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Sample records for zebrafish pharyngeal arches

  1. TGF-β Signaling Is Necessary and Sufficient for Pharyngeal Arch Artery Angioblast Formation

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    Maryline Abrial

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The pharyngeal arch arteries (PAAs are transient embryonic blood vessels that mature into critical segments of the aortic arch and its branches. Although defects in PAA development cause life-threating congenital cardiovascular defects, the molecular mechanisms that orchestrate PAA morphogenesis remain unclear. Through small-molecule screening in zebrafish, we identified TGF-β signaling as indispensable for PAA development. Specifically, chemical inhibition of the TGF-β type I receptor ALK5 impairs PAA development because nkx2.5+ PAA progenitor cells fail to differentiate into tie1+ angioblasts. Consistent with this observation, we documented a burst of ALK5-mediated Smad3 phosphorylation within PAA progenitors that foreshadows angioblast emergence. Remarkably, premature induction of TGF-β receptor activity stimulates precocious angioblast differentiation, thereby demonstrating the sufficiency of this pathway for initiating the PAA progenitor to angioblast transition. More broadly, these data uncover TGF-β as a rare signaling pathway that is necessary and sufficient for angioblast lineage commitment.

  2. Histone deacetylase 1 and 2 are essential for murine neural crest proliferation, pharyngeal arch development, and craniofacial morphogenesis.

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    Milstone, Zachary J; Lawson, Grace; Trivedi, Chinmay M

    2017-12-01

    Craniofacial anomalies involve defective pharyngeal arch development and neural crest function. Copy number variation at 1p35, containing histone deacetylase 1 (Hdac1), or 6q21-22, containing Hdac2, are implicated in patients with craniofacial defects, suggesting an important role in guiding neural crest development. However, the roles of Hdac1 and Hdac2 within neural crest cells remain unknown. The neural crest and its derivatives express both Hdac1 and Hdac2 during early murine development. Ablation of Hdac1 and Hdac2 within murine neural crest progenitor cells cause severe hemorrhage, atrophic pharyngeal arches, defective head morphogenesis, and complete embryonic lethality. Embryos lacking Hdac1 and Hdac2 in the neural crest exhibit decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in both the neural tube and the first pharyngeal arch. Mechanistically, loss of Hdac1 and Hdac2 upregulates cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors Cdkn1a, Cdkn1b, Cdkn1c, Cdkn2b, Cdkn2c, and Tp53 within the first pharyngeal arch. Our results show that Hdac1 and Hdac2 function redundantly within the neural crest to regulate proliferation and the development of the pharyngeal arches by means of repression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. Developmental Dynamics 246:1015-1026, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Asymmetry in dentition and shape of pharyngeal arches in the clonal fish Chrosomus eos-neogaeus: Phenotypic plasticity and developmental instability.

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    Christelle Leung

    Full Text Available The effect of the environment may result in different developmental outcomes. Extrinsic signals can modify developmental pathways and result in alternative phenotypes (phenotypic plasticity. The environment can also be interpreted as a stressor and increase developmental instability (developmental noise. Directional and fluctuating asymmetry provide a conceptual background to discriminate between these results. This study aims at assessing whether variation in dentition and shape of pharyngeal arches of the clonal fish Chrosomus eos-neogaeus results from developmental instability or environmentally induced changes. A total of 262 specimens of the Chrosomus eos-neogaeus complex from 12 natural sites were analysed. X-ray microcomputed tomography (X-ray micro-CT was used to visualize the pharyngeal arches in situ with high resolution. Variation in the number of pharyngeal teeth is high in hybrids in contrast to the relative stability observed in both parental species. The basal dental formula is symmetric while the most frequent alternative dental formula is asymmetric. Within one lineage, large variation in the proportion of individuals bearing basal or alternative dental formulae was observed among sites in the absence of genetic difference. Both dentition and arch shape of this hybrid lineage were explained significantly by environmental differences. Only individuals bearing asymmetric dental formula displayed fluctuating asymmetry as well as directional left-right asymmetry for the arches. The hybrids appeared sensitive to environmental signals and intraspecific variation on pharyngeal teeth was not random but reflects phenotypic plasticity. Altogether, these results support the influence of the environment as a trigger for an alternative developmental pathway resulting in left-right asymmetry in dentition and shape of pharyngeal arches.

  4. Inactivation of Bmp4 from the Tbx1 Expression Domain Causes Abnormal Pharyngeal Arch Artery and Cardiac Outflow Tract Remodeling

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    Nie, Xuguang; Brown, Christopher B.; Wang, Qin; Jiao, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Maldevelopment of outflow tract and aortic arch arteries is among the most common forms of human congenital heart diseases. Both Bmp4 and Tbx1 are known to play critical roles during cardiovascular development. Expression of these two genes partially overlaps in pharyngeal arch areas in mouse embryos. In this study, we applied a conditional gene inactivation approach to test the hypothesis that Bmp4 expressed from the Tbx1 expression domain plays a critical role for normal development of outflow tract and pharyngeal arch arteries. We showed that inactivation of Bmp4 from Tbx1-expressing cells leads to the spectrum of deformities resembling the cardiovascular defects observed in human DiGeorge syndrome patients. Inactivation of Bmp4 from the Tbx1 expression domain did not cause patterning defects, but affected remodeling of outflow tract and pharyngeal arch arteries. Our further examination revealed that Bmp4 is required for normal recruitment/differentiation of smooth muscle cells surrounding the PAA4 and survival of outflow tract cushion mesenchymal cells. PMID:21123999

  5. Dicer activity in neural crest cells is essential for craniofacial organogenesis and pharyngeal arch artery morphogenesis

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    Nie, Xuguang; Wang, Qin; Jiao, Kai

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulating gene expression during numerous biological/pathological processes. Dicer encodes an RNase III endonuclease that is essential for generating most, if not all, functional miRNAs. In this work, we applied a conditional gene inactivation approach to examine the function of Dicer during neural crest cell (NCC) development. Mice with NCC-specific inactivation of Dicer died perinatally. Cranial and cardiac NCC migration into target tissues was not affected by Dicer disruption, but their subsequent development was disturbed. NCC derivatives and their associated mesoderm-derived cells displayed massive apoptosis, leading to severe abnormalities during craniofacial morphogenesis and organogenesis. In addition, the 4th pharyngeal arch artery (PAA) remodeling was affected, resulting in interrupted aortic arch artery type B (IAA-B) in mutant animals. Taken together, our results show that Dicer activity in NCCs is essential for craniofacial development and pharyngeal arch artery morphogenesis. PMID:21256960

  6. Molecular cloning and developmental expression of Tlx (Hox11) genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

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    Langenau, D M; Palomero, T; Kanki, J P; Ferrando, A A; Zhou, Y; Zon, L I; Look, A T

    2002-09-01

    Tlx (Hox11) genes are orphan homeobox genes that play critical roles in the regulation of early developmental processes in vertebrates. Here, we report the identification and expression patterns of three members of the zebrafish Tlx family. These genes share similar, but not identical, expression patterns with other vertebrate Tlx-1 and Tlx-3 genes. Tlx-1 is expressed early in the developing hindbrain and pharyngeal arches, and later in the putative splenic primordium. However, unlike its orthologues, zebrafish Tlx-1 is not expressed in the cranial sensory ganglia or spinal cord. Two homologues of Tlx-3 were identified: Tlx-3a and Tlx-3b, which are both expressed in discrete regions of the developing nervous system, including the cranial sensory ganglia and Rohon-Beard neurons. However, only Tlx-3a is expressed in the statoacoustic cranial ganglia, enteric neurons and non-neural tissues such as the fin bud and pharyngeal arches and Tlx-3b is only expressed in the dorsal root ganglia. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  7. On the roles and regulation of chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate in zebrafish pharyngeal cartilage morphogenesis

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    Holmborn, Katarina; Habicher, Judith; Kasza, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    The present study addresses the roles of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans and chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans in the development of zebrafish pharyngeal cartilage structures. uxs1 and b3gat3 mutants, predicted to have impaired biosynthesis of both HS and CS because of defective formation...... levels of CS than control larvae, whereas morpholino-mediated suppression of csgalnact1/csgalnact2 resulted in increased HS biosynthesis. Thus, the balance of the Extl3 and Csgalnact1/Csgalnact2 proteins influences the HS/CS ratio. A characterization of the pharyngeal cartilage element morphologies...

  8. Egfl6 is involved in zebrafish notochord development.

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    Wang, Xueqian; Wang, Xin; Yuan, Wei; Chai, Renjie; Liu, Dong

    2015-08-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeat motif defines a superfamily of diverse protein involved in regulating a variety of cellular and physiological processes, such as cell cycle, cell adhesion, proliferation, migration, and neural development. Egfl6, an EGF protein, also named MAGE was first cloned in human tissue. Up to date, the study of zebrafish Egfl6 expression pattern and functional analysis of Egfl6 involved in embryonic development of vertebrate in vivo is thus far lacking. Here we reported that Egfl6 was involved in zebrafish notochord development. It was shown that Egfl6 mRNA was expressed in zebrafish, developing somites, fin epidermis, pharyngeal arches, and hindbrain region. Particularly the secreted Egfl6 protein was significantly accumulated in notochord. Loss of Egfl6 function in zebrafish embryos resulted in curved body with distorted notochord in the posterior trunk. It was observed that expression of all Notch ligand and receptors in notochord of 28 hpf Egfl6 morphants was not affected, except notch2, which was up-regulated. We found that inhibition of Notch signaling by DAPT efficiently rescued notochord developmental defect of Egfl6 deficiency embryos.

  9. Disruption of Smad4 in neural crest cells leads to mid-gestation death with pharyngeal arch, craniofacial and cardiac defects

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    Nie, Xuguang; Deng, Chu-xia; Wang, Qin; Jiao, Kai

    2008-01-01

    TGFβ/BMP signaling pathways are essential for normal development of neural crest cells (NCCs). Smad4 encodes the only common Smad protein in mammals, which is a critical nuclear mediator of TGFβ/BMP signaling. In this work, we sought to investigate the roles of Smad4 for development of NCCs. To overcome the early embryonic lethality of Smad4 null mice, we specifically disrupted Smad4 in NCCs using a Cre/loxP system. The mutant mice died at mid-gestation with defects in facial primordia, pharyngeal arches, outflow tract and cardiac ventricles. Further examination revealed that mutant embryos displayed severe molecular defects starting from E9.5. Expression of multiple genes, including Msx1, 2, Ap-2α, Pax3, and Sox9, which play critical roles for NCC development, was downregulated by NCC disruption of Smad4. Moreover, increased cell death was observed in pharyngeal arches from E10.5. However, the cell proliferation rate in these areas was not substantially altered. Taken together, these findings provide compelling genetic evidence that Smad4-mediated activities of TGFβ/BMP signals are essential for appropriate NCC development. PMID:18334251

  10. Characterization of Zebrafish von Willebrand Factor Reveals Conservation of Domain Structure, Multimerization, and Intracellular Storage

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    Arunima Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available von Willebrand disease (VWD is the most common inherited human bleeding disorder and is caused by quantitative or qualitative defects in von Willebrand factor (VWF. VWF is a secreted glycoprotein that circulates as large multimers. While reduced VWF is associated with bleeding, elevations in overall level or multimer size are implicated in thrombosis. The zebrafish is a powerful genetic model in which the hemostatic system is well conserved with mammals. The ability of this organism to generate thousands of offspring and its optical transparency make it unique and complementary to mammalian models of hemostasis. Previously, partial clones of zebrafish vwf have been identified, and some functional conservation has been demonstrated. In this paper we clone the complete zebrafish vwf cDNA and show that there is conservation of domain structure. Recombinant zebrafish Vwf forms large multimers and pseudo-Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs in cell culture. Larval expression is in the pharyngeal arches, yolk sac, and intestinal epithelium. These results provide a foundation for continued study of zebrafish Vwf that may further our understanding of the mechanisms of VWD.

  11. Zebrafish con/disp1 reveals multiple spatiotemporal requirements for Hedgehog-signaling in craniofacial development

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    Schwend Tyler

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vertebrate head skeleton is derived largely from cranial neural crest cells (CNCC. Genetic studies in zebrafish and mice have established that the Hedgehog (Hh-signaling pathway plays a critical role in craniofacial development, partly due to the pathway's role in CNCC development. Disruption of the Hh-signaling pathway in humans can lead to the spectral disorder of Holoprosencephaly (HPE, which is often characterized by a variety of craniofacial defects including midline facial clefting and cyclopia 12. Previous work has uncovered a role for Hh-signaling in zebrafish dorsal neurocranium patterning and chondrogenesis, however Hh-signaling mutants have not been described with respect to the ventral pharyngeal arch (PA skeleton. Lipid-modified Hh-ligands require the transmembrane-spanning receptor Dispatched 1 (Disp1 for proper secretion from Hh-synthesizing cells to the extracellular field where they act on target cells. Here we study chameleon mutants, lacking a functional disp1(con/disp1. Results con/disp1 mutants display reduced and dysmorphic mandibular and hyoid arch cartilages and lack all ceratobranchial cartilage elements. CNCC specification and migration into the PA primorida occurs normally in con/disp1 mutants, however disp1 is necessary for post-migratory CNCC patterning and differentiation. We show that disp1 is required for post-migratory CNCC to become properly patterned within the first arch, while the gene is dispensable for CNCC condensation and patterning in more posterior arches. Upon residing in well-formed pharyngeal epithelium, neural crest condensations in the posterior PA fail to maintain expression of two transcription factors essential for chondrogenesis, sox9a and dlx2a, yet continue to robustly express other neural crest markers. Histology reveals that posterior arch residing-CNCC differentiate into fibrous-connective tissue, rather than becoming chondrocytes. Treatments with Cyclopamine, to

  12. Redundant roles of PRDM family members in zebrafish craniofacial development.

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    Ding, Hai-Lei; Clouthier, David E; Artinger, Kristin B

    2013-01-01

    PRDM proteins are evolutionary conserved Zn-Finger transcription factors that share a characteristic protein domain organization. Previous studies have shown that prdm1a is required for the specification and differentiation of neural crest cells in the zebrafish. Here we examine other members of this family, specifically prdm3, 5, and 16, in the differentiation of the zebrafish craniofacial skeleton. prdm3 and prdm16 are strongly expressed in the pharyngeal arches, while prdm5 is expressed specifically in the area of the forming neurocranium. Knockdown of prdm3 and prdm16 results in a reduction in the neural crest markers dlx2a and barx1 and defects in both the viscerocranium and the neurocranium. The knockdown of prdm3 and prdm16 in combination is additive in the neurocranium, but not in the viscerocranium. Injection of sub-optimal doses of prdm1a with prdm3 or prdm16 Morpholinos together leads to more severe phenotypes in the viscerocranium and neurocranium. prdm5 mutants have defects in the neurocranium and prdm1a and prdm5 double mutants also show more severe phenotypes. Overall, our data reveal that prdm3, 5, and 16 are involved in the zebrafish craniofacial development and that prdm1a may interact with prdm3, 5, and 16 in the formation of the craniofacial skeleton in zebrafish. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. HSPG-deficient zebrafish uncovers dental aspect of multiple osteochondromas.

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    Malgorzata I Wiweger

    Full Text Available Multiple Osteochondromas (MO; previously known as multiple hereditary exostosis is an autosomal dominant genetic condition that is characterized by the formation of cartilaginous bone tumours (osteochondromas at multiple sites in the skeleton, secondary bursa formation and impingement of nerves, tendons and vessels, bone curving, and short stature. MO is also known to be associated with arthritis, general pain, scarring and occasional malignant transformation of osteochondroma into secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma. MO patients present additional complains but the relevance of those in relation to the syndromal background needs validation. Mutations in two enzymes that are required during heparan sulphate synthesis (EXT1 or EXT2 are known to cause MO. Previously, we have used zebrafish which harbour mutations in ext2 as a model for MO and shown that ext2⁻/⁻ fish have skeletal defects that resemble those seen in osteochondromas. Here we analyse dental defects present in ext2⁻/⁻ fish. Histological analysis reveals that ext2⁻/⁻ fish have very severe defects associated with the formation and the morphology of teeth. At 5 days post fertilization 100% of ext2⁻/⁻ fish have a single tooth at the end of the 5(th pharyngeal arch, whereas wild-type fish develop three teeth, located in the middle of the pharyngeal arch. ext2⁻/⁻ teeth have abnormal morphology (they were shorter and thicker than in the WT and patchy ossification at the tooth base. Deformities such as split crowns and enamel lesions were found in 20% of ext2⁺/⁻ adults. The tooth morphology in ext2⁻/⁻ was partially rescued by FGF8 administered locally (bead implants. Our findings from zebrafish model were validated in a dental survey that was conducted with assistance of the MHE Research Foundation. The presence of the malformed and/or displaced teeth with abnormal enamel was declared by half of the respondents indicating that MO might indeed be also associated

  14. Expression of sall4 in taste buds of zebrafish.

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    Jackson, Robyn; Braubach, Oliver R; Bilkey, Jessica; Zhang, Jing; Akimenko, Marie-Andrée; Fine, Alan; Croll, Roger P; Jonz, Michael G

    2013-07-01

    We characterized the expression of sall4, a gene encoding a zinc finger transcription factor involved in the maintenance of embryonic stem cells, in taste buds of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Using an enhancer trap line (ET5), we detected enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in developing and adult transgenic zebrafish in regions containing taste buds: the lips, branchial arches, and the nasal and maxillary barbels. Localization of EGFP to taste cells of the branchial arches and lips was confirmed by co-immunolabeling with antibodies against calretinin and serotonin, and a zebrafish-derived neuronal marker (zn-12). Transgenic insertion of the ET construct into the zebrafish genome was evaluated and mapped to chromosome 23 in proximity (i.e. 23 kb) to the sall4 gene. In situ hybridization and expression analysis between 24 and 96 h post-fertilization (hpf) demonstrated that transgenic egfp expression in ET5 zebrafish was correlated with the spatial and temporal pattern of expression of sall4 in the wild-type. Expression was first observed in the central nervous system and branchial arches at 24 hpf. At 48 hpf, sall4 and egfp expression was observed in taste bud primordia surrounding the mouth and branchial arches. At 72 and 96 hpf, expression was detected in the upper and lower lips and branchial arches. Double fluorescence in situ hybridization at 3 and 10 dpf confirmed colocalization of sall4 and egfp in the lips and branchial arches. These studies reveal sall4 expression in chemosensory cells and implicate this transcription factor in the development and renewal of taste epithelia in zebrafish. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. pitx2 Deficiency results in abnormal ocular and craniofacial development in zebrafish.

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    Yi Liu

    Full Text Available Human PITX2 mutations are associated with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, an autosomal-dominant developmental disorder that involves ocular anterior segment defects, dental hypoplasia, craniofacial dysmorphism and umbilical abnormalities. Characterization of the PITX2 pathway and identification of the mechanisms underlying the anomalies associated with PITX2 deficiency is important for better understanding of normal development and disease; studies of pitx2 function in animal models can facilitate these analyses. A knockdown of pitx2 in zebrafish was generated using a morpholino that targeted all known alternative transcripts of the pitx2 gene; morphant embryos generated with the pitx2(ex4/5 splicing-blocking oligomer produced abnormal transcripts predicted to encode truncated pitx2 proteins lacking the third (recognition helix of the DNA-binding homeodomain. The morphological phenotype of pitx2(ex4/5 morphants included small head and eyes, jaw abnormalities and pericardial edema; lethality was observed at ∼6-8-dpf. Cartilage staining revealed a reduction in size and an abnormal shape/position of the elements of the mandibular and hyoid pharyngeal arches; the ceratobranchial arches were also decreased in size. Histological and marker analyses of the misshapen eyes of the pitx2(ex4/5 morphants identified anterior segment dysgenesis and disordered hyaloid vasculature. In summary, we demonstrate that pitx2 is essential for proper eye and craniofacial development in zebrafish and, therefore, that PITX2/pitx2 function is conserved in vertebrates.

  16. Clarifying the anatomy of the fifth arch artery

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    Saurabh Kumar Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The artery allegedly forming in the fifth pharyngeal arch has increasingly been implicated as responsible for various vascular malformations in patients with congenitally malformed hearts. Observations from studies on developing embryos, however, have failed to provide support to substantiate several of these inferences such that the very existence of the fifth arch artery remains debatable. To the best of our knowledge, in only a solitary human embryo has a vascular channel been found that truly resembled the artery of the fifth arch. Despite the meager evidence to support its existence, the fifth arch artery has been invoked to explain the morphogenesis of double-barreled aorta, some unusual forms of aortopulmonary communications, and abnormalities of the brachiocephalic arteries. In most of these instances, the interpretations have proved fallible when examined in the light of existing knowledge of cardiac development. In our opinion, there are more plausible alternative explanations for the majority of these descriptions. Double-barreled aorta is more likely to result from retention of the recently identified dorsal collateral channels while abnormalities of brachiocephalic arteries are better explained on the basis of extensive remodeling of aortic arches during fetal development. Some examples of aortopulmonary communications, nonetheless, may well represent persistence of the developing artery of the fifth pharyngeal arch. We here present one such case - a patient with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia, in whom the fifth arch artery provided a necessary communication between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary arteries. In this light, we discuss the features we consider to be essential before attaching the tag of "fifth arch artery" to a candidate vascular channel.

  17. The influence of the lateral pharyngeal wall anatomy on snoring and sleep apnoea.

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    Korhan, Ibrahim; Gode, Sercan; Midilli, Rasit; Basoglu, Ozen Kacmaz

    2015-02-01

    To elucidate the variations of the lateral pharyngeal wall anatomy on physical examination and to assess the clinical importance of the examination of the lateral pharyngeal wall on the presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. The cross-sectional study was conducted at Ege University Medical School, Izmir, Turkey, between May 2010 and April 2011. The patients were divided into four equal groups: Group 1--snoring without apnoea (age 20-40); Group 2--snoring without apnoea (age 40-60); Group 3--apnoea-hypopnoea index 30/hr. Calibrated oropharynx pictures were taken. Distance between palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches, height of palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches, uvula width, uvula length and distance between tonsils were measured. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 80 patients in the study, 44 (55%) were men. Mean distance between palatopharyngeal and palatoglossal arches were 1.55 ± 0.34 cm and 2.70 ± 0.43 cm respectively. Mean height of palatopharyngeal and palatoglossal arches were 0.60 ± 0.21 cm and 1.37 ± 0.36 cm respectively (p > 0.05). Mean uvula width and uvula length were 0.80 ± 0.12cm and 1.25 ± 0.27 cm respectively (p > 0.05). Mean distance between tonsils was 2.24 ± 0.56 cm (p > 0.05). Distance between palatopharyngeal arches was significantly different between groups 3 and 4 (p < 0.05). Palatopharyngeal arch anatomy was found to be significantly associated with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome severity, especially in patients with normal or small tonsil size. Patients with the palatopharyngeal arches, which narrow the oropharyngeal inlet more than the tonsils, should further be investigated with polysomnography.

  18. Pharyngeal arch deficiencies affect taste bud development in the circumvallate papilla with aberrant glossopharyngeal nerve formation.

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    Okubo, Tadashi; Takada, Shinji

    2015-07-01

    The pharyngeal arches (PAs) generate cranial organs including the tongue. The taste placodes, formed in particular locations on the embryonic tongue surface, differentiate into taste buds harbored in distinct gustatory papillae. The developing tongue also has a complex supply of cranial nerves through each PA. However, the relationship between the PAs and taste bud development is not fully understood. Ripply3 homozygous mutant mice, which have impaired third/fourth PAs, display a hypoplastic circumvallate papilla and lack taste buds, although the taste placode is normally formed. Formation of the glossopharyngeal ganglia is defective and innervation toward the posterior tongue is completely missing in Ripply3 mutant embryos at E12.5. Moreover, the distribution of neuroblasts derived from the epibranchial placode is severely, but not completely, atenuated, and the neural crest cells are diminished in the third PA region of Ripply3 mutant embryos at E9.5-E10.5. In Tbx1 homozygous mutant embryos, which exhibit another type of deficiency in PA development, the hypoplastic circumvallate papilla is observed along with abnormal formation of the glossopharyngeal ganglia and severely impaired innervation. PA deficiencies affect multiple aspects of taste bud development, including formation of the cranial ganglia and innervation to the posterior tongue. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Large-scale analysis of acute ethanol exposure in zebrafish development: a critical time window and resilience.

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    Shaukat Ali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In humans, ethanol exposure during pregnancy causes a spectrum of developmental defects (fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS. Individuals vary in phenotypic expression. Zebrafish embryos develop FAS-like features after ethanol exposure. In this study, we ask whether stage-specific effects of ethanol can be identified in the zebrafish, and if so, whether they allow the pinpointing of sensitive developmental mechanisms. We have therefore conducted the first large-scale (>1500 embryos analysis of acute, stage-specific drug effects on zebrafish development, with a large panel of readouts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Zebrafish embryos were raised in 96-well plates. Range-finding indicated that 10% ethanol for 1 h was suitable for an acute exposure regime. High-resolution magic-angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that this produced a transient pulse of 0.86% concentration of ethanol in the embryo within the chorion. Survivors at 5 days postfertilisation were analysed. Phenotypes ranged from normal (resilient to severely malformed. Ethanol exposure at early stages caused high mortality (≥88%. At later stages of exposure, mortality declined and malformations developed. Pharyngeal arch hypoplasia and behavioral impairment were most common after prim-6 and prim-16 exposure. By contrast, microphthalmia and growth retardation were stage-independent. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that some ethanol effects are strongly stage-dependent. The phenotypes mimic key aspects of FAS including craniofacial abnormality, microphthalmia, growth retardation and behavioral impairment. We also identify a critical time window (prim-6 and prim-16 for ethanol sensitivity. Finally, our identification of a wide phenotypic spectrum is reminiscent of human FAS, and may provide a useful model for studying disease resilience.

  20. Evolutionary Trends of the Pharyngeal Dentition in Cypriniformes (Actinopterygii: Ostariophysi)

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    Pasco-Viel, Emmanuel; Charles, Cyril; Chevret, Pascale; Semon, Marie; Tafforeau, Paul; Viriot, Laurent; Laudet, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Background : The fish order Cypriniformes is one of the most diverse ray-finned fish groups in the world with more than 3000 recognized species. Cypriniformes are characterized by a striking distribution of their dentition: namely the absence of oral teeth and presence of pharyngeal teeth on the last gill arch (fifth ceratobranchial). Despite this limited localisation, the diversity of tooth patterns in Cypriniformes is astonishing. Here we provide a further description of this diversity usin...

  1. Phenothiourea sensitizes zebrafish cranial neural crest and extraocular muscle development to changes in retinoic acid and IGF signaling.

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    Brenda L Bohnsack

    Full Text Available 1-Phenyl 2-thiourea (PTU is a tyrosinase inhibitor commonly used to block pigmentation and aid visualization of zebrafish development. At the standard concentration of 0.003% (200 µM, PTU inhibits melanogenesis and reportedly has minimal other effects on zebrafish embryogenesis. We found that 0.003% PTU altered retinoic acid and insulin-like growth factor (IGF regulation of neural crest and mesodermal components of craniofacial development. Reduction of retinoic acid synthesis by the pan-aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor diethylbenzaldehyde, only when combined with 0.003% PTU, resulted in extraocular muscle disorganization. PTU also decreased retinoic acid-induced teratogenic effects on pharyngeal arch and jaw cartilage despite morphologically normal appearing PTU-treated controls. Furthermore, 0.003% PTU in combination with inhibition of IGF signaling through either morpholino knockdown or pharmacologic inhibition of tyrosine kinase receptor phosphorylation, disrupted jaw development and extraocular muscle organization. PTU in and of itself inhibited neural crest development at higher concentrations (0.03% and had the greatest inhibitory effect when added prior to 22 hours post fertilization (hpf. Addition of 0.003% PTU between 4 and 20 hpf decreased thyroxine (T4 in thyroid follicles in the nasopharynx of 96 hpf embryos. Treatment with exogenous triiodothyronine (T3 and T4 improved, but did not completely rescue, PTU-induced neural crest defects. Thus, PTU should be used with caution when studying zebrafish embryogenesis as it alters the threshold of different signaling pathways important during craniofacial development. The effects of PTU on neural crest development are partially caused by thyroid hormone signaling.

  2. Does hardness of food affect the development of pharyngeal teeth of the black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus (Pisces: Cyprinidae)?

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    Hung, Nguyen Manh; Ryan, Timothy M.; Stauffer, Jay R.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether food type influences development of the pharyngeal crushing apparatus of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus, Cyprinidae). Fish fed a hard diet had average standard lengths and weights larger than those fed a soft diet; these observations in part could be related to differe......We investigated whether food type influences development of the pharyngeal crushing apparatus of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus, Cyprinidae). Fish fed a hard diet had average standard lengths and weights larger than those fed a soft diet; these observations in part could be related...... to differences in nutritional value of the two food types. The lower pharyngeal bones, which bear molariform teeth were examined using three dimensional computed tomography (CT) scans. After adjusting for differences in the standard length of the fish, the total volume and exterior surface areas...... of the pharyngeal teeth were greater in fish fed hard diets than in those fed soft diets. Total weights of the pharyngeal arches were less in the fish fed a soft diet than in those fed a hard diet. These results indicated that food type affects development of the pharyngeal crushing mill of black carp and therefore...

  3. Pharyngeal pH alone is not reliable for the detection of pharyngeal reflux events: A study with oesophageal and pharyngeal pH-impedance monitoring

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    Desjardin, Marie; Roman, Sabine; des Varannes, Stanislas Bruley; Gourcerol, Guillaume; Coffin, Benoit; Ropert, Alain; Mion, François

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharyngeal pH probes and pH-impedance catheters have been developed for the diagnosis of laryngo-pharyngeal reflux. Objective To determine the reliability of pharyngeal pH alone for the detection of pharyngeal reflux events. Methods 24-h pH-impedance recordings performed in 45 healthy subjects with a bifurcated probe for detection of pharyngeal and oesophageal reflux events were reviewed. Pharyngeal pH drops to below 4 and 5 were analysed for the simultaneous occurrence of pharyngeal reflux, gastro-oesophageal reflux, and swallows, according to impedance patterns. Results Only 7.0% of pharyngeal pH drops to below 5 identified with impedance corresponded to pharyngeal reflux, while 92.6% were related to swallows and 10.2 and 13.3% were associated with proximal and distal gastro-oesophageal reflux events, respectively. Of pharyngeal pH drops to below 4, 13.2% were related to pharyngeal reflux, 87.5% were related to swallows, and 18.1 and 21.5% were associated with proximal and distal gastro-oesophageal reflux events, respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrates that pharyngeal pH alone is not reliable for the detection of pharyngeal reflux and that adding distal oesophageal pH analysis is not helpful. The only reliable analysis should take into account impedance patterns demonstrating the presence of pharyngeal reflux event preceded by a distal and proximal reflux event within the oesophagus. PMID:24917995

  4. A zebrafish screen for craniofacial mutants identifies wdr68 as a highly conserved gene required for endothelin-1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amsterdam Adam

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Craniofacial birth defects result from defects in cranial neural crest (NC patterning and morphogenesis. The vertebrate craniofacial skeleton is derived from cranial NC cells and the patterning of these cells occurs within the pharyngeal arches. Substantial efforts have led to the identification of several genes required for craniofacial skeletal development such as the endothelin-1 (edn1 signaling pathway that is required for lower jaw formation. However, many essential genes required for craniofacial development remain to be identified. Results Through screening a collection of insertional zebrafish mutants containing approximately 25% of the genes essential for embryonic development, we present the identification of 15 essential genes that are required for craniofacial development. We identified 3 genes required for hyomandibular development. We also identified zebrafish models for Campomelic Dysplasia and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. To further demonstrate the utility of this method, we include a characterization of the wdr68 gene. We show that wdr68 acts upstream of the edn1 pathway and is also required for formation of the upper jaw equivalent, the palatoquadrate. We also present evidence that the level of wdr68 activity required for edn1 pathway function differs between the 1st and 2nd arches. Wdr68 interacts with two minibrain-related kinases, Dyrk1a and Dyrk1b, required for embryonic growth and myotube differentiation, respectively. We show that a GFP-Wdr68 fusion protein localizes to the nucleus with Dyrk1a in contrast to an engineered loss of function mutation Wdr68-T284F that no longer accumulated in the cell nucleus and failed to rescue wdr68 mutant animals. Wdr68 homologs appear to exist in all eukaryotic genomes. Notably, we found that the Drosophila wdr68 homolog CG14614 could substitute for the vertebrate wdr68 gene even though insects lack the NC cell lineage. Conclusion This work represents a systematic

  5. Maturation Modulates Pharyngeal-Stimulus Provoked Pharyngeal and Respiratory Rhythms in Human Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstab, Kathryn A; Sitaram, Swetha; Lang, Ivan M; Shaker, Reza; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R

    2018-02-01

    Pharyngeal-provocation induced aerodigestive symptoms in infants remain an enigma. Sources of pharyngeal provocation can be anterograde as with feeding, and retrograde as in gastroesophageal reflux. We determined maturational and dose-response effects of targeted pharyngeal-stimulus on frequency, stability, and magnitude of pharyngeal and respiratory waveforms during multiple pharyngeal swallowing responses in preterm-born infants when they were of full-term postmenstrual age (PMA). Eighteen infants (11 male) were studied longitudinally at 39.8 ± 4.8 weeks PMA (time-1) and 44.1 ± 5.8 weeks PMA (time-2). Infants underwent concurrent pharyngo-esophageal manometry, respiratory inductance plethysmography, and nasal airflow thermistor methods to test sensory-motor interactions between the pharynx, esophagus, and airway. Linear mixed models were used and data presented as mean ± SEM or %. Overall, responses to 250 stimuli were analyzed. Of the multiple pharyngeal swallowing responses (n = 160), with maturation (a) deglutition apnea duration decreases (p  0.05), and (c) respiratory changes were unaffected (p > 0.05). Initial and subsequent pharyngeal responses and respiratory rhythm interactions become more distinct with maturation. Interval oromotor experiences and volume-dependent increase in adaptive responses may be contributory. These mechanisms may be important in modulating and restoring respiratory rhythm normalcy.

