil sample collected in Putuo mountain,Zhejiang Province,P,R.China,It was identified as Penicillium janczewskii Zaleski based on its cultural and morphological characteristics and was regarded as a new producer of mevastatin,。

  14. PLC-based mode multi/demultiplexers for mode division multiplexing

    Saitoh, Kunimasa; Hanzawa, Nobutomo; Sakamoto, Taiji; Fujisawa, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoko; Matsui, Takashi; Tsujikawa, Kyozo; Nakajima, Kazuhide


    Recently developed PLC-based mode multi/demultiplexers (MUX/DEMUXs) for mode division multiplexing (MDM) transmission are reviewed. We firstly show the operation principle and basic characteristics of PLC-based MUX/DEMUXs with an asymmetric directional coupler (ADC). We then demonstrate the 3-mode (2LP-mode) multiplexing of the LP01, LP11a, and LP11b modes by using fabricated PLC-based mode MUX/DEMUX on one chip. In order to excite LP11b mode in the same plane, a PLC-based LP11 mode rotator is introduced. Finally, we show the PLC-based 6-mode (4LP-mode) MUX/DEMUX with a uniform height by using ADCs, LP11 mode rotators, and tapered waveguides. It is shown that the LP21a mode can be excited from the LP11b mode by using ADC, and the two nearly degenerated LP21b and LP02 modes can be (de)multiplexed separately by using tapered mode converter from E13 (E31) mode to LP21b (LP02) mode.

  15. Resistive wall mode active control physics design for KSTAR

    Park, Y. S.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Bak, J. G.; Bialek, J. M.; Berkery, J. W.; Lee, S. G.; Oh, Y. K.


    As KSTAR H-mode operation approaches the region where the resistive wall mode (RWM) can be unstable, an important issue for future long pulse, high beta plasma operation is to evaluate RWM active feedback control performance using a planned active/passive RWM stabilization system on the device. In particular, an optimal design of feedback sensors allows mode stabilization up to the highest achievable βN close to the ideal with-wall limit, βNwall, with reduced control power requirements. The computed ideal n = 1 mode structure from the DCON code has been input to the VALEN-3D code to calculate the projected performance of an active RWM control system in the KSTAR three-dimensional conducting structure device geometry. Control performance with the midplane locked mode detection sensors, off-midplane saddle loops, and magnetic pickup coils is examined. The midplane sensors measuring the radial component of the mode perturbation is found to be strongly affected by the wall eddy current. The off-axis saddle loops with proper compensation of the prompt applied field are computed to provide stabilization at βN up to 86% of βNwall but the low RWM amplitude computed in the off-axis regions near the sensors can produce a low signal-to-noise ratio. The required control power and bandwidth are also estimated with varied noise levels in the feedback sensors. Further improvements have been explored by examining a new RWM sensor design motivated by the off-midplane poloidal magnetic field sensors in NSTX. The new sensors mounted off of the copper passive stabilizer plates near the device midplane show a clear advantage in control performance corresponding to achieving 99% of βNwall without the need of compensation of the prompt field. The result shows a significant improvement of RWM feedback stabilization using the new sensor set which motivates a future feedback sensor upgrade.


    Toi, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan; Isobe, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan; Spong, Donald A [ORNL


    nergetic ion driven magnetohydrodynamic instabilities such as Alfven eigenmodes (AEs), energetic particle modes (EPMs), and their impacts on energetic ion confinement are being studied on the Large Helical Device (LHD). The magnetic configuration of this device is three dimensional and has negative magnetic shear over a whole radial region in the low-beta regime. Two types of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) are typically observed in LHD plasmas that are heated by tangential neutral beam injection: One is localized in the plasma core region near a central TAE gap and the other is a global TAE having a radially extended eigenfunction. Core-localized TAEs with even and odd radial mode parities are often observed. The global TAE is usually observed in medium- to high-beta plasmas where broad regions with low magnetic shear are present. Helicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (HAEs), which exist in gaps unique to three-dimensional plasmas that have both toroidal and poloidal mode couplings, were detected for the first time. Recently, reversed magnetic shear Alfven eigenmodes (RSAEs) having characteristic frequency sweeping were discovered in reversed magnetic shear (RS) plasmas produced by intense counter-neutral beam current drive. In the RS plasma, the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) excited by energetic ions, which is a global-type mode different from localized GAM excited by drift waves, was also detected for the first time in a helical plasma. Nonlinear couplings between RSAE and GAM modes and also between two TAEs were observed. Bursts of TAEs and EPMs often enhance radial transport and loss of energetic ions at low toroidal magnetic field (<0.75 T).

  17. Untangled modes in multimode waveguides

    Plöschner, Martin; Tyc, TomáÅ.¡; Čižmár, TomáÅ.¡


    Small, fibre-based endoscopes have already improved our ability to image deep within the human body. A novel approach introduced recently utilised disordered light within a standard multimode optical fibre for lensless imaging. Importantly, this approach brought very significant reduction of the instruments footprint to dimensions below 100 μm. The most important limitations of this exciting technology is the lack of bending flexibility - imaging is only possible as long as the fibre remains stationary. The only route to allow flexibility of such endoscopes is in trading-in all the knowledge about the optical system we have, particularly the cylindrical symmetry of refractive index distribution. In perfect straight step-index cylindrical waveguides we can find optical modes that do not change their spatial distribution as they propagate through. In this paper we present a theoretical background that provides description of such modes in more realistic model of real-life step-index multimode fibre taking into account common deviations in distribution of the refractive index from its ideal step-index profile. Separately, we discuss how to include the influence of fibre bending.

  18. [Modes of action of IUDs].

    Janaud, A


    There are between 14-17 million women in the world, excluding China, who wear an IUD, or about 3-5% of all married women younger than 45. Studies on the mode of action of IUDs have been conducted mostly on laboratory animals; they show that ovulation and fecundation are not inhibited by the presence of an IUD. Contrary to what was generally believed, the latest studies have shown that the principle mode of action of the IUD is not its anti-implantation effect, but it depends on the adjustment inside the uterine cavity between the size of the uterine cavity itself, and the size and shape of the device. Endometrial modifications caused by IUDs include inflammatory phenomena, and inhibition of endometrial maturation. Moreover, copper IUDs act directly on spermatozoa and on endometrial steroid receptors. It is still not clear what role prostaglandins play in the mechanism of action of IUDs. Incidence of ectopic pregnancy is not greater in IUD wearers than in women who do not use contraception. Follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels also are comparable in IUD wearers and in nonwearers. IUD wearers have a shorter luteal phase, which entails an earlier menstrual bleeding due to the antifibrinolytic action of the IUD; progesterone levels are identical in users and in nonusers of IUDs.

  19. Dominant modes via model error

    Yousuff, A.; Breida, M.


    Obtaining a reduced model of a stable mechanical system with proportional damping is considered. Such systems can be conveniently represented in modal coordinates. Two popular schemes, the modal cost analysis and the balancing method, offer simple means of identifying dominant modes for retention in the reduced model. The dominance is measured via the modal costs in the case of modal cost analysis and via the singular values of the Gramian-product in the case of balancing. Though these measures do not exactly reflect the more appropriate model error, which is the H2 norm of the output-error between the full and the reduced models, they do lead to simple computations. Normally, the model error is computed after the reduced model is obtained, since it is believed that, in general, the model error cannot be easily computed a priori. The authors point out that the model error can also be calculated a priori, just as easily as the above measures. Hence, the model error itself can be used to determine the dominant modes. Moreover, the simplicity of the computations does not presume any special properties of the system, such as small damping, orthogonal symmetry, etc.

