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Sample records for zenith plutonium core

  1. Plutonium cores of zenith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, F R; Cameron, I R; Drageset, A; Freemantle, R G; Wilson, D J

    1965-03-15

    The report describes a series of experiments carried out with plutonium fuel in the heated zero power reactor ZENITH, with the aim of testing current theoretical methods, with particular reference to excess reactivity, temperature coefficients, differential spectrum and reaction rate distributions. Two cores of widely different fissile/moderator atom ratios were loaded in order to test the theory under significantly varied spectrum conditions.

  2. Spectrum measurements in the ZENITH plutonium core 7 using a neutron chopper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, F R; Cameron, I R; Pitcher, H H.W.; Symons, C R [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1964-05-15

    As part of the experimental programme on the first plutonium loading of ZENITH (Core 7) a series of measurements was carried out with the neutron chopper on a beam emerging from the core centre. The general experimental programme on the two ZENITH plutonium cores has been covered elsewhere. Core 7 had a carbon/Pu239 atomic ratio of 2666 and a steel/Pu239 ratio of 76.8, giving an absorption cross-section at 2200 m/sec. of 0.31 barns/carbon atom. The fuel was in the form of 'spikes' of 0.020 in. thick Pu/Al alloy sheathed in 0.020 in. aluminium, the isotopic composition of the plutonium being 97.4% Pu239, 2.55% Pu240 and 0.1% Pu241. The overall layout of the reactor core and reflector is shown in the vertical section through the reactor vessel and the plan view. The core consists of a vertical array of 235 cylindrical graphite sleeves of outer diameter 7.37 cm into each of which a cylindrical graphite box may be loaded. Sunning longitudinally inside the box are six parallel grooves which act as locations for the edges of either the Pu/Al spikes or graphite dummies of the same external dimensions. Each groove accommodates two spikes end-to-end, with a small graphite spacer between to avoid welding together of the spike sheaths when heated. Lateral spacers of graphite or stainless steel fill the five spaces between the six spikes or dummies. The total length of the plutonium-loaded core region is 140 cm, the ends of the element forming graphite reflectors of length 53 cm. In Core 7 each fuel element contained 10 Pu-Al spikes. The fuel elements are arranged in a triangular lattice of pitch 7.62 cm to form the reactor core, of diameter 1.23 m. A radial graphite reflector approximately 1 metre thick surrounds the core and is separated from it by an annular lampblack thermal barrier, contained within graphite tiles, which reduces heat transfer from the core. The reactor can be heated by circulation of nitrogen through a 250 kW heater below the core. The nitrogen flows

  3. Spectrum measurements in the ZENITH plutonium core 7 using a neutron chopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, F.R.; Cameron, I.R.; Pitcher, H.H.W.; Symons, C.R.

    1964-05-01

    As part of the experimental programme on the first plutonium loading of ZENITH (Core 7) a series of measurements was carried out with the neutron chopper on a beam emerging from the core centre. The general experimental programme on the two ZENITH plutonium cores has been covered elsewhere. Core 7 had a carbon/Pu239 atomic ratio of 2666 and a steel/Pu239 ratio of 76.8, giving an absorption cross-section at 2200 m/sec. of 0.31 barns/carbon atom. The fuel was in the form of 'spikes' of 0.020 in. thick Pu/Al alloy sheathed in 0.020 in. aluminium, the isotopic composition of the plutonium being 97.4% Pu239, 2.55% Pu240 and 0.1% Pu241. The overall layout of the reactor core and reflector is shown in the vertical section through the reactor vessel and the plan view. The core consists of a vertical array of 235 cylindrical graphite sleeves of outer diameter 7.37 cm into each of which a cylindrical graphite box may be loaded. Sunning longitudinally inside the box are six parallel grooves which act as locations for the edges of either the Pu/Al spikes or graphite dummies of the same external dimensions. Each groove accommodates two spikes end-to-end, with a small graphite spacer between to avoid welding together of the spike sheaths when heated. Lateral spacers of graphite or stainless steel fill the five spaces between the six spikes or dummies. The total length of the plutonium-loaded core region is 140 cm, the ends of the element forming graphite reflectors of length 53 cm. In Core 7 each fuel element contained 10 Pu-Al spikes. The fuel elements are arranged in a triangular lattice of pitch 7.62 cm to form the reactor core, of diameter 1.23 m. A radial graphite reflector approximately 1 metre thick surrounds the core and is separated from it by an annular lampblack thermal barrier, contained within graphite tiles, which reduces heat transfer from the core. The reactor can be heated by circulation of nitrogen through a 250 kW heater below the core. The nitrogen flows

  4. A report on core 5 of ZENITH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, F.R.; Cameron, I.R.; Freemantle, R.G.; Reed, D.L.; Wilson, D.J.

    1964-06-01

    The determination of the excess reactivity, control rod worths, flux fine structure, temperature coefficients, differential spectra and reaction rates of various nuclides for the fifth loading of the heated zero energy reactor ZENITH is described. The core contained 32.6 Kgm of U235, giving a carbon/U235 atomic ratio of 1072, and formed the least moderated of the range studied. Comparisons of the experimental results with calculations using multigroup diffusion codes are presented. (author)

  5. Experimental programme and analysis, ZENITH II, Core 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, G.; Sanders, J. E.; Sherwin, J.

    1974-10-15

    The Phase 3 program of reactor physics experiments on the HTR (or Mk 3 GCR) lattices continued during the first half of 1974 with a study of a series of critical builds in Zenith II aimed at testing predictions of shut-down margins in the local criticality-situations arising during power reactor refueling. The paper describes the experimental program and the subsequent theoretical analysis using methods developed in the United Kingdom for calculating low-enriched uranium HTR fuel systems. The importance of improving the accuracy of predictions of shut-down margins arises from the basic requirement that the core in its most reactive condition and with a specified number of absorbers removed from the array must remain sub-critical with a margin adequate to cover the total uncertainty of +/- 1 Nile (that is, 1 % delta-k). The major uncertainty is that in modelling the complex fuel/absorber configuration, and this is the aspect essentially covered in the Zenith II Core 4 studies.

  6. Plutonium recycle. In-core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, F.; Berthet, A.; Le Bars, M.

    1985-01-01

    Plutonium recycle in France will concern a dozen of PWR 900 MWe controlled in gray mode till 1995. This paper presents the main characteristics of fuel management with plutonium recycle. The organization of management studies will be copied from this developed for classical management studies. Up these studies, a ''feasibility report'' aims at establishing at each stage of the fuel cycle, the impact of the utilization of fuel containing plutonium [fr

  7. Plutonium demonstration assemblies in the CNA core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romain, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The SENA (Societe d'Exploitation Nucleaire des Ardennes) has decided to load two plutonium assemblies at the beginning of the 6th cycle of the CNA (Centrale Nucleaire des Ardennes). These assemblies will be loaded in September 1975 and will undergo three irradiation cycles. A general description of these two assemblies and nuclear design calculations that have been performed are presented [fr

  8. Study of plutonium multi-recycle in high moderation LWR cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Toru; Ueji, Masao; Hibi, Koki; Aoyama, Motoo; Sakurada, Koichi

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has been studying advanced cores that are dedicated to enhance the plutonium consumption per recycling for effective use of plutonium. In this study, a fissile plutonium consumption rate is adopted as an index of the effective use of plutonium, which is defined as a ratio of consumption to loading of fissile plutonium in a core. High moderation core concepts have been studied in order to increase this index based on full MOX cores in the latest designs of LWRs in Japan that are the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) and the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (APWR). As a part of this study, core performance in the case of plutonium multi-recycling has been surveyed with these higher moderation cores aiming further effective use of plutonium. The design and analyses for equilibrium cores show that nuclear and thermal hydraulics parameters satisfy design criteria, and a fissile plutonium consumption rate increases up to 20% for ABWRs and 30% for APWRs even in plutonium multi-recycling condition. It was confirmed that the high moderation cores are feasible from a viewpoint of nuclear and thermal hydraulics, safety and plutonium consumption in the condition of plutonium multi-recycling. (author)

  9. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1989-03-01

    This report contains with regard to 'plutonium' statements on chemistry, occurrence and reactions in the environment, handling procedures in the nuclear fuel cycle, radiation protection methods, biokinetics, toxicology and medical treatment to make available reliable data for the public discussion on plutonium especially its use in nuclear power plants and its radiological assessment. (orig.) [de

  10. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Discovery of the neutron made it easy to create elements which do not exist in nature. One of these is plutonium, and its isotope with mass number 239 has nuclear properties which make it both a good fuel for nuclear power reactors and a good explosive for nuclear weapons. Since it was discovered during a war the latter characteristic was put to use, but it is now evident that use of plutonium in a particular kind of nuclear reactor, the fast breeder reactor, will allow the world's resources of uranium to last for millennia as a major source of energy. Plutonium is very radiotoxic, resembling radium in this respect. Therefore the widespread introduction of fast breeder reactors to meet energy demands can be contemplated only after assurances on two points; that adequate control of the radiological hazard resulting from the handling of very large amounts of plutonium can be guaranteed, and that diversion of plutonium to illicit use can be prevented. The problems exist to a lesser degree already, since all types of nuclear reactor produce some plutonium. Some plutonium has already been dispersed in the environment, the bulk of it from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. (author)

  11. Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miner, William N

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet discusses plutonium from discovery to its production, separation, properties, fabrication, handling, and uses, including use as a reactor fuel and use in isotope power generators and neutron sources.

  12. Advanced PWR Core Design with Siemens High-Plutonium-Content MOX Fuel Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieter Porsch; Gerhard Schlosser; Hans-Dieter Berger

    2000-01-01

    The Siemens experience with plutonium recycling dates back to the late 1960s. Over the years, extensive research and development programs were performed for the qualification of mixed-oxide (MOX) technology and design methods. Today's typical reload enrichments for uranium and MOX fuel assemblies and modern core designs have become more demanding with respect to accuracy and reliability of design codes. This paper presents the status of plutonium recycling in operating high-burnup pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores. Based on actual examples, it describes the validation status of the design methods and stresses current and future needs for fuel assembly and core design including those related to the disposition of weapons-grade plutonium

  13. Study on Characteristic of Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity for Plutonium Core of Pebbled Bed Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhair; Suwoto; Setiadipura, T.; Bakhri, S.; Sunaryo, G. R.

    2018-02-01

    As a part of the solution searching for possibility to control the plutonium, a current effort is focused on mechanisms to maximize consumption of plutonium. Plutonium core solution is a unique case in the high temperature reactor which is intended to reduce the accumulation of plutonium. However, the safety performance of the plutonium core which tends to produce a positive temperature coefficient of reactivity should be examined. The pebble bed inherent safety features which are characterized by a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity must be maintained under any circumstances. The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristic of temperature coefficient of reactivity for plutonium core of pebble bed reactor. A series of calculations with plutonium loading varied from 0.5 g to 1.5 g per fuel pebble were performed by the MCNPX code and ENDF/B-VII library. The calculation results show that the k eff curve of 0.5 g Pu/pebble declines sharply with the increase in fuel burnup while the greater Pu loading per pebble yields k eff curve declines slighter. The fuel with high Pu content per pebble may reach long burnup cycle. From the temperature coefficient point of view, it is concluded that the reactor containing 0.5 g-1.25 g Pu/pebble at high burnup has less favorable safety features if it is operated at high temperature. The use of fuel with Pu content of 1.5 g/pebble at high burnup should be considered carefully from core safety aspect because it could affect transient behavior into a fatal accident situation.

  14. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Plutonium, which was obtained and identified for the first time in 1941 by chemist Glenn Seaborg - through neutron irradiation of uranium 238 - is closely related to the history of nuclear energy. From the very beginning, because of the high radiotoxicity of plutonium, a tremendous amount of research work has been devoted to the study of the biological effects and the consequences on the environment. It can be said that plutonium is presently one of the elements, whose nuclear and physico-chemical characteristics are the best known. The first part of this issue is a survey of the knowledge acquired on the subject, which emphasizes the sanitary effects and transfer into the environment. Then the properties of plutonium related to energy generation are dealt with. Fissionable, like uranium 235, plutonium has proved a high-performance nuclear fuel. Originally used in breeder reactors, it is now being more and more widely recycled in light water reactors, in MOX fuel. Reprocessing, recycling and manufacturing of these new types of fuel, bound of become more and more widespread, are now part of a self-consistent series of operations, whose technical, economical, industrial and strategical aspects are reviewed. (author)

  15. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Christiansen, K.; Wollesen, M.

    1979-01-01

    As emotions and fear of plutonium are neither useful for the non-professionals nor for the political decision makers and the advantages and disadvantages of plutonium can only put against each other under difficulties, the paper wants to present the most essential scientific data of plutonium in a generally understandable way. Each of the individual sections is concluded and they try to give an answer to the most discussed questions. In order to make understanding easier, the scientific facts are only brought at points where it cannot be done without for the correctness of the presentation. Many details were left out knowingly. On the other hand, important details are dealt with several times if it seems necessary for making the presentation correct. The graphical presentations and the figures in many cases contain more than said in the text. They give the interested reader hints to scientific-technical coherences. The total material is to enable the reader to form his own opinion on plutonium problems which are being discussed in public. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Introducing Zenith project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupejova, E.

    2008-01-01

    Zenith ia a international program of continuous improvement, aimed at reaching high work performance in all ENEL activities and in all countries where ENEL is present Zenith covers various projects aimed at cost reduction, processes simplification and performance improvement that have been already initiated in the past (DTC, TTC, QUASAR...) The program includes 5 pillars to reach perfection: - reaching for operational proficiency by underlining the leading role of ENEL and continuous searching possibilities how to improve processes and activities; - to learn methods of continuous the others; - to learn and apply the methods of improvement; - continuously apply the methods of improvement; - continuously monitor and publish the results and implementation of ZENITH standard. (author)

  17. Time-of-flight neutron spectra measurements in Zenith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, F R; Coates, M S; Diment, K M; Durrani, S A; Gayther, D B; Poole, M J; Reed, D L

    1962-01-15

    Neutron spectra in the second core loading of ZENITH have been measured using a neutron chopper. Spectra at two positions in the reactore core were obtained over a range of temperatures extending to 650 deg C.

  18. Potential of thorium-based fuel cycle for PWR core to reduce plutonium and long-term toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyung Kook; Kim, Taek Kyum; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    The cross section libraries and calculation methods of the participants were inter-compared through the first stage benchmark calculation. The multiplication factor of unit cell benchmark are in good agreement, but there is significant discrepancies of 2.3 to 3.5 %k at BOC and at EOC between the calculated infinite multiplication factors of each participants for the assembly benchmark. Our results with HELIOS show a reasonable agreement with the others except the MTC value at EOC. To verify the potential of the thorium-based fuel to consume the plutonium and to reduce the radioactivity from the spent fuel, the conceptual core with ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} or MOX fuel were constructed. The composition and quantity of plutonium isotopes and the radioactivity level of spent fuel for conceptual cores were analyzed, and the neutronic characteristics of conceptual cores were also calculated. The nuclear characteristics for ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium fueled core was similar to MOX fueled core, mainly due to the same seed fuel material, plutonium. For the capability of plutonium consumption, ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium fuel can consume plutonium 2.1-2.4 times MOX fuel. The fraction of fissile plutonium in the spent ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium fuel is more favorable in view of plutonium consumption and non-proliferation than MOX fuel. The radioactivity of spent ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium and MOX fuel batches were calculated. Since plutonium isotopes are dominant for the long-term radioactivity, ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium has almost the same level of radioactivity as in MOX fuel for a long-term perspective. (author). 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Plutonium stabilization and storage research in the DNFSB 94-1 core technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eller, P.G.; Avens, L.R.; Roberson, G.D.

    1998-04-01

    Recommendation 94-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) addresses legacy actinide materials left in the US nuclear defense program pipeline when the production mission ended in 1989. The Department of Energy (DOE) Implementation Plan responding to this recommendation instituted a Core Technology program to augment the knowledge base about general chemical and physical processing and storage behavior and to assure safe interim nuclear material storage, until disposition policies are formulated. The Core Technology program focuses on plutonium, in concert with a complex-wide applied R/D program administered by Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper will summarize the Core Technology program's first two years, describe the research program for FY98, and project the overall direction of the program in the future

  20. Theoretical methods for determination of core parameters in uranium-plutonium lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.; Bosevski, T.; Matausek, M.; Stefanovic, D.; Strugar, P.

    1972-01-01

    The prediction of plutonium production in power reactors depends essentially on how the change of neutron energy spectra in a reactor cell during burn-up is determined. In the epithermal region, where the build-up of plutonium occurs, the slowing down effects are particularly important, whereas, on the other hand, the thermal neutron spectrum is strongly influenced by the low-lying plutonium resonances. For accurate analysis, multi-group numerical methods are required, which, applied to burn-up prediction, are extremely laborious and time consuming even for large computers. This paper contains a comprehensive review of the methods of core parameter determination in the uranium-plutonium lattices developed in Yugoslavia during the last few years. Faced with the problem of using small computers, the authors had to find new approaches combining physical evidence and mathematical elegance. The main feature of these approaches is the tendency to proceed with analytical treatment as far as possible and then to include suitable numerical improvements. With this philosophy, which is generally overlooked when using large computers, fast and reasonably accurate methods were developed. The methods include original means for adequate treatment of neutron spectra and cell geometry effects,especially suitable for U-Pu systems. In particular, procedures based on the energy dependent boundary conditions, the discrete energy representation, the improved collision probabilities and the Green function slowing down solutions were developed and applied. Results obtained with these methods are presented and compared with those of the experiments and those obtained with other methods. (author)

  1. Theoretical methods for determination of core parameters in uranium-plutonium lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.; Bosevski, T.; Matausek, M.; Stefanovic, D.; Strugar, P. [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1972-07-01

    The prediction of plutonium production in power reactors depends essentially on how the change of neutron energy spectra in a reactor cell during burn-up is determined. In the epithermal region, where the build-up of plutonium occurs, the slowing down effects are particularly important, whereas, on the other hand, the thermal neutron spectrum is strongly influenced by the low-lying plutonium resonances. For accurate analysis, multi-group numerical methods are required, which, applied to burn-up prediction, are extremely laborious and time consuming even for large computers. This paper contains a comprehensive review of the methods of core parameter determination in the uranium-plutonium lattices developed in Yugoslavia during the last few years. Faced with the problem of using small computers, the authors had to find new approaches combining physical evidence and mathematical elegance. The main feature of these approaches is the tendency to proceed with analytical treatment as far as possible and then to include suitable numerical improvements. With this philosophy, which is generally overlooked when using large computers, fast and reasonably accurate methods were developed. The methods include original means for adequate treatment of neutron spectra and cell geometry effects,especially suitable for U-Pu systems. In particular, procedures based on the energy dependent boundary conditions, the discrete energy representation, the improved collision probabilities and the Green function slowing down solutions were developed and applied. Results obtained with these methods are presented and compared with those of the experiments and those obtained with other methods. (author)

  2. Reconstructed plutonium fallout in the GV7 firn core from Northern Victoria Land, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, H.; Han, Y.; Kang, J.; Lee, K.; Hong, S.; Hur, S. D.; Narcisi, B.; Frezzotti, M.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric nuclear explosions during the period from the 1940s to the 1980s are the major anthropogenic source of plutonium (Pu) in the environment. In this work, we analyzed fg g-1 levels of artificial Pu, released predominantly by atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. We measured 351 samples which collected a 78 m-depth fire core at the site of GV7 (S 70°41'17.1", E 158°51'48.9", 1950 m a.s.l.), Northern Victoria Land, East Antarctica. To determine the Pu concentration in the samples, we used an inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry coupled with an Apex high-efficiency sample introduction system, which has the advantages of small sample consumption and simple sample preparation. We reconstructed the firn core Pu fallout record for the period after 1954 CE shows a significant fluctuation in agreement with past atmospheric nuclear testing. These data will contribute to ice core research by providing depth-age information.

  3. Neutronic analysis of the PBMR-400 full core using thorium fuel mixed with plutonium or minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acır, Adem; Coşkun, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Neutronic calculations for PBMR 400 were conducted with the computer codes MCNP and MONTEBURNS 2.0. ► The criticality and burnup were investigated for reactor grade plutonium and minor actinides. ► We found that the use of these new fuels in PBMRs would reduce the nuclear waste repository significantly. -- Abstract: Time evolution of criticality and burnup grades of the PBMR were investigated for reactor grade plutonium and minor actinides in the spent fuel of light water reactors (LWRs) mixed with thoria. The calculations were performed by employing the computer codes MCNP and MONTEBURNS 2.0 and using the ENDF/B-V nuclear data library. Firstly, the plutonium–thorium and minor actinides–thorium ratio was determined by using the initial k eff value of the original uranium fuel design. After the selection of the plutonium/minor actinides–thorium mixture ratio, the time-dependent neutronic behavior of the reactor grade plutonium and minor actinides and original fuels in a PBMR-400 reactor was calculated by using the MCNP code. Finally, k eff , burnup and operation time values of the fuels were compared. The core effective multiplication factor (k eff ) for the original fuel which has 9.6 wt.% enriched uranium was computed as 1.2395. Corresponding to this k eff value the reactor grade plutonium/thorium and minor actinide/thorium oxide mixtures were found to be 30%/70% and 50%/50%, respectively. The core lives for the original, the reactor grade plutonium/thorium and the minor actinide/thorium fuels were calculated as ∼3.2, ∼6.5 and ∼5.5 years, whereas, the corresponding burnups came out to be 99,000, ∼190,000 and ∼166,000 MWD/T, respectively, for an end of life k eff set equal to 1.02.

  4. Temperature coefficients of reactivity in the fourth loading of ZENITH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro Manso, R.; Freemantle, R.G.; Rogers, J.D.

    1962-10-01

    Measurements have been made of the temperature coefficients of reactivity associated with the core plus end reflectors and the side reflector of the fourth core loading of ZENITH, which had a carbon/U235 atomic ratio of 7788 and no other absorber. (author)

  5. A report on the first loading of ZENITH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absalom, R.M.; Barclay, F.R.; Cameron, I.R.; Della Loggia, V.E.; Hage, W.; Kinchin, G.H.; Sanders, J.E.; Tiren, L.I.; Wilson, D.J.

    1960-12-01

    The loading to criticality of the first core of the zero energy reactor ZENITH, and the results of the subsequent experimental programme are described. The composition of the reactor core corresponds to graphite: U235 and Th232: U235 atomic ratios of 3843 and 9.51 respectively. (author)

  6. A report on the first loading of ZENITH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Absalom, R M; Barclay, F R; Cameron, I R; Della Loggia, V E; Hage, W; Kinchin, G H; Sanders, J E; Tiren, L I; Wilson, D J [Industrial Power Reactors Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1960-12-15

    The loading to criticality of the first core of the zero energy reactor ZENITH, and the results of the subsequent experimental programme are described. The composition of the reactor core corresponds to graphite: U235 and Th232: U235 atomic ratios of 3843 and 9.51 respectively. (author)

  7. Temperature coefficients of reactivity in the fourth loading of ZENITH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro Manso, R; Freemantle, R G; Rogers, J D [Graphite Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1962-10-15

    Measurements have been made of the temperature coefficients of reactivity associated with the core plus end reflectors and the side reflector of the fourth core loading of ZENITH, which had a carbon/U235 atomic ratio of 7788 and no other absorber. (author)

  8. A fast semi-quantitative method for Plutonium determination in an alpine firn/ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, J.; Cozzi, G.; Vallelonga, P.; Schwikowski, M.; Sigl, M.; Boutron, C.; Barbante, C.

    2009-04-01

    Plutonium is present in the environment as a consequence of atmospheric nuclear tests carried out in the 1960s, nuclear weapons production and releases by the nuclear industry over the past 50 years. Plutonium, unlike uranium, is essentially anthropogenic and it was first produced and isolated in 1940 by deuteron bombardment of uranium in the cyclotron of Berkeley University. It exists in five main isotopes, 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu, derived from civilian and military sources (weapons production and detonation, nuclear reactors, nuclear accidents). In the environment, 239Pu is the most abundant isotope. Approximately 6 tons of 239Pu have been released into the environment as a result of 541 atmospheric weapon tests Nuclear Pu fallout has been studied in various environmental archives, such as sediments, soil and herbarium grass. Mid-latitude ice cores have been studied as well, on Mont Blanc, the Western Alps and on Belukha Glacier, Siberian Altai. We present a Pu record obtained by analyzing 52 discrete samples of an alpine firn/ice core from Colle Gnifetti (M. Rosa, 4450 m a.s.l.), dating from 1945 to 1991. The239Pu signal was recorded directly, without preliminary cleaning or preconcentration steps, using an ICP-SFMS (Thermo Element2) equipped with a desolvation system (APEX). 238UH+ interferences were negligible for U concentrations lower than 50 ppt as verified both in spiked fresh snow and pre-1940 ice samples. The shape of 239Pu profile reflects the three main periods of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing: the earliest peak starts in 1954/55 to 1958 and includes the first testing period which reached a maximum in 1958. Despite a temporary halt in testing in 1959/60, the Pu concentration decreased only by half with respect to the 1958 peak. In 1961/62 Pu concentrations rapidly increased reaching a maximum in 1963, which was about 40% more intense than the 1958 peak. After the sign of the "Limited Test Ban Treaty" between USA and URSS in 1964, Pu

  9. Optimisation of deep burn incineration of reactor waste plutonium in a PBMR DPP-400 core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfontein, Dawid E.; Mulder, Eben J.; Reitsma, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    In this article an original set of coupled neutronics and thermo-hydraulic simulation results for the VSOP 99/05 diffusion code are presented for advanced fuel cycles for the incineration of weapons-grade plutonium, reactor-grade plutonium and reactor-grade plutonium with its associated Minor Actinides in the 400 MW th Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Demonstration Power Plant. These results are also compared to those of the standard 9.6 wt% enriched 9 g/fuel sphere U/Pu fuel cycle. The weapons-grade and reactor-grade plutonium fuel cycles produced good burn-ups. However, the addition of the Minor Actinides to the reactor-grade plutonium caused a large decrease in the burn-up and thus an unacceptable increase in the heavy metal (HM) content in the spent fuel, which was intended for direct disposal in a deep geological repository, without chemical reprocessing. All the plutonium fuel cycles failed the adopted safety limits used in the PBMR400 in that either the maximum fuel temperature of 1130 °C during normal operation, or the maximum power density of 4.5 kW/sphere was exceeded. All the plutonium fuel cycles also produced positive uniform temperature reactivity coefficients, i.e. the reactivity coefficient where the temperatures of the fuel and the graphite moderator in the fuel spheres were varied together. These unacceptable positive coefficients were experienced at low temperatures, typically below 700 °C. This was due to the influence of the thermal fission cross-section resonances of 239 Pu and 241 Pu. Weapons-grade plutonium produced the worst safety performance. The safety performance of the reactor-grade plutonium also deteriorated when the HM loading was reduced from 3 g/sphere to 2 g or 1 g

  10. Optimisation of deep burn incineration of reactor waste plutonium in a PBMR DPP-400 core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serfontein, Dawid E., E-mail: Dawid.Serfontein@nwu.ac.za [School for Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North West University, PUK-Campus, Private Bag X6001, Internal Post Box 360, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Mulder, Eben J. [School for Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North West University (South Africa); Reitsma, Frederik [Calvera Consultants (South Africa)

    2014-05-01

    In this article an original set of coupled neutronics and thermo-hydraulic simulation results for the VSOP 99/05 diffusion code are presented for advanced fuel cycles for the incineration of weapons-grade plutonium, reactor-grade plutonium and reactor-grade plutonium with its associated Minor Actinides in the 400 MW{sub th} Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Demonstration Power Plant. These results are also compared to those of the standard 9.6 wt% enriched 9 g/fuel sphere U/Pu fuel cycle. The weapons-grade and reactor-grade plutonium fuel cycles produced good burn-ups. However, the addition of the Minor Actinides to the reactor-grade plutonium caused a large decrease in the burn-up and thus an unacceptable increase in the heavy metal (HM) content in the spent fuel, which was intended for direct disposal in a deep geological repository, without chemical reprocessing. All the plutonium fuel cycles failed the adopted safety limits used in the PBMR400 in that either the maximum fuel temperature of 1130 °C during normal operation, or the maximum power density of 4.5 kW/sphere was exceeded. All the plutonium fuel cycles also produced positive uniform temperature reactivity coefficients, i.e. the reactivity coefficient where the temperatures of the fuel and the graphite moderator in the fuel spheres were varied together. These unacceptable positive coefficients were experienced at low temperatures, typically below 700 °C. This was due to the influence of the thermal fission cross-section resonances of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu. Weapons-grade plutonium produced the worst safety performance. The safety performance of the reactor-grade plutonium also deteriorated when the HM loading was reduced from 3 g/sphere to 2 g or 1 g.

  11. Estimating plutonium production fron long-lived radionuclides in permanent structural components of production reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetter, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the United States and the Soviet Union face critical decisions about the future of plutonium production for nuclear weapons. Both countries could eliminate the economic burden of rebuilding their production complexes by agreeing to ban the production of plutonium for weapons. Such an agreement could also provide important national-security benefits by reinforcing the Non-Proliferation Treaty and by diminishing the ability of both nations to break out of nuclear-arms reduction agreements at a later time - especially if the plutonium in the warheads eliminated by the arms reduction agreements is put under safeguards. A production cutoff would be verifiable

  12. Parameterization of Cherenkov Light Lateral Distribution Function as a Function of the Zenith Angle around the Knee Region

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulsttar, Marwah M.; Al-Rubaiee, A. A.; Ali, Abdul Halim Kh.

    2016-01-01

    Cherenkov light lateral distribution function (CLLDF) simulation was fulfilled using CORSIKA code for configurations of Tunka EAS array of different zenith angles. The parameterization of the CLLDF was carried out as a function of the distance from the shower core in extensive air showers (EAS) and zenith angle on the basis of the CORSIKA simulation of primary proton around the knee region with the energy 3.10^15 eV at different zenith angles. The parameterized CLLDF is verified in comparison...

  13. High moderation MOX cores for effective use of plutonium in LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Kazuko; Kanagawa, Takashi; Hiraiwa, Koji; Sakurada, Koichi; Moriwaki, Masanao; Aoyama, Motoo; Yamamoto, Toru; Ueji, Masao

    2001-01-01

    Conceptual design studies have been performed for high moderation full MOX cores aiming at increasing fissile Pu consumption rate (ratio of the consumed to the loaded fissile Pu) and reducing residual Pu in discharged MOX fuel. The BWR cores studied have hydrogen to heavy metal ratio(H/HM) of 5.9 with increasing water rods and 7.0 with reducing a fuel rod diameter based on a reference 9x9 fuel (H/HM=4.9) of ABWR. The PWR cores studied have H/HM of 5.0 and 6.0 with reducing a fuel rod diameter based on a reference 17x17 fuel (H/HM=4.0) of APWR. Equilibrium core design and plant safety analyses showed that those high moderation cores have compatibility with ABWR and APWR. The fissile Pu consumption rate is 22% larger than the full MOX cores with reference fuel of ABWR and 50% for APWR. The core performance and compatibility has been also evaluated in the condition of multi-recycle of Pu in these high moderation cores. Study has been conducted to evaluate the effect of introducing these high moderation cores in the fuel cycle of Japan. It shows that the high moderation cores produce 26% more cumulative electricity and reduce 22% stock of the fissile Pu by 2050 than the reference cores. (author)

  14. Study of advanced LWR cores for effective use of plutonium and MOX physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, T.; Matsu-Ura, H.; Ueji, M.; Ota, H.; Kanagawa, T.; Sakurada, K.; Maruyama, H.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced technologies of full MOX cores have been studied to obtain higher Pu consumption based on the advanced light water reactors (APWRs and ABWRs). For this aim, basic core designs of high moderation lattice (H/HM ∼5) have been studied with reduced fuel diameters in fuel assemblies for APWRs and those of high moderation lattice (H/HM ∼6) with addition of extra water rods in fuel assemblies for ABWRs. The analysis of equilibrium cores shows that nuclear and thermal hydraulic parameters satisfy the design criteria and the Pu consumption rate increases about 20 %. An experimental program has been carried out to obtain the core parameters of high moderation MOX cores in the EOLE critical facility at the Cadarache Centre as a joint study of NUPEC, CEA and CEA's industrial partners. The experiments include a uranium homogeneous core, two MOX homogeneous cores of different moderation and a PWR assembly mock up core of MOX fuel with high moderation. The program was started from 1996 and will be completed in 2000. (author)

  15. Stop plutonium; Stop plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This press document aims to inform the public on the hazards bound to the plutonium exploitation in France and especially the plutonium transport. The first part is a technical presentation of the plutonium and the MOX (Mixed Oxide Fuel). The second part presents the installation of the plutonium industry in France. The third part is devoted to the plutonium convoys safety. The highlight is done on the problem of the leak of ''secret'' of such transports. (A.L.B.)

  16. Zenith 1 truss transfer ceremony

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Zenith-1 (Z-1) Truss is officially presented to NASA by The Boeing Co. on the Space Station Processing Facility floor on July 31. STS-92 Commander Col. Brian Duffy, comments on the presentation. Pictured are The Boeing Co. processing team and STS-92 astronauts. The Z-1 Truss is the cornerstone truss of the International Space Station and is scheduled to fly in Space Shuttle Discovery's payload pay on STS-92 targeted for launch Oct. 5, 2000. The Z-1 is considered a cornerstone truss because it carries critical components of the Station's attitude, communications, thermal and power control systems as well as four control moment gyros, high and low gain antenna systems, and two plasma contactor units used to disperse electrical charge build- ups. The Z-1 truss and a Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA-3), also flying to the Station on the same mission, will be the first major U.S. elements flown to the ISS aboard the Shuttle since the launch of the Unity element in December 1998.

  17. Low-level detection and quantification of Plutonium(III, IV, V,and VI) using a liquid core waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Richard E.; Hu, Yung-Jin; Nitsche, Heino

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the aqueous chemistry of plutonium, in particular in environmental conditions, is often complicated by plutonium's complex redox chemistry. Because plutonium possesses four oxidation states, all of which can coexist in solution, a reliable method for the identification of these oxidation states is needed. The identification of plutonium oxidation states at low levels in aqueous solution is often accomplished through an indirect determination using series of liquid-liquid extraction procedures using oxidation state specific reagents such as HDEHP and TTA. While these methods, coupled with radioactive counting techniques provide superior limits of detection they may influence the plutonium redox equilibrium, are time consuming, waste intensive and costly. Other analytical methods such as mass spectrometry and radioactive counting as stand alone methods provide excellent detection limits but lack the ability to discriminate between the oxidation states of the plutonium ions in solution

  18. An interim report on the second loading of Zenith. Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Absalom, R M; Barclay, F R; Cameron, I R; Collins, A G; Della Loggia, V E; Freemantle, R G; Hage, W; Kinchin, G H; Sanders, J E; Tiren, L I; Wilson, D J

    1961-02-15

    The loading to criticality of the second core of the high-temperature zero-energy reactor ZENITH and the results of the subsequent experimental programme are described. The composition of the reactor core corresponds to graphite: U235 and TH232 : U235 atomic ratios of 2107 and 4.75 respectively.

  19. Plutonium fires; Incendies de plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestre, E.

    1959-06-23

    The author reports an information survey on accidents which occurred when handling plutonium. He first addresses accidents reported in documents. He indicates the circumstances and consequences of these accidents (explosion in glove boxes, fires of plutonium chips, plutonium fire followed by filter destruction, explosion during plutonium chip dissolution followed by chip fire). He describes hazards associated with plutonium fires: atmosphere and surface contamination, criticality. The author gives some advices to avoid plutonium fires. These advices concern electric installations, the use of flammable solvents, general cautions associated with plutonium handling, venting and filtration. He finally describes how to fight plutonium fires, and measures to be taken after the fire (staff contamination control, atmosphere control)

  20. Plutonium activities and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in sediment cores from the east China sea and Okinawa Trough: Sources and inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-liang; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2005-05-01

    Plutonium concentrations and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediment cores were determined by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after separation using ion-exchange chromatography. The results showed that 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediments, ranging from 0.21 to 0.33, were much higher than the reported value of global fallout (0.18). The highest 240Pu/ 239Pu ratios (0.32-0.33) were observed in the deepest Okinawa Trough sediment samples. These ratios suggested the US nuclear weapons tests in the early 1950s at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands were a major source of plutonium in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediments, in addition to the global fallout source. It was proposed that close-in fallout plutonium was delivered from the Pacific Proving Grounds test sites via early direct tropospheric fallout and transportation by the North Pacific Equatorial Circulation system and Kuroshio Current into the Okinawa Trough and East China Sea. The total 239 + 240 Pu inventories in the cores were about 150-200% of that expected from direct global fallout; about 46-67% of the total inventories were delivered from the Pacific Proving Grounds. Much higher 239 + 240 Pu inventories were observed in the East China Sea sediments than in sediments of the Okinawa Trough, because in the open oceans, part of the 239 + 240 Pu was still retained in the water column, and continued Pu scavenging was higher over the margin than the trough. According to the vertical distributions of 239 + 240 Pu activities and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in these cores, it was concluded that sediment mixing was the dominant process in controlling profiles of plutonium in this area. Faster mixing in the coastal samples has homogenized the entire 240Pu/ 239Pu ratio record today; slightly slower mixing and less scavenging in the Okinawa Trough have left the surface sediment ratios closer

  1. Plutonium re-cycle in HTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desoisa, J. A.

    1974-03-15

    The study of plutonium cycles in HTRs using reprocessed plutonium from Magnox and AGR fuel cycles has shown that full core plutonium/uranium loadings are in general not feasible, burn-up is limited due the need for lower loadings of plutonium to meet reload core reactivity limits, on-line refueling is not practicable due to the need for higher burnable poison loadings, and low conversion rates in the plutonium-uranium cycles cannot be mitigated by axial loading schemes so that fissile make-up is needed if HTR plutonium recycle is desired.

  2. Stop plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    This press document aims to inform the public on the hazards bound to the plutonium exploitation in France and especially the plutonium transport. The first part is a technical presentation of the plutonium and the MOX (Mixed Oxide Fuel). The second part presents the installation of the plutonium industry in France. The third part is devoted to the plutonium convoys safety. The highlight is done on the problem of the leak of ''secret'' of such transports. (A.L.B.)

  3. Development and production of Zenith fissile elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, D; Wheatley, C C.H.; Lloyd, H

    1959-06-15

    The development of a new glass-bonded alumina-uranium oxide composition forming the fissile component of the Zenith fuel elements is described, together with the production of the initial charge containing 15 Kg. of U{sub 235]; the composition is capable of retaining fission product gases at high temperatures. The description includes criticality considerations, details of manufacture, and production statistics of the 11,000 discs produced.

  4. Plutonium controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated

  5. Plutonium controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

  6. Conceptual study of axial offset fluctuations upon stepwise power changes in a thorium–plutonium core to improve load-following conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Cheuk Wah; Dykin, Victor; Nylén, Henrik; Björk, Klara Insulander; Sandberg, Urban

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thorium–plutonium mixed oxide to improve nuclear reactors load-following capability. • SIMULATE-3 was the main calculation tool. • The Ringhals-3 PWR unit in Sweden was used as a reference. • Lower xenon poisoning and shorter reactor dead time. - Abstract: The increased share of renewable energy, such as wind and solar power, will increase the demand for load-following power sources, and nuclear reactors could be one option. However, during rapid load-following events, traditional UOX cores could be restricted by the volatile oscillation of the power distribution. Therefore, a conceptual study on stability properties of Th-MOX PWR concerning axial offset power excursion during load-following events are investigated and discussed. The study is performed in SIMULATE-3 for a realistic PWR core (Ringhals-3) at the end of cycle, where the largest amplitude of the axial offset oscillations is expected. It is shown that the Th-MOX core possesses much better stability characteristics and shorter reactor dead time compared with a traditional UOX core, and the main reasons are the lower sensitivity to perturbations in the neutron spectrum, lower xenon poisoning and lower thermal neutron flux

  7. Vertical distribution of 239+240Pu-concentration and 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio in sediment cores. Implications for the sources of plutonium in the Japan Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Jian, Zheng

    2005-01-01

    The main sources in the environmental plutonium is due to nuclear explosions held during 1945 - 1980. The global fallout of plutonium is estimated to amount to 10.9 PBq, of which 6.6 PBq entering into the ocean. The Japan Sea is reported to be concentrated in plutonium in excess according to previous measurements. The present report aims to clarify the origin and transport path of plutonium in Japan Sea by measuring 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio in sedimenta cores with ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) which depends on the types of the nuclear reactor, nuclear fuels, reacting time, or the types of nuclear weapons concerned. As an example the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio from the nuclear explosions in early 1960's is known to be 0.18, while that of 0.34-0.36 Bikini experiments in the Marshall Islands in early 1950's. After a detailed examination, the present authors propose that the plutonium from the explosion sites around the Marshall Islands was carried with an oceanic current to be deposited in the bed of the East-China Sea, from which a part of the plutonium was transported with the Black Stream to enter Japan Sea. (S. Ohno)

  8. A solvent proceed for the extraction of the irradiate uranium and plutonium in the reactor core; Un procede par solvant pour l'extraction du plutonium de l'uranium irradie dans les piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, B; Regnaut, P; Prevot, I [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Description of the conditions of plutonium, fission products and of uranium separation by selective extraction of the nitrates by organic solvent, containing a simultaneous extraction of plutonium and uranium, followed by a plutonium re-extraction after reduction, and an uranium re-extraction. The rates of decontamination being insufficient in this first stage, we also describes the processes of decontamination permitting separately to get the rates wanted for uranium and plutonium. Finally, we describes the beginning of the operation that consists in a nitric dissolution of the active uranium while capturing the products of gaseous fission, as well as the final concentration of the products of fission in a concentrated solution. (authors) [French] Description des conditions de separation du plutonium, des produits de fission et de l'uranium au moyen d'une extraction selective des nitrates par solvant organique, comprenant une extraction simultanee du plutonium et de l'uranium, suivie d'une reextraction du plutonium apres reduction, et d'une reextraction de l'uranium. Les taux de decontamination etant insuffisants dans ce premier stade, on decrit egalement les processus de decontamination permettant separement d'obtenir les taux desires pour l'uranium et le plutonium. Enfin, on decrit aussi le debut de l'operation qui consiste en une dissolution nitrique de l'uranium actif en captant les produits de fission gazeux, ainsi que la concentration finale des produits de fission sous forme de solution concentree. (auteurs)

  9. Reactivity and reaction rate studies on the fourth loading of ZENITH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, I.R.; Freemantle, R.G.; Reed, D.L.; Wilson, D.J.

    1963-08-01

    The determination of the excess reactivity, control rod worths, prompt neutron lifetime, flux fine structure, and reaction rates of various nuclides for the fourth loading of the heated zero energy reactor ZENITH is described. The core contains 7.76 kg of U235, giving a carbon/U235 atom ratio of 7578, and forms the most dilute of the range studied. Comparisons of the experimental results with calculations using multigroup diffusion codes are presented. (author)

  10. Reactivity and reaction rate studies on the fourth loading of ZENITH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, I R; Freemantle, R G; Reed, D L; Wilson, D J [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1963-08-15

    The determination of the excess reactivity, control rod worths, prompt neutron lifetime, flux fine structure, and reaction rates of various nuclides for the fourth loading of the heated zero energy reactor ZENITH is described. The core contains 7.76 kg of U235, giving a carbon/U235 atom ratio of 7578, and forms the most dilute of the range studied. Comparisons of the experimental results with calculations using multigroup diffusion codes are presented. (author)

  11. Plutonium in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.R.; Salter, P.F.

    The geochemistry of fallout plutonium in the sediments of the Gulf of Mexico was studied. A series of sediment cores was collected in a traverse from the deep Gulf of Mexico to the Mississippi Delta. The cores were sliced into 1 cm intervals and analyzed for plutonium. Explanations for the variations in concentration are presented

  12. Cosmic ray zenith angle distribution at low geomagnetic latitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon, G [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Gagliardini, A; Ghielmetti, H S

    1977-12-01

    The intensity of secondary charged cosmic rays at different zenith angles was measured by narrow angle Geiger-Mueller telescopes up to an atmospheric depth of 2 g cm/sup -2/. The angular distribution observed at high altitudes is nearly flat at small angles around the vertical and suggests that the particle intensity peaks at large zenith angles, close to the horizon.

  13. Plutonium controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofman, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    If the world chooses to seek a solution to the energy dilemma through nuclear energy, the element plutonium will become an article of commerce to be handled in quantities of thousands of tonnes annually. Plutonium is a uniquely potent inhalation carcinogen, the potential induction of lung cancer dwarfing other possible toxic effects. For reasons to be presented here, it is the author's opinion that plutonium's carcinogenicity has been very seriously underestimated. If one couples the corrected carcinogenicity with the probable degree of industrial containment of the plutonium, it appears that the commercialization of a plutonium-based energy economy is not an acceptable option for society. Sagan's statement that ''the experience of 30 years supports the contention that plutonium can be used safely'' is manifestly indefensible. No meaningful epidemiological study of plutonium-exposed workers for that 30-year period has ever been done. Since thousands of those possibly exposed have left the industry and are not even available to follow-up, it is doubtful that any meaningful study of ''the experience of 30 years'' will ever be accomplished

  14. Plutonium solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigdomnech, I.; Bruno, J.

    1991-02-01

    Thermochemical data has been selected for plutonium oxide, hydroxide, carbonate and phosphate equilibria. Equilibrium constants have been evaluated in the temperature range 0 to 300 degrees C at a pressure of 1 bar to T≤100 degrees C and at the steam saturated pressure at higher temperatures. Measured solubilities of plutonium that are reported in the literature for laboratory experiments have been collected. Solubility data on oxides, hydroxides, carbonates and phosphates have been selected. No solubility data were found at temperatures higher than 60 degrees C. The literature solubility data have been compared with plutonium solubilities calculated with the EQ3/6 geochemical modelling programs, using the selected thermodynamic data for plutonium. (authors)

  15. Research of natural resources saving by design studies of Pressurized Light Water Reactors and High Conversion PWR cores with mixed oxide fuels composed of thorium/uranium/plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, V.

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of innovative neutronic conception of Pressurized Light Water Reactors (PWR) of 3. generation, saving of natural resources is of paramount importance for sustainable nuclear energy production. This study consists in the one hand to design high Conversion Reactors exploiting mixed oxide fuels composed of thorium/uranium/plutonium, and in the other hand, to elaborate multi-recycling strategies of both plutonium and 233 U, in order to maximize natural resources economy. This study has two main objectives: first the design of High Conversion PWR (HCPWR) with mixed oxide fuels composed of thorium/uranium/plutonium, and secondly the setting up of multi-recycling strategies of both plutonium and 233 U, to better natural resources economy. The approach took place in four stages. Two ways of introducing thorium into PWR have been identified: the first is with low moderator to fuel volume ratios (MR) and ThPuO 2 fuel, and the second is with standard or high MR and ThUO 2 fuel. The first way led to the design of under-moderated HCPWR following the criteria of high 233 U production and low plutonium consumption. This second step came up with two specific concepts, from which multi-recycling strategies have been elaborated. The exclusive production and recycling of 233 U inside HCPWR limits the annual economy of natural uranium to approximately 30%. It was brought to light that the strong need in plutonium in the HCPWR dedicated to 233 U production is the limiting factor. That is why it was eventually proposed to study how the production of 233 U within PWR (with standard MR), from 2020. It was shown that the anticipated production of 233 U in dedicated PWR relaxes the constraint on plutonium inventories and favours the transition toward a symbiotic reactor fleet composed of both PWR and HCPWR loaded with thorium fuel. This strategy is more adapted and leads to an annual economy of natural uranium of about 65%. (author) [fr

  16. CONVERSION OF PLUTONIUM TRIFLUORIDE TO PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, S.; Davidson, N.R.

    1957-09-10

    A large proportion of the trifluoride of plutonium can be converted, in the absence of hydrogen fluoride, to the tetrafiuoride of plutonium. This is done by heating plutonium trifluoride with oxygen at temperatures between 250 and 900 deg C. The trifiuoride of plutonium reacts with oxygen to form plutonium tetrafluoride and plutonium oxide, in a ratio of about 3 to 1. In the presence of moisture, plutonium tetrafluoride tends to hydrolyze at elevated temperatures and therefore it is desirable to have the process take place under anhydrous conditions.

  17. Plutonium (Pu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This pedagogical document presents the properties and uses of plutonium: where does it come from, the history of its discovery, its uses and energy content, its recycling and reuse in MOX fuels, its half-life, toxicity and presence in the environment. (J.S.)

  18. Learning more about plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document offers chemical, metallurgical and economical information on the plutonium, a hard white radioelement. It deals also on the plutonium formation in the earth, the plutonium use in the nuclear industry, the plutonium in the environment and the plutonium toxicity. (A.L.B.)