  6. In Vivo Screening Using Transgenic Zebrafish Embryos Reveals New Effects of HDAC Inhibitors Trichostatin A and Valproic Acid on Organogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Li

    Full Text Available The effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs on reproduction are well known, whereas their developmental effects are much less characterized. However, exposure to endocrine disruptors during organogenesis may lead to deleterious and permanent problems later in life. Zebrafish (Danio rerio transgenic lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP in specific organs and tissues are powerful tools to uncover developmental defects elicited by EDCs. Here, we used seven transgenic lines to visualize in vivo whether a series of EDCs and other pharmaceutical compounds can alter organogenesis in zebrafish. We used transgenic lines expressing GFP in pancreas, liver, blood vessels, inner ear, nervous system, pharyngeal tooth and pectoral fins. This screen revealed that four of the tested chemicals have detectable effects on different organs, which shows that the range of effects elicited by EDCs is wider than anticipated. The endocrine disruptor tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA, as well as the three drugs diclofenac, trichostatin A (TSA and valproic acid (VPA induced abnormalities in the embryonic vascular system of zebrafish. Moreover, TSA and VPA induced specific alterations during the development of pancreas, an observation that was confirmed by in situ hybridization with specific markers. Developmental delays were also induced by TSA and VPA in the liver and in pharyngeal teeth, resulting in smaller organ size. Our results show that EDCs can induce a large range of developmental alterations during embryogenesis of zebrafish and establish GFP transgenic lines as powerful tools to screen for EDCs effects in vivo.

  7. Streptococcal acute pharyngitis

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    Lais Martins Moreira Anjos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute pharyngitis/tonsillitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the posterior pharynx and tonsils, is a common disease. Several viruses and bacteria can cause acute pharyngitis; however, Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as Lancefield group A β-hemolytic streptococci is the only agent that requires an etiologic diagnosis and specific treatment. S. pyogenes is of major clinical importance because it can trigger post-infection systemic complications, acute rheumatic fever, and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Symptom onset in streptococcal infection is usually abrupt and includes intense sore throat, fever, chills, malaise, headache, tender enlarged anterior cervical lymph nodes, and pharyngeal or tonsillar exudate. Cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and diarrhea are uncommon, and their presence suggests a viral cause. A diagnosis of pharyngitis is supported by the patient's history and by the physical examination. Throat culture is the gold standard for diagnosing streptococcus pharyngitis. However, it has been underused in public health services because of its low availability and because of the 1- to 2-day delay in obtaining results. Rapid antigen detection tests have been used to detect S. pyogenes directly from throat swabs within minutes. Clinical scoring systems have been developed to predict the risk of S. pyogenes infection. The most commonly used scoring system is the modified Centor score. Acute S. pyogenes pharyngitis is often a self-limiting disease. Penicillins are the first-choice treatment. For patients with penicillin allergy, cephalosporins can be an acceptable alternative, although primary hypersensitivity to cephalosporins can occur. Another drug option is the macrolides. Future perspectives to prevent streptococcal pharyngitis and post-infection systemic complications include the development of an anti-Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine.

  8. Unique developmental trajectories and genetic regulation of ventricular and outflow tract progenitors in the zebrafish second heart field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paffett-Lugassy, Noelle; Novikov, Natasha; Jeffrey, Spencer

    2017-01-01

    temporarily sequestered in the mesodermal cores of pharyngeal arch 2 (PA2), where they downregulate nkx2.5 expression. While there, they intermingle with precursors for PA2-derived head muscles (HMs) and hypobranchial artery endothelium, which we demonstrate are co-specified with SHF progenitors in the nkx2...

  9. Relationships among msx gene structure and function in zebrafish and other vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekker, M; Akimenko, M A; Allende, M L; Smith, R; Drouin, G; Langille, R M; Weinberg, E S; Westerfield, M

    1997-10-01

    The zebrafish genome contains at least five msx homeobox genes, msxA, msxB, msxC, msxD, and the newly isolated msxE. Although these genes share structural features common to all Msx genes, phylogenetic analyses of protein sequences indicate that the msx genes from zebrafish are not orthologous to the Msx1 and Msx2 genes of mammals, birds, and amphibians. The zebrafish msxB and msxC are more closely related to each other and to the mouse Msx3. Similarly, although the combinatorial expression of the zebrafish msx genes in the embryonic dorsal neuroectoderm, visceral arches, fins, and sensory organs suggests functional similarities with the Msx genes of other vertebrates, differences in the expression patterns preclude precise assignment of orthological relationships. Distinct duplication events may have given rise to the msx genes of modern fish and other vertebrate lineages whereas many aspects of msx gene functions during embryonic development have been preserved.

  10. A zebrafish model of lethal congenital contracture syndrome 1 reveals Gle1 function in spinal neural precursor survival and motor axon arborization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Li-En; Appel, Bruce; Wente, Susan R

    2012-04-01

    In humans, GLE1 is mutated in lethal congenital contracture syndrome 1 (LCCS1) leading to prenatal death of all affected fetuses. Although the molecular roles of Gle1 in nuclear mRNA export and translation have been documented, no animal models for this disease have been reported. To elucidate the function of Gle1 in vertebrate development, we used the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model system. gle1 mRNA is maternally deposited and widely expressed. Altering Gle1 using an insertional mutant or antisense morpholinos results in multiple defects, including immobility, small eyes, diminished pharyngeal arches, curved body axis, edema, underdeveloped intestine and cell death in the central nervous system. These phenotypes parallel those observed in LCCS1 human fetuses. Gle1 depletion also results in reduction of motoneurons and aberrant arborization of motor axons. Unexpectedly, the motoneuron deficiency results from apoptosis of neural precursors, not of differentiated motoneurons. Mosaic analyses further indicate that Gle1 activity is required extrinsically in the environment for normal motor axon arborization. Importantly, the zebrafish phenotypes caused by Gle1 deficiency are only rescued by expressing wild-type human GLE1 and not by the disease-linked Fin(Major) mutant form of GLE1. Together, our studies provide the first functional characterization of Gle1 in vertebrate development and reveal its essential role in actively dividing cells. We propose that defective GLE1 function in human LCCS1 results in both neurogenic and non-neurogenic defects linked to the apoptosis of proliferative organ precursors.

  11. Distinct patterns of notochord mineralization in zebrafish coincide with the localization of Osteocalcin isoform 1 during early vertebral centra formation

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    Bensimon-Brito Anabela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In chondrichthyans, basal osteichthyans and tetrapods, vertebral bodies have cartilaginous anlagen that subsequently mineralize (chondrichthyans or ossify (osteichthyans. Chondrocytes that form the vertebral centra derive from somites. In teleost fish, vertebral centrum formation starts in the absence of cartilage, through direct mineralization of the notochord sheath. In a second step, the notochord is surrounded by somite-derived intramembranous bone. In several small teleost species, including zebrafish (Danio rerio, even haemal and neural arches form directly as intramembranous bone and only modified caudalmost arches remain cartilaginous. This study compares initial patterns of mineralization in different regions of the vertebral column in zebrafish. We ask if the absence or presence of cartilaginous arches influences the pattern of notochord sheath mineralization. Results To reveal which cells are involved in mineralization of the notochord sheath we identify proliferating cells, we trace mineralization on the histological level and we analyze cell ultrastructure by TEM. Moreover, we localize proteins and genes that are typically expressed by skeletogenic cells such as Collagen type II, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Osteocalcin (Oc. Mineralization of abdominal and caudal vertebrae starts with a complete ring within the notochord sheath and prior to the formation of the bony arches. In contrast, notochord mineralization of caudal fin centra starts with a broad ventral mineral deposition, associated with the bases of the modified cartilaginous arches. Similar, arch-related, patterns of mineralization occur in teleosts that maintain cartilaginous arches throughout the spine. Throughout the entire vertebral column, we were able to co-localize ALP-positive signal with chordacentrum mineralization sites, as well as Collagen II and Oc protein accumulation in the mineralizing notochord sheath. In the caudal fin region, ALP and

  12. Distinct patterns of notochord mineralization in zebrafish coincide with the localization of Osteocalcin isoform 1 during early vertebral centra formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensimon-Brito, Anabela; Cardeira, João; Cancela, Maria Leonor; Huysseune, Ann; Witten, Paul Eckhard

    2012-10-09

    In chondrichthyans, basal osteichthyans and tetrapods, vertebral bodies have cartilaginous anlagen that subsequently mineralize (chondrichthyans) or ossify (osteichthyans). Chondrocytes that form the vertebral centra derive from somites. In teleost fish, vertebral centrum formation starts in the absence of cartilage, through direct mineralization of the notochord sheath. In a second step, the notochord is surrounded by somite-derived intramembranous bone. In several small teleost species, including zebrafish (Danio rerio), even haemal and neural arches form directly as intramembranous bone and only modified caudalmost arches remain cartilaginous. This study compares initial patterns of mineralization in different regions of the vertebral column in zebrafish. We ask if the absence or presence of cartilaginous arches influences the pattern of notochord sheath mineralization. To reveal which cells are involved in mineralization of the notochord sheath we identify proliferating cells, we trace mineralization on the histological level and we analyze cell ultrastructure by TEM. Moreover, we localize proteins and genes that are typically expressed by skeletogenic cells such as Collagen type II, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Osteocalcin (Oc). Mineralization of abdominal and caudal vertebrae starts with a complete ring within the notochord sheath and prior to the formation of the bony arches. In contrast, notochord mineralization of caudal fin centra starts with a broad ventral mineral deposition, associated with the bases of the modified cartilaginous arches. Similar, arch-related, patterns of mineralization occur in teleosts that maintain cartilaginous arches throughout the spine.Throughout the entire vertebral column, we were able to co-localize ALP-positive signal with chordacentrum mineralization sites, as well as Collagen II and Oc protein accumulation in the mineralizing notochord sheath. In the caudal fin region, ALP and Oc signals were clearly produced both by the

  13. Wnt signaling balances specification of the cardiac and pharyngeal muscle fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Amrita; Holowiecki, Andrew; Song, Yuntao Charlie; Waxman, Joshua S.

    2017-01-01

    Canonical Wnt/β-catenin (Wnt) signaling plays multiple conserved roles during fate specification of cardiac progenitors in developing vertebrate embryos. Although lineage analysis in ascidians and mice has indicated there is a close relationship between the cardiac second heart field (SHF) and pharyngeal muscle (PM) progenitors, the signals underlying directional fate decisions of the cells within the cardio-pharyngeal muscle field in vertebrates are not yet understood. Here, we examined the temporal requirements of Wnt signaling in cardiac and PM development. In contrast to a previous report in chicken embryos that suggested Wnt inhibits PM development during somitogenesis, we find that in zebrafish embryos Wnt signaling is sufficient to repress PM development during anterior-posterior patterning. Importantly, the temporal sensitivity of dorso-anterior PMs to increased Wnt signaling largely overlaps with when Wnt signaling promotes specification of the adjacent cardiac progenitors. Furthermore, we find that excess early Wnt signaling can cell autonomously promote expansion of the first heart field (FHF) progenitors at the expense of PM and SHF within the anterior lateral plate mesoderm (ALPM). Our study provides insight into an antagonistic developmental mechanism that balances the sizes of the adjacent cardiac and PM progenitor fields in early vertebrate embryos. PMID:28087459

  14. Lateral Pharyngeal Diverticulum presenting with Dysphagia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lateral pharyngeal diverticulum (Pharyngocele) is the protrusion of pharyngeal mucosa through the pharyngeal wall, usually through either of two weak areas in the pharyngeal wall as an acquired or congenital case. Lateral diverticula are very rare and not to be mistaken for the rather more frequent and abundantly ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: craniofacial microsomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the first and second pharyngeal arches (also called branchial or visceral arches). Tissue layers in the six ... dysplasia CFM facioauriculovertebral dysplasia FAV first and second branchial arch syndrome first and second pharyngeal arch syndromes ...

  16. ArchE - An Architecture Design Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-02

    Architecture Design Assistant Len Bass August 2, 2007 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the...ArchE - An Architecture Design Assistant 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...X, Module X 3 Author / Presenter, Date if Needed What is ArchE? ArchE is a software architecture design assistant, which: • Takes quality and

  17. Streptococcal Pharyngitis and Appendicitis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jason W; Abel, Stuart A; Kenney, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Several pathologies, including pharyngitis, are associated with abdominal pain that can mimic appendicitis. We sought to further understand the link between appendicitis-like symptoms and streptococcal (strep) pharyngitis. All patients undergoing ultrasound imaging for appendicitis in our emergency department during 2013 were reviewed (n = 1572). A total of 207 patients were identified who underwent both ultrasound for appendicitis and testing for strep pharyngitis. Demographic and outcomes data between rule out appendicitis patients who underwent strep testing and those who did not were compared. Strep testing was more common in younger patients (mean age = 8.26 vs 10.26 years P appendicitis and 35 (16.9%) patients tested positive for strep pharyngitis. No cases of concurrent strep pharyngitis and appendicitis were identified. The negative appendectomy rate in the strep pharyngitis tested group was 38.5% (5/13), compared with 7.7% (23/296) ( P = .003) in the nontested group. The appendicitis rate among the strep tested group was 3.8% (8/207) compared with 20% (273/1365) in the nontested group ( P appendicitis, and had a higher rate of negative appendectomy. A diagnosis of concurrent appendicitis and strep pharyngitis is rare. In cases of patients with sufficient symptoms to warrant testing for strep pharyngitis a diagnosis of appendicitis is less likely and surgical intervention leads to higher negative appendectomy rates.

  18. Acquisition of glial cells missing 2 enhancers contributes to a diversity of ionocytes in zebrafish.

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    Takanori Shono

    Full Text Available Glial cells missing 2 (gcm2 encoding a GCM-motif transcription factor is expressed in the parathyroid in amniotes. In contrast, gcm2 is expressed in pharyngeal pouches (a homologous site of the parathyroid, gills, and H(+-ATPase-rich cells (HRCs, a subset of ionocytes on the skin surface of the teleost fish zebrafish. Ionocytes are specialized cells that are involved in osmotic homeostasis in aquatic vertebrates. Here, we showed that gcm2 is essential for the development of HRCs and Na(+-Cl(- co-transporter-rich cells (NCCCs, another subset of ionocytes in zebrafish. We also identified gcm2 enhancer regions that control gcm2 expression in ionocytes of zebrafish. Comparisons of the gcm2 locus with its neighboring regions revealed no conserved elements between zebrafish and tetrapods. Furthermore, We observed gcm2 expression patterns in embryos of the teleost fishes Medaka (Oryzias latipes and fugu (Fugu niphobles, the extant primitive ray-finned fishes Polypterus (Polypterus senegalus and sturgeon (a hybrid of Huso huso × Acipenser ruhenus, and the amphibian Xenopus (Xenopus laevis. Although gcm2-expressing cells were observed on the skin surface of Medaka and fugu, they were not found in Polypterus, sturgeon, or Xenopus. Our results suggest that an acquisition of enhancers for the expression of gcm2 contributes to a diversity of ionocytes in zebrafish during evolution.

  19. [The use of the antidepressant citalopran for the treatment of chronic pharyngitis and pharyngeal neurosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinevskiĭ, I V; Shabaldina, E V; Shamova, I P; Shabaldin, A V

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of the efficacy of citalopran for the treatment of chronic pharyngitis and pharyngeal neurosis was carried out. The positive outcome of the treatment was documented in 95% of the patients.

  20. Cloning of zebrafish Mustn1 orthologs and their expression during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarata, Troy; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Hadjiargyrou, Michael

    2016-11-15

    Mustn1 is a small nuclear protein that is involved in the development and regeneration of the musculoskeletal system. Previous work established a role for Mustn1 in myogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. In addition, recent evidence suggests a potential role for Mustn1 in cilia function in zebrafish. A detailed study of Mustn1 expression has yet to be conducted in zebrafish. As such, we report herein the cloning of the zebrafish Mustn1 orthologs, mustn1a and mustn1b, and their expression during zebrafish embryonic and larval development. Results indicate a 44% nucleotide identity between the two paralogs. Phylogenetic analysis further confirmed that the Mustn1a and 1b predicted proteins were highly related to other vertebrate members of the Mustn1 protein family. Whole mount in situ hybridization revealed expression of both mustn1a and 1b at the 7-somite stage through 72hpf in structures such as Kupffer's vesicle, segmental mesoderm, head structures, and otic vesicle. Additionally, in 5day old larva, mustn1a and 1b expression is detected in the neurocranium, otic capsule, and the gut. Although both were expressed in the neurocranium, mustn1a was localized in the hypophyseal fenestra whereas mustn1b was found near the posterior basicapsular commissure. mustn1b also displayed expression in the ceratohyal and ceratobranchial elements of the pharyngeal skeleton. These expression patterns were verified temporally by q-PCR analysis. Taken together, we conclude that Mustn1 expression is conserved in vertebrates and that the variations in expression of the two zebrafish paralogs suggest different modes of molecular regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Gastroesophageal reflux and pharyngeal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, O.; Lindgren, S.; Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus

    1986-01-01

    Pharyngeal function and gastroesophageal reflux were compared in 84 dysphagic patients examined clinically and radiologically. Cricopharyngeal muscle incoordination, assessed cineradiographically, was revealed in 5 of 41 patients (12%) without and 17 of 43 patients (40%) with gastroesophageal reflux assessed clinically (p<0.05). Thus, there was a postive correlation between dysfunction of the cricopharyngeal muscle and gastroesophageal reflux. There was no correlation with other types of pharyngeal dysfunction. Our results support the assumption of a positive relationship between gastroesophageal reflux and pharyngeal function in terms of cricopharyngeal dysfunction. The pathogenesis of this relation was, however, not revealed. (orig.)

  2. Gastroesophageal reflux and pharyngeal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekberg, O.; Lindgren, S.

    Pharyngeal function and gastroesophageal reflux were compared in 84 dysphagic patients examined clinically and radiologically. Cricopharyngeal muscle incoordination, assessed cineradiographically, was revealed in 5 of 41 patients (12%) without and 17 of 43 patients (40%) with gastroesophageal reflux assessed clinically (p<0.05). Thus, there was a postive correlation between dysfunction of the cricopharyngeal muscle and gastroesophageal reflux. There was no correlation with other types of pharyngeal dysfunction. Our results support the assumption of a positive relationship between gastroesophageal reflux and pharyngeal function in terms of cricopharyngeal dysfunction. The pathogenesis of this relation was, however, not revealed.

  3. Developmental and evolutionary significance of the mandibular arch and prechordal/premandibular cranium in vertebrates: revising the heterotopy scenario of gnathostome jaw evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Adachi, Noritaka; Wada, Naoyuki; Oisi, Yasuhiro; Sugahara, Fumiaki

    2013-01-01

    The cephalic neural crest produces streams of migrating cells that populate pharyngeal arches and a more rostral, premandibular domain, to give rise to an extensive ectomesenchyme in the embryonic vertebrate head. The crest cells forming the trigeminal stream are the major source of the craniofacial skeleton; however, there is no clear distinction between the mandibular arch and the premandibular domain in this ectomesenchyme. The question regarding the evolution of the gnathostome jaw is, in part, a question about the differentiation of the mandibular arch, the rostralmost component of the pharynx, and in part a question about the developmental fate of the premandibular domain. We address the developmental definition of the mandibular arch in connection with the developmental origin of the trabeculae, paired cartilaginous elements generally believed to develop in the premandibular domain, and also of enigmatic cartilaginous elements called polar cartilages. Based on comparative embryology, we propose that the mandibular arch ectomesenchyme in gnathostomes can be defined as a Dlx1-positive domain, and that the polar cartilages, which develop from the Dlx1-negative premandibular ectomesenchyme, would represent merely posterior parts of the trabeculae. We also show, in the lamprey embryo, early migration of mandibular arch mesenchyme into the premandibular domain, and propose an updated version of the heterotopy theory on the origin of the jaw. PMID:22500853

  4. A role for chemokine signaling in neural crest cell migration and craniofacial development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Eugenia C. Olesnicky; Birkholz, Denise A.; Artinger, Kristin Bruk

    2009-01-01

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a unique population of multipotent cells that migrate along defined pathways throughout the embryo and give rise to many diverse cell types including pigment cells, craniofacial cartilage and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Aberrant migration of NCCs results in a wide variety of congenital birth defects including craniofacial abnormalities. The chemokine Sdf1 and its receptors, Cxcr4 and Cxcr7, have been identified as key components in the regulation of cell migration in a variety of tissues. Here we describe a novel role for the zebrafish chemokine receptor Cxcr4a in the development and migration of cranial NCCs (CNCCs). We find that loss of Cxcr4a, but not Cxcr7b results in aberrant CNCC migration, defects in the neurocranium, as well as cranial ganglia dismorphogenesis. Moreover, overexpression of either Sdf1b or Cxcr4a causes aberrant CNCC migration and results in ectopic craniofacial cartilages. We propose a model in which Sdf1b signaling from the pharyngeal arch endoderm and optic stalk to Cxcr4a expressing CNCCs is important for both the proper condensation of the CNCCs into pharyngeal arches and the subsequent patterning and morphogenesis of the neural crest derived tissues. PMID:19576198

  5. Understanding the Basis of Auriculocondylar Syndrome: Insights From Human and Mouse Genetic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouthier, David E.; Passos Bueno, Maria Rita; Tavares, Andre L.P.; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Amiel, Jeanne; Gordon, Christopher T.

    2014-01-01

    Among human birth defect syndromes, malformations affecting the face are perhaps the most striking due to cultural and psychological expectations of facial shape. One such syndrome is auriculocondylar syndrome (ACS), in which patients present with defects in ear and mandible development. Affected structures arise from cranial neural crest cells, a population of cells in the embryo that reside in the pharyngeal arches and give rise to most of the bone, cartilage and connective tissue of the face. Recent studies have found that most cases of ACS arise from defects in signaling molecules associated with the endothelin signaling pathway. Disruption of this signaling pathway in both mouse and zebrafish results in loss of identity of neural crest cells of the mandibular portion of the first pharyngeal arch and the subsequent repatterning of these cells, leading to homeosis of lower jaw structures into more maxillary-like structures. These findings illustrate the importance of endothelin signaling in normal human craniofacial development and illustrate how clinical and basic science approaches can coalesce to improve our understanding of the genetic basis of human birth syndromes. Further, understanding the genetic basis for ACS that lies outside of known endothelin signaling components may help elucidate unknown aspects critical to the establishment of neural crest cell patterning during facial morphogenesis. PMID:24123988

  6. Pakistan prevalence survey in acute pharyngitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathi, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of Group A beta haemolytic Streptococcus in patients with acute pharyngitis and correlation of Modified Centor Score and Rapid Antigen Detection Test. Methods: The multi-centre, prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in 8 major cities of Pakistan between June 2012 and February 2013, and comprised patients presenting with acute pharyngitis. The subjects were above 3 years of age presenting to primary care physician with sore throat, temperature over 100.4 (degree) F, tonsillar exudates and/or cervical adenopathy (duration of symptoms 4. Conclusion: The prevalence of Group A beta haemolytic Streptococcus as a cause of acute pharyngitis was 25.3%. Modified Centor Score had a strong positive correlation with Rapid Antigen Detection Test in identifying Group A beta haemolytic Streptococcus as a cause of acute pharyngitis. (author)

  7. Morfologia e ultraestrutura de arcos branquiais de juvenis de Mugil platanus Günther (Pisces, Mugilidae Gill arch surface morphology and ultrastructure of juvenile Mugil platanus Günther (Pisces, Mugilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Claro da Fonseca Neto

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the gill arch surface from juveniles of Mugil platanus Günther, 1880 is similar to that reported for others euryhaline teleosts. Two filament rows (about 41-49 filament per row extend posteriorly, and two rows of rakers (about 42-46 rakers per row extended anteriorly from each arch. Respiratory lamellae protrude along both sides of each filament (37/mm, from the base to the apex. The distribution, sizes and structure of various surface cells were also described. Except for the respiratory lamellae, the surface of whole gill arch is covered by a mosaic of pavement cells, which measure about 6,94X4,61µm and exhibit concentrically arranged surface ridges. The anterior pharyngeal surfaces of the raker of the first arch and the ventral part of the second, smooth secondary projections are present which are replaced by spiny secondary projections on the dorsal part of the second arch, and entire third and fourth arches. Taste buds are especially prominent between smooth projections. Apical ciypts of chloride cells oceur mostly at the afferent surface of the gill filament.

  8. F-spondin/spon1b expression patterns in developing and adult zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Akle

    Full Text Available F-spondin, an extracellular matrix protein, is an important player in embryonic morphogenesis and CNS development, but its presence and role later in life remains largely unknown. We generated a transgenic zebrafish in which GFP is expressed under the control of the F-spondin (spon1b promoter, and used it in combination with complementary techniques to undertake a detailed characterization of the expression patterns of F-spondin in developing and adult brain and periphery. We found that F-spondin is often associated with structures forming long neuronal tracts, including retinal ganglion cells, the olfactory bulb, the habenula, and the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (nMLF. F-spondin expression coincides with zones of adult neurogenesis and is abundant in CSF-contacting secretory neurons, especially those in the hypothalamus. Use of this new transgenic model also revealed F-spondin expression patterns in the peripheral CNS, notably in enteric neurons, and in peripheral tissues involved in active patterning or proliferation in adults, including the endoskeleton of zebrafish fins and the continuously regenerating pharyngeal teeth. Moreover, patterning of the regenerating caudal fin following fin amputation in adult zebrafish was associated with F-spondin expression in the blastema, a proliferative region critical for tissue reconstitution. Together, these findings suggest major roles for F-spondin in the CNS and periphery of the developing and adult vertebrate.

  9. Arch reconstruction with autologous pulmonary artery patch in interrupted aortic arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Young; Park, Jeong-Jun

    2014-04-01

    Various surgical techniques have been developed for the repair of an interrupted aortic arch. However, tension and Gothic arch formation at the anastomotic site have remained major problems for these techniques: Excessive tension causes arch stenosis and left main bronchus compression, and Gothic arch configuration is related to cardiovascular complications. To resolve these problems, we adopted a modified surgical technique of distal aortic arch augmentation using an autologous main pulmonary artery patch. The descending aorta was then anastomosed to the augmented aortic arch in an end-to-side manner. Here, we report two cases of interrupted aortic arch that were repaired using this technique.

  10. Beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Nogaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Power plant dust is believed to be the main source of the increased presence of the element beryllium in the environment which has been detected in the atmospheric air, surface waters, groundwater, soil, food, and cigarette smoke. In humans, beryllium absorption occurs mainly via the respiratory system. The pharyngeal tonsils are located on the roof of the nasopharynx and are in direct contact with dust particles in inhaled air. As a result, the concentration levels of beryllium in the pharyngeal tonsils are likely to be a good indicator of concentration levels in the air. The presented study had two primary aims: to investigate the beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children living in southern Poland, and the appropriate reference range for this element in children’s pharyngeal tonsils. Pharyngeal tonsils were extracted from a total of 379 children (age 2–17 years, mean 6.2 ± 2.7 years living in southern Poland. Tonsil samples were mineralized in a closed cycle in a pressure mineralizer PDS 6, using 65% spectrally pure nitric acid. Beryllium concentration was determined using the ICP-AES method with a Perkin Elmer Optima 5300DVTM. The software Statistica v. 9 was used for the statistical analysis. It was found that girls had a significantly greater beryllium concentration in their pharyngeal tonsils than boys. Beryllium concentration varies greatly, mostly according to the place of residence. Based on the study results, the reference value for beryllium in pharyngeal tonsils of children is recommended to be determined at 0.02–0.04 µg/g.

  11. Causes and consequences of anterior pharyngeal pouch after total laryngectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S; Hogan, D; Panizza, B

    2014-07-01

    To assess the frequency of anterior pharyngeal pouch formation after total laryngectomy, and to discuss the causes and consequences of anterior pharyngeal pouch formation. A prospective, observational study of 43 patients undergoing total laryngectomy. Data collected included laryngeal defect closure type, tumour staging and demographic information. A barium swallow was performed on day 7-14 after surgery to assess for anterior pharyngeal pouch formation and fistula formation. The incidence of anterior pharyngeal pouch formation was 47 per cent. Patients who did not have an anterior pharyngeal pouch on swallow imaging assessment were less likely to develop a pharyngo-cutaneous fistula. There was no statistically significant association between laryngeal defect closure type and anterior pharyngeal pouch formation. The anterior pharyngeal pouch is a dynamic phenomenon best investigated with a fluoroscopic swallow imaging study. Its causes are multi-factorial. Absence of an anterior pharyngeal pouch appears to confer protection against pharyngo-cutaneous fistula formation, hastening commencement of adjuvant therapy and an oral diet.

  12. Zebrafish Health Conditions in the China Zebrafish Resource Center and 20 Major Chinese Zebrafish Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyue; Pan, Luyuan; Li, Kuoyu; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Zuoyan; Sun, Yonghua

    2016-07-01

    In China, the use of zebrafish as an experimental animal in the past 15 years has widely expanded. The China Zebrafish Resource Center (CZRC), which was established in 2012, is becoming one of the major resource centers in the global zebrafish community. Large-scale use and regular exchange of zebrafish resources have put forward higher requirements on zebrafish health issues in China. This article reports the current aquatic infrastructure design, animal husbandry, and health-monitoring programs in the CZRC. Meanwhile, through a survey of 20 Chinese zebrafish laboratories, we also describe the current health status of major zebrafish facilities in China. We conclude that it is of great importance to establish a widely accepted health standard and health-monitoring strategy in the Chinese zebrafish research community.

  13. klf2ash317 Mutant Zebrafish Do Not Recapitulate Morpholino-Induced Vascular and Haematopoietic Phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Novodvorsky

    Full Text Available The zinc-finger transcription factor Krϋppel-like factor 2 (KLF2 transduces blood flow into molecular signals responsible for a wide range of responses within the vasculature. KLF2 maintains a healthy, quiescent endothelial phenotype. Previous studies report a range of phenotypes following morpholino antisense oligonucleotide-induced klf2a knockdown in zebrafish. Targeted genome editing is an increasingly applied method for functional assessment of candidate genes. We therefore generated a stable klf2a mutant zebrafish and characterised its cardiovascular and haematopoietic development.Using Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALEN we generated a klf2a mutant (klf2ash317 with a 14bp deletion leading to a premature stop codon in exon 2. Western blotting confirmed loss of wild type Klf2a protein and the presence of a truncated protein in klf2ash317 mutants. Homozygous klf2ash317 mutants exhibit no defects in vascular patterning, survive to adulthood and are fertile, without displaying previously described morphant phenotypes such as high-output cardiac failure, reduced haematopoetic stem cell (HSC development or impaired formation of the 5th accessory aortic arch. Homozygous klf2ash317 mutation did not reduce angiogenesis in zebrafish with homozygous mutations in von Hippel Lindau (vhl, a form of angiogenesis that is dependent on blood flow. We examined expression of three klf family members in wildtype and klf2ash317 zebrafish. We detected vascular expression of klf2b (but not klf4a or biklf/klf4b/klf17 in wildtypes but found no differences in expression that might account for the lack of phenotype in klf2ash317 mutants. klf2b morpholino knockdown did not affect heart rate or impair formation of the 5th accessory aortic arch in either wildtypes or klf2ash317 mutants.The klf2ash317 mutation produces a truncated Klf2a protein but, unlike morpholino induced klf2a knockdown, does not affect cardiovascular development.