  20. Localized vibrational modes in diamond

    Murzaev, R. T.; Bachurin, D. V.; Korznikova, E. A.; Dmitriev, S. V.


    Discrete breather (DB) or, synonymously, intrinsic localized mode (ILM) is a spatially localized and time-periodic vibrational mode in a defect-free nonlinear lattice, e.g., in a crystal lattice. Standing DB and DB clusters (double and triple) are studied in diamond using molecular dynamics method with the AIREBO interatomic potentials. Single DB can be easily excited by applying initial shifts, A0, to a pair of nearest atoms along the valence bond in the opposite directions. Admissible excitation amplitudes are 0.09 ≤A0 /a0 ≤ 0.12, where a0 is the equilibrium interatomic distance. The core of a DB is a pair of nearest carbon atoms oscillating out-of-phase, while the neighboring atoms oscillate with one order of magnitude lower amplitudes. DB frequency is above the top of the phonon spectrum and increases with the oscillation amplitude. DB lives for more than 100 oscillation periods which approximately corresponds to 2 ps. The range of initial amplitudes and other conditions necessary for the excitation of double and triple DB clusters as well as their lifetime are investigated in detail. Two different mechanisms of energy exchange between DBs in the DB clusters are revealed, which is the main result of the present study. Our results contribute to a deeper understanding of the nonlinear lattice dynamics of diamond.

  1. Forms of knowledge and modes of innovation

    Jensen, Morten Berg; Johnson, Björn; Lorenz, Edward


    This paper contrasts two modes of innovation. One, the Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) mode, is based on the production and use of codified scientific and technical knowledge. The other, the Doing, Using and Interacting (DUI) mode, relies on informal processes of learning and experience......-based know-how. Drawing on the results of the 2001 Danish DISKO Survey, latent class analysis is used to identify groups of firms that practice the two modes with different intensities. Logit regression analysis is used to show that firms combining the two modes are more likely to innovate new products...

  2. Dispersion of coupled mode-gap cavities

    Lian, Jin; Yüce, Emre; De Rossi, Sylvain Combrié Alfredo; Mosk, Allard P


    The dispersion of a CROW made of photonic crystal mode-gap cavities is pronouncedly asymmetric. This asymmetry cannot be explained by the standard tight binding model. We show that the fundamental cause of the asymmetric dispersion is the fact that the cavity mode profile itself is dispersive, i.e., the mode wave function depends on the driving frequency, not the eigenfrequency. This occurs because the photonic crystal cavity resonances do not form a complete set. By taking into account the dispersive mode profile, we formulate a mode coupling model that accurately describes the asymmetric dispersion without introducing any new free parameters.

  3. Digital holograms for laser mode multiplexing

    Mhlanga, T


    Full Text Available : spatial modes, multiplex, mode coupling 1. INTRODUCTION Optical networks form a foundation of modern communications networks since the replacement of copper wires with optical fibres in the 1980’s. This fibre technology has been based on single mode fibres... been show that aberrated wave fronts result in a distorted modal spectrum.7 We illustrate that by taking this into account, we can successful multiplex and demultiplexed the LG modes of two degrees of freedom in free-space, with minimized mode coupling...

  4. Optical Cladding Waveguides in Dielectric Crystals Produced by Femtosecond Laser Inscription

    Chen Feng


    Full Text Available In this work, the recent progress of our research on optical cladding waveguides in dielectric crystals produced by femtosecond laser inscription has been overviewed. With different scales at cross sections, the cladding waveguides support guidance from single mode to highly multi-modes, and work for wavelength till mid-infrared regimes. Applications of the fabricated cladding structures as new integrated light sources are introduced.

  5. Distributed mode filtering rod fiber amplifier delivering 292W with improved mode stability

    Laurila, Marko; Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Hansen, Kristian Rymann


    We demonstrate a high power fiber (85μm core) amplifier delivering up to 292Watts of average output power using a mode-locked 30ps source at 1032nm. Utilizing a single mode distributed mode filter bandgap rod fiber, we demonstrate 44% power improvement before the threshold-like onset of mode...

  6. Effects of audio-visual information and mode of speech on listener perceptions of alaryngeal speakers.

    Evitts, Paul M; Van Dine, Ami; Holler, Aline


    There is minimal research on listener perceptions of an individual with a laryngectomy (IWL) based on audio-visual information. The aim of this research was to provide preliminary insight into whether listeners have different perceptions of an individual with a laryngectomy based on mode of presentation (audio-only vs. audio-visual) and mode of speech (tracheoesophageal, oesophageal, electrolaryngeal, normal). Thirty-four naïve listeners were randomly presented with a standard reading passage produced by one typical speaker from each mode of speech in both audio-only and audio-visual presentation mode. Listeners used a visual analogue scale (10 cm line) to indicate their perceptions of each speaker's personality. A significant effect for mode of speech was present. There was no significant difference in listener perceptions between mode of presentation using individual ratings. However, principal component analysis showed ratings were more favourable in the audio-visual mode. Results of this study suggest that visual information may only have a minor impact on listener perceptions of a speakers' personality and that mode of speech and degree of speech proficiency may only play a small role in listener perceptions. However, results should be interpreted with caution as results are based on only one speaker per mode of speech.

  7. Tearing mode instability due to anomalous resistivity

    Furuya, Atsushi [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Sanae I.; Yagi, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics


    Tearing mode instability in the presence of microscopic truculence is investigates. The effects of microscopic turbulence on tearing mode are taken as drags which are calculated by one-point renormalization method and mean-field approximation. These effects are reduced to effective diffusivities in reduced MHD equations. Using these equations, the stability analyses of the tearing mode are performed. It is shown that a finite amplitude of fluctuation enhances the growth rate of tearing mode. For very high values of turbulent diffusivities, marginally stable state exists. The effects of each turbulent diffusivity on mode stability are examined near marginal stability boundary. Parameter dependence of the resistive ballooning mode turbulence on tearing mode is analyzed as an example. (author)

  8. Comparison and Selection of Organization Modes in Edible Fungus Industry of Shandong Province

    Yanxiang; GE; Jilian; HU; Zhijian; GUO


    China is the largest producer and exporter of edible fungus in the world,and Shandong is the largest producer of edible fungus in China.This study is intended to select suitable organization mode for edible fungus industry of Shandong Province.On the basis of types and characteristics of existing edible fungus production modes in China,it is concluded that Shandong Province should take following measures:(1)giving priority to development of integrated organization mode;(2)steadily promoting park and factory mode in economically developed regions;(3)developing circular agriculture in regions with solid foundation of agriculture and animal husbandry.Finally,it puts forward following recommendations:(1)speeding up construction of standardization and information platform for edible fungus industry;(2)improving quality of personnel engaged in edible fungus industry;(3)bringing into play driving effect of leading enterprises;(4)developing and introducing deep processing enterprises.