  19. Plutonium in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium in nature comes from natural sources and anthropogenic ones. Plutonium at the earth surface comes principally from anthropogenic sources. It is easily detectable in environment. The plutonium behaviour in environment is complex. It seems necessary for the future to reduce releases in environment, to improve predictive models of plutonium behaviour in geosphere, to precise biological impact of anthropogenic plutonium releases

  20. Heavy water critical experiments on plutonium lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyawaki, Yoshio; Shiba, Kiminori

    1975-06-01

    This report is the summary of physics study on plutonium lattice made in Heavy Water Critical Experiment Section of PNC. By using Deuterium Critical Assembly, physics study on plutonium lattice has been carried out since 1972. Experiments on following items were performed in a core having 22.5 cm square lattice pitch. (1) Material buckling (2) Lattice parameters (3) Local power distribution factor (4) Gross flux distribution in two region core (5) Control rod worth. Experimental results were compared with theoretical ones calculated by METHUSELAH II code. It is concluded from this study that calculation by METHUSELAH II code has acceptable accuracy in the prediction on plutonium lattice. (author)

  1. Plutonium uniqueness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    A standard is suggested against which the putative uniqueness of plutonium may be tested. It is common folklore that plutonium is unique among the chemical elements because its four common oxidation states can coexist in the same solution. Whether this putative uniqueness appears only during transit to equilibrium, or only at equilibrium, or all of the time, is not generally made clear. But while the folklore may contain some truth, it cannot be put to test until some measure of 'uniqueness' is agreed upon so that quantitative comparisons are possible. One way of measuring uniqueness is as the magnitude of the product of the mole fractions of the element at equilibrium. A 'coexistence index' is defined and discussed. (author)

  2. Plutonium story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1981-09-01

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope 238 Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope 239 Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements

  3. An interim report on the Zenith Exponential Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Absalom, R M; Cameron, I R; Kinchin, G H; Sanders, J E; Wilson, D J [Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1959-06-15

    The following memorandum gives an interim account of the exponential experiments with Zenith-type fuel elements being carried out at Winfrith. Results quoted are still subject to revision: however it is hoped that the description of the work at this stage will stimulate discussion and suggestions for further measurements before the experiment is dismantled later in the year. The measurements are being undertaken in order to form some initial understanding of the reactor physics of uranium 235-thorium-graphite systems of the type later to be studied in Zenith. There have been no previous investigations of this type of system in the U.K. though measurements on enriched uranium-graphite systems have been reported from the U.S.A.. A practical result of the measurements will be a revision of the estimated critical loadings for Zenith, since the exponential systems studied cover the range of loadings proposed for the first critical assemblies. The theoretical work on these systems includes a two-group analysis being carried on in the Zenith group and a multigroup analysis being made by the H.T.G.C. Technical Assessments Group, including a Monte Carlo study of resonance capture.

  4. PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, W.L.; Moore, R.H.

    1961-01-17

    A process is given for producing plutonium metal by the reduction of plutonium chloride, dissolved in alkali metal chloride plus or minus aluminum chloride, with magnesium or a magnesium-aluminum alloy at between 700 and 800 deg C and separating the plutonium or plutonium-aluminum alloy formed from the salt.

  5. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, A.G.; Smith, F.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products by treating a nitrate solution of fission products, uranium, and hexavalent plutonium with a relatively water-insoluble fluoride to adsorb fission products on the fluoride, treating the residual solution with a reducing agent for plutonium to reduce its valence to four and less, treating the reduced plutonium solution with a relatively insoluble fluoride to adsorb the plutonium on the fluoride, removing the solution, and subsequently treating the fluoride with its adsorbed plutonium with a concentrated aqueous solution of at least one of a group consisting of aluminum nitrate, ferric nitrate, and manganous nitrate to remove the plutonium from the fluoride.

  6. PRISM reactor. An option for plutonium disposition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehlinger, Sebastian; Friess, Friederike; Kuett, Moritz [IANUS, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) is sodium cooled fast reactor model. The energy output depends on the core configuration, however with an energy output of approximately 300 MWe, the PRISM reactor belongs to the class of small modular reactors. Beside using the reactor as a breeder reactor or for the transmutation of nuclear waste, it might also be used as a burner reactor for separated plutonium. This includes for example U.S.-American excess weapon-grade plutonium as well as separated reactor-grade plutonium. Recently, there has been an ongoing discussion in GB to use the PRISM reactor to dispose their excess civilian plutonium. Depending on the task, the core configuration varies slightly. We will present different layouts and the matching MCNP models, these models can then be used to conduct depletion calculations. From these results, analysis of the change in the plutonium isotopics in the spent fuel, the amount of fissioned plutonium, and the possible annual plutonium throughputs is possible.

  7. Plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, Marc; Frot, Patricia; Gambini, Denis-Jean; Gauron, Christine; Moureaux, Patrick; Herbelet, Gilbert; Lahaye, Thierry; Pihet, Pascal; Rannou, Alain

    2014-06-01

    This sheet belongs to a collection which relates to the use of radionuclides essentially in unsealed sources. Its goal is to gather on a single document the most relevant information as well as the best prevention practices to be implemented. These sheets are made for the persons in charge of radiation protection: users, radioprotection-skill persons, labor physicians. Each sheet treats of: 1 - the radio-physical and biological properties; 2 - the main uses; 3 - the dosimetric parameters; 4 - the measurement; 5 - the protection means; 6 - the areas delimitation and monitoring; 7 - the personnel classification, training and monitoring; 8 - the effluents and wastes; 9 - the authorization and declaration administrative procedures; 10 - the transport; and 11 - the right conduct to adopt in case of incident or accident. This sheet deals specifically with Plutonium-239

  8. The plutonium fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.; Ang, K.P.

    1975-01-01

    The quantities of plutonium and other fuel actinides have been calculated for equilibrium fuel cycles for 1000-MW water reactors fueled with slightly enriched uranium, water reactors fueled with plutonium and natural uranium, fast-breder reactors, gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium and highly enriched uranium, and gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium, plutonium and recycled uranium. The radioactivity quantities of plutonium, americium and curium processed yearly in these fuel cycles are greatest for the water reactors fueled with natural uranium and recycled plutonium. The total amount of actinides processed is calculated for the predicted future growth of the U.S. nuclear power industry. For the same total installed nuclear power capacity, the introduction of the plutonium breeder has little effect upon the total amount of plutonium in this century. The estimated amount of plutonium in the low-level process wastes in the plutonium fuel cycles is comparable to the amount of plutonium in the high-level fission product wastes. The amount of plutonium processed in the nuclear fuel cycles can be considerably reduced by using gas-cooled reactors to consume plutonium produced in uranium-fueled water reactors. These, and other reactors dedicated for plutonium utilization, could be co-located with facilities for fuel reprocessing ad fuel fabrication to eliminate the off-site transport of separated plutonium. (author)

  9. Plutonium use - present status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dievoet, J. van; Fossoul, E.; Jonckheere, E.; Bemden, E. van den

    1977-01-01

    Plutonium is being produced in increasing quantities in the so-called proven reactors, which are mostly of the light-water type. Evaluation of this production on a world scale shows that it would be theoretically possible to construct a large number of breeders and thus to make the best use of the intrinsic qualities of plutonium as a fissionable material, while considerably reducing the consumption of uranium. This source of plutonium is nevertheless dependent on an essential stage of the fuel cycle, namely reprocessing of irradiated fuel. The long delays in installing an adequate world reprocessing capacity are substantially weakening the prospects for the introduction of breeders. Furthermore, the critical situation as regards reprocessing may delay the development of complementary reprocessing methods for fuels with a high plutonium content and high burn-up. When it is recalled that fast reactors themselves may suffer some delay in their technological development, if only because of the intention to build power plants of very high unit capacity immediately, it must be concluded that another use will have to be considered for the plutonium available in future -use in thermal reactors, i.e. recycling. The recycling of plutonium is a well-known technique today and the objections which could be raised against it hardly stand up to analysis. Utilization of plutonium offers an appreciable saving in terms of uranium and separative work units, the consumption being of a low order of magnitude in comparison with the total amount of plutonium needed for the eventual fabrication of the first fast reactor cores. It can also be shown that immediate reprocessing of the recycling fuel is not essential for the economics of the concept. Temporary storage of recycled fuel has the advantage of concentrating plutonium in a particularly safe form, namely in irradiated plutonium-bearing fuel assemblies. Lastly, recycling offers such flexibility that it does not in practice represent

  10. Plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traube, K.

    1984-01-01

    The author expresses his opinion on the situation, describes the energy-economic setting, indicates the alternatives: fuel reprocessing or immediate long-term storage, and investigates the prospects for economic utilization of the breeder reactors. All the facts suggest that the breeder reactor will never be able to stand economic competition with light-water reactors. However, there is no way to prove the future. It is naive to think that every doubt could and must be removed before stopping the development of breeder reactors - and thus also the reprocessing of the fuel of light-water reactors. On the basis of the current state of knowledge an unbiased cost-benefit-analysis can only lead to the recommendation to stop construction immediately. But can 'experts', who for years or even decades have called for and supported the development of breeder reactors be expected to make an unbiased analysis. Klaus Traube strikes the balance of the state Germany's nuclear economy is in: although there is no chance of definitively abandoning that energy-political cul-de-sac, no new adventures must be embarked upon. Responsible handling of currently used nuclear technology means to give up breeder technology and waive plutonium economy. It is no supreme technology with the aid of which structural unemployment or any other economic problem could be solved. (orig.) [de

  11. Management of Russian military plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleski, C.P.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose and discuss a solution which enables storing as quickly as possible all weapons-grade plutonium from Russian military program in a way which would prevent diversion. Two main conditions apply to this solution. First, it should be achieved in a manner acceptable to Russian government, notably by preserving plutonium for possible future energy production, and second, the economics of the total system should be good enough to ensure no charge or limited charge for the storage of plutonium. A proposal is made to store plutonium in a specially designed fast reactor or specially designed reactor core. This solution could be favorable in comparison to other solutions applying the above mentioned goal and conditions. Additionally the proposed solution would have the following side advantages: utilizing available personnel and installations of the Russian nuclear complex; providing possible basis for decommissioning of older and less safe Russian reactors; giving experience of construction and operation of a series of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The major problem however is the need for large capital investment with the risk of getting no adequate return on investment due to difficult political and economic situation in Russia

  12. Uranium plutonium oxide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Leggett, R.D.; Weber, E.T.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium plutonium oxide is the principal fuel material for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's) throughout the world. Development of this material has been a reasonably straightforward evolution from the UO 2 used routinely in the light water reactor (LWR's); but, because of the lower neutron capture cross sections and much lower coolant pressures in the sodium cooled LMFBR's, the fuel is operated to much higher discharge exposures than that of a LWR. A typical LMFBR fuel assembly is shown. Depending on the required power output and the configuration of the reactor, some 70 to 400 such fuel assemblies are clustered to form the core. There is a wide variation in cross section and length of the assemblies where the increasing size reflects a chronological increase in plant size and power output as well as considerations of decreasing the net fuel cycle cost. Design and performance characteristics are described

  13. HF-induced airglow at magnetic zenith: theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Mishin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of airglow at 630nm (red line and 557.7nm (green line during HF modification experiments at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP heating facility are analyzed. We propose a theoretical framework for understanding the generation of Langmuir and ion acoustic waves during magnetic zenith injections. We show that observations of HF-induced airglow in an underdense ionosphere as well as a decrease in the height of the emitting volume are consistent with this scenario.

  14. Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Plutonium Finishing Plant, also known as PFP, represented the end of the line (the final procedure) associated with plutonium production at Hanford.PFP was also...

  15. Plutonium biokinetics in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popplewell, D.; Ham, G.; McCarthy, W.; Lands, C.

    1994-01-01

    By using an 'unusual' isotope it is possible to carry out experiments with plutonium in volunteers at minimal radiation dose levels. Measurements have been made of the gut transfer factor and the urinary excretion of plutonium after intravenous injection. (author)

  16. Plutonium in uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Aguilar, R.; Attrep, M. Jr.; Roensch, F.

    1992-01-01

    Plutonium-239 (t 1/2 , 24,100 yr) is one of the most persistent radioactive constituents of high-level wastes from nuclear fission power reactors. Effective containment of such a long-lived constituent will rely heavily upon its containment by the geologic environment of a repository. Uranium ore deposits offer a means to evaluate the geochemical properties of plutonium under natural conditions. In this paper, analyses of natural plutonium in several ores are compared to calculated plutonium production rates in order to evaluate the degree of retention of plutonium by the ore. The authors find that current methods for estimating production rates are neither sufficiently accurate nor precise to provide unambiguous measures of plutonium retention. However, alternative methods for evaluating plutonium mobility are being investigated, including its measurement in natural ground waters. Preliminary results are reported and establish the foundation for a comprehensive characterization of plutonium geochemistry in other natural environments

  17. Plutonium metal burning facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausburg, D.E.; Leebl, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    A glove-box facility was designed to convert plutonium skull metal or unburned oxide to an oxide acceptable for plutonium recovery and purification. A discussion of the operation, safety aspects, and electrical schematics are included

  18. Plutonium Training Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wolkov, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-26

    This report was created to examine the current state of plutonium training in the United States and to discover ways in which to ensure that the next generation of plutonium workers are fully qualified.

  19. Optimization and plutonium equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    The sequential simplex method has been used to estimate the extent of disproportionation of tetravalent plutonium in dilute acid. A method for simulating potentiometric titrations is proposed, and this method suggests that the stoichiometric end point and the inflection point may not always correspond in the potentiometric titration of plutonium. A possible characteristic equation for the nitrite-plutonium reaction is illustrated, and the method of proportional equations is extended to the iron-plutonium reaction

  20. Study of plutonium cycle in marine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino Pareja, J.; Sanchez Cabeza, J. A.; Molero Savall, J.; Masque Barri, P.

    1998-01-01

    The distribution, transport and accumulation mechanisms of transuranics (and other radionuclides) in the marine environment depend on the source term, biogeochemical cycles, transport with the water masses, sedimentation processes and transfer mechanisms in the trophic chain. The biogeochemical behaviour of plutonium, which has been the focus of our work, was studied using the following approaches: determination of the physico-chemical speciation of plutonium in marine waters, vertical flux in the water column, uptake by marine organisms (phytoplankton and zooplankton) and distribution in dements cores. A preliminary model of the accumulation and distribution of plutonium in the first levels of the marine food chain in the Irish Sea has also been formulated. All this information allowed us to obtain an integrated view of the behaviour of plutonium in the marine environment. (Author) 14 refs

  1. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques with liquid photographic emulsion and cellulose nitrate track-etch film are being used to investigate the spatial distribution of inhaled plutonium in the lungs of beagle dogs exposed to cigarette smoke or to the plutonium aerosol only. More plutonium than expected was detected on the inner surfaces of bronchi, and particles were observed beneath the bronchial mucosa. 2 figures, 2 tables

  2. Optimizing Plutonium stock management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niquil, Y.; Guillot, J.

    1997-01-01

    Plutonium from spent fuel reprocessing is reused in new MOX assemblies. Since plutonium isotopic composition deteriorates with time, it is necessary to optimize plutonium stock management over a long period, to guarantee safe procurement, and contribute to a nuclear fuel cycle policy at the lowest cost. This optimization is provided by the prototype software POMAR

  3. Treatment of plutonium contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    Three kinds of plutonium contaminations were considered: skin contamination; contaminated wounds; contamination by inhalation. The treatment of these contaminations was studied for insoluble (oxide and metal forms) and soluble plutonium (complexes). The use of DTPA and therapeutic problems encountered with stable plutonium complexes were analyzed. The new possibilities of internal decontamination using Puchel and LICAM were evaluated [fr

  4. Plutonium, nuclear fuel; Le plutonium, combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grison, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay

    1960-07-01

    A review of the physical properties of metallic plutonium, its preparation, and the alloys which it forms with the main nuclear metals. Appreciation of its future as a nuclear fuel. (author) [French] Apercu sur les proprietes physiques du plutonium metallique, sa preparation, ses alliages avec les principaux metaux nucleaires. Consideration sur son avenir en tant que combustible nucleaire. (auteur)

  5. Plutonium economy. Plutonium-Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traube, K

    1984-01-01

    The author expresses his opinion on the situation, describes the energy-economic setting, indicates the alternatives: fuel reprocessing or immediate long-term storage, and investigates the prospects for economic utilization of the breeder reactors. All the facts suggest that the breeder reactor will never be able to stand economic competition with light-water reactors. However, there is no way to prove the future. It is naive to think that every doubt could and must be removed before stopping the development of breeder reactors - and thus also the reprocessing of the fuel of light-water reactors. On the basis of the current state of knowledge an unbiased cost-benefit-analysis can only lead to the recommendation to stop construction immediately. But can 'experts', who for years or even decades have called for and supported the development of breeder reactors be expected to make an unbiased analysis. Klaus Traube strikes the balance of the state Germany's nuclear economy is in: although there is no chance of definitively abandoning that energy-political cul-de-sac, no new adventures must be embarked upon. Responsible handling of currently used nuclear technology means to give up breeder technology and waive plutonium economy. It is no supreme technology with the aid of which structural unemployment or any other economic problem could be solved.

  6. Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer–Zenith (SASZe) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Connor J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer – Zenith (SASZe) provides measurements of zenith spectral shortwave radiance at 1Hz over a continuous spectral range from approximately 300 nm to 1700 nm. The SASZe design connects an optical collector located outdoors to a pair of spectrometers and data collections system located indoors within a climate-controlled building via an umbilical cable of fiber optic and electrical cables. The light collector incorporates a collimator yielding a 1-degree Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) field of view. The data-acquisition electronics and spectrometers include an in-line fiber optic shutter and two Avantes fiber-coupled grating spectroradiometers within a temperature-controlled container. The Avantes Avaspec ULS 2048 charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometer covers the wavelength range from about 300-1100 nm with a pixel spacing of less than 0.6 nm and a spectral resolution of about 2.4 nm FWHM. The Avantes Avaspec NIR256-1.7 spectrometer covers the wavelength range from about 950 nm to 1700 nm with a pixel spacing of less than 4 nm and a spectral resolution of about 6 nm FWHM.

  7. Energy and zenith angle dependence of atmospheric muons

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, K

    1973-01-01

    The recently proposed new process for energetic-muon production in the atmosphere should be tested at Mt. Chacaltaya. Rigorous calculations of zenith-angle distribution of atmospheric muons have been made for the altitude of 5200 m above sea level with energy range from 100 GeV to 100 TeV and for zenith angles from 0 degrees to 92.3 degrees . Calculations are based on the extension of the Chapman function to the case of a non-isothermal atmosphere, taking into account (i) energy- dependent nuclear-interaction mean free path of cosmic-ray hadrons in air, (ii) different magnitudes of photonuclear cross-section in the energy-loss process of muons in the atmosphere, (iii) contributions of atmospheric muons arriving below the horizontal directions, and (iv) atmospheric structure and geomagnetic deflection. Results are compared with those corresponding to sea level. Range straggling, particularly its effect on horizontally incident muons, is investigated by Monte Carlo calculation, indicating that its effects and t...

  8. The plutonium society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mez, L.; Richter, M.

    1981-01-01

    The lectures of an institute are reported on, which took place between 25th and 27th January 1980 in Berlin. The subsequent public panel discussion with representations from the political parties is then documentated in a few press-reports. The themes of the 8 lectures are: views and facts on plutonium, plutonium as an energy resource, military aspects of the production of plutonium, economic aspects of the plutonium economy, the position of the trade unions on the industrial reconversion, the alleged inevitability of a plutonium society and the socio-political alternatives and perspectives of nuclear waste disposal. (UA) [de

  9. Appraisal of BWR plutonium burners for energy centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    The design of BWR cores with plutonium loadings beyond the self-generation recycle (SGR) level is investigated with regard to their possible role as plutonium burners in a nuclear energy center. Alternative plutonium burner approaches are also examined including the substitution of thorium for uranium as fertile material in the BWR and the use of a high-temperature gas reactor (HTGR) as a plutonium burner. Effects on core design, fuel cycle facility requirements, economics, and actinide residues are considered. Differences in net fissile material consumption among the various plutonium-burning systems examined were small in comparison to uncertainties in HTGR, thorium cycle, and high plutonium-loaded LWR technology. Variation in the actinide content of high-level wastes is not likely to be a significant factor in determining the feasibility of alternate systems of plutonium utilization. It was found that after 10,000 years the toxicity of actinide high-level wastes from the plutonium-burning fuel cycles was less than would have existed if the processed natural ores had not been used for nuclear fuel. The implications of plutonium burning and possible future fuel cycle options on uranium resource conservation are examined in the framework of current ERDA estimates of minable uranium resources

  10. The use of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.

    1980-01-01

    The use of plutonium as a vital energy source producing maximum economic benefit with minimum proliferation risks is discussed. Having considered the production of plutonium, several possible plutonium fuel cycle options are identified and the economic value to be attached to plutonium for each examined. It is shown how the use of plutonium in fast reactors gives an opportunity for a non-proliferation policy not available when plutonium is used only in thermal reactors. From the technical considerations reviewed concerning plutonium and fast reactors it is shown that an economic regime involving international trade in spent thermal reactor fuel is possible which benefits equally those countries with fast reactors and those without and also assists in avoiding the proliferation of nuclear weapons. (U.K.)

  11. Plutonium in nature; Le plutonium dans la nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madic, C.

    1994-12-31

    Plutonium in nature comes from natural sources and anthropogenic ones. Plutonium at the earth surface comes principally from anthropogenic sources. It is easily detectable in environment. The plutonium behaviour in environment is complex. It seems necessary for the future to reduce releases in environment, to improve predictive models of plutonium behaviour in geosphere, to precise biological impact of anthropogenic plutonium releases.

  12. Plutonium multi-recycling in increased moderating ratio reactors (IMR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbrault, P.; Larderet, P.

    1998-01-01

    The large core of the future jointly defined European PWR (EPR), would be compatible with an increased Moderating Ratio (MR) enabling better plutonium burnout. The purpose of current work on the subject is to assess plutonium multi-recycling possibilities in IMR reactors. What additional operating constraints would be involved under normal and accidental conditions and are they acceptable? The conclusion is that Plutonium multi-recycling in a PWR of the type envisaged for the EPR raises no major problems under the following conditions: use of an IMR MOX core, enhancing both plutonium burnout and absorber efficiency; use of enriched boron in both the primary coolant soluble boron and the B4C boron carbide in the control rods. Deeper investigation should be performed concerning the partial or total core drain-out, in view of the high total Pu concentrations involved (13%) and the types of core considered (100% MOX). (author)

  13. Properties of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jin Su; Yoon, Hwan Ki; Min, Kyung Sik; Kim, Hyun Tae; Ahn, Jong Sung; Kwag, Eon Ho; Ryu, Keon Joong

    1996-03-01

    Plutonium has unique chemical and physical properties. Its uniqueness in use has led to rare publications, in Korea. This report covers physical aspects of phase change of metal plutonium, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, etc, chemical aspects of corrosion, oxidation, how to produce plutonium from spent fuels by describing various chemical treatment methods, which are currently used and were used in the past. It also contains characteristics of the purex reprocessing process which is the most widely used nowadays. And show processes to purify and metalize from recovered plutonium solution. Detection and analysis methods are introduced with key pints for handling, critical safety, toxicity, and effects on peoples. This report gives not only a general idea on what plutonium is, rather than deep technical description, but also basic knowledge on plutonium production and safeguards diversion from the view point of nonproliferation. 18 refs. (Author) .new

  14. Civil plutonium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, B.; Zaetta, A.

    2004-01-01

    During 1960 and 1970 the researches on the plutonium recycling in fast neutrons reactors were stimulated by the fear of uranium reserves diminishing. At the beginning of 1980, the plutonium mono-recycling for water cooled reactors is implementing. After 1990 the public opinion concerning the radioactive wastes management and the consequences of the disarmament agreements between Russia and United States, modified the context. This paper presents the today situation and technology associated to the different options and strategical solutions of the plutonium management: the plutonium use in the world, the neutronic characteristics, the plutonium effect on the reactors characteristics, the MOX behavior in the reactors, the MOX fabrication and treatment, the possible improvements to the plutonium use, the concepts performance in a nuclear park. (A.L.B.)

  15. Properties of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jin Su; Yoon, Hwan Ki; Min, Kyung Sik; Kim, Hyun Tae; Ahn, Jong Sung; Kwag, Eon Ho; Ryu, Keon Joong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-01

    Plutonium has unique chemical and physical properties. Its uniqueness in use has led to rare publications, in Korea. This report covers physical aspects of phase change of metal plutonium, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, etc, chemical aspects of corrosion, oxidation, how to produce plutonium from spent fuels by describing various chemical treatment methods, which are currently used and were used in the past. It also contains characteristics of the purex reprocessing process which is the most widely used nowadays. And show processes to purify and metalize from recovered plutonium solution. Detection and analysis methods are introduced with key pints for handling, critical safety, toxicity, and effects on peoples. This report gives not only a general idea on what plutonium is, rather than deep technical description, but also basic knowledge on plutonium production and safeguards diversion from the view point of nonproliferation. 18 refs. (Author) .new.

  16. World status report: plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dircks, W.

    1992-01-01

    In a recent speech in Japan, the Deputy Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) said that the economic case for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel had been severely eroded. An edited version of the speech is given. The changed prospects for nuclear energy is given as the reason why the demand for plutonium has declined sharply. The oil crisis of the 1970s reduced the demand for electric power and the economic justification for the use of recycled plutonium. The stockpile of isolated plutonium is growing rapidly giving rise to worries about its security. From this point of view, isolated plutonium is best kept in reactor fuel not separated out. In this connection the IAEA has offered to help in the storage of plutonium so that vigorous safety and security requirements are met. In Japan there is a debate about the plutonium which is dependent on the future of the fast breeder reactor programme. (UK)

  17. Progress on plutonium stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurt, D.

    1996-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has safety oversight responsibility for most of the facilities where unstable forms of plutonium are being processed and packaged for interim storage. The Board has issued recommendations on plutonium stabilization and has has a considerable influence on DOE's stabilization schedules and priorities. The Board has not made any recommendations on long-term plutonium disposition, although it may get more involved in the future if DOE develops plans to use defense nuclear facilities for disposition activities

  18. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  19. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Because cigarette smokers constitute a large fraction of the population, a synergistic effect of plutonium and cigarette smoke might influence estimates of the health risk for plutonium and other transuranics released to the environment

  20. Perspective on plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is intended as a brief overview on the element plutonium. Plutonium is the first primarily man-made element to play a significant role not only in technological development, but also in the economic growth of many countries. The importance of plutonium centers around its enormous energy making it ideal for wide-scale use in reactors, while the nuclear industry continues to work toward improving safety and efficiency of plutonium as a reactor fuel politicians and the public still debate over the safety and benefits of nuclear power. (30 refs.)

  1. Plutonium dispositioning in CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boczar, P.G.; Feinroth, H.; Luxat, J.C.

    1995-07-01

    Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to evaluate salient technical, strategic, schedule, and cost-related parameters of using CANDU reactors for dispositioning of weapons-grade plutonium in the form of Mixed OXide (MOX) fuel. A study team, consisting of key staff from the CANDU reactor designers and researchers (AECL), operators (Ontario Hydro) and fuel suppliers, analyzed all significant factors involved in such application, with the objective of identifying an arrangement that would permit the burning of MOX in CANDU at the earliest date. One of Ontario Hydro's multi-unit stations, Bruce A nuclear generating station (4x769 MW(e)), was chosen as the reference for the study. The assessment showed that no significant modifications of reactor or process systems are necessary to operate with a full MOX core. Plant modifications would be limited to fuel handling and modifications necessary to accommodate enhanced security and safeguards requirements. No safety limitations were identified

  2. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to determine whether cigarette smoking increases the probability of plutonium-induced lung cancer. Initial experiments, designed to characterize the effect of chronic cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary clearance of plutonium aerosols, are described

  3. Plutonium valence state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1974-01-01

    A calculational method for ascertaining equilibrium valence state distributions of plutonium in acid solutions as a function of the plutonium oxidation number and the solution acidity is illustrated with an example. The method may be more practical for manual use than methods based upon polynomial equations. (T.G.)

  4. The toxicity of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    Shipments of plutonium occasionally pass around the Cape coastal waters on its way to Japan from Europe. This invariably leads to a great deal of speculation of the dangers involved and of the extreme toxicity of plutonium, with the media and environmental groups claiming that (a) plutonium is the most toxic substance known to man, and that (b) a few kilograms of plutonium ground finely and dispersed in the atmosphere could kill every human being on earth. Comparisons with other poisons are drawn, e.g. common inorganic chemicals and biological agents. The original scare around the extraordinary toxicity of Pu seems to have started in 1974 with the claims of Tamplin and Cochran's hot particle theory about plutonium lodging in the sensitive portions of the lungs in small concentrated aggregates where they are much more effective in producing cancers. This theory, however, is regarded as thoroughly discredited by the experts in the field of radiotoxicity. 8 refs

  5. Plutonium storage criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  6. Plutonium roundtable discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penneman, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The roundtable discussion began with remarks by the chairman who pointed out the complicated nature of plutonium chemistry. Judging from the papers presented at this symposium, he noticed a pattern which indicated to him the result of diminished funding for investigation of basic plutonium chemistry and funding focused on certain problem areas. Dr. G.L. silver pointed to plutonium chemists' erroneous use of a simplified summary equation involving the disproportionation of Pu(EV) and their each of appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his charges, Dr. J.T. Bell spoke in defense of the chemists. This discussion was followed by W.W. Schulz's comments on the need for experimental work to determine solubility data for plutonium in its various oxidation states under geologic repository conditions. Discussion then turned to plutonium pyrachemical process with Dana C. Christensen as the main speaker. This paper presents edited versions of participants' written version

  7. Plutonium storage phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szempruch, R.

    1995-12-01

    Plutonium has been produced, handled, and stored at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities since the 1940s. Many changes have occurred during the last 40 years in the sources, production demands, and end uses of plutonium. These have resulted in corresponding changes in the isotopic composition as well as the chemical and physical forms of the processed and stored plutonium. Thousands of ordinary food pack tin cans have been used successfully for many years to handle and store plutonium. Other containers have been used with equal success. This paper addressees the exceptions to this satisfactory experience. To aid in understanding the challenges of handling plutonium for storage or immobilization the lessons learned from past storage experience and the necessary countermeasures to improve storage performance are discussed

  8. The use of plutonium in Swedish reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsstroem, H.

    1982-09-01

    The report deals with the utilization of plutonium in Swedish nuclear power plants. The plutonium content of the mixed oxide fuel will normally be 3-7 per cent. The processing of spent nuclear fuel will produce about 6 ton plutonium. The use of mixed oxide fuel in Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3 is discussed. The fuel cycle will start with the manufacturing of the fuel elements abroad and proceeds with transport and utilization, storing of spent fuel about 40 years in Sweden followed by direct disposal. The manufacture and use of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is based on well-known techniques. Approximately 20 000 MOX fuel rods have been irradiated and the fuel is essentially equivalent to uranium oxide fuel. 30-50 per cent of the core may be composed of MOX-fuel without any effect on the operation and safety of the reactor which has been originally designed for uranium fuel. The evaluation of international fuel cycle (INFCE) states that the proliferation risks are very small. The recycling of plutonium will reduce demand for enriched uranium and the calculations show that 6.3 ton plutonium will replace the enrichment of 600 ton natural uranium. (G.B.)

  9. Plutonium recycle in PWR reactors (Brazilian Nuclear Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubini, L.A.

    1978-02-01

    An evaluation is made of the material requirements of the nuclear fuel cycle with plutonium recycle. It starts from the calculation of a reference reactor and allows the evaluation of demand under two alternatives of nuclear fuel cycle for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR): without plutonium recycle; and with plutonium recycle. Calculations of the reference reactor have been carried out with the CELL-CORE codes. For plutonium recycle, the concept of uranium and plutonium homogeneous mixture has been adopted, using self-produced plutonium at equilibrium, in order to get minimum neutronic perturbations in the reactor core. The refueling model studied in the reference reactor was the 'out-in' scheme with a constant number of changed fuel elements (approximately 1/3 of the core). Variations in the material requirements were studied considering changes in the installed nuclear capacity of PWR reactors, the capacity factor of these reactors, and the introduction of fast breeders. Recycling plutonium produced inside the system can reach economies of about 5%U 3 O 8 and 6% separative work units if recycle is assumed only after the 5th operation cycle of the thermal reactors. The cumulative amount of fissile plutonium obtained by the Brazilian Nuclear Program of PWR reactors by 1991 should be sufficient for a fast breeder with the same capacity as Angra 2. For the proposed fast breeder programs, the fissile plutonium produced by thermal reactors is sufficient to supply fast breeder initial necessities. Howewer, U 3 O 8 and SWU economy with recycle is not significant when the proposed fast breeder program is considered. (Author) [pt

  10. Toxicology of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    Data are reviewed from studies on the toxicity of Pu in experimental animals. Of the several plutonium isotopes, only 238 Pu and 239 Pu have been studied well. Sufficient results have been obtained to show that the behavior of 238 Pu in biological systems and the resulting biological effects cannot be precisely predicted from studies of 239 Pu. This probably applies also to other radiologically important plutonium isotopes which have half-lives ranging from 45 days to 10 7 years and decay by β-emission, electron capture, and spontaneous fission, as well as by emission of α-particles. All the biological effects of plutonium described in this review are attributed to alpha-particle radiation emitted by the plutonium. However, since plutonium is a chemically active heavy metal, one cannot ignore the possibility of chemical toxicity of the low-specific-activity isotopes, 239 Pu, 242 Pu, and 244 Pu. The preponderance of our knowledge of plutonium toxicology has come from short-term studies of relatively high dosage levels in several animal species. The consequences of high-level internal exposures can be predicted with confidence in experimental animals and probably also in man. However, considering the care with which plutonium is handled in the nuclear industry, a high-level contamination event is unlikely. Considerably less is known about the long-term effects of low levels of contamination. (250 references) (U.S.)

  11. Plutonium assemblies in reload 1 of the Dodewaard Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairiot, H.; Deramaix, P.; Vandenberg, C.; Leenders, L.; Mostert, P.

    1977-01-01

    Since 1963, Belgonucleaire has been developing the design of plutonium assemblies of the island type (i.e., plutonium rods inserted in the control zone of the assembly and enriched uranium rods at the periphery) for light water reactors. The application to boiling water reactors (BWRs) led to the introduction, in April 1971, of two prototype plutonium island assemblies in the Dodewaard BWR (The Netherlands): Those assemblies incorporating plutonium in 42 percent of the rods are interchangeable with standard uranium assemblies of the same reload. Their design, which had to meet these criteria, was performed using the routine order in use at Belgonucleaire; experimental checks included a mock-up configuration simulated in the VENUS critical facility at Mol and open-vessel cold critical experiments performed in the Dodewaard core. The pelleted plutonium rods were fabricated and controlled by Belgonucleaire following the manufacturing procedures developed at the production plant. In one of the assemblies, three vibrated plutonium fuel rods with a lower fuel density were introduced in the three most highly rated positions to reduce the power rating. Those plutonium assemblies experienced peak pellet ratings up to 535 W/cm and were discharged in April 1974 after having reached a mean burnup of approximately 21,000 MWd/MT. In-core instrumentation during operation, visual examinations, and reactivity substitution experiments during reactor shutdown did not indicate any special feature for those assemblies compared to the standard uranium assemblies, thereby demonstrating their interchangeability

  12. The plutonium danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiter, W. de

    1983-01-01

    Nobody can ignore the fact that plutonium is potentially very dangerous and the greatest danger concerning it lies in the spreading of nuclear weapons via nuclear energy programmes. The following seven different attitudes towards this problem are presented and discussed: 1) There is no connection between peaceful and military applications; 2) The problem cannot be prevented; 3) A technical solution must be found; 4) plutonium must be totally inaccessible to countries involved in acquiring nuclear weapons; 5) The use of plutonium for energy production should only occur in one multinational centre; 6) Dogmas in the nuclear industry must be enfeebled; 7) All developments in this area should stop. (C.F.)

  13. Automation of plutonium spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.J.; Boisde, G.; Goujon de Beauvivier, M.; Chevalier, G.; Isaac, M.

    1980-01-01

    Instrumentation was designed and constructed for automatic control of plutonium by molecular absorption spectrophotometry, on behalf of the reprocessing facilities, to meet two objectives: on-line measurement, of the valency state of plutonium, on by-pass, with the measured concentration covering the process concentration range up to a few mg.l -1 ; laboratory measurement of plutonium adjusted to valency VI, with operation carried out using a preparative system meeting the required containment specifications. For this two objectives, the photometer, optical cell connections are made by optical fibers resistant to β, γ radiation. Except this characteristic the devices are different according to the quality required for result [fr

  14. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy's response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department's Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B

  15. Plutonium Plant, Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, J.S.; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    The journey of Indian nuclear fuel reprocessing started with the commissioning of Plutonium Plant (PP) at Trombay on 22"n"d January, 1965 with an aim to reprocess the spent fuel from research reactor CIRUS. The basic process chosen for the plant was Plutonium Uranium Reduction EXtraction (PUREX) process. In seventies, the plant was subjected to major design modifications and replacement of hardware, which later met the additional demand from research reactor DHRUVA. The augmented plutonium plant has been operating since 1983. Experience gained from this plant was very much helpful to design future reprocessing plant in the country

  16. Progress on plutonium stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, D. [Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has safety oversight responsibility for most of the facilities where unstable forms of plutonium are being processed and packaged for interim storage. The Board has issued recommendations on plutonium stabilization and has has a considerable influence on DOE`s stabilization schedules and priorities. The Board has not made any recommendations on long-term plutonium disposition, although it may get more involved in the future if DOE develops plans to use defense nuclear facilities for disposition activities.

  17. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Progress was made on two fronts during the past year. The autoradiographic technique developed from detection of plutonium on the interior surface of pulmonary airways (Annual Report, 1978) has been adapted to routine use in examining tracheas and bronchi of rats. Also, dogs exposed to cigarette smoke for over a year after inhalation of plutonium were killed and necropsied

  18. Neutronic design of a plutonium-thorium burner small nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartanto, Donny

    2010-02-01

    A small nuclear reactor using thorium and plutonium fuel has been designed from the neutronic point of view. The thermal power of the reactor is 150 MWth and it is proposed to be used to supply electricity in an island in Indonesia. Thorium and plutonium fuel was chosen because in recent years the thorium fuel cycle is one of the promising ways to deal with the increasing number of plutonium stockpiles, either from the utilization of uranium fuel cycle or from nuclear weapon dismantling. A mixed fuel of thorium and plutonium will not generate the second generation of plutonium which will be a better way to incinerate the excess plutonium compared with the MOX fuel. Three kinds of plutonium grades which are the reactor grade (RG), weapon grade (WG), and spent fuel grade (SFG) plutonium, were evaluated as the thorium fuel mixture in the 17x17 Westinghouse PWR Fuel assembly. The evaluated parameters were the multiplication factor, plutonium depletion, fissile buildup, neutron spectrum, and temperature reactivity feedback. An optimization was also done to increase the plutonium depletion by changing the Moderator to Fuel Ratio (MFR). The computer codes TRITON (coupled NEWT and ORIGEN-S) in SCALE version 6 were used as the calculation tool for this assembly level. From the evaluation and optimization of the fuel assembly, the whole core was designed. The core was consisted of 2 types of thorium fuel with different plutonium grade and it followed the checkerboard loading pattern. A new concept of enriched burnable poison was also introduced to the core. The core life is 6.4 EFPY or 75 GWd/MTHM. It can burn up to 58% of its total mass of initial plutonium. VENTURE was used as the calculation tool for the core level

  19. Plutonium spectrophotometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, A.; Cassaniti, P.; Orosco, E.H.

    1990-01-01

    Plutonium ions in solution have absorption spectra so different that it is possible to use them for analytical purposes. Detailed studies have been performed in nitric solutions. Some very convenient methods for the determination of plutonium and its oxidation states, especially the ratios Pu(III):Pu(IV) and Pu(IV):Pu(VI) in a mixture of both, have been developed. These methods are described in this paper, including: a) Absorption spectra for plutonium (III), (IV), (VI) and mixtures. b) Relative extinction coefficients for the above mentioned species. c) Dependences of the relative extinction coefficients on the nitric acid concentration and the plutonium VI deviation from the Beer-Lambert law. The developed methods are simple and rapid and then, suitable in process control. Accuracy is improved when relative absorbance measurements are performed or controlled the variables which have effect on the spectra and extinction coefficients. (Author) [es

  20. French plutonium management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greneche, D.

    2002-01-01

    The French plutonium management program is summarized in this paper. The program considers nuclear generation as a major component of national electric power supply and includes the reprocessing of the spent fuel. (author)

  1. Learning more about plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This digest brochure explains what plutonium is, where it comes from, how it is used, its recycling into Mox fuel, its half life, historical discovery, its presence in the environment, toxicity and radioactivity. (J.S.)

  2. Plutonium safe handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvehlov, Yu.

    2000-01-01

    The abstract, prepared on the basis of materials of the IAEA new leadership on the plutonium safe handling and its storage (the publication no. 9 in the Safety Reports Series), aimed at presenting internationally acknowledged criteria on the radiation danger evaluation and summarizing the experience in the safe management of great quantities of plutonium, accumulated in the nuclear states, is presented. The data on the weapon-class and civil plutonium, the degree of its danger, the measures for provision of its safety, including the data on accident radiation consequences with the fission number 10 18 , are presented. The recommendations, making it possible to eliminate the super- criticality danger, as well as ignition and explosion, to maintain the tightness of the facility, aimed at excluding the radioactive contamination and the possibility of internal irradiation, to provide for the plutonium security, physical protection and to reduce irradiation are given [ru

  3. Determination of plutonium in pure plutonium nitrate solutions - Gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a precise and accurate gravimetric method for determining the concentration of plutonium in pure plutonium nitrate solutions and reference solutions, containing between 100 and 300 g of plutonium per litre, in a nitric acid medium. The weighed portion of the plutonium nitrate is treated with sulfuric acid and evaporated to dryness. The plutonium sulfate is decomposed and formed to oxide by heating in air. The oxide is ignited in air at 1200 to 1250 deg. C and weighed as stoichiometric plutonium dioxide, which is stable and non-hygroscopic

  4. Plutonium in coniferous forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Kostiainen, E.

    2002-01-01

    Our aim was to study the uptake of plutonium by trees, undervegetation and some wild foods. The ratio of 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu in soil samples was determined for comparisons of the fallout origin. In twelve years the Chernobyl derived plutonium has not reached the mineral soil. This refers to a very slow downward migration in podsolic soil. The study confirmed also the low Pu uptake by vegetation and an insignificant contribution to human doses through wild foods. (au)

  5. Decontamination of plutonium-contaminated surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, J.; Clouet d'Orval, Ch.; Tachon, J.

    1958-01-01

    The measure of the neutron distribution in the core of 'Proserpine', by means of activation detectors, requires no contact between the plutonium sulfate solution and the detectors. These detectors are put into PVC or polyethylene bags. This report describes the process used to decontaminate these bags. A washing by nitric acid followed by coating with plexiglass is kept, with this process we have no contamination on the detectors. (author) [fr

  6. Plutonium-236 traces determination in plutonium-238 by α spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena, M.L.; Pottier, R.; Berger, R.

    1969-01-01

    Two methods are described in this report for the determination of plutonium-236 traces in plutonium-238 by a spectrometry using semi-conductor detectors. The first method involves a direct comparison of the areas under the peaks of the α spectra of plutonium-236 and plutonium-238. The electrolytic preparation of the sources is carried out after preliminary purification of the plutonium. The second method makes it possible to determine the 236 Pu/ 238 Pu ratio by comparing the areas of the α peaks of uranium-232 and uranium-234, which are the decay products of the two plutonium isotopes respectively. The uranium in the source, also deposited by electrolysis, is separated from a 1 mg amount of plutonium either by a T.L.A. extraction, or by the use of ion-exchange resins. The report ends with a discussion of the results obtained with plutonium of two different origins. (authors) [fr

  7. Control rod effects with plutonium recycle in a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, G.; Muehl, G.J.; Gibson, I.H.

    1979-03-01

    A study has been made on a PWR loaded partly and wholly with plutonium to determine the changes in shutdown margin compared with an enriched uranium core. Lattice calculations are used to generate cell constants for core calculations. Three fuel loadings were considered, all uranium, 30% (approximately) of the assemblies plutonium in natural uranium, and all plutonium. The equilibrium fuel management schemes adopted in each case are based on the standard three cycle equal size batch scheme. Detailed calculations of power and irradiation distributions through the cycles have been carried out to provide a starting point for the control rod worth and requirement calculations. Control rod worths are reduced in a plutonium core because of the harder spectrum and higher fuel absorption cross sections. Furthermore, the control rod requirements for shutdown increase because of the increase in fuel and moderator temperature coefficients. This results in a reduction in shutdown margin. The magnitude of these changes is fully analysed in the report. The significance of these reductions depends on the detail of the safety argument but reductions of these sizes are unlikely to be acceptable. The data provided in this report could be used to give a first estimate of the plutonium loading acceptable given the safety assessment of the normal uranium core. (U.K.)

  8. Conversion of metal plutonium to plutonium dioxide by pyrochemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panov, A.V.; Subbotin, V.G. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, ALL-Russian Science and Research Institute of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Mashirev, V.P. [ALL-Russian Science and Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    Report contains experimental results on metal plutonium of weapon origin samples conversion to plutonium dioxide by pyrochemical method. Circuits of processes are described. Their advantages and shortcomings are shown. Parameters of plutonium dioxide powders (phase and fraction compositions, poured density) manufactured by pyrochemical method in RFNC-VNIITF are shown as well. (authors)

  9. Month-hour distributions of zenith luminance and diffuse illuminance in Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler, Alfonso; Gopinathan, Kannam K.; Robledo, Luis; Ruiz, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    Month-hour equal mean zenith luminance contours are obtained from one year of data of zenith luminance measurements for cloudless, overcast and partly cloudy skies and also when the combined data for all sky types are considered. For many hours in different months, the overcast sky luminance values are roughly about three times the cloudless sky luminance values and one and a half times the partly cloudy sky values. The dependence of month-hour equal mean zenith luminance contours on the ratio of global to extraterrestrial illuminance on a horizontal surface is also given. From equal mean zenith luminance contours, the approximate values of the mean zenith luminance for different sky conditions and different hours and months of the year can be easily obtained. Month-hour equal mean diffuse illuminance contours are obtained from diffuse illuminance measurements performed during the period 1992-1998. The dependence on solar altitude of the monthly average hourly values of diffuse illuminance is given and compared to the corresponding one obtained from data for Bet Dagan (Israel)

  10. METHOD OF PRODUCING PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley, W.B.; Smith, R.C.

    1959-12-15

    A process is presented for preparing plutonium tetrafluoride from plutonium(IV) oxalate. The oxalate is dried and decomposed at about 300 deg C to the dioxide, mixed with ammonium bifluoride, and the mixture is heated to between 50 and 150 deg C whereby ammonium plutonium fluoride is formed. The ammonium plutonium fluoride is then heated to about 300 deg C for volatilization of ammonium fluoride. Both heating steps are preferably carried out in an inert atmosphere.

  11. The plutonium recycle for PWR reactors from brazilian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubini, L.A.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the material requirements of the nuclear fuel cycle with plutonium recycle. The study starts with the calculation of a reference reactor and has flexibility to evaluate the demand under two alternatives of nuclear fuel cycle for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR): Without plutonium recycle; and with plutonium recycle. Calculations of the reference reactor have been carried out with the CELL-CORE codes. Variations in the material requirements were studied considering changes in the installed nuclear capacity of PWR reactors, the capacity factor of these reactors, and the introduction of fast breeders. Recycling plutonium produced inside the system can reach economies of about 5% U 3 O 8 and 6% separative work units if recycle is assumed only after the fifth operation cycle of the thermal reactors. (author)

  12. Measurements of the oxidation state and concentration of plutonium in interstitial waters of the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.M.; Lovett, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The question of plutonium movement in interstitial waters resulting from diffusion along concentration gradients or from advective flow is addressed. The results of measurements of both the concentration and the oxidation state of plutonium in interstitial water collected from sediments near the Windscale discharge, in the solid phases of these sediments and in seawater and suspended solids collected at the coring locations are discussed

  13. Prospective studies of HTR fuel cycles involving plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, B.; Greneche, D.; Carre, F.; Damian, F.; Doriath, J.Y.

    2002-01-01

    High Temperature Gas Cooled reactors (HTRs) are able to accommodate a wide variety of mixtures of fissile and fertile materials without any significant modification of the core design. This flexibility is due to an uncoupling between the parameters of cooling geometry, and the parameters which characterize neutronic optimisation (moderation ratio or heavy nuclide concentration and distribution). Among other advantageous features, an HTR core has a better neutron economy than a LWR because there is much less parasitic capture in the moderator (capture cross section of graphite is 100 times less than the one of water) and in internal structures. Moreover, thanks to the high resistance of the coated particles, HTR fuels are able to reach very high burn-ups, far beyond the possibilities offered by other fuels (except the special case of molten salt reactors). These features make HTRs especially interesting for closing the nuclear fuel cycle and stabilizing the plutonium inventory. A large number of fuel cycle studies are already available today, on 3 main categories of fuel cycles involving HTRs : i) High enriched uranium cycle, based on thorium utilization as a fertile material and HEU as a fissile material; ii) Low enriched uranium cycle, where only LEU is used (from 5% to 12%); iii) Plutonium cycle based on the utilization of plutonium only as a fissile material, with (or without) fertile materials. Plutonium consumption at high burnups in HTRs has already been tested with encouraging results under the DRAGON project and at Peach Bottom. To maximize plutonium consumption, recent core studies have also been performed on plutonium HTR cores, with special emphasis on weapon-grade plutonium consumption. In the following, we complete the picture by a core study for a HTR burning reactor-grade plutonium. Limits in burnup due to core neutronics are investigated for this type of fuel. With these limits in mind, we study in some detail the Pu cycle in the special case of a

  14. Aqueous Solution Chemistry of Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, David L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Things I have learned working with plutonium: Chemistry of plutonium is complex; Redox equilibria make Pu solution chemistry particularly challenging in the absence of complexing ligands; Understanding this behavior is key to successful Pu chemistry experiments; There is no suitable chemical analog for plutonium.