  14. Combinatorial roles for zebrafish retinoic acid receptors in the hindbrain, limbs and pharyngeal arches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, Angela; Radtke, Kelly; Waxman, Joshua S.; Yelon, Deborah; Schilling, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) signaling regulates multiple aspects of vertebrate embryonic development and tissue patterning, in part through the local availability of nuclear hormone receptors called retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid receptors (RXRs). RAR/RXR heterodimers transduce the RA signal, and loss-of-function studies in mice have demonstrated requirements for distinct receptor combinations at different stages of embryogenesis. However, the tissue-specific functions of each receptor and their individual contributions to RA signaling in vivo are only partially understood. Here we use morpholino oligonucleotides to deplete the four known zebra fish RARs (raraa, rarab, rarga, and rargb). We show that while all four are required for anterior–posterior patterning of rhombomeres in the hindbrain, there are unique requirements for rarga in the cranial mesoderm for hindbrain patterning, and rarab in lateral plate mesoderm for specification of the pectoral fins. In addition, the alpha subclass (raraa, rarab) is RA inducible, and of these only raraa expression is RA-dependent, suggesting that these receptors establish a region of particularly high RA signaling through positive-feedback. These studies reveal novel tissue-specific roles for RARs in controlling the competence and sensitivity of cells to respond to RA. PMID:18929555

  15. Pharyngeal Dystonia Mimicking Spasmodic Dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lucy L; Simpson, C Blake; Hapner, Edie R; Jinnah, Hyder A; Johns, Michael M

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the presentation of pharyngeal dystonia (PD), which can occur as a focal or segmental dystonia with a primarily pharyngeal involvement for the discussion of treatment methods for controlling consequent symptoms. PD is specific to speech-related tasks. A retrospective medical record review of four patients with PD was performed. All patients were initially misdiagnosed with adductor spasmodic dysphonia and failed standard treatment with botulinum toxin type A (BTX). On laryngoscopy, the patients were discovered to have segmental or focal dystonia primarily affecting the pharyngeal musculature contributing to their vocal manifestations. A novel treatment regimen was designed, which involved directing BTX injections into the muscles involved in spasmodic valving at the oropharyngeal level. After titrating to an optimal dose, all patients showed improvement in their voice and speech with only mild dysphagia. These patients have maintained favorable results with repeat injections at 6- to 12-week intervals. PD, or dystonia with predominant pharyngeal involvement, is a rare entity with vocal manifestations that are not well described. It can be easily mistaken for spasmodic dysphonia. PD is specific to speech-related tasks. A novel method of BTX injections into the involved muscles results in a significant improvement in voice without significant dysphagia. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Differences in neural crest sensitivity to ethanol account for the infrequency of anterior segment defects in the eye compared with craniofacial anomalies in a zebrafish model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Jessica; Williams, Antionette L; Chawla, Bahaar; Apsey, Christian; Bohnsack, Brenda L

    2017-09-01

    Ethanol (ETOH) exposure during pregnancy is associated with craniofacial and neurologic abnormalities, but infrequently disrupts the anterior segment of the eye. In these studies, we used zebrafish to investigate differences in the teratogenic effect of ETOH on craniofacial, periocular, and ocular neural crest. Zebrafish eye and neural crest development was analyzed by means of live imaging, TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay, immunostaining, detection of reactive oxygen species, and in situ hybridization. Our studies demonstrated that foxd3-positive neural crest cells in the periocular mesenchyme and developing eye were less sensitive to ETOH than sox10-positive craniofacial neural crest cells that form the pharyngeal arches and jaw. ETOH increased apoptosis in the retina, but did not affect survival of periocular and ocular neural crest cells. ETOH also did not increase reactive oxygen species within the eye. In contrast, ETOH increased ventral neural crest apoptosis and reactive oxygen species production in the facial mesenchyme. In the eye and craniofacial region, sod2 showed high levels of expression in the anterior segment and in the setting of Sod2 knockdown, low levels of ETOH decreased migration of foxd3-positive neural crest cells into the developing eye. However, ETOH had minimal effect on the periocular and ocular expression of transcription factors (pitx2 and foxc1) that regulate anterior segment development. Neural crest cells contributing to the anterior segment of the eye exhibit increased ability to withstand ETOH-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. These studies explain the rarity of anterior segment dysgenesis despite the frequent craniofacial abnormalities in fetal alcohol syndrome. Birth Defects Research 109:1212-1227, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Altered pharyngeal muscles in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Liancai; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Chen, Jingming; Su, Hungxi; Sanders, Ira; Adler, Charles H; Shill, Holly A; Caviness, John N; Samanta, Johan E; Beach, Thomas G

    2012-06-01

    Dysphagia (impaired swallowing) is common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and is related to aspiration pneumonia, the primary cause of death in PD. Therapies that ameliorate the limb motor symptoms of PD are ineffective for dysphagia. This suggests that the pathophysiology of PD dysphagia may differ from that affecting limb muscles, but little is known about potential neuromuscular abnormalities in the swallowing muscles in PD. This study examined the fiber histochemistry of pharyngeal constrictor and cricopharyngeal sphincter muscles in postmortem specimens from 8 subjects with PD and 4 age-matched control subjects. Pharyngeal muscles in subjects with PD exhibited many atrophic fibers, fiber type grouping, and fast-to-slow myosin heavy chain transformation. These alterations indicate that the pharyngeal muscles experienced neural degeneration and regeneration over the course of PD. Notably, subjects with PD with dysphagia had a higher percentage of atrophic myofibers versus with those without dysphagia and controls. The fast-to-slow fiber-type transition is consistent with abnormalities in swallowing, slow movement of food, and increased tone in the cricopharyngeal sphincter in subjects with PD. The alterations in the pharyngeal muscles may play a pathogenic role in the development of dysphagia in subjects with PD.

  18. Fgf signaling controls pharyngeal taste bud formation through miR-200 and Delta-Notch activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsimali, Marika; Kaushik, Anna-Lila; Gibon, Guillaume; Dirian, Lara; Ernest, Sylvain; Rosa, Frederic M

    2011-08-01

    Taste buds, the taste sensory organs, are conserved in vertebrates and composed of distinct cell types, including taste receptor, basal/presynaptic and support cells. Here, we characterize zebrafish taste bud development and show that compromised Fgf signaling in the larva results in taste bud reduction and disorganization. We determine that Fgf activity is required within pharyngeal endoderm for formation of Calb2b(+) cells and reveal miR-200 and Delta-Notch signaling as key factors in this process. miR-200 knock down shows that miR-200 activity is required for taste bud formation and in particular for Calb2b(+) cell formation. Compromised delta activity in mib(-/-) dramatically reduces the number of Calb2b(+) cells and increases the number of 5HT(+) cells. Conversely, larvae with increased Notch activity and ascl1a(-/-) mutants are devoid of 5HT(+) cells, but have maintained and increased Calb2b(+) cells, respectively. These results show that Delta-Notch signaling is required for intact taste bud organ formation. Consistent with this, Notch activity restores Calb2b(+) cell formation in pharyngeal endoderm with compromised Fgf signaling, but fails to restore the formation of these cells after miR-200 knock down. Altogether, this study provides genetic evidence that supports a novel model where Fgf regulates Delta-Notch signaling, and subsequently miR-200 activity, in order to promote taste bud cell type differentiation.

  19. Age-Related Changes in Pharyngeal Lumen Size: A Retrospective MRI Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Amin, M R; Branski, R C; Brumm, J D; Hagiwara, M; Roof, S A; Lazarus, C L

    2015-06-01

    Age-related loss of muscle bulk and strength (sarcopenia) is often cited as a potential mechanism underlying age-related changes in swallowing. Our goal was to explore this phenomenon in the pharynx, specifically, by measuring pharyngeal wall thickness and pharyngeal lumen area in a sample of young versus older women. MRI scans of the neck were retrospectively reviewed from 60 women equally stratified into three age groups (20s, 60s, 70+). Four de-identified slices were extracted per scan for randomized, blinded analysis: one mid-sagittal and three axial slices were selected at the anterior inferior border of C2 and C3, and at the pit of the vallecula. Pixel-based measures of pharyngeal wall thickness and pharyngeal lumen area were completed using ImageJ and then converted to metric units. Measures of pharyngeal wall thickness and pharyngeal lumen area were compared between age groups with one-way ANOVAs using Sidak adjustments for post-hoc pairwise comparisons. A significant main effect for age was observed across all variables whereby pharyngeal wall thickness decreased and pharyngeal lumen area increased with advancing age. Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences between 20s versus 70+ for all variables and 20s versus 60s for all variables except those measured at C2. Effect sizes ranged from 0.54 to 1.34. Consistent with existing sacropenia literature, the pharyngeal muscles appear to atrophy with age and consequently, the size of the pharyngeal lumen increases.

  20. [Etiological analysis and individualized treatment of pharyngeal paraesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zhengcai; Gong, Xuhong; Lou, Fangyi; He, Lanjuan; Zhu, Qiaoying

    2009-07-01

    To analyze the nosazontology of pharyngeal paraesthesia and investigate the treatment. Two hundred and twelve misdiagnosed pharyngeal paraesthesia patients were investigated by history inquiry, routine examination, 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring, barium X-ray of the oesophagus, anxieties-athymic private measuring scale, coefficient of variation of the R-R (CVR-R), bioavailable testosterone detection (Bio-T), erection experiment and questionnaire about man climacteric syndrome. The concomitant symptoms and positions of pharyngeal paresthesia were also studied. We adopted individuallized sequential multi-therapy for every patient according to the cause of disease. The cause of disease within 212 cases of pharyngeal paraesthesia included 62 psychic trauma, 32 endocrine system disease, 106 upper gastrointestinal disease, circulatory disease, 9 circulatory disease, 3 idiopathic. With individualized treatment, 110 cases had fully recovered, 63 cases excellence and 31 cases utility, and the efficiency rate was 96.23%. Pharyngeal paraesthesia can be caused by several factors. Thorough examination and comprehensive analysis should be applied to those incurable patient who has been treated for a long time. Short course of treatment and irrational drug use are the main causes of short-term recurrence and unsatisfactory curative effect.

  1. LOCAL TREATMENT FEATURES OF PHARYNGITIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. А. Lebedinskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews causes and treatment methods for inflammatory forms of pharynx pathology in children. It is shown that the primary cause of pharyngitis pathogenesis is the dysfunction of immunogenic resistance of pharyngeal mucous membrane. It is mucosal immune system that blocks viral and bacterial infections. Taking into account functional principles of mucosal immune system allows creating a personal programme of immunoreabilitation based on physiological and complex principles. At the same time in pediatric practice not only drug efficacy, but also its safety, ease of use and flavor become increasingly important. In this regard possibilities and advantages of locally applied antiseptics for acute pharyngitis treatment in children are considered.

  2. The zebrafish miR-462/miR-731 cluster is induced under hypoxic stress via hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and functions in cellular adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Xiao; Chen, Nan; Wu, Xin-Jie; Huang, Cui-Hong; He, Yan; Tang, Rong; Wang, Wei-Min; Wang, Huan-Ling

    2015-12-01

    Hypoxia, a unique and essential environmental stress, evokes highly coordinated cellular responses, and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1 in the hypoxia signaling pathway, an evolutionarily conserved cellular signaling pathway, acts as a master regulator of the transcriptional response to hypoxic stress. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a major class of posttranscriptional gene expression regulators, also play pivotal roles in orchestrating hypoxia-mediated cellular adaptations. Here, global miRNA expression profiling and quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the up-regulation of the miR-462/miR-731 cluster in zebrafish larvae is induced by hypoxia. It was further validated that miR-462 and miR-731 are up-regulated in a Hif-1α-mediated manner under hypoxia and specifically target ddx5 and ppm1da, respectively. Overexpression of miR-462 and miR-731 represses cell proliferation through blocking cell cycle progress of DNA replication, and induces apoptosis. In situ detection revealed that the miR-462/miR-731 cluster is highly expressed in a consistent and ubiquitous manner throughout the early developmental stages. Additionally, the transcripts become restricted to the notochord, pharyngeal arch, liver, and gut regions from postfertilization d 3 to 5. These data highlight a previously unidentified role of the miR-462/miR-731 cluster as a crucial signaling mediator for hypoxia-mediated cellular adaptations and provide some insights into the potential function of the cluster during embryonic development. © FASEB.

  3. Neural crest contributions to the lamprey head

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, David W.; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    The neural crest is a vertebrate-specific cell population that contributes to the facial skeleton and other derivatives. We have performed focal DiI injection into the cranial neural tube of the developing lamprey in order to follow the migratory pathways of discrete groups of cells from origin to destination and to compare neural crest migratory pathways in a basal vertebrate to those of gnathostomes. The results show that the general pathways of cranial neural crest migration are conserved throughout the vertebrates, with cells migrating in streams analogous to the mandibular and hyoid streams. Caudal branchial neural crest cells migrate ventrally as a sheet of cells from the hindbrain and super-pharyngeal region of the neural tube and form a cylinder surrounding a core of mesoderm in each pharyngeal arch, similar to that seen in zebrafish and axolotl. In addition to these similarities, we also uncovered important differences. Migration into the presumptive caudal branchial arches of the lamprey involves both rostral and caudal movements of neural crest cells that have not been described in gnathostomes, suggesting that barriers that constrain rostrocaudal movement of cranial neural crest cells may have arisen after the agnathan/gnathostome split. Accordingly, neural crest cells from a single axial level contributed to multiple arches and there was extensive mixing between populations. There was no apparent filling of neural crest derivatives in a ventral-to-dorsal order, as has been observed in higher vertebrates, nor did we find evidence of a neural crest contribution to cranial sensory ganglia. These results suggest that migratory constraints and additional neural crest derivatives arose later in gnathostome evolution.

  4. Evolution Characteristic Analysis of Pressure-arch of a Double-arch Tunnel in Water-rich Strata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is of importance to analyze the morphological characterization, the evolution process and the skewed effect of pressure-arch of a double-arch tunnel in the water-rich strata. Taking a buried depth 80 m double-arch tunnel as an example, a computational model of the double-arch tunnel was built by using FLAC3D technique. Then considering some aspects including groundwater conditions, tunnel depth, construction sequences and permeability coefficients, the coupling effect of stress field and seepage field in the pressure-arch of the double-arch tunnel was analyzed. The results show that the thickness of the pressure-arch induced by step-by-step excavation and display a step-descent skewed distribution from the left to the right of the double-arch tunnel. The permeability coefficient has a significant influence on the shape and the skewed effect of the pressure arch. The excavation of the bench method has a better arching condition than that of the expanding method. The abtained results provide a basic reference for the rock reinforcement design and safety construction of double-arch tunnels in the water-rich strata.

  5. Measurement of pharyngeal sensory cortical processing: technique and physiologic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringelstein E Bernd

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysphagia is a major complication of different diseases affecting both the central and peripheral nervous system. Pharyngeal sensory impairment is one of the main features of neurogenic dysphagia. Therefore an objective technique to examine the cortical processing of pharyngeal sensory input would be a helpful diagnostic tool in this context. We developed a simple paradigm to perform pneumatic stimulation to both sides of the pharyngeal wall. Whole-head MEG was employed to study changes in cortical activation during this pharyngeal stimulation in nine healthy subjects. Data were analyzed by means of synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM and the group analysis of individual SAM data was performed using a permutation test. Results Our results revealed bilateral activation of the caudolateral primary somatosensory cortex following sensory pharyngeal stimulation with a slight lateralization to the side of stimulation. Conclusion The method introduced here is simple and easy to perform and might be applicable in the clinical setting. The results are in keeping with previous findings showing bihemispheric involvement in the complex task of sensory pharyngeal processing. They might also explain changes in deglutition after hemispheric strokes. The ipsilaterally lateralized processing is surprising and needs further investigation.

  6. Diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis and associated complications [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Michelle N; Sanders, Jennifere E; Wilson, Bryan

    2017-12-21

    Although group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis is the most common cause of bacterial pharyngitis in children and adolescents, many viral and bacterial infections mimic the symptoms of GAS pharyngitis. Emergency clinicians must recognize the symptomatology of GAS pharyngitis and use appropriate means of diagnosis and treatment to promote good antibiotic stewardship. This issue reviews the signs and symptoms of GAS pharyngitis, as well as associated complications, and provides recommendations for appropriate treatment that focuses on reducing the severity and duration of symptoms, reducing the incidence of nonsuppurative complications, and reducing transmission. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  7. Comparison of Total Arch and Partial Arch Transposition During Hybrid Endovascular Repair for Aortic Arch Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, W C; Ko, Y-G; Oh, P C; Shin, E K; Park, C-H; Choi, D; Youn, Y N; Lee, D Y

    2016-08-01

    Total arch transposition (TAT) during hybrid endovascular repair for aortic arch disease is believed to allow a better landing zone, but also to be associated with higher peri-operative mortality than partial arch transposition (PAT). Information on this issue is limited. This study was a retrospective analysis. All 53 consecutive patients with aortic arch disease (41 males, mean age 65.0 years) who underwent hybrid endovascular repair with TAT (zone 0, n=20) or PAT (zone 1 or 2, n=33) from 2008 to 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. The peri-operative and late outcomes of these two groups were compared. Baseline characteristics, including EuroSCORE II results, were similar in the two groups. After procedures, peri-operative mortalities and stroke rates were similar in the two groups (5.0% vs. 9.1%, p=1.000, and 10.0% vs. 6.1%, p=.627). Interestingly, all four strokes occurred in patients with a type III aortic arch irrespective of transposition type. Primary success rates (80.0% vs. 69.7%, p=.527) and type I endoleak incidences (20.0% vs. 27.3%, p=.744) were not significantly different. During follow up (mean duration 36.9 months), overall survival (89.7% vs. 87.4% at 1 year and 89.7% vs. 79.3% at 3 years; p=.375) and re-intervention free survival rates (78.6% vs. 92.0% at 1 year; 72.0% vs. 62.2% at 3 years, p=.872) were similar in the two groups. Morbidity and mortality were high within the first year of hybrid endovascular therapy for aortic arch disease, implying that candidates for hybrid procedures need to be selected carefully. Hybrid endovascular repair with TAT was found to have peri-operative mortality, stroke, and long-term survival rates comparable with PAT, so hybrid endovascular repair may be considered, irrespective of type of arch reconstruction, when clinically indicated. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Persistent fifth arch anomalies - broadening the spectrum to include a variation of double aortic arch vascular ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Beverley; Chan, Frandics [Stanford Children' s Hospital and Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Hanneman, Kate [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-12-15

    Fifth arch anomalies are rare and complex and frequently misdiagnosed or mistaken for other entities. We report a double arch vascular ring that is thought to consist of right fourth arch and left fifth arch components, a previously undescribed persistent fifth arch variant. The currently recognized spectrum and classification of fifth arch vascular anomalies are expanded along with illustrative images to justify the proposed changes. Reviewing and expanding the classification of fifth arch anomalies to include a double arch ring variant will promote recognition, correct diagnosis and appropriate management of these anomalies. (orig.)

  9. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF CANINE PHARYNGEAL NEOPLASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Carozzi, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used to investigate head tumours in dogs, and is a fundamental part of the diagnostic work-up, for diagnosis, staging and planning therapy in neoplastic disease. Nasal diseases, either neoplastic or non-neoplastic diseases, oral neoplasia, brain disease, thyroid or carotid body neoplasia have been extensively studied. However little information are available for lesions of the pharyngeal area. In this thesis, cases of dogs affected by pharyngeal neoplas...

  10. Zebrafish eda and edar mutants reveal conserved and ancestral roles of ectodysplasin signaling in vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P Harris

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The genetic basis of the development and variation of adult form of vertebrates is not well understood. To address this problem, we performed a mutant screen to identify genes essential for the formation of adult skeletal structures of the zebrafish. Here, we describe the phenotypic and molecular characterization of a set of mutants showing loss of adult structures of the dermal skeleton, such as the rays of the fins and the scales, as well as the pharyngeal teeth. The mutations represent adult-viable, loss of function alleles in the ectodysplasin (eda and ectodysplasin receptor (edar genes. These genes are frequently mutated in the human hereditary disease hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED; OMIM 224900, 305100 that affects the development of integumentary appendages such as hair and teeth. We find mutations in zebrafish edar that affect similar residues as mutated in human cases of HED and show similar phenotypic consequences. eda and edar are not required for early zebrafish development, but are rather specific for the development of adult skeletal and dental structures. We find that the defects of the fins and scales are due to the role of Eda signaling in organizing epidermal cells into discrete signaling centers of the scale epidermal placode and fin fold. Our genetic analysis demonstrates dose-sensitive and organ-specific response to alteration in levels of Eda signaling. In addition, we show substantial buffering of the effect of loss of edar function in different genetic backgrounds, suggesting canalization of this developmental system. We uncover a previously unknown role of Eda signaling in teleosts and show conservation of the developmental mechanisms involved in the formation and variation of both integumentary appendages and limbs. Lastly, our findings point to the utility of adult genetic screens in the zebrafish in identifying essential developmental processes involved in human disease and in morphological evolution.

  11. Zebrafish eda and edar Mutants Reveal Conserved and Ancestral Roles of Ectodysplasin Signaling in Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Matthew P.; Rohner, Nicolas; Schwarz, Heinz; Perathoner, Simon; Konstantinidis, Peter; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    The genetic basis of the development and variation of adult form of vertebrates is not well understood. To address this problem, we performed a mutant screen to identify genes essential for the formation of adult skeletal structures of the zebrafish. Here, we describe the phenotypic and molecular characterization of a set of mutants showing loss of adult structures of the dermal skeleton, such as the rays of the fins and the scales, as well as the pharyngeal teeth. The mutations represent adult-viable, loss of function alleles in the ectodysplasin (eda) and ectodysplasin receptor (edar) genes. These genes are frequently mutated in the human hereditary disease hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED; OMIM 224900, 305100) that affects the development of integumentary appendages such as hair and teeth. We find mutations in zebrafish edar that affect similar residues as mutated in human cases of HED and show similar phenotypic consequences. eda and edar are not required for early zebrafish development, but are rather specific for the development of adult skeletal and dental structures. We find that the defects of the fins and scales are due to the role of Eda signaling in organizing epidermal cells into discrete signaling centers of the scale epidermal placode and fin fold. Our genetic analysis demonstrates dose-sensitive and organ-specific response to alteration in levels of Eda signaling. In addition, we show substantial buffering of the effect of loss of edar function in different genetic backgrounds, suggesting canalization of this developmental system. We uncover a previously unknown role of Eda signaling in teleosts and show conservation of the developmental mechanisms involved in the formation and variation of both integumentary appendages and limbs. Lastly, our findings point to the utility of adult genetic screens in the zebrafish in identifying essential developmental processes involved in human disease and in morphological evolution. PMID:18833299

  12. TREATMENT FOR ACUTE PHARYNGITIS AND TONSILLOPHARYNGITIS AMONG SICKLY CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Samsygina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the sickly children, pharyngitis and tonsillopharyngitis are quite often accompanied by pain and scratch in a throat, which is anguished for a child themselves and causes parents to worry. In the therapy for the indicated pathology, a certain place is held by a local antibiotic fusafungine. In the article, the author studies the effects of fusafungine on tonsillitis/tonsillopharyngitis and pharyngitis, running with pain in a throat, among the sickly children aged between 3 and 15. The research was carried on in 42 centers of different Russian regions and became a part of the multicentered research according to «Chibis» program. 2,609 children were examined, 1,907 of who Received fusafungine and 702 children did not. Among 78,1% of the children, the authors noted the phenomena of pharyngitis, rhinopharyngitis and acute tonsillopharyngitis. As the research showed the symptoms of rhinopharyngitis and tonsillopharync gitis were reliably arrested much faster, when applying fusafungine, thus, the clinical effects mostly emerged after 4th–5th day of the therapy. The acquired data allowed one to recommend the inclusion of fusafungine into the therapy for acute rhinopharyngitis, pharyngitis and tonsillopharyngitis among the sickly children.Key words: rhinopharyngitis, pharyngitis, tonsillopharyngitis, fusafungine, children, treatment.

  13. Variability of the pharyngeal phase of swallow in the cat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Spearman

    Full Text Available The pharyngeal phase of swallow has been thought to be a stereotypical motor behavior.This is a prospective, preclinical, hypothesis driven, one group by three-task design.We sought to compare the effects of pharyngeal swabbing, water only, and water plus punctate mechanical stimulation on the spatiotemporal features of the pharyngeal phase of swallow in the cat. Swallow was elicited under these three conditions in six anaesthetized cats. Electromyographic activity was recorded from seven muscles used to evaluate swallow: mylohyoid, geniohyoid, thyrohyoid, thyroarytenoid, thyropharyngeus, cricopharyngeus, and parasternal.Pharyngeal swabbing in comparison to the other stimulus conditions, results in decreases in post-swallow cricopharyngeus activity (upper esophageal sphincter; a significant increase in parasternal (schluckatmung; swallow breath activity; and increases in thyrohyoid (laryngeal elevator, thyroarytenoid (laryngeal adductor and parasternal muscles burst duration. Pearson correlations were found of moderate strength between 19% of burst duration comparisons and weak to moderate relationships between 29% of burst amplitude comparisons. However, there were no positive significant relationships between phase durations and electromyogram amplitudes between any of the muscles studied during swallow.The results support the concept that a stereotypical behavior, such as pharyngeal swallowing in animal models, can be modified by sensory feedback from pharyngeal mucosal mechanoreceptors. Furthermore, differences in swallow phase durations and amplitudes provide evidence that separate regulatory mechanisms exist which regulate spatial and temporal aspects of the behavior.

  14. Neonatal aortic arch reconstruction avoiding circulatory arrest and direct arch vessel cannulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchervenkov, C I; Korkola, S J; Shum-Tim, D; Calaritis, C; Laliberté, E; Reyes, T U; Lavoie, J

    2001-11-01

    Aortic arch reconstruction in neonates routinely requires deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. We reviewed our experience with techniques of continuous low-flow cerebral perfusion (LFCP) avoiding direct arch vessel cannulation. Eighteen patients, with a median age of 11 days (range 1 to 85 days) and a mean weight of 3.2 +/- 0.8 kg, underwent aortic arch reconstruction with LFCP. Seven had biventricular repairs with arch reconstruction, 9 underwent the Norwood operation and 2 had isolated arch repairs. In 1 Norwood and 7 biventricular repair patients, LFCP was maintained by advancing the cannula from the distal ascending aorta into the innominate artery. In 8 of 9 Norwood patients, LFCP was maintained by directing the arterial cannula into the pulmonary artery confluence and perfusing the innominate artery through the right modified Blalock-Taussig shunt fully constructed before cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass. In 2 patients requiring isolated arch reconstruction, the ascending aorta was cannulated and the cross-clamp was applied just distal to the innominate artery. LFCP was maintained at 0.6 +/- 0.2 L x min(-1) x m(-2) for 41.0 +/- 13.9 minutes at 18.5 degrees C +/- 1.1 degrees C. In 10 of the 18 patients, blood pressure during LFCP was 15 +/- 8 mm Hg remote from the innominate artery (left radial, umbilical or femoral arteries). In 8 of the 18 patients, right radial pressure during LFCP was 24 +/- 10 mm Hg. The mean mixed-venous saturation was 79.8% +/- 10% during LFCP. Two patients had preoperative seizures, whereas none had seizures postoperatively. One patient died. Neonatal aortic arch reconstruction is possible without circulatory arrest or direct arch vessel cannulation. These techniques maintained adequate mixed-venous oxygen saturations with no associated adverse neurologic outcomes.

  15. Surgical modification for preventing a gothic arch after aortic arch repair without the use of foreign material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Man; Park, Jiyoung; Goo, Hyun Woo; Kim, Young Hwue; Ko, Jae-Kon; Jhang, Won Kyoung

    2015-04-01

    Systemic hypertension is the main late complication after arch reconstruction in patients with arch obstruction. Gothic arch geometry is suspected to be one of its possible causes. Accordingly, we evaluated here if a modified arch repair technique using an autologous pulmonary patch is effective in preventing gothic arch development. Fifty infants who underwent arch repair with either a modified (n = 17) or conventional (n = 33) technique between January 2006 and August 2012 by a single surgeon were retrospectively reviewed. Arch geometry was compared using three categories (gothic, crenel or roman), classified by the height/width (H/W) ratio and the arch angle measured in computed tomography. No gothic arch geometry was observed in the modified group, whereas it was observed in 9 cases in the conventional group (P = 0.005). Moreover, reintervention for arch restenosis was performed only in the conventional group (n = 4; P = 0.29). No associated complications were observed, although the selective cerebral perfusion time was longer in the modified group than in the conventional group (28.5 ± 6.2 vs 17.1 ± 9.9 min; P gothic arch geometry, but also as equally safe in terms of early clinical outcomes as conventional arch reconstruction techniques. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  16. RARE BRANCHIAL ARCH ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM Amongst the branchial arch anomalies third arch anomaly occurs rarely and more so the fourth arch anomalies. We present our experience with cases of rare branchial arch anomalies. PATIENTS AND METHODS From June 2006 to January 2016, cases having their external opening in the lower third of sternocleidomastoid muscle with the tract going through thyroid gland and directing to pyriform sinus (PFS or cysts with internal opening in the PFS were studied. RESULTS No fourth arch anomaly was encountered. One cyst with internal opening which later on formed a fistula, three fistulae from beginning and two sinuses were encountered. The main stay of diagnosis was the fistula in the PFS and the tract lying posterior to the internal carotid artery. Simple excision technique with a small incision around the external opening was done. There was no recurrence. CONCLUSION Third arch fistula is not very rare as it was thought. Internal fistula is found in most of the cases. Though radiological investigations are helpful, fistulae can be diagnosed clinically and during operation. Extensive operation of the neck, mediastinum and pharynx is not required.

  17. Pulmonary Renal Syndrome After Streptococcal Pharyngitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopi Mara-Koosham PhD

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary renal syndrome is a class of small vessel vasculitides that are characterized by the dual presentation of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH and glomerulonephritis. Pulmonary renal syndrome has multiple etiologies, but its development has been rarely reported following infection with group A streptococcus. We present the case of a 36-year-old Native American male who was transferred to our facility due to refractory hypoxic respiratory failure. He had been diagnosed with streptococcal pharyngitis 2 weeks prior to admission. Given the presence of hemoptysis, bronchoscopy was performed and was consistent with DAH. Urinalysis demonstrated hematuria and proteinuria, in the setting of elevated creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Additionally, antistreptolysin O titer was positive. Given the constellation of laboratory findings and history of streptococcal pharyngitis, the patient was diagnosed with PRS secondary to streptococcal infection. High-dose methylprednisolone was initiated with concomitant plasmapheresis. He was extubated successfully after his respiratory status improved and was eventually discharged home after making a full recovery within 2 weeks after admission. This case illustrates the importance of clinically relevant sequelae of streptococcal infection as well as the appropriate treatment of PRS secondary to streptococcal pharyngitis with plasmapheresis and intravenous corticosteroids.

  18. Streptococcus pyogenes pharyngeal colonization resulting in recurrent, prepubertal vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Megan T; Sanchez, Veronica T; Eyster, Kathleen; Hansen, Keith A

    2007-10-01

    Recurrent, prepubertal, vaginal infections are an uncommon, troublesome problem for the patient and her family. Failure of initial therapy to alleviate vulvovaginitis may be related to vulvar skin disease, foreign body, sexual abuse, pinworms, reactions to medications, anatomic anomalies, or allergies. This report describes a case of recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes vulvovaginitis secondary to presumed vaginal re-inoculation from pharyngeal colonization. A 4-yr-old presented with one year of culture proven, recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes vulvovaginitis. Her symptoms repeatedly resolved with penicillin therapy, but continued to recur following cessation of antibiotic therapy. Evaluation included physical examination, trans-abdominal pelvic ultrasound, and vaginoscopy which all revealed normal upper and lower genital tract anatomy. Both the patient and her mother demonstrated culture proven, Group A Streptococcus pharyngeal colonization. Because of the possibility of repeated inoculations of the vaginal area from the colonized pharynx, they were both treated for decolonization with a regimen of amoxicillin and rifampin for ten days. Following this therapy there was resolution of vaginal symptoms with no further recurrence. Follow-up pharyngeal culture done on both mother and child on their last visit were negative for Group A Streptococcus. This case demonstrated an unusual specific cause of recurrent vaginitis resulting from presumed self or maternal re-inoculation with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus from pharyngeal colonization. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus are consistently sensitive to penicillin, but up to 25% of acute pharyngitis cases treated with penicillin having continued asymptomatic, bacterial carriage within the nasopharynx. Thus initial alleviation of symptoms in a patient with Group A beta-hemolytic vulvovaginitis treated with penicillin, can have continued asymptomatic pharyngeal colonization which can result in recurrence of the

  19. Cable strengthened arches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    The structural efficiency of arches, subjected to several variable loads, can be increased by strengthening these arches with cables. For these structures it can be necessary, especially in case the permanent load is small, to post-tension the cables to avoid any compression acting on the cables. A

  20. Sprouting Buds of Zebrafish Research in Malaysia: First Malaysia Zebrafish Disease Model Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Kazuhide Shaun; Tan, Pei Jean; Patel, Vyomesh

    2016-04-01

    Zebrafish is gaining prominence as an important vertebrate model for investigating various human diseases. Zebrafish provides unique advantages such as optical clarity of embryos, high fecundity rate, and low cost of maintenance, making it a perfect complement to the murine model equivalent in biomedical research. Due to these advantages, researchers in Malaysia are starting to take notice and incorporate the zebrafish model into their research activities. However, zebrafish research in Malaysia is still in its infancy stage and many researchers still remain unaware of the full potential of the zebrafish model or have limited access to related tools and techniques that are widely utilized in many zebrafish laboratories worldwide. To overcome this, we organized the First Malaysia Zebrafish Disease Model Workshop in Malaysia that took place on 11th and 12th of November 2015. In this workshop, we showcased how the zebrafish model is being utilized in the biomedical field in international settings as well as in Malaysia. For this, notable international speakers and those from local universities known to be carrying out impactful research using zebrafish were invited to share some of the cutting edge techniques that are used in their laboratories that may one day be incorporated in the Malaysian scientific community.