  9. Acoustic mode coupling of two facing, shallow cylindrical cavities

    McCarthy, Philip; Ekmekci, Alis


    Cavity mode excitation by grazing flows is a well-documented source for noise generation. Similarly to their rectangular equivalents, single cylindrical cavities have been shown to exhibit velocity dependent self-sustaining feedback mechanisms that produce significant tonal noise. The present work investigates the effect of cavity mode coupling on the tonal noise generation for two facing, shallow cylindrical cavities. This geometric arrangement may occur for constrained flows, such as those within ducts, silencers or between aircraft landing gear wheels. For the latter configuration, the present study has observed that the tonal frequency dependence upon the freestream Mach number, associated with the single cavity feedback mechanism, no longer holds true. Instead, two simultaneously present and distinct large amplitude tones that are independent (in frequency) of speed, propagate to the far field. These two, fixed frequency tones are attributable to the first order transverse mode, and the first order transverse and azimuthal modes for the two combined cavities and the volume between them. Altering either the cavity aspect ratio or the inter-cavity spacing thus changes the acoustic resonant volume and translates the centre frequencies of the observed tones correspondingly. The authors would like to thank Bombardier and Messier-Bugatti-Dowty for their continued support.

  10. Trapped modes in waveguides with many small discontinuities

    Kurennoy, S.S. (Physics Department, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States))


    It has been demonstrated recently [G. V. Stupakov and S. S. Kurennoy, Phys. Rev. E 49, 794 (1994)] that a single small discontinuity (such as an enlargement or a hole) on a smooth waveguide can result in the appearance of trapped electromagnetic modes with frequencies slightly below the waveguide cutoff frequencies. The present paper studies a similar phenomenon for a waveguide with many small discontinuities, which is a good model for the vacuum chamber of large accelerators. Frequencies of trapped modes and their contributions to the coupling impedance are calculated. The frequencies for the cases of a few discontinuities or a periodic structure coincide well with those from numerical simulations. The trapped modes produce sharp resonance peaks of the coupling impedance near the cutoff frequencies. The magnitude of these peaks, as well as the existence itself of a trapped mode, strongly depends on the distribution of discontinuities, or on the distance between them if a regular array is considered. The impedance in the extreme case can be as large as [ital N][sup 3] times that for a single discontinuity, where [ital N] is the number of discontinuities.

  11. Trapped modes in waveguides with many small discontinuities

    Kurennoy, Sergey S.


    It has been demonstrated recently [G. V. Stupakov and S. S. Kurennoy, Phys. Rev. E 49, 794 (1994)] that a single small discontinuity (such as an enlargement or a hole) on a smooth waveguide can result in the appearance of trapped electromagnetic modes with frequencies slightly below the waveguide cutoff frequencies. The present paper studies a similar phenomenon for a waveguide with many small discontinuities, which is a good model for the vacuum chamber of large accelerators. Frequencies of trapped modes and their contributions to the coupling impedance are calculated. The frequencies for the cases of a few discontinuities or a periodic structure coincide well with those from numerical simulations. The trapped modes produce sharp resonance peaks of the coupling impedance near the cutoff frequencies. The magnitude of these peaks, as well as the existence itself of a trapped mode, strongly depends on the distribution of discontinuities, or on the distance between them if a regular array is considered. The impedance in the extreme case can be as large as N3 times that for a single discontinuity, where N is the number of discontinuities.

  12. Mode transitions and electronegativity in oxygen CCP and ICP

    Meichsner, Juergen; Wegner, Thomas


    Mode transitions in 13.56 MHz oxygen radio frequency plasmas (CCP, ICP) and their impact on the electron heating mechanisms and electronegativity were studied by advanced plasma diagnostics. In particular, Langmuir probe measurements, Gaussian beam microwave interferometry (160 GHz) coupled with laser photodetachment of negative oxygen ions, as well as the (phase resolved) optical emission and VUV absorption spectroscopy, and ion mass spectrometry are taken into consideration. With increasing RF power a transition between high and low electronegativity was found both in CCP and ICP discharge configuration. Thereby, the changed electron heating mechanisms, e.g., the alpha-gamma mode transition in CCP and the E-H mode transition in ICP is combined with the change of electronegativity. In strongly asymmetric CCP at moderate pressure the emission of secondary negative ions at the powered electrode have to be considered, too. Thereby, pseudo secondary electrons may be produced due to collision detachment of negative ion by metastables. During the E-H mode transition in oxygen ICP, the increasing gas temperature and the metastables influences significantly the oxygen kinetics. Supported by the DFG Collaborative Research Centre Transregio 24 ``Fundamentals of Complex Plasmas''.

  13. Cosmic Super-Strings and Kaluza-Klein Modes

    Dufaux, Jean-Francois


    Cosmic super-strings interact generically with a tower of relatively light and / or strongly coupled Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes associated with the geometry of the internal space. In this paper, we study the production of spin-2 KK particles by cusps on loops of cosmic F- and D-strings. We consider cosmic super-strings localized either at the bottom of a warped throat or in a flat internal space with large volume. The total energy emitted by cusps in KK modes is of the same order of magnitude in both cases, although the number of produced KK modes may differ significantly. The calculation lies within the regime of validity of the effective Nambu-Goto description, but the energy emitted in KK modes is comparable to the energy released in scalar and gauge fields by cusp annihilation on standard Abelian-Higgs cosmic strings. Nevertheless, KK emission by cosmic super-strings may have specific cosmological consequences. We show that it is constrained by the diffuse gamma ray background and by the photo-dissociation o...

  14. Cosmic Super-Strings and Kaluza-Klein Modes

    Dufaux, Jean-Francois


    Cosmic super-strings interact generically with a tower of relatively light and/or strongly coupled Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes associated with the geometry of the internal space. In this paper, we study the production of spin-2 KK particles by cusps on loops of cosmic F- and D-strings. We consider cosmic super-strings localized either at the bottom of a warped throat or in a flat internal space with large volume. The total energy emitted by cusps in KK modes is comparable in both cases, although the number of produced KK modes may differ significantly. We then show that KK emission is constrained by the photo-dissociation of light elements and by observations of the diffuse gamma ray background. We study the resulting constraints on the parameter space of cosmic super-strings and highlight their complementarity with the regions that can be probed by current and upcoming gravitational wave experiments. KK modes are also expected to play an important role in the friction-dominated epoch of cosmic super-string evolu...

  15. New Edge Coherent Mode Providing Continuous Transport in Long-Pulse H-mode Plasmas

    Wang, H. Q.; Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.; Ding, S. Y.; Guo, H. Y.; Shao, L. M.; Liu, S. C.; Xu, X. Q.; Wang, E.; Yan, N.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A. H.; Rasmussen, J. Juul; Candy, J.; Bravenec, R.; Sun, Y. W.; Shi, T. H.; Liang, Y. F.; Chen, R.; Zhang, W.; Wang, L.; Chen, L.; Zhao, N.; Li, Y. L.; Liu, Y. L.; Hu, G. H.; Gong, X. Z.


    An electrostatic coherent mode near the electron diamagnetic frequency (20-90 kHz) is observed in the steep-gradient pedestal region of long pulse H-mode plasmas in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak, using a newly developed dual gas-puff-imaging system and diamond-coated reciprocating probes. The mode propagates in the electron diamagnetic direction in the plasma frame with poloidal wavelength of ˜8 cm. The mode drives a significant outflow of particles and heat as measured directly with the probes, thus greatly facilitating long pulse H-mode sustainment. This mode shows the nature of dissipative trapped electron mode, as evidenced by gyrokinetic turbulence simulations.

  16. Method for producing hydrophobic aerogels

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Poco, John F.; Coronado, Paul R.


    A method for treating a dried monolithic aerogel containing non-dispersed particles, with an organometallic surface modifying agent to produce hydrophobic aerogels. The dried, porous hydrophobic aerogels contain a protective layer of alkyl groups, such as methyl groups, on the modified surfaces of the pores of the aerogel. The alkyl groups at the aerogel surface typically contain at least one carbon-metal bond per group.