  15. Physics of plutonium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The commercial recycling of plutonium as PuO 2 /UO 2 mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel is an established practice in pressurised water reactors (PWRs) in several countries, the main motivation being the consumption of plutonium arising from spent fuel reprocessing. Although the same motivating factors apply in the case of boiling water reactors (BWRs), they have lagged behind PWRs for various reasons, and MOX utilisation in BWRs has been implemented in only a few reactors to date. One of the reasons is that the nuclear design of BWR MOX assemblies (or bundles) is more complex than that of PWR assemblies. Recognizing the need and the timeliness to address this issue at the international level, the OECD/NEA Working Party on the Physics of Plutonium Fuels and Innovative Fuel Cycles (WPPR) conducted a physics code benchmark test for a BWR assembly. This volume reports on the benchmark results and conclusions that can be drawn from it. (authors)

  16. Microscopic observation of zenithal bistable switching in nematic devices with different surface relief structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uche, C; Elston, S J; Parry-Jones, L A

    2005-01-01

    Nematic liquid crystals have been shown to exhibit zenithal electro-optic bistability in devices containing sinusoidal and deformed sinusoidal gratings. Recently it has been shown that zenithal bistable states can also be supported at isolated edges of square gratings. In this paper, we present microscopic observations of bistability in cells containing sinusoidal gratings and long-pitch square gratings. We have also investigated a novel display based on square wells. High frame-rate video microscopy was used to obtain time-sequenced images when the devices were switched with monopolar pulses. These show that zenithal bistable switching can occur by two different processes: (i) domain growth (observed in cells containing sinusoidal gratings) and (ii) homogenous switching (observed in cells containing isolated edges

  17. Plutonium microstructures. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, E.M.; Bergin, J.B.

    1981-09-01

    This report is the first of three parts in which Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory metallographers exhibit a consolidated set of illustrations of inclusions that are seen in plutonium metal as a consequence of inherent and tramp impurities, alloy additions, and thermal or mechanical treatments. This part includes illustrations of nonmetallic and intermetallic inclusions characteristic of major impurity elements as an aid to identifying unknowns. It also describes historical aspects of the increased purity of laboratory plutonium samples, and it gives the composition of the etchant solutions and describes the etching procedure used in the preparation of each illustrated sample. 25 figures

  18. Potentiometric titration of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    In the potentiometric titration of plutonium(III), it has been customary to take the equivalence point as the inflection point on a plot of potential vs. volume of titrant. It have not been, however, demonstrated, that the stoichiometric end point corresponds to the inflection point. Suggestions are made according to which these points may not correspond in the potentiometric titration of plutonium(III), as these titrations are ordinarily concluded in a period of time which is short compared to the time required for valence state rearrangement through disproportionation. (T.G.)

  19. Precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and calcination to plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, A.; Orosco, E.H.; Cassaniti, P.; Greco, L.; Adelfang, P.

    1989-01-01

    The plutonium based fuel fabrication requires the conversion of the plutonium nitrate solution from nuclear fuel reprocessing into pure PuO2. The conversion method based on the precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and subsequent calcination has been studied in detail. In this procedure, plutonium (III) oxalate is precipitated, at room temperature, by the slow addition of 1M oxalic acid to the feed solution, containing from 5-100 g/l of plutonium in 1M nitric acid. Before precipitation, the plutonium is adjusted to trivalent state by addition of 1M ascorbic acid in the presence of an oxidation inhibitor such as hydrazine. Finally, the precipitate is calcinated at 700 deg C to obtain PuO2. A flowsheet is proposed in this paper including: a) A study about the conditions to adjust the plutonium valence. b) Solubility data of plutonium (III) oxalate and measurements of plutonium losses to the filtrate and wash solution. c) Characterization of the obtained products. Plutonium (III) oxalate has several potential advantages over similar conversion processes. These include: 1) Formation of small particle sizes powder with good pellets fabrication characteristics. 2) The process is rather insensitive to most process variables, except nitric acid concentration. 3) Ambient temperature operations. 4) The losses of plutonium to the filtrate are less than in other conversion processes. (Author) [es

  20. Inclined Zenith Aurora over Kyoto on 17 September 1770: Graphical Evidence of Extreme Magnetic Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Iwahashi, Kiyomi

    2017-10-01

    Red auroras were observed in Japan during an extreme magnetic storm that occurred on 17 September 1770. We show new evidence that the red aurora extended toward the zenith of Kyoto around midnight. The basic appearance of the historical painting of the red aurora is geometrically reproduced based on the inclination of the local magnetic field and a detailed description in a newly discovered diary. The presence of the inclined zenith aurora over Kyoto suggests that the intensity of the September 1770 magnetic storm is comparable to, or slightly larger than that of the September 1859 Carrington storm.

  1. Dependence on zenith angle of the strength of 3-meter equatorial electrojet irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ierkic, H.M.; Fejer, B.G.; Farley, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    Radar measurements in Peru were used to deduce the zenith angle dependence of the scattering cross section of plasma irregularities generated by instabilities in the equatorial electrojet. The irregularities probed by the 50 MHz Jicamarca radar had a wavelength of 3m. The cross section for the type 2 irregularities was isotopic in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field, while the cross section for the stronger type 1 irregularities varied with zenith angle at a rate of approximately 0.3 dB/degree; the horizontally traveling waves were more than 100 times stronger than those traveling vertically

  2. Plutonium isotopes in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.

    1977-12-01

    Determination of plutonium and americium by ion exchange and alpha-spectrometry. Deposition of global fall-out and accumulated area-content of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu, 242 Pu and 241 Am in central Sweden (62.3 deg N, 12.4 deg E), by using the lichen species Cladonia alpestris as bioindicator. Retention and distribution of plutonium in carpets of lichen and soil. Transfer of plutonium from lichen to reindeer and man. Absorbed dose in reindeer and man from plutonium. Basic studies of plutonium and americium in the western Mediterranean surface waters, with emphases on particulate form of the transuranics. (author)

  3. Investigation of plutonium (4) hydroxoformates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andryushin, V.G.; Belov, V.A.; Galaktionov, S.V.; Kozhevnikov, P.B.; Matyukha, V.A.; Shmidt, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    Deposition processes of plutonium (4) hydroxoformates in the system Pu(NO 3 ) 4 -HNO 3 -HCoOH-N6 4 OH-H 2 O have been studied in pH range 0.2-10.7 at total plutonium concentration in the system 100 g/l. It is shown that under the conditions plutonium (4) hydrolysis takes place with the formation of hydroxoformates. A local maximum of plutonium (4) hydroxoformate solubility in the range pH=3.8-4.8, which is evidently conditioned by the formation of soluble formate complex of plutonium in the region, is pointed out. The basic plutonium (4) formates of the composition PuOsub(x)(OH)sub(y)(COOH)sub(4-2x-y)xnHsub(2)O, where 1,3 >=x >= 0.7, 1.7 >= y >= 1.0 and n=1.5-7.0, are singled out, their thermal stability being studied. Density of the crystals and plutonium dioxide, formed during their thermal decomposition, is measured. It is established that for plutonium (4) hydroxoformates common regularities of the influence of salt composition (OH - -, CHOO - - and H 2 O-group numbers in the mulecule) on position of temperature decomposition effects and on the density of compounds, which have been previously found during the study of thorium and plutonium hydroxosalts are observed. It is shown that the density of plutonium dioxide decreases with the increase of hydration and hydrolysis degree of the initial plutonium hydroxoformate

  4. Plutonium in the marine environment at Thule, NW-Greenland after a nuclear weapons accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, H.; Eriksson, M.; Ilus, E.

    2001-01-01

    was revisited in August 1997, 29 years after the accident. Water and brown algae data indicate that plutonium is not transported from the contaminated sediments into the surface waters in significant quantities. Sediment core data only indicate minor translocation of plutonium from the accident to the area...... outside Bylot Sound. The present data support an earlier quantification of the sedimentation rate as 2-4 mm per year, i.e. 5-12 cm during the 29 years since the accident. Biological activity has mixed accident plutonium much deeper down, to 20-30 cm, and the 5-12 cm new sediment has been efficiently mixed...... than in sediments. Some biota groups show a somewhat higher uptake of americium than of plutonium. Sediment samples with weapons plutonium from the accident show a significant variation in Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios in the range 0.027-0.057. This supports the hypothesis that the Thule plutonium...

  5. International plutonium policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    As any other fissile material, the plutonium raises several utilization problems, particularly as far as diversion by sub-national groups or proliferation are concerned. The purpose of this paper is to show that these problems can be given reasonable solutions avoiding over penalties on energy production

  6. Plutonium safety training course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, H.J.

    1976-03-01

    This course seeks to achieve two objectives: to provide initial safety training for people just beginning work with plutonium, and to serve as a review and reference source for those already engaged in such work. Numerous references have been included to provide information sources for those wishing to pursue certain topics more fully. The first part of the course content deals with the general safety approach used in dealing with hazardous materials. Following is a discussion of the four properties of plutonium that lead to potential hazards: radioactivity, toxicity, nuclear properties, and spontaneous ignition. Next, the various hazards arising from these properties are treated. The relative hazards of both internal and external radiation sources are discussed, as well as the specific hazards when plutonium is the source. Similarly, the general hazards involved in a criticality, fire, or explosion are treated. Comments are made concerning the specific hazards when plutonium is involved. A brief summary comparison between the hazards of the transplutonium nuclides relative to 239 Pu follows. The final portion deals with control procedures with respect to contamination, internal and external exposure, nuclear safety, and fire protection. The philosophy and approach to emergency planning are also discussed

  7. Atomic spectrum of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaise, J.; Fred, M.; Gutmacher, R.G.

    1984-08-01

    This report contains plutonium wavelengths, energy level classifications, and other spectroscopic data accumulated over the past twenty years at Laboratoire Aime Cotton (LAC) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The primary purpose was term analysis: deriving the energy levels in terms of quantum numbers and electron configurations, and evaluating the Slater-Condon and other parameters from the levels

  8. Plutonium: An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condit, R.H.

    1993-10-01

    This report is a summary of the history and properties of plutonium. It presents information on the atoms, comparing chemical and nuclear properties. It looks at the history of the atom, including its discovery and production methods. It summarizes the metallurgy and chemistry of the element. It also describes means of detecting and measuring the presence and quantity of the element

  9. Plutonium Disposition by Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, T.; DiSabatino, A.; Mitchell, M.

    2000-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize between 17 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons-usable plutonium materials in waste forms that meet the ''spent fuel'' standard and are acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. Using the ceramic can-in-canister technology selected for immobilization, surplus plutonium materials will be chemically combined into ceramic forms which will be encapsulated within large canisters of high level waste (HLW) glass. Deployment of the immobilization capability should occur by 2008 and be completed within 10 years. In support of this goal, the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) is conducting development and testing (D and T) activities at four DOE laboratories under the technical leadership of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Savannah River Site has been selected as the site for the planned Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). The D and T effort, now in its third year, will establish the technical bases for the design, construction, and operation of the U. S. capability to immobilize surplus plutonium in a suitable and cost-effective manner. Based on the D and T effort and on the development of a conceptual design of the PIP, automation is expected to play a key role in the design and operation of the Immobilization Plant. Automation and remote handling are needed to achieve required dose reduction and to enhance operational efficiency

  10. Plutonium and textbooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2008-01-01

    Chemical equilibrium is not characterized by equilibrium constants alone. At least one conservation principle is necessary. Textbook descriptions of plutonium chemistry that are based on two-reaction-product disproportionation equations, or do not recognize the conservation principles, are incomplete and potentially misleading. (author)

  11. Japan's plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Japan's plutonium economy is based on the most efficient use of nuclear energy, as envisioned under the Atoms for Peace program of the 1950s and 1960s. The nuclear pioneers assumed that all nations would want to take full advantage of atomic energy, recycling waste into new fuel to derive as much energy as possible from this resource

  12. Transport of plutonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This leaflet discusses the subject under the headings: why do we need plutonium; why must we transport it; what action is carried out; how is it moved; what are the risks. The transport of the material in specially designed containers, from Dounreay in Caithness by road and sea to Sellafield in Cumbria, is described. (U.K.)

  13. Aspects of physics and computation of plutonium recycling in PWRs: Full MOX loading and void effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruna, G.B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper collects and summarizes excerpts of the lectures on Core Design and Computational Chains dealing with some physical and computational aspects of the recycling of Plutonium in PWRs. (author)

  14. Zenith distribution and flux of atmospheric muons measured with the 5-line ANTARES detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Jesus, A. C. Assis; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubertg, J. -J.; Auer, R.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Berting, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunnerg, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Castel, D.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; De Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenweing, J. -P.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kretschmer, W.; Loehner, H.

    2010-01-01

    The ANTARES high-energy neutrino telescope is a three-dimensional array of about 900 photomultipliers distributed over 12 mooring lines installed in the Mediterranean Sea. Between February and November 2007 it acquired data in a 5-line configuration. The zenith angular distribution of the

  15. The Zenith Passage of the Sun at the Mesoamerican Sites of Tula and Chichen Itza

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Using software SunCalc.org we can easily observe the alignments of buildings along the direction of the sunset on the day of the zenith passage of the sun, at two Mesoamerican sites. These sites are those of Tula and Chichen Itza.

  16. Zenith-angle distributions of atmospheric muons above 20 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decoster, R.J.; Stevenson, M.L.; Breakstone, A.; Flatte, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a magnetic-spectrometer experiment at ground level with optical spark chambers, scintillator hodoscope trigger and an air-gap magnet, are reported to given an evaluation of the zenith-angle distribution of the atmospheric muons above 20 GeV. An automatic flying spot digitizer, the Hummingbird, was used

  17. Use of plutonium for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The panel reviewed available information on various aspects of plutonium utilization, such as physics of plutonium, technology of plutonium fuels in thermal and fast reactors, behaviour of plutonium fuel under reactor irradiation, technological and economic aspects of plutonium fuel cycle. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nass, R. [Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  19. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J.; Nass, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage

  20. Zenith: A Radiosonde Detector for Rapid-Response Ionizing Atmospheric Radiation Measurements During Solar Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, A. C. R.; Ryden, K. A.; Hands, A. D. P.; Dyer, C.; Burnett, C.; Gibbs, M.

    2018-03-01

    Solar energetic particle events create radiation risks for aircraft, notably single-event effects in microelectronics along with increased dose to crew and passengers. In response to this, some airlines modify their flight routes after automatic alerts are issued. At present these alerts are based on proton flux measurements from instruments onboard satellites, so it is important that contemporary atmospheric radiation measurements are made and compared. This paper presents the development of a rapid-response system built around the use of radiosondes equipped with a radiation detector, Zenith, which can be launched from a Met Office weather station after significant solar proton level alerts are issued. Zenith is a compact, battery-powered solid-state radiation monitor designed to be connected to a Vaisala RS-92 radiosonde, which transmits all data to a ground station as it ascends to an altitude of 33 km. Zenith can also be operated as a stand-alone detector when connected to a laptop, providing real-time count rates. It can also be adapted for use on unmanned aerial vehicles. Zenith has been flown on the Met Office Civil Contingency Aircraft, taken to the European Organization for Nuclear Research-EU high energy Reference Field facility for calibration and launched on a meteorological balloon at the Met Office's weather station in Camborne, Cornwall, UK. During this sounding, Zenith measured the Pfotzer-Regener maximum to be at an altitude of 18-20 km where the count rate was measured to be 1.15 c s-1 cm-2 compared to 0.02 c s-1 cm-2 at ground level.

  1. Study on material attractiveness aspect of spent nuclear fuel of LWR and FBR cycles based on isotopic plutonium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Saito, Masaki; Novitrian,; Waris, Abdul; Suud, Zaki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper analyzes the plutonium production of recycling nuclear fuel option. • To evaluate material attractiveness based on intrinsic feature of material barrier. • Evaluation based on isotopic plutonium composition of spent fuel LWR and FBR. • Even mass number of plutonium gives a significant contribution to material barrier, in particular Pu-238 and Pu-240. • Doping MA in FBR blanket is effective to increase material barrier from weapon grade plutonium to more than MOX fuel grade. - Abstract: Recycling minor actinide (MA) as well as used uranium and plutonium can be considered to reduce nuclear waste production as well as to increase the intrinsic aspect of nuclear nonproliferation as doping material. Plutonium production as a significant aspect of recycling nuclear fuel option, gives some advantages and challenges, such as fissile material utilization of plutonium as well as production of some even mass number plutonium. The study intends to evaluate the material attractiveness based on the intrinsic feature of material barrier such as plutonium composition, decay heat and spontaneous fission neutron components from spent fuel (SF) light water reactor (LWR) and fast breeder reactor (FBR) cycles. A significant contribution has been shown by decay heat (DH) and spontaneous fission neutron (SFN) of even mass number of plutonium isotopes to the total DH and SFN of plutonium element, in particular from isotopic plutonium Pu-238 and Pu-240 contributions. Longer decay cooling time and higher burnup are effective to increase the material barrier (DH and SFN) level from reactor grade plutonium level to MOX grade plutonium level. Material barrier of plutonium element from spent fuel (SF) FBR in the core regions has similarity to the material barrier profile of SF LWR which can be categorized as MOX fuel grade plutonium. Plutonium compositions, DH and SFN components are categorized as weapon grade plutonium level for FBR blanket regions with no

  2. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  3. International plutonium policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    The need to distinguish between diversion by sub-national groups and by governments is clearly stated. The paper identifies the international safeguards measures which already exist for the handling of plutonium. It proposes that the implementation of Article XII A5 of the IAEA statute concerning the international storage of plutonium could be an important additional measure. The paper also mentions the concept of using confinement as a complimentary safeguards measure and identifies the PIPEX concept. In addition, greater use is proposed of containment and surveillance procedures. The multiplication of small reprocessing plants spread over many countries is perceived as a proliferation risk. Other means such as co-location of reprocessing and fuel fabrication facilities are relevant to diversion by sub-national groups

  4. Strategies for the plutonium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, D.M.; Lima, J.O.V.; Sakamoto, L.H.

    1981-11-01

    A review of the activities involving plutonium (its recycle, utilization and technological status and perspectives) is done. These informations are useful for an economic viability study for the plutonium utilization in thermal reactors (recycling) and in fast breeders reactor (FBR), trying to collect the major number of informations about these subjects. The initial phase describes the present status and projections of plutonium accumulation and requirements. Then, the technological process are described and some strategies are analyzed. (E.G.) [pt

  5. Plutonium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, A.

    2001-01-01

    The first volume of the new series, Radioactivity in the Environment, focuses on the environmental occurrence, the speciation, the behaviour, the fate, the applications and the health consequences of that much-feared and much-publicised element, plutonium. Featuring a collection of selected, peer-reviewed, up-to-date papers by leading researchers in the field, this work provides a state-of-the-art description of plutonium in the environment. This title helps to explain where present frontiers are drawn in our continuing efforts to understand the science of environmental plutonium and will help to place widespread concerns into perspective. As a whole this new book series on environmental radioactivity addresses, at academic research level, the key aspects of this socially important and complex interdisciplinary subject. Presented objectively and with the ultimate authority gained from the many contributions by the world's leading experts, the negative and positive consequences of having a radioactive world around us will be documented and given perspective. refs

  6. F. Biological hazards of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Plutonium is an unavoidable result of present nuclear power programmes. Its predominant isotopes are extremely long-lived and very toxic if absorbed in the body. In view of the increasing potential for plutonium and man to come into contact, the consequences of any plutonium release into the environment should be scientifically examined. This report is an attempt to place in one document a fully referenced account of the on-going work in many areas. There are three sections. Part 1 deals with the amounts of plutonium available in the fuel cycle, its properties and the probability of routine or accidental release. Part 2 examines the ways in which plutonium can reach man, in particular through food chains or inhalation. Part 3 details the biological effects of plutonium once it is absorbed into the body, assesses the amounts likely to be harmful and discusses the adequacy of present standards for plutonium burdens. There are two appendices. The likely differences between Pu-239, the most studied isotope, and other plutonium isotopes or transuranic nuclides are outlined in Appendix A. Appendix B contains a fuller account of the ways in which the fate of ingested or inhaled plutonium have been determined

  7. Plutonium in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, N.V.; Linder, P.W.; Wade, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    The shipping of plutonium from Europe to Japan around the Cape is a contentious issue which has raised public concern that South Africa may be at risk to plutonium exposure should an accident occur. The paper describes the containers in which the plutonium (in the form of plutonium oxide, PuO 2 ) is housed and consequences of the unlikely event of these becoming ruptured. Wind-borne pollution is considered not to be a likely scenario, with the plutonium oxide particles more likely to remain practically insoluble and sediment. Plutonium aqueous and environmental chemistry is briefly discussed. Some computer modelling whereby plutonium oxide is brought into contact with seawater has been performed and the results are presented. The impact on marine organisms is discussed in terms of studies performed at marine dump sites and after the crash of a bomber carrying nuclear warheads in Thule, Greenland in 1968. Various pathways from the sea to land are considered in the light of studies done at Sellafield, a reprocessing plant in the United Kingdom. Some recent debates in the popular scientific press, such as that on the leukemia cluster at Sellafield, are described. Plutonium biochemistry and toxicity are discussed as well as medical histories of workers exposed to plutonium. 35 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Implications of plutonium and americium recycling on MOX fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, A.; Pilate, S.; Maldague, Th.; La Fuente, A.; Evrard, G.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of the multiple recycling of plutonium in power reactors on the radiation dose rates is analyzed for the most critical stage in a MOX fuel fabrication plant. The limitation of the number of Pu recycling in light water reactors would rather stem from reactor core physics features. The case of recovering americium with plutonium is also considered and the necessary additions of shielding are evaluated. A comparison between the recycling of Pu in fast reactors and in light water reactors is presented. (author)

  9. Plutonium oxides and uranium and plutonium mixed oxides. Carbon determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Determination of carbon in plutonium oxides and uranium plutonium mixed oxides, suitable for a carbon content between 20 to 3000 ppm. The sample is roasted in oxygen at 1200 0 C, the carbon dioxide produced by combustion is neutralized by barium hydroxide generated automatically by coulometry [fr

  10. High-temperature enthalpies of plutonium monocarbide and plutonium sesquicarbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oetting, F.L.

    1979-01-01

    The high-temperature enthalpies of plutonium monocarbide and plutonium sesquicarbide have been determined with a copper-block calorimeter of the isoperibol type. The experimental enthalpy data, which was measured relative to 298 K, covered the temperature range from 400 to 1500 K. The calculation of the temperature rise of the calorimeter takes into account the added heat evolution from the radioactive decay of the plutonium samples. These enthalpy results, combined with the heat capacity and entropy of the respective carbide at 298 K available from the literature, has made it possible to generate tables of thermodynamic functions for the plutonium carbides. The behavior of the heat capacity of both of the plutonium carbides, i.e., a relatively steep increase in the heat capacity as the temperature increases, may be attributed to a premelting effect with the formation of vacancies within the crystal lattice although a theoretical treatment of this phenomenon is not given

  11. Divergence of sun-rays by atmospheric refraction at large solar zenith angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uhl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available For the determination of photolysis rates at large zenith angles it has been demonstrated that refraction by the earth's atmosphere must be taken into account. In fact, due to the modified optical path the optical transmittance is thereby increased in most instances. Here we show that in addition the divergence of sun-rays, which is also caused by refraction but which reduces the direct solar irradiance, should not be neglected. Our calculations are based on a spherically symmetric atmosphere and include extinction by Rayleigh scattering, ozone, and background aerosol. For rays with 10km tangent altitude the divergence yields a reduction of about 10% to 40% at solar zenith angles of 91° to 96°. Moreover, we find that the divergence effect can completely cancel the relative enhancement caused by the increase of transmittance.

  12. Decontamination of plutonium-contaminated surfaces; Essais de decontamination des surfaces contaminees par du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, J; Clouet d' Orval, Ch; Tachon, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The measure of the neutron distribution in the core of 'Proserpine', by means of activation detectors, requires no contact between the plutonium sulfate solution and the detectors. These detectors are put into PVC or polyethylene bags. This report describes the process used to decontaminate these bags. A washing by nitric acid followed by coating with plexiglass is kept, with this process we have no contamination on the detectors. (author) [French] La mesure de la distribution de neutrons par detecteurs a activation dans le coeur de Proserpine exige de proteger ces detecteurs contre tout contact avec la solution de plutonium. Les detecteurs sont places dans des gaines en polyvinyle ou en polyethylene. Ce rapport decrit le procede utilise pour decontaminer ces gaines. On a retenu un lavage a l'acide nitrique suivi du revetement d'une meme couche de plexiglass, ce qui permet d'eviter la contamination des detecteurs. (auteur)

  13. Gingival zenith and its role in redefining esthetics: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Pawar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to quantify some clinical parameters useful as esthetic guidelines when gingival contour is modified and to compare the left and right sides of six maxillary anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Maxillary casts mounted on an articulator according to the axis orbital plane were photographed from 35 young adults. The angle formed between the gingival line and maxillary midline (GLA and the distance between the gingival zenith of the lateral incisor and the gingival line were measured (LID using a flexible protractor and digital vernier caliper, respectively. The asymmetry was evaluated using a paired t test for the left vs right measurements of GLA and LID. The descriptive statistics for GLA and LID were calculated. Results: The GLA measurements of the left side (86.7΀΁4.2΀ were significantly greater than those of the right side (84.6΀΁5.4΀, and the mean absolute symmetry for GLA was 1.7΀΁4.4΀. The mean LID measurement was 0.92΁0.11. Conclusions: The gingival zenith of the canine is apical to the gingival zenith of the incisors (GLA <90΀ and the gingival zenith of the lateral incisor is below or on (17% the gingival line when head is oriented on the axis orbital plane. A directional asymmetry was shown with the right side higher than the left side. Along with the other parameters related to dental esthetics, these clinical parameters may serve as esthetic guidelines and may enable us to obtain a more predictable outcome.

  14. Estimates of radiance reflected towards the zenith at the surface of the sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Aas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of water colour by ship-mounted sensors represents an important tool for the validation of satellite products and the monitoring of water quality. The recorded radiance from the sea has to be corrected for the surface-reflected radiance from sun and sky in order to obtain the water-leaving radiance. Here the simple case of radiance reflected towards the zenith is studied. A set of observed sky radiance and solar irradiance data from Oslo has been used together with a Gaussian slope distribution for the sea surface in order to estimate the reflected radiance. The spectral range studied is 405–650 nm, the solar zenith angles are in the range 37°–76°, and the wind speeds are up to 10 m s−1. The analysis of the results show that the reflected radiance has to be separated into three contributions: sky radiance and sun rays reflected at the foam-free surface and irradiance reflected by whitecaps and foam. It is then demonstrated that by using four input values, namely the downward irradiance, the sky radiance from the zenith, the solar zenith angle and the wind speed, it is possible to obtain by simple expressions estimates of the reflected radiance that only differ from the former calculated values by relative errors of less than 5%. The analysis also indicates that for the spectral range studied neither the water-leaving radiance nor the surface-reflected radiance can be disregarded relative to the other one in the Case 2 waters of the Oslofjord-Skagerrak area. The results form a first step towards the study of reflected radiance in viewing angles differing from the nadir direction.

  15. Validation of real-time zenith tropospheric delay estimation with TOMION software within WAGNSS networks

    OpenAIRE

    Graffigna, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    The TOmographic Model of the IONospheric electron content (TOMION) software implements a simultaneous precise geodetic and ionospheric modeling, which can be used to test new approaches for real-time precise GNSS modeling (positioning, ionospheric and tropospheric delays, clock errors, among others). In this work, the software is used to estimate the Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) emulating real time and its performance is evaluated through a comparative analysis with a built-in GIPSY estima...

  16. Determination of plutonium in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanoue, Masanobu

    1978-01-01

    Past and present methods of determining the amount of plutonium in the environment are summarized. Determination of the amount of plutonium in uranium ore began in 1941. Plutonium present in polluted environments due to nuclear explosions, nuclear power stations, etc. was measured in soil and sand in Nagasaki in 1951 and in ash in Bikini in 1954. Analytical methods of measuring the least amount of plutonium in the environment were developed twenty years later. Many studies on and reviews of these methods have been reported all over the world, and a standard analytical procedure has been adopted. A basic analytical method of measurement was drafted in Japan in 1976. The yield, treatment of samples, dissolution, separation, control of measurable ray sources determination by α spectrometry, cross-check determination, and treatment of samples containing hardly soluble plutonium were examined. At present, the amount of plutonium can be determined by all of these methods. The presence of plutonium was studied further, and the usefulness of determination of the plutonium isotope ratio is discussed. (Kumagai, S.)

  17. Work surface for soluble plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional work surface for aqueous plutonium is illustrated. It is constructed by means of estimating work as a function of the ambient pH and redox potential in a plutonium solution. The surface is useful for illustrating the chemistry of disproportionation reactions. Work expressions are easier to use than work integrals. (author)

  18. The economics of plutonium recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.A.

    1977-11-01

    The individual cost components and the total fuel cycle costs for natural uranium and uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel cycles for CANDU-PHW reactors are discussed. A calculation is performed to establish the economic conditions under which plutonium recycle would be economically attractive. (auth)

  19. Evidence of L-mode electromagnetic wave pumping of ionospheric plasma near geomagnetic zenith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Leyser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The response of ionospheric plasma to pumping by powerful HF (high frequency electromagnetic waves transmitted from the ground into the ionosphere is the strongest in the direction of geomagnetic zenith. We present experimental results from transmitting a left-handed circularly polarized HF beam from the EISCAT (European Incoherent SCATter association Heating facility in magnetic zenith. The CASSIOPE (CAScade, Smallsat and IOnospheric Polar Explorer spacecraft in the topside ionosphere above the F-region density peak detected transionospheric pump radiation, although the pump frequency was below the maximum ionospheric plasma frequency. The pump wave is deduced to arrive at CASSIOPE through L-mode propagation and associated double (O to Z, Z to O conversion in pump-induced radio windows. L-mode propagation allows the pump wave to reach higher plasma densities and higher ionospheric altitudes than O-mode propagation so that a pump wave in the L-mode can facilitate excitation of upper hybrid phenomena localized in density depletions in a larger altitude range. L-mode propagation is therefore suggested to be important in explaining the magnetic zenith effect.

  20. Plutonium Round Robin Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudder, G.B.; Herbillon, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The goal of nuclear forensics is to develop a preferred approach to illicit trafficking investigations. This approach must be widely understood and acceptable as credible. The principle objectives of the Round Robin Test are to prioritize the forensic techniques and methods, evaluate attribution capabilities, and examine the utility of database. The Plutonium Round Robin has made a tremendous contribution to fulfilling these goals through a collaborative learning experience that resulted from the outstanding efforts of the six participating international laboratories. A prioritize list of techniques and methods has been developed based on this exercise. Future work will focus on a Highly Enriched Round Robin and extent to which the techniques and methods can be generalized. The Plutonium Round Robin demonstrated a rather high level of capability to determine the important characteristics of the materials and processes using analytical methods. When this capability to was combined with the appropriate knowledge and database, it resulted in a demonstrated capability to attribute the source of the materials to a specific nuclear fuel, reactor, and reprocessing facility. A number of shortfalls were also identified in our current capabilities. These included alternative dating techniques. Light Water Reactor discrimination techniques, and the lack of a comprehensive network of data/knowledge bases. The result of the Round Robin will be used to develop guidelines or a 'recommended protocol' to be made available to the interested authorities and countries to use in real cases. The poster will present a summary of the results of the Plutonium Round Robin and describe the plans the subsequent Highly Enriched Uranium Round Robin Test. (author)

  1. Solvent anode for plutonium purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowersox, D.F.; Fife, K.W.; Christensen, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a technique to allow complete oxidation of plutonium from the anode during plutonium electrorefining. This will eliminate the generation of a ''spent'' anode heel which requires further treatment for recovery. Our approach is to employ a solvent metal in the anode to provide a liquid anode pool throughout electrorefining. We use molten salts and metals in ceramic crucibles at 700 0 C. Our goal is to produce plutonium metal at 99.9% purity with oxidation and transfer of more than 98% of the impure plutonium feed metal from the anode into the salt and product phases. We have met these criteria in experiments on the 100 to 1000 g scale. We plan to scale our operations to 4 kg of feed plutonium and to optimize the process parameters

  2. Using Biomolecules to Separate Plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolski, Jarrod

    Used nuclear fuel has traditionally been treated through chemical separations of the radionuclides for recycle or disposal. This research considers a biological approach to such separations based on a series of complex and interdependent interactions that occur naturally in the human body with plutonium. These biological interactions are mediated by the proteins serum transferrin and the transferrin receptor. Transferrin to plutonium in vivo and can deposit plutonium into cells after interacting with the transferrin receptor protein at the cell surface. Using cerium as a non-radioactive surrogate for plutonium, it was found that cerium(IV) required multiple synergistic anions to bind in the N-lobe of the bilobal transferrin protein, creating a conformation of the cerium-loaded protein that would be unable to interact with the transferrin receptor protein to achieve a separation. The behavior of cerium binding to transferrin has contributed to understanding how plutonium(IV)-transferrin interacts in vivo and in biological separations.

  3. Cycle downstream: the plutonium question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zask, G.; Rome, M.; Delpech, M.

    1998-01-01

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 4 june 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the plutonium physics and its utilization as a nuclear fuel. This day tried to bring information to answer the following questions: do people have to keep the plutonium in the UOX fuel or in the MOX fuel in order to use it for future fast reactors? Do people have to continue obstinately the plutonium reprocessing in the MOX for the PWR type reactors? Will it be realized a underground disposal? Can it be technically developed plutonium incinerators and is it economically interesting? The plutonium physics, the experimental programs and the possible solutions are presented. (A.L.B.)

  4. Plutonium storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Spanish study gives a more detailed analysis of a possible store for plutonium oxide. The capacity of the store is assumed to be 30 t Pu and the minimum storage time 2 years. The study includes a general description of the store and its design philosophy; comments on the quality and properties of the material stored; a detailed criticality study and comments on gas and heat generation and shielding requirements; and a brief cost evaluation. Costs are estimated to be about $110/kg PuO 2 /year

  5. Fast Thorium Molten Salt Reactors Started with Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merle-Lucotte, E.; Heuer, D.; Le Brun, C.; Brissot, R.; Liatard, E.; Meplan, O.; Nuttin, A.; Mathieu, L.

    2006-01-01

    One of the pending questions concerning Molten Salt Reactors based on the 232 Th/ 233 U fuel cycle is the supply of the fissile matter, and as a consequence the deployment possibilities of a fleet of Molten Salt Reactors, since 233 U does not exist on earth and is not yet produced in the current operating reactors. A solution may consist in producing 233 U in special devices containing Thorium, in Pressurized Water or Fast Neutrons Reactors. Two alternatives to produce 233 U are examined here: directly in standard Molten Salt Reactors started with Plutonium as fissile matter and then operated in the Th/ 233 U cycle; or in dedicated Molten Salt Reactors started and fed with Plutonium as fissile matter and Thorium as fertile matter. The idea is to design a critical reactor able to burn the Plutonium and the minor actinides presently produced in PWRs, and consequently to convert this Plutonium into 233 U. A particular reactor configuration is used, called 'unique channel' configuration in which there is no moderator in the core, leading to a quasi fast neutron spectrum, allowing Plutonium to be used as fissile matter. The conversion capacities of such Molten Salt Reactors are excellent. For Molten Salt Reactors only started with Plutonium, the assets of the Thorium fuel cycle turn out to be quickly recovered and the reactor's characteristics turn out to be equivalent to Molten Salt Reactors operated with 233 U only. Using a combination of Molten Salt Reactors started or operated with Plutonium and of Molten Salt Reactors started with 233 U, the deployment capabilities of these reactors fully satisfy the condition of sustainability. (authors)

  6. Tropospheric nitrogen dioxide column retrieval based on ground-based zenith-sky DOAS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, F. M.; Hendrick, F.; Pinardi, G.; Fayt, C.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2013-12-01

    A retrieval approach has been developed to derive tropospheric NO2 vertical column amounts from ground-based zenith-sky measurements of scattered sunlight. Zenith radiance spectra are observed in the visible range by the BIRA-IASB Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instrument and analyzed by the DOAS technique, based on a least-squares spectral fitting. In recent years, this technique has shown to be a well-suited remote sensing tool for monitoring atmospheric trace gases. The retrieval algorithm is developed and validated based on a two month dataset acquired from June to July 2009 in the framework of the Cabauw (51.97° N, 4.93° E) Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). Once fully operational, the retrieval approach can be applied to observations from stations of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). The obtained tropospheric vertical column amounts are compared with the multi-axis retrieval from the BIRA-IASB MAX-DOAS instrument and the retrieval from a zenith-viewing only SAOZ instrument (Système d'Analyse par Observations Zénithales), owned by Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales (LATMOS). First results show a good agreement for the whole time series with the multi-axis retrieval (R = 0.82; y = 0.88x + 0.30) as well as with the SAOZ retrieval (R = 0.85; y = 0.76x + 0.28 ). Main error sources arise from the uncertainties in the determination of tropospheric and stratospheric air mass factors, the stratospheric NO2 abundances and the residual amount in the reference spectrum. However zenith-sky measurements have been commonly used over the last decades for stratospheric monitoring, this study also illustrates the suitability for retrieval of tropospheric column amounts. As there are long time series of zenith-sky acquisitions available, the developed approach offers new perspectives with regard to the use of observations from the NDACC

  7. The toxicity of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsden, D.; Johns, T.F.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to recent publications concerned with the radiotoxicity of inhaled insoluble Pu compounds. The publications are a paper by Thorne and Vennart (Nature 263:555 (1976)), a report entitled 'The Toxicity of Plutonium', (London (HMSO), 1975), and the 'Sixth Report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution', (Cmnd. 6618, London (HMSO), 1976). Thorne and Vennart concluded that the previously accepted value for the maximum permissible annual intake (MPAI) of such compounds may be too high by a factor of about five, and a similar conclusion was reached in the other two publications. It is thought by the present authors that the methods which have been used to suggest new values for the MPAI are unduly pessimistic for high-fired PuO 2 ; calculations have been based on the lung model of ICRP Publication 19 'The Metabolism of Compounds of Plutonium and the Other Actinides', (International Commission of Radiological Protection, 1972). This involves concluding that the risks to bone and liver are comparable to those for lung. This is discussed and it is thought that the previously established idea that the lung is the critical organ remains substantially correct for the case of high-fired PuO 2 . (U.K.)

  8. Plutonium oxide dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO 2 ) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO 2 typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO 2 produced during incineration of alpha contaminated waste. At least two processing options remain applicable for dissolving high-fired PuO 2 in canyon dissolvers. The options involve solid solution formation of PuO 2 With uranium oxide (UO 2 ) and alloying incinerator ash with aluminum. An oxidative dissolution process involving nitric acid solutions containing a strong oxidizing agent, such as cerium (IV), was neither proven nor rejected. This uncertainty was due to difficulty in regenerating cerium (IV) ions during dissolution. However, recent work on silver-catalyzed dissolution of PuO 2 with persulfate has demonstrated that persulfate ions regenerate silver (II). Use of persulfate to regenerate cerium (IV) or bismuth (V) ions during dissolution of PuO 2 materials may warrant further study

  9. Determination of coupling coefficients at various zenith angles of the basis of the cosmic ray azimuth effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belskiy, S. A.; Dmitriev, B. A.; Romanov, A. M.

    1975-01-01

    The value of EW asymmetry and coupling coefficients at different zenith angles were measured by means of a double coincidence crossed telescope which gives an opportunity to measure simultaneously the intensity of the cosmic ray hard component at zenith angles from 0 to 84 deg in opposite azimuths. The advantages of determining the coupling coefficients by the cosmic ray azimuth effect as compared to their measurement by the latitudinal effect are discussed.

  10. The transports in the French Plutonium Industry. A high risk activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This study throws light on the scale of transport of plutonium in France nuclear industry, an activity involving quantities of high risk materials often unknown to the public. The study is a significantly extended update of the one carried out by WISE-Paris in 1995 for the Plutonium Forum. It was motivated by important developments in the French plutonium industry and the publication of numerous data concerning transport activities since 1995. The 2003 study presents, in particular, all of the flows of plutonium crossing France every year, as well as analysis of the risks associated with this particular transport activity. Putting these data into perspective in terms of a rapidly and permanently changing political and industrial context, and a description of the regulatory framework within which shipments of plutonium take place, serve as a guide and source of reference to help readers better understand the issues. The importance of transport in the plutonium ''chain'', i.e. the stages corresponding to various industrial processes, is often under-estimated, even by the nuclear industry itself. Transport is, in fact, the activity which involves the greatest quantities of plutonium in the entire nuclear chain. Plutonium, produced during the fission reactions in the cores of nuclear reactors, is transported, contained in the irradiated fuel, to the facilities at La Hague where reprocessing separates it from the other radioactive components of the spent fuel. Part of the plutonium, now isolated in powder form, is then shipped to one of the three plants able to produce the fuel known as MOX. These are located at Cadarache and Marcoule, in France, and at Dessel in Belgium. Once in the MOX form, this plutonium has to be re-transported to reactor sites to be used. Once irradiated, the spent MOX will return to the La Hague installations to be stored for an unknown period; the plutonium contained in the spent MOX is not, at present, destined to be re

  11. The transports in the French Plutonium Industry. A high risk activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    This study throws light on the scale of transport of plutonium in France nuclear industry, an activity involving quantities of high risk materials often unknown to the public. The study is a significantly extended update of the one carried out by WISE-Paris in 1995 for the Plutonium Forum. It was motivated by important developments in the French plutonium industry and the publication of numerous data concerning transport activities since 1995. The 2003 study presents, in particular, all of the flows of plutonium crossing France every year, as well as analysis of the risks associated with this particular transport activity. Putting these data into perspective in terms of a rapidly and permanently changing political and industrial context, and a description of the regulatory framework within which shipments of plutonium take place, serve as a guide and source of reference to help readers better understand the issues. The importance of transport in the plutonium ''chain'', i.e. the stages corresponding to various industrial processes, is often under-estimated, even by the nuclear industry itself. Transport is, in fact, the activity which involves the greatest quantities of plutonium in the entire nuclear chain. Plutonium, produced during the fission reactions in the cores of nuclear reactors, is transported, contained in the irradiated fuel, to the facilities at La Hague where reprocessing separates it from the other radioactive components of the spent fuel. Part of the plutonium, now isolated in powder form, is then shipped to one of the three plants able to produce the fuel known as MOX. These are located at Cadarache and Marcoule, in France, and at Dessel in Belgium. Once in the MOX form, this plutonium has to be re-transported to reactor sites to be used. Once irradiated, the spent MOX will return to the La Hague installations to be stored for an unknown period; the plutonium contained in the spent MOX is not, at present, destined to be re-used. (author)

  12. Swiss R and D on uranium-free LWR fuels for plutonium incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanculescu, A.; Chawla, R.; Degueldre, C.; Kasemeyer, U.; Ledergerber, G.; Paratte, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The most efficient way to enhance the plutonium consumption in LWRs is to eliminate plutonium production altogether. This requirement leads to fuel concepts in which the uranium is replaced by an inert matrix. The inert matrix material studied at PSI is zirconium oxide. For reactivity control reasons, adding a burnable poison to this fuel proves to be necessary. The studies performed at PSI have identified erbium oxide as the most suitable candidate for this purpose. With regard to material technology aspects, efforts have concentrated on the evaluation of fabrication feasibility and on the determination of the physicochemical properties of the chosen single phase zirconium/ erbium/plutonium oxide material stabilised as a cubic solution by yttrium. The results to-date, obtained for inert matrix samples containing thorium or cerium as plutonium substitute, confirm the robustness and stability of this material. With regard to reactor physics aspects, our studies indicate the feasibility of uranium-free, plutonium-fuelled cores having operational characteristics quite similar to those of conventional UO 2 -fuelled ones, and much higher plutonium consumption rates, as compared to 100% MOX loadings. The safety features of such cores, based on results obtained from static neutronics calculations, show no cliff edges. However, the need for further detailed transient analyses is clearly recognised. Summarising, PSI's studies indicate the feasibility of a uranium-free plutonium fuel to be considered in 'maximum plutonium consumption LWRs' operating in a 'once-through' mode. With regard to reactor physics, future efforts will concentrate on strengthening the safety case of uranium-free cores, as well as on improving the integral data base for validation of the neutronics calculations. Material technology studies will be continued to investigate the physico-chemical properties of the inert matrix fuel containing plutonium and will focus on the planning and evaluation of

  13. Hazards of plutonium and fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    Apart from the possibility that civil plutonium may be diverted to military use the main argument against the introduction of a plutonium economy seems to be the supposedly unmanageable biological risk attached to plutonium itself. The author points out weaknesses in many of the opponents' arguments against the increased use of plutonium and argues that current safety practices are more than adequate in handling plutonium and other radioactive materials

  14. Recovery of plutonium by pyroredox processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeese, J.A.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.

    1985-09-01

    Using pyrochemical oxidation and reduction, we have developed a process to recover the plutonium in impure scrap with less than 95% plutonium. This plutonium metal was further purified by pyrochemical electrorefining. During development of the procedures, depleted electrorefining anodes were processed, and over 80% of the plutonium was recovered as high-purity metal in one electrorefining cycle. Over 40 kg of plutonium has been recovered from 55 kg of impure anodes with our procedures. 6 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Recovery of plutonium by pyroredox processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeese, J.A.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Using pyrochemical oxidation and reduction, we have developed a process to recover the plutonium in impure scrap with less than 95% plutonium. This plutonium metal was further purified by pyrochemical electrorefining. During development of the procedures, depleted electrorefining anodes were processed, and over 80% of the plutonium was recovered as high-purity metal in one electrorefining cycle. Over 40 kg of plutonium has been recovered from 55 kg of impure anodes with our procedures. 6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Study of plutonium disposition using existing GE advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The end of the cold war and the resulting dismantlement of nuclear weapons has resulted in the need for the US to dispose of 50 to 100 metric tons of excess of plutonium in a safe and proliferation resistant manner. A number of studies, including the recently released National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study, have recommended conversion of plutonium into spent nuclear fuel with its high radiation barrier as the best means of providing permanent conversion and long-term diversion resistance to this material. The NAS study ``Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium identified Light Water Reactor spent fuel as the most readily achievable and proven form for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. The study also stressed the need for a US disposition program which would enhance the prospects for a timely reciprocal program agreement with Russia. This summary provides the key findings of a GE study where plutonium is converted into Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel and a typical 1155 MWe GE Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) is utilized to convert the plutonium to spent fuel. A companion study of the Advanced BWR has recently been submitted. The MOX core design work that was conducted for the ABWR enabled GE to apply comparable fuel design concepts and consequently achieve full MOX core loading which optimize plutonium throughput for existing BWRs.

  17. Study of plutonium disposition using existing GE advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The end of the cold war and the resulting dismantlement of nuclear weapons has resulted in the need for the US to dispose of 50 to 100 metric tons of excess of plutonium in a safe and proliferation resistant manner. A number of studies, including the recently released National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study, have recommended conversion of plutonium into spent nuclear fuel with its high radiation barrier as the best means of providing permanent conversion and long-term diversion resistance to this material. The NAS study ''Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium identified Light Water Reactor spent fuel as the most readily achievable and proven form for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. The study also stressed the need for a US disposition program which would enhance the prospects for a timely reciprocal program agreement with Russia. This summary provides the key findings of a GE study where plutonium is converted into Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel and a typical 1155 MWe GE Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) is utilized to convert the plutonium to spent fuel. A companion study of the Advanced BWR has recently been submitted. The MOX core design work that was conducted for the ABWR enabled GE to apply comparable fuel design concepts and consequently achieve full MOX core loading which optimize plutonium throughput for existing BWRs

  18. Probing phonons in plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Joe; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Occelli, F.; Schwartz, A.; Chiang, T.C.; Wall, M.; Boro, C.; Xu, Ruqing

    2010-01-01

    Plutonium (Pu) is well known to have complex and unique physico-chemical properties. Notably, the pure metal exhibits six solid-state phase transformations with large volume expansions and contractions along the way to the liquid state: α → β → γ → (delta) → (delta)(prime) → (var e psilon) → liquid. Unalloyed Pu melts at a relatively low temperature ∼640 C to yield a higher density liquid than that of the solid from which it melts, (Figure 1). Detailed understanding of the properties of plutonium and plutonium-based alloys is critical for the safe handling, utilization, and long-term storage of these important, but highly toxic materials. However, both technical and and safety issues have made experimental observations extremely difficult. Phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) are key experimenta l data to the understanding of the basic properties of Pu materials such as: force constants, sound velocities, elastic constants, thermodynamics, phase stability, electron-phonon coupling, structural relaxation, etc. However, phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) in plutonium (Pu) and its alloys have defied measurement for the past few decades since the discovery of this element in 1941. This is due to a combination of the high thermal-neutron absorption cross section of plutonium and the inability to grow the large single crystals (with dimensions of a few millimeters) necessary for inelastic neutron scattering. Theoretical simulations of the Pu PDC continue to be hampered by the lack of suitable inter -atomic potentials. Thus, until recently the PDCs for Pu and its alloys have remained unknown experimentally and theoretically. The experimental limitations have recently been overcome by using a tightly focused undulator x-ray micro-beam scattered from single -grain domains in polycrystalline specimens. This experimental approach has been applied successfully to map the complete PDCs of an fcc d-Pu-Ga alloy using the high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HRIXS

  19. A method for the gravimetric determination of plutonium in pure plutonium nitrate concentrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, M.A.; Savage, D.J.