  1. Potential teratogenicity of methimazole: exposure of zebrafish embryos to methimazole causes similar developmental anomalies to human methimazole embryopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoike, Yuta; Matsuoka, Masato; Kosaki, Kenjiro

    2013-06-01

    While methimazole (MMI) is widely used in the therapy for hyperthyroidism, several groups have reported that maternal exposure to MMI results in a variety of congenital anomalies, including choanal and esophageal atresia, iridic and retinal coloboma, and delayed neurodevelopment. Thus, adverse effects of maternal exposure to MMI on fetal development have long been suggested; however, direct evidence for the teratogenicity of MMI has not been presented. Therefore, we studied the effects of MMI on early development by using zebrafish as a model organism. The fertilized eggs of zebrafish were collected immediately after spawning and grown in egg culture water containing MMI at various concentrations. External observation of the embryos revealed that exposure to high concentrations of MMI resulted in loss of pigmentation, hypoplastic hindbrain, turbid tissue in the forebrain, swelling of the notochord, and curly trunk. Furthermore, these effects occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Precise observation of the serial cross-sections of MMI-exposed embryos elucidated delayed development and hypoplasia of the whole brain and spinal cord, narrowing of the pharynx and esophagus, severe disruption of the retina, and aberrant structure of the notochord. These neuronal, pharyngeal, esophageal, and retinal anomalous morphologies have a direct analogy to the congenital anomalies observed in children exposed to MMI in utero. Here, we show the teratogenic effects of MMI on the development of zebrafish and provide the first experimental evidence for the connection between exposure to MMI and human MMI embryopathy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Determining shapes and dimensions of dental arches for the use of straight-wire arches in lingual technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairalla, Silvana Allegrini; Scuzzo, Giuseppe; Triviño, Tarcila; Velasco, Leandro; Lombardo, Luca; Paranhos, Luiz Renato

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the shape and dimension of dental arches from a lingual perspective, and determine shape and size of a straight archwire used for lingual Orthodontics. The study sample comprised 70 Caucasian Brazilian individuals with normal occlusion and at least four of Andrew's six keys. Maxillary and mandibular dental casts were digitized (3D) and the images were analyzed by Delcam Power SHAPET 2010 software. Landmarks on the lingual surface of teeth were selected and 14 measurements were calculated to determine the shape and size of dental arches. Shapiro-Wilk test determined small arch shape by means of 25th percentile (P25%)--an average percentile for the medium arch; and a large one determined by means of 75th percentile (P75%). T-test revealed differences between males and females in the size of 12 dental arches. The straight-wire arch shape used in the lingual straight wire technique is a parabolic-shaped arch, slightly flattened on its anterior portion. Due to similarity among dental arch sizes shown by males and females, a more simplified diagram chart was designed.

  3. Right circumflex retro-oesophageal aortic arch with coarctation of a high-positioned right arch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Kyung-Sik; Yong, Hwan Seok; Woo, Ok Hee; Kang, Eun-Young; Lee, Joo-Won

    2007-01-01

    We present a rare case of right circumflex retro-oesophageal aortic arch with coarctation of a high-positioned right arch. A 7-month-old boy presented with a cardiac murmur. Cardiac situs was normal and there was no evidence of an intracardiac shunt or patent ductus arteriosus. MR aortography revealed a right aortic arch that was high-positioned, tortuous and narrowed. This right aortic arch crossed the midline behind the oesophagus and continued as a left-sided descending aorta. The left common carotid and subclavian arteries arose from a large branching vascular structure that derived from the top of the left-sided descending aorta. The right common carotid artery arose from the ascending aorta. The proximal portion of the right common carotid artery showed very severe stenosis and poststenotic dilatation. The right subclavian artery originated distal to the narrowed and tortuous segment of the aortic arch. (orig.)

  4. Aortic arch malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellenberger, Christian J. [University Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-06-15

    Although anomalies of the aortic arch and its branches are relatively uncommon malformations, they are often associated with congenital heart disease. Isolated lesions may be clinically significant when the airways are compromised by a vascular ring. In this article, the development and imaging appearance of the aortic arch system and its various malformations are reviewed. (orig.)

  5. Aortic arch malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellenberger, Christian J.

    2010-01-01

    Although anomalies of the aortic arch and its branches are relatively uncommon malformations, they are often associated with congenital heart disease. Isolated lesions may be clinically significant when the airways are compromised by a vascular ring. In this article, the development and imaging appearance of the aortic arch system and its various malformations are reviewed. (orig.)

  6. INFLUENCE OF PASSIVE SMOKING ON CONTENT OF NICKEL IN CHILDREN PHARYNGEAL TONSILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kwapuliński

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of this study was pharyngeal tonsils which his anatomic location is interesing tissue. They are first tissue which has contact content in air inhalation substances in selective way. Pharyngeal tonsils came from children who lived in Silesia province. Some of these children have been expose to passive smoking. Contains nickel in pharyngeal tonsils was marked by the method of Inductively Coupled Plasma. Geometrical mean of contents of nickel in pharyngeal tonsils from exposed to tobacco smoke girls was 0,75 µg/g, in unexposed girls was 0,67 µg/g, in exposed to tobacco smoke boys was 0,55 µg/g and unexposed boys 0,6 µg/g was observed. The results have verified that sex, living place and exposure to tobacco smoke matter in accumulation nickel in pharyngeal tonsils. The cross-corelation analysis between content of Ni and other metals, found out positive corelation between Ni and Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ca, Mg.

  7. Pharyngeal airway changes following mandibular setback surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of dentofacial deformities with jaw osteotomies has an effect on airway anatomy and therefore mandibular setback surgery has the potential to diminish airway size. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mandibular setback surgery on airway size. 8 consecutive patients were examined prospectively. All patients underwent mandibular setback surgery. Cephalometric analysis was performed preoperatively and 3 months post operatively with particular attention to pharyngeal airway changes. Pharyngeal airway size decreased considerably in all, patients thus predisposing to development of obstructive sleep apnea. Therefore, large anteroposterior discrepancies should be corrected by combined maxillary and mandibular osteotomies.

  8. Co-morbidity and treatment outcomes of elderly pharyngeal cancer patients : A matched control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Thomas T. A.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Plaat, Boudewijn; Wedman, Jan; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; van Dijk, Boukje A. C.; Sluiter, Wim J.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Halmos, Gyorgy

    2011-01-01

    Treatment choice in elderly pharyngeal cancer patient is disputed. This study was aimed to asses association of co-morbidity, complications and survival in different treatment modalities of pharyngeal cancer patients. Retrospective analysis of pharyngeal cancer patients, diagnosed between 1997 and

  9. Occlusal stability in shortened dental arches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, D J; Creugers, N H; Kreulen, C M; de Haan, A F

    2001-02-01

    Shortened dental arches consisting of anterior and premolar teeth have been shown to meet oral functional demands. However, the occlusal stability may be at risk as a result of tooth migration. The aim of this nine-year study was to investigate occlusal stability in shortened dental arches as a function over time. Occlusal stability indicators were: 'interdental spacing', 'occlusal contacts of anterior teeth in Intercuspal Position', 'overbite', 'occlusal tooth wear', and 'alveolar bone support'. Subjects with shortened dental arches (n = 74) were compared with subjects with complete dental arches (controls, n = 72). Repeated-measurement regression analyses were applied to assess age-dependent variables in the controls and to relate the occlusal changes to the period of time since the treatment that led to the shortened dental arches. Compared with complete dental arches, shortened dental arches had similar overbite and occlusal tooth wear. They showed more interdental spacing in the premolar regions, more anterior teeth in occlusal contact, and lower alveolar bone scores. Since the differences remained constant over time, we conclude that shortened dental arches can provide long-term occlusal stability. Occlusal changes were self-limiting, indicating a new occlusal equilibrium.

  10. Risk factors for small pharyngeal airway dimensions in preorthodontic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anandarajah, Seerone; Dudhia, Raahib; Sandham, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To analyze which parameters, gathered from standard orthodontic diagnostic material, were most relevant for identifying small pharyngeal airway dimensions in preorthodontic children. Materials and Methods: The sample was composed of 105 cone beam computed tomography scans of healthy......, skeletal maturity and gender significant associations were found between pharyngeal airway dimensions and craniofacial morphology. Airway volume was positively associated with maxillary and mandibular width (P ... and sagittal jaw relationship were the most relevant factors for minimal cross-sectional area (r2 = 0.16). Conclusion: Pharyngeal airway dimensions were significantly associated with age, skeletal maturity, and craniofacial morphology in all three planes. Children with a reduced mandibular width and increased...

  11. Determining shapes and dimensions of dental arches for the use of straight-wire arches in lingual technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Allegrini Kairalla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study aims to determine the shape and dimension of dental arches from a lingual perspective, and determine shape and size of a straight archwire used for lingual Orthodontics. METHODS: The study sample comprised 70 Caucasian Brazilian individuals with normal occlusion and at least four of Andrew's six keys. Maxillary and mandibular dental casts were digitized (3D and the images were analyzed by Delcam Power SHAPET 2010 software. Landmarks on the lingual surface of teeth were selected and 14 measurements were calculated to determine the shape and size of dental arches. RESULTS: Shapiro-Wilk test determined small arch shape by means of 25th percentile (P25% - an average percentile for the medium arch; and a large one determined by means of 75th percentile (P75%. T-test revealed differences between males and females in the size of 12 dental arches. CONCLUSION: The straight-wire arch shape used in the lingual straight wire technique is a parabolic-shaped arch, slightly flattened on its anterior portion. Due to similarity among dental arch sizes shown by males and females, a more simplified diagram chart was designed.

  12. Haploinsufficiency of KDM6A is associated with severe psychomotor retardation, global growth restriction, seizures and cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Amelia M; Hoyos, Tatiana; Talkowski, Michael E; Hanscom, Carrie; Blumenthal, Ian; Chiang, Colby; Ernst, Carl; Pereira, Shahrin; Ordulu, Zehra; Clericuzio, Carol; Drautz, Joanne M; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Shaffer, Lisa G; Velsher, Lea; Pynn, Tania; Vermeesch, Joris; Harris, David J; Gusella, James F; Liao, Eric C; Morton, Cynthia C

    2013-05-01

    We describe a female subject (DGAP100) with a 46,X,t(X;5)(p11.3;q35.3)inv(5)(q35.3q35.1)dn, severe psychomotor retardation with hypotonia, global postnatal growth restriction, microcephaly, globally reduced cerebral volume, seizures, facial dysmorphia and cleft palate. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and whole-genome sequencing demonstrated that the X chromosome breakpoint disrupts KDM6A in the second intron. No genes were directly disrupted on chromosome 5. KDM6A is a histone 3 lysine 27 demethylase and a histone 3 lysine 4 methyltransferase. Expression of KDM6A is significantly reduced in DGAP100 lymphoblastoid cells compared to control samples. We identified nine additional cases with neurodevelopmental delay and various other features consistent with the DGAP100 phenotype with copy number variation encompassing KDM6A from microarray databases. We evaluated haploinsufficiency of kdm6a in a zebrafish model. kdm6a is expressed in the pharyngeal arches and ethmoid plate of the developing zebrafish, while a kdm6a morpholino knockdown exhibited craniofacial defects. We conclude KDM6A dosage regulation is associated with severe and diverse structural defects and developmental abnormalities.

  13. Islamic Architecture and Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mahbubur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The arch, an essential architectural element since the early civilizations, permitted the construction of lighter walls and vaults, often covering a large span. Visually it was an important decorative feature that was trans-mitted from architectural decoration to other forms of art worldwide. In early Islamic period, Muslims were receiving from many civilizations, which they improved and re-introduced to bring about the Renaissance. Arches appeared in Mesopotamia, Indus, Egyptian, Babylonian, Greek and Assyrian civilizations; but the Romans applied the technique to a wide range of structures. The Muslims mastered the use and design of the arch, employed for structural and functional purposes, progressively meeting decorative and symbolic pur-poses. Islamic architecture is characterized by arches employed in all types of buildings; most common uses being in arcades. This paper discusses the process of assimilation and charts how they contributed to other civilizations.

  14. A simple procedure for measuring pharyngeal sensitivity: a contribution to the diagnosis of sleep apnoea

    OpenAIRE

    Dematteis, M; Levy, P; Pepin, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Patients with severe apnoea may have an impaired pharyngeal dilating reflex related to decreased pharyngeal sensitivity. The accuracy of a simple new procedure to measure pharyngeal sensitivity and to diagnose sleep disordered breathing (SDB) was investigated.

  15. PHARYNGITIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Polunina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory disease of the throat — is a widespread pathology in childhood. The complex treatment of pharyngitis often includes solutions for gargling, sprays, tablets for sucking, hard candy or lozenges containing a variety of anti-inflammatory components. Their use reduces the severity of pain and the time treatment, but does not preclude the use of anti-inflammatory drugs for systemic effects. Key words: pharyhgitis, sore throat, treatment, children (Pediatric Pharmacology. — 2011; 8 (5: 106–108.

  16. Electrostatically Tunable Nanomechanical Shallow Arches

    KAUST Repository

    Kazmi, Syed N. R.

    2017-11-03

    We report an analytical and experimental study on the tunability of in-plane doubly-clamped nanomechanical arches under varied DC bias conditions at room temperature. For this purpose, silicon based shallow arches are fabricated using standard e-beam lithography and surface nanomachining of a highly conductive device layer on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The experimental results show good agreement with the analytical results with a maximum tunability of 108.14% for 180 nm thick arch with a transduction gap of 1 μm between the beam and the driving/sensing electrodes. The high tunability of shallow arches paves the ways for highly tunable band pass filtering applications in high frequency range.

  17. Intraoral gothic arch tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Barry; Hill, Edward E

    2011-01-01

    In order to create optimum esthetics, function and phonetics in complete denture fabrication, it is necessary to record accurate maxillo-mandibular determinants of occlusion. This requires clinical skill to establish an accurate, verifiable and reproducible vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) and centric relation (CR). Correct vertical relation depends upon a consideration of several factors, including muscle tone, inter-dental arch space and parallelism of the ridges. Any errors made while taking maxillo-mandibular jaw relation records will result in dentures that are uncomfortable and, possibly, unwearable. The application of a tracing mechanism such as the Gothic arch tracer (a central bearing device) is a demonstrable method of determining centric relation. Intraoral Gothic arch tracers provide the advantage of capturing VDO and CR in an easy-to-use technique for practitioners. Intraoral tracing (Gothic arch tracing) is a preferred method of obtaining consistent positions of the mandible in motion (retrusive, protrusive and lateral) at a comfortable VDO.

  18. Precast Pearl-Chain concrete arch bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    A Pearl-Chain Bridge is a closed-spandrel arch bridge consisting of a number of straight pre-fabricated so called Super-Light Deck elements put together in an arch shape by post-tensioning cables. Several Pearl-Chain arches can be positioned adjacent to each other by a crane to achieve a bridge...... of a desired width. On top of the arch is a filling material to level out the surface of the above road. The filling only transfers vertical loads to the arch. The geometry and material properties of Super-Light Decks are presented, and we refer to several fullscale tests of Pearl-Chain arches where...... the technology was used. We also study other important components and details in the Pearl-Chain Bridge concept and review the effects of different types of loads. A theoretical case study of a circular 30 m span Pearl-Chain Bridge is presented showing the influence of a number of parameters: The number of post...

  19. Imaging findings in the right aortic arch with mirror image branching of arch vessels: An unusual cause of dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guneet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 72-year-old female with a right aortic arch with mirror-image branching of arch vessels presenting with dysphagia, and characteristic images on barium esophagogram, contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance aortography. Right-sided thoracic aortic arch with mirror-image branching of the brachiocephalic vessels causing dysphagia without associated congenital cardiac anomalies is extremely uncommon. Right-sided aortic arch is a rare congenital abnormality with incidence of 0.05-0.1% in the normal population. Anomalies of great vessels are usually incidental findings, because they are asymptomatic. Right aortic arch infrequently presents with a vascular ring that can cause complete or partial obstruction of the trachea and/or esophagus. The understanding of this arch anomaly is based on Edward′s hypothesis about the double arch system during embryonic developmental.

  20. Footprint parameters as a measure of arch height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, M R; Nachbauer, W; Sovak, D; Nigg, B M

    1992-01-01

    The human foot has frequently been categorized into arch height groups based upon analysis of footprint parameters. This study investigates the relationship between directly measured arch height and many of the footprint parameters that have been assumed to represent arch height. A total of 115 male subjects were measured and footprint parameters were calculated from digitized outlines. Correlation and regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between footprint measures and arch height. It may be concluded from the results that footprint parameters proposed in the literature (arch angle, footprint index, and arch index) and two further parameters suggested in this study (arch length index and truncated arch index) are invalid as a basis for prediction or categorization of arch height. The categorization of the human foot according to the footprint measures evaluated in this paper represent no more than indices and angles of the plantar surface of the foot itself.

  1. Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Arch Bridges in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jielian Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past 20 years, great progress has been achieved in China in the construction of concrete-filled steel tube (CFST arch bridges and concrete arch bridges with a CFST skeleton. The span of these bridges has been increasing rapidly, which is rare in the history of bridge development. The large-scale construction of expressways and high-speed railways demands the development of long-span arch bridges, and advances in design and construction techniques have made it possible to construct such bridges. In the present study, the current status, development, and major innovative technologies of CFST arch bridges and concrete arch bridges with a CFST skeleton in China are elaborated. This paper covers the key construction technologies of CFST arch bridges, such as the design, manufacture, and installation of steel tube arch trusses, the preparation and pouring of in-tube concrete, and the construction of the world’s longest CFST arch bridge—the First Hejiang Yangtze River Bridge. The main construction technologies of reinforced concrete arch bridges are also presented, which include cable-stayed fastening-hanging cantilever assembly, adjusting the load by means of stay cables, surrounding the concrete for arch rib pouring, and so forth. In addition, the construction of two CFST skeleton concrete arch bridges—the Guangxi Yongning Yong River Bridge and the Yunnan–Guangxi Railway Nanpan River Bridge—is discussed. CFST arch bridges in China have already gained a world-leading position; with the continuous innovation of key technologies, China will become the new leader in promoting the development of arch bridges. Keywords: Concrete-filled steel tube (CFST arch bridge, Steel-reinforced concrete arch bridge, Cable-stayed fastening-hanging cantilever assembly, Vacuum-assisted pouring in-tube concrete, Adjusting load by stay cables

  2. Dual embryonic origin and patterning of the pharyngeal skeleton in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefton, Elizabeth M; Piekarski, Nadine; Hanken, James

    2015-01-01

    The impressive morphological diversification of vertebrates was achieved in part by innovation and modification of the pharyngeal skeleton. Extensive fate mapping in amniote models has revealed a primarily cranial neural crest derivation of the pharyngeal skeleton. Although comparable fate maps of amphibians produced over several decades have failed to document a neural crest derivation of ventromedial elements in these vertebrates, a recent report provides evidence of a mesodermal origin of one of these elements, basibranchial 2, in the axolotl. We used a transgenic labeling protocol and grafts of labeled cells between GFP+ and white embryos to derive a fate map that describes contributions of both cranial neural crest and mesoderm to the axolotl pharyngeal skeleton, and we conducted additional experiments that probe the mechanisms that underlie mesodermal patterning. Our fate map confirms a dual embryonic origin of the pharyngeal skeleton in urodeles, including derivation of basibranchial 2 from mesoderm closely associated with the second heart field. Additionally, heterotopic transplantation experiments reveal lineage restriction of mesodermal cells that contribute to pharyngeal cartilage. The mesoderm-derived component of the pharyngeal skeleton appears to be particularly sensitive to retinoic acid (RA): administration of exogenous RA leads to loss of the second basibranchial, but not the first. Neural crest was undoubtedly critical in the evolution of the vertebrate pharyngeal skeleton, but mesoderm may have played a central role in forming ventromedial elements, in particular. When and how many times during vertebrate phylogeny a mesodermal contribution to the pharyngeal skeleton evolved remain to be resolved. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. [Analysis of the characteristic of pharyngeal paraesthesia patients by high resolution manometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yun; Qian, Wei

    2015-09-01

    To discuss the pressure changing characteristics of upper esophageal sphincter (UES), lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and the esophagus kinetic characteristics of pharyngeal paraesthesia patients. To take high resolution manometry in 44 cases of pharyngeal paraesthesia patients and 23 normal subjects separately. According to the RSI score,the 44 patients were divided into group A (the group without reflux, RSI 0.05). The esophagus DCI of group B was lower than that of group A and control group (P 0.05). The pharyngeal paresthesia symptoms of'patients was associated with the increasing of UES pressure. The pharyngeal paresthesia symptoms of group with reflux was related to low pressure of LES and high pressure of UES. The last part of esophagus of group with reflux had obstacles in powers, which weaken the peristalsis and declined the ability to clear the bolus and gastric reflux material.

  4. Pharyngeal branchial cyst: magnetic resonance findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerezal, L.; Canga, A. [Department of Radiology of the ' Santa Cruz' Hospital Liencres, Cantabria (Spain); Morales, C. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology of the ' Sierrallana' Hospital Torrelavega, Cantabria (Spain); Abascal, F.; Usamentiaga, E.; Bustamante, M. [Department of Radiology of the University Hospital ' Marques de Valdecilla' , Av. de Valdecilla s/n Santander 39008 (Spain); Olcinas, O. [Department of Pathology of the University Hospital ' Marques de Valdecilla' , Av. de Valdecilla s/n Santander 39008 (Spain)

    1998-11-01

    An unusual case of pharyngeal cyst in a 25-year-old man studied by Magnetic Resonance (MR) is described. Anatomic location and pathological findings indicated the second branchial pouch origin. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Pharyngeal branchial cyst: magnetic resonance findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerezal, L.; Canga, A.; Morales, C.; Abascal, F.; Usamentiaga, E.; Bustamante, M.; Olcinas, O.

    1998-01-01

    An unusual case of pharyngeal cyst in a 25-year-old man studied by Magnetic Resonance (MR) is described. Anatomic location and pathological findings indicated the second branchial pouch origin. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Pharyngeal chemosensitivity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Clemens; Zimmermann, Ingo; Sommer, J Ulrich; Hörmann, Karl; Herr, Raphael M; Stuck, Boris A

    2013-09-01

    Signs of pharyngeal neurodegeneration have been detected in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Along with this neurodegeneration, a decreased pharyngeal sensitivity to mechanical stimulation has been described. The decreased sensitivity may play a role in the pathophysiology of this disease. The aim of the study was to investigate the chemosensitivity of the pharyngeal mucosa in patients with OSA compared with controls. Healthy controls and patients with OSA (age: 30-60 years) were included. Testing of oropharyngeal chemosensitivity was performed with subjective intensity ratings of capsaicin (SIR, visual analogue scale 0-10), air puffs (presented with an olfactometer), and stimulation with CO2 at the posterior pharyngeal wall. A 2-point discrimination test at the soft palate, an intensity rating of capsaicin at the tongue, and a nasal lateralization test were performed. Twenty-six patients with OSA and 18 healthy controls were included. No differences were detected in the SIR of capsaicin at the tongue or in the nasal lateralization test. At the pharynx, a decreased sensitivity to capsaicin (OSA: 6.8 ± 2.3; healthy control: 8.6 ± 1.3), air puffs (OSA: 2.8 ± 1.9; healthy control: 4.2 ± 1.6), and stimulation with CO2 (OSA: 1.5 ± 1.7; healthy control: 2.8 ± 1.8) were demonstrated in patients with OSA (all P < 0.05). Two-point discrimination at the soft palate was reduced with statistical significance in the OSA group (OSA: 11.5 ± 5.4 mm; healthy control: 5.0 ± 2.4 mm). The results suggest reduced pharyngeal chemosensitivity in OSA patients in addition to the reduced mechanical pharyngeal sensitivity shown with 2-point discrimination. This demonstrates peripheral neurodegeneration in the context of this disease.

  7. Bmp signaling mediates endoderm pouch morphogenesis by regulating Fgf signaling in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Mary E.; McCarthy, Neil; Norrie, Jacqueline L.; Eberhart, Johann K.

    2016-01-01

    The endodermal pouches are a series of reiterated structures that segment the pharyngeal arches and help pattern the vertebrate face. Multiple pathways regulate the complex process of endodermal development, including the Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) pathway. However, the role of Bmp signaling in pouch morphogenesis is poorly understood. Using genetic and chemical inhibitor approaches, we show that pouch morphogenesis requires Bmp signaling from 10-18 h post-fertilization, immediately following gastrulation. Blocking Bmp signaling during this window results in morphological defects to the pouches and craniofacial skeleton. Using genetic chimeras we show that Bmp signals directly to the endoderm for proper morphogenesis. Time-lapse imaging and analysis of reporter transgenics show that Bmp signaling is necessary for pouch outpocketing via the Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) pathway. Double loss-of-function analyses demonstrate that Bmp and Fgf signaling interact synergistically in craniofacial development. Collectively, our analyses shed light on the tissue and signaling interactions that regulate development of the vertebrate face. PMID:27122171

  8. Methodical Design of Software Architecture Using an Architecture Design Assistant (ArchE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    PA 15213-3890 Methodical Design of Software Architecture Using an Architecture Design Assistant (ArchE) Felix Bachmann and Mark Klein Software...DATES COVERED 00-00-2005 to 00-00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Methodical Design of Software Architecture Using an Architecture Design Assistant...important for architecture design – quality requirements and constraints are most important Here’s some evidence: If the only concern is

  9. Whole genome microarray analysis of chicken embryo facial prominences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchtová, Marcela; Kuo, W. P.; Nimmagadda, S.; Benson, S. L.; Geetha-Loganathan, P.; Logan, C.; Au-Yeung, T.; Chiang, E.; Fu, K.; Richman, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 239, - (2010), s. 574-591 ISSN 1058-8388 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : pharyngeal arch * mandibular arch * maxillary prominence Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.864, year: 2010

  10. A pair of pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons regulates caffeine-dependent ingestion in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaekyun Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste is an essential chemosensory modality that enables animals to identify appropriate food sources and control feeding behavior. In particular, the recognition of bitter taste prevents animals from feeding on harmful substances. Feeding is a complex behavior comprised of multiple steps, and food quality is continuously assessed. We here examined the role of pharyngeal gustatory organs in ingestion behavior. As a first step, we constructed a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map of the larval pharyngeal sense organs, and examined corresponding gustatory receptor neuron projections in the larval brain. Out of 22 candidate bitter compounds, we found 14 bitter compounds that elicit inhibition of ingestion in a dose-dependent manner. We provide evidence that certain pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons are necessary and sufficient for the ingestion response of larvae to caffeine. Additionally, we show that a specific pair of pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons, DP1, responds to caffeine by calcium imaging. In this study we show that a specific pair of gustatory receptor neurons in the pharyngeal sense organs coordinates caffeine sensing with regulation of behavioral responses such as ingestion. Our results indicate that in Drosophila larvae, the pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons have a major role in sensing food palatability to regulate ingestion behavior. The pharyngeal sense organs are prime candidates to influence ingestion due to their position in the pharynx, and they may act as first level sensors of ingested food.

  11. Introducing a Virtual Lesion Model of Dysphagia Resulting from Pharyngeal Sensory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Muhle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Performing neurophysiological and functional imaging studies in severely affected patients to investigate novel neurostimulation techniques for the treatment of neurogenic dysphagia is difficult. Therefore, basic research needs to be conducted in healthy subjects. Swallowing is a motor function highly dependent on sensory afferent input. Here we propose a virtual peripheral sensory lesion model to mimic pharyngeal sensory impairment, which is known as a major contributor to dysphagia in neurological disease. Methods: In this randomized crossover study on 11 healthy volunteers, cortical activation during pneumatic pharyngeal stimulation was measured applying magnetoencephalography in two separate sessions, with and without pharyngeal surface anesthesia. Results: Stimulation evoked bilateral event-related desynchronization (ERD mainly in the caudolateral pericentral cortex. In comparison to the no-anesthesia condition, topical anesthesia led to a reduction of ERD in beta (13-30 Hz and low gamma (30-60 Hz frequency ranges (p<0.05 in sensory but also motor cortical areas. Conclusions: Withdrawal of sensory afferent information by topical anesthesia leads to reduced response to pneumatic pharyngeal stimulation in a distributed cortical sensorimotor network in healthy subjects. The proposed paradigm may serve to investigate the effect of neuromodulatory treatments specifically on pharyngeal sensory impairment as relevant cause of neurogenic dysphagia.

  12. PQN-75 is expressed in the pharyngeal gland cells of Caenorhabditis elegans and is dispensable for germline development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse D. Rochester

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Caenorhabditis elegans, five pharyngeal gland cells reside in the terminal bulb of the pharynx and extend anterior processes to five contact points in the pharyngeal lumen. Pharyngeal gland cells secrete mucin-like proteins thought to facilitate digestion, hatching, molting and assembly of the surface coat of the cuticle, but supporting evidence has been sparse. Here we show pharyngeal gland cell expression of PQN-75, a unique protein containing an N-terminal signal peptide, nucleoporin (Nup-like phenylalanine/glycine (FG repeats, and an extensive polyproline repeat domain with similarities to human basic salivary proline-rich pre-protein PRB2. Imaging of C-terminal tagged PQN-75 shows localization throughout pharyngeal gland cell processes but not the pharyngeal lumen; instead, aggregates of PQN-75 are occasionally found throughout the pharynx, suggesting secretion from pharyngeal gland cells into the surrounding pharyngeal muscle. PQN-75 does not affect fertility and brood size in C. elegans but confers some degree of stress resistance and thermotolerance through unknown mechanisms.

  13. Do Dysphagic Patients with an Absent Pharyngeal Swallow Have a Shorter Survival than Dysphagic Patients with Pharyngeal Swallow? Prognostic Importance of a Therapeutic Videoradiographic Swallowing Study (TVSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelow, M.; Olsson, R.; Ekberg, O.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To study survival in two groups of dysphagic patients - one group unable to elicit the pharyngeal stage of swallow (APS) and another group with pharyngeal swallow (WPS) - and to compare recommendations regarding nutrition and therapeutic strategies based on the therapeutic swallowing study. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, the records of dysphagic patients who have undergone a therapeutic videoradiographic swallowing study (TVSS) were reviewed. Forty patients without pharyngeal swallow were matched for age and gender with 40 patients with pharyngeal swallow; altogether 80 patients were included in the study. Survival was registered at 3, 12, and 72 months after the TVSS. Results: In this study, the APS group had a significantly shorter survival time compared to the WPS group when followed-up at 12 months. In the APS group, most patients (37.5% (15/40)) died within the 3 months after TVSS. At 72 months, 62.5% (25/40) of the patients in the APS group had died. In the WPS group, 5% (2/40) had died within 3 months and 47.4% (19/40) after 12 months. At 72 months, 52.5% (21/40) of the patients in the WPS group had died. Regarding nutritional and therapeutic recommendations based on TVSS, 34/40 in the APS group were recommended no oral intake. Eighteen naso-gastric tubes were placed directly after TVSS. The therapeutic strategies recommended were head-positioning, thermal tactile stimulation, and tongue exercises (in 8 patients). In the WPS group, all patients were recommended oral intake. Diet modification was recommended in 29 patients. The therapeutic strategies recommended were head-positioning, thermal tactile stimulation, tongue exercises, supraglottic swallow, and effortful swallow (in 24 patients). Conclusion: Patients unable to elicit the pharyngeal stage of swallow had a shorter survival time than patients with pharyngeal swallow, probably due to a more severe underlying disease. Tube feeding was more frequent in the APS group. Fewer

  14. Highly Tunable Electrothermally Actuated Arch Resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjaj, Amal Z.

    2016-12-05

    This paper demonstrates experimentally, theoretically, and numerically a wide-range tunability of electrothermally actuated MEMS arch beams. The beams are made of silicon and are intentionally fabricated with some curvature as in-plane shallow arches. Analytical results based on the Galerkin discretization of the Euler Bernoulli beam theory are generated and compared to the experimental data and results of a multi-physics finite-element model. A good agreement is found among all the results. The electrothermal voltage is applied between the anchors of the clamped-clamped MEMS arch beam, generating a current that passes through the MEMS arch beam and controls its axial stress caused by thermal expansion. When the electrothermal voltage increases, the compressive stress increases inside the arch beam. This leads to increase in its curvature, thereby increases the resonance frequencies of the structure. We show here that the first resonance frequency can increase up to twice its initial value. We show also that after some electro-thermal voltage load, the third resonance frequency starts to become more sensitive to the axial thermal stress, while the first resonance frequency becomes less sensitive. These results can be used as guidelines to utilize arches as wide-range tunable resonators.

  15. Evaluation of the fit of preformed nickel titanium arch wires on normal occlusion dental arches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhn G. Al-Barakati

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Using an archwire form with the best fit to the dental arch should produce minimal changes in the dental arch form when NiTi wires are used and require less customization when stainless-steel wires are used.

  16. The relationship between pharyngeal morphology measured with cone-beam computed tomography and maxillary morphology measured by lateral cephalogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Fumie; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Miyamoto, Asami; Maki, Koutaro

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between pharyngeal morphology measured with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and maxillary morphology measured from lateral cephalograms. The subjects comprised 45 women, with a mean age of 27.9 years (range, 16-50 years), who attended the Department of Orthodontics at Showa University. The evaluation of pharyngeal morphology was based on 9 variables measured by CBCT: pharyngeal space volume, pharyngeal vertical length, pharyngeal sagittal length, pharyngeal coronal length, epiglottis length, epiglottis width, the distance from the genion to the hyoidale, the distance from the hyoidale to the aditus larynges base, and the distance from the aditus larynges base to the genion. Maxillary morphology was evaluated from 5 measured sites: SNA, S'-Ptm', A'-Ptm', the occiusal plane angle, and the palatal plane angle. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to detect associations between pharyngeal and maxillary morphological variables. There were significant correlations between pharyngeal coronal length and SNA, the distance from the genion to the hyoidale and the occlusal plane angle, pharyngeal coronal length and A'-Ptm', pharyngeal vertical length and the palatal plane angle, as well as the aditus larynges base to the genion and the occlusal plane. This information has potential clinical value for better understanding obstructive sleep apnea in adult patients, and for structurally based treatments such as surgical orthodontics. (author)

  17. McIsaac criteria for diagnosis of acute group-A β-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imanuel Y. Malino

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion A McIsaac criteria total score of <4 is favorable for excluding a diagnosis of GABHS pharyngitis. A McIsaac total criteria score of ≥4 requires further examination to confirm a diagnosis of GABHS pharyngitis.