  17. A Prescription for List-Mode Data Processing Conventions

    Beddingfield, David H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Huszti, Jozsef [Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary). Centre For Energy Research; Newell, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    There are a variety of algorithmic approaches available to process list-mode pulse streams to produce multiplicity histograms for subsequent analysis. In the development of the INCC v6.0 code to include the processing of this data format, we have noted inconsistencies in the “processed time” between the various approaches. The processed time, tp, is the time interval over which the recorded pulses are analyzed to construct multiplicity histograms. This is the time interval that is used to convert measured counts into count rates. The observed inconsistencies in tp impact the reported count rate information and the determination of the error-values associated with the derived singles, doubles, and triples counting rates. This issue is particularly important in low count-rate environments. In this report we will present a prescription for the processing of list-mode counting data that produces values that are both correct and consistent with traditional shift-register technologies. It is our objective to define conventions for list mode data processing to ensure that the results are physically valid and numerically aligned with the results from shift-register electronics.

  18. Endocrine cells producing regulatory peptides.

    Solcia, E; Usellini, L; Buffa, R; Rindi, G; Villani, L; Zampatti, C; Silini, E


    Recent data on the immunolocalization of regulatory peptides and related propeptide sequences in endocrine cells and tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, lung, thyroid, pituitary (ACTH and opioids), adrenals and paraganglia have been revised and discussed. Gastrin, xenopsin, cholecystokinin (CCK), somatostatin, motilin, secretin, GIP (gastric inhibitory polypeptide), neurotensin, glicentin/glucagon-37 and PYY (peptide tyrosine tyrosine) are the main products of gastrointestinal endocrine cells; glucagon, CRF (corticotropin releasing factor), somatostatin, PP (pancreatic polypeptide) and GRF (growth hormone releasing factor), in addition to insulin, are produced in pancreatic islet cells; bombesin-related peptides are the main markers of pulmonary endocrine cells; calcitonin and CGRP (calcitonin gene-related peptide) occur in thyroid and extrathyroid C cells; ACTH and endorphins in anterior and intermediate lobe pituitary cells, alpha-MSH and CLIP (corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide) in intermediate lobe cells; met- and leu-enkephalins and related peptides in adrenal medullary and paraganglionic cells as well as in some gut (enterochromaffin) cells; NPY (neuropeptide Y) in adrenaline-type adrenal medullary cells, etc.. Both tissue-appropriate and tissue-inappropriate regulatory peptides are produced by endocrine tumours, with inappropriate peptides mostly produced by malignant tumours.

  19. GATS Mode 4 Negotiation and Policy Options

    Kil-Sang Yoo


    Full Text Available This study reviews the characteristics and issues of GATS Mode 4 and guesses the effects of Mode 4 liberalization on Korean economy and labor market to suggest policy options to Korea. Mode 4 negotiation started from the trade perspective, however, since Mode 4 involves international labor migration, it also has migration perspective. Thus developed countries, that have competitiveness in service sector, are interested in free movement of skilled workers such as intra-company transferees and business visitors. On the other hand, developing countries, that have little competitiveness in service sector, are interested in free movement of low-skilled workers. Empirical studies predict that the benefits of Mode 4 liberalization will be focused on developed countries rather than developing countries. The latter may suffer from brain drain and reduction of labor supply. Nevertheless developed countries are reluctant to Mode 4 negotiation because they can utilize skilled workers from developing countries by use of their own temporary visa programs. They are interested in Mode 4 related with Mode 3 in order to ease direct investment and movement of natural persons to developing countries. Regardless of the direction of a single undertaking of Mode 4 negotiation, the net effects of Mode 4 liberalization on Korean economy and labor market may be negative. The Korean initial offer on Mode 4 is the same as the UR offer. Since Korean position on Mode 4 is most defensive, it is hard to expect that Korean position will be accepted as the single undertaking of Mode 4 negotiation. Thus Korea has to prepare strategic package measures to minimize the costs of Mode 4 liberalization and improve competitiveness of service sector.

  20. Tearing mode velocity braking due to resonant magnetic perturbations

    Frassinetti, L.; Menmuir, S.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.


    The effect of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) on the tearing mode (TM) velocity is studied in EXTRAP T2R. Experimental results show that the RMP produces TM braking until a new steady velocity or wall locking is reached. The braking is initially localized at the TM resonance and then spreads to the other TMs and to the rest of the plasma producing a global velocity reduction via the viscous torque. The process has been used to experimentally estimate the kinematic viscosity profile, in the range 2-40 m2 s-1, and the electromagnetic torque produced by the RMP, which is strongly localized at the TM resonance. Experimental results are then compared with a theoretical model which gives a reasonable qualitative explanation of the entire process.

  1. Two different modes of oscillation in a gene transcription regulatory network with interlinked positive and negative feedback loops

    Karmakar, Rajesh


    We study the oscillatory behavior of a gene regulatory network with interlinked positive and negative feedback loop. The frequency and amplitude are two important properties of oscillation. The studied network produces two different modes of oscillation. In one mode (mode-I), frequency of oscillation remains constant over a wide range of amplitude and in the other mode (mode-II) the amplitude of oscillation remains constant over a wide range of frequency. Our study reproduces both features of oscillations in a single gene regulatory network and shows that the negative plus positive feedback loops in gene regulatory network offer additional advantage. We identified the key parameters/variables responsible for different modes of oscillation. The network is flexible in switching between different modes by choosing appropriately the required parameters/variables.

  2. Mode-bifurcation upon pouring water into a cup that depends on the shape of the cup

    Nakata, Satoshi; Yamada, Akiko; Kitahata, Hiroyuki


    Mode-bifurcation that included hysteresis was investigated when water was poured into a cup via a water faucet. Three modes, i.e., accumulation flow (mode I), scattering flow (mode II), and open and shut oscillatory flow (mode III), could be produced by laterally changing the distance between the center of the cup and the landing point of water poured at a constant flow rate. Hysteresis in mode-bifurcation was observed when the distance was changed depending on the initial location of the water poured into the cup. Pendulum flow was also observed when water was poured into a shallow cell. The essential features of this mode-switching were reproduced by a numerical calculation as a function of the landing point of the poured water using two-variable (the size of the water hollow and the pressure on the water surface) differential equations that included the nature of reversed flow.

  3. (-)-Carvone: antispasmodic effect and mode of action.

    Souza, Fábia Valéria M; da Rocha, Marcelly Barbosa; de Souza, Damião P; Marçal, Rosilene Moretti


    (-)-Carvone is a monoterpene ketone found in spearmint (Mentha spicata var. crispa) essential oil that is widely used as an odor and flavor additive. An intestinal antispasmodic effect was recently reported for (-)-carvone, and it has been shown to be more potent than its (+)-antipode. The mechanism of (-)-carvone action in the intestines has not been investigated. To gain a better understanding of the (-)-carvone antispasmodic effect, we investigated its pharmacological effects in the guinea pig ileum. Terminal portions of the ileum were mounted for isotonic contraction recordings. The effect of (-)-carvone was compared with that of the classical calcium channel blocker (CCB) verapamil. In isolated ileal smooth muscle, (-)-carvone did not produce direct contractile or relaxation responses and did not modify electrically elicited contractions or low K(+)-evoked contractions. The submaximal contractions induced by histamine (p<0.001), BaCl2 (p<0.05), and carbachol (p<0.01) were significantly reduced by (-)-carvone. The contractile response elicited by high concentrations of carbachol was reduced but not abolished by (-)-carvone. No additive action was detected with co-incubation of (-)-carvone and verapamil on carbachol-induced contraction. (-)-Carvone reduced the contraction induced by high K(+) and was almost 100 times more potent than verapamil. Thus, (-)-carvone showed a typical and potent CCB-like action. Many effects described for both (-)-carvone and spearmint oil can be explained as a CCB-like mode of action.