    1986-12-01

    Plutonium nitrate solution is treated with sulphuric acid before being heated and finally ignited. The stoichiometric plutonium dioxide so formed is weighed and hence the plutonium content is calculated. (author)

  20. Plutonium contaminated materials research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    The paper is a progress report for 1985 from the Plutonium Contaminated Materials Working Party (PCMWP). The PCMWP co-ordinates research and development on a national basis in the areas of management, treatment and immobilisation of plutonium contaminated materials, for the purpose of waste management. The progress report contains a review of the development work carried out in eight areas, including: reduction of arisings, plutonium measurement, sorting and packaging, washing of shredded combustible PCM, decommissioning and non-combustible PCM treatment, PCM immobilisation, treatment of alpha bearing liquid wastes, and engineering objectives. (UK)

  1. Plutonium again (smuggling and movements)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    A link is discounted between nuclear proliferation and the recently discovered smuggled plutonium from the former Soviet Union at Munich airport and other places in Germany. It is argued that governments wishing to obtain nuclear materials to develop a weapons programme would not arrange to have it smuggled in a suitcase. Instead, it is speculated that a link exists between the plutonium smuggling incidents and the desire to promote the production of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. Such incidents, by further raising public anxiety, may be intended to turn public opinion in favour of MOX fuel production as a sensible way of getting rid of surplus plutonium. (UK)

  2. Learning more about plutonium; En savoir plus sur le plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This digest brochure explains what plutonium is, where it comes from, how it is used, its recycling into Mox fuel, its half life, historical discovery, its presence in the environment, toxicity and radioactivity. (J.S.)

  3. A Graphite Isotope Ratio Method: A Primer on Estimating Plutonium Production in Graphite Moderated Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesh, Christopher J.

    2004-01-01

    The Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM) is a technique used to estimate the total plutonium production in a graphite-moderated reactor. The cumulative plutonium production in that reactor can be accurately determined by measuring neutron irradiation induced isotopic ratio changes in certain impurity elements within the graphite moderator. The method does not require detailed knowledge of a reactor's operating history, although that knowledge can decrease the uncertainty of the production estimate. The basic premise of the Graphite Isotope Ratio Method is that the fluence in non-fuel core components is directly related to the cumulative plutonium production in the nuclear fuel

  4. Plutonium waste container identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmierer, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define the parameters of a method for identifying plutonium waste containers. This information will form the basis for a permanent committee to develop a complete identification program for use throughout the world. Although a large portion of the information will be on handwritten notebooks and may not be as extensive as is desired, it will all be helpful. The final information will be programmed into computer language and be available to all interested parties as well as a central control committee which will have the expertise to provide each government with advice on the packaging, storage, and measurement of the waste for which it is responsible. As time progresses, this central control committee should develop permanent storage sites and establish a system of records which will last for hundreds of years

  5. The plutonium ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    'Nuclear Power Issues and Choices' is the title of a recent report which has been performed by a study group sponsored by the Ford Foundation and administered by the MITRE Corporation. The main concern of this study is to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Since the reprocessing of spent fuel elements yields among others plutonium of bomb quality, the report of the Ford Foundation comes to the conclusion that the USA should defer the closing of the fuel cycle, defer the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, deposit the spent fuel elemenets as a whole, and defer the breeder which can not run without fuel reprocessing. The German attitude however is that we can not relinquish on reprocessing and recycling of nuclear fuel because we are lacking such rich resources of coal, oil and uranium as the USA have. Furthermore, the deposition of spent fuel elements may be more dangerous than the deposition of the radioactive waste from reprocessing plants. (orig.) [de

  6. Differential spectrophotometric determination of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecat, J.

    1980-01-01

    Differential spectrophotometric method is used for determination of plutonium reduced to oxydation state III+ by ascorbic acid, at 560 nm. Concentration of solutions is 4 g/l and accuracy of the method is better than 0,3% [fr

  7. The first milligrams of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates the discovery of the different plutonium chemical extraction processes in their historical context. The first experiments started during the second world war in 1942 with the American ''Metallurgical Laboratory'' project which brought together Arthur Compton, Enrico Fermi and Glenn Seaborg. During the same period, a competitive English-Canadian project, the ''Montreal Project'', was carried out to test different plutonium solvent extraction techniques. The author participated in both projects and joined the CEA in 1946, where he was in charge of the uranium and plutonium chemistry. By the end of 1949, his team could isolate the first milligrams of French plutonium from uranium oxide pellets of the ZOE reactor. In the beginning of 1952 he developed with his team the PUREX process. (J.S.)

  8. Technological alternatives for plutonium transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    This paper considers alternative transport modes (air, sea, road, rail) for moving (1) plutonium from a reprocessing plant to a store or a fuel fabrication facility, and (2) MOX fuel from the latter to a reactor. These transport modes and differing forms of plutonium are considered in terms of: their proliferation resistance and safeguards; environmental and safety aspects; and economic aspects. It is tentatively proposed that the transport of plutonium could continue by air or sea where long distances are involved and by road or rail over shorter distances; this would be acceptable from the non-proliferation, environmental impact and economic aspects - there may be advantages in protection if plutonium is transported in the form of mixed oxide

  9. Plutonium helps probe protein, superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Scientists are finding that plutonium can be a useful research tool that may help them answer important questions in fields as diverse as biochemistry and solid-state physics. This paper reports that U.S. research involving plutonium is confined to the Department of Energy's national laboratories and centers around nuclear weapons technology, waste cleanup and disposal, and health effects. But at Los Alamos National Laboratory, scientists also are using plutonium to probe the biochemical behavior of calmodulin, a key calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium-regulated processes in biological systems. At Argonne National Laboratory, another team is trying to learn how a superconductor's properties are affected by the 5f electrons of an actinide like plutonium

  10. An alternative plutonium disposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueppers, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a feasibility study on vitrification of plutonium with high active waste concentrate, and fabrication of MOX fuel rods for direct final disposal. These are potential alternatives to the direct use of MOX fuel in a reactor. (author)

  11. Chloride removal from plutonium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, H.P.

    1983-01-01

    SRP is evaluating a program to recover plutonium from a metallic alloy that will contain chloride salt impurities. Removal of chloride to sufficiently low levels to prevent damaging corrosion to canyon equipment is feasible as a head-end step following dissolution. Silver nitrate and mercurous nitrate were each successfully used in laboratory tests to remove chloride from simulated alloy dissolver solution containing plutonium. Levels less than 10 ppM chloride were achieved in the supernates over the precipitated and centrifuged insoluble salts. Also, less than 0.05% loss of plutonium in the +3, +4, or +6 oxidation states was incurred via precipitate carrying. These results provide impetus for further study and development of a plant-scale process to recover plutonium from metal alloy at SRP

  12. Augmentation of Quasi-Zenith Satellite Positioning System Using High Altitude Platforms Systems (HAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Toshiaki; Harigae, Masatoshi

    Recently, some feasibility studies on a regional positioning system using the quasi-zenith satellites and the geostationary satellites have been conducted in Japan. However, the geometry of this system seems to be unsatisfactory in terms of the positioning accuracy in north-south direction. In this paper, an augmented satellite positioning system by the High Altitude Platform Systems (HAPS) is proposed since the flexibility of the HAPS location is effective to improve the geometry of satellite positioning system. The improved positioning performance of the augmented system is also demonstrated.

  13. A method for comparison of experimental and theoretical differential neutron spectra in the Zenith reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.L.; Symons, C.R.

    1965-01-01

    A method of calculation is given which assists the analyses of chopper measurements of spectra from ZENITH and enables complex multigroup theoretical calculations of the spectra to be put into a form which may be compared with experiment. In addition the theory of the cut-off function has been extended to give analytical expressions which take into account the effects of sub-collimators, off centre slits and of a rotor made of a material partially transparent to neutrons. The theoretical cut-off function suggested shows good agreement with experiment. (author)

  14. A method for comparison of experimental and theoretical differential neutron spectra in the Zenith reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, D L; Symons, C R [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1965-01-15

    A method of calculation is given which assists the analyses of chopper measurements of spectra from ZENITH and enables complex multigroup theoretical calculations of the spectra to be put into a form which may be compared with experiment. In addition the theory of the cut-off function has been extended to give analytical expressions which take into account the effects of sub-collimators, off centre slits and of a rotor made of a material partially transparent to neutrons. The theoretical cut-off function suggested shows good agreement with experiment. (author)

  15. Momentum and zenithal dependence of the enhancements of intensities of cosmic ray muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Monem, M.S.; Osborne, A.R.; Benbrook, J.R.; Sheldon, W.R.; Duller, N.M.; Green, P.J.; Choate, L.M.; Magnusson, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    The absolute directional differential intensities of high-energy cosmic ray muons near sea level have been measured over the momentum range 2-700 GeV/c in the vertical direction and zenithal interval 55deg-90deg. The measurements were made with the AMH magnetic spectrometer-telescope. The enhancements I(65deg)/I(0deg) and I(80deg)/I(0deg) of the muon intensities as a function of momentum are presented and compared with the theoretical results of Maeda and Asbury et al. (author)

  16. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the life-span dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 in beagles. The data will be used to estimate the health effects of inhaled transuranics. The tissue distribution of plutonium, radiation effects in the lung and hematologic changes in plutonium-exposed beagles with lung tumors were evaluated

  17. Plutonium contamination in italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cave-Bondi, G.; Merli, S.; Rogo, M.; Sgarbazzini, M.; Clemente, G.F.; Mancini, L.; Santori, G.; Tardella, Q.

    1983-01-01

    The literature data concerning the biological and the chemical physical characteristics of plutonium are summarized in the first part of the paper. The experimental results of the plutonium concentration in complete diets, single food items and some human autopsy tissues, regarding the Italian situation, are then presented and discussed. Our experimental data are in good agreement with similar data reported in several studies carried out in some countries of the north emisphere

  18. Plutonium: real and false problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemden, E. van den

    1981-01-01

    This paper deals with technical and technological state of the possibilities of using plutonium as fuel in the thermal and fast reactors. It also describes the political blockage restraining its use and the reasons for it. The accent is put on some fundamental lacks of international coordination and on some problems of commercial policy, which impede, in a certain way, the industrial use of plutonium as a fuel. (author)

  19. Monitoring the risks of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holliday, B.

    1978-01-01

    The difficulties in monitoring the environment in work areas where plutonium is handled are identified and both continuous and personal air sampling techniques considered. Methods of estimating the amounts of plutonium retained in the body are: (1) Direct external counting over the chest of the 'soft' low energy X-rays and gamma rays emitted by the plutonium deposited in the lungs. (2) Measuring plutonium excreted in urine. (3) Analysing faeces soon after a suspected contamination. Limitation of these techniques are discussed and it is shown that estimating the amount of plutonium in the body, or a specific organ, is extremely difficult, both because of the lack of sensitivity of the measuring techniques (especially chest scanning) and because of the problems in interpreting data, stemming from a lack of knowledge of crucial characteristics of the inhaled plutonium (such as particle size and solubility). Nevertheless it is felt that the judicious integration of all the options creates a level of certainty that no individual technique can possibly inspire. (U.K.)

  20. Atomic energy policy of Japan, especially plutonium utilization policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriguchi, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The necessity of plutonium use in Japan is discussed. Basic policy regarding plutonium use and future plutonium utilization programme is described including such an aspect as management of plutonium from dismantled nuclear weapons

  1. Full MOX core for PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puill, A.; Aniel-Buchheit, S.

    1997-01-01

    Plutonium management is a major problem of the back end of the fuel cycle. Fabrication costs must be reduced and plant operation simplified. The design of a full MOX PWR core would enable the number of reactors devoted to plutonium recycling to be reduced and fuel zoning to be eliminated. This paper is a contribution to the feasibility studies for achieving such a core without fundamental modification of the current design. In view of the differences observed between uranium and plutonium characteristics it seems necessary to reconsider the safety of a MOX-fuelled PWR. Reduction of the control worth and modification of the moderator density coefficient are the main consequences of using MOX fuel in a PWR. The core reactivity change during a draining or a cooling is thus of prime interest. The study of core global draining leads to the following conclusion: only plutonium fuels of very poor quality (i.e. with low fissile content) cannot be used in a 900 MWe PWR because of a positive global voiding reactivity effect. During a cooling accident, like an spurious opening of a secondary-side valve, the hypothetical return to criticality of a 100% MOX core controlled by means of 57 control rod clusters (made of hafnium-clad B 4 C rods with a 90% 10 B content) depends on the isotopic plutonium composition. But safety criteria can be complied with for all isotopic compositions provided the 10 B content of the soluble boron is increased to a value of 40%. Core global draining and cooling accidents do not present any major obstacle to the feasibility of a 100% MOX PWR, only minor hardware modifications will be required. (author)

  2. Power from plutonium: fast reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, J.F.W.

    1981-01-01

    Points of similarity and of difference between fast reactor fuel and fuels for AGR and PWR plants are established. The flow of uranium and plutonium in fast and thermal systems is also mentioned, establishing the role of the fast reactor as a plutonium burner. A historical perspective of fast reactors is given in which the substantial experience accumulated in test and prototype is indicated and it is noted that fast reactors have now entered the commercial phase. The relevance of the data obtained in the test and prototype reactors to the behaviour of commercial fast reactor fuel is considered. The design concepts employed in fuel are reviewed, including sections on core support styles, pin support and pin detail. This is followed by a discussion of current issues under the headings of manufacture, performance and reprocessing. This section includes a consideration of gel fuel, achievable burn-up, irradiation induced distortions and material choices, fuel form, and fuel failure mechanisms. Future development possibilities are also discussed and the Paper concludes with a view on the logic of a UK fast reactor strategy. (U.K.)

  3. Analytical Model for Estimating the Zenith Angle Dependence of Terrestrial Cosmic Ray Fluxes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko Sato

    Full Text Available A new model called "PHITS-based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere (PARMA version 4.0" was developed to facilitate instantaneous estimation of not only omnidirectional but also angular differential energy spectra of cosmic ray fluxes anywhere in Earth's atmosphere at nearly any given time. It consists of its previous version, PARMA3.0, for calculating the omnidirectional fluxes and several mathematical functions proposed in this study for expressing their zenith-angle dependences. The numerical values of the parameters used in these functions were fitted to reproduce the results of the extensive air shower simulation performed by Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS. The angular distributions of ground-level muons at large zenith angles were specially determined by introducing an optional function developed on the basis of experimental data. The accuracy of PARMA4.0 was closely verified using multiple sets of experimental data obtained under various global conditions. This extension enlarges the model's applicability to more areas of research, including design of cosmic-ray detectors, muon radiography, soil moisture monitoring, and cosmic-ray shielding calculation. PARMA4.0 is available freely and is easy to use, as implemented in the open-access EXcel-based Program for Calculating Atmospheric Cosmic-ray Spectrum (EXPACS.

  4. Plan of Time Management of Satellite Positioning System using Quasi-zenith Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Fujieda, Miho; Amagai, Jun; Yokota, Shoichiro; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Ito, Hiroyuki; Hama, Shin'ichi; Morikawa, Takao; Kawano, Isao; Kogure, Satoshi

    The Quasi-Zenith satellites System (QZSS) is developed as an integrated satellite service system of communication, broadcasting and positioning for mobile users in specified regions of Japan from high elevation angle. Purposes of the satellite positioning system using Quasi-Zenith satellite (QZS) are to complement and augment the GPS. The national institutes concerned have been developing the positioning system using QZS since 2003 and will carry out experiments and researches in three years after the launch. In this system, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) is mainly in charge of timing system for the satellite positioning system using QZS, such as onboard hydrogen maser atomic clock and precise time management system of the QZSS. We started to develop the engineering model of the time management system for the QZSS. The time management system for the QZSS will be used to compare time differences between QZS and earth station as well as to compare between three onboard atomic clocks. This paper introduces time management of satellite positioning system using the QZSS.

  5. Overview of the MISSE 7 Polymers and Zenith Polymers Experiments After 1.5 Years of Space Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Grace T.; de Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Haloua, Athena; Imka, Emily C.; Mitchell, Gianna G.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE 7), two experiments called the Polymers Experiment and the Zenith Polymers Experiment were flown on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) and exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment for 1.5 years. The Polymers Experiment contained 47 samples, which were flown in a ram or wake flight orientation. The objectives of the Polymers Experiment were to determine the LEO atomic oxygen erosion yield (Ey, volume loss per incident oxygen atoms, given in cu cm/atom) of the polymers, and to determine if atomic oxygen erosion of high and low ash containing polymers is dependent on fluence. The Zenith Polymers Experiment was flown in a zenith flight orientation. The primary objective of the Zenith Polymers Experiment was to determine the effect of solar exposure on the erosion of fluoropolymers. Kapton H (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) was flown in each experiment for atomic oxygen fluence determination. This paper provides an introduction to both the MISSE 7 Polymers Experiment and the MISSE 7 Zenith Polymers Experiment, and provides initial erosion yield results.

  6. Risk reduction of core-melt accidents in advaned CAPRA burner cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschek, W.; Struwe, D.; Eigemann, M.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the CAPRA Program (Consommation Accrue de Plutonium dans les RApides) the feasibility of fast reactors is investigated to burn plutonium and also to destruct minor actinides. The design of CAPRA cores shows significant differences compared to conventional cores. Especially the high Pu-enrichment has an important influence on the core melt-down behavior and the associated recriticality risk. To cope with this risk, inherent design features and special measures/devices are investigated for their potential of early fuel discharge to reduce the criticality of the reactor core. An assessment of such measures/devices is given and experimental needs are formulated. 11 refs., 5 figs

  7. Replaceable LMFBR core components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding material and component performance in the high temperature, fast neutron environment of the LMFBR. Current data have provided strong assurance that the initial core component lifetime objectives of FFTF and CRBR can be met. At the same time, this knowledge translates directly into the need for improved core designs that utilize improved materials and advanced fuels required to meet objectives of low doubling times and extended core component lifetimes. An industrial base for the manufacture of quality core components has been developed in the US, and all procurements for the first two core equivalents for FFTF will be completed this year. However, the problem of fabricating recycled plutonium while dramatically reducing fabrication costs, minimizing personnel exposure, and protecting public health and safety must be addressed

  8. Validation of KENO, ANISN and Hansen-Roach cross-section set on plutonium oxide and metal fuel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tadakuni; Yumoto, Ryozo; Nakano, Koh.

    1980-01-01

    In the previous report, the authors discussed the validity of KENO, ANISN and Hansen-Roach 16 group cross-section set on the critical plutonium nitrate solution systems with various geometries, absorbers and neutron interactions. The purpose of the present report is to examine the validity of the same calculation systems on the homogeneous plutonium oxide and plutonium-uranium mixed oxide fuels with various density values. Eleven experiments adopted for validation are summarized. First six experiments were performed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory of Battelle Memorial Institute, and the remaining five at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The characteristics of core fuel are given, and the isotopic composition of plutonium, the relation between H/(Pu + U) atomic ratio and fuel density as compared with the atomic ratios of PuO 2 and mixed oxides in powder storage and pellet fabrication processes, and critical core dimensions and reflector conditions are shown. The effective multiplication factors were calculated with the KENO code. In case of the metal fuels with simple sphere geometry, additional calculations with the ANISN code were performed. The criticality calculation system composed of KENO, ANISN and Hansen-Roach cross-section set was found to be valid for calculating the criticality on plutonium oxide, plutonium-uranium mixed oxide, plutonium metal and uranium metal fuel systems as well as on plutonium solution systems with various geometries, absorbers and neutron interactions. There seems to remain some problems in the method for evaluating experimental correction. Some discussions foloow. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. Plutonium recycling in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youinou, G.; Girieud, R.; Guigon, B.

    2000-01-01

    Two concepts of 100% MOX PWR cores are presented. They are designed such as to minimize the consequences of the introduction of Pu on the core control. The first one has a high moderation ratio and the second one utilizes an enriched uranium support. The important design parameters as well as their capabilities to multi recycle Pu are discussed. We conclude with the potential interest of the two concepts. (author)

  10. Erosional losses of fallout plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, G.R.; Hakonson, T.E.

    1987-01-01

    Plutonium from fallout after atmospheric explosion of nuclear weapons in the 1950's and 1960s is being redistributed over the landscape by soil erosion and carried on sediment by streams to oceans. Erosion rates computed with the Universal Soil Loss Equation for more than 200,000 sample points on nonfederal land across the US were used to estimate plutonium removal rates by soil erosion. On the average, only about 4% of the eroded sediment reaches the outlet of a major river. The remaining sediment is deposited en route, and because deposition is a selective process, the sediment is enriched in fine particles having the highest concentration of plutonium because of the element's strong association with clay and silt-sized sediment. Estimated enrichment ratios, sediment delivery ratios, and erosion rates were used to estimate annual delivery of fallout plutonium. These estimates ranged from 0.002% of the initial fallout plutonium inventory for the Savannah River basin to 0.01% for the Columbia River basin, to 0.02% for the Hudson and Rio Grande River basins, to 0.08% for the Mississippi River basin. If the deposition of plutonium had been uniformly 1 mCi/km 2 , the estimated plutonium activity on suspended sediment would range from about 7 fCi/g of sediment of the Savannah River basin, to 9 fCi/g for the Mississippi River basin, to 12 fCi/g for the Hudson River basin, to 14 fCi/g for the Columbia and Rio Grande River basins. 45 references, 2 figures, 17 tables

  11. Plutonium focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  12. Plutonium solution analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded)

  13. Plutonium oxide shipment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    While following procedures for unloading shipping containers containing plutonium oxide, SRP personnel experienced problems. While using a pipe cutter to cut through the wall of the inner container, the pipe section fell to the floor. Three empty food cans in the bottom of the inner canister also fell to the floor and a puff of smoke was observed. Personnel were evacuated and contamination was detected in the room. As a result of the investigations conducted by Westinghouse and SRP, thermal effects, food can coatings, and fuel volatiles were eliminated as the cause of the problem. Helium used to leak test the RL070 shipping container seals entered the inner canister through two weld defects resulting in a pressurization of the contents. When the end cap was removed, the inner canister vented rapidly, the food cans did not, thus creating a differential pressure across the food cans. This caused the food cans to swell. It was recommended that a dye penetrant test of all inner container welds be added. Additional unloading procedures were also recommended

  14. Plutonium solution analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  15. Determination of the clean 4f peak shape in XPS for plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrall, P. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)], E-mail: peter.morrall@awe.co.uk; Roussel, P. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Jolly, L.; Brevet, A.; Delaunay, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2009-03-15

    Many of the interesting properties observed with plutonium are ascribed to the influence of 5f electrons, and to the degree of localisation observed within these electrons. Indeed, changes in 5f localisation are sensitively reflected in the final states observed in core-level photoemission measurements. However, when analysing the 4f manifold of elemental plutonium, it is essential to obtain spectra without the influence of oxidation, which can easily be misinterpreted as 5f localisation. The ideal method to extract elemental plutonium 4f spectra is to remove any influence of oxidation from the 'clean' plutonium data by careful measurement of the oxygen 1s region, and the subsequent subtraction of the unwanted oxide features. However, in order to achieve this objective it is essential to determine the relative sensitivity factor (RSF) for plutonium 4f and the precise shape of the 4f features from plutonium sesqui-oxide. In this paper, we report an experimental determination of the RSF for the plutonium 4f manifold using experimental data captured from two different Vacuum Generators spectrometers; an ESCALAB Mk II and an ESCALAB 220i.

  16. Plutonium Focus Area research and development plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) committed to a research and development program to support the technology needs for converting and stabilizing its nuclear materials for safe storage. The R and D Plan addresses five of the six material categories from the 94-1 Implementation Plan: plutonium (Pu) solutions, plutonium metals and oxides, plutonium residues, highly enriched uranium, and special isotopes. R and D efforts related to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stabilization were specifically excluded from this plan. This updated plan has narrowed the focus to more effectively target specific problem areas by incorporating results form trade studies. Specifically, the trade studies involved salt; ash; sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C); combustibles; and scrub alloy. The plan anticipates possible disposition paths for nuclear materials and identifies resulting research requirements. These requirements may change as disposition paths become more certain. Thus, this plan represents a snapshot of the current progress and will continue to be updated on a regular basis. The paper discusses progress in safeguards and security, plutonium stabilization, special isotopes stabilization, highly-enriched uranium stabilization--MSRE remediation project, storage technologies, engineered systems, core technology, and proposed DOE/Russian technology exchange projects.

  17. Plutonium Focus Area research and development plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) committed to a research and development program to support the technology needs for converting and stabilizing its nuclear materials for safe storage. The R and D Plan addresses five of the six material categories from the 94-1 Implementation Plan: plutonium (Pu) solutions, plutonium metals and oxides, plutonium residues, highly enriched uranium, and special isotopes. R and D efforts related to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stabilization were specifically excluded from this plan. This updated plan has narrowed the focus to more effectively target specific problem areas by incorporating results form trade studies. Specifically, the trade studies involved salt; ash; sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C); combustibles; and scrub alloy. The plan anticipates possible disposition paths for nuclear materials and identifies resulting research requirements. These requirements may change as disposition paths become more certain. Thus, this plan represents a snapshot of the current progress and will continue to be updated on a regular basis. The paper discusses progress in safeguards and security, plutonium stabilization, special isotopes stabilization, highly-enriched uranium stabilization--MSRE remediation project, storage technologies, engineered systems, core technology, and proposed DOE/Russian technology exchange projects

  18. Long time contamination from plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, M.; Patzeltova, N.; Ragan, P.; Matel, L.

    1995-01-01

    Plutonium isotopes in the organism of the patient (who had participated in the liquidation works after the Chernobyl accident; for three month he had stayed in the epicenter, where he acted as a chauffeur driving a radioactive material to the place of destination) from urine were determined. For determination of the concentration of Pu-239, Pu-240 in urine a modified radiochemical method was used. After mineralization the sample was separated as an anion-nitrate complex with contact by the anion form of the resin in the column. The resin was washed by 8 M HNO 3 , the 8 M HCl with 0.3 M HNO 3 for removing the other radionuclides. The solution 0.36 M HCl with 0.01 M HF was used for the elution of plutonium. Using the lanthanum fluoride technique the sample was filtrated through a membrane filter. The plutonium was detected in the dry sample. The Pu-239 tracer was used for the evaluation of the plutonium separation efficiency. The alpha spectrometric measurements were carried out with a large area silicon detector. The samples were measured and evaluated in the energy region 4.98-5.18 MeV. The detection limit of alpha spectrometry measurements has been 0.01 Bq dm -3 . The concentration of plutonium in the 24-hour urine was determined three times in the quarter year intervals. The results are: 54 mBq, 63.2 mBq, 53 mBq, with average 56,7 mBq. From the results of the analyses of plutonium depositions calculated according to ICRP 54 the intake of this radionuclide for the patient was 56.7 kBq. To estimate a committed effective dose (50 years) from the intake of plutonium was used a conversion factor 6.8.10 -5 Sv.Bq -1 (class W). So the expressed committed effective dose received from the plutonium intake is 3.8 Sv. This number is relatively high and all the effective dose will be higher, because the patient was exposed to the other radionuclides too. For example the determination of the rate radionuclides Am-241/Pu-239,Pu-240 was 32-36 % in the fallout after the Chernobyl

  19. Double shell tanks plutonium inventory assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusler, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides an evaluation that establishes plutonium inventory estimates for all DSTs based on known tank history information, the DST plutonium inventory tracking system, tank characterization measurements, tank transfer records, and estimated average concentration values for the various types of waste. These estimates use data through December 31, 1994, and give plutonium estimates as of January 1, 1995. The plutonium inventory values for the DSTs are given in Section 31. The plutonium inventory estimate is 224 kg for the DSTs and 854 kg for the SSTs for a total of 1078 kg. This value compares favorably with the total plutonium inventory value of 981 kg obtained from the total plutonium production minus plutonium recovery analysis estimates

  20. Oxidation-state maxima in plutonium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2013-01-01

    Maxima in the fractions of the trivalent and hexavalent oxidation states of plutonium are inherent in the algebra of its disproportionation reactions. The maxima do not support overall disproportionation equations as satisfactory representations of aqueous plutonium. (author)

  1. Recovery studies for plutonium machining oil coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Baldwin, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    Lathe coolant oil, contaminated with plutonium and having a carbon tetrachloride diluent, is generated in plutonium machining areas at Rocky Flats. A research program was initiated to determine the nature of plutonium in this mixture of oil and carbon tetrachloride. Appropriate methods then could be developed to remove the plutonium and to recycle the oil and carbon tetrachloride. Studies showed that the mixtures of spent oil and carbon tetrachloride contained particulate plutonium and plutonium species that are soluble in water or in oil and carbon tetrachloride. The particulate plutonium was removed by filtration; the nonfilterable plutonium was removed by adsorption on various materials. Laboratory-scale tests indicated the lathe-coolant oil mixture could be separated by distilling the carbon tetrachloride to yield recyclable products

  2. Plutonium and americium separation from salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, P.G.; Miner, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Salts or materials containing plutonium and americium are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, heated, and contacted with an alkali metal carbonate solution to precipitate plutonium and americium carbonates which are thereafter readily separable from the solution

  3. Plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 metabolism in dairy cows following ingestion of mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, R.G.; Mullen, A.A.; Sutton, W.W.; Potter, G.D.; Mosley, R.E.; Efurd, D.W.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1985-01-01

    Dairy cows were given oral dosage of plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 dioxide particles in a study to determine the relative gastrointestinal absorption and tissue distribution of the nuclides. Two cows were given particles in which the two isotopes were homogeneously mixed within the particles. A third cow was given two batches of particles which contained either plutonium-238 or plutonium-239. Results indicate that, when the two isotopes of plutonium are homogeneous within the particles, there is no difference between plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 in the relative gastrointestinal absorption and tissue distribution

  4. Plutonium Disposition Now exclamation point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    A means for use of existing processing facilities and reactors for plutonium disposition is described which requires a minimum capital investment and allows rapid implementation. The scenario includes interim storage and processing under IAEA control, and fabrication into MOX fuel in existing or planned facilities in Europe for use in operating reactors in the two home countries. Conceptual studies indicate that existing Westinghouse four-loop designs can safety dispose of 0.94 MT of plutonium per calendar year. Thus, it would be possible to consume the expected US excess stockpile of about 50 MT in two to three units of this type, and it is highly likely that a comparable amount of the FSU excess plutonium could be deposed of in a few VVER-1000's. The only major capital project for this mode of plutonium disposition would be the weapons-grade plutonium processing which could be done in a dedicated international facility or using existing facilities in the US and FSU under IAEA control. This option offers the potential for quick implementation at a very low cost to the governments of the two countries

  5. Fuel cycles using adulterated plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksbank, R.E.; Bigelow, J.E.; Campbell, D.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Lindauer, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Adjustments in the U-Pu fuel cycle necessitated by decisions made to improve the nonproliferation objectives of the US are examined. The uranium-based fuel cycle, using bred plutonium to provide the fissile enrichment, is the fuel system with the highest degree of commercial development at the present time. However, because purified plutonium can be used in weapons, this fuel cycle is potentially vulnerable to diversion of that plutonium. It does appear that there are technologically sound ways in which the plutonium might be adulterated by admixture with 238 U and/or radioisotopes, and maintained in that state throughout the fuel cycle, so that the likelihood of a successful diversion is small. Adulteration of the plutonium in this manner would have relatively little effect on the operations of existing or planned reactors. Studies now in progress should show within a year or two whether the less expensive coprocessing scheme would provide adequate protection (coupled perhaps with elaborate conventional safeguards procedures) or if the more expensive spiked fuel cycle is needed as in the proposed civex pocess. If the latter is the case, it will be further necessary to determine the optimum spiking level, which could vary as much as a factor of a billion. A very basic question hangs on these determinations: What is to be the nature of the recycle fuel fabrication facilities. If the hot, fully remote fuel fabrication is required, then a great deal of further development work will be required to make the full cycle fully commercial

  6. Selecting a plutonium vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouan, A. [Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    1996-05-01

    Vitrification of plutonium is one means of mitigating its potential danger. This option is technically feasible, even if it is not the solution advocated in France. Two situations are possible, depending on whether or not the glass matrix also contains fission products; concentrations of up to 15% should be achievable for plutonium alone, whereas the upper limit is 3% in the presence of fission products. The French continuous vitrification process appears to be particularly suitable for plutonium vitrification: its capacity is compatible with the required throughout, and the compact dimensions of the process equipment prevent a criticality hazard. Preprocessing of plutonium metal, to convert it to PuO{sub 2} or to a nitric acid solution, may prove advantageous or even necessary depending on whether a dry or wet process is adopted. The process may involve a single step (vitrification of Pu or PuO{sub 2} mixed with glass frit) or may include a prior calcination step - notably if the plutonium is to be incorporated into a fission product glass. It is important to weigh the advantages and drawbacks of all the possible options in terms of feasibility, safety and cost-effectiveness.

  7. Plutonium in depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, J.P.; Leon-Vintro, L.; Smith, K.; Mitchell, P.I.; Zunic, Z.S.

    2002-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) penetrators used in the recent Balkan conflicts have been found to be contaminated with trace amounts of transuranic materials such as plutonium. This contamination is usually a consequence of DU fabrication being carried out in facilities also using uranium recycled from spent military and civilian nuclear reactor fuel. Specific activities of 239+240 Plutonium generally in the range 1 to 12 Bq/kg have been found to be present in DU penetrators recovered from the attack sites of the 1999 NATO bombardment of Kosovo. A DU penetrator recovered from a May 1999 attack site at Bratoselce in southern Serbia and analysed by University College Dublin was found to contain 43.7 +/- 1.9 Bq/kg of 239+240 Plutonium. This analysis is described. An account is also given of the general population radiation dose implications arising from both the DU itself and from the presence of plutonium in the penetrators. According to current dosimetric models, in all scenarios considered likely ,the dose from the plutonium is estimated to be much smaller than that due to the uranium isotopes present in the penetrators. (author)

  8. A World made of Plutonium?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1976-01-01

    This lecture by Engelbert Broda was written for the 26th Pugwash Conference in Mühlhausen, Germany, 26 – 31 August 1976: Public doubts about nuclear energy are generally directed at the problems of routine emissions of radionuclides, of catastrophic accidents, and of terminal waste disposal. Curiously, the most important problem is not being given sufficient attention: The use of plutonium from civilian reactors fpr weapons production. According to current ideas about a nuclear future, 5000 tons (order of magnitude) of plutonium are to be made annually by year 2000, and about 10 000 tons will all the time be in circulation (transport, reprocessing, reproduction of fuel elements, etc.). It is a misconception that plutonium from power reactors is unsuitable as a nuclear explosive. 5000 tons are enough for several hundred thousand (!) of bombs, Nagasaki type. By the year 2000 maybe 40 – 50 countries will have home-made plutonium. Plutonium production and proliferation are the most serious problems in a nuclear world. (author)

  9. Plutonium determination by isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, M.

    1980-01-01

    The principle is to add to a known amount of the analysed solution a known amount of a spike solution consisting of plutonium 242. The isotopic composition of the resulting mixture is then determined by surface ionization mass spectrometry, and the plutonium concentration in the solution is deduced, from this measurement. For irradiated fuels neutronic studies or for fissile materials balance measurements, requiring the knowledge of the ratio U/Pu or of concentration both uranium and plutonium, it is better to use the double spike isotope dilution method, with a spike solution of known 233 U- 242 Pu ratio. Using this method, the ratio of uranium to plutonium concentration in the irradiated fuel solution can be determined without any accurate measurement of the mixed amounts of sample and spike solutions. For fissile material balance measurements, the uranium concentration is determined by using single isotope dilution, and the plutonium concentration is deduced from the ratio Pu/U and U concentration. The main advantages of isotope dilution are its selectivity, accuracy and very high sensitivity. The recent improvements made to surface ionization mass spectrometers have considerably increased the precision of the measurements; a relative precision of about 0.2% to 0.3% is obtained currently, but it could be reduced to 0.1%, in the future, with a careful control of the experimental procedures. The detection limite is around 0.1 ppb [fr

  10. Production of Plutonium Metal from Aqueous Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, D.A.

    2003-01-16

    The primary separation of plutonium from irradiated uranium by the Purex solvent extraction process at the Savannah River Plant produces a dilute plutonium solution containing residual fission products and uranium. A cation exchange process is used for concentration and further decontamination of the plutonium, as the first step in the final preparation of metal. This paper discusses the production of plutonium metal from the aqueous solutions.

  11. Plutonium Proliferation: The Achilles Heel of Disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Plutonium is a byproduct of nuclear fission, and it is produced at the rate of about 70 metric tons a year in the world's nuclear power reactors. Concerns about civilian plutonium ran high in the 1970s and prompted enactment of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 to give the United States a veto over separating plutonium from U.S.-supplied uranium fuel. Over the years, however, so-called reactor-grade plutonium has become the orphan issue of nuclear non-proliferation, largely as a consequence of pressures from plutonium-separating countries. The demise of the fast breeder reactor and the reluctance of utilities to introduce plutonium fuel in light-water reactors have resulted in large surpluses of civilian, weapons-usable plutonium, which now approach in size the 250 tons of military plutonium in the world. Yet reprocessing of spent fuel for recovery and use of plutonium proceeds apace outside the United States and threatens to overwhelm safeguards and security measures for keeping this material out of the hands of nations and terrorists for weapons. A number of historical and current developments are reviewed to demonstrate that plutonium commerce is undercutting efforts both to stop the spread of nuclear weapons and to work toward eliminating existing nuclear arsenals. These developments include the breakdown of U.S. anti-plutonium policy, the production of nuclear weapons by India with Atoms-for-Peace plutonium, the U.S.-Russian plan to introduce excess military plutonium as fuel in civilian power reactors, the failure to include civilian plutonium and bomb-grade uranium in the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty, and the perception of emerging proliferation threats as the rationale for development of a ballistic missile defense system. Finally, immobilization of separated plutonium in high-level waste is explored as a proliferation-resistant and disarmament-friendly solution for eliminating excess stocks of civilian and military plutonium.

  12. X-ray photoemission study of plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptist, R.

    1982-01-01

    The x-ray induced photoemission from clean pure plutonium metal is described and the results for both core and valence levels are compared with previous measurements on light actinides. It is found that, as in thorium and urnaium, the configuration interaction plays an important role for core levels, in particular for those of the n=5 shell. The experimental valence-band spectrum confirms the existence of 5f states at the Fermi level and is compared with a density of states of FCC Pu derived from a recent relativistic band structure calculation. (author)

  13. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  14. Civil plutonium amounts in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, G.

    1994-01-01

    The experience of plutonium reprocessing in water reactors is positive and today the use of this nuclear fuel is at industrial level. Plutonium quantities in spent fuel go on increasing, plutonium stock coming from reprocessing can be controlled: according to conjuncture, it will evolve by stabilization or decreasing at the beginning of next century

  15. The use of calorimetry for plutonium assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.A.

    1982-12-01

    Calorimetry is a technique for measuring the thermal power of heat-producing substances. The technique may be applied to the measurement of plutonium-bearing materials which evolve heat as a result of alpha and beta decay. A calorimetric measurement of the thermal power of a plutonium sample, combined with a knowledge or measurement of the plutonium isotopic mass ratios of the sample provides a convenient and accurate, non-destructive measure of the total plutonium mass of the sample. The present report provides a description, and an assessment of the calorimetry technique applied to the assay of plutonium-bearing materials. Types and characteristics of plutonium calorimeters are considered, as well as calibration and operating procedures. The instrumentation used with plutonium calorimeters is described and the use of computer control for calorimeter automation is discussed. A critical review and assessment of plutonium calorimetry literature since 1970 is presented. Both fuel element and plutonium-bearing material calorimeters are considered. The different types of plutonium calorimeters are evaluated and their relative merits are discussed. A combined calorimeter and gamma-ray measurement assay system is considered. The design principles of plutonium assay calorimeters are considered. An automatic, computer-based calorimeter control system is proposed in conjunction with a general plutonium assay calorimeter design. (author)

  16. Tabulated Neutron Emission Rates for Plutonium Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shores, Erik Frederick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-24

    This work tabulates neutron emission rates for 80 plutonium oxide samples as reported in the literature. Plutonium-­238 and plutonium-­239 oxides are included and such emission rates are useful for scaling tallies from Monte Carlo simulations and estimating dose rates for health physics applications.

  17. Preventing pollution from plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1993-01-01

    The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste materials, such as spent acids and salts, are technical possibilities and are being pursued to accomplish additional waste reduction. Liquid waste stream polishing to remove final traces of plutonium and hazardous chemical constituents is accomplished through (a) process modifications, (b) use of alternative chemicals and sorbents for residue removal, (c) acid recycling, and (d) judicious use of a variety of waste polishing technologies. Technologies that show promise in waste minimization and pollution prevention are identified. Working toward this goal of pollution prevention is a worthwhile endeavor, not only for Los Alamos, but for the Nuclear Complex of the future

  18. Technological alternatives for plutonium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    This paper discusses the problems of large long term storage since stores at fabrication plants may depend on the form of plutonium ultimately chosen for transport. The paper's conclusion includes: MOX can be regarded as more proliferation resistant than PUO 2 but no experience of long term storage is available, therefore further R and D is required; co-location of the store with reprocessing plants (and fuel fabrication plant) would appear to have advantages in non-proliferation, safeguards implementation, environmental protection and economic aspects; there are strong non-proliferation and security arguments for not moving plutonium away from the site where it was separated until there is an identifiable and scheduled end use. The design of the store, the form in which plutonium should be stored, particularly as MOX, and the costs and further R and D required are considered. The possible location of stores is also discussed and institutional questions briefly considered

  19. Plutonium and U-233 mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milgram, M.S.

    1983-08-01

    A comparison is made among second generation reactor systems fuelled primarily with fissile plutonium and/or U-233 in uranium or thorium. This material is obtained from irradiated fuel from first generation CANDU reactors fuelled by natural or enriched uranium and thorium. Except for plutonium-thorium reactors, second generation reactors demand similar amounts of reprocessing throughput, but the most efficient plutonium burning systems require a large prior allocation of uranium. Second generation reactors fuelled by U-233 make more efficient use of resources and lead to more flexible fuelling strategies, but require development of first generation once-through thorium cycles and early demonstration of the commercial viability of thorium fuel reprocessing. No early implementation of reprocessing technology is required for these cycles

  20. Political influences in plutonium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patak, H.N.

    1982-01-01

    The history of plutonium safeguards is one of political error and misunderstandings, as well as a lack of technical knowledge. Although there was widespread support for preventing the proliferation of nuclear explosives, with over 100 nations signing the Nonproliferation Treaty of 1969, India's 1974 nuclear test brought renewed political activity to prevent another such occurrence. Opposition has been directed only at how to pursue this goal, but the status of four major experiments aimed at minimizing weapons proliferation is one of failure, intensified by a weakening of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). If the link between plutonium power and weapons production can be broken through on-site reprocessing, the situation could improve. One course would be for the nuclear power industry to adopt its own system for safe guarding plutonium

  1. Plutonium and latent nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quester, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    A country producing nuclear electric power acquires an ability to produce atomic bombs quite easily and without taking many steps beyond that which would be perfectly normal for civilian purposes. The role of plutonium in the three fold list of the gains that must be sought in arms control formulated by Schelling and Halpevin are discussed. On the first, that we should seek to reduce the likelihood of war, it can be argued that plutonium reduces the likelihood in some cases. The second, that we should seek to reduce the destruction in war, is made worse by plutonium. On the third criterion, that we should seek to reduce the burdens in peacetime of everyone's being prepared for war, the situation is confusing and depends on the prospects for nuclear electrical power. It is concluded that latent capability to produce nuclear weapons may be sufficient without the need for actual detonations and deployment of bombs. (UK)

  2. Plutonium accident resistant container project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1978-09-01

    The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission). This PAT-1 (plutonium air transportable) package survives a very severe sequential test program of impact, crush, puncture, slash, burn, and water immersion. There is also an individual hydrostatic pressure test. The package has a payload mass capacity of 2 kg of PuO 2 and a thermal capacity of 25 watts. The design rationale for very high energy absorption (impact, crush, puncture, and slash protection) with residual high-level fire protection, resulted in a reasonably small air-transportable package, advancing the packaging state-of-art. Optimization design iterations were utilized in the areas of impact energy absorption and stress and thermal analysis. Package test results are presented in relation to radioactive materials containment acceptance criteria, shielding and criticality standards

  3. Plutonium accident resistant container project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1978-05-01

    The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC. This PAT-1 (plutonium air transportable) package survives a very severe sequential test program of impact, crush, puncture, slash, burn, and water immersion. There is also an individual hydrostatic pressure test. The package has a payload mass capacity of 2 kg of PuO2 and a thermal capacity of 25 watts. The design rationale for very high energy absorption (impact, crush, puncture, and slash protection) with residual high-level fire protection, resulted in a reasonalby small air-transportable package, advancing the packaging state-of-art. Optimization design iterations were utilized in the areas of impact energy absorption and stress and thermal analysis. Package test results are presented in relation to radioactive materials containment acceptance criteria, shielding and criticality standards

  4. Shielding calculational system for plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, M.G.; Thomsen, D.H.

    1975-08-01

    A computer calculational system has been developed and assembled specifically for calculating dose rates in AEC plutonium fabrication facilities. The system consists of two computer codes and all nuclear data necessary for calculation of neutron and gamma dose rates from plutonium. The codes include the multigroup version of the Battelle Monte Carlo code for solution of general neutron and gamma shielding problems and the PUSHLD code for solution of shielding problems where low energy gamma and x-rays are important. The nuclear data consists of built in neutron and gamma yields and spectra for various plutonium compounds, an automatic calculation of age effects and all cross-sections commonly used. Experimental correlations have been performed to verify portions of the calculational system. (23 tables, 7 figs, 16 refs) (U.S.)

  5. Preventing pollution from plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1995-01-01

    The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste materials, such as spent acids and salts, are technical possibilities and are being pursued to accomplish additional waste reduction. Liquid waste stream polishing to remove final traces of plutonium and hazardous chemical constituents is accomplished through process modifications, use of alternative chemicals and sorbents for residue removal, acid recycling, and judicious use of a variety of waste polishing technologies. Technologies that show promise in waste minimization and pollution prevention are identified. Working toward this goal of pollution prevention is a worthwhile endeavor , not only for Los Alamos, but for the Nuclear Complex of the future. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs

  6. Safeguarding the Plutonium Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.J.; Lockwood, D.

    2013-01-01

    In developing a Safeguards Approach for a plutonium process facility, two general diversion and misuse scenarios must be addressed: 1) Unreported batches of undeclared nuclear material being processed through the plant and bypassing the accountancy measurement points, and 2) The operator removing plutonium at a rate that cannot be detected with confidence due to measurement uncertainties. This paper will look at the implementation of international safeguards at plutonium fuel cycle facilities in light of past lessons learned and current safeguards approaches. It will then discuss technical areas which are currently being addressed as future tools to improve on the efficiency of safeguards implementation, while maintaining its effectiveness. The discussion of new improvements will include: safeguards by design (SBD), process monitoring (PM), measurement and monitoring equipment, and data management. The paper is illustrated with the implementation of international safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant in Japan and its accountancy structure is detailed. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  7. Nukem's plutonium hitches a ride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The European repercussions of a scandal involving the illegal movement of plutonium and cobalt 60 in canisters in which it was claimed there was only low-level radioactive waste, from West Germany to the reprocessing centre at Mol, Belgium are considered. Large bribes were paid to employees of the nuclear industry and government inspectors to allow this illicit transport to carry on over a number of years. It is not yet clear where the plutonium came from or where it was going. The suggestion that it may have been sold to Libya or Pakistan for nuclear weapons is very damaging to the nuclear safety argument. Even if the plutonium was being disposed of because it could not be accounted for, the safeguard procedures do not give confidence to the European public more aware of nuclear safety than ever. (UK)

  8. Plutonium-238 Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Mike; Lechel, David J.; Leigh, C.D.

    1999-01-01

    Five transuranic (TRU) waste sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, collectively, have more than 2,100 cubic meters of Plutonium-238 (Pu-238) TRU waste that exceed the wattage restrictions of the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-11). The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being developed by the DOE as a repository for TRU waste. With the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) opening in 1999, these sites are faced with a need to develop waste management practices that will enable the transportation of Pu-238 TRU waste to WIPP for disposal. This paper describes a decision analysis that provided a logical framework for addressing the Pu-238 TRU waste issue. The insights that can be gained by performing a formalized decision analysis are multifold. First and foremost, the very process. of formulating a decision tree forces the decision maker into structured, logical thinking where alternatives can be evaluated one against the other using a uniform set of criteria. In the process of developing the decision tree for transportation of Pu-238 TRU waste, several alternatives were eliminated and the logical order for decision making was discovered. Moreover, the key areas of uncertainty for proposed alternatives were identified and quantified. The decision analysis showed that the DOE can employ a combination approach where they will (1) use headspace gas analyses to show that a fraction of the Pu-238 TRU waste drums are no longer generating hydrogen gas and can be shipped to WIPP ''as-is'', (2) use drums and bags with advanced filter systems to repackage Pu-238 TRU waste drums that are still generating hydrogen, and (3) add hydrogen getter materials to the inner containment vessel of the TRUPACT-11to relieve the build-up of hydrogen gas during transportation of the Pu-238 TRU waste drums

  9. Plutonium in a grassland ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    This study was concerned with plutonium contamination of grassland at the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration Rocky Flats plant northwest of Denver, Colorado. Of interest were: the definition of major plutonium-containing ecosystem compartments; the relative amounts in those compartments; how those values related to studies done in other geogrphical areas; whether or not the predominant isotopes, 238 Pu and 239 Pu, behaved differently; and what mechanisms might have allowed for the observed patterns of contamination. Samples of soil, litter, vegetation, arthropods, and small mammals were collected for plutonium analysis and mass determination from each of two macroplots. Small aliquots (5 g or less) were analyzed by a rapid liquid scintillation technique and by alpha spectrometry. Of the compartments sampled, greater than 99% of the total plutonium was contained in the soil. The concentrations of plutonium in soil were significantly inversely correlated with distance from the contamination source, depth of the sample, and particle size of the sieved soil samples. The soil data suggested that the distribution of contamination largely resulted from physical transport processes. A mechanism of agglomerated submicron plutonium oxide particles and larger (1-500 μm) host soil particles was proposed. Concentrations of Pu in litter and vegetation were inversely correlated to distance from the source and directly correlated to soil concentrations at the same location. Comparatively high concentration ratios of vegetation to soil suggested wind resuspension of contamination as an important transport mechanism. Arthropod and small mammal samples were highly skewed, kurtotic, and quite variable, having coefficients of variation (standard deviation/mean) as high as 600%. Bone Pu concentrations were lower than other tissues. Hide, GI, and lung were generally not higher in Pu than kidney, liver and muscle

  10. Inferring spatial clouds statistics from limited field-of-view, zenith observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, C.H.; Thorne, L.R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Many of the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) measurements produce a time series of zenith observations, but spatial averages are often the desired data product. One possible approach to deriving spatial averages from temporal averages is to invoke Taylor`s hypothesis where and when it is valid. Taylor`s hypothesis states that when the turbulence is small compared with the mean flow, the covariance in time is related to the covariance in space by the speed of the mean flow. For clouds fields, Taylor`s hypothesis would apply when the {open_quotes}local{close_quotes} turbulence is small compared with advective flow (mean wind). The objective of this study is to determine under what conditions Taylor`s hypothesis holds or does not hold true for broken cloud fields.