  18. Electrothermally Tunable Arch Resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjaj, Amal Z.

    2017-03-18

    This paper demonstrates experimentally, theoretically, and numerically a wide-range tunability of electrothermally actuated microelectromechanical arch beams. The beams are made of silicon and are intentionally fabricated with some curvature as in-plane shallow arches. An electrothermal voltage is applied between the anchors of the beam generating a current that controls the axial stress caused by thermal expansion. When the electrothermal voltage increases, the compressive stress increases inside the arch beam. This leads to an increase in its curvature, thereby increasing its resonance frequencies. We show here that the first resonance frequency can increase monotonically up to twice its initial value. We show also that after some electrothermal voltage load, the third resonance frequency starts to become more sensitive to the axial thermal stress, while the first resonance frequency becomes less sensitive. These results can be used as guidelines to utilize arches as wide-range tunable resonators. Analytical results based on the nonlinear Euler Bernoulli beam theory are generated and compared with the experimental data and the results of a multi-physics finite-element model. A good agreement is found among all the results. [2016-0291

  19. Standardizing foot-type classification using arch index values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christopher Kevin; Weil, Rich; de Boer, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The lack of a reliable classification standard for foot type makes drawing conclusions from existing research and clinical decisions difficult, since different foot types may move and respond to treatment differently. The purpose of this study was to determine interrater agreement for foot-type classification based on photo-box-derived arch index values. For this correlational study with two raters, a sample of 11 healthy volunteers with normal to obese body mass indices was recruited from both a community weight-loss programme and a programme in physical therapy. Arch index was calculated using AutoCAD software from footprint photographs obtained via mirrored photo-box. Classification as high-arched, normal, or low-arched foot type was based on arch index values. Reliability of the arch index was determined with intra-class correlations; agreement on foot-type classification was determined using quadratic weighted kappa (κw). Average arch index was 0.215 for one tester and 0.219 for the second tester, with an overall range of 0.017 to 0.370. Both testers classified 6 feet as low-arched, 9 feet as normal, and 7 feet as high-arched. Interrater reliability for the arch index was ICC=0.90; interrater agreement for foot-type classification was κw=0.923. Classification of foot type based on arch index values derived from plantar footprint photographs obtained via mirrored photo-box showed excellent reliability in people with varying BMI. Foot-type classification may help clinicians and researchers subdivide sample populations to better differentiate mobility, gait, or treatment effects among foot types.

  20. Standardizing Foot-Type Classification Using Arch Index Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Rich; de Boer, Emily

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The lack of a reliable classification standard for foot type makes drawing conclusions from existing research and clinical decisions difficult, since different foot types may move and respond to treatment differently. The purpose of this study was to determine interrater agreement for foot-type classification based on photo-box-derived arch index values. Method: For this correlational study with two raters, a sample of 11 healthy volunteers with normal to obese body mass indices was recruited from both a community weight-loss programme and a programme in physical therapy. Arch index was calculated using AutoCAD software from footprint photographs obtained via mirrored photo-box. Classification as high-arched, normal, or low-arched foot type was based on arch index values. Reliability of the arch index was determined with intra-class correlations; agreement on foot-type classification was determined using quadratic weighted kappa (κw). Results: Average arch index was 0.215 for one tester and 0.219 for the second tester, with an overall range of 0.017 to 0.370. Both testers classified 6 feet as low-arched, 9 feet as normal, and 7 feet as high-arched. Interrater reliability for the arch index was ICC=0.90; interrater agreement for foot-type classification was κw=0.923. Conclusions: Classification of foot type based on arch index values derived from plantar footprint photographs obtained via mirrored photo-box showed excellent reliability in people with varying BMI. Foot-type classification may help clinicians and researchers subdivide sample populations to better differentiate mobility, gait, or treatment effects among foot types. PMID:23729964

  1. A lateral cephalometric study of pharyngeal cavity in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Rae

    1976-01-01

    A study was performed to investigate the size of pharyngeal cavity and sexual differences between Korean adult mal e and female by introducing linear analysis of the lateral cephalogram. The radiograms were composed of 46 adult male aged 24.64 and 52 adult female aged 22.74 respectively. In order to study and measure the pharyngeal area, the following skeletal landmarks were selected: S,N,A,Ptm, B,H,H', M ,S-N, FH and CV, and the angle CV-FH was measured to provide a factor for correction of error resulting from improper he ad positioning of subjects, especially in the relative positions of A and H, while radiography. All points to be measured were projected at right angles to the Frankfort plane. For the purpose of measuring the anteroposterior dimensions of pharyngeal cavity the distances were measured in A-Ptm, A-S, S-Ptm and CV-H, and vertical measurements were made in SN-A, SN-PNS, SN-H' and M-H. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The pharyngeal cavity is broader in the vertical than in the anteroposterior diameter in both sex and the maximum sexual differences were showed in the distances between SN and H', and minimal sexual differences in the distances between S and Ptm. 2. In general, the measurements of male were larger than those of female in the anteroposterior dimensions of pharyngea l cavity, but the distances between A and S, between CV and H showed significant sexual differences when evaluated statistically. 3. All of the measurements were larger in male than in female in vertical dimensions of pharyngeal cavity, and there were statistical significances of sexual differences in all variables.

  2. A lateral cephalometric study of pharyngeal cavity in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Rae [Department of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1976-11-15

    A study was performed to investigate the size of pharyngeal cavity and sexual differences between Korean adult mal e and female by introducing linear analysis of the lateral cephalogram. The radiograms were composed of 46 adult male aged 24.64 and 52 adult female aged 22.74 respectively. In order to study and measure the pharyngeal area, the following skeletal landmarks were selected: S,N,A,Ptm, B,H,H', M ,S-N, FH and CV, and the angle CV-FH was measured to provide a factor for correction of error resulting from improper he ad positioning of subjects, especially in the relative positions of A and H, while radiography. All points to be measured were projected at right angles to the Frankfort plane. For the purpose of measuring the anteroposterior dimensions of pharyngeal cavity the distances were measured in A-Ptm, A-S, S-Ptm and CV-H, and vertical measurements were made in SN-A, SN-PNS, SN-H' and M-H. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The pharyngeal cavity is broader in the vertical than in the anteroposterior diameter in both sex and the maximum sexual differences were showed in the distances between SN and H', and minimal sexual differences in the distances between S and Ptm. 2. In general, the measurements of male were larger than those of female in the anteroposterior dimensions of pharyngea l cavity, but the distances between A and S, between CV and H showed significant sexual differences when evaluated statistically. 3. All of the measurements were larger in male than in female in vertical dimensions of pharyngeal cavity, and there were statistical significances of sexual differences in all variables.

  3. Evidence of a true pharyngeal tonsil in birds: a novel lymphoid organ in Dromaius novaehollandiae and Struthio camelus (Palaeognathae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crole Martina R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tonsils are secondary lymphoid organs located in the naso- and oropharynx of most mammalian species. Most tonsils are characterised by crypts surrounded by dense lymphoid tissue. However, tonsils without crypts have also been recognised. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, although not well-organised and lacking tonsillar crypts, is abundant in the avian oropharynx and has been referred to as the “pharyngeal tonsil”. In this context the pharyngeal folds present in the oropharynx of ratites have erroneously been named the pharyngeal tonsils. This study distinguishes between the different types and arrangements of lymphoid tissue in the pharyngeal region of D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus and demonstrates that both species possess a true pharyngeal tonsil which fits the classical definition of tonsils in mammals. Results The pharyngeal tonsil (Tonsilla pharyngea of D. novaehollandiae was located on the dorsal free surface of the pharyngeal folds and covered by a small caudo-lateral extension of the folds whereas in S. camelus the tonsil was similarly located on the dorsal surface of the pharyngeal folds but was positioned retropharyngeally and encapsulated by loose connective tissue. The pharyngeal tonsil in both species was composed of lymph nodules, inter-nodular lymphoid tissue, mucus glands, crypts and intervening connective tissue septa. In S. camelus a shallow tonsillar sinus was present. Aggregated lymph nodules and inter-nodular lymphoid tissue was associated with the mucus glands on the ventral surface of the pharyngeal folds in both species and represented the Lymphonoduli pharyngeales. Similar lymphoid tissue, but more densely packed and situated directly below the epithelium, was present on the dorsal, free surface of the pharyngeal folds and represented a small, non-follicular tonsil. Conclusions The follicular pharyngeal tonsils in D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus are distinct from the pharyngeal folds in

  4. Diagnosis of Swallowing Disorders: How We Interpret Pharyngeal Manometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, Charles; Omari, Taher

    2017-03-01

    We provide an overview of the clinical application of novel pharyngeal high-resolution impedance manometry (HRIM) with pressure flow analysis (PFA) in our hands with example cases. In our Centre, we base our interpretation of HRIM recordings upon a qualitative assessment of pressure-impedance waveforms during individual swallows, as well as a quantitative assessment of averaged PFA swallow function variables. We provide a description of two global swallowing efficacy measures, the swallow risk index (SRI), reflecting global swallowing dysfunction (higher SRI = greater aspiration risk) and the post-swallow impedance ratio (PSIR) detecting significant post-swallow bolus residue. We describe a further eight swallow function variables specific to the hypopharynx and upper esophageal sphincter (UES), assessing hypo-pharyngeal distension pressure, contractility, bolus presence and flow timing, and UES basal tone, relaxation, opening and contractility. Pharyngeal HRIM has now come of age, being applicable for routine clinical practice to assess the biomechanics of oropharyngeal swallowing dysfunction. In the future, it may guide treatment strategies and allow more objective longitudinal follow-up on clinical outcomes.

  5. Pharyngeal squamous cell papilloma in adult Japanese: comparison with laryngeal papilloma in clinical manifestations and HPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Ryoji; Makiyama, Kiyoshi; Higuti, Yusho; Ikeda, Atsuo; Miura, Masatoshi; Hasegawa, Hisashi; Kinukawa, Noriko; Ikeda, Minoru

    2012-10-01

    A number of reports have investigated the relationship between laryngeal papilloma and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. On the other hand, it is unclear whether the HPV infection is involved in the occurrence of pharyngeal papilloma. We hypothesized that HPV infection was involved in the occurrence of pharyngeal papilloma similarly to laryngeal papilloma. To verify this hypothesis, we investigated the presence of HPV infection. Furthermore, clinical manifestations of pharyngeal papilloma, which had rarely been reported, were discussed. A male-to-female ratio, solitary or multiple occurrences, and koilocytosis were examined in cases with pharyngeal papilloma. HPV DNA was examined with unfixed surgically resected specimens of pharyngeal papilloma. A screening test by the liquid-phase hybridization method was carried out for the HPV high-risk group (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 56, 58, 59, and 68) and HPV low-risk group (6, 11, 42, 43, 44). As a control, 15 cases with laryngeal papilloma for which the same screening test was carried out were employed. Pharyngeal papilloma occurred as a solitary lesion more often, whereas laryngeal papilloma occurred as multiple tumors more frequently. The HPV infection rate was 0% in pharyngeal papilloma cases, which was in stark contrast with 66.7% in the HPV low-risk group in laryngeal papilloma cases. Pharyngeal papilloma occurred as a solitary lesion in females more frequently. Contrary to our hypothesis, the involvement of HPV infection was unlikely in the occurrence of pharyngeal papilloma.

  6. Assembly and lifting of Pearl-Chain arches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Viebæk, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    Pearl-Chain arches were invented at the Technical University of Denmark in cooporation with the company Abeo A/S. The system uses specially designed, pre-fabricated concrete elements that are post-tensioned together into an arch shape, which is then lifted into place. The arches can be used both ...

  7. Empirical validation of Polish guidelines for the management of acute streptococcal pharyngitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Elżbieta; Bochyńska, Ewa; Juda, Marek; Kozioł-Montewka, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis is currently the only commonly occurring form of acute pharyngitis for which antibiotic therapy is definitely indicated. Polish guidelines advocate the use of modified Centor score (MCS) to assess the probability of GAS pharyngitis. They advise performing throat culture or rapid antigen detection test (RADT) in children with score 2-3 in MCS and treating with antibiotic only those in whom GAS was detected. Negative RADT results should be confirmed by culture. In children with score 4, the guidelines allow to introduce empiric antibiotic therapy. Phenoxymethyl penicillin is recommended as a drug of choice to treat GAS pharyngitis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the accuracy of strategy recommended by Polish guidelines in identifying those children with acute pharyngitis who require antibiotic treatment. Hence, diagnostic values of score 4 in MCS and RADT were assessed using throat culture as a reference standard. Phenoxymethyl penicillin efficacy in GAS eradication and prevention of post-streptococcal complications were estimated as well. Ninety children between 2 and 15 years of age with acute pharyngitis symptoms suggesting GAS etiology (MCS ≥ 2), participated in our study. At the initial visit MCS was evaluated and two throat swabs were collected to perform RADT and culture. In children with GAS pharyngitis treated with penicillin, microbiological cure was assessed by performing two control throat cultures. Next, children were under observation for 3 months. Positive predictive value of score 4 in MCS turned out to be 48.05% (95% CI: 36.5-59.7%). RADT sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy proved to be 100%, 96%, and 98%, respectively. GAS eradication rate in children treated with penicillin turned out to be 92.5%. No post-streptococcal sequelae occurred in any child in 3-month observation. Empiric antibiotic therapy in children with score 4 in MCS will result in significant overtreatment of those with

  8. A Novel Imaging Analysis Method for Capturing Pharyngeal Constriction During Swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwertner, Ryan W; Garand, Kendrea L; Pearson, William G

    2016-01-01

    Videofluoroscopic imaging of swallowing known as the Modified Barium Study (MBS) is the standard of care for assessing swallowing difficulty. While the clinical purpose of this radiographic imaging is to primarily assess aspiration risk, valuable biomechanical data is embedded in these studies. Computational analysis of swallowing mechanics (CASM) is an established research methodology for assessing multiple interactions of swallowing mechanics based on coordinates mapping muscle function including hyolaryngeal movement, pharyngeal shortening, tongue base retraction, and extension of the head and neck, however coordinates characterizing pharyngeal constriction is undeveloped. The aim of this study was to establish a method for locating the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors using hard landmarks as guides on MBS videofluoroscopic imaging, and to test the reliability of this new method. Twenty de-identified, normal, MBS videos were randomly selected from a database. Two raters annotated landmarks for the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors frame-by-frame using a semi-automated MATLAB tracker tool at two time points. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess test-retest reliability between two raters with an ICC = 0.99 or greater for all coordinates for the retest measurement. MorphoJ integrated software was used to perform a discriminate function analysis to visualize how all 12 coordinates interact with each other in normal swallowing. The addition of the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictor coordinates to CASM allows for a robust analysis of the multiple components of swallowing mechanics interacting with a wide range of variables in both patient specific and cohort studies derived from common use imaging data.

  9. Teaching the pharyngeal flap and sphincter pharyngoplasty: The sticky note method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jake J; Jabbour, Noel

    2015-11-01

    To demonstrate a cost-effective, quick, and easily reproducible three-dimensional sticky note model to enhance the understanding and conceptualization of the geometry and steps of the pharyngeal flap and sphincter pharyngoplasty. The method involves making specified incisions and rearrangements of readily available components, including disposable clear plastic cups, yellow and pink sticky notes, and white paper. Once assembly is complete, further incisions and remodeling are performed to simulate a pharyngeal flap or sphincter pharyngoplasty. The cost of the materials to make one model was $0.94. Average construction time was less than 10 min. This three-dimensional model is an efficient, interactive, and simple visual aid to teach surgical trainees the geometry and steps of the pharyngeal flap and sphincter pharyngoplasty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of x-irradiation on pharyngeal induction in the Planarian, Dugesia japonica japonica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Etsuo

    1980-01-01

    Pharyngeal formation was examined in cases where normal or X-irradiated head pieces were transplanted into the postpharyngeal region of normal or irradiated worms. Transplantation experiments were carried out in four different combinations of hosts and grafts: (1) normal host and graft (control), (2) normal host and irradiated graft, (3) irradiated host and normal graft, (4) irradiated host and graft. In the first experiment, well developed pharynges were formed in the areas both anterior and posterior to the graft on the 14th day after transplantation. In the second experiment, formation of new pharynges was delayed compared with that in the first group. In the third experiment, only one pharynx developed in the area posterior to each graft in most cases. In the last experiment, no new pharynx appeared at all. From these results, the influence of X-rays on factors participating in pharyngeal induction was discussed. (author)

  11. Fatal verminous pharyngitis and esophagitis caused by Streptocara incognita in mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alić, A; Prasović, S; Hodzić, A; Besirović, H; Residbegović, Emina; Omeragić, J

    2013-03-01

    Streptocara spp. infections are reported to cause gastritis, proventriculitis, esophagitis, and pharyngitis in various waterfowls, especially diving ducks. In the present paper, we describe severe fatal diphtheritic pharyngitis and esophagitis caused by Streptocara incognita in three female mute swans (Cygnus olor) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Prior to death, the swans were showing signs of lethargy, anorexia, and reluctance to move. At necropsy, in all swans severe diphtheritic pharyngitis and esophagitis with deep, dark red hemorrhagic ulcerations were observed. Numerous thin, white, up to 1-cm-long nematodes, identified as S. incognita, were observed embedded in the pharyngeal and esophageal mucosa under the diphtheritic membranes. Histopathology revealed severe fibrinonecrotic inflammation with numerous cross-sections of the parasites. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of severe, fatal streptocariasis in mute swans.

  12. Semi-parametric estimation for ARCH models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Alzghool

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we conduct semi-parametric estimation for autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (ARCH model with Quasi likelihood (QL and Asymptotic Quasi-likelihood (AQL estimation methods. The QL approach relaxes the distributional assumptions of ARCH processes. The AQL technique is obtained from the QL method when the process conditional variance is unknown. We present an application of the methods to a daily exchange rate series. Keywords: ARCH model, Quasi likelihood (QL, Asymptotic Quasi-likelihood (AQL, Martingale difference, Kernel estimator

  13. Topical Therapy of Acute Pharyngitis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.K. Bolbot

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the methods of topical antiinflammatory therapy for acute pharyngitis in children. The analysis of the complex of mechanisms (antiinflammatory, local analgesic ones of Tantum Verde® action and method of its application are provided.

  14. Nonlinear Dynamics of Electrostatically Actuated MEMS Arches

    KAUST Repository

    Al Hennawi, Qais M.

    2015-05-01

    In this thesis, we present theoretical and experimental investigation into the nonlinear statics and dynamics of clamped-clamped in-plane MEMS arches when excited by an electrostatic force. Theoretically, we first solve the equation of motion using a multi- mode Galarkin Reduced Order Model (ROM). We investigate the static response of the arch experimentally where we show several jumps due to the snap-through instability. Experimentally, a case study of in-plane silicon micromachined arch is studied and its mechanical behavior is measured using optical techniques. We develop an algorithm to extract various parameters that are needed to model the arch, such as the induced axial force, the modulus of elasticity, and the initially induced initial rise. After that, we excite the arch by a DC electrostatic force superimposed to an AC harmonic load. A softening spring behavior is observed when the excitation is close to the first resonance frequency due to the quadratic nonlinearity coming from the arch geometry and the electrostatic force. Also, a hardening spring behavior is observed when the excitation is close to the third (second symmetric) resonance frequency due to the cubic nonlinearity coming from mid-plane stretching. Then, we excite the arch by an electric load of two AC frequency components, where we report a combination resonance of the summed type. Agreement is reported among the theoretical and experimental work.

  15. A study on occlusal stability in shortened dental arches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarita, Paulo T N; Kreulen, Cees M; Witter, Dick J; van't Hof, Martin; Creugers, Nico H J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that shortened dental arches constitute a risk to occlusal stability. Using cluster samples, 725 subjects with shortened dental arches comprising intact anterior regions and zero to eight occluding pairs of posterior teeth and 125 subjects with complete dental arches were selected. Subjects with shortened dental arches were classified into eight categories according to arch length and symmetry. Parameters for occlusal stability were interdental spacing, occlusal tooth wear, occlusal contact of incisors in intercuspal position, and vertical and horizontal overlap. Additionally, tooth mobility and overeruption of unopposed teeth were assessed. Influence of independent variables (dental arch category, age, gender, and residence) on the parameters for occlusal stability was assessed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple range tests. Extreme shortened dental arches (zero to two pairs of occluding premolars) had significantly more interdental spacing, occlusal contact of incisors, and vertical overlap compared to complete dental arches. Occlusal wear and prevalence of mobile teeth were highest in these categories. The category with three to four occluding premolars had significantly more interdental spacing and, for the older age group, more anterior teeth in occlusal contact compared to complete dental arches. Age was consistently associated with increased changes in occlusal integrity. Signs of increased risk to occlusal stability seemed to occur in extreme shortened dental arches, whereas no such evidence was found for intermediate categories of shortened dental arches.

  16. Highly tunable NEMS shallow arches

    KAUST Repository

    Kazmi, Syed N. R.

    2017-11-30

    We report highly tunable nanoelectromechanical systems NEMS shallow arches under dc excitation voltages. Silicon based in-plane doubly clamped bridges, slightly curved as shallow arches, are fabricated using standard electron beam lithography and surface nanomachining of a highly conductive device layer on a silicon-on-insulator wafer. By designing the structures to have gap to thickness ratio of more than four, the mid-plane stretching of the nano arches is maximized such that an increase in the dc bias voltage will result into continuous increase in the resonance frequency of the resonators to wide ranges. This is confirmed analytically based on a nonlinear beam model. The experimental results are found to be in good agreement with that of the results from developed analytical model. A maximum tunability of 108.14% for a 180 nm thick arch with an initially designed gap of 1 μm between the beam and the driving/sensing electrodes is achieved. Furthermore, a tunable narrow bandpass filter is demonstrated, which opens up opportunities for designing such structures as filtering elements in high frequency ranges.

  17. Epidemiology of oral and pharyngeal cancers: A retrospective study in ‎Kermanshah, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Zarei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and relative frequency of oral and pharyngeal cancers in Kermanshah, Iran, from March 1993 until March 2006. METHODS: The data used in this epidemiologic study were extracted directly from pathology records registered in 12 (all public and private pathology centers of Kermanshah province during the 13-year study period. The medical data of 13,323 cases of cancer were studied. RESULTS: During the 13-year period of this study, 350 new malignant cases occurred in the oral cavity and pharynx. 247 (70% were men and 103 (30% were women. The mean age for oral and pharyngeal cancers was 57 [standard deviation (SD = 17.09] with male to female ratio 2.39:1. The most common oral and pharyngeal cancers were squamous cell carcinoma (SCC with 283 patients. 211 (74.6% of the patients were men and 72 (25.4% of them were women; the mean age of SCC was 60 (SD = 16 with male to female ratio 2.93:1. The two most common sites of involvement were lips [166 (47.5%] and tongue [25 (7.14%]. The overall incidence rate of oral and pharyngeal cancers was 1.47 per 100000 populations. CONCLUSION: In summary, the incidence risk of oral and pharyngeal cancers in people living in Kermanshah province is similar to the most other provinces of Iran. However, this study showed that the rank of oral and pharyngeal cancers among males (9th most common cancer is low when compared to other regions of Iran and other countries such as India, Australia, and France.

  18. Mycotic Aneurysm of the Aortic Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Seo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A mycotic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta is rare. We report a case of mycotic aneurysm that developed in the aortic arch. An 86-year-old man was admitted with fever and general weakness. Blood culture yielded methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Chest X-ray showed an enlarged aortic arch, and computed tomography scan revealed an aneurysm in the aortic arch. The patient was treated only with antibiotics and not surgically. The size of the aneurysm increased rapidly, resulting in bronchial obstruction and superimposed pneumonia. The patient died of respiratory failure.

  19. Sternocleidomastoid flap augmentation of the pharyngeal closure after total laryngectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sherif Gabr; Wahba, Basim Metwally; Elbatawi, Ahmed Mahmoud; Eltelety, Ahmad Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of sternocleidomastoid (SCM) flap augmentation of the pharyngeal closure after total laryngectomy on the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF). Thirty patients with T4a laryngeal carcinoma and none of them receiving primary radiotherapy previously were divided into two equal groups. Group A patients had SCM flap augmentation of the pharyngeal closure after total laryngectomy. Group B patients had the standard pharyngeal closure without augmentation. Both groups were followed up for 30 days postoperatively for the development of PCF. The use of the SCM added about extra 15 min to the surgical procedure in all patients (p laryngectomy. Three patients in each group developed PCF either early (10 days or less postoperatively) or late (more than 10 days but less than 30 days postoperatively). There was no statistically significant difference in the length of hospital stay between the two groups. The use of SCM flap did not reduce the incidence of PCF after total laryngectomy.

  20. Comparative effectiveness of instructional methods: oral and pharyngeal cancer examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nereyda P; Marks, John G; Sandow, Pamela R; Seleski, Christine E; Logan, Henrietta L

    2014-04-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of different methods of instruction for the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination. A group of thirty sophomore students at the University of Florida College of Dentistry were randomly assigned to three training groups: video instruction, a faculty-led hands-on instruction, or both video and hands-on instruction. The training intervention involved attending two sessions spaced two weeks apart. The first session used a pretest to assess students' baseline didactic knowledge and clinical examination technique. The second session utilized two posttests to assess the comparative effectiveness of the training methods on didactic knowledge and clinical technique. The key findings were that students performed the clinical examination significantly better with the combination of video and faculty-led hands-on instruction (p<0.01). All students improved their clinical exam skills, knowledge, and confidence in performing the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination independent of which training group they were assigned. Utilizing both video and interactive practice promoted greater performance of the clinical technique on the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination.

  1. Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scales Based on Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Paul D; Hersey, Denise P; Leder, Steven B

    2016-06-01

    Identification of pharyngeal residue severity located in the valleculae and pyriform sinuses has always been a primary goal during fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). Pharyngeal residue is a clinical sign of potential prandial aspiration making an accurate description of its severity an important but difficult challenge. A reliable, validated, and generalizable pharyngeal residue severity rating scale for FEES would be beneficial. A systematic review of the published English language literature since 1995 was conducted to determine the quality of existing pharyngeal residue severity rating scales based on FEES. Databases were searched using controlled vocabulary words and synonymous free text words for topics of interest (deglutition disorders, pharyngeal residue, endoscopy, videofluoroscopy, fiberoptic technology, aspiration, etc.) and outcomes of interest (scores, scales, grades, tests, FEES, etc.). Search strategies were adjusted for syntax appropriate for each database/platform. Data sources included MEDLINE (OvidSP 1946-April Week 3 2015), Embase (OvidSP 1974-2015 April 20), Scopus (Elsevier), and the unindexed material in PubMed (NLM/NIH) were searched for relevant articles. Supplementary efforts to identify studies included checking reference lists of articles retrieved. Scales were compared using qualitative properties (sample size, severity definitions, number of raters, and raters' experience and training) and psychometric analyses (randomization, intra- and inter-rater reliability, and construct validity). Seven articles describing pharyngeal residue severity rating scales met inclusion criteria. Six of seven scales had insufficient data to support their use as evidenced by methodological weaknesses with both qualitative properties and psychometric analyses. There is a need for qualitative and psychometrically reliable, validated, and generalizable pharyngeal residue severity rating scales that are anatomically specific, image

  2. Pharyngeal diameter in various head and neck positions during exercise in sport horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In equine athletes, dynamic stenotic disorders of the upper airways are often the cause for abnormal respiratory noises and/or poor performance. There are hypotheses, that head and neck flexion may influence the morphology and function of the upper airway and thus could even induce or deteriorate disorders of the upper respiratory tract. Especially the pharynx, without osseous or cartilaginous support is prone to changes in pressure and airflow during exercise. The objective of this study was to develop a method for measuring the pharyngeal diameter in horses during exercise, in order to analyse whether a change of head-neck position may have an impact on the pharyngeal diameter. Results Under the assumption that the width of the epiglottis remains constant in healthy horses, the newly developed method for calculating the pharyngeal diameter in horses during exercise is unsusceptible against changes of the viewing-angle and distance between the endoscope and the structures, which are to be assessed. The quotient of the width of the epiglottis and the perpendicular from a fixed point on the dorsal pharynx to the epiglottis could be used to determine the pharyngeal diameter. The percentage change of this quotient (pharynx-epiglottis-ratio; PE-ratio) in the unrestrained head-neck position against the reference position was significantly larger than that of any other combination of the head-neck positions investigated. A relation between the percentage change in PE-ratio and the degree of head and neck flexion could not be confirmed. Conclusions It could be shown, that the pharyngeal diameter is reduced through the contact position implemented by the rider in comparison to the unrestrained head and neck position. An alteration of the pharyngeal diameter depending on the degree of head and neck flexion (represented by ground and withers angle) could not be confirmed. PMID:24886465

  3. Generation of FGF reporter transgenic zebrafish and their utility in chemical screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsang Michael

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs represent a large family of secreted proteins that are required for proper development and physiological processes. Mutations in mouse and zebrafish FGFs result in abnormal embryogenesis and lethality. A key to understanding the precise role for these factors is to determine their spatial and temporal activity during embryogenesis. Results Expression of Dual Specificity Phosphatase 6 (dusp6, also known as Mkp3 is controlled by FGF signalling throughout development. The Dusp6 promoter was isolated from zebrafish and used to drive expression of destabilized green fluorescent protein (d2EGFP in transgenic embryos (Tg(Dusp6:d2EGFP. Expression of d2EGFP is initiated as early as 4 hours post-fertilization (hpf within the future dorsal region of the embryo, where fgf3 and fgf8 are initially expressed. At later stages, d2EGFP is detected within structures that correlate with the expression of Fgf ligands and their receptors. This includes the mid-hindbrain boundary (MHB, pharyngeal endoderm, otic vesicle, hindbrain, and Kupffer's vesicle. The expression of d2EGFP is under the control of FGF signalling as treatment with FGF Receptor (FGFR inhibitors results in the suppression of d2EGFP expression. In a pilot screen of commercially available small molecules we have evaluated the effectiveness of the transgenic lines to identify specific FGF inhibitors within the class of indolinones. These compounds were counter screened with the transgenic line Tg(Fli1:EGFPy1, that serves as an indirect read-out for Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF signalling in order to determine the specificity between related receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs. From these assays it is possible to determine the specificity of these indolinones towards specific RTK signalling pathways. This has enabled the identification of compounds that can block specifically the VEGFR or the FGFR signalling pathway. Conclusion The generation of

  4. Mechanism Research of Arch Dam Abutment Forces during Overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research on the abutment forces of a double-curvature arch dam during overload based on numerical calculation results obtained through finite element method by Ansys. Results show that, with an increase in elevation, the abutment forces and bending moment of the arch dam increase first and then decrease from the bottom to the top of the dam. Abutment forces and bending moment reach their maximum at the middle or middle-down portion of the dam. The distributions of abutment forces and moment do not change during overload. The magnitude of each arch layer’s forces and moment increases linearly during overload. This result indicates that each arch layer transmits bearing loads to the rocks of the left and right banks steadily. This research explains the operating mechanism of an arch dam under normal and overload conditions. It provides a simple method to calculate the distribution of forces Fx and Fy and a new method to calculate the overload factor of an arch dam through the estimation of arch layers based on the redistribution characteristic of arch abutment forces.

  5. [Outcomes of endovascular repairing aortic arch disease hybrid with supra-arch debranching procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mian; Chang, Guangqi; Yin, Henghui; Yao, Chen; Wang, Jinsong; Wang, Shenming

    2015-11-01

    To summarize the experience of endovascular repairing aortic arch disease hybrid with supra-arch debranching procedures. It was a retrospective study. From January 2002 to December 2014, 42 high risk patients with aortic arch disease were treated by supra-arch debranching hybrid with subsequent endovascular repair in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. There were 39 male and 3 female patients with a mean age of (53±13) years (ranging from 34 to 80 years). Of the 42 patients, 7 were thoracic aortic aneurysm, 20 were Stanford type B aortic dissection and 15 were Stanford type A aortic dissection. After the supra-aortic debranching technique, simultaneous (n=16) or staged (n=26, mean interval (7±3) days) endovascular repair were performed. Fisher exact test was used to compare the in-hospital mortality of ascending aorta based debranching and non-ascending aorta based debranching. Technical success rate was 81.0% (34/42). The overall 30-day complication rate was 31.0% (13/42), including 3 cerebral stroke (7.1%), 8 endoleak (19.0%, including 6 type I endoleak and 2 type II endoleak), 1 circulatory failure, 1 aorto-tracheal fistula. The 30-day mortality was 9.5% (4/42), 2 died of cerebral stroke, 1 died of circulatory failure, 1 died of aorto-tracheal fistula. The in-hospital mortality of ascending aorta based debranching group was obviously higher than that of the non-ascending aorta based debranching group (4/16 vs. 0, P=0.02). The median time of follow-up was 64.8 (2 to 156.9) months. CT scanning was performed at 1, 3 months after surgery and annually thereafter. The overall survival rate was 76.6%. During the follow-up period, there was 4 deaths, and 2 of them were aortic artery related (5.3%). There were 4 de novo complications during the follow-up period, 1 stroke attributed to bypass occlusion was cured by medical treatment, 2 pseudoaneurysm was successfully treated with open surgery, 1 stent-graft induced new distal entry tear was

  6. Does velopharyngeal closure pattern affect the success of pharyngeal flap pharyngoplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Alexis; Fischbach, Simone; Klaiman, Paula; Fisher, David M

    2005-01-01

    Historically at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, pharyngeal flap pharyngoplasty has been the treatment of choice for treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency, regardless of velopharyngeal closure pattern. The authors hypothesize that pharyngeal flap pharyngoplasty is more effective in treating velopharyngeal insufficiency in patients with circular or sagittal velopharyngeal closure and less effective in treating the coronal closure pattern. Ninety-three patients who underwent superiorly based pharyngeal flap surgery for velopharyngeal insufficiency were evaluated in a retrospective chart review. Closure pattern was determined preoperatively by nasopharyngoscopy or multiview videofluoroscopy. Nasalance was assessed preoperatively and at 6 weeks and 1 year postoperatively. Nasalance during nonnasal speech was decreased on average, for all closure patterns, postoperatively. However, a significantly higher percentage of patients were corrected to normal nasalance scores in thenoncoronal group than in the coronal group (57 percent versus 35 percent, respectively) at 1 year postoperatively (p approach to the management of velopharyngeal insufficiency and are more inclined to treat coronal pattern velopharyngeal insufficiency with sphincter pharyngoplasty.