  4. Model for a Torsional-Mode Ultrasonic Transducer for an Acousto-Optic In-Fiber Isolator

    Gerald T. Moore


    torsional modes in a cylindrical fiber. This model predicts that almost all of the power applied to the transducer is radiated into the desired mode. The paper also discusses effects produced by acoustic absorption and the dependence of the acoustic velocity on temperature.

  5. Do English Listening Outcome and Cognitive Load Change for Different Media Delivery Modes in U-Learning?

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lei, Hao; Tseng, Ju-Shih


    Although ubiquitous learning enhances students' access to learning materials, it is crucial to find out which media delivery modes produce the best results for English listening comprehension. The present study examined the effect of media delivery mode (sound and text vs. sound) on English listening comprehension and cognitive load. Participants…

  6. Media Presentation Mode, English Listening Comprehension and Cognitive Load in Ubiquitous Learning Environments: Modality Effect or Redundancy Effect?

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lei, Hao; Tseng, Ju-Shih


    Although ubiquitous learning enhances students' access to learning materials, it is crucial to find out which media presentation modes produce the best results for English listening comprehension. The present study examined the effect of media presentation mode (sound and text versus sound) on English listening comprehension and cognitive load.…

  7. Mode-selective optical packet switching in mode-division multiplexing networks.

    Diamantopoulos, N P; Hayashi, M; Yoshida, Y; Maruta, A; Maruyama, R; Kuwaki, N; Takenaga, K; Uemura, H; Matsuo, S; Kitayama, K


    A novel mode-selective optical packet switching, based on mode-multiplexers/demultiplexers and multi-port optical micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) switches, has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The experimental demonstration was performed using the LP(01), LP(11a) and LP(11b) modes of a 30-km long mode-division multiplexed few-mode fiber link, utilizing 40 Gb/s, 16-QAM signals.

  8. Quantum Collapse and Revival of Atom in Mode-Mode Competing System

    WU Qin; FANG Mao-Fa


    The atomic inversion dynamics in the mode-mode competing system is studied by means of fully quantum theory. A general solution to the Schrodinger equation of this system is obtained. The influence of the relative competing strength between the atom and the two-mode field on the atomic inversion is disccussed. We show that the presence of the mode-mode competition can result in periodical collapses-revivals of the atomic inversion.

  9. Propagation of Flexural Mode AE Signals in GR/EP Composite Plates

    Prosser, W. H.; Gorman, M. R.


    It has been documented that AE signals propagate in thin plates as extensional and flexural plate modes. This was demonstrated using simulated AE sources (pencil lead breaks) by Gorman on thin aluminum and gr/ep composite plates and by Gorman and Prosser on thin aluminum plates. A typical signal from a pencil lead break source which identifies these two modes is shown. AE signals from transverse matrix cracking sources in gr/ep composite plates were also shown to propagate as plate modes by Gorman and Ziola. Smith showed that crack growth events in thin aluminum plates under spectrum fatigue loading produced signals that propagated as plate modes. Additionally, Prosser et al. showed that AE signals propagated as plate modes in a thin walled composite tube.

  10. Mode coupling in terahertz metamaterials using sub-radiative and super-radiative resonators

    Qiao, Shen; Zhang, Yaxin, E-mail:; Zhao, Yuncheng; Xu, Gaiqi; Sun, Han; Yang, Ziqiang [Terahertz Science Cooperative Innovation Center, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Liang, Shixiong [National Key Laboratory of Application Specific Integrated Circuit, Hebei Semiconductor Research Institute, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China)


    We theoretically and experimentally explored the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) mode-coupling in terahertz (THz) metamaterial resonators, in which a dipole resonator with a super-radiative mode is coupled to an inductance-capacitance resonator with a sub-radiative mode. The interference between these two resonators depends on the relative spacing between them, resulting in a tunable transparency window in the absorption spectrum. Mode coupling was experimentally demonstrated for three spacing dependent EIT metamaterials. Transmittance of the transparency windows could be either enhanced or suppressed, producing different spectral linewidths. These spacing dependent mode-coupling metamaterials provide alternative ways to create THz devices, such as filters, absorbers, modulators, sensors, and slow-light devices.

  11. Three basic modes for patients' clinical decision-making in China.

    Li, En-Chang; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Wen-Ying; Zhao, Liang-Yu


    In China, there are three basic clinical decision-making modes for patients, namely patients' autonomous decision-making mode, family decision-making mode and patient and family codetermination. They were produced under the unique background of Chinese medicine, Confucian philosophy and law in China. In this paper, the concepts, advantages and disadvantages of these three decision-making modes were analyzed. In addition, some suggestions were put forward for the improvement. The first is that we suggest to establish standards for choosing decision-making modes; the second is to further learn and publicize relevant laws; thirdly, the legal system needs to be further refined; and the last one is to carry out ethical ward round.

  12. Money Cues Increase Agency and Decrease Prosociality Among Children: Early Signs of Market-Mode Behaviors.

    Gasiorowska, Agata; Chaplin, Lan Nguyen; Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz; Wygrab, Sandra; Vohs, Kathleen D


    People can get most of their needs broadly satisfied in two ways: by close communal ties and by dealings with people in the marketplace. These modes of relating-termed communal and market-often necessitate qualitatively different motives, behaviors, and mind-sets. We reasoned that activating market mode would produce behaviors consistent with it and impair behaviors consistent with communal mode. In a series of experiments, money-the market-mode cue-was presented to Polish children ages 3 to 6. We measured communal behavior by prosocial helpfulness and generosity and measured market behavior by performance and effort. Results showed that handling money (compared with other objects) increased laborious effort and reduced helpfulness and generosity. The effects of money primes were not due to the children's mood, liking for money, or task engagement. This work is the first to demonstrate that young children tacitly understand market mode and also understand that money is a cue to shift into it.

  13. Role of Detuning in the Final Stage of Subharmonic Mode Transition in Boundary Layers

    Corke, Thomas C.


    This work involves mechanisms for transition to turbulence in a Blasius boundary layer through resonant interactions between a plane Tollmien-Schlichting Wave and pairs of oblique waves with equal-but-opposite wave angles. When the frequency of the TS wave is exactly twice that of the oblique waves, we have a "tuned" subharmonic resonance. This leads to the enhanced growth of the oblique modes. Following this, other nonlinear interactions lead to the growth of other 3-D modes which are harmonically based, along with a 3-D mean flow distortion. In the final stage of this process, a gradual spectral filling occurs which we have traced to the growth of fundamental and subharmonic side-band modes. To simulate this with controlled inputs, we introduced the oblique wave pairs at the same conditions, but shifted the frequency of the plane TS mode (by as much as 12 percent) so that it was not exactly twice that of the 3-D modes. These "detuned" conditions also lead to the enhanced growth of the oblique modes, as well as discrete side-band modes which come about through sum and difference interactions. Other interactions quickly lead to a broad band of discrete modes. Of particular importance is the lowest difference frequency which produces a low frequency modulation similar to what has been seen in past experiments with natural 3-D mode input. Cross-bispectral analysis of time series allows us to trace the origin and development of the different modes. Following these leads to a scenario which we believe is more relevant to conditions of "natural" transitions, where low amplitude background disturbances either lead to the gradual detuning of exact fundamental/subharmonic resonance, or in which 3-D mode resonance is detuned from the onset. The results contrast the two conditions, and document the propensity of the 2-D/3-D mode interactions to become detuned.

