The problem of a bidirectional link between thought and action is approached from the perspective of cognitive movement science. The metaphor of the "Badische Zimmer" - an adaptation of Searle's Chinese room metaphor - is used to illustrate shortcomings in the classical conception of linear information processing and to introduce some features which current theories of movement control and learning should embrace. On this basis, the case is made for a return to an ideomotor view of motor control and learning based on effect prediction (E') as a function of the situational context (S') and one's own motor responses (R'). The relevance of the derived concept of sensorimotor chains linking elementary S'R'E' units in the course of motor learning is finally discussed with respect to potential implications for an integrative theory of perception, action, and decision making.
Travis, Anthony S
The most spectacular development in industrial chemistry during the early twentieth century concerned the capture of atmospheric nitrogen by the Haber-Bosch high-pressure ammonia process at the German chemical enterprise Badische Anilin- & Soda-Fabrik (BASF), of Ludwigshafen. This firm, confident that its complex process could not be readily imitated, set out to dominate the global nitrogen fertiliser market. The response was the emergence of rival high-pressure ammonia processes in Western Europe, the United States, and Japan during the 1920s. This article is an historical appreciation of the settings in which several countries, often driven by concerns over national security, were encouraged to develop and adopt non-BASF high-pressure nitrogen capture technologies. Moreover, synthetic ammonia was at the forefront of large-scale strategic self-sufficiency and state sponsored programmes in three countries - Italy, Russia, and Japan - at the very same time when the newer technologies became available. As a result, the chemical industries of these nations, under the influences of fascism, communism, and colonial modernisation projects, began moving into the top ranks.
The first things that must be said are that the city of Freiburg is a very attractive location for such a meeting, encouraging a relaxed coming together of all sections of the ATLAS Community, and that the Week's activities were splendidly, (while unobtrusively), organised by our hosts, Karl Jakobs and Gregor Herten and their supporting team. The fine sunny weather contributed to our sense of well-being, of course, as did the quality of the local beer! (Some of our native English speaking colleagues were relieved to discover that what was described in restaurants and bars as 'Badisch' turned out, on the contrary, to be rather 'Good-ish' instead!!) The week began with pre-meetings of subgroups on Saturday and Sunday, and included lively discussions on how to commission the detector and on the nature and format of the ATLAS control room and its environs. These discussions were a clear indication of the optimism within the ATLAS community that physics is really beginning to appear on our horizon! During th...