  7. Glossary to ARCH (GARCH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim

    The literature on modeling and forecasting time-varying volatility is ripe with acronyms and abbreviations used to describe the many different parametric models that have been put forth since the original linear ARCH model introduced in the seminal Nobel Prize winning paper by Engle (1982......).  The present paper provides an easy-to-use encyclopedic reference guide to this long list of ARCH acronyms.  In addition to the acronyms associated with specific parametric models, I have also included descriptions of various abbreviations associated with more general statistical procedures and ideas...

  8. Posterior pharyngeal candidiasis in the absence of clinically overt oral involvement: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavey, Siobhan V; Keane, Niamh; Power, Maria; O'Regan, Anthony W

    2013-12-01

    Although oropharyngeal candidiasis is associated with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) usage, there is sparse data on the prevalence of posterior pharyngeal candidiasis in those without any detectable oral candidiasis on clinical examination. We systematically investigated the relationship between oral candidiasis on clinical examination and the presence of posterior pharyngeal candidiasis at bronchoscopy. We conducted a cross-sectional study on a convenience sample of 100 patients undergoing bronchoscopy at our institution. Patients were assessed for symptoms of and risk factors for candida infection and had an examination of their oropharynx for evidence of candidiasis before bronchoscopy. They subsequently had a detailed assessment for posterior candidiasis at bronchoscopy. We performed a posteriori subgroup analysis, which focused solely on those patients on ICS maintenance therapy. Median age was 54.7 (27-84) years, and 55 patients were male; 47 % of patients were on ICS, and 20 % of this cohort received recent oral corticosteroids. Twenty-eight percent of this convenience sample had posterior pharyngeal candidiasis; however, only 10.7 % (3/28) of these patients had clinically detectable oral candidiasis on clinical examination before bronchoscopy. Factors that were independently associated with the presence of pharyngeal candidiasis at bronchoscopy were OR (95 % CI) ICS usage 6.9 (2.5-19.2), particularly fluticasone usage 6.8 (2.62-17.9) and the presence of dysphonia 3.2 (1.3-8.0). In the subgroup analysis of ICS usage, posterior pharyngeal candidiasis was correlated with the presence of dysphonia but was not independently associated with fluticasone or budesonide dosage. This study demonstrates that posterior pharyngeal candidiasis in the absence of clinically overt oral candidiasis is frequent amongst ICS users. A history of ICS use, particularly fluticasone usage, as well as the presence of dysphonia are associated with posterior pharyngeal candidiasis at

  9. Occlusal stability in shortened dental arches.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Kreulen, C.M.; Haan, A. de

    2001-01-01

    Shortened dental arches consisting of anterior and premolar teeth have been shown to meet oral functional demands. However, the occlusal stability may be at risk as a result of tooth migration. The aim of this nine-year study was to investigate occlusal stability in shortened dental arches as a

  10. Location of the levator veli palatini insertion following levator retropositioning, palatal pushback, and pharyngeal flap procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliken, J B; Giargiana, F A; Claybaugh, G J; Hoopes, J E

    1975-07-01

    A long-term cineradiographic follow-up study of twenty patients with velo-pharyngeal incompetence fails to demonstrate predictable retrodisplacement of the levator insertion following combined levator retropositioning, pushback, and pharyngeal flap procedures. Simple levator retropositioning gave posterior displacement in the two patients evaluated. Patients with normal or posterior levator insertions pre-operatively all demonstrated post-operative anterior displacement following pharyngeal flap procedures, either alone or in combination with pushback. Anterior levator displacement may be the result of scar contraction or division of the levator sling (during insetting of a pharyngeal flap). Pre-operative and post-operative speech evaluation demonstrated substantial improvement in all except 3 patients; 2 of the poor speech results were patients with demonstrated levator retrodisplacement on post-operative cineradiography.

  11. Identification and characterization of zebrafish thrombocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeeswaran, P; Sheehan, J P; Craig, F E; Troyer, D

    1999-12-01

    To analyse primary haemostasis in the zebrafish we have identified and characterized the zebrafish thrombocyte by morphologic, immunologic and functional approaches. Novel methods were developed for harvesting zebrafish blood with preservation of thrombocytes, and assaying whole blood adhesion/aggregation responses in microtitre plates. Light and electron microscopy of the thrombocyte illustrated morphological characteristics including the formation of aggregates, pseudopodia, and surface-connected vesicles analagous to the platelet canalicular system. Immunostaining with polyclonal antisera versus human platelet glycoproteins demonstrated the presence of glycoprotein Ib and IIb/IIIa-like complexes on the thrombocyte surface. Whole blood assays for adhesion/aggregation and ATP release showed ristocetin-induced adhesion without ATP release, and platelet agonist (collagen, arachidonic acid) induced aggregation with ATP release. Blood harvested from zebrafish treated with aspirin demonstrated inhibition of arachidonic acid induced aggregation and agonist induced ATP release, consistent with at least partial dependence on an intact cyclo oxygenase pathway. The combined morphologic immunologic and functional evidence suggest that the zebrafish thrombocyte is the haemostatic homologue of the mammalian platelet. Conservation of major haemostatic pathways involved in platelet function and coagulation suggests that the zebrafish is a relevant model for mammalian haemostasis and thrombosis.

  12. Evolutionary trends of the pharyngeal dentition in Cypriniformes (Actinopterygii: Ostariophysi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Pasco-Viel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fish order Cypriniformes is one of the most diverse ray-finned fish groups in the world with more than 3000 recognized species. Cypriniformes are characterized by a striking distribution of their dentition: namely the absence of oral teeth and presence of pharyngeal teeth on the last gill arch (fifth ceratobranchial. Despite this limited localisation, the diversity of tooth patterns in Cypriniformes is astonishing. Here we provide a further description of this diversity using X-ray microtomography and we map the resulting dental characters on a phylogenetic tree to explore evolutionary trends. RESULTS: We performed a pilot survey of dental formulae and individual tooth shapes in 34 adult species of Cypriniformes by X-ray microtomography (using either conventional X-ray machine, or synchrotron microtomography when necessary or by dissecting. By mapping morphological results in a phylogenetic tree, it emerges that the two super-families Cobitoidea and Cyprinoidea have followed two distinct evolutionary pathways. Furthermore, our analysis supports the hypothesis of a three-row dentition as ancestral for Cyprinoidea and a general trend in tooth row reduction in most derived lineages. Yet, this general scheme must be considered with caution as several events of tooth row gain and loss have occurred during evolutionary history of Cyprinoidea. SIGNIFICANCE: Dentition diversity in Cypriniformes constitutes an excellent model to study the evolution of complex morphological structures. This morphological survey clearly advocates for extending the use of X-ray microtomography to study tooth morphology in Cypriniformes. Yet, our survey also underlines that improved knowledge of Cypriniformes life traits, such as feeding habits, is required as current knowledge is not sufficient to conclude on the link between diet and dental morphology.

  13. Pharyngeal video fluoroscopy: Selected unusual cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conoley, P.M.; Fox, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The videotape in this exhibit presents cases illustrative of the use of pharyngeal video fluoroscopy in diagnostic evaluations and therapeutic decision-making in a variety of speech and swallowing disorders of adults and children. Clinical problems addressed include an interesting compensatory speech mechanism in a cleft-palate patient, a preoperative candidate for a Lefort procedure, uncontrolled nasality in a singer, and dysphagia in an antimony worker

  14. Comparison of Arch Width Changes Following Orthodontic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-21

    Nov 21, 2015 ... Materials and Methods: The study was conducted with pre- and post-treatment digital models from ... or posterior arch width following orthodontic treatment ..... premolar extraction cases show significant arch width increases in ...

  15. Ultrastructure (SEM of the gills of Prochilodus Scrofa Steindachner (Pisces, Teleostei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daura Regina Eiras-Stofella

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Gills arches of the freshwater fish Prochilodus scrofa Steindachner, 1881 (Lt= 8.0-12.4cm were removed to be analyzed in a scanning electron microscope. The morphology of the superficial structures of the gill filaments and pharyngeal region of the gills arches was discussed and related to their functional aspects. A great quantity of mucous secretory cells and of microridges, along with the pavement cell surface of the primary lamellae and branchial pharyngeal region, indicate the existence of a protection strategy of the respiratory lamellae. The chloride cells are abundant, specially on the distal portion of the primary lamellae, and bring out the osmo regulatory capacity of this species. This fish seems not to be a filtering one according to: its short and simple gill rakers; presence of several taste buds turned towards the mouth opening; evidence of spines on the external side of the arches and an abundant secretion of mucous in the pharyngeal region. This species probably selects the food to be swallowed through its chemical receptors and retains it with the help of spines and mucous secretion this way protecting the gills filaments against the rubbing of particles over them.

  16. Effect of aging on the configurational change of the aortic arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuhiro Kojima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We explored the relationship between aging and the configuration of the aortic arch using computed tomography angiography (CTA. We retrospectively reviewed CTA obtained in 140 cases. The configuration of the aortic arch was categorized into three types based on the criteria mentioned by Madhwal et al., and the relationships between each configuration and patient characteristics were analyzed. Anomalies of the aortic arch were also explored. Twenty patients had a type-1 aortic arch (mean age, 56.1 years, 30 patients had a type-2 aortic arch (mean age, 66.3 years, and 89 patients had a type-3 aortic arch (mean age, 71.7 years. The mean age of patients with a type-3 aortic arch was significantly higher than that of patients with a type-1 aortic arch. No significant correlations between the type of aortic arch and other factors, such as smoking habit, were seen. The configuration of the aortic arch in our study appears to be significantly affected by the age of the patients.

  17. Using pharyngeal teeth and chewing pads to estimate juvenile Silver Carp total length in the La Grange Reach, Illinois River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampo, Eli G.; Knights, Brent C.; Vallazza, Jon; Anderson, Cory A.; Rechkemmer, Will T.; Solomon, Levi E.; Casper, Andrew F.; Pendleton, Richard M.; Lamer, James T.

    2017-01-01

    The Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix is an invasive species in the Mississippi River basin; an understanding of their vulnerability to predation as juveniles may inform control by native predators and predator enhancement (e.g., stocking). Digestion of Silver Carp prey recovered from diets makes it difficult to determine the size‐classes that are most vulnerable to predation by native fishes. The objective of this study was to determine whether the sizes of the chewing pad (CP), pharyngeal teeth (PT), and pharyngeal arch (PA)—the Silver Carp structures most often found intact in predator diets—were predictive of the TL of prey Silver Carp. During 2014 and 2015, juvenile Silver Carp (n = 136; <180 mm) were collected using 60‐Hz pulsed‐DC electrofishing and mini‐fyke nets in the La Grange reach of the Illinois River. We extracted Silver Carp CPs (n = 136 fish) and PAs with PT intact (n = 129 fish) and measured CP length (CPL) and width (CPW), eight reproducible PT landmarks (PT1L–PT4L; PT1W–PT4W), and four reproducible PA landmarks (PA1–PA4) to the nearest 0.01 µm. Using simple linear regression, we found a strong predictive relationship between measurements of CP, PT, or PA and the TL of Silver Carp. The CPL (r2 = 0.94) and CPW (r2 = 0.94) had the strongest relationships with Silver Carp TL, followed by PA1 (r2 = 0.89) and PT1L (r2 = 0.87). These strong relationships suggest that all three structures could be used in diet analyses to accurately estimate Silver Carp TL and thus further our understanding of predator–prey dynamics for this high‐risk invasive species.

  18. Swimming Effects on Developing Zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, S.; Pelster, B.

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish represent an important vertebrate model species in developmental biology. This chapter reviews the effects of exercise on the development of the musculoskeletal system, the cardiovascular system, metabolic capacities of developing zebrafish, and regulation of these processes on the gene

  19. Nonstationary ARCH and GARCH with t-distributed Innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Søndergaard; Rahbek, Anders

    Consistency and asymptotic normality are established for the maximum likelihood estimators in the nonstationary ARCH and GARCH models with general t-distributed innovations. The results hold for joint estimation of (G)ARCH effects and the degrees of freedom parameter parametrizing the t-distribut......Consistency and asymptotic normality are established for the maximum likelihood estimators in the nonstationary ARCH and GARCH models with general t-distributed innovations. The results hold for joint estimation of (G)ARCH effects and the degrees of freedom parameter parametrizing the t......-distribution. With T denoting sample size, classic square-root T-convergence is shown to hold with closed form expressions for the multivariate covariances....

  20. Laser capture microdissection of gonads from juvenile zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John; Morthorst, Jane Ebsen

    2009-01-01

    was adjusted and optimised to isolate juvenile zebrafish gonads. Results: The juvenile zebrafish gonad is not morphologically distinguishable when using dehydrated cryosections on membrane slides and a specific staining method is necessary to identify the gonads. The protocol setup in this study allows......Background: Investigating gonadal gene expression is important in attempting to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the model species zebrafish. However, the small size of juvenile zebrafish and correspondingly their gonads complicates this type...... of investigation. Furthermore, the lack of a genetic sex marker in juvenile zebrafish prevents pooling gonads from several individuals. The aim of this study was to establish a method to isolate the gonads from individual juvenile zebrafish allowing future investigations of gonadal gene expression during sex...

  1. New tides: using zebrafish to study renal regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCampbell, Kristen K; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2014-02-01

    Over the past several decades, the zebrafish has become one of the major vertebrate model organisms used in biomedical research. In this arena, the zebrafish has emerged as an applicable system for the study of kidney diseases and renal regeneration. The relevance of the zebrafish model for nephrology research has been increasingly appreciated as the understanding of zebrafish kidney structure, ontogeny, and the response to damage has steadily expanded. Recent studies have documented the amazing regenerative characteristics of the zebrafish kidney, which include the ability to replace epithelial populations after acute injury and to grow new renal functional units, termed nephrons. Here we discuss how nephron composition is conserved between zebrafish and mammals, and highlight how recent findings from zebrafish studies utilizing transgenic technologies and chemical genetics can complement traditional murine approaches in the effort to dissect how the kidney responds to acute damage and identify therapeutics that enhance human renal regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Laryngeal sensation and pharyngeal delay time after (chemo)radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Takashi; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Ozawa, Kikuko; Hiramatsu, Mariko; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nishio, Naoki; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between changes in laryngeal sensation and initiation of swallowing reflex or swallowing function before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital. Thirteen patients who received (chemo)radiotherapy for treatment of laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer were included. Laryngeal sensation was evaluated at the tip of the epiglottis before and 1, 3 months, and 1 year after (chemo)radiotherapy. Videofluoroscopy was performed at the same time. Quantitative determinations included changes in laryngeal sensation, computed analysis of pharyngeal delay time, the distance and velocity of hyoid bone movement during the phase of hyoid excursion, and pharyngeal residue rate (the proportion of the bolus that was left as residue in the pharynx at the first swallow). Laryngeal sensation significantly deteriorated 1 month after (chemo)radiotherapy, but there was a tendency to return to pretreatment levels 1 year after treatment. Neither pharyngeal delay time nor displacement of the hyoid bone changed significantly before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean velocity of hyoid bone movement and the amount of stasis in the pharynx at the first swallow before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. After (chemo)radiotherapy, laryngeal sensation deteriorated. But, in this study, videofluoroscopy showed that swallowing reflex and function were maintained.

  3. Morphological and dimensional characteristics of dental arch in children with beta thalassemia major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disha Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the arch dimensions of beta thalassemia major patients in comparison with normal individuals. Materials and Methods: Dental arch dimensions were compared between thalassemic patients and normal individuals in the age group of 12–16 years in the maxillary and mandibular arch corresponding to each other regarding age, sex and Angle's molar relationship. A total number of sixty cases in each group were taken. Maxillary and mandibular impressions were made with alginate for all the sixty participants in each group and poured with die stone. Measurement of inter incisor, inter canine, inter premolar and intermolar arch width, arch depth, right anterior, right posterior, left anterior, and left posterior arch length was carried out from each cast using digital Vernier caliper.Results: Unpaired t-test was used for comparison between the two groups. Statistically, a significant difference was found between the case and control groups in the maxillary arch in intercanine width, inter premolar width, intermolar width, right anterior arch length, right posterior arch length, and left anterior arch length. However, no statistically significant difference was found between the groups in inter incisor width, left posterior arch length, and arch depth in the maxillary arch. In the mandibular arch, statistically significant difference was found between the case and control groups in inter canine width, inter premolar width, inter molar width, and left anterior arch length. However, no statistically significant difference was found between the case and control groups in the mandibular arch in interincisor width, right anterior arch length, right posterior arch length, and left posterior arch length. Conclusion: Dental arch widths and arch lengths were significantly reduced in thalassemic patients as compared to normal individuals for the maxillary and mandibular arches.

  4. Object recognition memory in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Zacnicte; Morrill, Adam; Holcombe, Adam; Johnston, Travis; Gallup, Joshua; Fouad, Karim; Schalomon, Melike; Hamilton, Trevor James

    2016-01-01

    The novel object recognition, or novel-object preference (NOP) test is employed to assess recognition memory in a variety of organisms. The subject is exposed to two identical objects, then after a delay, it is placed back in the original environment containing one of the original objects and a novel object. If the subject spends more time exploring one object, this can be interpreted as memory retention. To date, this test has not been fully explored in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish possess recognition memory for simple 2- and 3-dimensional geometrical shapes, yet it is unknown if this translates to complex 3-dimensional objects. In this study we evaluated recognition memory in zebrafish using complex objects of different sizes. Contrary to rodents, zebrafish preferentially explored familiar over novel objects. Familiarity preference disappeared after delays of 5 mins. Leopard danios, another strain of D. rerio, also preferred the familiar object after a 1 min delay. Object preference could be re-established in zebra danios by administration of nicotine tartrate salt (50mg/L) prior to stimuli presentation, suggesting a memory-enhancing effect of nicotine. Additionally, exploration biases were present only when the objects were of intermediate size (2 × 5 cm). Our results demonstrate zebra and leopard danios have recognition memory, and that low nicotine doses can improve this memory type in zebra danios. However, exploration biases, from which memory is inferred, depend on object size. These findings suggest zebrafish ecology might influence object preference, as zebrafish neophobia could reflect natural anti-predatory behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The importance of Zebrafish in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Bárbara; Santos Lopes, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an ideal model organism for the study of vertebrate development. This is due to the large clutches that each couple produces, with up to 200 embryos every 7 days, and to the fact that the embryos and larvae are small, transparent and undergo rapid external development. Using scientific literature research tools available online and the keywords Zebrafish, biomedical research, human disease, and drug screening, we reviewed original studies and reviews indexed in PubMed. In this review we summarized work conducted with this model for the advancement of our knowledge related to several human diseases. We also focused on the biomedical research being performed in Portugal with the zebrafish model. Powerful live imaging and genetic tools are currently available for zebrafish making it a valuable model in biomedical research. The combination of these properties with the optimization of automated systems for drug screening has transformed the zebrafish into "a top model" in biomedical research, drug discovery and toxicity testing. Furthermore, with the optimization of xenografts technology it will be possible to use zebrafish to aide in the choice of the best therapy for each patient. Zebrafish is an excellent model organism in biomedical research, drug development and in clinical therapy.

  6. [Extension of (extremely) shortened dental arches by fixed or removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Hoefnagel, R.A.; Snoek, P.A.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Whether a shortened dental arch needs to be extended depends on the degree of the shortening. Four categories of shortened dental arches can be distinguished: 1. slightly shortened dental arches; 2. moderately shortened dental arches; 3. extremely shortened dental arches; and 4. asymmetrical

  7. Pharyngeal mis-sequencing in dysphagia: characteristics, rehabilitative response, and etiological speculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckabee, Maggie-Lee; Lamvik, Kristin; Jones, Richard

    2014-08-15

    Clinical data are submitted as documentation of a pathophysiologic feature of dysphagia termed pharyngeal mis-sequencing and to encourage clinicians and researchers to adopt more critical approaches to diagnosis and treatment planning. Recent clinical experience has identified a cohort of patients who present with an atypical dysphagia not specifically described in the literature: mis-sequenced constriction of the pharynx when swallowing. As a result, they are unable to coordinate streamlined bolus transfer from the pharynx into the esophagus. This mis-sequencing contributes to nasal redirection, aspiration, and, for some, the inability to safely tolerate an oral diet. Sixteen patients (8 females, 8 males), with a mean age of 44 years (range=25-78), had an average time post-onset of 23 months (range=2-72) at initiation of intensive rehabilitation. A 3-channel manometric catheter was used to measure pharyngeal pressure. The average peak-to-peak latency between nadir pressures at sensor-1 and sensor-2 was 15 ms (95% CI, -2 to 33 ms), compared to normative mean latency of 239 ms (95% CI, 215 to 263 ms). Rehabilitative responses are summarized, along with a single detailed case report. It is unclear from these data if pharyngeal mis-sequencing is (i) a pathological feature of impaired motor planning from brainstem damage or (ii) a maladaptive compensation developed in response to chronic dysphagia. Future investigation is needed to provide a full report of pharyngeal mis-sequencing, and the implications on our understanding of underlying neural control of swallowing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluconazole resistant opportunistic oro-pharyngeal candida and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Oro-Pharyngeal Candidiasis (OPC) continues to be considered the most common opportunistic fungal disease in HIV/AIDS patients globally. Azole antifungal agent has become important in the treatment of mucosal candidiasis in HIV patients. Presently, antifungal drug resistance is fast becoming a major ...

  9. Arch index and running biomechanics in children aged 10-14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Karsten; Stebbins, Julie; Albertsen, Inke Marie; Hamacher, Daniel; Babin, Kornelia; Hacke, Claudia; Zech, Astrid

    2018-03-01

    While altered foot arch characteristics (high or low) are frequently assumed to influence lower limb biomechanics and are suspected to be a contributing factor for injuries, the association between arch characteristics and lower limb running biomechanics in children is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between a dynamically measured arch index and running biomechanics in healthy children. One hundred and one children aged 10-14 years were included in this study and underwent a biomechanical investigation. Plantar distribution (Novel, Emed) was used to determine the dynamic arch index and 3D motion capture (Vicon) to measure running biomechanics. Linear mixed models were established to determine the association between dynamic arch index and foot strike patterns, running kinematics, kinetics and temporal-spatial outcomes. No association was found between dynamic arch index and rate of rearfoot strikes (p = 0.072). Of all secondary outcomes, only the foot progression angle was associated with the dynamic arch index (p = 0.032) with greater external rotation in lower arched children. Overall, we found only few associations between arch characteristics and running biomechanics in children. However, altered foot arch characteristics are of clinical interest. Future studies should focus on detailed foot biomechanics and include clinically diagnosed high and low arched children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Zebrafish neurobehavioral phenomics for aquatic neuropharmacology and toxicology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalueff, Allan V; Echevarria, David J; Homechaudhuri, Sumit; Stewart, Adam Michael; Collier, Adam D; Kaluyeva, Aleksandra A; Li, Shaomin; Liu, Yingcong; Chen, Peirong; Wang, JiaJia; Yang, Lei; Mitra, Anisa; Pal, Subharthi; Chaudhuri, Adwitiya; Roy, Anwesha; Biswas, Missidona; Roy, Dola; Podder, Anupam; Poudel, Manoj K; Katare, Deepshikha P; Mani, Ruchi J; Kyzar, Evan J; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Nguyen, Michael; Song, Cai

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly emerging as an important model organism for aquatic neuropharmacology and toxicology research. The behavioral/phenotypic complexity of zebrafish allows for thorough dissection of complex human brain disorders and drug-evoked pathological states. As numerous zebrafish models become available with a wide spectrum of behavioral, genetic, and environmental methods to test novel drugs, here we discuss recent zebrafish phenomics methods to facilitate drug discovery, particularly in the field of biological psychiatry. Additionally, behavioral, neurological, and endocrine endpoints are becoming increasingly well-characterized in zebrafish, making them an inexpensive, robust and effective model for toxicology research and pharmacological screening. We also discuss zebrafish behavioral phenotypes, experimental considerations, pharmacological candidates and relevance of zebrafish neurophenomics to other 'omics' (e.g., genomic, proteomic) approaches. Finally, we critically evaluate the limitations of utilizing this model organism, and outline future strategies of research in the field of zebrafish phenomics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dysphagia associated with presumed pharyngeal dysfunction in 16 neonatal foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, S J; Hurcombe, S D; Barr, B S; Schott, H C

    2012-02-01

    Dysphagia due to pharyngeal dysfunction occurs in human neonates and is associated with prematurity and hypoxic episodes. This syndrome probably occurs in neonatal foals but has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to describe 1) a series of neonatal foals with dysphagia due to pharyngeal dysfunction; 2) the progression, treatment and resolution of the dysphagia; 3) the comorbidities; and 4) the prognosis for life and athleticism for affected foals. Records from 3 referral equine hospitals were reviewed from neonatal foals with dysphagia of pharyngeal origin. Inclusion criteria were a normal to strong suckle, dysphagia evidenced by milk at the nostrils after nursing the dam, and endoscopic examination of the airway. Foals with mechanical reasons for dysphagia, botulism or hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis were not included. Sixteen neonatal foals qualified for the study. Eight (50%) were premature and/or diagnosed with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. Twelve (75%) had aspiration pneumonia. Fifteen foals were discharged alive from the hospital, nursing the mare with no evidence of dysphagia (n = 14), or mild dysphagia (n = 1), a mean +/- s.d. of 7 +/- 6 days (median = 6.3 days, range 0-22 days) after hospital admission. One foal was subjectedto euthanasia in hospital. Follow-up nformation was available for 14 animals. Thirteen of 16 (81%) were alive and included one yearling and 12 horses >2 years old. Seven of the 14 (50%) were racing, training or in work, and 6 horses were pets, breeding animals or had unknown athletic status. Two had laryngeal deficits. One foal was subjected to euthanasia within weeks of discharge from the hospital due to aspiration pneumonia. Dysphagia related to pharyngeal dysfunction occurs in equine neonates and can resolve, but may require days to weeks of supportive care. Prognosis for life is favourable and for athleticism fair.

  12. Prognostic factors associated with the survival of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ping-Ho; Tu, Hung-Pin; Ko, Ying-Chin; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Ho, Pei-Shan; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Ying-Chu; Ko, Min-Shan; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Chiang, Shang-Lun

    2007-01-01

    In Taiwan, a distinct ethnic group variation in incidence and mortality rates has been suggested for most carcinomas. Our aim is to identify the role of prognostic factors associated with the survival of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma in Taiwan. Taiwan Cancer Registry records of 9039 subjects diagnosed with oral and pharyngeal carcinoma were analyzed. The population was divided into three ethnic groups by residence, which were Taiwanese aborigines, Hakka and Hokkien communities. Five-year survival rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods. Ethnic curves differed significantly by log-rank test; therefore separate models for Taiwanese aborigines, Hakka and Hokkien were carried out. The Cox multivariate proportional hazards model was used to examine the role of prognostic factors on ethnic survival. The five-year survival rates of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma were significantly poorer for Hokkien community (53.9%) and Taiwanese aborigines community (58.1%) compared with Hakka community (60.5%). The adjusted hazard ratio of Taiwanese aborigines versus Hakka was 1.07 (95%CI, 0.86–1.33) for oral and pharyngeal carcinoma mortality, and 1.16 (95%CI, 1.01–1.33) for Hokkien versus Hakka. Males had significantly poor prognosis than females. Subjects with tongue and/or mouth carcinoma presented the worst prognosis, whereas lip carcinoma had the best prognosis. Subjects with verrucous carcinoma had better survival than squamous cell carcinoma. Prognosis was the worst in elderly subjects, and subjects who underwent surgery had the highest survival rate. Our study presented that predictive variables in oral and pharyngeal carcinoma survival have been: ethnic groups, period of diagnosis, gender, diagnostic age, anatomic site, morphologic type, and therapy

  13. Arch translocation and the intra-arch elephant-trunk technique with collared graft for extended chronic dissecting aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikenaga Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Management of extensive, chronic, dissecting aortic aneurysms after prior repair of the ascending aorta presents a technical challenge for surgeons. A symptomatic 64-year-old patient was admitted for elective surgical repair of an aortic annular dilatation, causing severe aortic regurgitation, and a Crawford type II extended thoracoabdominal aneurysm, 4 years after he underwent primary repair of an acute aortic dissection. The aorta was diffusely dilated, and there were no sites beyond the distal aortic arch where anastomosis could be performed. We successfully performed total aortic replacement with a 2-stage strategy, using an arch translocation technique and an intra-arch elephant-trunk technique.

  14. Episodic-like memory in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trevor J; Myggland, Allison; Duperreault, Erika; May, Zacnicte; Gallup, Joshua; Powell, Russell A; Schalomon, Melike; Digweed, Shannon M

    2016-11-01

    Episodic-like memory tests often aid in determining an animal's ability to recall the what, where, and which (context) of an event. To date, this type of memory has been demonstrated in humans, wild chacma baboons, corvids (Scrub jays), humming birds, mice, rats, Yucatan minipigs, and cuttlefish. The potential for this type of memory in zebrafish remains unexplored even though they are quickly becoming an essential model organism for the study of a variety of human cognitive and mental disorders. Here we explore the episodic-like capabilities of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a previously established mammalian memory paradigm. We demonstrate that when zebrafish were presented with a familiar object in a familiar context but a novel location within that context, they spend more time in the novel quadrant. Thus, zebrafish display episodic-like memory as they remember what object they saw, where they saw it (quadrant location), and on which occasion (yellow or blue walls) it was presented.

  15. Zebrafish swimming in the flow: a particle image velocimetry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violet Mwaffo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Zebrafish is emerging as a species of choice for the study of a number of biomechanics problems, including balance development, schooling, and neuromuscular transmission. The precise quantification of the flow physics around swimming zebrafish is critical toward a mechanistic understanding of the complex swimming style of this fresh-water species. Although previous studies have elucidated the vortical structures in the wake of zebrafish swimming in placid water, the flow physics of zebrafish swimming against a water current remains unexplored. In an effort to illuminate zebrafish swimming in a dynamic environment reminiscent of its natural habitat, we experimentally investigated the locomotion and hydrodynamics of a single zebrafish swimming in a miniature water tunnel using particle image velocimetry. Our results on zebrafish locomotion detail the role of flow speed on tail beat undulations, heading direction, and swimming speed. Our findings on zebrafish hydrodynamics offer a precise quantification of vortex shedding during zebrafish swimming and demonstrate that locomotory patterns play a central role on the flow physics. This knowledge may help clarify the evolutionary advantage of burst and cruise swimming movements in zebrafish.

  16. Is there a prospect for hybrid aortic arch surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mohamad; Harky, Amer; Bilal, Haris

    2018-05-16

    The surge of endovascular repair of aortic aneurysm in current modern aortic surgery practice has been the key for surgical management of elective cases of thoracic aortic aneurysms. This has paved way for the combined hybrid approach to be amongst the armamentarium for the management of aortic arch disease. The pivotal understanding of the aortic arch natural history coupled with device technology advancement allowed surgeons insight into delivery of hybrid surgery with acceptable morbidity and mortality results. This review article provides current insights into hybrid technique of aortic arch aneurysm repair and the evidences behind its applicability to arch surgery. It is aimed to highlight the challenges encountered for this innovative approach and correlate its challenges to those that are met by the conventional open aortic arch repair.

  17. Effect of Obesity on Arch Index in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Sameer Ganu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive increases in weight bearing forces caused by obesity may negatively affect the lower limbs and feet but minimal research has examined the long-term loading effects of obesity on the musculoskeletal system, particularly in reference to the feet. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of obesity on medial longitudinal arch of foot in young adults. Method: 60 subjects, 30 obese & 30 non obese were assessed for height & weight using standard technique. Radiographic images under static condition were used for calculating the arch index. Result: The arch index of obese subjects was significantly lower than the non obese subjects & there is a negative correlation between the BMI & the arch index. Conclusion: These results suggests that obesity lowers the medial longitudinal arch of foot.

  18. Tbx1 is required autonomously for cell survival and fate in the pharyngeal core mesoderm to form the muscles of mastication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ping; Racedo, Silvia E.; Macchiarulo, Stephania; Hu, Zunju; Carpenter, Courtney; Guo, Tingwei; Wang, Tao; Zheng, Deyou; Morrow, Bernice E.