  14. The MODES_SNM project

    Curioni, A.


    MODES SNM is a collaborative project (funded under the FP7 - Security program), aimed at developing a prototype for a mobile, modular detection system for radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). To maximize the detection capability for SNM, the prototype will combine detectors for fast and thermal neutrons, as well as for gamma-rays. The key detector technology in the development is high pressure scintillation cells filled with noble gases, as recently developed by ARKTIS. The project started officially at the beginning of 2012, for a duration of 30 months. The goal of the project is to deliver a fully integrated and field tested prototype of a modular mobile system capable of passively detecting weak or shielded radioactive sources with accuracy higher than currently available systems. We will present the status of the project, preliminary results and future prospects.

  15. Suppression of scattering for small dielectric particles: an anapole mode and invisibility

    Luk`yanchuk, Boris; Kuznetsov, Arseniy I; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E; Kivshar, Yuri S


    We reveal that an isotropic homogeneous subwavelength particle with a high refractive index can produce ultra-weak total scattering due to vanishing contribution of the electric dipole moment. This effect can be explained with the help of the Fano resonance and scattering efficiency associated with the excitation of an anapole mode. The latter is a nonradiative mode emerging from destructive interference of electric and toroidal dipole moments, and it can be employed for a design of highly transparent optical materials.

  16. Low-cost sliding mode control of WECS based on DFIG with stability analysis



    The aim of this work is to developing sliding mode control of active and reactive stator powers produced by a wind energy conversion system (WECS), based on doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). A flux estimation model and rotor current sensor are no longer required. The controller is developed from the DFIG nonlinear-coupled model. Moreover, the global stability and the DFIG states' boundedness when our low-cost sliding mode control is applied are established analytically. It is reveal...

  17. Postoperative sensitivity in Class V composite restorations: Comparing soft start vs. constant curing modes of LED

    Fahad Umer; Frahan Raza Khan


    Background: One of the major disadvantages associated with using composites is polymerization shrinkage; stresses are generated at the margins, and if these stresses exceed the bond strength, microleakage occurs at the tooth restoration interface which causes ingress of cariogenic bacteria, post-operative sensitivity, and secondary caries. LED offers several curing modes: constant cure, ramped cure, and soft start cure. It is claimed that soft start polymerization mode produces less polymeriz...

  18. Expanding plasmas and quasinormal modes of anti-de Sitter black holes

    Friess, J J; Michalogiorgakis, G; Pufu, S S; Friess, Joshua J.; Gubser, Steven S.; Michalogiorgakis, Georgios; Pufu, Silviu S.


    We compute the gravitational quasinormal modes of the global AdS_5-Schwarzschild solution. We show how to use the holographic dual of these modes to describe a thermal plasma of finite extent expanding in a slightly anisotropic fashion. We compare these flows with the behavior of quark-gluon plasmas produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions by estimating the elliptic flow coefficient and the thermalization time.

  19. Electromagnetic pulses produced by expanding laser-produced Au plasma

    De Marco Massimo


    Full Text Available The interaction of an intense laser pulse with a solid target produces large number of fast free electrons. This emission gives rise to two distinct sources of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP: the pulsed return current through the holder of the target and the outflow of electrons into the vacuum. A relation between the characteristics of laser-produced plasma, the target return current and the EMP emission are presented in the case of a massive Au target irradiated with the intensity of up to 3 × 1016 W/cm2. The emission of the EMP was recorded using a 12 cm diameter Moebius loop antennas, and the target return current was measured using a new type of inductive target probe (T-probe. The simultaneous use of the inductive target probe and the Moebius loop antenna represents a new useful way of diagnosing the laser–matter interaction, which was employed to distinguish between laser-generated ion sources driven by low and high contrast laser pulses.

  20. A multi-mode operation control strategy for flexible microgrid based on sliding-mode direct voltage and hierarchical controls.

    Zhang, Qinjin; Liu, Yancheng; Zhao, Youtao; Wang, Ning


    Multi-mode operation and transient stability are two problems that significantly affect flexible microgrid (MG). This paper proposes a multi-mode operation control strategy for flexible MG based on a three-layer hierarchical structure. The proposed structure is composed of autonomous, cooperative, and scheduling controllers. Autonomous controller is utilized to control the performance of the single micro-source inverter. An adaptive sliding-mode direct voltage loop and an improved droop power loop based on virtual negative impedance are presented respectively to enhance the system disturbance-rejection performance and the power sharing accuracy. Cooperative controller, which is composed of secondary voltage/frequency control and phase synchronization control, is designed to eliminate the voltage/frequency deviations produced by the autonomous controller and prepare for grid connection. Scheduling controller manages the power flow between the MG and the grid. The MG with the improved hierarchical control scheme can achieve seamless transitions from islanded to grid-connected mode and have a good transient performance. In addition the presented work can also optimize the power quality issues and improve the load power sharing accuracy between parallel VSIs. Finally, the transient performance and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme are evaluated by theoretical analysis and simulation results.

  1. Properties of r modes in rotating magnetic neutron stars. II. Evolution of the r modes and stellar magnetic field

    Rezzolla, L; Markovic, D M; Shapiro, S L; Rezzolla, Luciano; Lamb, Frederick L.; Markovic, Dragoljub; Shapiro, Stuart L.


    The evolution of the r-mode instability is likely to be accompanied by secular kinematic effects which will produce differential rotation with large scale drifts of fluid elements, mostly in the azimuthal direction. As first discussed by Rezzolla, Lamb and Shapiro 2000, the interaction of these secular velocity fields with a pre-existing neutron star magnetic field could result in the generation of intense and large scale toroidal fields. Following their derivation in the companion paper, we here discuss the numerical solution of the evolution equations for the magnetic field. The values of the magnetic fields obtained in this way are used to estimate the conditions under which the r-mode instability might be prevented or suppressed. We also assess the impact of the generation of large magnetic fields on the gravitational wave detectability of r-mode unstable neutron stars. Our results indicate that the signal to noise ratio in the detection of gravitational waves from the r-mode instability might be consider...

  2. CMB anisotropies from a gradient mode

    Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Zaldarriaga, Matias


    A linear gradient mode must have no observable dynamical effect on short distance physics. We confirm this by showing that if there was such a gradient mode extending across the whole observable Universe, it would not cause any hemispherical asymmetry in the power of CMB anisotropies, as long as Maldacena's consistency condition is satisfied. To study the effect of the long wavelength mode on short wavelength modes, we generalize the existing second order Sachs-Wolfe formula in the squeezed limit to include a gradient in the long mode and to account for the change in the location of the last scattering surface induced by this mode. Next, we consider effects that are of second order in the long mode. A gradient mode Φ = qṡx generated in Single-field inflation is shown to induce an observable quadrupole moment. For instance, in a matter-dominated model it is equal to Q = 5(qṡx)2/18. This quadrupole can be canceled by superposition of a quadratic perturbation. The result is shown to be a nonlinear extension of Weinberg's adiabatic modes: a long-wavelength physical mode which looks locally like a coordinate transformation.