  11. Beam-splitter switches based on zenithal bistable liquid-crystal gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zografopoulos, Dimitrios C; Beccherelli, Romeo; Kriezis, Emmanouil E

    2014-10-01

    The tunable optical diffractive properties of zenithal bistable nematic liquid-crystal gratings are theoretically investigated. The liquid-crystal orientation is rigorously solved via a tensorial formulation of the Landau-de Gennes theory and the optical transmission properties of the gratings are investigated via full-wave finite-element frequency-domain simulations. It is demonstrated that by proper design the two stable states of the grating can provide nondiffracting and diffracting operation, the latter with equal power splitting among different diffraction orders. An electro-optic switching mechanism, based on dual-frequency nematic materials, and its temporal dynamics are further discussed. Such gratings provide a solution towards tunable beam-steering and beam-splitting components with extremely low power consumption.

  12. Order reconstruction phenomena and temperature-driven dynamics in a 3D zenithally bistable device

    KAUST Repository

    Raisch, A.

    2014-07-01

    We model the zenithally bistable device (ZBD) in three dimensions (3D), within the Landau-de Gennes theory, and find three stable static states in 3D without an applied field: the vertically aligned nematic (VAN) state, the hybrid aligned nematic (HAN) state and a third, high-tilt state, which we call the THAN state, with an interior and a surface defect. We recover the order reconstruction (OR) phenomenon around the defects in the HAN and THAN states and the 3D THAN and HAN solutions exhibit stable biaxial cylinders connecting defects on opposite faces of the ZBD device. We demonstrate a two-way temperature-driven switching between high-tilt and low-tilt states through controlled heating and cooling procedures in two dimensions (2D), with no applied fields. © CopyrightEPLA, 2014.

  13. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material

  14. Long time contamination from plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fueloep, M; Patzeltova, N; Ragan, P [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia); Matel, L [Comenius Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Department of Nuclear Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    Plutonium isotopes in the organism of the patient (who had participated in the liquidation works after the Chernobyl accident; for three month he had stayed in the epicenter, where he acted as a chauffeur driving a radioactive material to the place of destination) from urine were determined. For determination of the concentration of Pu-239, Pu-240 in urine a modified radiochemical method was used. After mineralization the sample was separated as an anion-nitrate complex with contact by the anion form of the resin in the column. The resin was washed by 8 M HNO{sub 3}, the 8 M HCl with 0.3 M HNO{sub 3} for removing the other radionuclides. The solution 0.36 M HCl with 0.01 M HF was used for the elution of plutonium. Using the lanthanum fluoride technique the sample was filtrated through a membrane filter. The plutonium was detected in the dry sample. The Pu-239 tracer was used for the evaluation of the plutonium separation efficiency. The alpha spectrometric measurements were carried out with a large area silicon detector. The samples were measured and evaluated in the energy region 4.98-5.18 MeV. The detection limit of alpha spectrometry measurements has been 0.01 Bq dm{sup -3}. The concentration of plutonium in the 24-hour urine was determined three times in the quarter year intervals. The results are: 54 mBq, 63.2 mBq, 53 mBq, with average 56,7 mBq. From the results of the analyses of plutonium depositions calculated according to ICRP 54 the intake of this radionuclide for the patient was 56.7 kBq. To estimate a committed effective dose (50 years) from the intake of plutonium was used a conversion factor 6.8.10{sup -5} Sv.Bq{sup -1} (class W). So the expressed committed effective dose received from the plutonium intake is 3.8 Sv. This number is relatively high and all the effective dose will be higher, because the patient was exposed to the other radionuclides too. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. Retrieving Precipitable Water Vapor Data Using GPS Zenith Delays and Global Reanalysis Data in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available GPS has become a very effective tool to remotely sense precipitable water vapor (PWV information, which is important for weather forecasting and nowcasting. The number of geodetic GNSS stations set up in China has substantially increased over the last few decades. However, GPS PWV derivation requires surface pressure to calculate the precise zenith hydrostatic delay and weighted mean temperature to map the zenith wet delay to precipitable water vapor. GPS stations without collocated meteorological sensors can retrieve water vapor using standard atmosphere parameters, which lead to a decrease in accuracy. In this paper, a method of interpolating NWP reanalysis data to site locations for generating corresponding meteorological elements is explored over China. The NCEP FNL dataset provided by the NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction and over 600 observed stations from different sources was selected to assess the quality of the results. A one-year experiment was performed in our study. The types of stations selected include meteorological sites, GPS stations, radio sounding stations, and a sun photometer station. Compared with real surface measurements, the accuracy of the interpolated surface pressure and air temperature both meet the requirements of GPS PWV derivation in most areas; however, the interpolated surface air temperature exhibits lower precision than the interpolated surface pressure. At more than 96% of selected stations, PWV differences caused by the differences between the interpolation results and real measurements were less than 1.0 mm. Our study also indicates that relief amplitude exerts great influence on the accuracy of the interpolation approach. Unsatisfactory interpolation results always occurred in areas of strong relief. GPS PWV data generated from interpolated meteorological parameters are consistent with other PWV products (radio soundings, the NWP reanalysis dataset, and sun photometer PWV data. The

  16. PERANCANGAN SISTEM PEMESANAN BARANG BERBASIS WEB DI TOKO ZENITH KOMPUTER DI PEKANBARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fery Wongso Johan Wyanaputra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak : Sistem Informasi Pemesananberbasis web merupakan bagian dari sistem informasi pemasaran yang dikembangkan untuk mengumpulkan, mengolah data sehingga data tersebut dapat dilihat kembali untuk disalurkan sebagai suatu informasi yang berguna. Wujud dari pengembangan Sistem Informasi Pemesananberbasis web ini adalah pembuatan aplikasi Komputer yang mampu mewakili sistem informasi yang dirancang secara keseluruhan.Aplikasi Sistem Informasi pemesanan yang dihasilkan mampu mengelola data pemesanan secara terorgasisasi, serta menghasilkan laporan yang lengkap, akurat dan selalu aktual untuk setiap tingkatan manajemen. Perancangan sistemnya menggunakan PHP (Personal Home Page dan rancangan databasenya menggunakan Xamp Server. Hasil dari perancangan aplikasi Sistem Informasi Pemesananberbasis web menunjukkan bahwa peranan aplikasi Komputer dalam sistem informasi sangat penting sebagai penunjang dalam meningkatkan kualitas kegiatan Pemesanan dan pelayanan di lingkungan toko Zenith Komputer. Abstract: Information Systems is a web Pemesananberbasis Part Of The Marketing Information System was developed to review collect, process the data so that the data can be Seen Back to review the information supplied as a useful thing. From the form of development of Information Systems web Pemesananberbasis Singer Was Able Computer Application Development Information System Designed represent keseluruhan.Aplikasi Operating System Generated Ordering Information Ability to Manage Booking Data Operating terorgasisasi, as well as generate reports The complete, Accurate And Always Currents for EVERY level management review, The design of the system using PHP (Personal Home Page and database design using XAMP Server. Results From designing web applications Pemesananberbasis Information System showed that Role of Information Systems Computer Application hearts hearts Sangat as supporting activities improving QUALITY Booking And Environmental Services at Zenith

  17. Determination of plutonium-238 in plutonium by alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Jain, H.C.; Mathews, C.K.; Ramaniah, M.V.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of 238 Pu in plutonium samples by alpha spectrometry. Various factors attributing towards the energy degradation, a problem usually encountered in alpha spectrometry, are discussed. A computer programme is given for the evaluation of peak areas when the alpha spectrum is degraded. The results are compared with those obtained by mass spectrometry. (author)

  18. Fuel Cycle Impacts of Uranium-Plutonium Co-extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taiwo, Temitope; Szakaly, Frank; Kim, Taek-Kyum; Hill, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the impacts of uranium and plutonium co-extraction during fuel separations on reactor performance and fuel cycle has been performed. Proliferation indicators, critical mass and radiation source levels of the separation products or fabricated fuel, were also evaluated. Using LWR-spent-uranium-based MOX fuel instead of natural-uranium-based fuel in a PWR MOX core requires a higher initial plutonium content (∼1%), and results in higher Np-237 content (factor of 5) in the spent fuel, and less consumption of Pu-238 (20%) and Am-241 (14%), indicating a reduction in the effective repository space utilization. Additionally, minor actinides continue to accumulate in the fuel cycle, and thus a separate solution is required for them. Differences were found to be quite smaller (∼0.4% in initial transuranics) between the equilibrium cycles of advanced fast reactor cores using spent and depleted uranium for make-up, in additional to transuranics. The critical masses of the co-extraction products were found to be higher than for weapons-grade plutonium (WG-Pu) and the decay heat and radiation sources of the materials (products) were also found to be generally higher than for WG-Pu in the transuranics content range of 10% to 100% in the heavy-metal. (authors)

  19. Different possible scenarios for plutonium recycling in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grouiller, J.P.; Doriath, J.Y.; Vasile, A.; Zaetta, A.; Guillet, J.L.; Greneche, D.

    2001-01-01

    Stabilisation of the Pu inventory in the electronuclear fleet (cycle reactors and facilities) is achieved through multi-recycling which can be carried out in current PWR through rod design or standard assembly composition modifications. The aim of this paper is to present the range of technical solutions which may be envisioned in current PWRs from a strictly physical point of view. It aims to give a preview of scientific feasibility of the various options bearing in mind that technological feasibility and, to an even greater extent, economic assessment would be premature at this moment and that industrialists would be responsible for this. Currently once through cycling of Plutonium is carried out in pressurised water reactors (PWR) in a MOX assembly partially loaded core. These current reactors (900 MW), initially licensed to use Uranium enriched UOX fuel, were therefore slightly adapted to accept plutonium. For a more efficient and less limiting use of plutonium in a PWR several fuel concepts are currently being examined. The objective of these innovative fuel concepts is to facilitate core management in a Pu multi-recycling strategy, to increase fuel burn up performances, keeping safety margins which has to be the same of to current UOX fuel loaded PWR reactors. (author)

  20. Plutonium Speciation, Solubilization and Migration in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, M.; Runde, W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes research completed in the first half of a three-year project. As outlined in the authors' proposal they are focusing on (1) characterizing the plutonium at an actinide contaminated site, RFETS, including determining the origin, dispersion, and speciation of the plutonium, (2) studying environmentally important plutonium complexes, primarily hydroxides and carbonates, and (3) examining the interactions of plutonium species with manganese minerals. In the first year the authors focused on site based studies. This year they continue to characterize samples from the RFETS, study the formation and structural and spectroscopic features of environmentally relevant Pu species, and begin modeling the environmental behavior of plutonium

  1. Plutonium recovery from carbonate wash solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.; Reif, D.J.; Chostner, D.F.; Holcomb, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    540Periodically higher than expected levels of plutonium are found in carbonate solutions used to wash second plutonium cycle solvent. The recent accumulation of plutonium in carbonate wash solutions has led to studies to determine the cause of that plutonium accumulation, to evaluate the quality of all canyon solvents, and to develop additional criteria needed to establish when solvent quality is acceptable. Solvent from three canyon solvent extraction cycles was used to evaluate technology required to measure tributyl phosphate (TBP) degradation products and was used to evaluate solvent quality criteria during the development of plutonium recovery processes. 1 fig

  2. Plutonium inventories for stabilization and stabilized materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.K.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of the breakout session was to identify characteristics of materials containing plutonium, the need to stabilize these materials for storage, and plans to accomplish the stabilization activities. All current stabilization activities are driven by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1 (May 26, 1994) and by the recently completed Plutonium ES&H Vulnerability Assessment (DOE-EH-0415). The Implementation Plan for accomplishing stabilization of plutonium-bearing residues in response to the Recommendation and the Assessment was published by DOE on February 28, 1995. This Implementation Plan (IP) commits to stabilizing problem materials within 3 years, and stabilizing all other materials within 8 years. The IP identifies approximately 20 metric tons of plutonium requiring stabilization and/or repackaging. A further breakdown shows this material to consist of 8.5 metric tons of plutonium metal and alloys, 5.5 metric tons of plutonium as oxide, and 6 metric tons of plutonium as residues. Stabilization of the metal and oxide categories containing greater than 50 weight percent plutonium is covered by DOE Standard {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides{close_quotes} December, 1994 (DOE-STD-3013-94). This standard establishes criteria for safe storage of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides for up to 50 years. Each of the DOE sites and contractors with large plutonium inventories has either started or is preparing to start stabilization activities to meet these criteria.

  3. Burning weapons-grade plutonium in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.F.

    1993-06-01

    As a result of massive reductions in deployed nuclear warheads, and their subsequent dismantlement, large quantities of surplus weapons- grade plutonium will be stored until its ultimate disposition is achieved in both the US and Russia. Ultimate disposition has the following minimum requirements: (1) preclude return of plutonium to the US and Russian stockpiles, (2) prevent environmental damage by precluding release of plutonium contamination, and (3) prevent proliferation by precluding plutonium diversion to sub-national groups or nonweapons states. The most efficient and effective way to dispose of surplus weapons-grade plutonium is to fabricate it into fuel and use it for generation of electrical energy in commercial nuclear power plants. Weapons-grade plutonium can be used as fuel in existing commercial nuclear power plants, such as those in the US and Russia. This recovers energy and economic value from weapons-grade plutonium, which otherwise represents a large cost liability to maintain in safeguarded and secure storage. The plutonium remaining in spent MOX fuel is reactor-grade, essentially the same as that being discharged in spent UO 2 fuels. MOX fuels are well developed and are currently used in a number of LWRs in Europe. Plutonium-bearing fuels without uranium (non-fertile fuels) would require some development. However, such non-fertile fuels are attractive from a nonproliferation perspective because they avoid the insitu production of additional plutonium and enhance the annihilation of the plutonium inventory on a once-through fuel cycle

  4. Characterizing the zenithal night sky brightness in large territories: how many samples per square kilometre are needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bará, Salvador

    2018-01-01

    A recurring question arises when trying to characterize, by means of measurements or theoretical calculations, the zenithal night sky brightness throughout a large territory: how many samples per square kilometre are needed? The optimum sampling distance should allow reconstructing, with sufficient accuracy, the continuous zenithal brightness map across the whole region, whilst at the same time avoiding unnecessary and redundant oversampling. This paper attempts to provide some tentative answers to this issue, using two complementary tools: the luminance structure function and the Nyquist-Shannon spatial sampling theorem. The analysis of several regions of the world, based on the data from the New world atlas of artificial night sky brightness, suggests that, as a rule of thumb, about one measurement per square kilometre could be sufficient for determining the zenithal night sky brightness of artificial origin at any point in a region to within ±0.1 magV arcsec-2 (in the root-mean-square sense) of its true value in the Johnson-Cousins V band. The exact reconstruction of the zenithal night sky brightness maps from samples taken at the Nyquist rate seems to be considerably more demanding.

  5. A CAD-CAM prosthodontic option and gingival zenith position for a rotated maxillary right central incisor: An evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Singhal

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Digital imaging provides an immediate treatment option for the patients. Software also provides an interim aid, for the clinician as well as technician, in the form of two-dimensional photographs. CAD-CAM is entirely a helping instrument against the conservative prosthetic options and gingival zenith position for a rotated central incisor. It helps in patient education and in motivation.

  6. Physics studies of weapons plutonium disposition in the Integral Fast Reactor closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.; Wade, D.C.; Liaw, J.R.; Fujita, E.K.

    1995-01-01

    The core performance impact of weapons plutonium introduction into the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) closed fuel cycle is investigated by comparing three disposition scenarios: a power production mode, a moderate destruction mode, and a maximum destruction mode, all at a constant heat rating of 840 MW(thermal). For each scenario, two fuel cycle models are evaluated: cores using weapons material as the sole source of transuranics in a once-through mode and recycle cores using weapons material only as required for a makeup feed. In addition, the impact of alternative feeds (recycled light water reactor or liquid-metal reactor transuranics) on burner core performance is assessed. Calculated results include mass flows, detailed isotopic distributions, neutronic performance characteristics, and reactivity feedback coefficients. In general, it is shown that weapons plutonium does not have an adverse effect on IFR core performance characteristics; also, favorable performance can be maintained for a wide variety of feed materials and fuel cycle strategies

  7. Disposition of plutonium from dismantled warheads: Belgonucleaire's proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, D.; Vanderborck, Y.; Vandenberg, C.; Vliet, J. van

    1996-01-01

    Set up in 1957 by Union Miniere, Belgonucleaire (BN) has been working since its origin in the field of plutonium and has accumulated extensive experience in the design and fabrication of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, as well as in the fuel management and licensing of MOX cores for fast breeder reactors (FBRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and boiling water reactors (BWRs). Although BN's MOX plant first went into operation in 1973 (it was used for FBRs and light water reactor (LWR) demonstration fuel fabrication), industrial production started in 1986. The MOX fuel produced (280 t heavy metal (HM) until the end of 1995) has been loaded in PWRs and BWRs in four countries in Europe: France, Germany, Switzerland, and Belgium. They propose the development of MOX plants as the means for disposal of plutonium from warhead disassembly

  8. The first weighing of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-09-10

    The following text, transcribed from the remarks of those scientists who gathered at the University of Chicago on September 10, 1967, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the first weighing of plutonium, tells an important part of the story of this fascinating new element that is destined to play an increasingly significant role in the future of man.

  9. Spectrographic analysis of plutonium (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, J.; Chaput, M.; Robichet, J.

    1960-01-01

    Various possibilities for the spectrographic determination of impurities in plutonium are considered. The application of the 'copper spark' method, of sparking on graphite and of fractional distillation in the arc are described and discussed in some detail (apparatus, accessories, results obtained). (author) [fr

  10. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800 degree C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800 degrees C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density

  11. The first weighing of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The following text, transcribed from the remarks of those scientists who gathered at the University of Chicago on September 10, 1967, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the first weighing of plutonium, tells an important part of the story of this fascinating new element that is destined to play an increasingly significant role in the future of man

  12. Safe disposal of surplus plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W. L.; Naz, S.; Lutze, W.; Busch, R.; Prinja, A.; Stoll, W.

    2001-06-01

    About 150 tons of weapons grade and weapons usable plutonium (metal, oxide, and in residues) have been declared surplus in the USA and Russia. Both countries plan to convert the metal and oxide into mixed oxide fuel for nuclear power reactors. Russia has not yet decided what to do with the residues. The US will convert residues into a ceramic, which will then be over-poured with highly radioactive borosilicate glass. The radioactive glass is meant to provide a deterrent to recovery of plutonium, as required by a US standard. Here we show a waste form for plutonium residues, zirconia/boron carbide (ZrO 2/B 4C), with an unprecedented combination of properties: a single, radiation-resistant, and chemically durable phase contains the residues; billion-year-old natural analogs are available; and criticality safety is given under all conceivable disposal conditions. ZrO 2/B 4C can be disposed of directly, without further processing, making it attractive to all countries facing the task of plutonium disposal. The US standard for protection against recovery can be met by disposal of the waste form together with used reactor fuel.

  13. Design of plutonium processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbyshire, W.; Sills, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Five considerations for the design of plutonium processing facilities are identified. These are: Toxicity, Radiation, Criticality, Containment and Remote Operation. They are examined with reference to reprocessing spent nuclear fuel and application is detailed both for liquid and dry processes. (author)

  14. On plutonium, journalism and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.

    1994-01-01

    This editorial comments on the furore resulting from three lay articles published by E. Welsome in the Albuquerque Tribune for 15 November 1993, concerning the injection of plutonium into humans in the 1940s, and discusses the ethics of administration of radioactive materials with and without informed consent. (Author)

  15. Some investigations into the behaviour of plutonium in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, J.A.; Jefferies, D.F.; Lovett, M.B.

    1975-01-01

    Plutonium and other transuranic elements are produced during the operation of magnox reactors, although they do not usually present any problems of waste management until the fuel reaches the reprocessing stage. At this stage one of the chief aims is to separate and recover the plutonium from the depleted uranium and the fission products, the incentive being the value of plutonium itself as a nuclear fuel particularly for the fast breeder reactors. For this reason the amounts of plutonium appearing in the low activity waste streams for discharge to the environment are usually small, and their radiological impact insignificant compared with that of the more abundant fission products. However, with the prospect of use of large quantities of plutonium in the fast reactors, considerable interest surrounds all aspects of the properties of plutonium, and in an attempt to give a fuller understanding of the behaviour of plutonium in the marine environment use has been made of the small amounts which have been discharged in recent years to the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale in Cumbria. Details of the amounts of 239 Pu and 240 Pu discharged to sea are given and the resultant measured concentrations of the isotopes in the water throughout the Irish Sea are shown. The distribution of plutonium in sea water is shown to follow the same basic pattern as the fission products, details of which have been reported previously. By comparing the concentration gradients with distance from the point of discharge for plutonium and caesium, a value for the rate of loss of plutonium from the water to the other important compartment, namely the sediment, has been deduced. Measurements have been made of 239 Pu and 240 Pu in seabed and estuarine sediments and by combining these with the water data values of the concentration factor for the nuclide in sediment have been calculated. The results of a number of core samples have been used to calculate an

  16. Uranium, plutonium and co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerbrey, Roland; Joehnk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    To date there is no repository facility for highly radioactive and heat-generating waste in Germany. This politically ''hot'' topic is undeniably a very big, urgent problem in our society. The Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers is dedicated to developing scientific solutions for such issues. It looks back on 20 years of history: In 1995 the loosely organized collective bearing the name ''Working Association of Large-Scale Research Institutes'' (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Grossforschungseinrichtungen) became an association of now 18 research centers. These centers collectively work in a total of six research areas. While the HZDR has only belonged to the largest research association in Germany since 2011, repository research was already on the agenda way back when the Rossendorf research center established itself in 1992 after the fall of the Berlin Wall. A good enough reason to examine the results from about 20 years of repository research in Dresden in more detail. In this issue of ''discovered'' we will take an inside look at radiochemical, radiogeological, and microbiological labs, look over the shoulders of researchers using the ''Rossendorf Beamline'' at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, and descend hundreds of meters into Finnish, Swedish, and Swiss research labs. How do ''uranium, plutonium, and co.'' react with mineral surfaces in environments that are low in oxygen or watery? How do they interact with microorganisms deep underground? And how can host rock or other materials be used as technical barriers to prevent the spread of radioactive substances? In order to answer these and further questions, the researchers of the HZDR use a wide range of spectroscopic methods. They expose test samples to lasers, infrared light, and X-rays or use the fluorescent properties of certain compounds to learn about the behavior of actinides

  17. Uranium, plutonium and co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerbrey, Roland; Joehnk, Peter (eds.)

    2016-04-15

    To date there is no repository facility for highly radioactive and heat-generating waste in Germany. This politically ''hot'' topic is undeniably a very big, urgent problem in our society. The Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers is dedicated to developing scientific solutions for such issues. It looks back on 20 years of history: In 1995 the loosely organized collective bearing the name ''Working Association of Large-Scale Research Institutes'' (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Grossforschungseinrichtungen) became an association of now 18 research centers. These centers collectively work in a total of six research areas. While the HZDR has only belonged to the largest research association in Germany since 2011, repository research was already on the agenda way back when the Rossendorf research center established itself in 1992 after the fall of the Berlin Wall. A good enough reason to examine the results from about 20 years of repository research in Dresden in more detail. In this issue of ''discovered'' we will take an inside look at radiochemical, radiogeological, and microbiological labs, look over the shoulders of researchers using the ''Rossendorf Beamline'' at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, and descend hundreds of meters into Finnish, Swedish, and Swiss research labs. How do ''uranium, plutonium, and co.'' react with mineral surfaces in environments that are low in oxygen or watery? How do they interact with microorganisms deep underground? And how can host rock or other materials be used as technical barriers to prevent the spread of radioactive substances? In order to answer these and further questions, the researchers of the HZDR use a wide range of spectroscopic methods. They expose test samples to lasers, infrared light, and X-rays or use the fluorescent properties of certain compounds to learn about the behavior of actinides

  18. Bacteria and plutonium in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, A.E.; Bowen, V.T.

    1978-01-01

    Microbes are important in geochemical cycling of many elements. Recent reports emphasize biogenous particulates and bacterial exometabolites as controlling oceanic distribution of plutonium. Bacteria perform oxidation/reduction reactions on metals such as mercury, nickel, lead, copper, and cadmium. Redox transformations or uptake of Pu by marine bacteria may well proceed by similar mechanisms. Profiles of water samples and sediment cores were obtained along the continental shelf off Nova Scotia and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Profiles of water samples, and sediment cores were obtained. Epifluorescent microscopy was used to view bacteria (from water or sediment) after concentration on membrane filters and staining with acridine orange. Radiochemical analyses measured Pu in sediments and water samples. Studies of 237 Pu uptake used a strain of Leucothrix mucor isolated from a macroalga. Enumeration shows bacteria to range 10 4 to 10 5 cells/ml in seawater or 10 7 to 10 8 cells/gram of sediment. These numbers are related to the levels and distrbution of Pu in the samples. In cultures of L. mucor amended with Pu atom concentrations approximating those present in open ocean environments, bacterial cells concentrated 237 Pu slower and to lower levels than did clay minerals, glass beads, or phytoplankton. These data further clarify the role of marine bacteria in Pu biogeochemistry

  19. Physics of Plutonium Recycling in Thermal Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinchin, G.H.

    1967-01-01

    A substantial programme of experimental reactor physics work with plutonium fuels has been carried out in the UK; the purpose of this paper is to review the experimental and theoretical work, with emphasis on plutonium recycling in thermal reactors. Although the main incentive for some of the work may have been to study plutonium build-up in uranium-fuelled reactors, it is nevertheless relevant to plutonium recycling and no distinction is drawn between build-up and enrichment studies. A variety of techniques have been for determining reactivity, neutron spectrum and reaction rates in simple assemblies of plutonium-aluminium fuel with water, graphite and beryllia moderators. These experiments give confidence in the basic data and methods of calculation for near-homogeneous mixtures of plutonium and moderator. In the practical case of plutonium recycling it is necessary to confirm that satisfactory predictions can be made for heterogeneous lattices enriched with plutonium. In this field, experiments have been carried out with plutonium-uranium metal and oxide-cluster fuels in graphite-moderated lattices and in SGHW lattices, and the effects of 240 Pu have been studied by perturbation measurements with single fuel elements. The exponential and critical experiments have used tonne quantities of fuel with plutonium contents ranging from 0.25 to 1.2% and the perturbation experiments have extended both the range of plutonium contents and the range of isotopic compositions of plutonium. In addition to reactivity and reactivity coefficients, such as the temperature coefficients, attention has been concentrated on relative reaction rate distributions which provide evidence for variations of neutron spectrum. .Theoretical comparisons, together with similar comparisons for non-uniform lattices, establish the validity of methods of calculation which have been used to study the feasibility of plutonium recycling in thermal reactors. (author)

  20. Physics of Plutonium Recycling in Thermal Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinchin, G. H. [Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1967-09-15

    A substantial programme of experimental reactor physics work with plutonium fuels has been carried out in the UK; the purpose of this paper is to review the experimental and theoretical work, with emphasis on plutonium recycling in thermal reactors. Although the main incentive for some of the work may have been to study plutonium build-up in uranium-fuelled reactors, it is nevertheless relevant to plutonium recycling and no distinction is drawn between build-up and enrichment studies. A variety of techniques have been for determining reactivity, neutron spectrum and reaction rates in simple assemblies of plutonium-aluminium fuel with water, graphite and beryllia moderators. These experiments give confidence in the basic data and methods of calculation for near-homogeneous mixtures of plutonium and moderator. In the practical case of plutonium recycling it is necessary to confirm that satisfactory predictions can be made for heterogeneous lattices enriched with plutonium. In this field, experiments have been carried out with plutonium-uranium metal and oxide-cluster fuels in graphite-moderated lattices and in SGHW lattices, and the effects of {sup 240}Pu have been studied by perturbation measurements with single fuel elements. The exponential and critical experiments have used tonne quantities of fuel with plutonium contents ranging from 0.25 to 1.2% and the perturbation experiments have extended both the range of plutonium contents and the range of isotopic compositions of plutonium. In addition to reactivity and reactivity coefficients, such as the temperature coefficients, attention has been concentrated on relative reaction rate distributions which provide evidence for variations of neutron spectrum. .Theoretical comparisons, together with similar comparisons for non-uniform lattices, establish the validity of methods of calculation which have been used to study the feasibility of plutonium recycling in thermal reactors. (author)

  1. The radiological hazard of plutonium isotopes and specific plutonium mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindel, G.; Clow, J.; Inkret, W.; Miller, G.

    1995-11-01

    The US Department of Energy defines the hazard categories of its nuclear facilities based upon the potential for accidents to have significant effects on specific populations and the environment. In this report, the authors consider the time dependence of hazard category 2 (significant on-site effects) for facilities with inventories of plutonium isotopes and specific weapons-grade and heat-source mixtures of plutonium isotopes. The authors also define relative hazard as the reciprocal of the hazard category 2 threshold value and determine its time dependence. The time dependence of both hazard category 2 thresholds and relative hazards are determined and plotted for 10,000 years to provide useful information for planning long-term storage or disposal facilities

  2. Plutonium vulnerability issues at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, E.; Templeton, D.W.; Tholen, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford, Washington Site was operated to produce plutonium (Pu) metal and oxide for national defense purposes. Due to the production requirements and methods utilized to meet national needs and the abrupt shutdown of the plant in the late 1980s, the plant was left in a condition that poses a risk of radiation exposure to plant workers, of accidental radioactive material release to the environment, and of radiation exposure to the public. In early 1994, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to determine the best methods for cleaning out and stabilizing Pu materials in the PFP was started. While the EIS is being prepared, a number of immediate actions have been completed or are underway to significantly reduce the greatest hazards in the PFP. Recently, increased attention his been paid to Pu risks at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities resulting in the Department-wide Plutonium Vulnerability Assessment and a recommendation by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) for DOE to develop integrated plans for managing its nuclear materials

  3. Methodology development for plutonium categorization and enhancement of proliferation resistance by P3 mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, M.; Kimura, Y.; Sagara, H.; Han, C. Y. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Koyama, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    'Protected Plutonium Production (P3)' has been proposed to enhance the proliferation resistance of plutonium by the transmutation of Minor Actinides (MA). For example, adding the small amount of Minor Actinides such as {sup 237}Np or {sup 241}Am with large neutron capture cross-section to the uranium fuel to enhance the production of {sup 238}Pu, which has high spontaneous fission neutron rate do deteriorate the quality of the nuclear weapon manufacture and maintenance technologically difficult, is very effective for improving the isotopic barrier for the proliferation of plutonium. To demonstrate the P3 mechanism experimentally, U samples with 2, 5 and 10% {sup 237}Np doping were irradiated in Advanced Thermal Reactor (ATR) of INL. The fuel test samples were removed from the core at 100, 200 and 300 effective full power days (EFPD), and then post irradiation examination was completed at Chemical Lab. in Idaho National Laboratory(INL). The theoretical results of P3 mechanism predict the experimental ones quite well. The evaluation function, 'Attractiveness', was introduced as the ratio of function of Rossi-alpha to the 'Technical Difficulties for Fission Explosive Device Use. 'Rossi-alpha defined as the ratio of super-criticality to prompt neutron lifetime is the meaningful feature of the explosive yield. The Technical Difficulties for Fission Explosive Device Use can be expressed by the function of specific decay heat , spontaneous fission neutron rate and radiation of plutonium metal. Original methodology to evaluate Attractiveness of Plutonium has been improved by considering the effect of the compression of Plutonium isotope and also pre-detonation probability due to spontaneous fission neutron ate, which was applied for the categorization of the plutonium from the conventional reactors and the innovative reactors based on P3 mechanism. In the present paper, the fundamentals of P3 mechanism, the experimental demonstration of P3

  4. Methodology development for plutonium categorization and enhancement of proliferation resistance by P3 mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, M.; Kimura, Y.; Sagara, H.; Han, C. Y.; Koyama, S.

    2012-01-01

    'Protected Plutonium Production (P3)' has been proposed to enhance the proliferation resistance of plutonium by the transmutation of Minor Actinides (MA). For example, adding the small amount of Minor Actinides such as 237 Np or 241 Am with large neutron capture cross-section to the uranium fuel to enhance the production of 238 Pu, which has high spontaneous fission neutron rate do deteriorate the quality of the nuclear weapon manufacture and maintenance technologically difficult, is very effective for improving the isotopic barrier for the proliferation of plutonium. To demonstrate the P3 mechanism experimentally, U samples with 2, 5 and 10% 237 Np doping were irradiated in Advanced Thermal Reactor (ATR) of INL. The fuel test samples were removed from the core at 100, 200 and 300 effective full power days (EFPD), and then post irradiation examination was completed at Chemical Lab. in Idaho National Laboratory(INL). The theoretical results of P3 mechanism predict the experimental ones quite well. The evaluation function, 'Attractiveness', was introduced as the ratio of function of Rossi-alpha to the 'Technical Difficulties for Fission Explosive Device Use. 'Rossi-alpha defined as the ratio of super-criticality to prompt neutron lifetime is the meaningful feature of the explosive yield. The Technical Difficulties for Fission Explosive Device Use can be expressed by the function of specific decay heat , spontaneous fission neutron rate and radiation of plutonium metal. Original methodology to evaluate Attractiveness of Plutonium has been improved by considering the effect of the compression of Plutonium isotope and also pre-detonation probability due to spontaneous fission neutron ate, which was applied for the categorization of the plutonium from the conventional reactors and the innovative reactors based on P3 mechanism. In the present paper, the fundamentals of P3 mechanism, the experimental demonstration of P3 mechanism in ATR of INL and the methodology

  5. Bibliography on plutonium and its compounds; Bibliographie sur le plutonium et ses composes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirian, J; Choquet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Collection of bibliographical references on plutonium and its principal compounds from 1942 to end of 1957. (author) [French] Compilation de references bibliographiques sur le plutonium et ses principaux composes de 1942 a fin 1957. (auteur)

  6. The zenithal 4-m International Liquid Mirror Telescope: a unique facility for supernova studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Brajesh; Pandey, Kanhaiya L.; Pandey, S. B.; Hickson, P.; Borra, E. F.; Anupama, G. C.; Surdej, J.

    2018-05-01

    The 4-m International Liquid Mirror Telescope (ILMT) will soon become operational at the newly developed Devasthal observatory near Nainital (Uttarakhand, India). Coupled with a 4k × 4k pixels CCD detector and TDI optical corrector, it will reach approximately 22.8, 22.3, and 21.4 mag in the g΄, r΄, and i΄ spectral bands, respectively, in a single scan. The limiting magnitudes can be further improved by co-adding the consecutive night images in particular filters. The uniqueness to observe the same sky region by looking towards the zenith direction every night makes the ILMT a unique instrument to detect new supernovae (SNe) by applying the image subtraction technique. High cadence (˜24 h) observations will help to construct dense sampling multi-band SNe light curves. We discuss the importance of the ILMT facility in the context of SNe studies. Considering the various plausible cosmological parameters and observational constraints, we perform detailed calculations of the expected SNe rate that can be detected with the ILMT in different spectral bands.

  7. Data assimilation of GNSS zenith total delays from a Nordic processing centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindskog, Magnus; Ridal, Martin; Thorsteinsson, Sigurdur; Ning, Tong

    2017-11-01

    Atmospheric moisture-related information estimated from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) ground-based receiver stations by the Nordic GNSS Analysis Centre (NGAA) have been used within a state-of-the-art kilometre-scale numerical weather prediction system. Different processing techniques have been implemented to derive the moisture-related GNSS information in the form of zenith total delays (ZTDs) and these are described and compared. In addition full-scale data assimilation and modelling experiments have been carried out to investigate the impact of utilizing moisture-related GNSS data from the NGAA processing centre on a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model initial state and on the ensuing forecast quality. The sensitivity of results to aspects of the data processing, station density, bias-correction and data assimilation have been investigated. Results show benefits to forecast quality when using GNSS ZTD as an additional observation type. The results also show a sensitivity to thinning distance applied for GNSS ZTD observations but not to modifications to the number of predictors used in the variational bias correction applied. In addition, it is demonstrated that the assimilation of GNSS ZTD can benefit from more general data assimilation enhancements and that there is an interaction of GNSS ZTD with other types of observations used in the data assimilation. Future plans include further investigation of optimal thinning distances and application of more advanced data assimilation techniques.

  8. Estimating Zenith Tropospheric Delays from BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Sui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The GNSS derived Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD plays today a very critical role in meteorological study and weather forecasts, as ZTDs of thousands of GNSS stations are operationally assimilated into numerical weather prediction models. Recently, the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS was officially announced to provide operational services around China and its neighborhood and it was demonstrated to be very promising for precise navigation and positioning. In this contribution, we concentrate on estimating ZTD using BDS observations to assess its capacity for troposphere remote sensing. A local network which is about 250 km from Beijing and comprised of six stations equipped with GPS- and BDS-capable receivers is utilized. Data from 5 to 8 November 2012 collected on the network is processed in network mode using precise orbits and in Precise Point Positioning mode using precise orbits and clocks. The precise orbits and clocks are generated from a tracking network with most of the stations in China and several stations around the world. The derived ZTDs are compared with that estimated from GPS data using the final products of the International GNSS Service (IGS. The comparison shows that the bias and the standard deviation of the ZTD differences are about 2 mm and 5 mm, respectively, which are very close to the differences of GPS ZTD estimated using different software packages.

  9. Multi-generational stewardship of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1997-01-01

    The post-cold war era has greatly enhanced the interest in the long-term stewardship of plutonium. The management of excess plutonium from proposed nuclear weapons dismantlement has been the subject of numerous intellectual discussions during the past several years. In this context, issues relevant to long-term management of all plutonium as a valuable energy resource are also being examined. While there are differing views about the future role of plutonium in the economy, there is a recognition of the environmental and health related problems and proliferation potentials of weapons-grade plutonium. The long-term management of plutonium as an energy resource will require a new strategy to maintain stewardship for many generations to come

  10. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.; Rogers, L.; Fiscus, J.; Dyches, G.

    1998-05-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages and disadvantages for each concept. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas. The can loading welder and cutter are very similar to the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) FB-Line bagless transfer welder and cutter and thus they are a low priority development item

  11. The chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity of plutonium chemistry was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were aqueous solution based, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, it was found that an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element will be reported

  12. Plutonium chemistry of the ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folsom, T.R.

    1972-01-01

    Plutonium is a man-made element whose behavior in the marine environment is inadequately known at present. It has been studied intensively in connection with production of weapons and power sources and has been characterized as an extremely toxic substance. Nevertheless, only a few dozen measurements have been made of concentrations in seawater and in the associated organisms and sediments. The first of these were as recent as 1964. There are reasons to believe its chemical behavior in the ocean is different from what has been observed on land, and that it will be difficult to predict how plutonium will distribute itself in the ocean. The consequences of increased environmental concentrations of Pu are discussed

  13. The first milligrams of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1997-01-01

    A historical review of the development of the very first quantities of plutonium produced during World War II in the United States and in Canada, as remembered by the French nuclear chemist, Mr Goldschmidt, who participated to the various programs which were involved in the development of the atomic bomb, and to the first steps of the French atomic program after the war. Mr Goldschmidt worked especially on organic solvent extraction, with the selection, in 1945, of non volatile tri glycol dichloride, and the development of the Chalk River plant. In 1949, at the Bouchet plant, his team has isolated the first milligrams of French plutonium from uranium oxide; and in 1952, the PUREX process was developed

  14. Confinement facilities for handling plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraman, W.J.; McNeese, W.D.; Stafford, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    Plutonium handling on a multigram scale began in 1944. Early criteria, equipment, and techniques for confining contamination have been superseded by more stringent criteria and vastly improved equipment and techniques for in-process contamination control, effluent air cleaning and treatment of liquid wastes. This paper describes the evolution of equipment and practices to minimize exposure of workers and escape of contamination into work areas and into the environment. Early and current contamination controls are compared. (author)

  15. Trans-Uranium Doping Utilization for Increasing Protected Plutonium Proliferation of Small Long Life Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Permana, Sidik [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1-N1-17, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Nuclear and Biophysics Research Group, Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Gedung Fisika, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Suud, Zaki [Nuclear and Biophysics Research Group, Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Gedung Fisika, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Suzuki, Mitsutoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Non-proliferation Science and Technology Center, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Scientific approaches are performed by adopting some methodologies in order to increase a material 'barrier' in plutonium isotope composition by increasing the even mass number of plutonium isotope such as Pu-238, Pu-240 and Pu-242. Higher difficulties (barrier) or more complex requirement for peaceful use of nuclear materials, material fabrication and handling and isotopic enrichment can be achieved by a higher isotopic barrier. Higher barrier which related to intrinsic properties of plutonium isotopes with even mass number (Pu-238, Pu-240 and Pu-242), in regard to their intense decay heat (DH) and high spontaneous fission neutron (SFN) rates were used as a parameter for improving the proliferation resistance of plutonium itself. Pu-238 has relatively high intrinsic characteristics of DH (567 W/kg) and SFN rate of 2660 n/g/s can be used for making a plutonium characteristics analysis. Similar characteristics with Pu-238, other even mass number of plutonium isotopes such as Pu-240 and Pu-242 have been shown in regard to SFN values. Those even number mass of plutonium isotope contribute to some criteria of plutonium characterization which will be adopted for present study such as IAEA, Pellaud and Kessler criteria (IAEA, 1972; Pellaud, 2002; and Kessler, 2004). The study intends to evaluate the trans-uranium doping effect for increasing protected plutonium proliferation in long-life small reactors. The development of small and medium reactor (SMR) is one of the options which have been adopted by IAEA as future utilization of nuclear energy especially for less developed countries (Kuznetsov, 2008). The preferable feature for small reactors (SMR) is long life operation time without on-site refueling and in the same time, it includes high proliferation resistance feature. The reactor uses MOX fuel as driver fuel for two different core types (inner and outer core) with blanket fuel arrangement. Several trans-uranium doping and some doping rates are evaluated

  16. Plutonium decontamination studies using Reverse Osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plock, C.E.; Travis, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Water in batches of 45 gallons each, from a creek crossing the Rocky Flats Plant, was transferred to the Reverse Osmosis (RO) laboratory for experimental testing. The testing involved using RO for plutonium decontamination. For each test, the water was spiked with plutonium, had its pH adjusted, and was then processed by RO. At a water recovery level of 87%, the plutonium decontamination factors ranged from near 100 to 1200, depending on the pH of the processed water

  17. Safe handling of plutonium in research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The training film illustrates the main basic requirements for the safe handling of small amounts of plutonium. The film is intended not only for people setting up plutonium research laboratories but also for all those who work in existing plutonium research laboratories. It was awarded the first prize in the category ''Protection of Workers'' at the international film festival organized by the 4th World Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) in Paris in April 1977

  18. Addressing mixed waste in plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.C.; Sohn, C.L.; Reid, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The overall goal is the minimization of all waste generated in actinide processing facilities. Current emphasis is directed toward reducing and managing mixed waste in plutonium processing facilities. More specifically, the focus is on prioritizing plutonium processing technologies for development that will address major problems in mixed waste management. A five step methodological approach to identify, analyze, solve, and initiate corrective action for mixed waste problems in plutonium processing facilities has been developed

  19. Plutonium-induced lymphadenitis in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Plutonium oxide particles accumulate in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of beagles exposed by inhalation and in the popliteal lymph nodes after subcutaneous injection in the hind paws. The sequence of histopathologic changes after phagocytosis of particles included necrosis, increased numbers of macrophages, and fibroplasia. Scar tissue eventually replaced the normal architecture of the lymph nodes and sequestered the plutonium particles from surrounding parenchyma. Electron microscopy showed that plutonium particles were aggregated in phagolysosomes of macrophages

  20. Safe handling of plutonium in research laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-12-31

    The training film illustrates the main basic requirements for the safe handling of small amounts of plutonium. The film is intended not only for people setting up plutonium research laboratories but also for all those who work in existing plutonium research laboratories. It was awarded the first prize in the category ``Protection of Workers`` at the international film festival organized by the 4th World Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) in Paris in April 1977

  1. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterbentz, J.W.; Olsen, C.S.; Sinha, U.P.

    1993-06-01

    This study is in response to a request by the Reactor Panel Subcommittee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) to evaluate the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing conventional or advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs and in low temperature/pressure LWR designs that might be developed for plutonium disposal. Three plutonium-based fuel forms (oxides, aluminum metallics, and carbides) are evaluated for neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and material and compatibility issues. For the carbides, only the fabrication technologies are addressed. Viable plutonium oxide fuels for conventional or advanced LWRs include plutonium-zirconium-calcium oxide (PuO 2 -ZrO 2 -CaO) with the addition of thorium oxide (ThO 2 ) or a burnable poison such as erbium oxide (Er 2 O 3 ) or europium oxide (Eu 2 O 3 ) to achieve acceptable neutronic performance. Thorium will breed fissile uranium that may be unacceptable from a proliferation standpoint. Fabrication of uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuels is well established; however, fabrication of plutonium-based oxide fuels will require further development. Viable aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels for a low temperature/pressure LWR include plutonium aluminide in an aluminum matrix (PuAl 4 -Al) with the addition of a burnable poison such as erbium (Er) or europium (Eu). Fabrication of low-enriched plutonium in aluminum-plutonium metallic fuel rods was initially established 30 years ago and will require development to recapture and adapt the technology to meet current environmental and safety regulations. Fabrication of high-enriched uranium plate fuel by the picture-frame process is a well established process, but the use of plutonium would require the process to be upgraded in the United States to conform with current regulations and minimize the waste streams

  2. Plutonium in a grassland ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.

    1976-08-01

    A study was made of plutonium contamination of grassland at the Rocky Flats plant northwest of Denver, Colorado. Of interest were: the definition of major plutonium-containing ecosystem compartments; the relative amounts in those compartments; how those values related to studies done in other geographical areas; whether or not the predominant isotopes, 238 Pu and 239 Pu, behaved differently; and what mechanisms might have allowed for the observed patterns of contamination. Samples of soil, litter, vegetation, arthropods, and small mammals were collected for Pu analysis and mass determination from each of two macroplots. Small aliquots (5 g or less) were analyzed by a rapid liquid scintillation technique and by alpha spectrometry. Of the compartments sampled, greater than 99 percent of the total plutonium was contained in the soil and the concentrations were significantly inversely correlated with distance from the contamination source, depth of the sample, and particle size of the sieved soil samples. The soil data suggested that the distribution of contamination largely resulted from physical transport processes

  3. An Improved Plutonium Trifluoride Precipitation Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, H.D.

    2001-06-26

    This report discusses results of the plutonium trifluoride two-stage precipitation study. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitation performance. A mathematical model of the precipitation process was developed which is based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter which can be used to control the performance of the plutonium trifluoride precipitation process. Recommendations have been made which will optimize the FB-Line plutonium trifluoride precipitation process.