    2014-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial/DiGeorge syndrome, also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, is a congenital anomaly disorder characterized by craniofacial anomalies including velo-pharyngeal insufficiency, facial muscle hypotonia and feeding difficulties, in part due to hypoplasia of the branchiomeric muscles. Inactivation of both alleles of mouse Tbx1, encoding a T-box transcription factor, deleted on chromosome 22q11.2, results in reduction or loss of branchiomeric muscles. To identify downstream pathways, we performed gene profiling of microdissected pharyngeal arch one (PA1) from Tbx1+/+ and Tbx1−/− embryos at stages E9.5 (somites 20–25) and E10.5 (somites 30–35). Basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factors were reduced, while secondary heart field genes were increased in expression early and were replaced by an increase in expression of cellular stress response genes later, suggesting a change in gene expression patterns or cell populations. Lineage tracing studies using Mesp1Cre and T-Cre drivers showed that core mesoderm cells within PA1 were present at E9.5 but were greatly reduced by E10.5 in Tbx1−/− embryos. Using Tbx1Cre knock-in mice, we found that cells are lost due to apoptosis, consistent with increase in expression of cellular stress response genes at E10.5. To determine whether Tbx1 is required autonomously in the core mesoderm, we used Mesp1Cre and T-Cre mesodermal drivers in combination with inactivate Tbx1 and found reduction or loss of branchiomeric muscles from PA1. These mechanistic studies inform us that Tbx1 is required upstream of key myogenic genes needed for core mesoderm cell survival and fate, between E9.5 and E10.5, resulting in formation of the branchiomeric muscles. PMID:24705356

  19. Evaluation of Maxillary Interpremolar, Molar Width by DRNA Indices and Arch Dimension, Arch Form in Maratha Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Dungarwal

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Significant correlation was found between the sum of maxillary incisors and interpremolar width but not with the intermolar width while sum of mandibular incisors showed significant correlation with the interpremolar and intermolar arch width. There is no single arch form unique to any of the ethnic groups. A new formula is proposed to determine the premolar and molar index.

  20. Computational Analysis of Pharyngeal Swallowing Mechanics in Patients with Motor Neuron Disease: A Pilot Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garand, K L; Schwertner, Ryan; Chen, Amy; Pearson, William G

    2018-04-01

    Swallowing impairment (dysphagia) is a common sequela in patients with motor neuron disease (MND). The purpose of this retrospective, observational pilot investigation was to characterize how pharyngeal swallowing mechanics are impacted in patients with MND using a comparison with healthy, non-dysphagic control group. Computational analysis of swallowing mechanics (CASM) was used to determine covariate biomechanics of pharyngeal swallowing from videofluoroscopic assessment in 15 patients with MND and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Canonical variant analysis with post hoc discriminate function analysis (DFA) was performed on coordinate data mapping functional muscle groups underlying pharyngeal swallowing. Differences in swallowing mechanics associated with group (MND; control), motor neuron predominance (upper; lower), onset (bulbar; spinal), and swallow task (thin, pudding) were evaluated and visualized. Pharyngeal swallowing mechanics differed significantly in patients with MND compared with healthy controls (D = 2.01, p mechanics by motor neuron predominance (D = 5.03, p mechanics of patients with MND differ from and are more heterogeneous than healthy controls. These findings suggest patients with MND may compensate reductions in pharyngeal shortening and tongue base retraction by extending the head and neck and increasing hyolaryngeal excursion. This work and further CASM investigations will lead to further insights into development and evaluation of targeted clinical treatments designed to prolong safe and efficient swallowing function in patients with MND.

  1. Track-Bridge Longitudinal Interaction of Continuous Welded Rails on Arch Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking arch bridges, including deck, half-through, and through arch bridges (short for DAB, HTAB, and TAB as examples, mechanics analysis models of longitudinal interaction between continuously welded rails (short for CWRs and arch bridges are established. Based on the finite element method (FEM, the longitudinal interaction calculation software of CWR on arch bridges has been developed. Focusing on an HTAB, the tension, compression, and deflection conditions are calculated and analyzed. The results show that the mechanics analysis models of three types of arch bridges can truly reflect the real state of the structure; the calculation software can be used for systematic research of the CWR on arch bridge; as for HTAB, temperature difference of arch rib has a small effect on rail tension/compression, and arch bridge can be simplified as a continuous beam for rail tension/compression additional force calculation; in calculation of deflection conditions of HTAB, it is suggested that train loads are arranged on half span and full span and take the direction of load entering bridge into account. Additionally, the deflection additional force variation of CFST basket handle arch bridge is different from that of ordinary bridge.

  2. Bovine aortic arch: A novel association with thoracic aortic dilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, C.D.; Urbania, T.H.; Crook, S.E.S.; Hope, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether there is a link between bovine arch and thoracic aortic aneurysm. Materials and methods: Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of the thorax of 191 patients with dilated thoracic aortas and 391 consecutive, unselected patients as controls were retrospectively reviewed. Bovine arch was considered present if either a shared origin of the left common carotid and innominate arteries or an origin of the left common carotid from the innominate artery was identified. A chi-square test was used to evaluate the significance of differences between subgroups. Results: A trend towards increased prevalence of bovine arch was seen in patients with dilated aortas (26.2%) compared to controls (20.5%, p = 0.12). The association was statistically significant in patients over 70 years old (31.9%, p = 0.019) and when dilation involved the aortic arch (47.6%, p = 0.003). Conclusions: An association between bovine arch and aortic dilation is seen in older patients, and when dilation involves the aortic arch. Bovine arch should be considered a potential risk factor for thoracic aortic aneurysm.

  3. The Effect of Rapid Antigen Detection Test on Antibiotic Prescription Decision of Clinicians and Reducing Antibiotic Costs in Children with Acute Pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Engin; Sirin Kose, Seda; Akca, Deniz; Yildiz, Kerem; Elmas, Cengizhan; Baris, Mustafa; Anil, Murat

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of rapid antigen detection test (RADT) in the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis, its impact on antibiotic prescription decision of pediatricians and influence on reduction of antibiotic treatment costs in children with pharyngitis. The study group consisted of 223 patients who were diagnosed with pharyngitis by pediatricians. The sensitivity and specificity of RADT were 92.1% (95% Cl: 78.6-98.3%) and 97.3% (95% Cl: 93.8-99.1%), respectively. In the first assessment, before performing RADT, pediatricians decided to prescribe antibiotics for 178 (79.8%) patients with pharyngitis. After learning RADT results, pediatricians finally decided to prescribe antibiotics for 83 (37.2%) patients with pharyngitis, and antibiotic prescription decreased by 42.6%. Antibiotic costs in non-Group A streptococcus pharyngitis, Group A streptococcus pharyngitis and all subjects groups decreased by 80.8%, 48%, and 76.4%, respectively. Performing RADT in children with pharyngitis has an important impact on treatment decision of clinicians, reduction of unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions and antibiotic costs. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Coexistence of bilateral first and second branchial arch anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, J S; Shekar, Vidya; Saluja, Manika; Mohindroo, N K

    2013-01-01

    Branchial arch anomalies are one of the most common congenital anomalies that are usually unilateral and bilateral presentation is rare. The simultaneous presence of bilateral second branchial arch anomalies along with bilateral first arch anomalies is extremely rare, with only three such cases reported in the literature. We present two non-syndromic cases of coexisting bilateral first and second arch anomalies. Developmental anomalies of the branchial apparatus account for 17% of all paediatric cervical masses and are the most common type of congenital cervical mass. They usually present in the paediatric age group. About 96–97% of these anomalies are unilateral. Bilateral presentation is seen in 2–3% having a strong familial association. Congenital syndromes also have been associated with first and second branchial arch anomalies. Thorough clinical examination and investigations should be done to rule out these syndromes. PMID:23580675

  5. The Zebrafish Model Organism Database (ZFIN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — ZFIN serves as the zebrafish model organism database. It aims to: a) be the community database resource for the laboratory use of zebrafish, b) develop and support...

  6. Arch-Axis Coefficient Optimization of Long-Span Deck-Type Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Arch Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q. J.; Wan, S.; Liu, H. C.

    2017-11-01

    This paper is based on Nanpuxi super major bridge which is under construction and starts from Wencheng Zhejiang province to Taishun highway. A finite element model of the whole bridge is constructed using Midas Civil finite element software. The most adverse load combination in the specification is taken into consideration to determine the method of calculating the arch-axis coefficient of long-span deck-type concrete-filled steel tubular arch bridge. By doing this, this paper aims at providing references for similar engineering projects.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of group A streptococcus from pharyngeal isolates in Auckland, New Zealand, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Deborah A; Moreland, Nicole J; Carter, Philip; Upton, Arlo; Morgan, Julie; Proft, Thomas; Lennon, Diana; Baker, Michael G; Dunbar, Rod; Fraser, John D

    2014-01-24

    To describe the molecular epidemiology of emm types associated with circulating pharyngeal group A streptococcus (GAS) isolates in Auckland, New Zealand. GAS isolates were collected over a 10-day period from a community pathology provider in Auckland. PCR analysis and sequencing of the emm gene was performed at the Institute of Environmental Science and Research. A total of 52 emm types were identified from 278 GAS isolates. The three most common emm types were emm1, emm89 and emm12. Overall, the experimental 30-valent GAS M protein vaccine covered 19 / 52 (37%) of emm types in our study. Our study provides baseline data on the circulating pharyngeal GAS emm types in Auckland. Future clinical and molecular surveillance of GAS pharyngitis is essential in the context of ongoing GAS vaccine development.

  8. Lymphogranuloma venereum in an Italian MSM: concurrent pharyngeal and rectal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschi, Claudio; Filippini, Andrea; D'Antuono, Antonietta; Compri, Monica; Macca, Francesca; Banzola, Nicoletta; Marangoni, Antonella

    2014-07-01

    An Italian HIV-positive man having sex with men (MSM) attended the STIs Outpatients Clinic of Sant'Orsola Hospital in Bologna complaining of anal pain and constipation. According to patient's sexual history and repertoires, NAAT testing for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) was performed. Pharyngeal and anal swabs resulted positive for CT DNA detection and the following molecular genotyping identified a L2 serovar, coming to the final diagnosis of pharyngeal and rectal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) infection. After an antibiotic therapy with doxycycline 100 mg twice a day for 3 weeks, the patient completely recovered and the test of cure was negative for LGV infection.

  9. Double aortic arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery can be done to fix double aortic arch. The surgeon ties off the smaller branch and separates it from the larger branch. Then the surgeon closes the ends of the aorta with stitches. This relieves pressure on the esophagus and windpipe.

  10. Three-dimensional evaluation of pharyngeal airway in individuals with varying growth patterns using cone beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Diwakar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharyngeal airway volume in individuals with different vertical growth patterns. Methods: Cone beam computed tomography scans were evaluated of 40 subjects with the age range from 14 to 25 years and were divided into three groups. Horizontal growers consisted of 13 subjects, normal growers consisted of 14 subjects, and the vertical growers consisted of 13 subjects. The pharyngeal airway volume was measured using In Vivo Dental 5.1 software (Anatomage, Anatomy Imaging Software, San Jose, CA, USA. Results: The results obtained were analyzed statistically. The statistical test used for the analysis of the result was Student′s t-test. The independent t-test was done to compare the mean of the pharyngeal airway between the normal growers and horizontal growers and between the normal growers and the vertical growers. No statistically significant difference between the three groups was found in the volumetric measurements of the various sections of airway. Conclusions: Pharyngeal airway volume does not differ significantly in different vertical jaw relationships. It was possible to evaluate the pharyngeal airway volume three dimensionally.

  11. Genomic Organization of Zebrafish microRNAs

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    Paydar Ima

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background microRNAs (miRNAs are small (~22 nt non-coding RNAs that regulate cell movement, specification, and development. Expression of miRNAs is highly regulated, both spatially and temporally. Based on direct cloning, sequence conservation, and predicted secondary structures, a large number of miRNAs have been identified in higher eukaryotic genomes but whether these RNAs are simply a subset of a much larger number of noncoding RNA families is unknown. This is especially true in zebrafish where genome sequencing and annotation is not yet complete. Results We analyzed the zebrafish genome to identify the number and location of proven and predicted miRNAs resulting in the identification of 35 new miRNAs. We then grouped all 415 zebrafish miRNAs into families based on seed sequence identity as a means to identify possible functional redundancy. Based on genomic location and expression analysis, we also identified those miRNAs that are likely to be encoded as part of polycistronic transcripts. Lastly, as a resource, we compiled existing zebrafish miRNA expression data and, where possible, listed all experimentally proven mRNA targets. Conclusion Current analysis indicates the zebrafish genome encodes 415 miRNAs which can be grouped into 44 families. The largest of these families (the miR-430 family contains 72 members largely clustered in two main locations along chromosome 4. Thus far, most zebrafish miRNAs exhibit tissue specific patterns of expression.

  12. Monitoring system of arch bridge for safety network management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Bong Chul; Yoo, Young Jun; Lee, Chin Hyung; Park, Ki Tae; Hwang, Yoon Koog

    2010-03-01

    Korea has constructed the safety management network monitoring test systems for the civil infrastructure since 2006 which includes airport structure, irrigation structure, railroad structure, road structure, and underground structure. Bridges among the road structure include the various superstructure types which are Steel box girder bridge, suspension bridge, PSC-box-girder bridge, and arch bridge. This paper shows the process of constructing the real-time monitoring system for the arch bridge and the measured result by the system. The arch type among various superstructure types has not only the structural efficiency but the visual beauty, because the arch type superstructure makes full use of the feature of curve. The main measuring points of arch bridges composited by curved members make a difference to compare with the system of girder bridges composited by straight members. This paper also shows the method to construct the monitoring system that considers the characteristic of the arch bridge. The system now includes strain gauges and thermometers, and it will include various sensor types such as CCTV, accelerometers and so on additionally. For the long term and accuracy monitoring, the latest optical sensors and equipments are applied to the system.

  13. Developmental feature of the lumbosacral vertebral arch in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshifuji, Kazuhisa; Morota, Nobuhito; Ihara, Satoshi

    2007-01-01

    We investigated a developmental feature of the lumbosacral vertebral arch in childhood that has rarely been reported previously. Sixty-seven patients underwent functional posterior rhizotomy from September 2000 to June 2006 at National Center for Child Health and Development. Sixty of these patients, who had no deformity in their lumbosacral spine, were included in this study and their Computed Tomography (CT) images were analyzed retrospectively. There were 36 boys and 24 girls, aged from 2-12 years. The rate and mean number of non-union vertebral arches between L1 and S3 were 78.3% (95% CI, 65.8-87.9%) and 1.7 (standard deviation (SD), 1.3). The non-union arch was most frequently found at the S1 level, and was more significantly observed in the younger age group (2-5 years of age). The S4 and S5 arches, which often remained open as the sacral hiatus, were constantly open in childhood. This study demonstrates that the vertebral arches of the lumbosacral spine in normal development are often not fused during childhood. It is important to differentiate normal non-union arches from pathological spina bifida. (author)

  14. Macrophage–Microbe Interactions: Lessons from the Zebrafish Model

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    Nagisa Yoshida

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages provide front line defense against infections. The study of macrophage–microbe interplay is thus crucial for understanding pathogenesis and infection control. Zebrafish (Danio rerio larvae provide a unique platform to study macrophage–microbe interactions in vivo, from the level of the single cell to the whole organism. Studies using zebrafish allow non-invasive, real-time visualization of macrophage recruitment and phagocytosis. Furthermore, the chemical and genetic tractability of zebrafish has been central to decipher the complex role of macrophages during infection. Here, we discuss the latest developments using zebrafish models of bacterial and fungal infection. We also review novel aspects of macrophage biology revealed by zebrafish, which can potentiate development of new therapeutic strategies for humans.

  15. A description on pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis (Valenciennes 1847) in Malaysian waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Diana Atiqah Zainal; Hashim, Marina; Das, Simon K.; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2015-09-01

    Information on the feeding mechanism and diet of halfbeak fish species in harsh estuarine environment ecosystem is still lacking. The present study investigates the fine structure of pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis. A total of 84 halfbeak fish samples have been collected from the coastal water of Peninsular Malaysia using fishing rod. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the micrographs of fine microstructure of the pharyngeal teeth. The fundamental anatomy of pharyngeal jaw apparatus displayed that the upper pharyngeal jaw (third pharyngobranchials) displays larger size of hook-like or tricuspid teeth which was analogous to tricuspid morphology. The lower pharyngeal jaw (fifth ceratobranchial) bears mainly conical teeth and appears triangular shape with two, short projections. The estimated TROPH values (1 - 3.2±0.55) denoted that halfbeak fish were omnivores in nature. The findings of this study was found to be useful as a baseline information for a better representation of the trophic flows associated with large medium and small surface water fishes.

  16. A description on pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis (Valenciennes 1847) in Malaysian waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abidin, Diana Atiqah Zainal; Hashim, Marina; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2015-01-01

    Information on the feeding mechanism and diet of halfbeak fish species in harsh estuarine environment ecosystem is still lacking. The present study investigates the fine structure of pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis. A total of 84 halfbeak fish samples have been collected from the coastal water of Peninsular Malaysia using fishing rod. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the micrographs of fine microstructure of the pharyngeal teeth. The fundamental anatomy of pharyngeal jaw apparatus displayed that the upper pharyngeal jaw (third pharyngobranchials) displays larger size of hook-like or tricuspid teeth which was analogous to tricuspid morphology. The lower pharyngeal jaw (fifth ceratobranchial) bears mainly conical teeth and appears triangular shape with two, short projections. The estimated TROPH values (1 − 3.2±0.55) denoted that halfbeak fish were omnivores in nature. The findings of this study was found to be useful as a baseline information for a better representation of the trophic flows associated with large medium and small surface water fishes

  17. A description on pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis (Valenciennes 1847) in Malaysian waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abidin, Diana Atiqah Zainal, E-mail: diana.atiqah@gmail.com; Hashim, Marina; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd., E-mail: magfish05@yahoo.com [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Das, Simon K. [Marine Ecosystem Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Information on the feeding mechanism and diet of halfbeak fish species in harsh estuarine environment ecosystem is still lacking. The present study investigates the fine structure of pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis. A total of 84 halfbeak fish samples have been collected from the coastal water of Peninsular Malaysia using fishing rod. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the micrographs of fine microstructure of the pharyngeal teeth. The fundamental anatomy of pharyngeal jaw apparatus displayed that the upper pharyngeal jaw (third pharyngobranchials) displays larger size of hook-like or tricuspid teeth which was analogous to tricuspid morphology. The lower pharyngeal jaw (fifth ceratobranchial) bears mainly conical teeth and appears triangular shape with two, short projections. The estimated TROPH values (1 − 3.2±0.55) denoted that halfbeak fish were omnivores in nature. The findings of this study was found to be useful as a baseline information for a better representation of the trophic flows associated with large medium and small surface water fishes.

  18. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis and carriage rate among Egyptian children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Ghany, Shereen Mohamed; Abdelmaksoud, Abeer Ahmed; Saber, Sally Mohamed; Abd El Hamid, Dalia Hosni

    2015-01-01

    Improper prescription of antibiotics for treatment of acute pharyngitis predisposes to emergence of a carrier state and antibiotic-resistant strains of group A streptococci (GAS). We sought to identify the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of group A streptococci among Egyptian children with acute pharyngitis compared with asymptomatic children. Case-control study conducted from September 2013 to August 2014 at a pediatric outpatient clinic in Egypt. Throat swabs were collected from children with acute pharyngitis and from asymptomatic children. We evaluated the accuracy of McIsaac scores and the rapid antigen detection test (RADT) for diagnosis of GAS pharyngitis with throat culture as a reference test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of GAS isolates was done by the disc diffusion method. Of 142 children with acute pharyngitis (cases) and 300 asymptomatic children (controls) (age range, 4-16 years), GAS pharyngitis was diagnosed in 60/142 children (42.2%); 48/300 (16%) were found to be carriers. All GAS isolates in the case group were sensitive to penicillin; however, an MIC90 (0.12 micro g/mL) for penicillin is high and an alarming sign. The resistance rate to macrolides was 70% with the cMLSB phenotype in 65.1%. The sensitivities and specificities were 78.3% and 73.2% for McIsaac score of >=4 and 81.1% and 93.9% for RADT, respectively. GAS isolates in the control group were 100% sensitive to penicillin, while 12.5% and 37.5% were resistant to macrolides and tetracycline, respectively. An increased MIC90 for GAS isolates to penicillin is an alarming sign. A high frequency of resistance to macrolides was also observed.

  19. FishNet: an online database of zebrafish anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Abigail J

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last two decades, zebrafish have been established as a genetically versatile model system for investigating many different aspects of vertebrate developmental biology. With the credentials of zebrafish as a developmental model now well recognized, the emerging new opportunity is the wider application of zebrafish biology to aspects of human disease modelling. This rapidly increasing use of zebrafish as a model for human disease has necessarily generated interest in the anatomy of later developmental phases such as the larval, juvenile, and adult stages, during which many of the key aspects of organ morphogenesis and maturation take place. Anatomical resources and references that encompass these stages are non-existent in zebrafish and there is therefore an urgent need to understand how different organ systems and anatomical structures develop throughout the life of the fish. Results To overcome this deficit we have utilized the technique of optical projection tomography to produce three-dimensional (3D models of larval fish. In order to view and display these models we have created FishNet http://www.fishnet.org.au, an interactive reference of zebrafish anatomy spanning the range of zebrafish development from 24 h until adulthood. Conclusion FishNet contains more than 36 000 images of larval zebrafish, with more than 1 500 of these being annotated. The 3D models can be manipulated on screen or virtually sectioned. This resource represents the first complete embryo to adult atlas for any species in 3D.

  20. Zebrafish: an animal model for research in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowik, N; Podlasz, P; Jakimiuk, A; Kasica, N; Sienkiewicz, W; Kaleczyc, J

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become known as an excellent model organism for studies of vertebrate biology, vertebrate genetics, embryonal development, diseases and drug screening. Nevertheless, there is still lack of detailed reports about usage of the zebrafish as a model in veterinary medicine. Comparing to other vertebrates, they can lay hundreds of eggs at weekly intervals, externally fertilized zebrafish embryos are accessible to observation and manipulation at all stages of their development, which makes possible to simplify the research techniques such as fate mapping, fluorescent tracer time-lapse lineage analysis and single cell transplantation. Although zebrafish are only 2.5 cm long, they are easy to maintain. Intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injections, blood sampling and measurement of food intake are possible to be carry out in adult zebrafish. Danio rerio is a useful animal model for neurobiology, developmental biology, drug research, virology, microbiology and genetics. A lot of diseases, for which the zebrafish is a perfect model organism, affect aquatic animals. For a part of them, like those caused by Mycobacterium marinum or Pseudoloma neutrophila, Danio rerio is a natural host, but the zebrafish is also susceptible to the most of fish diseases including Itch, Spring viraemia of carp and Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis. The zebrafish is commonly used in research of bacterial virulence. The zebrafish embryo allows for rapid, non-invasive and real time analysis of bacterial infections in a vertebrate host. Plenty of common pathogens can be examined using zebrafish model: Streptococcus iniae, Vibrio anguillarum or Listeria monocytogenes. The steps are taken to use the zebrafish also in fungal research, especially that dealing with Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Although, the zebrafish is used commonly as an animal model to study diseases caused by external agents, it is also useful in studies of metabolic

  1. Tuberculose faringolaríngea Laryngo-pharyngeal Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Conrado Barbosa de Sá

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A apresentação faringolaríngea da tuberculose como forma isolada da doença é rara, entretanto, nos últimos anos, com o aumento progressivo do número de casos de tuberculose em geral, a possibilidade dessas localizações aumentou. OBJETIVO: Descrever caso de tuberculose faringolaríngea primária em paciente grávida e imunocompetente. RELATORIO DE CASO: Paciente do sexo feminino, 30 anos, com história de odinofagia há 10 meses, sem qualquer sintoma sistêmico ou outras queixas referentes às vias aéreas superiores. Apresentava lesão granulomatosa em orofaringe e laringe, e o resultado da biópsia revelou bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes. Exames clínico e radiológico do aparelho respiratório sem alterações. Realizado tratamento anti-tuberculose por nove meses com resolução completa do quadro. CONCLUSÃO: Autores realçam a importância epidemiológica da tuberculose e a necessidade de um alto grau de suspeição de lesões das vias aéreas superiores para o diagnóstico precoce da doença.Tuberculosis of the Larynx and pharynx only is rare. However, in the last few years, the number of tuberculosis cases in general have had a dramatic increase, thus increasing the possibility of isolated laryngo-pharyngeal lesions. AIM: To report a case of isolated laryngo-pharyngeal tuberculosis in a pregnant, immunocompetent host. CASE REPORT: A 30- year-old pregnant female had complained of odynophagia for the last ten months. There were no other respiratory or systemic symptoms. An oro-pharyngeal granulomatous lesion was found, and the biopsy revealed acid-fast bacilli. There were no clinical or radiologic pulmonary findings. She was submitted successfully to an tuberculosis treatment protocol for nine months. CONCLUSIONS: The authors point out the epidemiological importance of tuberculosis and the need for a higher degree of suspicion when dealing with uncommon upper airway lesions to make an early diagnosis.

  2. Zebrafish: A Versatile Animal Model for Fertility Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ying Hoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of zebrafish in biomedical research is very common in the research world nowadays. Today, it has emerged as a favored vertebrate organism for the research in science of reproduction. There is a significant growth in amount numbers of scientific literature pertaining to research discoveries in reproductive sciences in zebrafish. It has implied the importance of zebrafish in this particular field of research. In essence, the current available literature has covered from the very specific brain region or neurons of zebrafish, which are responsible for reproductive regulation, until the gonadal level of the animal. The discoveries and findings have proven that this small animal is sharing a very close/similar reproductive system with mammals. More interestingly, the behavioral characteristics and along with the establishment of animal courtship behavior categorization in zebrafish have laid an even stronger foundation and firmer reason on the suitability of zebrafish utilization in research of reproductive sciences. In view of the immense importance of this small animal for the development of reproductive sciences, this review aimed at compiling and describing the proximate close similarity of reproductive regulation on zebrafish and human along with factors contributing to the infertility, showing its versatility and its potential usage for fertility research.

  3. Quo natas, Danio?—Recent Progress in Modeling Cancer in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Kirchberger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, zebrafish has proven to be a powerful model in cancer research. Zebrafish form tumors that histologically and genetically resemble human cancers. The live imaging and cost-effective compound screening possible with zebrafish especially complement classic mouse cancer models. Here, we report recent progress in the field, including genetically engineered zebrafish cancer models, xenotransplantation of human cancer cells into zebrafish, promising approaches toward live investigation of the tumor microenvironment, and identification of therapeutic strategies by performing compound screens on zebrafish cancer models. Given the recent advances in genome editing, personalized zebrafish cancer models are now a realistic possibility. In addition, ongoing automation will soon allow high-throughput compound screening using zebrafish cancer models to be part of preclinical precision medicine approaches.

  4. Anatomy of the bucco-pharyngeal cavity of Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1817 (Pisces, Characidae, Salmininae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Menin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The bucco-pharyngeal cavity of Salminus brasiliensis, an ichthyophagous species of fresh water, is anatomically adapted to predation. The wide buccal rift, the oral-aboral enlargement of the buccal cavity and the reduced thickness of the pharyngeal mastigatory apparatus favor the capture and deglutition of larger prey. In function of the oral and pharyngeal dentition type, pre-digestive food preparation does not occur. The pointed and curved teeth, together with the tongue which is relatively mobile, prevent the prey’s escape from the buccopharyngeal cavity. The passage of the food is facilitated by the absence of pronounced folds in the mucous membrane of this cavity and by the disposition of the oral and pharyngeal teeth. The characteristics of flat and thin lips, developed oral dentition, relatively mobile tongue, mucous membrane without folds, pharynx with denticules disposed in dentigerous areas and plates, and short and sharp gill-rackers are anatomical adaptations which are shared by S. brasiliensis and other ichthyophagous Characiformes species such as Salminus maxillosus, Salminus hilarii, Hoplias malabaricus, Hoplias lacerdae, Acestrorhynchus lacustris and Acestrorhynchus britskii. However, different to the mentioned species, except other Salmininae, S. brasiliensis possesses oral teeth of an unique type, present only in the jawbones and distributed in two series.

  5. Arsenic transport by zebrafish aquaglyceroporins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landfear Scott M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic is one of the most ubiquitous toxins and endangers the health of tens of millions of humans worldwide. It is a mainly a water-borne contaminant. Inorganic trivalent arsenic (AsIII is one of the major species that exists environmentally. The transport of AsIII has been studied in microbes, plants and mammals. Members of the aquaglyceroporin family have been shown to actively conduct AsIII and its organic metabolite, monomethylarsenite (MAsIII. However, the transport of AsIII and MAsIII in in any fish species has not been characterized. Results In this study, five members of the aquaglyceroporin family from zebrafish (Danio rerio were cloned, and their ability to transport water, glycerol, and trivalent arsenicals (AsIII and MAsIII and antimonite (SbIII was investigated. Genes for at least seven aquaglyceroporins have been annotated in the zebrafish genome project. Here, five genes which are close homologues to human AQP3, AQP9 and AQP10 were cloned from a zebrafish cDNA preparation. These genes were named aqp3, aqp3l, aqp9a, aqp9b and aqp10 according to their similarities to the corresponding human AQPs. Expression of aqp9a, aqp9b, aqp3, aqp3l and aqp10 in multiple zebrafish organs were examined by RT-PCR. Our results demonstrated that these aquaglyceroporins exhibited different tissue expression. They are all detected in more than one tissue. The ability of these five aquaglyceroporins to transport water, glycerol and the metalloids arsenic and antimony was examined following expression in oocytes from Xenopus leavis. Each of these channels showed substantial glycerol transport at equivalent rates. These aquaglyceroporins also facilitate uptake of inorganic AsIII, MAsIII and SbIII. Arsenic accumulation in fish larvae and in different tissues from adult zebrafish was studied following short-term arsenic exposure. The results showed that liver is the major organ of arsenic accumulation; other tissues such as gill, eye

  6. Bupivacaine Lozenge Compared with Lidocaine Spray as Topical Pharyngeal Anesthetic before Unsedated Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salale, Nesrin; Treldal, Charlotte; Mogensen, Stine

    2014-01-01

    Unsedated upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) can induce patient discomfort, mainly due to a strong gag reflex. The aim was to assess the effect of a bupivacaine lozenge as topical pharyngeal anesthetic compared with standard treatment with a lidocaine spray before UGE. Ninety-nine adult...... with a lidocaine spray proved to be a superior option as topical pharyngeal anesthetic before an UGE....

  7. Evaluating human cancer cell metastasis in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Yong; Xie, Xiayang; Walker, Steven; White, David T; Mumm, Jeff S; Cowell, John K

    2013-01-01

    In vivo metastasis assays have traditionally been performed in mice, but the process is inefficient and costly. However, since zebrafish do not develop an adaptive immune system until 14 days post-fertilization, human cancer cells can survive and metastasize when transplanted into zebrafish larvae. Despite isolated reports, there has been no systematic evaluation of the robustness of this system to date. Individual cell lines were stained with CM-Dil and injected into the perivitelline space of 2-day old zebrafish larvae. After 2-4 days fish were imaged using confocal microscopy and the number of metastatic cells was determined using Fiji software. To determine whether zebrafish can faithfully report metastatic potential in human cancer cells, we injected a series of cells with different metastatic potential into the perivitelline space of 2 day old embryos. Using cells from breast, prostate, colon and pancreas we demonstrated that the degree of cell metastasis in fish is proportional to their invasion potential in vitro. Highly metastatic cells such as MDA231, DU145, SW620 and ASPC-1 are seen in the vasculature and throughout the body of the fish after only 24–48 hours. Importantly, cells that are not invasive in vitro such as T47D, LNCaP and HT29 do not metastasize in fish. Inactivation of JAK1/2 in fibrosarcoma cells leads to loss of invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo, and in zebrafish these cells show limited spread throughout the zebrafish body compared with the highly metastatic parental cells. Further, knockdown of WASF3 in DU145 cells which leads to loss of invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo also results in suppression of metastasis in zebrafish. In a cancer progression model involving normal MCF10A breast epithelial cells, the degree of invasion/metastasis in vitro and in mice is mirrored in zebrafish. Using a modified version of Fiji software, it is possible to quantify individual metastatic cells in the transparent larvae to correlate with

  8. Mechanics Evolution Characteristics Analysis of Pressure-arch in Fully-mechanized Mining Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on a practical engineering, the three-dimension computational model was built using FLAC3D under the fullymechanized mining condition. Considering four variation factors, such as the distance of mining advancing, the strength of the surrounding rock, the speed of mining advancing and the dip angle of the coal seam, the mechanics evolution characteristics of the pressure-arch were analyzed. The result showed that for the horizontal seam, the geometric shape of the pressure-arch varied from flat arch to round arch gradually and the height and thickness of the pressure-arch also increased; the maximum principal stress in the skewback also increased with the working face advancing. With the strength of the surrounding rock from soft to hard, the arch thickness reduced, and the arch loading decreased. To improve the mining speed can do some contributions to the stability of the pressure-arch in the mining field. With the increase of dip angle of the seam, the pressure-arch displayed an asymmetric shape, the vault was tilted and moved to the upward direction. At the same time, the thickness of the pressure-arch increased, and the stress concentration in the skewback tended to be further intensified.