  3. Mode Conversion of Langmuir to Electromagnetic Waves with Parallel Inhomogeneity in the Solar Wind and the Corona

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.


    Linear mode conversion of Langmuir waves to radiation near the plasma frequency at density gradients is potentially relevant to multiple solar radio emissions, ionospheric radar experiments, laboratory plasma devices, and pulsars. Here we study mode conversion in warm magnetized plasmas using a numerical electron fluid simulation code with the density gradient parallel to the ambient magnetic field B0 for a range of incident Langmuir wavevectors. Our results include: (1) Both o- and x-mode waves are produced for Ω ∝ (ωL)1/3(ωc/ω) somewhat less than 1, contrary to previous ideas. Only o mode is produced for Ω and somewhat greater than 1.5. Here ωc is the (angular) electron cyclotron frequency, ω the angular wave frequency, and L the length scale of the (linear) density gradient. (2) In the unmagnetized limit, equal amounts of o- and x-mode radiation are produced. (3) The mode conversion window narrows as Ω increases. (4) As Ω increases the total electromagnetic field changes from linear to circular polarization, with the o- and x- mode signals remaining circularly polarized. (5) The conversion efficiency to the x mode decreases monotonically as Ω increases while the o-mode conversion efficiency oscillates due to an interference phenomenon between incoming and reflected Langmuir/z modes. (6) The total conversion efficiency for wave energy from the Langmuir/z mode to radiation is typically less than 10%, but the corresponding power efficiencies differ by the ratio of the group speeds for each mode and are of order 50 – 70%. (7) The interference effect and the disappearance of the x mode at Ω somewhat greater than 1 can be accounted for semiquantitatively using a WKB-like analysis. (8) Constraints on density turbulence are developed for the x mode to be generated and be able to propagate from the source. (9) Standard parameters for the corona and the solar wind near 1 AU suggest that linear mode conversion should produce both o- and x- mode radiation for

  4. Reconstruction of the joint state of a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate

    Bolda, E L; Walls, D F; Bolda, Eric L.; Tan, Sze M.; Walls, Dan F.


    We propose a scheme to reconstruct the state of a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate, with a given total number of atoms, using an atom interferometer that requires beam splitter, phase shift and non-ideal atom counting operations. The density matrix in the number-state basis can be computed directly from the probabilities of different counts for various phase shifts between the original modes, unless the beamsplitter is exactly balanced. Simulated noisy data from a two-mode coherent state is produced and the state is reconstructed, for 49 atoms. The error can be estimated from the singular values of the transformation matrix between state and probability data.

  5. Long all-active monolithic mode-locked lasers with surface-etched bragg gratings

    Larsson, David; Yvind, Kresten; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    We have fabricated 4.4-mm-long monolithic InAlGaAsP–InP mode-locked lasers with integrated deeply surface etched distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirrors. The lasers produce 3.7-ps transform-limited Gaussian pulses with 10-mW average output power and 250-fs absolute timing jitter. The performance of the DBR lasers is compared to the performance of Fabry–PÉrot mode-locked lasers from the same wafer and to the performance of earlier reported long monolithic DBR mode-locked lasers and is found ...

  6. Normal mode analyses of methyl palmitate all-trans and disordered forms in wagging progressive region.

    Ishioka, Tsutomu; Yan, Wenhong; Strauss, Herbert L; Snyder, Robert G


    Normal mode analyses are made for methyl palmitate molecule having all-trans or conformational disorders around the ester head group, in order to explain characteristic observed frequency shifts in the wagging progressive region between all-trans and disorder chains in triglyceride molecules. It was found that one gauche conformation at C(alpha)-C(beta) position and 90 degrees rotation of the ester head group in an alkyl chain produce frequency shifts for twisting mode as observed. For wagging modes, contamination of the disorders around the head group makes assignments change and apparent frequency shifts occur.

  7. Long all-active monolithic mode-locked lasers with surface-etched bragg gratings

    Larsson, David; Yvind, Kresten; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    We have fabricated 4.4-mm-long monolithic InAlGaAsP–InP mode-locked lasers with integrated deeply surface etched distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirrors. The lasers produce 3.7-ps transform-limited Gaussian pulses with 10-mW average output power and 250-fs absolute timing jitter. The performance...... of the DBR lasers is compared to the performance of Fabry–PÉrot mode-locked lasers from the same wafer and to the performance of earlier reported long monolithic DBR mode-locked lasers and is found to be better....

  8. Whistler modes with wave magnetic fields exceeding the ambient field.

    Stenzel, R L; Urrutia, J M; Strohmaier, K D


    Whistler-mode wave packets with fields exceeding the ambient dc magnetic field have been excited in a large, high electron-beta plasma. The waves are induced with a loop antenna with dipole moment either along or opposite to the dc field. In the latter case the excited wave packets have the topology of a spheromak but are propagating in the whistler mode along and opposite to the dc magnetic field. Field-reversed configurations with net zero helicity have also been produced. The electron magnetohydrodynamics fields are force free, have wave energy density exceeding the particle energy density, and propagate stably at subelectron thermal velocities through a nearly uniform stationary ion density background.

  9. Twisted Electromagnetic Modes and Sagnac Ring-Lasers

    Burton, D A; Tucker, R W; Wiltshire, D L; Burton, David A.; Noble, Adam; Tucker, Robin W.; Wiltshire, David L.


    A new approximation scheme, designed to solve the covariant Maxwell equations inside a rotating hollow slender conducting cavity (modelling a ring-laser), is constructed. It is shown that for well-defined conditions there exist TE and TM modes with respect to the longitudinal axis of the cavity. A twisted mode spectrum is found to depend on the integrated Frenet torsion of the cavity and this in turn may affect the Sagnac beat frequency induced by a non-zero rotation of the cavity. The analysis is motivated by attempts to use ring-lasers to measure terrestrial gravito-magnetism or the Lense-Thirring effect produced by the rotation of the Earth.

  10. Active multi-mode-interferometer broadband superluminescent diodes

    Feifei, Wang; Peng, Jin; Ju, Wu; Yanhua, Wu; Fajie, Hu; Zhanguo, Wang


    We report a new quantum dot superluminescent diode with a new device structure. In this device, a multi-mode-interferometer configuration and a J-bend structure were monolithically integrated. Owing to the multi-mode-interferometer structure, the superluminescent diode exhibits 60% increase in output power and 43% reduction in the differential resistance compared with the uniform waveguide width superluminescent diode fabricated from the same wafer. Our device produces an emission spectrum as wide as 103.7 nm with an output power of 2.5 mW at 600 mA continue-wave injection current. This broadband emission spectrum makes the axial resolution of the optical coherence tomography system employing the superluminescent diode to 6 μm in theory, which is high enough for most tissue imaging. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61274072) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2013AA014201).

  11. Robust antisynchronization of chaos using sliding mode control strategy

    Amit Mondal; Mitul Islam; Nurul Islam


    The paper proposes a sliding mode control strategy-based scheme for achieving anti-synchronization between two coupled non-linear chaotic systems. The method works irrespective of whether the systems under consideration possess or lack inverse symmetry. Using a linear sliding surface, a sliding mode control input and a non-linear coupling function are designed that synchronizes the systems antiphase. Finite-time convergence of the method is established. The controller is also robust to all forms of bounded perturbations and this robustness can be easily achieved by tuning of a single controller parameter and introduction of a control vector. The controller is also made chattering-free by producing a continuous analogue of the discontinuous control input. The effectiveness of the method is established by implementing it to antisynchronize chaotic Sprott systems and Rossler systems. The results are also verified through numerical simulation work.