  4. Safe handling of plutonium: a panel report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    This guide results from a meeting of a Panel of Experts held by the International Atomic Energy Agency on 8 to 12 November 1971. It is directed to workers in research laboratories handling plutonium in gram amounts. Contents: aspects of the physical and chemical properties of plutonium; metabolic features of plutonium; facility design features for safe handling of plutonium (layout of facility, working zones, decontamination room, etc.); glove boxes; health surveillance (surveillance of environment and supervision of workers); emergencies; organization. Annexes: types of glove boxes; tables; mobile ..cap alpha.. air sampler; aerosol monitor; bio-assay limits of detection; examples of contamination control monitors.

  5. Plutonium use in foreign countries (03)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao

    2004-03-01

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experiences of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 2003 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which plans to recycle a part of plutonium: Backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels: The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories: The data and information of plutonium inventories of foreign countries were collected. (author)

  6. Plutonium use in foreign countries (01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao

    2002-03-01

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experience of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 2001 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which recently appears the move of recycling a part of plutonium. Backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels. The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories. The data and information on plutonium inventories of foreign countries were collected. (author)

  7. Plutonium use in foreign countries (99)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao

    2000-03-01

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experience of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 1999 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which recently appears the move to recycling a part of plutonium backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels. The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories. The data and information on plutonium inventories of foreign counties were collected. (author)

  8. Plutonium use in foreign countries (02)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao

    2003-02-01

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experience of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 2002 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which recently appears the move of recycling a part of plutonium. Backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oside (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels. The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories. The data and information on plutonium inventories of foreign countries were collected. (author)

  9. Plutonium use in foreign countries. (04)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao

    2005-03-01

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experience of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 2004 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, the U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which plans to recycle a limited amount of plutonium: Backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels: The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories: The data and information on plutonium inventories of foreign countries were collected. (author)

  10. An Improved Plutonium Trifluoride Precipitation Flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, H.D.

    2001-01-01

    This report discusses results of the plutonium trifluoride two-stage precipitation study. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitation performance. A mathematical model of the precipitation process was developed which is based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter which can be used to control the performance of the plutonium trifluoride precipitation process. Recommendations have been made which will optimize the FB-Line plutonium trifluoride precipitation process

  11. Assay of low-level plutonium effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Hsue, F.; Bowersox, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    In the plutonium recovery section at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, an effluent solution is generated that contains low plutonium concentration and relatively high americium concentration. Nondestructive assay of this solution is demonstrated by measuring the passive L x-rays following alpha decay. Preliminary results indicate that an average deviation of 30% between L x-ray and alpha counting can be achieved for plutonium concentrations above 10 mg/L and Am/Pu ratios of up to 3; for plutonium concentrations less than 10 mg/L, the average deviation is 40%. The sensitivity of the L x-ray assay is approx. 1 mg Pu/L

  12. Disposition of weapons-grade plutonium in Westinghouse reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsaed, A.A.; Adams, M.

    1998-03-01

    The authors have studied the feasibility of using weapons-grade plutonium in the form of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in existing Westinghouse reactors. They have designed three transition Cycles from an all LEU core to a partial MOX core. They found that four-loop Westinghouse reactors such as the Vogtle power plant are capable of handling up to 45 percent weapons-grade MOX loading without any modifications. The authors have also designed two kinds of weapons-grade MOX assemblies with three enrichments per assembly and four total enrichments. Wet annular burnable absorber (WABA) rods were used in all the MOX feed assemblies, some burned MOX assemblies, and some LEU feed assemblies. Integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA) was used in the rest of the LEU feed assemblies. The average discharge burnup of MOX assemblies was over 47,000 MWD/MTM, which is more than enough to meet the open-quotes spent fuel standard.close quotes One unit is capable of consuming 0.462 MT of weapons-grade plutonium per year. Preliminary analyses showed that important reactor physics parameters for the three transitions cycles are comparable to those of LEU cores including boron levels, reactivity coefficients, peaking factors, and shutdown margins. Further transient analyses will need to be performed

  13. Destruction of plutonium using non-uranium fuels in pressurized water reactor peripheral assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chodak, P. III

    1996-05-01

    This thesis examines and confirms the feasibility of using non-uranium fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) radial blanket to eliminate plutonium of both weapons and civilian origin. In the equilibrium cycle, the periphery of the PWR is loaded with alternating fresh and once burned non-uranium fuel assemblies, with the interior of the core comprised of conventional three batch UO 2 assemblies. Plutonium throughput is such that there is no net plutonium production: production in the interior is offset by destruction in the periphery. Using this approach a 50 MT WGPu inventory could be eliminated in approximately 400 reactor years of operation. Assuming all other existing constraints were removed, the 72 operating US PWRs could disposition 50 MT of WGPu in 5.6 years. Use of a low fissile loading plutonium-erbium inert-oxide-matrix composition in the peripheral assemblies essentially destroys 100% of the 239 Pu and ≥90% total Pu over two 18 month fuel cycles. Core radial power peaking, reactivity vs EFPD profiles and core average reactivity coefficients were found to be comparable to standard PWR values. Hence, minimal impact on reload licensing is anticipated. Examination of potential candidate fuel matrices based on the existing experience base and thermo-physical properties resulted in the recommendation of three inert fuel matrix compositions for further study: zirconia, alumina and TRISO particle fuels. Objective metrics for quantifying the inherent proliferation resistance of plutonium host waste and fuel forms are proposed and were applied to compare the proposed spent WGPu non-uranium fuel to spent WGPu MOX fuels and WGPu borosilicate glass logs. The elimination disposition option spent non-uranium fuel product was found to present significantly greater barriers to proliferation than other plutonium disposal products

  14. Destruction of plutonium using non-uranium fuels in pressurized water reactor peripheral assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chodak, III, Paul [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This thesis examines and confirms the feasibility of using non-uranium fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) radial blanket to eliminate plutonium of both weapons and civilian origin. In the equilibrium cycle, the periphery of the PWR is loaded with alternating fresh and once burned non-uranium fuel assemblies, with the interior of the core comprised of conventional three batch UO2 assemblies. Plutonium throughput is such that there is no net plutonium production: production in the interior is offset by destruction in the periphery. Using this approach a 50 MT WGPu inventory could be eliminated in approximately 400 reactor years of operation. Assuming all other existing constraints were removed, the 72 operating US PWRs could disposition 50 MT of WGPu in 5.6 years. Use of a low fissile loading plutonium-erbium inert-oxide-matrix composition in the peripheral assemblies essentially destroys 100% of the 239Pu and ≥90% {sub total}Pu over two 18 month fuel cycles. Core radial power peaking, reactivity vs EFPD profiles and core average reactivity coefficients were found to be comparable to standard PWR values. Hence, minimal impact on reload licensing is anticipated. Examination of potential candidate fuel matrices based on the existing experience base and thermo-physical properties resulted in the recommendation of three inert fuel matrix compositions for further study: zirconia, alumina and TRISO particle fuels. Objective metrics for quantifying the inherent proliferation resistance of plutonium host waste and fuel forms are proposed and were applied to compare the proposed spent WGPu non-uranium fuel to spent WGPu MOX fuels and WGPu borosilicate glass logs. The elimination disposition option spent non-uranium fuel product was found to present significantly greater barriers to proliferation than other plutonium disposal products.

  15. Stratospheric NO2 vertical profile retrieved from ground-based Zenith-Sky DOAS observations at Kiruna, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Myojeong; Enell, Carl-Fredrik; Hendrick, François; Pukite, Janis; Van Roozendael, Michel; Platt, Ulrich; Raffalski, Uwe; Wagner, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Stratospheric NO2 destroys ozone and acts as a buffer against halogen-catalyzed ozone loss through the formation of reservoir species (ClONO2, BrONO2). Since the importance of both mechanisms depends on the altitude, the investigation of stratospheric NO2 vertical distribution can provide more insight into the role of nitrogen compounds in the destruction of ozone. Here we present stratospheric NO2 vertical profiles retrieved from twilight ground-based zenith-sky DOAS observations at Kiruna, Sweden (68.84°N, 20.41°E) covering 1997 - 2013 periods. This instrument observes zenith scattered sunlight. The sensitivity for stratospheric trace gases is highest during twilight due to the maximum altitude of the scattering profile and the light path through the stratosphere, which vary with the solar zenith angle. The profiling algorithm, based on the Optimal Estimation Method, has been developed by IASB-BIRA and successfully applied at other stations (Hendrick et al., 2004). The basic principle behind this profiling approach is that during twilight, the mean Rayleigh scattering altitude scans the stratosphere rapidly, providing height-resolved information on the absorption by stratospheric NO2. In this study, the long-term evolution of the stratospheric NO2 profile at polar latitude will be investigated. Hendrick, F., B. Barret, M. Van Roozendael, H. Boesch, A. Butz, M. De Mazière, F. Goutail, C. Hermans, J.-C. Lambert, K. Pfeilsticker, and J.-P. Pommereau, Retrieval of nitrogen dioxide stratospheric profiles from ground-based zenith-sky UV-visible observations: Validation of the technique through correlative comparisons, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 4, 2091-2106, 2004

  16. Analisis Six Sigma pada Produk Casing Pompa sebagai Metode Perbaikan Kualitas (Studi Kasus: PT. Zenith Allmart Precisindo)

    OpenAIRE

    Haryono, Haryono; Rakasiwi, Hafiedza Pradana

    2014-01-01

    Pada Februari 2014, produk baja terbanyak yang diproduksi PT. Zenith Allmart Precisindo (ZAP) adalah casing pompa dengan reject sebesar 3,35%, padahal target maksimal reject 2% per bulan, ada gap sebesar 1,35%. Analisis DMAIC Six Sigma dilaksanakan untuk mengurangi persentase reject. Pada define, ditentukan project charter, peta proses produksi, dan SIPOC diagram. Dari SIPOC diagram ditentukan 10 CTQ. Pada fase measure dilakukan attribute agreement analysis untuk QC, hasilnya adalah repeabili...

  17. A Simple Parameterization of the Cosmic-Ray Muon Momentum Spectra at the Surface as a Function of Zenith Angle

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna, D.

    2006-01-01

    The designs of many neutrino experiments rely on calculations of the background rates arising from cosmic-ray muons at shallow depths. Understanding the angular dependence of low momentum cosmic-ray muons at the surface is necessary for these calculations. Heuristically, from examination of the data, a simple parameterization is proposed, based on a straighforward scaling variable. This in turn, allows a universal calculation of the differential muon intensity at the surface for all zenith an...

  18. Erosion Results of the MISSE 7 Polymers Experiment and Zenith Polymers Experiment After 1.5 Years of Space Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Yi, Grace T.; Haloua, Athena; Imka, Emily C.; Mitchell, Gianna G.; Asmar, Olivia C.; Leneghan, Halle A.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Polymers and other oxidizable materials on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment can be eroded due to reaction with atomic oxygen (AO). Therefore, in order to design durable spacecraft it is important to know the LEO AO erosion yield (E(sub y), volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of materials susceptible to AO reaction. Two spaceflight experiments, the Polymers Experiment and the Zenith Polymers Experiment, were developed to determine the AO E(sub y) of various polymers flown in ram, wake or zenith orientations in LEO. These experiments were flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE 7) mission for 1.5 years on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). The experiments included Kapton H(TradeMark) witness samples for AO fluence determination in ram and zenith orientations. The Polymers Experiment also included samples to determine whether AO erosion of high and low ash containing polymers is dependent on fluence. This paper provides an overview of the MISSE 7 mission, a description of the flight experiments with details on the polymers flown, the characterization techniques used, the AO fluence for each exposure orientation, and the LEO E(sub y) results. The E(sub y) values ranged from 7.99x10(exp -28)cu cm/atom for TiO2/Al2O3 coated Teflon(TradeMark) fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) flown in the ram orientation to 1.22x10(exp -23cu cm/atom for polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) flown in the zenith orientation. The E(sub y) of similar samples flown in different orientations has been compared to help determine solar exposure and associated heating effects on AO erosion. The E(sub y) data from these ISS spaceflight experiments provides valuable information for LEO spacecraft design purposes.

  19. CANDU reactors with reactor grade plutonium/thorium carbide fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Suemer [Atilim Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering; Khan, Mohammed Javed; Ahmed, Rizwan [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan); Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Technology

    2011-08-15

    Reactor grade (RG) plutonium, accumulated as nuclear waste of commercial reactors can be re-utilized in CANDU reactors. TRISO type fuel can withstand very high fuel burn ups. On the other hand, carbide fuel would have higher neutronic and thermal performance than oxide fuel. In the present work, RG-PuC/ThC TRISO fuels particles are imbedded body-centered cubic (BCC) in a graphite matrix with a volume fraction of 60%. The fuel compacts conform to the dimensions of sintered CANDU fuel compacts are inserted in 37 zircolay rods to build the fuel zone of a bundle. Investigations have been conducted on a conventional CANDU reactor based on GENTILLYII design with 380 fuel bundles in the core. Three mixed fuel composition have been selected for numerical calculation; (1) 10% RG-PuC + 90% ThC; (2) 30% RG-PuC + 70% ThC; (3) 50% RG-PuC + 50% ThC. Initial reactor criticality values for the modes (1), (2) and (3) are calculated as k{sub {infinity}}{sub ,0} = 1.4848, 1.5756 and 1.627, respectively. Corresponding operation lifetimes are {proportional_to} 2.7, 8.4, and 15 years and with burn ups of {proportional_to} 72 000, 222 000 and 366 000 MW.d/tonne, respectively. Higher initial plutonium charge leads to higher burn ups and longer operation periods. In the course of reactor operation, most of the plutonium will be incinerated. At the end of life, remnants of plutonium isotopes would survive; and few amounts of uranium, americium and curium isotopes would be produced. (orig.)

  20. Feasibility study of plutonium recycling in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuchi, Hideoto

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of plutonium recycling in light water reactors has been studied by the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, MITI. As the first step of the feasibility study, it was planned to charge two fuel assemblies, containing uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (MO 2 ), in the core of the Tsuruga nuclear power plant (BWR) for testing. The design of fuel the safety of these fuel and the operating characteristics of these special fuel assemblies were evaluated. The specifications of MO 2 fuel pin and fuel assembly are compared to those of present uranium oxide (UO 2 ) fuel. The weight of fissile plutonium in one MO 2 fuel assembly is 2.22 kg. The characteristics of MO 2 fuel assemblies, such as reactivity, control rod worth and power distribution can be kept similar to UO 2 fuel. The plutonium isotope ratio of the MO 2 fuel is assumed as that obtained in the fuel taken out of the Tokai No. 1 gas cooled reactor. The temperature distribution in the fuel pellets is shown, compared to that of UO 2 fuel. The linear power density is 440 w/cm at the beginning of the fuel life and 360 w/cm after the burn-up of 44,000 Mwd/t. The stress in the cladding tubes of MO 2 fuel is not different from that of UO 2 fuel. The pellet-cladding interaction (PCM1) was analyzed, utilizing the FEM code, FEAST. Concerning the calculation of resonance absorption, the space dependence of thermal neutron spectra and the nuclear behavior of hollow pellets the methods of design calculation were checked up. It was recognized that regarding the nuclear characteristics of MO 2 fuel, no special technical question remains. (Nakai, Y.)

  1. Observed Spectral Invariant Behavior of Zenith Radiance in the Transition Zone Between Cloud-Free and Cloudy Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, A.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Chiu, C.; Wiscombe, W.

    2010-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM) new Shortwave Spectrometer (SWS) looks straight up and measures zenith radiance at 418 wavelengths between 350 and 2200 nm. Because of its 1-sec sampling resolution, the SWS provides a unique capability to study the transition zone between cloudy and clear sky areas. A surprising spectral invariant behavior is found between ratios of zenith radiance spectra during the transition from cloudy to cloud-free atmosphere. This behavior suggests that the spectral signature of the transition zone is a linear mixture between the two extremes (definitely cloudy and definitely clear). The weighting function of the linear mixture is found to be a wavelength-independent characteristic of the transition zone. It is shown that the transition zone spectrum is fully determined by this function and zenith radiance spectra of clear and cloudy regions. This new finding may help us to better understand and quantify such physical phenomena as humidification of aerosols in the relatively moist cloud environment and evaporation and activation of cloud droplets.

  2. The plutonium challenge for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper author deal with the weapons-usable plutonium and with the possibilities of their managing. Russia has not disclosed the amount of plutonium produced, but various estimates indicate that the production was about 130 tonnes. Production has been curtailed in Russia; three dual-purpose reactors still produce weapons-grade plutonium - two at Tomsk-7 (renamed Seversk) and one at Krasnoyarsk-26 (renamed Zheleznogorsk Mining and Chemical Combine). In a 1994 United States-Russian agreement that has yet to enter into force, Russia agreed to close the remaining operating reactors by the year 2000. Treaties between the United States and Russia have already cut the number of nuclear warheads from more than 10,000 to about 6,000 under START 1, which has been ratified, and to about 3,500 under START 2, which still awaits approval. If Russia and the United States conclude START 3, that number could drop to between 2,000 and 2,500. On September 2, 1998, the Presidents of the United States and Russia signed the 'Joint statement of principles for Management and Disposition of Plutonium, Designated as No Longer Required for Defense Purposes.' In this joint statement the Presidents affirm the intention of each country to remove by stages approximately 50 metric tons of plutonium and to convert the nuclear weapons programs, and to convert this material so that it can never be used in nuclear weapons. These 100 tonne of plutonium must be managed in proper way such that it becomes neither a proliferation for an environmental risk. The United States has proposed that it manage it's 50 tonnes by a dual approach-once through MOX burning of a portion of the plutonium and immobilization in a ceramic matrix followed by en- casement in high level waste glass. Russia has proposed that it manage its full 50 tonnes by burning in a reactor. The MOX program in the United States would bum the cleaner plutonium metal and residues. Weapons components would be converted to plutonium oxide

  3. Decontaminaion of metals containing plutonium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.; Gerding, T.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1979-06-01

    Melt-slagging (melt-refining) techniques were evaluated as a decontamination and consolidation step for metals contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium. Experiments were performed in which mild steel, stainless steel, and nickel contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium were melted in the presence of silicate slags of various compositions. The metal products were low in contamination, with the plutonium and americium strongly fractionated to the slags. Partition coefficients (plutonium in slag/plutonium in steel) of 7 x 10 6 were measured with boro-silicate slag and of 3 x 10 6 with calcium, magnesium silicate slag. Decontamination of metals containing as much as 14,000 ppM plutonium appears to be as efficient as for metals with plutonium levels of 400 ppM. Staged extraction, that is, a remelting of processed metal with clean slag, results in further decontamination of the metal. The second extraction is effective with either resistance-furnace melting or electric-arc melting. Slag adhering to the metal ingots and in defects within the ingots is in the important contributors to plutonium retained in processed metals. If these sources of plutonium are controlled, the melt-refining process can be used on a large scale to convert highly contaminated metals to homogeneous and compact forms with very low concentrations of plutonium and americium. A conceptual design of a melt-refining process to decontaminate plutonium- and americium-contaminated metals is described. The process includes single-stage refining of contaminated metals to produce a metal product which would have less than 10 nCi/g of TRU-element contamination. Two plant sizes were considered. The smaller conceptual plant processes 77 kg of metal per 8-h period and may be portable.The larger one processes 140 kg of metal per 8-h period, is stationary, and may be near te maximum size that is practical for a metal decontamination process

  4. Light pollution offshore: Zenithal sky glow measurements in the mediterranean coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ges, Xavier; Bará, Salvador; García-Gil, Manuel; Zamorano, Jaime; Ribas, Salvador J.; Masana, Eduard

    2018-05-01

    Light pollution is a worldwide phenomenon whose consequences for the natural environment and the human health are being intensively studied nowadays. Most published studies address issues related to light pollution inland. Coastal waters, however, are spaces of high environmental interest, due to their biodiversity richness and their economical significance. The elevated population density in coastal regions is accompanied by correspondingly large emissions of artificial light at night, whose role as an environmental stressor is increasingly being recognized. Characterizing the light pollution levels in coastal waters is a necessary step for protecting these areas. At the same time, the marine surface environment provides a stage free from obstacles for measuring the dependence of the skyglow on the distance to the light polluting sources, and validating (or rejecting) atmospheric light propagation models. In this work we present a proof-of-concept of a gimbal measurement system that can be used for zenithal skyglow measurements on board both small boats and large vessels under actual navigation conditions. We report the results obtained in the summer of 2016 along two measurement routes in the Mediterranean waters offshore Barcelona, travelling 9 and 31.7 km away from the coast. The atmospheric conditions in both routes were different from the ones assumed for the calculation of recently published models of the anthropogenic sky brightness. They were closer in the first route, whose results approach better the theoretical predictions. The results obtained in the second route, conducted under a clearer atmosphere, showed systematic differences that can be traced back to two expected phenomena, which are a consequence of the smaller aerosol content: the reduction of the anthropogenic sky glow at short distances from the sources, and the slower decay rate of brightness with distance, which gives rise to a relative excess of brightness at large distances from the

  5. Global model of zenith tropospheric delay proposed based on EOF analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Langlang; Chen, Peng; Wei, Erhu; Li, Qinzheng

    2017-07-01

    Tropospheric delay is one of the main error budgets in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements. Many empirical correction models have been developed to compensate this delay, and models which do not require meteorological parameters have received the most attention. This study established a global troposphere zenith total delay (ZTD) model, called Global Empirical Orthogonal Function Troposphere (GEOFT), based on the empirical orthogonal function (EOF, also known as geographically weighted PCAs) analysis method and the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) Atmosphere data from 2012 to 2015. The results showed that ZTD variation could be well represented by the characteristics of the EOF base function Ek and associated coefficients Pk. Here, E1 mainly signifies the equatorial anomaly; E2 represents north-south asymmetry, and E3 and E4 reflects regional variation. Moreover, P1 mainly reflects annual and semiannual variation components; P2 and P3 mainly contains annual variation components, and P4 displays semiannual variation components. We validated the proposed GEOFT model using tropospheric delay data of GGOS ZTD grid data and the tropospheric product of the International GNSS Service (IGS) over the year 2016. The results showed that GEOFT model has high accuracy with bias and RMS of -0.3 and 3.9 cm, respectively, with respect to the GGOS ZTD data, and of -0.8 and 4.1 cm, respectively, with respect to the global IGS tropospheric product. The accuracy of GEOFT demonstrating that the use of the EOF analysis method to characterize ZTD variation is reasonable.

  6. Predictions of Tropospheric Zenithal Delay for South America : Seasonal Variability and Quality Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Toledo Machado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Zenithal Tropospheric Delay (Z TD is an important error source in the observable involved in the positioning methods using artificial satellite. Frequently, the Z TD influence in the positioning is minimized by applying empirical models. However, such models are not able to supply the precision required to some real time applications, such as navigation and steak out. In 2010 it will be implanted the new navigation and administration system of the air traffic, denominated CNS-ATM (Communication Navigation Surveillance - Air Traffic Management. In this new system the application of positioning techniques by satellites in the air traffic will be quite explored because they provide good precision in real time. The predictions of Z TD values from Numeric Weather Prediction (NWP, denominated dynamic modeling, is an alternative to model the atmospheric gases effects in the radio-frequency signals in real time. The Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies (CPTEC has generated operationally prediction of Z TD values to South American Continent since March, 2004. The aims of the present paper are to investigate the Z TD seasonal variability and evaluate the quality of predicted Z TD values. One year of GPS data from Brazilian Continuous GPS Network (RBMC was used in this evaluation. The RMS values resulting from this evaluation were in the range of 4 to 11 cm. Considering the Z TDtemporal variability, the advantages provide by this modeling, the results obtained in this evaluation and the future improvements, this work shows that the dynamic modeling has great potential to become the most appropriate alternative to model Z TD in real time.

  7. Material attractiveness of plutonium composition on doping minor actinide of large FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Kuno, Yusuke

    2011-01-01

    Material attractiveness analysis on isotopic plutonium compositions of fast breeder reactors (FBR) has been investigated based on figure of merit (FOM) formulas as key parameters as well as decay heat (DH) and spontaneous fission neutron (SFN) compositions. Increasing minor actinide (MA) doping gives the significant effect to increase Pu-238 composition. However, the compositions of Pu-240 and Pu-242 become less with increasing MA doping. DH and SFN compositions in the core regions similar to the DH and SFN compositions of MOX-grade. Material attractiveness based on FOM1 formula shows all isotopic plutonium compositions in the blanket regions as well as in the core regions are categorized as high attractive material. Adopted FOM2 formula can distinguishes the material attractiveness levels which show the plutonium compositions in blanket regions as high attractiveness level and its composition in the core regions as low level of material attractiveness. MA doping is effective to reduce the material attractiveness level of blanket regions from high to medium and it requires much more MA doping rate to achieve low level of attractiveness (FOM<1) based on adopted FOM1 formula. Low material attractiveness level can be obtained by 4 % or more doping MA based on adopted FOM2 formula which considers not only DH composition effect, but also SFN composition effect that gives relatively higher contribution to material barrier of plutonium isotopes. (author)

  8. Investigation of environmental samples from Fukushima with respect to uranium and plutonium by AMS; Untersuchung von Umweltproben aus Fukushima in Bezug auf Plutonium und Uran mittels AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Stephanie

    2017-02-01

    In March 2011, the nuclear power plant Fukushima Dai-ichi was seriously damaged by a tsunami caused by an earthquake. During the accident large quantities of radionuclides, mainly of the volatile elements cesium and iodine, were released to the environment. In small amounts refractory elements such as plutonium and uranium have also been released. Plutonium and the uraniumisotope {sup 236}U have primarily been delivered by human activities in the environment. Large amounts were released during the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Additional sources are accidents in nuclear facilities, like Chernobyl. Every source has its own characteristic isotopic composition. It is therefore possible to determine the origin of the contamination by measuring the isotopic ratios of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu and {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U. These ratios can be determined by using accelerator mass spectrometry. Due to its high sensitivity, it is possible to measure even small amounts of plutonium and especially of {sup 236}U. These measurements were performed using the compact 500 kV facility ''TANDY'' of ETH Zurich. In 2013 and 2015 vegetation, litter and soil drill core samples were taken in the contaminated area in Fukushima prefecture. In 2015 samples were taken as close to the sampling locations of the 2013 campaign as possible. After isolation of plutonium and uranium by chemical extraction, separate targets were prepared for the measurement. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios indicate global fallout as the plutonium source for most samples. The plutonium of the reactors of Fukushima Dai-ichi is located in the upper layers like in vegetation or litter. From the uranium ratios alone the reactors could not unambigously be identified as the source of {sup 236}U. However, this is plausible in the cases were reactor plutonium was detected. None of the samples contained higher plutonium activity concentrations than in the rest of Japan, caused by global fallout. This

  9. Plutonium in domestic animals and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, C.H.; Kane, P.; Thorne, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter deals with plutonium adsorption, retention and translocation rates in lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, liver and in body tissues of domestic animals and man. Urinary and faecal excretion of plutonium is discussed. Transfer rates to eggs, milk, foetus and newborn are considered. Of all these subjects, data are presented extracted from literature and cast in tables

  10. Two-stage precipitation of plutonium trifluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1984-04-01

    Plutonium trifluoride was precipitated using a two-stage precipitation system. A series of precipitation experiments identified the significant process variables affecting precipitate characteristics. A mathematical precipitation model was developed which was based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter that can be used to control particle characteristics

  11. Plutonium production and utilization forecasts in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haijtink, B.

    1976-01-01

    The planned accelerated growth of nuclear energy generation in the near future will lead to a large production of plutonium in the thermal reactors. Therefore, up to 1985, the major part of the available plutonium will be plutonium recovered from spent uranium-metal, particularly in the United Kingdom and in France. Because of the low demand for fuelling the fast breeder reactors within the near future, a surplus of fissile plutonium will be accumulated in Europe. Even if the planned availability of the oxide reprocessing capacity will be delayed with two or three years, a plutonium surplus will still exist in Europe, e.g.; in 1985: 25-20 tons. On longer term, up to 2000, the plutonium production in thermal reactors will be sufficient to meet the estimated demand for fast breeder reactors at their commercial introduction foreseen for the nineties. That means that all the plutonium surplus needs not to be stocked for use in fast breeder reactors later on but could be recycled in thermal reactors. The magnitude of the available fissionable materials give an idea of the importance to promote, on an industrial scale, the plutonium recycling technology

  12. The transport of civil plutonium by air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the review entitled ''The Transport of Civil Plutonium by Air'' reported by the Advisory Committee on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials (ACTRAM) 1988. The contents contain chapters on the following topics:- the reasons for air transport, the various regulations, packagings for plutonium transport, testing of the packagings, accidents, the consequences of a release, and emergency arrangements. (U.K.)

  13. Ventilation design for new plutonium recovery facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, A.J.; Amos, C.L.

    1975-01-01

    In 1972 the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) issued revised guidelines on ''Minimum Design Criteria for New Plutonium Facilities.'' With these criteria as guidelines, a new Plutonium Recovery Facility is being designed and constructed at the AEC Rocky Flats Plant. The methods by which the confinement of contamination and air treatment are being handled in this facility are described. (U.S.)

  14. Demonstrating of Cosmic Ray Characteristics by Estimating the Cherenkov Light Lateral Distribution Function for Yakutsk Array as a Function of the Zenith Angle

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulsttar, Marwah M.; Al-Rubaiee, A. A.; Ali, Abdul Halim Kh.

    2016-01-01

    Cherenkov light lateral distribution function (CLLDF) in Extensive Air Showers (EAS) for different primary particles (e-, n , p, F, K and Fe) was simulated using CORSIKA code for conditions and configurations of Yakutsk EAS array with the fixed primary energy 3 PeV around the knee region at different zenith angles. Basing on the results of CLLDF numerical simulation, sets of approximated functions are reconstructed for different primary particles as a function of the zenith angle. A compariso...

  15. Radiation damage in gallium-stabilized δ-plutonium with helium bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, FengChao [CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Wang, Pei [Laboratory of Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Liu, XiaoYi [CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Wu, HengAn, E-mail: wuha@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)

    2017-02-15

    To understand the role of helium on self-irradiation effects in δ-plutonium, microstructure evolutions due to α-decay events near pre-existing helium bubbles in gallium-stabilized δ-plutonium are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Bubble promoting effect plays a dominating role in point defects production, resulting in increasing number of point defects. When lightweight helium atoms act as media, energy transfer discrepancy and altered spatial morphology of point defects induced by mass effect are revealed. The evolution of stacking faults surrounding the disordered core is studied and their binding effect on the propagation of point defects are presented. The cascade-induced bubble coalescence, resolution and re-nucleation driven by internal pressure are obtained in the investigation on helium behaviors. The intrinsic tendency in our simulated self-irradiation with helium bubbles is significant for understanding the underlying mechanism of aging in plutonium and its alloys.

  16. Constitutional problems in the handling of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, S. de.

    1989-01-01

    Reprocessing and final storage involve two different systems of nuclear energy utilization: with or without the use of plutonium. There is a choice available between these two systems. The paper discusss the constitutional implications of this choice. The permission of the use of plutonium as nuclear fuel by the Atomic Energy Law is irreconcilable with the Basic Law, i.e. the Constitution. If the corresponding provisions of the Atomic Energy Law are repealed, then only the plutonium-related branch will be revoked and not the legal permission of nuclear energy as a whole. The fact is not ignored that the Atomic Energy law does not permit the construction and operation of a plant or the handling of plutonium if this were to violate a basic right. However, the plutonium-related branch of nculear energy utilization inevitably results in such basic right violations; hence the Atomic Energy law is unconstitutional in this respect. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. Nuclear legacy. Democracy in a plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, F.

    1997-01-01

    There have already been a few hundred known incidents of nuclear smuggling, mostly of small quantities not close to weapons grade material - but one gram of plutonium is more than sufficient to cause significant harm and to pose a substantial threat. The potential for further thefts is growing as the world produces ever more quantities of plutonium, not only from the dismantling of nuclear weapons but also from the separation out of plutonium from spent uranium nuclear reactor fuel elements. Trying to prevent the theft of gram quantities of plutonium would require levels of protection and surveillance unacceptably high in a democratic society. It is unlikely, therefore, that democracy could survive in a plutonium economy

  18. Disposing of the world's excess plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, J.M.; Bullen, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    The authors undertake three key objectives in addressing the issue of plutonium disposition at the end of the Cold War. First, the authors estimate the total global inventory of plutonium both from weapons dismantlement and civil nuclear power reactors. Second, they review past and current policy toward handling this metal by the US, Russia, and other key countries. Third, they evaluate the feasibility of several options (but especially the vitrification and mixed oxide fuel options announced by the Clinton administration) for disposing of the increasing amounts of plutonium available today. To undertake this analysis, the authors consider both the political and scientific problems confronting policymakers in dealing with this global plutonium issue. Interview data with political and technical officials in Washington and at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna, Austria, and empirical inventory data on plutonium from a variety of sources form the basis of their analysis

  19. Plutonium fallout at Fayetteville, AR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, D.N.; Essien, I.O.; Kuroda, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    It is well established that atmospheric Pu fallout has its origin in the testing of nuclear devices and satellite accidents. Monitoring injections of Pu during the testing of nuclear devices can be useful in characterizing the detonation and subsequently tagging its global fallout. Since Pu uptake pathway into humans is mainly through the respiratory and digestive systems, it is important to know about the behavior of Pu in the atmosphere. Snow and rain samples were collected between Jan 1981 and April 1983, and analyzed for plutonium

  20. Sandia Laboratories plutonium protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, E.A.; Miyoshi, D.S.; Gutierrez, F.D.

    1977-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories is developing an improved plutonium protection system (PPS) to demonstrate new concepts for enhancing special nuclear materials safeguards. PPS concepts include separation of functions, real-time item accountability and improved means for control of materials, activities and personnel access. Physical barriers and a secure communications network are designed into the system to offer greater protection against sabotage, diversion and theft attempts. Prototype systems are being constructed at Hanford, Washington and Albuquerque, New Mexico and will be subjected to a comprehensive testing and evaluation program

  1. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in predicting health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. They have also observed radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer at the three highest dose levels. 1 figure, 3 tables

  2. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in predicting health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. The authors have also observed radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer at the three highest dose levels. 1 figure, 4 tables

  3. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in the prediction of health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; as described in previous Annual Reports, lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. Radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer have been observed at the highest dose levels

  4. Waste forms for plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.G.; O'Holleran, T.P.; Frank, S.M.; Meyer, M.K.; Hanson, M.; Staples, B.A.; Knecht, D.A.; Kong, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    The field of plutonium disposition is varied and of much importance, since the Department of Energy has decided on the hybrid option for disposing of the weapons materials. This consists of either placing the Pu into mixed oxide fuel for reactors or placing the material into a stable waste form such as glass. The waste form used for Pu disposition should exhibit certain qualities: (1) provide for a suitable deterrent to guard against proliferation; (2) be of minimal volume, i.e., maximize the loading; and (3) be reasonably durable under repository-like conditions. This paper will discuss several Pu waste forms that display promising characteristics

  5. The plutonium mountain: preventing diversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohling-Brown, Pamela.

    1997-01-01

    With continued arms-reduction between the USA and the former Soviet Union, surplus nuclear materials, from dismantled weapons, requires handling. A number of risks are identified including occupational safety for workers involved with handling nuclear materials, and environmental protection. Perhaps the most sinister is the extra security needed to ensure that these materials are not diverted to rogue states or terrorist groups, as materials are handled in a larger number of countries. In particular, the author addresses the problem of plutonium reserves, and discusses the role of reprocessing in preventing diversion. (UK)

  6. Study of plutonium disposition using the GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-30

    The end of the cold war and the resulting dismantlement of nuclear weapons has resulted in the need for the U.S. to disposition 50 to 100 metric tons of excess of plutonium in parallel with a similar program in Russia. A number of studies, including the recently released National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study, have recommended conversion of plutonium into spent nuclear fuel with its high radiation barrier as the best means of providing long-term diversion resistance to this material. The NAS study {open_quotes}Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium{close_quotes} identified light water reactor spent fuel as the most readily achievable and proven form for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. The study also stressed the need for a U.S. disposition program which would enhance the prospects for a timely reciprocal program agreement with Russia. This summary provides the key findings of a GE study where plutonium is converted into Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel and a 1350 MWe GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) is utilized to convert the plutonium to spent fuel. The ABWR represents the integration of over 30 years of experience gained worldwide in the design, construction and operation of BWRs. It incorporates advanced features to enhance reliability and safety, minimize waste and reduce worker exposure. For example, the core is never uncovered nor is any operator action required for 72 hours after any design basis accident. Phase 1 of this study was documented in a GE report dated May 13, 1993. DOE`s Phase 1 evaluations cited the ABWR as a proven technical approach for the disposition of plutonium. This Phase 2 study addresses specific areas which the DOE authorized as appropriate for more in-depth evaluations. A separate report addresses the findings relative to the use of existing BWRs to achieve the same goal.

  7. Physics studies of weapons plutonium disposition in the IFR closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.; Wade, D.C.; Liaw, J.R.; Fujita, E.K.

    1994-01-01

    The core performance impact of weapons plutonium introduction into the IFR closed fuel cycle is investigated by comparing three disposition scenarios: a power production mode, a moderate destruction mode, and a maximum destruction mode all at a constant heat rating of 840 MWt. For each scenario, two fuel cycle models are evaluated: cores using weapons material as the sole source of transuranics in a once-through mode, and recycle corns using weapons material only as required for a make-up feed. Calculated results include mass flows, detailed isotopic distributions, neutronic performance characteristics, and reactivity feedback coefficients. In general, it is shown that weapons plutonium feed does not have an adverse impact on IFR core performance characteristics

  8. Plutonium in an arctic marine environment 29 years after the Thule accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgaard, H.; Nielsen, S.P.; Eriksson, M.; Ilus, E.; McMahon, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear weapons contaminated benthic marine environment in the 180-230 m deep Bylot Sound of Thule Airbase, NW Greenland, was revisited August 1997. Data on water and on brown algae indicates that plutonium from the contaminated sediments is not transported into the surface waters in significant quantities. Sediment core data only indicate minor translocation of plutonium from the accident to the area outside Bylot sound. The present data support an ealier quantification of the sedimentation rate as 3-4 mm per year, i.e. 8-12 cm during the 29 years since the accident. Biological activity has mixed accident plutonium much deeper, down to 20-30 cm, and the 8-12 cm new sediment have been efficiently mixed into the contaminated layer. In addition to the classical bioturbation efficiently mixing the upper ≅ 5 cm, the plutonium data indicates the existence of a deeper bioturbation gradualy decreasing with depth. Transfer of plutonium to benthic biota is low leading to lower concentrations in biota than in sediments. (au)

  9. Expected behavior of plutonium in the IFR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steunenberg, R.K.; Johnson, I.

    1985-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is a metal-fueled, sodium-cooled reactor that will consist initially of a U-Zr alloy core in which the enriched uranium will be replaced gradually by plutonium bred in a uranium blanket. The plutonium is concentrated to the required level by extraction from the molten blanket material with a CaCl 2 -BaCl 2 salt containing MgCl 2 as an oxidant (halide slagging). The CaCl 2 -BaCl 2 salt containing dissolved PuCl 3 and UCl 3 is added to the core process where fission products are removed by electrorefining, using a liquid cadmium anode, a metal cathode, and a LiCl-NaCl-CaCl 2 -BaCl 2 molten salt electrolyte. The product is recovered as a metallic deposit on the cathode. The halide slagging step is operated at about 1250 0 and the electrorefining step at about 450 0 C. These processes are expected to give low fission-product decontamination factors of the order of 100

  10. Assimilation of zenith total delays in the AROME France convective scale model: a recent assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Mahfouf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of assimilating GPS zenith total delays (ZTD in the convective scale model AROME is assessed over a 1-month period in summer 2013. The experimental set-up is similar to the current operational usage at Météo-France where the observing system has been expanded in July 2013 in a three-dimensional variational (3D-Var data assimilation scheme with a 3-hour cycling. Three experiments are performed. In a baseline experiment the GPS ZTD provided through the E-GVAP programme are withdrawn from the observing system (NOGPS. In a second experiment, GPS ZTD from E-GVAP are included in the observing system, representing the operational configuration at Météo-France (EGVAP. The last experiment is similar to EGVAP but new ZTD observations processed by the University of Luxembourg are also assimilated on top of all other observations (UL01. In the first stage, it has been verified through a systematic comparison with model counterparts that the quality of ZTD data processed by the University of Luxembourg is similar to the one provided by other analysis centres from the E-GVAP programme. After a number of quality controls, it has been possible to assimilate around 90 additional observations on top of around 600 stations from E-GVAP every 3 hours. Despite the small fraction of observations assimilated in AROME that ZTD represent (<2%, it is shown that they systematically improve the atmospheric humidity short-range forecasts by a comparison with other observing systems informative about water vapour (radiosoundings, satellite radiances, surface networks even though it is by small amounts. When examining objective precipitation scores over France, the improvement brought by the UL01 stations on top of E-GVAP is systematic for all daily precipitation thresholds. Examination of several case studies reveals the ability of the ZTD observations to modify the intensity and location of precipitating areas in accordance with previous studies. The addition

  11. Current status of the plutonium hot particle problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1975-01-01

    Information now available on the question of lung irradiation from particulate plutonium is reviewed. Careful consideration of the available data shows that particulate plutonium is not more hazardous than the same amount of plutonium distributed uniformly. The data also suggest that the potential hazard from plutonium increases as the dispersion throughout the lung becomes more uniform

  12. Contamination of living environment and human organism with plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, J.

    1981-01-01

    The applicability of 239 Pu in nuclear power is discussed. The radiotoxic properties of plutonium, its tissue distribution and the effects of internal and external contamination are described. The contamination of the atmosphere, water, and soil with plutonium isotopes is discussed. Dosimetry is described of plutonium in the living and working environments as is plutonium determination in the human organism. (H.S.)

  13. Vver-1000 Mox core computational benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The NEA Nuclear Science Committee has established an Expert Group that deals with the status and trends of reactor physics, fuel performance and fuel cycle issues related to disposing of weapons-grade plutonium in mixed-oxide fuel. The objectives of the group are to provide NEA member countries with up-to-date information on, and to develop consensus regarding, core and fuel cycle issues associated with burning weapons-grade plutonium in thermal water reactors (PWR, BWR, VVER-1000, CANDU) and fast reactors (BN-600). These issues concern core physics, fuel performance and reliability, and the capability and flexibility of thermal water reactors and fast reactors to dispose of weapons-grade plutonium in standard fuel cycles. The activities of the NEA Expert Group on Reactor-based Plutonium Disposition are carried out in close co-operation (jointly, in most cases) with the NEA Working Party on Scientific Issues in Reactor Systems (WPRS). A prominent part of these activities include benchmark studies. At the time of preparation of this report, the following benchmarks were completed or in progress: VENUS-2 MOX Core Benchmarks: carried out jointly with the WPRS (formerly the WPPR) (completed); VVER-1000 LEU and MOX Benchmark (completed); KRITZ-2 Benchmarks: carried out jointly with the WPRS (formerly the WPPR) (completed); Hollow and Solid MOX Fuel Behaviour Benchmark (completed); PRIMO MOX Fuel Performance Benchmark (ongoing); VENUS-2 MOX-fuelled Reactor Dosimetry Calculation (ongoing); VVER-1000 In-core Self-powered Neutron Detector Calculational Benchmark (started); MOX Fuel Rod Behaviour in Fast Power Pulse Conditions (started); Benchmark on the VENUS Plutonium Recycling Experiments Configuration 7 (started). This report describes the detailed results of the benchmark investigating the physics of a whole VVER-1000 reactor core using two-thirds low-enriched uranium (LEU) and one-third MOX fuel. It contributes to the computer code certification process and to the

  14. Plutonium use - Present status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dievoet, J. van; Fossoul, E.; Jonckheere, E.; Bemden, E. van den

    1977-01-01

    The use of plutonium in thermal and fast reactors is a demonstrated, if not proven, technology. Moreover, plutonium is being produced in increasing quantities. Evaluation of this production on a world scale shows that it would be theoretically possible to construct numerous breeders and thus to make the best use of plutonium, while considerably reducing uranium consumption. This source of plutonium is nevertheless dependent on the reprocessing of irradiated fuel. Long delays in installing and adequate world reprocessing capacity are weakening the prospects for introducing breeders. Furthermore, the critical situation regarding reprocessing may delay the development of complementary reprocessing methods for fuels with a high plutonium content and high burnup. The recycling of plutonium is now a well-known technique and any objections to it hardly bear analysis. Utilization of plutonium offers an appreciable saving in terms of uranium and separative work units; and it can also be shown that immediate reprocessing of the recycling fuel is not essential for the economics of the concept. Temporary storage of recycled fuel is a particularly safe form of concentrating plutonium, namely in irradiated plutonium-bearing fuel assemblies. Finally, recycling offers such flexibility that it represents no obstacle to fuel management at power plants with light-water reactors. These strategic considerations imply that the technology of using plutonium for fabricating thermal or fast reactor fuels is both technically reliable and economically viable. The methods used in industrial facilities are fully reassuring in this respect. Although various unsolved problems exist, none seems likely to impede current developments, while the industrial experience gained has enabled the economics and reliability of the methods to be improved appreciably. Apart from the techno-economic aspects, the plutonium industry must face extremely important problems in connection with the safety of personnel

  15. Preparation of hexavalent plutonium and its determination in the presence of tetravalent plutonium; Preparation de plutonium hexavalent et dosage en presence de plutonium tetravalent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corpel, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Corpel, J [Institut du Radium, 75 - Paris (France)

    1958-07-01

    In order to study the eventual reduction of plutonium from the VI-valent state to the IV-valent state, in sulphuric medium, under the influence of its own {alpha} radiation or of the {gamma}-rays from a cobalt-60 source, we have developed a method for preparing pure hexavalent plutonium and two methods for determining solutions containing tetravalent and hexavalent plutonium simultaneously. Hexavalent plutonium was prepared by anodic oxidation at a platinum electrode. Study of the oxidation yield as a function of various factors has made it possible to define experimental conditions giving complete oxidation. For concentrations in total plutonium greater than 1.5 x 10{sup -3} M, determination of the two valencies IV and VI was carried out by spectrophotometry at two wavelengths. For lower concentrations, the determination was done by counting, after separation of the tetravalent plutonium in the form of fluoride in the presence of a carrier. (author) [French] Afin d'etudier l'eventuelle reduction du plutonium de l'etat de valence VI a l'etat de valence IV, en milieu sulfurique sous l'influence de son propre rayonnement {alpha} ou des rayons {gamma} d'une source de cobalt-60, nous avons mis au point une methode de preparation de plutonium hexavalent pur et deux methodes de dosage des solutions contenant simultanement du plutonium tetravalent et du plutonium hexavalent. Nous avons prepare le plutonium hexavalent par oxydation anodique au contact d'une electrode de platine. L'etude de rendement de l'oxydation en fonction des divers facteurs nous a permis de definir des conditions experimentales donnant une oxydation complete. Pour des concentrations en plutonium total superieures a 1,5.10{sup -3} M, le dosage des deux valences IV et VI a ete realise par spectrophotometrie a deux longueurs d'onde. Pour des concentrations inferieures, le dosage a ete effectue par comptage apres separation du plutonium tetravalent sous la forme du fluorure en presence d'un entraineur

  16. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA open-quotes...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...close quotes In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or open-quotes white papers.close quotes In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE

  17. Automated amperometric plutonium assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The amperometric titration for plutonium assay has been used in the nuclear industry for over twenty years and has been in routine use at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory since 1976 for the analysis of plutonium oxide and mixed oxide fuel material for the Fast Flux Test Facility. It has proven itself to be an accurate and reliable method. The method may be used as a direct end point titration or an excess of titrant may be added and a back titration performed to aid in determination of the end point. Due to the slowness of the PuVI-FeII reaction it is difficult to recognize when the end point is being approached and is very time consuming if the current is allowed to decay to the residual value after each titrant addition. For this reason the back titration in which the rapid FeII-CrVI reaction occurs is used by most laboratories. The back titration is performed by the addition of excess ferrous solution followed by two measured aliquots of standard dichromate with measurement of cell current after each addition

  18. Ceramification: A plutonium immobilization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rask, W.C. [Dept. of Energy, Golden, CO (United States); Phillips, A.G. [Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a low temperature technique for stabilizing and immobilizing actinide compounds using a combination process/storage vessel of stainless steel, in which measured amounts of actinide nitrate solutions and actinide oxides (and/or residues) are systematically treated to yield a solid article. The chemical ceramic process is based on a coating technology that produces rare earth oxide coatings for defense applications involving plutonium. The final product of this application is a solid, coherent actinide oxide with process-generated encapsulation that has long-term environmental stability. Actinide compounds can be stabilized as pure materials for ease of re-use or as intimate mixtures with additives such as rare earth oxides to increase their degree of proliferation resistance. Starting materials for the process can include nitrate solutions, powders, aggregates, sludges, incinerator ashes, and others. Agents such as cerium oxide or zirconium oxide may be added as powders or precursors to enhance the properties of the resulting solid product. Additives may be included to produce a final product suitable for use in nuclear fuel pellet production. The process is simple and reduces the time and expense for stabilizing plutonium compounds. It requires a very low equipment expenditure and can be readily implemented into existing gloveboxes. The process is easily conducted with less associated risk than proposed alternative technologies.

  19. Cancer hazard from inhaled plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofman, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The best estimate of the lung cancer potential in humans for inhaled insoluble compounds of plutonium (such as PuO 2 particles) has been grossly underestimated by such authoritative bodies as the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the British Medical Research Council. Calculations are presented of lung cancer induction by 239 Pu as insoluble particles and for deposited reactor-grade Pu. The reason for the gross underestimate of the carcinogenic effects of Pu by ICRP or the British Medical Research Council (BMRC) is their use of a totally unrealistic idealized model for the clearance of deposited Pu from the lungs and bronchi plus their non-recognition of the bronchi as the true site for most human lung cancers. The erroneous model used by such organizations also fails totally to take into account the effect of cigarette-smoking upon the physiological function of human lungs. Plutonium nuclides, such as 239 Pu, or other alpha particle-emitting nuclides, in an insoluble form represent an inhalation cancer hazard in a class some 100,000 times more potent than the potent chemical carcinogens, weight for weight. The already-existing lung cancer data for beagle dogs inhaling insoluble PuO 2 particles is clearly in order of magnitude agreement with calculations for humans

  20. Japanese utilities' plutonium utilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuichiro.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's 10 utility companies are working and will continue to work towards establishing a fully closed nuclear fuel cycle. The key goals of which are: (1) reprocessing spent fuel; (2) recycling recovered uranium and plutonium; and (3) commercializing fast breeder technology by around the year 2030. This course of action by the Japanese electric power industry is in full accordance with Japan's national policy outlined in the government's report ''The Long-Term Program for Research, Development, and Nuclear Energy,'' which was published in June 1994. The Japanese civilian nuclear program is a long-term program that looks into the 21st century and beyond. It is quite true that sustaining the recycling option for energy security and the global environment demands a large investment. For it to be accepted by the public, safety must be the highest priority and will be pursued at a great cost if necessary. In its history, Japan has learned that as technology advances, costs will come down. The Japanese utility industry will continue investment in technology without compromising safety until the recycling option becomes more competitive with other options. This effort will be equally applied to the development of the commercial FBRs. The Japanese utility industry is confident that Japan's stable policy and strong objective to develop competitive and peaceful technology will contribute to the global economy and the environment without increasing the threat of plutonium proliferation

  1. Laboratory-scale evaluations of alternative plutonium precipitation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martella, L.L.; Saba, M.T.; Campbell, G.K.

    1984-01-01

    Plutonium(III), (IV), and (VI) carbonate; plutonium(III) fluoride; plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate; and plutonium(IV) and (VI) hydroxide precipitation methods were evaluated for conversion of plutonium nitrate anion-exchange eluate to a solid, and compared with the current plutonium peroxide precipitation method used at Rocky Flats. Plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate, plutonium(III) fluoride, and plutonium(IV) hydroxide precipitations were the most effective of the alternative conversion methods tested because of the larger particle-size formation, faster filtration rates, and the low plutonium loss to the filtrate. These were found to be as efficient as, and in some cases more efficient than, the peroxide method. 18 references, 14 figures, 3 tables

  2. Use of zero power plutonium reactor measurements as a support of criticality prediction for the SNR-300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilate, S.; de Wouters, R.; Wehmann, U.; Helm, F.; Scholtyssek, W.

    1978-01-01

    Evaluations of criticality measurements performed in various SNEAK and Zero Power Plutonium Reactor (ZPPR) cores are compared. The best available methods of calculations (including transport theory) are used. The ZPPR results support well the trend indicated by the SNEAK evaluations for clean cores and for cores with followers; for cores with absorbers partially inserted, the agreement is only rough. Evaluations of control rod worth measurements are therefore also compared, using the routine method of calculation for SNR-300 (diffusion theory). The control rod worths are largely underestimated in SNEAK (C/E = 0.89), but only slightly underestimated in the ZPPR (C/E = 0.97). The difference in the nature of core fuel (uranium in SNEAK, plutonium in the ZPPR) could be at the origin of this discrepancy

  3. The distribution of plutonium-241 in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, N.D.

    1977-01-01

    Plutonium-241 citrate solution at pH 6.5 was injected intravenously or intraperitoneally into hamsters and rats at a dose of 50 MBq kg -1 (1.35 mCi kg -1 ). The animals were killed 1 day or 1 week later, and tissues were removed for autoradiography and radiochemical analysis. Plutonium-241 was distributed in rats in the same way as plutonium-239, and is a suitable isotope for high-resolution tissue-section autoradiography. Plutonium deposits in cells consisted of a nuclear and a cytoplasmic component. In the hamster kidney cells, the amount associated with the nucleus was about 55 per cent of the total cellular plutonium at 24 hours after injection. Six days later, it was only about 30 per cent. Plutonium deposits were also characterized in hepatocytes, in the interstitial cells of the testes, in the cells of ovarian follicles, in chondrocytes and in bone cells, including osteoblasts and osteocytes. In bone there appeared to be both an extracellular and intracellular deposit. No evidence was found of substantial incorporation of plutonium into the mineral phase of bone. (author)

  4. Electrochemistry of plutonium in molten halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurry, L.E.; Moy, G.M.M.; Bowersox, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    The electrochemistry of plutonium in molten halides is of technological importance as a method of purification of plutonium. Previous authors have reported that plutonium can be purified by electrorefining impure plutonium in various molten haldies. Work to eluciate the mechanism of the plutonium reduction in molten halides has been limited to a chronopotentiometric study in LiCl-KCl. Potentiometric studies have been carried out to determine the standard reduction potential for the plutonium (III) couple in various molten alkali metal halides. Initial cyclic voltammetric experiments were performed in molten KCL at 1100 K. A silver/silver chloride (10 mole %) in equimolar NaCl-KCl was used as a reference electrode. Working and counter electrodes were tungsten. The cell components and melt were contained in a quartz crucible. Background cyclic voltammograms of the KCl melt at the tungsten electrode showed no evidence of electroactive impurities in the melt. Plutonium was added to the melt as PuCl/sub 3/, which was prepared by chlorination of the oxide. At low concentrations of PuCl/sub 3/ in the melt (0.01-0.03 molar), no reduction wave due to the reduction of Pu(III) was observed in the voltammograms up to the potassium reduction limit of the melt. However on scan reversal after scanning into the potassium reduction limit a new oxidation wave was observed

  5. Analytic determination of plutonium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballada, J.

    1967-01-01

    The work described in this report was undertaken with a view to determining the plutonium content in the fall-out from nuclear explosions. In the first part are described in turn the importance of the problems due to the plutonium, the physico-chemical properties of the radioelement and the biological dangers which it presents. A detailed and critical analysis is made of the radio-toxicological determination of the plutonium as reported in the literature prior to this report. The second part consists in the presentation of a judicious choice of techniques making it possible to determine plutonium in air, rain-water, soils and ash. After a detailed description of the measurement equipment and the operational techniques which have been developed, a justification of these techniques is given with particular reference to their sensitivity and specificity. After a brief conclusion concerning the preceding chapters, the results are presented. These are then discussed in the ease of each element in which the plutonium has been determined. This discussion is concluded by a consideration of the importance of the occurrence of fall-out plutonium on problems relating to public health. From a consideration of 200 analyses carried out, it is concluded that the contribution of plutonium to the exposure of populations is still very small compared to that of natural radiation and that due to such fission products as strontium 90. The report includes 63 literature references, 26 figures and 11 tables. (author) [fr

  6. Solubility of plutonium dioxide aerosols, in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, G.J.; Kanapilly, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Solubility of plutonium aerosols is an important parameter in establishing risk estimates for industrial workers who might accidentally inhale these materials and in evaluating environmental health impacts associated with Pu. In vitro solubility of industrial plutonium aerosols in a simulated lung fluid is compared to similar studies with ultrafine aerosols from laser ignition of delta phase plutonium metal and laboratory-produced spherical particles of 238 PuO 2 and 239 PuO 2 . Although relatively insoluble, industrial plutonium-mixed oxide aerosols were much more soluble than laboratory-produced plutonium dioxide particles. Chain agglomerate aerosols from laser ignition of metallic Pu indicated in vitro dissolution half-times of 10 and 50 days for activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 0.7 and 2.3 μm, respectively. Plutonium-containing mixed oxide aerosols indicated dissolution half-times of 40 to 500 days for particles formed by industrial powder comminution and blending. Centerless grinding of fuel pellets yielded plutonium-containing aerosols with dissolution half-times of 1200 to 8000 days. All mixed oxide particles were in the size range 1.0 μm to 2.5 μm AMAD

  7. The Plutonium Temperature Effect Experimental Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeck, Wim; Leclaire, Nicolas; Letang, Eric [IRSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Girault, Emmanuel; Fouillaud, Patrick [CEA, VALDUC (France)

    2008-07-01

    Various theoretical studies have shown that highly diluted plutonium solutions could have a positive temperature effect but (up to now) no experimental program has confirmed this effect. The main goal of the French Plutonium Temperature Effect Experimental Program (or PU+ in short) is to effectively show that such a positive temperature effect exists for diluted plutonium solutions. The experiments were conducted in the 'Apparatus B' facility at the CEA Valduc research centre in France and involved several sub-critical approach type of experiments using plutonium nitrate solutions with concentrations of 14.3, 15 and 20 g/l at temperatures ranging from 20 to 40 deg. C. A total number of 14 phase I experiments (consisting of independent subcritical approaches) have been performed (5 at 20 g/l, 4 at 15 g/l and 5 at 14.3 g/l) between 2006 and 2007. The impact of the uncertainties on the solution acidity and the plutonium concentration makes it difficult to clearly demonstrate the positive temperature effect, requiring an additional phase II experiment (in which the use of the same plutonium solution was ensured) from 22 to 28 deg. C performed in July 2007. This experiment has shown the existence of a positive temperature effect approx +2 pcm/deg. C (from 22 to 28 deg. C for a plutonium concentration of 14.3 g/l). (authors)

  8. Plutonium speciation affected by environmental bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, M.P.; Icopini, G.A.; Boukhalfa, H.

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium has no known biological utility, yet it has the potential to interact with bacterial cellular and extracellular structures that contain metal-binding groups, to interfere with the uptake and utilization of essential elements, and to alter cell metabolism. These interactions can transform plutonium from its most common forms, solid, mineral-adsorbed, or colloidal Pu(IV), to a variety of biogeochemical species that have much different physico-chemical properties. Organic acids that are extruded products of cell metabolism can solubilize plutonium and then enhance its environmental mobility, or in some cases facilitate plutonium transfer into cells. Phosphate- and carboxylate-rich polymers associated with cell walls can bind plutonium to form mobile biocolloids or Pu-laden biofilm/mineral solids. Bacterial membranes, proteins or redox agents can produce strongly reducing electrochemical zones and generate molecular Pu(III/IV) species or oxide particles. Alternatively, they can oxidize plutonium to form soluble Pu(V) or Pu(VI) complexes. This paper reviews research on plutonium-bacteria interactions and closely related studies on the biotransformation of uranium and other metals. (orig.)

  9. Plutonium peroxide precipitation: review and current research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, P.G.; Miner, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Increasing the HNO 3 concentration decreases the filtration time but increases the plutonium concentration in the filtrate. A compromise was therefore necessary. If a minimum plutonium concentration is required in the filtrate, the acidity could be lowered to 1.9M with an approximate doubling in the filtration time. The H 2 O 2 concentration has little effect on filtration time. However, the higher the H 2 O 2 concentration, the less plutonium lost to the filtrate. Concentrations higher than the 22 moles/mole Pu recommended (at least up to 30 molar which was the highest investigated) would be beneficial if reagent costs are not excessive and production capacity exists for destroying the excess H 2 O 2 in the filtrate. Although the effect is not large, filtration time is shorter and the plutonium concentration in the filtrate is lower if metallic impurities are present. The slowest rate of H 2 O 2 addition investigated gives a plutonium peroxide precipitate with the fastest filtration time. The rate of addition has very little effect on the plutonium concentration in the filtrate. The temperature has little effect on the filtration time. 14 0 C is recommended since decomposition of H 2 O 2 would be slower at 14 0 C than at 22 0 C (min. Pu content in the filtrate). The effect of digestion time on both the filtration time and the plutonium content in the filtrate is minor, so the shortest digestion time investigated is recommended

  10. Radiological safety aspects of handling plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararajan, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Department of Atomic Energy in its scheme of harnessing the nuclear energy for electrical power generation and strategic applications has given a huge role to utilization of plutonium. In the power production programme, fast reactors with plutonium as fuel are expected to play a major role. This would require establishing fuel reprocessing plants to handle both thermal and fast reactor fuels. So in the nuclear fuel cycle facilities variety of chemical, metallurgical, mechanical operations have to be carried out involving significant inventories of "2"3"9 Pu and associated radionuclides. Plutonium is the most radiotoxic radionuclide and therefore any facility handling it has to be designed and operated with utmost care. Two problems of major concern in the protection of persons working in plutonium handling facilities are the internal exposure to the operating personnel from uptake of plutonium and transplutonic nuclides as they are highly radiotoxic and the radiation exposure of hands and eye lens during fuel fabrication operations especially while handling recycled high burn up plutonium. In view of the fact that annual limit for intake is very small for "2"3"9Pu and its radiation emission characteristics are such that it is a huge challenge for the health physicists to detect Pu in air and in workers. This paper discusses the principles and practices followed in providing radiological surveillance to workers in plutonium handling areas. The challenges in protecting the workers from receiving exposures to hands and eye lens in handling high burn up plutonium are also discussed. The sites having Pu fuel cycle facilities should have trained medical staff to handle cases involving excessive intake of plutonium. (author)

  11. Assesment of Plutonium 238 and Plutonium 239+240 in soils of different agricultural regions of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Martinez, E.A.

    1998-02-01

    In this report an assesment and measurement of PLUTONIUM 238, PLUTONIUM 239, and PLUTONIUM 240 are made. Samples of cultivated soils in 15 provinces of Guatemala were taken. To separate plutonium isotopes a radiochemical method was made using extraction, precipitation and ionic interchange. By electrodeposition the plutonium was measured using an alpha spectroscopy by PIPS method. The radioactivity ranges from 2.84 mBq/Kg to 36.38 mBq/Kg for plutonium 238, and 8.46 mBq/Kg to 26.61 mBq/Kg for plutonium 239+240

  12. Lung cancers already produced by plutonium inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter presents the basis for the author's estimate that plutonium particulates have already committed approximately 950,000 persons worldwide to a lung-cancer death, and that more will be so committed in the future, even if no more plutonium is dispersed in the environment. The author's calculations are based on fallout data from atmospheric bomb testing, and on two sets of workers exposed to plutonium: one group at the Rocky Flats Plant in Colorado, and the other at the Los Alamos Laboratory who were involved in the Manhattan Project

  13. HENC performance evaluation and plutonium calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Baca, J.; Pecos, J.M.; Davidson, D.R.; McElroy, R.D.; Brochu, D.B.

    1997-10-01

    The authors have designed a high-efficiency neutron counter (HENC) to increase the plutonium content in 200-L waste drums. The counter uses totals neutron counting, coincidence counting, and multiplicity counting to determine the plutonium mass. The HENC was developed as part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between the Department of Energy and Canberra Industries. This report presents the results of the detector modifications, the performance tests, the add-a-source calibration, and the plutonium calibration at Los Alamos National Laboratory (TA-35) in 1996

  14. Pyrochemical recovery of plutonium fluoride reduction slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.C.; Rayburn, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    A process was developed for the pyrochemical recovery of plutonium from residues resulting from the PuF 4 reduction process. The process involves crushing the CaF 2 slag and dissolving it at 800 0 C in a CaCl 2 solvent. The plutonium, which exists either as finely divided metal or as incompletely reduced fluoride salt, is reduced to metal and/or allowed to coalesce as a massive button in the bottom of the reaction crucible. The recovery of plutonium in a 1-day cycle averaged 96%; all of the resulting residues were discardable

  15. Continuous precipitation process of plutonium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, P.

    1967-03-01

    This work concerns the continuous precipitation process of plutonium oxalate. Investigations about the solubility of different valence states in nitric-oxalic and in nitric-sulfuric-oxalic medium lead to select the precipitation process of tetravalent plutonium oxalate. Settling velocity and granulometry of tetravalent oxalate plutonium have been studied with variation of several precipitation parameters such as: temperature, acidity, excess of oxalic acid and aging time. Then are given test results of some laboratory continuous apparatus. Conditions of operation with adopted tubular apparatus are defined in conclusion. A flow-sheet is given for a process at industrial scale. (author) [fr

  16. Nondestructive analysis of plutonium contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.E.; Taylor, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    Plutonium contaminated soil is currently being removed from a covered liquid waste disposal trench near the Pu Processing facility on the Hanford Project. This soil with the plutonium is being mined using remote techniques and equipment. The mined soil is being packaged for placement into retrievable storage, pending possible recovery. To meet the requirements of criticality safety and materials accountability, a nondestructive analysis program has been developed to determine the quantity of plutonium in each packing-storage container. This paper describes the total measurement program: equipment systems, calibration techniques, matrix assumption, instrument control program and a review of laboratory operating experience

  17. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-01-01

    'The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading conceptual design and includes a process block diagram, process description, preliminary equipment specifications, and several can loading issues. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.'

  18. Fluorescent determination of neptunium in plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandruk, V.M.; Babaev, A.S.; Dem'yanova, T.A.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new procedure for direct determination of Neptunium in Plutonium using laser induced time resolved fluorescence method. The procedure based on measurement of fluorescence intensity of Neptunium followed its concentration in effective layer of pellet of calcium fluoride. Detection limit of determination of Neptunium is 2 10 -12 g. At the level of Neptunium content in Plutonium more than 5 ppm relative standard deviation is equal 0.08-0.12. For carrying out of single measurement it is necessary neither more nor less 5 mkg Plutonium

  19. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-01-01

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R and D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R and D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the

  20. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-05-13

    'The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading conceptual design and includes a process block diagram, process description, preliminary equipment specifications, and several can loading issues. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.'

  1. Uranium-plutonium fuel for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, S.A.; Astafiev, V.A.; Clouchenkov, A.E.; Gustchin, K.I.; Menshikova, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    Technology was established for fabrication of MOX fuel pellets from co-precipitated and mechanically blended mixed oxides. Both processes ensure the homogeneous structure of pellets readily dissolvable in nitric acid upon reprocessing. In order to increase the plutonium charge in a reactor-burner a process was tested for producing MOX fuel with higher content of plutonium and an inert diluent. It was shown that it is feasible to produce fuel having homogeneous structure and the content of plutonium up to 45% mass

  2. Method of stripping plutonium from tributyl phosphate solution which contains dibutyl phosphate-plutonium stable complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochsenfeld, W.; Schmieder, H.

    1976-01-01

    Fast breeder fuel elements which have been highly burnt-up are reprocessed by extracting uranium and plutonium into an organic solution containing tributyl phosphate. The tributyl phosphate degenerates at least partially into dibutyl phosphate and monobutyl phosphate, which form stable complexes with tetravalent plutonium in the organic solution. This tetravalent plutonium is released from its complexed state and stripped into aqueous phase by contacting the organic solution with an aqueous phase containing tetravalent uranium. 6 claims, 1 drawing figure

  3. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: creation (fuel cycle, Pu formed in thermal reactors); properties; Pu in fast reactors; fast reactor experience; radioactivity; handling; Pu and weapons. (U.K.)

  4. What is plutonium stabilization, and what is safe storage of plutonium?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    The end of the cold war has resulted in the shutdown of nuclear weapons production and the start of dismantlement of significant numbers of nuclear weapons. This, in turn, is creating an inventory of plutonium requiring interim and long-term storage. A key question is, ''What is required for safe, multidecade, plutonium storage?'' The requirements for storage, in turn, define what is needed to stabilize the plutonium from its current condition into a form acceptable for interim and long-term storage. Storage requirements determine if research is required to (1) define required technical conditions for interim and long-term storage and (2) develop or improve current stabilization technologies. Storage requirements depend upon technical, policy, and economic factors. The technical issues are complicated by several factors. Plutonium in aerosol form is highly hazardous. Plutonium in water is hazardous. The plutonium inventory is in multiple chemical forms--some of which are chemically reactive. Also, some of the existing storage forms are clearly unsuitable for storage periods over a few years. Gas generation by plutonium compounds complicates storage: (1) all plutonium slowly decays creating gaseous helium and (2) the radiation from plutonium decay can initiate many chemical reactions-some of which generate significant quantities of gases. Gas generation can pressurize sealed storage packages. Last nuclear criticality must be avoided

  5. Determination of zenith hydrostatic delay and its impact on GNSS-derived integrated water vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Surface pressure is a necessary meteorological variable for the accurate determination of integrated water vapor (IWV using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS. The lack of pressure observations is a big issue for the conversion of historical GNSS observations, which is a relatively new area of GNSS applications in climatology. Hence the use of the surface pressure derived from either a blind model (e.g., Global Pressure and Temperature 2 wet, GPT2w or a global atmospheric reanalysis (e.g., ERA-Interim becomes an important alternative solution. In this study, pressure derived from these two methods is compared against the pressure observed at 108 global GNSS stations at four epochs (00:00, 06:00, 12:00 and 18:00 UTC each day for the period 2000–2013. Results show that a good accuracy is achieved from the GPT2w-derived pressure in the latitude band between −30 and 30° and the average value of 6 h root-mean-square errors (RMSEs across all the stations in this region is 2.5 hPa. Correspondingly, an error of 5.8 mm and 0.9 kg m−2 in its resultant zenith hydrostatic delay (ZHD and IWV is expected. However, for the stations located in the mid-latitude bands between −30 and −60° and between 30 and 60°, the mean value of the RMSEs is 7.3 hPa, and for the stations located in the high-latitude bands from −60 to −90° and from 60 to 90°, the mean value of the RMSEs is 9.9 hPa. The mean of the RMSEs of the ERA-Interim-derived pressure across at the selected 100 stations is 0.9 hPa, which will lead to an equivalent error of 2.1 mm and 0.3 kg m−2 in the ZHD and IWV, respectively, determined from this ERA-Interim-derived pressure. Results also show that the monthly IWV determined using pressure from ERA-Interim has a good accuracy − with a relative error of better than 3 % on a global scale; thus, the monthly IWV resulting from ERA-Interim-derived pressure has the potential to be used for climate studies

  6. Animal data on plutonium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Animal data are necessary in the assessment of plutonium toxicity since it is unlikely that the necessary information on effects from humans will be obtained. Experiments on animals must be designed to provide understanding of the mechanisms at work if the results are to be applied to man since it is a statistical impossibility to design experiments to measure directly the low levels of risk that are of concern. Cancer induction appears to be the risk of greatest concern with the lung and bone apparently the most susceptible organs, depending upon the method of administration. Current limitations on these organs do not appear to have the safety margin formerly believed and there are some uncertainties in the extrapolation from animal data to man. (author)

  7. Deep borehole disposal of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibb, F. G. F.; Taylor, K. J.; Burakov, B. E.

    2008-01-01

    Excess plutonium not destined for burning as MOX or in Generation IV reactors is both a long-term waste management problem and a security threat. Immobilisation in mineral and ceramic-based waste forms for interim safe storage and eventual disposal is a widely proposed first step. The safest and most secure form of geological disposal for Pu yet suggested is in very deep boreholes and we propose here that the key to successful combination of these immobilisation and disposal concepts is the encapsulation of the waste form in small cylinders of recrystallized granite. The underlying science is discussed and the results of high pressure and temperature experiments on zircon, depleted UO 2 and Ce-doped cubic zirconia enclosed in granitic melts are presented. The outcomes of these experiments demonstrate the viability of the proposed solution and that Pu could be successfully isolated from its environment for many millions of years. (authors)

  8. Design criteria for plutonium gloveboxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The standard defines criteria for the design of glovebox systems to be used for the handling of plutonium in any form or isotopic composition or when mixed with other elements or compounds. The glovebox system is a series of physical barriers provided with glove ports and gloves, through which process and maintenance operations may be performed, together with an operating ventilation system. The system minimizes the potential for release of radioactive material to the environment, protects operators from contamination, and mitigates the consequences of abnormal condiations. The standard covers confinement, construction, materials, windows, glove ports, gloves, equipment insertion and removal, lighting, ventilation, fire protection, criticality prevention, services and utilities, radiation shielding, waste systems, monitoring and alarm systems, safeguards, quality assurance, and decommissioning

  9. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50's structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG's charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  10. Reactor core of FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hideyuki; Ichimiya, Masakazu.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor core is a homogeneous reactor core divided into two regions of an inner reactor core region at the center and an outer reactor core region surrounding the outside of the inner reactor core region. In this case, the inner reactor core region has a lower plutonium enrichment degree and less amount of neutron leakage in the radial direction, and the outer reactor core region has higher plutonium enrichment degree and greater amount of neutron leakage in the radial direction. Moderator materials containing hydrogen are added only to the inner reactor core fuels in the inner reactor core region. Pins loaded with the fuels with addition of the moderator materials are inserted at a ratio of from 3 to 10% of the total number of the fuel pins. The moderator materials containing hydrogen comprise zirconium hydride, titanium hydride, or calcium hydride. With such a constitution, fluctuation of the power distribution in the radial direction along with burning is suppressed. In addition, an absolute value of the Doppler coefficient can be increased, and a temperature coefficient of coolants can be reduced. (I.N.)

  11. Plutonium finishing plant dangerous waste training plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ENTROP, G.E.

    1999-01-01

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas

  12. Recommendations for plutonium colloid size determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosiewicz, S.T.

    1984-02-01

    This report presents recommendations for plutonium colloid size determination and summarizes a literature review, discussions with other researchers, and comments from equipment manufacturers. Four techniques suitable for plutonium colloid size characterization are filtration and ultrafiltration, gel permeation chromatography, diffusion methods, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (conditionally). Our findings include the following: (1) Filtration and ultrafiltration should be the first methods used for plutonium colloid size determination because they can provide the most rapid results with the least complicated experimental arrangement. (2) After expertise has been obtained with filtering, gel permeation chromatography should be incorporated into the colloid size determination program. (3) Diffusion methods can be used next. (4) High-pressure liquid chromatography will be suitable after appropriate columns are available. A plutonium colloid size characterization program with filtration/ultrafiltration and gel permeation chromatography has been initiated

  13. IMPROVED PROCESS OF PLUTONIUM CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, B.F.

    1959-06-30

    This patent relates to an improvement in the bismuth phosphate process for separating and recovering plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium, resulting in improved decontamination even without the use of scavenging precipitates in the by-product precipitation step and subsequently more complete recovery of the plutonium in the product precipitation step. This improvement is achieved by addition of fluomolybdic acid, or a water soluble fluomolybdate, such as the ammonium, sodium, or potassium salt thereof, to the aqueous nitric acid solution containing tetravalent plutonium ions and contaminating fission products, so as to establish a fluomolybdate ion concentration of about 0.05 M. The solution is then treated to form the bismuth phosphate plutonium carrying precipitate.

  14. Calculating the plutonium in spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnham, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Many members of the public are concerned about plutonium. They are worried about its environmental, health and proliferation risks. Fundamental to all such considerations are two related questions: how much plutonium do nuclear reactors produce ? and how accurately do the relevant authorities know these production figures ? These two questions have been studied with particular reference to the UK civil Magnox reactors. In 1990 these were still the only UK civil reactors whose spent fuel had been reprocessed to extract plutonium in routine production. It has not been possible to conclude that the relevant government industry and safeguard authorities are aware of how much plutonium these reactors produce and that the figures are known to the highest achievable accuracy. To understand why, this chapter will outline some of the history of the attempts to get answers to these two questions. (author)

  15. Pulmonary carcinogenesis from plutonium-containing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.; Smith, D.M.; Anderson, E.C.

    1980-01-01

    Plutonium administered as an alpha radiation source to the respiratory tracts of Syrian hamsters has resulted in various incidences of neoplasia. Adenomas are the primary lung tumor observed, but adenocarcinomas are also prevalent

  16. Direct reduction of plutonium from dicesium hexachloroplutonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averill, W.A.; Boyd, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant produces dicesium hexachloroplutonate (DCHP) primarily as a reagent in the molten salt extraction of americium from plutonium metal. DCHP is precipitated from aqueous chloride solutions derived from the leaching of process residues with a high degree of selectivity. DCHP is a chloride salt of plutonium, while the traditional aqueous precipitate is a hydrated oxide. Plutonium metal preparation from the oxide involves either the conversion of oxide to a halide followed by metallothermic reduction or direct reduction of the oxide using a flux. Either method generates at least three times as much radioactively contaminated waste as metal produced. Plutonium concentration by DCHP precipitation, however, produces a chloride salt that can be reduced using calcium metal at a temperature of approximately 1000K. In this paper the advantages and limitations of this process are discussed

  17. SEPARATION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM, AND FISSION PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, R.; Lister, M.W.

    1958-12-16

    Uranium and plutonium can be separated from neutron-lrradiated uranium by a process consisting of dissolvlng the lrradiated material in nitric acid, saturating the solution with a nitrate salt such as ammonium nitrate, rendering the solution substantially neutral with a base such as ammonia, adding a reducing agent such as hydroxylamine to change plutonium to the trivalent state, treating the solution with a substantially water immiscible organic solvent such as dibutoxy diethylether to selectively extract the uranium, maklng the residual aqueous solutlon acid with nitric acid, adding an oxidizing agent such as ammonlum bromate to oxidize the plutonium to the hexavalent state, and selectlvely extracting the plutonium by means of an immlscible solvent, such as dibutoxy dlethyletber.

  18. Plutonium Immobilization Bagless Transfer Can Size Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.; Stokes, M.; Rogers, L.; Ward, C.

    1998-02-01

    This report identifies and documents the most appropriate bagless transfer can size to support Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading operations. Also, this report considers can diameter, can wall thickness, and can length

  19. The first metallurgical tests on plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grison, E.; Abramson, R.; Anselin, F.; Monti, H.

    1958-01-01

    Metallic plutonium was first prepared in France in January 1956, as soon as we had access to quantities of the order of several grams of plutonium, which had been extracted from the rods of the pile EL2 at Saclay. Since up to the present this reactor, of thermal power 2 000 kW, has been our only source of plutonium, we have so far only worked on experimental quantities sufficient for the basic tests but not for tests on a scale of possible applications. It is this work, carried out during this phase of preliminary research, which is described below. With the starting up of the plutonium extraction plant at Marcoule, where the reactor G1 has been operating at power for more than a year, we shall go on next to a another order of magnitude which will allow the manufacture and experimentation of prototype fuel elements. (author) [fr

  20. Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX Separation Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulenova, Alena; Vandegrift, George F. III; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the project is to examine the chemical speciation of plutonium in UREX+ (uranium/tributylphosphate) extraction processes for advanced fuel technology. Researchers will analyze the change in speciation using existing thermodynamics and kinetic computer codes to examine the speciation of plutonium in aqueous and organic phases. They will examine the different oxidation states of plutonium to find the relative distribution between the aqueous and organic phases under various conditions such as different concentrations of nitric acid, total nitrates, or actinide ions. They will also utilize techniques such as X-ray absorbance spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering for determining plutonium and uranium speciation in all separation stages. The project started in April 2005 and is scheduled for completion in March 2008.

  1. International shipment of plutonium by air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, J.E.; McGrogan, J.P.

    1995-05-01

    In support of the United States (US) Government's decision to place excess plutonium oxide at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, the Department of State notified the Congress that a plutonium storage vault at the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Site would be added to the eligible facilities list. As part of the preparations to transfer the plutonium oxide under IAEA safeguards, samples of the powder were taken from the inventory to be shipped to the IAEA headquarters in Vienna, Austria, for laboratory analysis. The analysis of these samples was of high priority, and the IAEA requested that the material be shipped by aircraft, the most expeditious method

  2. Waste minimization at a plutonium processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1995-01-01

    As part of Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) mission to reduce the nuclear danger throughout the world, the plutonium processing facility at LANL maintains expertise and skills in nuclear weapons technologies as well as leadership in all peaceful applications of plutonium technologies, including fuel fabrication for terrestrial and space reactors and heat sources and thermoelectric generators for space missions. Another near-term challenge resulted from two safety assessments performed by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and the U.S. Department of Energy during the past two years. These assessments have necessitated the processing and stabilization of plutonium contained in tons of residues so that they can be stored safely for an indefinite period. This report describes waste streams and approaches to waste reduction of plutonium management

  3. Investigation of plutonium abundance and age analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huailong, Wu; Jian, Gong; Fanhua, Hao [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). Inst. of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry

    2007-06-15

    Based on spectra analysis software, all of the plutonium material peak counts are analyzed. Relatively efficiency calibration is done by the non-coupling peaks of {sup 239}Pu. By using the known isotopes half life and yield, the coupling peaks counts are allocated by non-coupling peaks, consequently the atom ratios of each isotope are gotten. The formula between atom ratio and abundance or age is deduced by plutonium material isotopes decay characteristic. And so the abundance and age of plutonium material is gotten. After some re- peat measurements for a plutonium equipment are completed, a comparison between our analysis results and PC-FRAM and the owner's reference results are done. (authors)

  4. Plutonium emission from the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossew, P.

    2013-01-01

    A strong earthquake and subsequent tsunami on 11 th March 2011 initiated a severe accident in units 1 to 4 of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, resulting in substantial releases of radionuclides. While much has since been published 00 environmental contamination and exposure to radio--iodine and radio-caesium, little is known about releases of plutonium and other non-volatile elements. Although the total activities of released 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs are of the same order of magnitude as of the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the contribution of little volatile elements, including Pu, is much smaller in Fukushima fallout. The reason is the different physical nature of the accident sequence which led to a release of some 10 - 5% of the core inventories only (to be compared with 3.5% from Chernobyl). In this contribution the available data on Pu in Fukushima fallout will be reviewed. Data sources are mainly reports and press releases by Japanese authorities and a few scientific articles. The mean ratio 239+240 Pu: 137 Cs in the near field around the NPP (mainly part of Fukushima prefecture and districts of adjacent prefectures) can be assumed about 3 x 10 - 7 , to be compared to nearly 0.01 in the vicinity of Chernobyl, down to about 3 x 10 -6 in Central Europe. Isotopic ratios 238 Pu: 239+240 Pu are about 2.2 (0.46 and 0.035 in Chemobyl and global fallout, respectively). Activity concentrations of Fukushima- 239+240 Pu in surface soil were found up to above 0.1 Bq/kg d.m. in the immediate vicinity of the Fukushima NPP and about one order of magnitude less in Fukushima city, about 60 km away. The 239+240 Pu activity released into the atmosphere is roughly estimated some 10 9 Bq (Chemobyl : almost 10 14 Bq). (author)

  5. Plutonium gastrointestinal absorption by adults baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lataillade, G.; Madic, C.; Willemot, J.M.; Germain, P.; Colle, C.; Metivier, H.

    1991-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium was investigated in baboons after ingestion of plutonium solution (oxidation states III; IV; V; VI), and plutonium incorporated in soya bean and winkles. We studied the effects of oxidation state and ingested mass for masses ranging from 0.35 μg to 51.6 x 10 +3 μg (4 x 10 -2 to 7776 μg of plutonium per kg of body weight). No clear increase in plutonium retention was shown for concentrations of plutonium smaller than 1 μg/kg. From 1 μg/kg to 1 mg/kg no effects of mass or oxidation state was observed and the mean fractional retention value was 10 -4 . For ingested masses higher than 1 mg/kg the fractional retention values respectively increased for Pu(V) and Pu(III) to (0.9 + 0.2) x 10 -2 and (7.4 + 4.1) x 10 -4 of the ingested mass. This increase might be due to the weak hydrolysis of these oxidation states which would increase gastrointestinal absorption by decrease of hydroxide formation. The fraction of plutonium retained after ingestion of soya bean was (3.0 + 0.5) x 10 -4 about 3 fold higher than the value for 238 Pu nitrate solution. No clear increase in plutonium retention was shown after ingestion of winkles containing 238 Pu. In conclusion, except for high masses of ingested Pu, the retention of which could reach 1% of the ingested dose, our results show that the gastrointestinal transfer factor of 10 -4 proposed by ICRP for gastrointestinal absorption of soluble form of Pu is acceptable, but 10 -3 would provide better safety margin [fr

  6. United Kingdom experience in plutonium transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    Plutonium has already been transported within the UK over a period of 20 years and to destinations overseas since the early 60's. Experience is recounted with regard to the forms of plutonium transported, regulations, insurance, container design, mode of transport, volume of traffic, physical protection, safety analysis and costs. It is concluded that this traffic could be expanded in the future without danger to the community or the environment

  7. United Kingdom experience in plutonium transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This paper describes the extensive experience of the UKAEA and British Nuclear Fuels Limited in transporting plutonium within the UK over the last 20 years and to destinations overseas since the early 1960s. The aspects covered include: the form of plutonium transported (nitrate, oxide, mixed oxide etc.); UK and international regulations (e.g. covering safety and safeguards matters); insurance; container design; mode of transport; physical protection; and a safety analysis. Costs are estimated to be largely independent of quantity

  8. Future role of plutonium technology in society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.C.; Matthews, R.B.; Trapp, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Until the fall of the Berlin Wall, there was a very clear programmatic use of plutonium: supporting the nuclear deterrent. Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, bilateral agreements concerning the cessation of nuclear testing and the dismantlement of large portions of the nuclear weapon stockpiles by the United States and the states of the former Soviet Union have resulted in new requirements concerning the management and disposition of nuclear materials. This report describes current issues pertaining to the requirements for plutonium management

  9. A world of horror full with plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1977-01-01

    This article discusses the possibility of building a nuclear-bomb out of plutonium which has been originated in civil-nuclear power plants and the causes of plutonium on the human-body. In an interview Prof. Broda warns that some countries have already used civil-nuclear-technique in order to produce nuclear-arms and that there are severe risks for the future. (kancsar)

  10. ZPR-9 airborne plutonium monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusch, G.K.; McDowell, W.P.; Knapp, W.G.

    1975-01-01

    An airborne plutonium monitoring system which is installed in the ZPR-9 (Zero Power Reactor No. 9) facility at Argonne National Laboratory is described. The design and operational experience are discussed. This monitoring system utilizes particle size and density discrimination, alpha particle energy discrimination, and a background-subtraction techique operating in cascade to separate airborne-plutonium activity from other, naturally occurring, airborne activity. Relatively high sensitivity and reliability are achieved

  11. Plutonium deposits in lung tissues of Filipinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.; Palad, L.J.H.; Ignacio, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    This initial report on the plutonium concentration in lungs of Filipino adults is based on four samples. The data obtained suggest that the average of concentration in lungs of Filipinos is similar to that observed in other countries. This could be attributed to fallout resulting from nuclear test explosions conducted by neighboring countries. The result of this study will be useful in initiating the establishment of plutonium burden of Filipinos. (ELC). 2 tabs

  12. Guidelines for international plutonium management: Overview and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryson, M.C.; Fitzgerald, C.P.; Kincaid, C.

    1998-01-01

    In September, 1997, nine of the world's plutonium-using countries agreed to a set of guidelines for international plutonium management, with acceptances to be submitted to the International Atomic Energy Agency on December 1. Following three years of discussion, the guidelines provide a unified package of accepted rules for the storage, handling, and transportation of civil plutonium as well as military plutonium that has been declared as no longer required for defense purposes. New requirements include a formal declaration of national plutonium strategies, which will recognize the environmental, economic, and proliferation concerns and the consequent importance of balancing plutonium supply and demand. Nations will also make annual declaration of their non-military stockpiles of unirradiated plutonium, together with estimates of the plutonium content in spent reactor fuel. These guidelines represent the first formally accepted recognition of the need for plutonium management of this scope and could thus provide a partial basis for future monitoring and policy regimes

  13. Disposal of Surplus Weapons Grade Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsaed, H.; Gottlieb, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is responsible for disposing of inventories of surplus US weapons-usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium as well as providing, technical support for, and ultimate implementation of, efforts to obtain reciprocal disposition of surplus Russian plutonium. On January 4, 2000, the Department of Energy issued a Record of Decision to dispose of up to 50 metric tons of surplus weapons-grade plutonium using two methods. Up to 17 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be immobilized in a ceramic form, placed in cans and embedded in large canisters containing high-level vitrified waste for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. Approximately 33 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be used to fabricate MOX fuel (mixed oxide fuel, having less than 5% plutonium-239 as the primary fissile material in a uranium-235 carrier matrix). The MOX fuel will be used to produce electricity in existing domestic commercial nuclear reactors. This paper reports the major waste-package-related, long-term disposal impacts of the two waste forms that would be used to accomplish this mission. Particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of criticality. These results are taken from a summary report published earlier this year

  14. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE's independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91

  15. A vision for environmentally conscious plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Eller, P.G.; Christensen, D.C.; Miller, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    Regardless of individual technical and political opinions about the uses of plutonium, it is virtually certain that plutonium processing will continue on a significant global scale for many decades for the purposes of national defense, nuclear power, and remediation. An unavoidable aspect of plutonium processing is that radioactively contaminated gas, liquid, and solid waste streams are generated. These streams need to be handled in a manner that not only is in full compliance with today's laws but also will be considered environmentally and economically responsible now and in the future. In this regard, it is indeed ironic that the multibillion dollar and multidecade radioactive cleanup mortgage that the US Department of Energy (and its Russian counterpart) now owns resulted from waste management practices that were at the time in full legal compliance. It is now abundantly evident that in the long run, these practices have proven to be neither environmentally nor economically sound. Recent dramatic advances in actinide science and technology now make it possible to drastically minimize or even eliminate the problematic waste streams of traditional plutonium processing operations. Advanced technology thereby provides the means to avoid passing on to children and grandchildren significant environmental and economic legacies that traditional processing inevitably produces. The authors describe such a vision for plutonium processing that could be implemented fully within 5 yr at a facility such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA55). As a significant bonus, even on this short timescale, the initial technology investment is handsomely returned in avoided waste management costs

  16. Pulmonary carcinogenesis from plutonium-containing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.; Smith, D.M.; Anderson, E.C.

    1980-01-01

    Induction of lung tumors by various types of radiation is of paramount concern to the nuclear industry. The data presented were obtained by exposing the pulmonary system of Syrian hamsters to particles of zirconium oxide containing various amounts of either plutonium-238 or -239 as the alpha radiation source. These particles were injected intravenously and lodged permanently in the capillary bed of the lung. When less than 20% of the lung tissue was irradiated, simulating the ''hot particle'' mode, tumors were not evident with lung burdens up to 500 nCi plutonium. More diffuse irradiation significantly increased the tumor incidence, with lung burdens of 50 to 150 nCi. When plutonium-laden microspheres were administered intratracheally, tumor production was considerably increased and the addition of 3 mg of iron oxide intratracheally further increased the incidence. Using the zirconium oxide matrix for the carrier of plutonium in aerosol particles produced tumor incidences of up to 50% in Syrian hamsters exposed by inhalation. Initial pulmonary (alveolar) burdens reached 100 nCi of plutonium. Similar inhalation studies using plutonium dioxide alone (no matrix) failed to produce any increase in lung tumorigenesis. The results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms necessary for lung carcinogenesis. (H.K.)

  17. Reclamation of plutonium from pyrochemical processing residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Gray, J.H.; Holcomb, H.P.; Chostner, D.F.

    1987-04-01

    Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have jointly developed a process to recover plutonium from molten salt extraction residues. These NaCl, KCL, and MgCl 2 residues, which are generated in the pyrochemical extraction of 241 Am from aged plutonium metal, contain up to 25 wt % dissolved plutonium and up to 2 wt % americium. The overall objective was to develop a process to convert these residues to a pure plutonium metal product and discardable waste. To meet this objective a combination of pyrochemical and aqueous unit operations was used. The first step was to scrub the salt residue with a molten metal (aluminum and magnesium) to form a heterogeneous ''scrub alloy'' containing nominally 25 wt % plutonium. This unit operation, performed at RFP, effectively separated the actinides from the bulk of the chloride salts. After packaging in aluminum cans, the ''scrub alloy'' was then dissolved in a nitric acid - hydrofluoric acid - mercuric nitrate solution at SRP. Residual chloride was separated from the dissolver solution by precipitation with Hg 2 (NO 3 ) 2 followed by centrifuging. Plutonium was then separated from the aluminum, americium and magnesium using the Purex solvent extraction system. The 241 Am was diverted to the waste tank farm, but could be recovered if desired

  18. A vision for environmentally conscious plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Eller, P.G.; Christensen, D.C.; Miller, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    Regardless of individual technical and political opinions about the uses of plutonium, it is virtually certain that plutonium processing will continue on a significant global scale for many decades for the purposes of national defense, nuclear power and remediation. An unavoidable aspect of plutonium processing is that radioactive contaminated gas, liquid, and solid streams are generated. These streams need to be handled in a manner that is not only in full compliance with today's laws,but also will be considered environmentally and economically responsible now and in the future. In this regard, it is indeed ironic that the multibillion dollar and multidecade radioactive cleanup mortgage that the US Department of Energy (and its Russian counterpart) now owns resulted from waste management practices that were at the time in full legal compliance. The theme of this paper is that recent dramatic advances in actinide science and technology now make it possible to drastically minimize or even eliminate the problematic waste streams of traditional plutonium processing operations. Advanced technology thereby provides the means to avoid passing on to our children and grandchildren significant environmental and economic legacies that traditional processing inevitably produces. This paper will describe such a vision for plutonium processing that could be implemented fully within five years at a facility such as the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA55). As a significant bonus, even on this short time scale, the initial technology investment is handsomely returned in avoided waste management costs

  19. Complementary technologies for verification of excess plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, D.G.; Nicholas, N.J.; Ensslin, N.; Fearey, B.L.; Mitchell, D.J.; Marlow, K.W.; Luke, S.J.; Gosnell, T.B.

    1998-01-01

    Three complementary measurement technologies have been identified as candidates for use in the verification of excess plutonium of weapons origin. These technologies: high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, neutron multiplicity counting, and low-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, are mature, robust technologies. The high-resolution gamma-ray system, Pu-600, uses the 630--670 keV region of the emitted gamma-ray spectrum to determine the ratio of 240 Pu to 239 Pu. It is useful in verifying the presence of plutonium and the presence of weapons-grade plutonium. Neutron multiplicity counting is well suited for verifying that the plutonium is of a safeguardable quantity and is weapons-quality material, as opposed to residue or waste. In addition, multiplicity counting can independently verify the presence of plutonium by virtue of a measured neutron self-multiplication and can detect the presence of non-plutonium neutron sources. The low-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopic technique is a template method that can provide continuity of knowledge that an item that enters the a verification regime remains under the regime. In the initial verification of an item, multiple regions of the measured low-resolution spectrum form a unique, gamma-radiation-based template for the item that can be used for comparison in subsequent verifications. In this paper the authors discuss these technologies as they relate to the different attributes that could be used in a verification regime

  20. Radiation damage and annealing in plutonium tetrafluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Kaylyn; Casella, Amanda; Sinkov, Sergey; Sweet, Lucas; McNamara, Bruce; Delegard, Calvin; Jevremovic, Tatjana

    2017-12-01

    A sample of plutonium tetrafluoride that was separated prior to 1966 at the Hanford Site in Washington State was analyzed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2015 and 2016. The plutonium tetrafluoride, as received, was an unusual color and considering the age of the plutonium, there were questions about the condition of the material. These questions had to be answered in order to determine the suitability of the material for future use or long-term storage. Therefore, thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction evaluations were conducted to determine the plutonium's crystal structure, oxide content, and moisture content; these analyses reported that the plutonium was predominately amorphous and tetrafluoride, with an oxide content near ten percent. Freshly fluorinated plutonium tetrafluoride is known to be monoclinic. During the initial thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses, it was discovered that an exothermic event occurred within the material near 414 °C. X-ray diffraction analyses were conducted on the annealed tetrafluoride. The X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that some degree of recrystallization occurred in conjunction with the 414 °C event. The following commentary describes the series of thermogravimetric/differential thermal and X-ray diffraction analyses that were conducted as part of this investigation at PNNL.

  1. Radiation damage and annealing in plutonium tetrafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, Kaylyn; Casella, Amanda; Sinkov, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    A sample of plutonium tetrafluoride that was separated prior to 1966 at the Hanford Site in Washington State was analyzed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2015 and 2016. The plutonium tetrafluoride, as received, was an unusual color and considering the age of the plutonium, there were questions about the condition of the material. These questions had to be answered in order to determine the suitability of the material for future use or long-term storage. Therefore, thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction evaluations were conducted to determine the plutonium's crystal structure, oxide content, and moisture content; these analyses reported that the plutonium was predominately amorphous and tetrafluoride, with an oxide content near ten percent. Freshly fluorinated plutonium tetrafluoride is known to be monoclinic. And during the initial thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses, it was discovered that an exothermic event occurred within the material near 414 °C. X-ray diffraction analyses were conducted on the annealed tetrafluoride. The X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that some degree of recrystallization occurred in conjunction with the 414 °C event. This commentary describes the series of thermogravimetric/differential thermal and X-ray diffraction analyses that were conducted as part of this investigation at PNNL.

  2. Gamma spectrometric methods for measuring plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnink, R.

    1978-01-01

    Nondestructive analyses of plutonium can be made by detecting and measuring the gamma rays emitted by a sample. Although qualitative and semiquantitative assays can be performed with relative ease, only recently have methods been developed, using computer analysis techniques, that provide quantitative results. This paper reviews some new techniques developed for measuring plutonium. The features of plutonium gamma-ray spectra are reviewed and some of the computer methods used for spectrum analysis are discussed. The discussion includes a description of a powerful computer method of unfolding complex peak multiplets that uses the standard linear least-squares techniques of data analysis. This computer method is based on the generation of response profiles for the isotopes composing a plutonium sample and requires a description of the peak positions, relative intensities, and line shapes. The principles that plutonium isotopic measurements are based on are also developed, followed by illustrations of the measurement procedures as applied to the quantitative analysis of plutonium liquid and solid samples

  3. Evaluation of plutonium, uranium, and thorium use in power reactor fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasten, P.R.; Homan, F.J.