  12. Effect of resonant magnetic perturbations with toroidal mode numbers of 4 and 6 on edge-localized modes in single null H-mode plasmas in MAST

    Kirk, A.; Chapman, I. T.; Harrison, J.; Liu, Yueqiang; Nardon, E.; Saarelma, S.; Scannell, R.; Thornton, A. J.; the MAST Team


    The application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) with a toroidal mode number of n = 4 or n = 6 to lower single null plasmas in the MAST tokamak produces up to a factor of 5 increase in edge-localized mode (ELM) frequency and reduction in plasma energy loss associated with type-I ELMs. A threshold current for ELM mitigation is observed above which the ELM frequency increases approximately linearly with current in the coils. Despite a large scan of parameters, complete ELM suppression has not been achieved. The results have been compared with modelling performed using either the vacuum approximation or including the plasma response. During the ELM mitigated stage clear lobe structures are observed in visible-light imaging of the X-point region. The size of these lobes is correlated with the increase in ELM frequency observed. The characteristics of the mitigated ELMs are similar to those of the natural ELMs suggesting that they are type-I ELMs which are triggered at a lower pressure gradient. The application of the RMPs in the n = 4 and n = 6 configurations before the L-H transition has little effect on the power required to achieve H-mode while still allowing the first ELM to be mitigated.

  13. Method for producing a tube

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Rohde, Steven B.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Turner, Timothy S.


    A method is described for producing tubular substrates having parallel spaced concentric rings of electrical conductors that can be used as the drift tube of an Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS). The invention comprises providing electrodes on the inside of a tube that are electrically connected to the outside of the tube through conductors that extend between adjacent plies of substrate that are combined to form the tube. Tubular substrates are formed from flexible polymeric printed wiring board materials, ceramic materials and material compositions of glass and ceramic, commonly known as Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC). The adjacent plies are sealed together around the electrode.

  14. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D


    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  15. NOLB : Non-linear rigid block normal mode analysis method.

    Hoffmann, Alexandre; Grudinin, Sergei


    We present a new conceptually simple and computationally efficient method for non-linear normal mode analysis called NOLB. It relies on the rotations-translations of blocks (RTB) theoretical basis developed by Y.-H. Sanejouand and colleagues. We demonstrate how to physically interpret the eigenvalues computed in the RTB basis in terms of angular and linear velocities applied to the rigid blocks and how to construct a non-linear extrapolation of motion out of these velocities. The key observation of our method is that the angular velocity of a rigid block can be interpreted as the result of an implicit force, such that the motion of the rigid block can be considered as a pure rotation about a certain center. We demonstrate the motions produced with the NOLB method on three different molecular systems and show that some of the lowest frequency normal modes correspond to the biologically relevant motions. For example, NOLB detects the spiral sliding motion of the TALE protein, which is capable of rapid diffusion along its target DNA. Overall, our method produces better structures compared to the standard approach, especially at large deformation amplitudes, as we demonstrate by visual inspection, energy and topology analyses, and also by the MolProbity service validation. Finally, our method is scalable and can be applied to very large molecular systems, such as ribosomes. Standalone executables of the NOLB normal mode analysis method are available at A graphical user interfaces created for the SAMSON software platform will be made available at https: //

  16. Multiple-mode radiation detector

    Claus, Liam D.; Derzon, Mark S.; Kay, Randolph R.; Bauer, Todd; Trotter, Douglas Chandler; Henry, Michael David


    An apparatus for detecting radiation is provided. In embodiments, at least one sensor medium is provided, of a kind that interacts with radiation to generate photons and/or charge carriers. The apparatus also includes at least one electrode arrangement configured to collect radiation-generated charge from a sensor medium that has been provided. The apparatus also includes at least one photodetector configured to produce an electrical output in response to photons generated by radiation in such a sensor medium, and an electronic circuit configured to produce an output that is jointly responsive to the collected charge and to the photodetector output. At least one such electrode arrangement, at least one such photodetector, and at least one such sensor medium are combined to form an integral unit.

  17. A method of producing electrokinetic power through forward osmosis

    Cherng Hon, Kar; Zhao, Cunlu; Yang, Chun; Chay Low, Seow


    A power generation method for harvesting renewable energy from salinity gradient is proposed. The principle of the proposed method encompasses forward osmosis (FO) and electrokinetic phenomena. With the salinity difference between draw and feed solutions, FO allows spontaneous water flow across a semi-permeable membrane. The flow of water is then directed through a porous medium where the electric power is generated from the electrokinetic streaming potential. With a glass porous medium and a commercial flat sheet FO membrane in a batch mode configuration, our lab scale experimental system has demonstrated the produced electrokinetic voltages of about several hundreds of milli-volts.

  18. Phytotoxic terpenes produced by phytopathogenic fungi and allelopathic plants.

    Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Evidente, Antonio


    This review is about the isolation as well as chemical and biological characterization of simple and complex mono-, sesqui-, di-, sester- and tri-terpenes produced by fungal pathogens of agrarian and forest plants and by some allelopathic plants. In several cases, the structure activity relationships are also discussed, as well as their potential application in agriculture as natural safe herbicides, fungicides and bactericides. Furthermore, the potential application of some fungal terpenes as anticancer compounds with a new mode of action is also discussed.

  19. Nonlinear r-Modes in Neutron Stars Instability of an unstable mode

    Gressman, P T; Suen, W M; Stergioulas, N; Friedman, J L; Gressman, Philip; Lin, Lap-Ming; Suen, Wai-Mo; Friedman, John L.


    We study the dynamical evolution of a large amplitude r-mode by numerical simulations. R-modes in neutron stars are unstable growing modes, driven by gravitational radiation reaction. In these simulations, r-modes of amplitude unity or above are destroyed by a catastrophic decay: A large amplitude r-mode gradually leaks energy into other fluid modes, which in turn act nonlinearly with the r-mode, leading to the onset of the rapid decay. As a result the r-mode suddenly breaks down into a differentially rotating configuration. The catastrophic decay does not appear to be related to shock waves at the star's surface. The limit it imposes on the r-mode amplitude is significantly smaller than that suggested by previous fully nonlinear numerical simulations.

  20. Transient analysis mode participation for modal survey target mode selection using MSC/NASTRAN DMAP

    Barnett, Alan R.; Ibrahim, Omar M.; Sullivan, Timothy L.; Goodnight, Thomas W.


    Many methods have been developed to aid analysts in identifying component modes which contribute significantly to component responses. These modes, typically targeted for dynamic model correlation via a modal survey, are known as target modes. Most methods used to identify target modes are based on component global dynamic behavior. It is sometimes unclear if these methods identify all modes contributing to responses important to the analyst. These responses are usually those in areas of hardware design concerns. One method used to check the completeness of target mode sets and identify modes contributing significantly to important component responses is mode participation. With this method, the participation of component modes in dynamic responses is quantified. Those modes which have high participation are likely modal survey target modes. Mode participation is most beneficial when it is used with responses from analyses simulating actual flight events. For spacecraft, these responses are generated via a structural dynamic coupled loads analysis. Using MSC/NASTRAN DMAP, a method has been developed for calculating mode participation based on transient coupled loads analysis results. The algorithm has been implemented to be compatible with an existing coupled loads methodology and has been used successfully to develop a set of modal survey target modes.