    1977-01-01

    The increased cost of uranium and separative work has increased the attractiveness of plutonium use in both uranium and thorium fuel cycles in thermal reactors. A technology, fuel utilization, and economic evaluation is given for uranium and thorium fuel cycles in various reactor types, along with the use of plutonium and 238 U. Reactors considered are LWRs, HWRs, LWBRs, HTGRs, and FBRs. Key technology factors are fuel irradiation performance and associated physical property values. Key economic factors are unit costs for fuel fabrication and reprocessing, and for refabrication of recycle fuels; consistent cost estimates are utilized. In thermal reactors, the irradiation performance of ceramic fuels appears to be satisfactory. At present costs for uranium ore and separative work, recycle of plutonium with thorium rather than uranium is preferable from fuel utilization and economic viewpoints. Further, the unit recovery cost of plutonium is lower from LWR fuels than from natural-uranium HWR fuels; use of LWR product permits plutonium/thorium fueling to compete with uranium cycles. Converting uranium cycles to thorium cycles increases the energy which can be extracted from a given uranium resource. Thus, additional fuel utilization improvement can be obtained by fueling all thermal reactors with thorium, but this requires use of highly enriched uranium; use of 235 U with thorium is most economic in HTGRs followed by HWRs and then LWRs. Marked improvement in long-term fuel utilization can be obtained through high thorium loadings and short fuel cycle irradiations as in the LWBR, but this imposes significant economic penalties. Similar operating modes are possible in HWRs and HTGRs. In fast reactors, use of the plutonium-uranium cycle gives advantageous fuel resource utilization in both LMFBRs and GCFRs; use of the thorium cycle provides more negative core reactivity coefficients and more flexibility relative to use of recycle fuels containing uranium of less than 20

  4. Neutronics benchmark of a MOX assembly with near-weapons-grade plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difilippo, F.C.; Fisher, S.E.

    1998-01-01

    One of the proposed ways to dispose of surplus weapons-grade plutonium (Pu) is to irradiate the high-fissile material in light-water reactors in order to reduce the Pu enrichment to the level of spent fuels from commercial reactors. Considerable experience has been accumulated about the behavior of mixed-oxide (MOX) uranium and plutonium fuels for plutonium recycling in commercial reactors, but the experience is related to Pu enrichments typical of spent fuels quite below the values of weapons-grade plutonium. Important decisions related to the kind of reactors to be used for the disposition of the plutonium are going to be based on calculations, so the validation of computational algorithms related to all aspects of the fuel cycle (power distributions, isotopics as function of the burnup, etc.), for weapons-grade isotopics is very important. Analysis of public domain data reveals that the cycle-2 irradiation in the Quad cities boiling-water reactor (BWR) is the most recent US destructive examination. This effort involved the irradiation of five MOX assemblies using 80 and 90% fissile plutonium. These benchmark data were gathered by General Electric under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute. It is emphasized, however, that global parameters are not the focus of this benchmark, since the five bundles containing MOX fuels did not significantly affect the overall core performance. However, since the primary objective of this work is to compare against measured post-irradiation assembly data, the term benchmark is applied here. One important reason for performing the benchmark on Quad Cities irradiation is that the fissile blends (up to 90%) are higher than reactor-grade and, quite close to, weapons-grade isotopics

  5. Calculation of Plutonium content in RSG-GAS spent fuel using IAFUEL computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochamad-Imron

    2003-01-01

    It has been calculated the contain of isotopes Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and isotope Pu-242 in MTR reactor fuel types which have U-235 contain about 250 gram. The calculation was performed in three steps. The first step is to determine the library of calculation output of BOC (Beginning of Cycle). The second step is to determine the core isotope density, the weight of plutonium for one core, and one fuel isotope density. The third step is to calculate weight of plutonium in gram. All calculation is performed by IAFUEL computer code. The calculation was produced content of each Pu isotopes were Pu-239 is 6.7666 gr, Pu-240 is 1.4628 gr, Pu-241 is 0.52951 gr, and Pu-242 is 0.068952 gr

  6. The U.S.-Russian joint studies on using power reactors to disposition surplus weapons plutonium as spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebeskov, A.; Kalashnikov, A.; Pavlovichev, A.

    1997-09-01

    In 1996, the US and the Russian Federation completed an initial joint study of the candidate options for the disposition of surplus weapons plutonium in both countries. The options included long term storage, immobilization of the plutonium in glass or ceramic for geologic disposal, and the conversion of weapons plutonium to spent fuel in power reactors. For the latter option, the US is only considering the use of existing light water reactors (LWRs) with no new reactor construction for plutonium disposition, or the use of Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) heavy water reactors. While Russia advocates building new reactors, the cost is high, and the continuing joint study of the Russian options is considering only the use of existing VVER-1000 LWRs in Russia and possibly Ukraine, the existing BN-60O fast neutron reactor at the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant in Russia, or the use of the Canadian CANDU reactors. Six of the seven existing VVER-1000 reactors in Russia and the eleven VVER-1000 reactors in Ukraine are all of recent vintage and can be converted to use partial MOX cores. These existing VVER-1000 reactors are capable of converting almost 300 kg of surplus weapons plutonium to spent fuel each year with minimum nuclear power plant modifications. Higher core loads may be achievable in future years

  7. Evaluation of full MOX core capability for a 900 MWe PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Hyung-Kook; Kim, Young-Jin; Jung, Hyung-Guk; Kim, Young-Il; Sohn, Dong-Seong

    1996-01-01

    Full MOX capability of a PWR core with 900 MWe capacity has been evaluated in view of plutonium consumption and design feasibility as an effective means for spent fuel management. Three full MOX cores have been conceptually designed; for annual cycle, for 18-month cycle, and for 18-month cycle with high moderation lattice. Fissile and total plutonium quantities at discharge are significantly reduced to 60% and 70% respectively of initial value for standard full MOX cores. It is estimated that one full MOX core demands about 1 tonne of plutonium per year to be reloaded, which is equivalent to reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels discharged from five nuclear reactors operating with uranium fuels. With low-leakage loading scheme, a full MOX core with either annual or 18-month cycle can be designed satisfactorily by installing additional rod cluster control system and modifying soluble boron system. Overall high moderation lattice case promises better core nuclear characteristics. (author)

  8. Nondestructive assay of plutonium residue in horizontal storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.

    1985-01-01

    Aqueous plutonium recovery and purification processes often involve the temporary storage of plutonium solutions in holding tanks. Because plutonium is known to precipitate from aqueous solutions under certain conditions, there is a continuing need to assay emptied tanks for plutonium residue. A portable gamma spectrometer system, specifically designed for this purpose, provides rapid assay of such plutonium residues in horizontal storage tanks. A means is thus available for the nondestructive analysis of these tanks on a regular schedule to ensure that significant deposits of plutonium are not allowed to accumulate. 5 figs

  9. Civil plutonium held in France in December 31, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    Spent fuels comprise about 1% of plutonium which is separated during the reprocessing and recycled to prepare the mixed uranium-plutonium fuel (MOX), which in turn is burnt in PWRs. Plutonium can be in a non-irradiated or separated form, or in an irradiated form when contained in the spent fuel. Each year, in accordance with the 1997 directives relative to the management of plutonium, France has to make a status of its civil plutonium stock and communicate it to the IAEA using a standard model form. This short document summarizes the French plutonium stocks at the end of 1999 and 2000. (J.S.)

  10. Comparative study on plutonium and MA recycling in equilibrium burnup and standard burnup of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waris, Abdul; Kurniadi, Rizal; Su'ud, Zaki; Permana, Sidik

    2005-01-01

    The equilibrium burnup model is a powerful method since its can handle all possible generated nuclides in any nuclear system. Moreover, this method is a simple time independent method. Hence the equilibrium burnup method could be very useful for evaluating and forecasting the characteristics of any nuclear fuel cycle, even the strange one, e.g. all nuclides are confined in the reactor. However, this method needs to be verified since the method is not a standard tool. The present study aimed to compare the characteristics of plutonium recycling and plutonium and minor actinides (MA) recycling in PWR with the equilibrium burnup and the standard burnup. In order to become more comprehensive study, an influence of moderator-to-fuel volume ratio (MFR) changes by changing the pin-pitch of fuel cell has been evaluated. The MFR ranges from 0.5 to 4.0. For the equilibrium burnup we used equilibrium cell-burnup code. We have employed 1368 nuclides in the equilibrium calculation with 129 of them are heavy metals (HMs). For standard burnup, SRAC2002 code has been utilized with 26 HMs and 66 fission products (FPs). The JENDL 3.2 library has been employed for both burnup schemes. The uranium, plutonium and MA vector, which resulted from the equilibrium burnup are directly used as fuel input composition for the standard burnup calculation. Both burnup results demonstrate that plutonium recycling and plutonium and MA recycling can be conducted safer in tight lattice core. They are also show the similar trend in neutron spectrum, which become harder with the increasing number of recycled heavy nuclides as well as the decreasing of the MFR values. However, there are some discrepancy on the effective multiplication factor and the conversion ratio, especially for the reactor core for MFR ≥ 2.0. (author)

  11. Method to manufacture a nuclear fuel from uranium-plutonium monocarbide or uranium-plutonium mononitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauth, A.; Mueller, N.

    1977-01-01

    Pure uranium carbide or nitride is converted with plutonium oxide and carbon (all in powder form) to uranium-plutonium monocarbide or mononitride by cold pressing and sintering at about 1600 0 C. Pure uranium carbide or uranium nitride powder is firstly prepared without extensive safety measures. The pure uranium carbide or nitride powder can also be inactivated by using chemical substances (e.g. stearic acid) and be handled in air. The sinterable uranium carbide or nitride powder (or also granulate) is then introduced into the plutonium line and mixed with a nonstoichiometrically adjusted, prereacted mixture of plutonium oxide and carbon, pressed to pellets and reaction sintered. The surface of the uranium-plutonium carbide (higher metal content) can be nitrated towards the end of the sinter process in a stream of nitrogen. The protective layer stabilizes the carbide against the water and oxygen content in air. (IHOE) [de

  12. Plutonium uptake by plants from soil containing plutonium-238 dioxide particles. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.W.; McFarlane, J.C.

    1977-05-01

    Three plant species--alfalfa, lettuce, and radishes were grown in soils contaminated with plutonium-238 dioxide (238)PuO2 at concentrations of 23, 69, 92, and 342 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g). The length of exposure varied from 60 days for the lettuce and radishes to 358 days for the alfalfa. The magnitude of plutonium incorporation as indicated by the discrimination ratios for these species, after being exposed to the relatively insoluble PuO2, was similar to previously reported data using different chemical forms of plutonium. Evidence indicates that the predominant factor in plutonium uptake by plants may involve the chelation of plutonium contained in the soils by the action of compounds such as citric acid and/or other similar chelating agents released from the plant roots

  13. Cycle downstream: the plutonium question; Aval du cycle la question du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zask, G [Electricite de France, EDF/DAC, 75 - Paris (France); Rome, M [Electricite de France, EDF, Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires, 92 - Courbevoie (France); Delpech, M [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs/SPRC, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    1998-06-29

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 4 june 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the plutonium physics and its utilization as a nuclear fuel. This day tried to bring information to answer the following questions: do people have to keep the plutonium in the UOX fuel or in the MOX fuel in order to use it for future fast reactors? Do people have to continue obstinately the plutonium reprocessing in the MOX for the PWR type reactors? Will it be realized a underground disposal? Can it be technically developed plutonium incinerators and is it economically interesting? The plutonium physics, the experimental programs and the possible solutions are presented. (A.L.B.)

  14. Gamma ray NDA assay system for total plutonium and isotopics in plutonium product solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowder, L.R.; Hsue, S.T.; Johnson, S.S.; Parker, J.L.; Russo, P.A.; Sprinkle, J.K.; Asakura, Y.; Fukuda, T.; Kondo, I.

    1979-01-01

    A LASL-designed gamma-ray NDA instrument for assay of total plutonium and isotopics of product solutions at Tokai-Mura is currently installed and operating. The instrument is, optimally, a densitometer that uses radioisotopic sources for total plutonium measurements at the K absorption edge. The measured transmissions of additional gamma-ray lines from the same radioisotopic sources are used to correct for self-attenuation of passive gamma rays from plutonium. The corrected passive data give the plutonium isotopic content of freshly separated to moderately aged solutions. This off-line instrument is fully automated under computer control, with the exception of sample positioning, and operates routinely in a mode designed for measurement control. A one-half percent precision in total plutonium concentration is achieved with a 15-minute measurement

  15. A Mixed-Oxide Assembly Design for Rapid Disposition of Weapons Plutonium in Pressurized Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Gustavo; Adams, Marvin L.

    2002-01-01

    We have created a new mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel assembly design for standard pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Design goals were to maximize the plutonium throughput while introducing the lowest perturbation possible to the control and safety systems of the reactor. Our assembly design, which we call MIX-33, offers some advantages for the disposition of weapons-grade plutonium; it increases the disposition rate by 8% while increasing the worth of control material, compared to a previous Westinghouse design. The MIX-33 design is based upon two ideas: the use of both uranium and plutonium fuel pins in the same assembly, and the addition of water holes in the assembly. The main result of this paper is that both of these ideas are effective at increasing Pu throughput and increasing the worth of control material. With this new design, according to our analyses, we can transition smoothly from a full low-enriched-uranium (LEU) core to a full MIX-33 core while meeting the operational and safety requirements of a standard PWR. Given an interruption of the MOX supply, we can transition smoothly back to full LEU while meeting safety margins and using standard LEU assemblies with uniform pinwise enrichment distribution. If the MOX supply is interrupted for only one cycle, the transition back to a full MIX-33 core is not as smooth; high peaking could cause power to be derated by a few percent for a few weeks at the beginning of one transition cycle

  16. Nuclear reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, R F

    1974-07-11

    The core of the fast neutron reactor consisting, among other components, of fuel elements enriched in plutonium is divided into modules. Each module contains a bundle of four or six elongated components (fuel elements and control rods). In the arrangement with four components, one is kept rigid while the other three are elastically yielding inclined towards the center and lean against the rigid component. In the modules with six pieces, each component is elastically yielding inclined towards a central cavity. In this way, they form a circular arc. A control rod may be placed in the cavity. In order to counteract a relative lateral movement, the outer surfaces of the components which have hexagonal cross-sections have interlocking bearing cushions. The bearing cushions consist of keyway-type ribs or grooves with the wedges or ribs gripping in the grooves of the neighbouring components. In addition, the ribs have oblique entering surfaces.

  17. The handling of plutonium hexafluoride (1962); Manipulation de l'hexafluorure de plutonium (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berard, Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-11-15

    The major problem posed in this work is the instability of plutonium hexafluoride. The influence of various factors on the decomposition of the fluoride has been studied: physical aspect of the walls, nature of the metal and its pretreatment, influence of the temperature. A means of detecting plutonium-239 in a metallic apparatus by {gamma}-ray counting has been developed; the sensitivity is of the order of half a milligram, but the precision is very low (about 50 per cent). Yields of over 95 per cent have been obtained for the transfer of plutonium during the preparation and sublimation of the hexafluoride. This study confirms the possibility of using plutonium hexafluoride for the extraction of plutonium from irradiated fuel elements by a dry method. (author) [French] Le probleme majeur de cette etude a ete l'instabilite de l'hexafluorure de plutonium. Nous avons etudie l'influence de divers facteurs sur la decomposition de l'hexafluorure: aspect physique des parois, nature du metal et de son pretraitement, influence de la temperature. Nous avons mis au point un mode de detection du plutonium-239 dans un appareillage metallique par comptage du rayonnement {gamma}; la sensibilite est de l'ordre du demi-milligramme, mais la precision est tres faible (50 pour cent environ). Nous avons obtenu des rendements depassant 95 pour cent dans le transfert du plutonium au cours de la fabrication et de la sublimation de l'hexafluorure. Cette etude confirme la possibilite d'utiliser l'hexafluorure de plutonium dans l'extraction du plutonium des combustibles irradies par voie seche. (auteur)

  18. Beiological behaviour of plutonium 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1976-01-01

    Plutonium is scarcely incorporated from the environment into the food chain because of its unability to penetrate biological membranes. Workers can be contaminated through inhalation or deposition in wounds. Pu present in the pulmonary alveoles or incorporated in wounds is redistributed in the organism either through cellular transport resulting in an important accumulation in the lymphatic ganglia either by blood transport as dissolved Pu bound to proteins. This mechanism results in a progressive accumulation of the radioelement in liver and bone. It is estimated that about 40% of the Pu present in the blood is deposited in the liver from which one half is eliminated every ten years. 50% is deposited in bone from which the elimination takes much longer and 10% is eliminated with the urines. Intravenous injection of DIPA is very useful for Pu elimination immediately after contamination. For elimination of pulmonary Pu the technique of ''pulmonary washing'' is suggested. This method reduces the pulmonary contamination in laboratory aniamls by a factor 10. (author)

  19. Plutonium dioxide dissolution in glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, J.D.; Alexander, D.L.; Li, Hong [and others

    1996-09-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) is charged with providing technical support for evaluation of disposition options for excess fissile materials manufactured for the nation`s defense. One option being considered for the disposition of excess plutonium (Pu) is immobilization by vitrification. The vitrification option entails immobilizing Pu in a host glass and waste package that are criticality-safe (immune to nuclear criticality), proliferation-resistant, and environmentally acceptable for long-term storage or disposal. To prove the technical and economic feasibility of candidate vitrification options it is necessary to demonstrate that PuO{sub 2} feedstock can be dissolved in glass in sufficient quantity. The OFMD immobilization program has set a Pu solubility goal of 10 wt% in glass. The life cycle cost of the vitrification options are strongly influenced by the rate at which PUO{sub 2} dissolves in glass. The total number of process lines needed for vitrification of 50 t of Pu in 10 years is directly dependent upon the time required for Pu dissolution in glass. The objective of this joint Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) - Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) study was to demonstrate a high Pu solubility in glass and to identify on a rough scale the time required for Pu dissolution in the glass. This study was conducted using a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass composition designed at the SRTC for the vitrification of actinides.

  20. Plutonium storage thermal analysis (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensel, S.J.; Lee, S.Y.; Schaade, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Thermal modeling of plutonium metal ingots stored in food pack cans provides information useful for performing stored material safety evaluations. Four storage can geometries were modeled, and several conclusions can be made from the 14 cases analyzed. The ingot temperature increased from 7 degrees F to 12 degrees F (depending on can configuration) per additional watt of power. Including internal convection lowers computed ingot temperatures by 70 degrees F. Accounting for the heat flow through the bottom of the cans to the storage rack lowered computed ingot temperatures by an additional 70 degrees F to 80 degrees F. In the rimmed can systems storing ingots with a power of 10.35 watts, the ingot temperature varies from 190 degrees F to 213 degrees F. Including a plastic bag between the inner and outer can increases the ingot temperature by 15 degrees F. Adding a label to the outer can side reduces the outer can side temperature by 13 degrees F. Changes in ambient temperature affect the outer can temperatures more than the ingot temperature by a factor of 3. Similarly, a 5 degrees F drop in outer can temperature due to increased convection lowered the ingot temperature by only 2 degrees F

  1. Plutonium dioxide dissolution in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vienna, J.D.; Alexander, D.L.; Li, Hong

    1996-09-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) is charged with providing technical support for evaluation of disposition options for excess fissile materials manufactured for the nation's defense. One option being considered for the disposition of excess plutonium (Pu) is immobilization by vitrification. The vitrification option entails immobilizing Pu in a host glass and waste package that are criticality-safe (immune to nuclear criticality), proliferation-resistant, and environmentally acceptable for long-term storage or disposal. To prove the technical and economic feasibility of candidate vitrification options it is necessary to demonstrate that PuO 2 feedstock can be dissolved in glass in sufficient quantity. The OFMD immobilization program has set a Pu solubility goal of 10 wt% in glass. The life cycle cost of the vitrification options are strongly influenced by the rate at which PUO 2 dissolves in glass. The total number of process lines needed for vitrification of 50 t of Pu in 10 years is directly dependent upon the time required for Pu dissolution in glass. The objective of this joint Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) - Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) study was to demonstrate a high Pu solubility in glass and to identify on a rough scale the time required for Pu dissolution in the glass. This study was conducted using a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass composition designed at the SRTC for the vitrification of actinides

  2. Neutronic and Logistic Proposal for Transmutation of Plutonium from Spent Nuclear Fuel as Mixed-Oxide Fuel in Existing Light Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trellue, Holly R.

    2004-01-01

    The use of light water reactors (LWRs) for the destruction of plutonium and other actinides [especially those in spent nuclear fuel (SNF)] is being examined worldwide. One possibility for transmutation of this material is the use of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, which is a combination of uranium and plutonium oxides. MOX fuel is used in nuclear reactors worldwide, so a large experience base for its use already exists. However, to limit implementation of SNF transmutation to only a fraction of the LWRs in the United States with a reasonable number of license extensions, full cores of MOX fuel probably are required. This paper addresses the logistics associated with using LWRs for this mission and the design issues required for full cores of MOX fuel. Given limited design modifications, this paper shows that neutronic safety conditions can be met for full cores of MOX fuel with up to 8.3 wt% of plutonium

  3. Inventory calculations in sediment samples with heterogeneous plutonium activity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, M.; Dahlgaard, H.

    2002-01-01

    A method to determine the total inventory of a heterogeneously distributed contamination of marine sediments is described. The study site is the Bylot Sound off the Thule Airbase, NW Greenland, where marine sediments became contaminated with plutonium in 1968 after a nuclear weapons accident. The calculation is based on a gamma spectrometric screening of the 241 Am concentration in 450 one-gram aliquots from 6 sediment cores. A Monte Carlo programme then simulates a probable distribution of the activity, and based on that, a total inventory is estimated by integrating a double exponential function. The present data indicate a total inventory around 3.5 kg, which is 7 times higher than earlier estimates (0.5 kg). The difference is partly explained by the inclusion of hot particles in the present calculation. A large uncertainty is connected to this estimate, and it should be regarded as preliminary. (au)

  4. Plutonium fuel cycles in the spectral shift controlled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sider, F.M.; Matzie, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The spectral shift controlled reactor (SSCR) controls excess core reactivity during an operating cycle through the use of variable heavy water concentrations in the moderator. With heavy water in the coolant, the neutron spectrum is shifted to higher energy levels, thus increasing fertile conversion. In addition, since heavy water obviates the need for soluble boron, neutron losses to control poison are eliminated. As a result, better resource utilization is obtained in the SSCR employing plutonium fuel cycles compared to similarly fueled pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The SSCR, however, is not competitive with the PWR due to higher capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, and the heavy water costs, which outweigh the fuel cycle cost savings. The SSCR may become an attractive alternative to the PWR if uranium prices increase substantially

  5. Search for neutrino generated air shower candidates with energy ≥ 1019 eV and Zenith angle θ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knurenko, Stanislav; Petrov, Igor; Sabourov, Artem

    2017-06-01

    The description of the methodology and results of searching for air showers generated by neutral particles such as high energy gamma quanta and astroneutrinos are presented. For this purpose, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the data: the electron, the muon and the EAS Cerenkov light, and their response time in scintillation and Cherenkov detectors. Air showers with energy more than 5·1018 eV and zenith angle θ ≥ 55∘ are selected and analyzed. Search results indicate a lack of air shower events formed by gamma-rays or high-energy neutrinos, but it does not mean that such air showers do not exist in nature; for example, experiments that recorded showers having a marked low muon content, i.e., "Muonless", are likely to be candidates for showers produced by neutral primary particles.

  6. Contribution of corner reflections from oriented ice crystals to backscattering and depolarization characteristics for off-zenith lidar profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovoi, Anatoli G.; Konoshonkin, Alexander V.; Kustova, Natalia V.; Veselovskii, Igor A.

    2018-06-01

    Backscattering Mueller matrix and the depolarization and color ratios for quasi-horizontally oriented hexagonal ice plates have been calculated within the framework of the physical optics approximation. In the case of a tilted lidar, the dependence of the color and depolarization ratios on polarization of the incident light has been analyzed. It is shown that the corner reflection effect inherent to the pristine hexagonal ice crystals results in sharp peaks of both the backscattering cross section and depolarization ratio at the lidar tilts of about 30° off zenith. The experimental results obtained recently by Veselovskii et al. [13] at the lidar tilt of 43° have been interpreted as a partial manifestation of the corner reflection effect. The retrieval of the vertical profile of the ice crystal fraction consisting of quasi-horizontally oriented hexagonal plates has been demonstrated.

  7. Effect of compositional variation in plutonium on process shielding design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.H.

    1997-11-01

    Radiation dose rate from plutonium with high 239 Pu content varies with initial nuclidic content, radioactive decay time, and impurity elemental content. The two idealized states of old plutonium and clean plutonium, whose initial compositions are given, provide approximate upper and lower bounds on dose rate variation. Whole-body dose rates were calculated for the two composition states, using unshielded and shielded plutonium spheres of varying density. The dose rates from these variable density spheres are similar to those from expanded plutonium configurations encountered during processing. The dose location of 40 cm from the sphere center is representative of operator standoff for direct handling of plutonium inside a glove box. The results have shielding implications for glove boxes with only structurally inherent shielding, especially for processing of old plutonium in an expanded configuration. Further reduction in total dose rate by using lead to reduce photon dose rate is shown for two density cases representing compact and expanded plutonium configurations

  8. Light water breeder reactor using a uranium-plutonium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radkowsky, A.; Chen, R.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a light water receptor (LWR) for breeding fissile material using a uranium-plutonium cycle. It comprises: a prebreeder section having plutonium fuel containing a Pu-241 component, the prebreeder section being operable to produce enriched plutonium having an increased Pu-241 component; and a breeder section for receiving the enriched plutonium from the prebreeder section, the breeder section being operable for breeding fissile material from the enriched plutonium fuel. This patent describes a method of operating a light water nuclear reactor (LWR) for breeding fissile material using a uranium-plutonium cycle. It comprises: operating the prebreeder to produce enriched plutonium fuel having an increased Pu-241 component; fueling a breeder section with the enriched plutonium fuel to breed the fissile material

  9. Effect of compositional variation in plutonium on process shielding design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.H.

    1997-11-01

    Radiation dose rate from plutonium with high {sup 239}Pu content varies with initial nuclidic content, radioactive decay time, and impurity elemental content. The two idealized states of old plutonium and clean plutonium, whose initial compositions are given, provide approximate upper and lower bounds on dose rate variation. Whole-body dose rates were calculated for the two composition states, using unshielded and shielded plutonium spheres of varying density. The dose rates from these variable density spheres are similar to those from expanded plutonium configurations encountered during processing. The dose location of 40 cm from the sphere center is representative of operator standoff for direct handling of plutonium inside a glove box. The results have shielding implications for glove boxes with only structurally inherent shielding, especially for processing of old plutonium in an expanded configuration. Further reduction in total dose rate by using lead to reduce photon dose rate is shown for two density cases representing compact and expanded plutonium configurations.

  10. Absorption of plutonium in the iron-deficient rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    Iron deficiency did not enhance absorption of plutonium following intragastric gavage of rats. Absorption of plutonium citrate in both control and iron-deficient rats was about 0.03% of the administered dose

  11. Model of plutonium dynamics in a deciduous forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Gardner, R.H.; Dahlman, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    A linear compartment model with donor-controlled flows between compartments was designed to describe and simulate the behavior of plutonium ( 239 240 Pu) in a contaminated forest ecosystem at Oak Ridge, TN. At steady states predicted by the model, less than 0.25% of the plutonium in the ecosystem resides in biota. Soil is the major repository of plutonium in the forest, and exchanges of plutonium between soil and litter or soil and tree roots were dominant transfers affecting the ecosystem distribution of plutonium. Variation in predicted steady-state amounts of plutonium in the forest, given variability in the model parameters, indicates that our ability to develop models of plutonium transport in ecosystems should improve with greater precision in data from natural environments and a better understanding of sources of variation in plutonium data

  12. Plutonium spot of mixed oxide fuel, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yukio; Maruishi, Yoshihiro; Satoh, Masaichi; Aoki, Toshimasa; Muto, Tadashi

    1974-01-01

    In a fast reactor, the specification for the homogeneity of plutonium in plutonium-uranium mixed-oxide fuel is mainly dependent on the nuclear characteristics, whereas in a thermal reactor, on thermal characteristics. This homogeneity is measured by autoradiography as the plutonium spot size of the specimens which are arbitrarily chosen fuel pellets from a lot. Although this is a kind of random sampling, it is difficult to apply this method to conventional digital standards including JIS standards. So a special sampling inspection method was studied. First, it is assumed that the shape of plutonium spots is spherical, the size distribution is logarithmic normal, and the standard deviation is constant. Then, if standard deviation and mean spot size are given, the logarithmic normal distribution is decided unitarily, and further if the total weight of plutonium spots for a lot of pellets is known, the number of the spots (No) which does not conform to the specification can be obtained. Then, the fraction defective is defined as No devided by the number of pellets per lot. As to the lot with such fraction defective, the acceptance coefficient of the lot was obtained through calculation, in which the number of sampling, acceptable diameter limit observed and acceptable conditions were used as parameters. (Tai, I.)

  13. Multiple recycling of plutonium in advanced PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterman, J.L.

    1998-04-01

    The influence of the moderator-to-fuel ratio in MOX fueled PWRs on the moderator void coefficient, the fuel temperature coefficient, the moderator temperature coefficient, the boron reactivity worth, the critical boron concentration, the mean neutron generation time and the effective delayed neutron fraction has been assessed. Increasing the moderator-to-fuel ratio to values larger than three, gives a moderator void coefficient sufficiently large to recycle the plutonium at least four times. Scenario studies show that four times recycling of plutonium in PWRs reduces the plutonium mass produced with a factor of three compared with a reference once-through reactor park, but that the americium and curium production triple. If the minor actinides and the remaining plutonium after four times recycling are disposed of, the reduction of the radiotoxicity reaches only a factor of two. This factor increases to five at the maximum when the plutonium is further recycled. Recycling of americium and curium is needed to further reduce the radiotoxicity of the spent fuel. 4 refs

  14. Japan's spent fuel and plutonium management challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuta, Tadahiro; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    2011-01-01

    Japan's commitment to plutonium recycling has been explicitly stated in its long-term program since 1956. Despite the clear cost disadvantage compared with direct disposal or storage of spent fuel, the Rokkasho reprocessing plant started active testing in 2006. Japan's cumulative consumption of plutonium has been only 5 tons to date and its future consumption rate is still uncertain. But once the Rokkasho reprocessing plant starts its full operation, Japan will separate about 8 tons of plutonium annually. Our analysis shows that, with optimum use of available at-reactor and away-from-reactor storage capacity, there would be no need for reprocessing until the mid-2020s. With an additional 30,000 tons of away-from-reactor (AFR) spent-fuel storage capacity reprocessing could be avoided until 2050. Deferring operation of the Rokkasho plant, at least until the plutonium stockpile had been worked down to the minimum required level, would also minimize international concern about Japan's plutonium stockpile. The authors are happy to acknowledge Frank von Hippel, Harold Feiveson, Jungming Kang, Zia Mian, M.V. Ramana, and other IPFM members, as well as the generous grant from the MacArthur Foundation for helping make this research possible.

  15. Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALena Paulenova; George F. Vandegrift, III; Kenneth R. Czerwinski

    2009-10-01

    The project "Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes” is led by Dr. Alena Paulenova of Oregon State University under collaboration with Dr. George Vandegrift of ANL and Dr. Ken Czerwinski of the University of Nevada at Las Vegas. The objective of the project is to examine the chemical speciation of plutonium in UREX+ (uranium/tributylphosphate) extraction processes for advanced fuel technology. Researchers will analyze the change in speciation using existing thermodynamics and kinetic computer codes to examine the speciation of plutonium in aqueous and organic phases. They will examine the different oxidation states of plutonium to find the relative distribution between the aqueous and organic phases under various conditions such as different concentrations of nitric acid, total nitrates, or actinide ions. They will also utilize techniques such as X-ray absorbance spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering for determining plutonium and uranium speciation in all separation stages. The project started in April 2005 and is scheduled for completion in March 2008.

  16. Guidelines for the responsible management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrell, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1994 an informal group of representatives of States party to the NPT has been trying to develop agreed international guidelines for the responsible management of non-military plutonium. This paper gives a brief description of the outcome. Since the results are still subject to decision by Governments, the description must be in general terms only. The paper describes the background to, and genesis of, the discussions and the general approach taken, which was based on commitment to the NPT, national responsibility for the management of nuclear materials and the fuel cycle, upholding of the IAEA's safeguards system, and a focus on civil material. An indication is given of the development of the Group's thinking, especially the decisions that any guidelines must be capable of accommodating surplus military plutonium, as well as civil, and that the main focus should be on measures to increase transparency. The resulting guidelines are described. Their main features are a re-statement of commitments and standards for the management of non-military plutonium with regard to non-proliferation, safety, and other fields, a commitment to the management of such plutonium according to a consistent national strategy, and a commitment to the publication of information on that strategy, and of annual statistics for holdings of plutonium in a consistent format. Other aspects of the guidelines are also explained. Finally, an attempt is made to assess the possible practical effects of the guidelines if adopted by governments. (author)

  17. Measurements of plutonium in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alberti, F; Risposi, L [Instituto di Fisica Applicata, University of Milan, Milan (Italy)

    1996-01-01

    Within the activities connected with the start up of the PETRA Laboratory (Processo per l'Estrazione di Terre Rare ed Attinidi, i.e. process for extraction of rare earths and actinides), the Radiation Protection Unit of the J.R.C.-Ispra has carried out a well planned set of experimental measurements aimed at evaluating the zero point of the isotopes of plutonium in environmental samples by alfa spectrometry. After the International Moratorium in 1963, no release of plutonium has occurred in the environment apart from the burn up of SNAP 9A satellite in April 1964. Since then the plutonium concentration in air and in fallout samples has been continuously decreasing requiring, therefore, optimization of both instrumentation and experimental measurement procedures in order to obtain better sensibilities. In this work, the experimental methodology followed at the J.R.C.-Ispra for measurements of plutonium concentration in air, deposition and soil is described and the plutonium behaviour in these samples is reported and discussed starting from 1961.

  18. Measurements of plutonium in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alberti, F.; Risposi, L.

    1996-01-01

    Within the activities connected with the start up of the PETRA Laboratory (Processo per l'Estrazione di Terre Rare ed Attinidi, i.e. process for extraction of rare earths and actinides), the Radiation Protection Unit of the J.R.C.-Ispra has carried out a well planned set of experimental measurements aimed at evaluating the zero point of the isotopes of plutonium in environmental samples by alfa spectrometry. After the International Moratorium in 1963, no release of plutonium has occurred in the environment apart from the burn up of SNAP 9A satellite in April 1964. Since then the plutonium concentration in air and in fallout samples has been continuously decreasing requiring, therefore, optimization of both instrumentation and experimental measurement procedures in order to obtain better sensibilities. In this work, the experimental methodology followed at the J.R.C.-Ispra for measurements of plutonium concentration in air, deposition and soil is described and the plutonium behaviour in these samples is reported and discussed starting from 1961

  19. Computerized plutonium laboratory-stack monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, R.G.; DeVore, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has recently designed and constructed a Plutonium Research and Development Facility to meet design criteria imposed by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration. A primary objective of the design criteria is to assure environmental protection and to reliably monitor plutonium effluent via the ventilation exhaust systems. A state-of-the-art facility exhaust air monitoring system is described which establishes near ideal conditions for evaluating plutonium activity in the stack effluent. Total and static pressure sensing manifolds are incorporated to measure average velocity and integrated total discharge air volume. These data are logged at a computer which receives instrument data through a multiplex scanning system. A multipoint isokinetic sampling assembly with associated instrumentation is described. Continuous air monitors have been designed to sample from the isokinetic sampling assembly and transmit both instantaneous and integrated stack effluent concentration data to the computer and various cathode ray tube displays. The continuous air monitors also serve as room air monitors in the plutonium facility with the primary objective of timely evacuation of personnel if an above tolerance airborne plutonium concentration is detected. Several continuous air monitors are incorporated in the ventilation system to assist in identification of release problem areas

  20. Radiation damage and annealing in plutonium tetrafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, Kaylyn; Casella, Amanda; Sinkov, Sergey; Sweet, Lucas; McNamara, Bruce; Delegard, Calvin; Jevremovic, Tatjana

    2017-12-01

    Plutonium tetrafluoride that was separated prior to 1966 at the Hanford Site in Washington State was analyzed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2015 and 2016. The plutonium tetrafluoride, as received, was an off-normal color and considering the age of the plutonium, there were questions about the condition of the material. These questions had to be answered in order to determine the suitability of the material for future use or long-term storage. Therefore, Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal Analysis and X-ray Diffraction evaluations were conducted to determine the plutonium’s crystal structure, oxide content, and moisture content; these analyses reported that the plutonium was predominately amorphous and tetrafluoride, with an oxide content near ten percent. Freshly fluorinated plutonium tetrafluoride is known to be monoclinic. During the initial Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal analyses, it was discovered that an exothermic event occurred within the material near 414°C. X-ray Diffraction analyses were conducted on the annealed tetrafluoride. The X-ray Diffraction analyses indicated that some degree of recrystallization occurred in conjunction with the 414°C event. The following commentary describes the series of Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal and X-ray Diffraction analyses that were conducted as part of this investigation at PNNL, in collaboration with the University of Utah Nuclear Engineering Program.

  1. Evaluation of plutonium at Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.W.; Ng, Y.C.; Robison, W.L.

    1975-01-01

    An extensive survey was carried out in 1972 to 1973 to assess the current radiological status of Enewetok Atoll. The radionuclides detected in the Atoll environment were studied for their potential contributions to the dose commitment of the returning population according to several pathways of exposure. Plutonium was detected in air and in the terrestrial and aquatic environment at concentrations that varied from background levels due to world-wide fallout to levels several orders-of-magnitude above. The dose commitments from plutonium via the terrestrial food chain and inhalation vary according to the postulated living pattern. The dosages via marine foods can be expected to be insensitive to living pattern and to exceed those via terrestrial foods. Plutonium would contribute nearly all of the dosage via inhalation, but this pathway ranks low in overall importance compared with the food-chain and external-dose pathways. Although the potential dose from plutonium via all pathways is low relative to that from 60 Co, 90 Sr and 137 Cs, plutonium will still remain in the Atoll environment after the other makor isotopes have decayed away. (author)

  2. Long-term plutonium storage: Design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkey, D.D.; Wood, W.T.; Guenther, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    An important part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Program is the development of facilities for long-term storage of plutonium. The WCR design goals are to provide storage for metals, oxides, pits, and fuel-grade plutonium, including material being held as part of the Strategic Reserve and excess material. Major activities associated with plutonium storage are sorting the plutonium inventory, material handling and storage support, shipping and receiving, and surveillance of material in storage for both safety evaluations and safeguards and security. A variety of methods for plutonium storage have been used, both within the DOE weapons complex and by external organizations. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of proposed storage concepts based upon functional criteria. The concepts discussed include floor wells, vertical and horizontal sleeves, warehouse storage on vertical racks, and modular storage units. Issues/factors considered in determining a preferred design include operational efficiency, maintenance and repair, environmental impact, radiation and criticality safety, safeguards and security, heat removal, waste minimization, international inspection requirements, and construction and operational costs

  3. A transitioning Arctic surface energy budget: the impacts of solar zenith angle, surface albedo and cloud radiative forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlar, Joseph; Tjernstroem, Michael; Leck, Caroline [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden); Mauritsen, Thorsten [Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Shupe, Matthew D.; Persson, P.O.G. [University of Colorado, NOAA-ESRL-PSD, Boulder, CO (United States); Brooks, Ian M.; Birch, Cathryn E. [University of Leeds, School of Earth and Environment, Leeds (United Kingdom); Sirevaag, Anders [University of Bergen, Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Nicolaus, Marcel [Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsoe (Norway); Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Snow surface and sea-ice energy budgets were measured near 87.5 N during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS), from August to early September 2008. Surface temperature indicated four distinct temperature regimes, characterized by varying cloud, thermodynamic and solar properties. An initial warm, melt-season regime was interrupted by a 3-day cold regime where temperatures dropped from near zero to -7 C. Subsequently mean energy budget residuals remained small and near zero for 1 week until once again temperatures dropped rapidly and the energy budget residuals became negative. Energy budget transitions were dominated by the net radiative fluxes, largely controlled by the cloudiness. Variable heat, moisture and cloud distributions were associated with changing air-masses. Surface cloud radiative forcing, the net radiative effect of clouds on the surface relative to clear skies, is estimated. Shortwave cloud forcing ranged between -50 W m{sup -2} and zero and varied significantly with surface albedo, solar zenith angle and cloud liquid water. Longwave cloud forcing was larger and generally ranged between 65 and 85 W m{sup -2}, except when the cloud fraction was tenuous or contained little liquid water; thus the net effect of the clouds was to warm the surface. Both cold periods occurred under tenuous, or altogether absent, low-level clouds containing little liquid water, effectively reducing the cloud greenhouse effect. Freeze-up progression was enhanced by a combination of increasing solar zenith angles and surface albedo, while inhibited by a large, positive surface cloud forcing until a new air-mass with considerably less cloudiness advected over the experiment area. (orig.)

  4. Elaboration and characterisation of plutonium waste reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perolat, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The Analysis Methods Establishment Commission (CETAMA) has set up a program for the elaboration and characterisation of plutonium waste reference materials. The object of this program is to give laboratories the possibility to test and calibrate apparatus used in non-destructive methods for the analysis of plutonium waste. The different parameters of this program are presented: - characterisation of plutonium, - type and number of containers, - plutonium distribution inside the different containers, - description of the matrix

  5. PROCESS OF ELIMINATING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, J.G.; Fries, B.A.

    1960-09-27

    A procedure is given for peroxide precipitation processes for separating and recovering plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution. When plutonium peroxide is precipitated from an aqueous solution, the supernatant contains appreciable quantities of plutonium and peroxide. It is desirable to process this solution further to recover plutonium contained therein, but the presence of the peroxide introduces difficulties; residual hydrogen peroxide contained in the supernatant solution is eliminated by adding a nitrite or a sulfite to this solution.

  6. Accountability methods for plutonium and uranium: the NRC manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutmacher, R.G.; Stephens, F.B.

    1977-09-28

    Four manuals containing methods for the accountability of plutonium nitrate solutions, plutonium dioxide, uranium dioxide and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide have been prepared by us and issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A similar manual on methods for the accountability of uranium and plutonium in reprocessing plant dissolver solutions is now in preparation. In the present paper, we discuss the contents of the previously issued manuals and give a preview of the manual now being prepared.

  7. Accountability methods for plutonium and uranium: the NRC manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutmacher, R.G.; Stephens, F.B.

    1977-01-01

    Four manuals containing methods for the accountability of plutonium nitrate solutions, plutonium dioxide, uranium dioxide and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide have been prepared by us and issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A similar manual on methods for the accountability of uranium and plutonium in reprocessing plant dissolver solutions is now in preparation. In the present paper, we discuss the contents of the previously issued manuals and give a preview of the manual now being prepared

  8. The extraction of plutonium with triethylene glycol dichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikin, A.M.; Moss, M.; Bruce, T.

    1951-03-01

    The extraction of plutonium by triethylene glycol dichloride (trigly) has been investigated briefly. The effect of (1) the valence state of the plutonium, (2) the concentration of nitric acid, (3) the concentration of ammonium nitrate and (4) the conditioning of the trigly was measured. The solubility of plutonium IV in trigly was found to be 70 mgms/ml. Solutions of plutonium in trigly and in concentrated nitric acid solutions have been examined spectrophotometrically. (author)

  9. Monitoring of wastes containing plutonium. Necessity and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.; Pottier, P.

    1979-01-01

    Importance of problems set by wastes containing plutonium is rapidly growing. Plutonium is not a waste, recycling limits heavily the quantity of plutonium to be stored with wastes. Optimized waste management must take definitive storage and economical limits of plutonium recovery into account. Waste monitoring is a must for safety, economy and waste management. Methods used require reliability, simplicity, sensibility and accuracy particularly for threshold detection [fr

  10. The extraction of plutonium with triethylene glycol dichloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikin, A M; Moss, M; Bruce, T

    1951-03-15

    The extraction of plutonium by triethylene glycol dichloride (trigly) has been investigated briefly. The effect of (1) the valence state of the plutonium, (2) the concentration of nitric acid, (3) the concentration of ammonium nitrate and (4) the conditioning of the trigly was measured. The solubility of plutonium IV in trigly was found to be 70 mgms/ml. Solutions of plutonium in trigly and in concentrated nitric acid solutions have been examined spectrophotometrically. (author)

  11. Standard test method for plutonium assay by plutonium (III) diode array spectrophotometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the determination of total plutonium as plutonium(III) in nitrate and chloride solutions. The technique is applicable to solutions of plutonium dioxide powders and pellets (Test Methods C 697), nuclear grade mixed oxides (Test Methods C 698), plutonium metal (Test Methods C 758), and plutonium nitrate solutions (Test Methods C 759). Solid samples are dissolved using the appropriate dissolution techniques described in Practice C 1168. The use of this technique for other plutonium-bearing materials has been reported (1-5), but final determination of applicability must be made by the user. The applicable concentration range for plutonium sample solutions is 10–200 g Pu/L. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropria...

  12. Fused salt processing of impure plutonium dioxide to high-purity plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.; Babcock, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    A process for converting impure plutonium dioxide (approx. 96% pure) to high-purity plutonium metal (>99.9%) was developed. The process consists of reducing the oxide to an impure plutonium metal intermediate with calcium metal in molten calcium chloride. The impure intermediate metal is cast into an anode and electrorefined to produce high-purity plutonium metal. The oxide reduction step is being done now on a 0.6-kg scale with the resulting yield being >99.5%. The electrorefining is being done on a 4.0-kg scale with the resulting yield being 80 to 85%. The purity of the product, which averages 99.98%, is essentially insensitive to the purity of the feed metal. The yield, however, is directly dependent on the chemical composition of the feed. To date, approximately 250 kg of impure oxide has been converted to pure metal by this processing sequence. The availability of impure plutonium dioxide, together with the need for pure plutonium metal, makes this sequence a valuable plutonium processing tool

  13. Proteomics Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Proteomics Core is the central resource for mass spectrometry based proteomics within the NHLBI. The Core staff help collaborators design proteomics experiments in a...

  14. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  15. Distribution coefficient of plutonium between sediment and seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duursma, E.K.; Parsi, P.

    1974-01-01

    Using plutonium 237 as a tracer, a series of experiments were conducted to determine the distribution coefficient of plutonium onto sediments both under oxic and anoxic conditions, where the plutonium was added to seawater in three different valence states: III, IV and VI

  16. Metal plutonium conversion to components of nuclear reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbotin, V.G.; Panov, A.V.; Mashirev, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    Capabilities of different technologies for plutonium conversion to the fuel components of nuclear reactors are studied. Advantages and shortcomings of aqueous and nonaqueous methods of plutonium treatment are shown. Proposals to combine and coordinate efforts of world scientific and technological community in solving problems concerning plutonium of energetic and weapon origin treatment were put forward. (authors)

  17. Metal plutonium conversion to components of nuclear reactor fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbotin, V.G.; Panov, A.V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, ALL-Russian Science and Research, Institute of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Mashirev, V.P. [ALL-Russian Science and Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    Capabilities of different technologies for plutonium conversion to the fuel components of nuclear reactors are studied. Advantages and shortcomings of aqueous and nonaqueous methods of plutonium treatment are shown. Proposals to combine and coordinate efforts of world scientific and technological community in solving problems concerning plutonium of energetic and weapon origin treatment were put forward. (authors)

  18. Precipitation of plutonium from acidic solutions using magnesium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    Magnesium oxide will be used as a neutralizing agent for acidic plutonium-containing solutions. It is expected that as the magnesium oxide dissolves, the pH of the solution will rise, and plutonium will precipitate. The resulting solid will be tested for suitability to storage. The liquid is expected to contain plutonium levels that meet disposal limit requirements

  19. Response to suspected or known intakes of plutonium (Draft)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heid, K.R.

    1983-04-01

    The techniques used at Hanford for routine surveillance, incident detection and prompt assessment of a plutonium intake are reviewed. The techniques described are based on experience from some 80,000 man-years of plutonium work at Hanford which included a variety of manufacturing and R and D programs and involved several isotopes and chemical forms of plutonium

  20. The future of plutonium - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, C.E.

    1975-01-01

    Plutonium is the underpinning of the nuclear industry. Without it it is estimated that the fuel will run out not long after the turn of the century. With plutonium in fast breeders nuclear reactors can be operated for tens of thousands of years and the depleted uranium now available can be utilized The fuel cycle contemplated is similar to that of the light water reactor with some important differences at least partially related to the greater radioactivity of the resulting mixture of plutonium isotopes. The regulatory program does recognize the problems, including those of toxicity, safeguards and transportation. The concept of an integrated fuel cycle facility at a single location must be seriously considered. (author)