  9. Phenotyping Pharyngeal Pathophysiology using Polysomnography in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Scott A; Edwards, Bradley A; Terrill, Philip I; Taranto-Montemurro, Luigi; Azarbarzin, Ali; Marques, Melania; Hess, Lauren B; White, David P; Wellman, Andrew

    2018-05-01

    Therapies for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) could be administered on the basis of a patient's own phenotypic causes ("traits") if a clinically applicable approach were available. Here we aimed to provide a means to quantify two key contributors to OSA-pharyngeal collapsibility and compensatory muscle responsiveness-that is applicable to diagnostic polysomnography. Based on physiological definitions, pharyngeal collapsibility determines the ventilation at normal (eupneic) ventilatory drive during sleep, and pharyngeal compensation determines the rise in ventilation accompanying a rising ventilatory drive. Thus, measuring ventilation and ventilatory drive (e.g., during spontaneous cyclic events) should reveal a patient's phenotypic traits without specialized intervention. We demonstrate this concept in patients with OSA (N = 29), using a novel automated noninvasive method to estimate ventilatory drive (polysomnographic method) and using "gold standard" ventilatory drive (intraesophageal diaphragm EMG) for comparison. Specialized physiological measurements using continuous positive airway pressure manipulation were employed for further comparison. The validity of nasal pressure as a ventilation surrogate was also tested (N = 11). Polysomnography-derived collapsibility and compensation estimates correlated favorably with those quantified using gold standard ventilatory drive (R = 0.83, P < 0.0001; and R = 0.76, P < 0.0001; respectively) and using continuous positive airway pressure manipulation (R = 0.67, P < 0.0001; and R = 0.64, P < 0.001; respectively). Polysomnographic estimates effectively stratified patients into high versus low subgroups (accuracy, 69-86% vs. ventilatory drive measures; P < 0.05). Traits were near-identical using nasal pressure versus pneumotach (N = 11, R ≥ 0.98, both traits; P < 0.001). Phenotypes of pharyngeal dysfunction in OSA are evident from spontaneous changes in ventilation and

  10. Normal anatomy and histology of the adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Aswin L; Spitsbergen, Jan M; Wolterbeek, Andre P M; Woutersen, Ruud A

    2011-08-01

    The zebrafish has been shown to be an excellent vertebrate model for studying the roles of specific genes and signaling pathways. The sequencing of its genome and the relative ease with which gene modifications can be performed have led to the creation of numerous human disease models that can be used for testing the potential and the toxicity of new pharmaceutical compounds. Many pharmaceutical companies already use the zebrafish for prescreening purposes. So far, the focus has been on ecotoxicity and the effects on embryonic development, but there is a trend to expand the use of the zebrafish with acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity studies that are currently still carried out with the more conventional test animals such as rodents. However, before we can fully realize the potential of the zebrafish as an animal model for understanding human development, disease, and toxicology, we must first greatly advance our knowledge of normal zebrafish physiology, anatomy, and histology. To further this knowledge, we describe, in the present article, location and histology of the major zebrafish organ systems with a brief description of their function.

  11. Digital models: How can dental arch form be verified chairside?

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    Alana Tavares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Plaster dental casts are routinely used during clinical practice to access maxillary dental arch form and assist on fabrication of individualized orthodontic archwires. Recently introduced, digital model technology may offer a limitation for the obtainment of a dental physical record. In this context, a tool for dental arch form assessment for chairside use is necessary when employing digital models. In this regard, paper print of the dental arch seems thus to be useful. Methods: In the present study, 37 lower arch models were used. Intercanine and intermolar widths and dental arch length measurements were performed and compared using plaster dental casts, digital models and paper print image of the models. Ortho Insight 3D scanner was employed for model digitalization. Results: No statistically significant differences were noted regarding the measurements performed on the plaster or digital models (p> 0.05. Paper print images, however, showed subestimated values for intercanine and intermolar widths and overestimated values for dental arch length. Despite being statistically significant (p< 0.001, the differences were considered clinically negligible. Conclusion: The present study suggests that paper print images obtained from digital models are clinically accurate and can be used as a tool for dental arch form assessment for fabrication of individualized orthodontic archwires.

  12. Digital models: How can dental arch form be verified chairside?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Alana; Braga, Emanuel; de Araújo, Telma Martins

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Plaster dental casts are routinely used during clinical practice to access maxillary dental arch form and assist on fabrication of individualized orthodontic archwires. Recently introduced, digital model technology may offer a limitation for the obtainment of a dental physical record. In this context, a tool for dental arch form assessment for chairside use is necessary when employing digital models. In this regard, paper print of the dental arch seems thus to be useful. Methods: In the present study, 37 lower arch models were used. Intercanine and intermolar widths and dental arch length measurements were performed and compared using plaster dental casts, digital models and paper print image of the models. Ortho Insight 3D scanner was employed for model digitalization. Results: No statistically significant differences were noted regarding the measurements performed on the plaster or digital models (p> 0.05). Paper print images, however, showed subestimated values for intercanine and intermolar widths and overestimated values for dental arch length. Despite being statistically significant (p< 0.001), the differences were considered clinically negligible. Conclusion: The present study suggests that paper print images obtained from digital models are clinically accurate and can be used as a tool for dental arch form assessment for fabrication of individualized orthodontic archwires. PMID:29364382

  13. Outcomes of single-stage total arch replacement via clamshell incision

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    Ishizaka Toru

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of complex aortic pathologies involving the transverse arch with extensive involvement of the descending aorta remains a surgical challenge. Since clamshell incision provides superior exposure of the entire thoracic aorta, we evaluated the use of this technique for single-stage total arch replacement by arch vessel reconstruction. Methods The arch-first technique combined with clamshell incision was used in 38 cases of aneurysm and aortic disease in 2008 and 2009. Extensive total arch replacement was used with clamshell incision for reconstruction of arch vessels under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Results Overall 30-day mortality was 13%. The mean operating time was approximately 8 hours. Deep hypothermia resulted in mean CPB time exceeding 4.5 hours and mean duration of circulatory arrest was 25 minutes. The overall postoperative temporary and permanent neurologic dysfunction rates were 3% and 3% for elective and 3% and 0% for emergency surgery, respectively. All patients except the five who died in hospital were discharged without nursing care after an average post-operative hospital stay of 35 days. Conclusions The arch-first technique, combined with clamshell incision, provides expeditious replacement of the thoracic aorta with an acceptable duration of hypothermic circulatory arrest and minimizes the risk of retrograde atheroembolism by using antegrade perfusion.

  14. Super-light pearl-chain arch vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Halding, Philip Skov

    2014-01-01

    Arch vaults are known as optimal and impressive structures, but due to their curved shapes they are extremely costly to produce in countries, where the cost of labor is high. By means of super-light pearl-chain technology arch vaults can be constructed from equal plane prefabricated elements, which...... that it is also applicable as basic elements for super-light pearl-chain vaults. Machines and software have been developed for automatic mass production of the elements, and the first factory has started production in Denmark in 2014 delivering SL-deck elements for a variety of building projects. This means...... is known from curved voluminous elements. The paper describes the first full-scale test of an arch vault made of SL-deck elements demonstrating the principle, documenting the load-bearing capacity, and solving a number of details needed in order to create vaults in practice. Considerations and plans...

  15. Plastic collapse load of crown-hinged steel circular arches : a theoretical method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoorenberg, R.C.; Snijder, H.H.; Hoenderkamp, J.C.D.

    2013-01-01

    For construction purposes and to avoid detrimental influences of foundation settlements arches are not always made from a single arch-rib but are built by connecting two curvilinear elements at the crown with a hinge. These arches are also known as crown-hinged arches. This paper presents an

  16. Evaluation of visible implant elastomer tags in zebrafish (Danio rerio

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    Claudia Hohn

    2013-11-01

    The use of the visible implant elastomer (VIE tagging system in zebrafish (Danio rerio was examined. Two tag orientations (horizontal and vertical at the dorsal fin base were tested for tag retention, tag fragmentation and whether VIE tags affected growth and survival of juvenile zebrafish (1–4 month post hatch. Six tag locations (abdomen, anal fin base, caudal peduncle, dorsal fin base, pectoral fin base, isthmus and 5 tag colors (yellow, red, pink, orange, blue were evaluated for ease of VIE tag application and tag visibility in adult zebrafish. Long-term retention (1 year and multiple tagging sites (right and left of dorsal fin and pectoral fin base were examined in adult zebrafish. Lastly, survival of recombination activation gene 1−/− (rag1−/− zebrafish was evaluated after VIE tagging. The best tag location was the dorsal fin base, and the most visible tag color was pink. Growth rate of juvenile zebrafish was not affected by VIE tagging. Horizontal tagging is recommended in early stages of fish growth (1–2 months post hatch. VIE tags were retained for 1 year and tagging did not interfere with long-term growth and survival. There was no mortality associated with VIE tagging in rag1−/− zebrafish. The VIE tagging system is highly suitable for small-sized zebrafish. When familiar with the procedure, 120 adult zebrafish can be tagged in one hour. It does not increase mortality in adult zebrafish or interfere with growth in juvenile or adult zebrafish.

  17. Learning and memory in zebrafish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Adam C.; Bill, Brent R.; Glanzman, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promising new experimental technologies currently being used in larval zebrafish that are likely to contribute major insights into the processes that underlie learning and memory. PMID:23935566

  18. Agenesis of the posterior arch of the atlas

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    Torriani Martin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To illustrate the radiological findings and review the current literature concerning a rare congenital abnormality of the posterior arch of the atlas. CASE REPORT: An adult female without neurological symptoms presented with an absent posterior arch of the atlas, examined with plain films and helical computerized tomography. Complete agenesis of the posterior arch of the atlas is a rare entity that can be easily identified by means of plain films. Although it is generally asymptomatic, atlantoaxial instability and neurological deficits may occur because of structural instability. Computerized tomography provides a means of assessing the extent of this abnormality and can help evaluate the integrity of neural structures. Although considered to be rare entities, defects of the posterior arch of the atlas may be discovered as incidental asymptomatic findings in routine cervical radiographs. Familiarity with this abnormality may aid medical professionals in the correct management of these cases.

  19. Modified protrusion arch for anterior crossbite correction - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Abhishek Singha; Singh, Gulshan Kr; Tandon, Pradeep; Chaudhary, Ramsukh

    2013-01-01

    Borderline and mild skeletal Class III relationships in adult patients are usually treated by orthodontic camouflage. Reasonably rood results have been achieved with nonsurgical teatment of anterior crossbite. Class III malocclusion may be associated with mandibular prognathism, maxillary retrognathism, or both. Class III maxillary retrognathism generally involves anterior crossbite, which must be opened if upper labial brackets are to be bonded. If multiple teeth are in crossbite, after opening the bite usual step is to ligate forward or advancement arch made of 0.018" or 0.020" stainless steel or NiTi wire main arch that must be kept separated 2 mm from the slot ofupper incisor braces. Two stops or omegas are made 1 mm mesial to the tubes of the molar bands that will impede main arch from slipping,and in this manner the arch will push the anterior teeth forward Here we have fabricated a modified multiple loop protrusion arch to correct an anterior crossbite with severe crowding that was not amenable to correct by advancement arches.

  20. An Epidemiologic study of Oral and Pharyngeal Nonsquamous Cell Malignant Tumors in Kerman province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR. Zarei

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to estimate crude and age-standardized incidence rates for oral and pharyngeal nonsquamous cell malignant tumors in Kerman province over a period of 11 years.Materials and Methods: The data used in this retrospective population-based study were extracted from the records registered in all pathology centers of Kerman province from 1991 to 2001. All confirmed cases of oral and pharyngeal nonsquamous cell malignant tumors were included in the study. The crude and age-standardized incidence rates per 1 million populations were calculated based on the 1996 census data and the population growth rate.Results: The total number of new nonsquamous cell cancers was 61, representing 18.2% of all oral and pharyngeal cancers in Kerman province. The average annual ageadjusted incidence rate per 1,000,000 population was 3.45 for both oral and pharyngeal tumors. The temporal variations in the annual incidence of oral and pharyngeal nonsquamous cell cancers was statistically significant (p=0.015. The most common types of nonsquamous cell malignant tumors in the oral cavity and pharynx were minor salivary tumors and lymphomas, respectively. The age-adjusted incidence was 0.74 formalignant salivary gland tumors, 0.66 for malignant melanomas, 0.4 for different types of sarcomas, and 1.65 for lymphomas.Conclusion: It can be concluded that the incidence rate and other features of nonsquamous cell malignant tumors of the oral cavity and pharynx in residents of Kerman province are similar to those reported by other investigators.

  1. Recurrence in oral and pharyngeal cancer is associated with quantitative MGMT promoter methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taioli, Emanuela; Ragin, Camille; Wang, Xiao-hong; Chen, Jiangying; Langevin, Scott M; Brown, Ashley R; Gollin, Susanne M; Garte, Seymour; Sobol, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Biomarkers that predict clinical response, tumor recurrence or patient survival are severely lacking for most cancers, particularly for oral and pharyngeal cancer. This study examines whether gene-promoter methylation of tumor DNA correlates with survival and recurrence rates in a population of patients with oral or pharyngeal cancer. The promoter methylation status of the DNA repair gene MGMT and the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A and RASSF1 were evaluated by methylation-specific PCR in 88 primary oral and pharyngeal tumors and correlated with survival and tumor recurrence. Quantitative MGMT methylation was also assessed. 29.6% of the tumors presented with MGMT methylation, 11.5% with CDKN2A methylation and 12.1% with RASSF1 methylation. MGMT promoter methylation was significantly associated with poorer overall and disease-free survival. No differences in methylation status of MGMT and RASSF1 with HPV infection, smoking or drinking habits were observed. A significant inverse trend with the amount of MGMT methylation and overall and disease-free survival was observed (p trend = 0.002 and 0.001 respectively). These results implicate MGMT promoter methylation as a possible biomarker for oral and pharyngeal cancer prognosis. The critical role of MGMT in DNA repair suggests that defective DNA repair may be correlative in the observed association between MGMT promoter methylation and tumor recurrence. Follow-up studies should include further quantitative MSP-PCR measurement, global methylation profiling and detailed analysis of downstream DNA repair genes regulated by promoter methylation

  2. A dominant negative zebrafish Ahr2 partially protects developing zebrafish from dioxin toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Lanham

    Full Text Available The toxicity by 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD is thought to be caused by activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR. However, our understanding of how AHR activation by TCDD leads to toxic effects is poor. Ideally we would like to manipulate AHR activity in specific tissues and at specific times. One route to this is expressing dominant negative AHRs (dnAHRs. This work describes the construction and characterization of dominant negative forms of the zebrafish Ahr2 in which the C-terminal transactivation domain was either removed, or replaced with the inhibitory domain from the Drosophila engrailed repressor protein. One of these dnAhr2s was selected for expression from the ubiquitously active e2fα promoter in transgenic zebrafish. We found that these transgenic zebrafish expressing dnAhr2 had reduced TCDD induction of the Ahr2 target gene cyp1a, as measured by 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity. Furthermore, the cardiotoxicity produced by TCDD, pericardial edema, heart malformation, and reduced blood flow, were all mitigated in the zebrafish expressing the dnAhr2. These results provide in vivo proof-of-principle results demonstrating the effectiveness of dnAHRs in manipulating AHR activity in vivo, and demonstrating that this approach can be a means for blocking TCDD toxicity.

  3. Neurotransmitter-Regulated Regeneration in the Zebrafish Retina

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    Mahesh B. Rao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Current efforts to repair damaged or diseased mammalian retinas are inefficient and largely incapable of fully restoring vision. Conversely, the zebrafish retina is capable of spontaneous regeneration upon damage using Müller glia (MG-derived progenitors. Understanding how zebrafish MG initiate regeneration may help develop new treatments that prompt mammalian retinas to regenerate. We show that inhibition of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA signaling facilitates initiation of MG proliferation. GABA levels decrease following damage, and MG are positioned to detect decreased ambient levels and undergo dedifferentiation. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we demonstrate that GABAA receptor inhibition stimulates regeneration in undamaged retinas while activation inhibits regeneration in damaged retinas. : Unlike mammals, zebrafish regenerate following retina damage from a resident adult stem cell (Müller glia. Dissecting the mechanisms that zebrafish use could lead to new therapeutic targets to treat retinal diseases. Patton and colleagues have discovered a mechanism by which decreased GABA levels are sensed by Müller glia to initiate a regenerative response. Keywords: zebrafish, retina, regeneration, Müller glia, GABA

  4. A case of complete double aortic arch visualized by transthoracic echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Naka; Kato, Shingo; Saito, Noritaka; Nakachi, Tatsuya; Fukui, Kazuki; Iwasawa, Tae; Kosuge, Masami; Kimura, Kazuo

    2017-08-01

    A case of double aortic arch that was well visualized using transthoracic echocardiography is reported. A 38-year-old man underwent transthoracic echocardiography for the evaluation of dyspnea. A suprasternal view of transthoracic echocardiography showed the ascending aorta bifurcate to left and right aortic arches, with blood flow from the ascending aorta to bilateral aortic arches. The diagnosis of right side-dominant double aortic arch was made, and the patient's symptom was conceivably related to compression of the trachea due to a vascular ring. This report indicates the potential usefulness of transthoracic echocardiography for noninvasive detection of double aortic arch in adults. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effects of mandibular setback with or without maxillary advancement osteotomies on pharyngeal airways: An overview of systematic reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Keng Tan

    Full Text Available Mandibular setback osteotomies potentially lead to narrowing of the pharyngeal airways, subsequently resulting in post-surgical obstructive sleep apnea (OSA.To summarize current evidence from systematic reviews that has evaluated pharyngeal airway changes after mandibular setback with or without concomitant upper jaw osteotomies.PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched with no restriction of language or date. Systematic reviews studying changes in pharyngeal airway dimensions and respiratory parameters after mandibular setback with or without concomitant upper jaw osteotomies have been identified, screened for eligibility, included and analyzed in this study.Six systematic reviews have been included. While isolated mandibular setback osteotomies result in reduced oropharyngeal airway dimensions, the reduction is lesser in cases with concomitant upper jaw osteotomies. Only scarce evidence exists currently to what happens to naso- and hypo-pharyngeal airways. There is no evidence for post-surgical OSA, even though some studies reported reduced respiratory parameters after single-jaw mandibular setback with or without concomitant upper jaw osteotomies.Although mandibular setback osteotomies reduce pharyngeal airway dimensions, evidence confirming post-surgical OSA was not found. Nevertheless, potential post-surgical OSA should be taken into serious consideration during the treatment planning of particular orthognathic cases. As moderate evidence exists that double-jaw surgeries lead to less compromised post-surgical pharyngeal airways, they should be considered as the method of choice especially in cases with severe dentoskeletal Class III deformity.PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42016046484.

  6. Comparative study on the mechanical mechanism of confined concrete supporting arches in underground engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhijin; Qin, Qian; Jiang, Bei; Luan, Yingcheng; Yu, Hengchang

    2018-01-01

    In order to solve the supporting problem in underground engineering with high stress, square steel confined concrete (SQCC) supporting method is adopted to enhance the control on surrounding rocks, and the control effect is remarkable. The commonly used cross section shapes of confined concrete arch are square and circular. At present, designers have no consensus on which kind is more proper. To search for the answer, this paper makes an analysis on the mechanical properties of the two shapes of the cross-sections. A full-scale indoor comparative test was carried out on the commonly used straight-wall semi-circular SQCC arch and circular steel confined concrete arch (CCC arch). This test is based on self-developed full-scale test system for confined concrete arch. Our research, combining with the numerical analysis, shows: (1) SQCC arch is consistent with CCC arch in the deformation and failure mode. The largest damages parts are at the legs of both of them. (2) The SQCC arch's bearing capability is 1286.9 kN, and the CCC arch's ultimate bearing capability is 1072.4kN. Thus, the SQCC arch's bearing capability is 1.2 times that of the CCC arch. (3) The arches are subjected to combined compression and bending, bending moment is the main reason for the arch failure. The section moment of inertia of SQCC arch is 1.26 times of that of CCC arch, and the former is better than the latter in bending performance. The ultimate bearing capacity is positively correlated with the size of the moment of inertia. Based on the above research, the engineering suggestions are as follows: (1) To improve the bearing capacity of the arch, the cross-sectional shape of the chamber should be optimized and the arch bearing mode changed accordingly. (2) The key damaged positions, such as the arch leg, should be reinforced, optimizing the state of force on the arch. SQCC arches should be used for supporting in underground engineering, which is under stronger influence of the bending moment and

  7. [Analyses of the characteristics of esophageal motility in patients with pharyngeal paraesthesia who visit the Department of gastroenterology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjiang; Chen, Yuping; Guo, Tingting

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the influence of the local sensory abnormality in throat while the change of motility in the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and lower esophageal sphincter (LES), as well as the change of esophageal body in pharyngeal paraesthesia. From January 2014 to January 2015 there were sixty-four patients who had pharyngeal susceptible syndrome (PSS) but without confirmed organic disease were enrolled as the PSS group, forty healthy volunteers as the control group. High resolution manometry (HRM) was utilized to distinguish esophageal motility patterns of PSS, including the muscular tension of LES and UES, the integrity, adaptability, amplitude, speed and duration of esophageal peristalsis at 10 swallows. The resting LES and UES pressures and the distal contractile integral (DCI) of esophagus in PSS group were lower than that in control group (P 0.05). The average peak pressure was similar in two groups (P > 0.05). Muscle tension around the UES has no obvious change when pharyngeal paraesthesia occurred, but the reduction of esophageal motor function, clearance ability, anti-reflux gastroesophageal junction, causing the abnormal reflux which hurt the pharyngeal surface mucosa maybe one of the most important reasons leading to pharyngeal paresthesia.

  8. Cyp26 Enzymes Facilitate Second Heart Field Progenitor Addition and Maintenance of Ventricular Integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel B Rydeen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although retinoic acid (RA teratogenicity has been investigated for decades, the mechanisms underlying RA-induced outflow tract (OFT malformations are not understood. Here, we show zebrafish embryos deficient for Cyp26a1 and Cyp26c1 enzymes, which promote RA degradation, have OFT defects resulting from two mechanisms: first, a failure of second heart field (SHF progenitors to join the OFT, instead contributing to the pharyngeal arch arteries (PAAs, and second, a loss of first heart field (FHF ventricular cardiomyocytes due to disrupted cell polarity and extrusion from the heart tube. Molecularly, excess RA signaling negatively regulates fibroblast growth factor 8a (fgf8a expression and positively regulates matrix metalloproteinase 9 (mmp9 expression. Although restoring Fibroblast growth factor (FGF signaling can partially rescue SHF addition in Cyp26 deficient embryos, attenuating matrix metalloproteinase (MMP function can rescue both ventricular SHF addition and FHF integrity. These novel findings indicate a primary effect of RA-induced OFT defects is disruption of the extracellular environment, which compromises both SHF recruitment and FHF ventricular integrity.

  9. Distinct functional and temporal requirements for zebrafish Hdac1 during neural crest-derived craniofacial and peripheral neuron development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myron S Ignatius

    Full Text Available The regulation of gene expression is accomplished by both genetic and epigenetic means and is required for the precise control of the development of the neural crest. In hdac1(b382 mutants, craniofacial cartilage development is defective in two distinct ways. First, fewer hoxb3a, dlx2 and dlx3-expressing posterior branchial arch precursors are specified and many of those that are consequently undergo apoptosis. Second, in contrast, normal numbers of progenitors are present in the anterior mandibular and hyoid arches, but chondrocyte precursors fail to terminally differentiate. In the peripheral nervous system, there is a disruption of enteric, DRG and sympathetic neuron differentiation in hdac1(b382 mutants compared to wildtype embryos. Specifically, enteric and DRG-precursors differentiate into neurons in the anterior gut and trunk respectively, while enteric and DRG neurons are rarely present in the posterior gut and tail. Sympathetic neuron precursors are specified in hdac1(b382 mutants and they undergo generic neuronal differentiation but fail to undergo noradrenergic differentiation. Using the HDAC inhibitor TSA, we isolated enzyme activity and temporal requirements for HDAC function that reproduce hdac1(b382 defects in craniofacial and sympathetic neuron development. Our study reveals distinct functional and temporal requirements for zebrafish hdac1 during neural crest-derived craniofacial and peripheral neuron development.

  10. Distinct functional and temporal requirements for zebrafish Hdac1 during neural crest-derived craniofacial and peripheral neuron development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatius, Myron S; Unal Eroglu, Arife; Malireddy, Smitha; Gallagher, Glen; Nambiar, Roopa M; Henion, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression is accomplished by both genetic and epigenetic means and is required for the precise control of the development of the neural crest. In hdac1(b382) mutants, craniofacial cartilage development is defective in two distinct ways. First, fewer hoxb3a, dlx2 and dlx3-expressing posterior branchial arch precursors are specified and many of those that are consequently undergo apoptosis. Second, in contrast, normal numbers of progenitors are present in the anterior mandibular and hyoid arches, but chondrocyte precursors fail to terminally differentiate. In the peripheral nervous system, there is a disruption of enteric, DRG and sympathetic neuron differentiation in hdac1(b382) mutants compared to wildtype embryos. Specifically, enteric and DRG-precursors differentiate into neurons in the anterior gut and trunk respectively, while enteric and DRG neurons are rarely present in the posterior gut and tail. Sympathetic neuron precursors are specified in hdac1(b382) mutants and they undergo generic neuronal differentiation but fail to undergo noradrenergic differentiation. Using the HDAC inhibitor TSA, we isolated enzyme activity and temporal requirements for HDAC function that reproduce hdac1(b382) defects in craniofacial and sympathetic neuron development. Our study reveals distinct functional and temporal requirements for zebrafish hdac1 during neural crest-derived craniofacial and peripheral neuron development.

  11. The detection of pharyngeal incoordination and aspiration by radiosalivagram in cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baikie, G.; Reddihough, D.; Olinsky, A.; South, M.J.; Bowe, J.; Cook, D.J. [Royal Children`s Hospital, Parkville, VIC, (Australia)

    1997-09-01

    Full text: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) may have abnormal respiratory function because of aspiration pneumonitis, chest deformity, upper airways obstruction or central respiratory control abnormalities. The diagnosis of aspiration has long confounded clinicians and is often made indirectly after exclusion of other causes of respiratory disease in susceptible individuals. The radiosalivagram is a technique which permits the demonstration of aspiration of pharyngeal contents in individuals with pharyngeal incoordination. It is a simple procedure which provides both qualitative and quantitative evidence of aspiration. Over an hour and while supine, 20 mL of {sup 99m}Tc-sulphur colloid is instilled into the pharynx via a thin plastic tube using a syringe pump. The neck, thorax and upper abdomen are imaged continuously In normal individuals, radioactivity is demonstrated in the pharynx, oesophagus and stomach; in the presence of pharyngeal incoordination, radioactivity is seen within one or both main bronchi and adjacent lung fields. The rate of clearance from the lungs varies and can be quantified. We have studied 31 children with severe non-ambulant CR The time to first aspiration, maximum quantity aspirated, and retention of aspirated material at 2h have been determined. These data have been compared with measurements of respiratory function. Preliminary results of this ongoing study reveal a broad range of outcomes. Seventeen children (17/31) had aspiration, in 15/17 aspiration was unilateral and in 14/17 there was spontaneous early clearance. The investigation was well tolerated by patients. The radiosalivagram is a simple, quantifiable investigation for demonstrating or excluding pharyngeal incoordination and aspiration in children with unexplained respiratory disease.

  12. The detection of pharyngeal incoordination and aspiration by radiosalivagram in cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baikie, G.; Reddihough, D.; Olinsky, A.; South, M.J.; Bowe, J.; Cook, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) may have abnormal respiratory function because of aspiration pneumonitis, chest deformity, upper airways obstruction or central respiratory control abnormalities. The diagnosis of aspiration has long confounded clinicians and is often made indirectly after exclusion of other causes of respiratory disease in susceptible individuals. The radiosalivagram is a technique which permits the demonstration of aspiration of pharyngeal contents in individuals with pharyngeal incoordination. It is a simple procedure which provides both qualitative and quantitative evidence of aspiration. Over an hour and while supine, 20 mL of 99m Tc-sulphur colloid is instilled into the pharynx via a thin plastic tube using a syringe pump. The neck, thorax and upper abdomen are imaged continuously In normal individuals, radioactivity is demonstrated in the pharynx, oesophagus and stomach; in the presence of pharyngeal incoordination, radioactivity is seen within one or both main bronchi and adjacent lung fields. The rate of clearance from the lungs varies and can be quantified. We have studied 31 children with severe non-ambulant CR The time to first aspiration, maximum quantity aspirated, and retention of aspirated material at 2h have been determined. These data have been compared with measurements of respiratory function. Preliminary results of this ongoing study reveal a broad range of outcomes. Seventeen children (17/31) had aspiration, in 15/17 aspiration was unilateral and in 14/17 there was spontaneous early clearance. The investigation was well tolerated by patients. The radiosalivagram is a simple, quantifiable investigation for demonstrating or excluding pharyngeal incoordination and aspiration in children with unexplained respiratory disease

  13. Triclosan Lacks (Anti-Estrogenic Effects in Zebrafish Cells but Modulates Estrogen Response in Zebrafish Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Serra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Triclosan (TCS, an antimicrobial agent widely found in the aquatic environment, is suspected to act as an endocrine disrupting compound, however mechanistic information is lacking in regards to aquatic species. This study assessed the ability of TCS to interfere with estrogen receptor (ER transcriptional activity, in zebrafish-specific in vitro and in vivo reporter gene assays. We report that TCS exhibits a lack of either agonistic or antagonistic effects on a panel of ER-expressing zebrafish (ZELH-zfERα and -zfERβ and human (MELN cell lines. At the organism level, TCS at concentrations of up to 0.3 µM had no effect on ER-regulated brain aromatase gene expression in transgenic cyp19a1b-GFP zebrafish embryos. At a concentration of 1 µM, TCS interfered with the E2 response in an ambivalent manner by potentializing a low E2 response (0.625 nM, but decreasing a high E2 response (10 nM. Altogether, our study suggests that while modulation of ER-regulated genes by TCS may occur in zebrafish, it does so irrespective of a direct binding and activation of zfERs.

  14. A Zebrafish Heart Failure Model for Assessing Therapeutic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Yu; Wu, Si-Qi; Guo, Sheng-Ya; Yang, Hua; Xia, Bo; Li, Ping; Li, Chun-Qi

    2018-03-20

    Heart failure is a leading cause of death and the development of effective and safe therapeutic agents for heart failure has been proven challenging. In this study, taking advantage of larval zebrafish, we developed a zebrafish heart failure model for drug screening and efficacy assessment. Zebrafish at 2 dpf (days postfertilization) were treated with verapamil at a concentration of 200 μM for 30 min, which were determined as optimum conditions for model development. Tested drugs were administered into zebrafish either by direct soaking or circulation microinjection. After treatment, zebrafish were randomly selected and subjected to either visual observation and image acquisition or record videos under a Zebralab Blood Flow System. The therapeutic effects of drugs on zebrafish heart failure were quantified by calculating the efficiency of heart dilatation, venous congestion, cardiac output, and blood flow dynamics. All 8 human heart failure therapeutic drugs (LCZ696, digoxin, irbesartan, metoprolol, qiliqiangxin capsule, enalapril, shenmai injection, and hydrochlorothiazide) showed significant preventive and therapeutic effects on zebrafish heart failure (p failure model developed and validated in this study could be used for in vivo heart failure studies and for rapid screening and efficacy assessment of preventive and therapeutic drugs.

  15. Comparison of arch forms between Turkish and North American

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet A. Celebi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to clarify the morphological differences in the mandibular arches of Turkish and North American white subjects. Methods: The sample included 132 Turkish (34 Class I, 58 Class II, and 40 Class III and 160 North American (60 Class I, 50 Class II, and 50 Class III subjects. The most facial portion of 13 proximal contact areas was digitized from photocopied images of patients' mandibular dental arches. Clinical bracket points were calculated for each tooth based on mandibular tooth thickness data. Four linear and two proportional measurements were taken. The subjects were grouped according to arch form types (tapered, ovoid and square in order to have frequency distribution compared between ethnic groups in each Angle classification. Results: The Turkish group showed significantly lower molar depth and more significant molar width-depth (W/D ratio in all three Angle classifications. On the other hand, the Turkish group also showed a significantly larger intercanine width in Class III malocclusion and intermolar width in Class II malocclusion. The most frequent arch forms seen were the ovoid arch form in the Turkish group and the tapered form in the white group. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that when treating Turkish patients, one should expect to use preformed ovoid arch form orthodontic wires in a significant percentage of patients.

  16. Biosecurity and Health Monitoring at the Zebrafish International Resource Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Katrina N; Varga, Zoltán M; Kent, Michael L

    2016-07-01

    The Zebrafish International Resource Center (ZIRC) is a repository and distribution center for mutant, transgenic, and wild-type zebrafish. In recent years annual imports of new zebrafish lines to ZIRC have increased tremendously. In addition, after 15 years of research, we have identified some of the most virulent pathogens affecting zebrafish that should be avoided in large production facilities, such as ZIRC. Therefore, while importing a high volume of new lines we prioritize safeguarding the health of our in-house fish colony. Here, we describe the biosecurity and health-monitoring program implemented at ZIRC. This strategy was designed to prevent introduction of new zebrafish pathogens, minimize pathogens already present in the facility, and ensure a healthy zebrafish colony for in-house uses and shipment to customers.

  17. Pharyngeal weakness and upper esophageal sphincter opening in patients with unilateral vocal fold immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domer, Amanda S; Leonard, Rebecca; Belafsky, Peter C

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate pharyngeal strength and upper esophageal sphincter opening in patients with unilateral vocal fold immobility (UVFI). Case control study. Charts of individuals with UVFI who underwent a videofluoroscopic swallow study were reviewed. To exclude confounding variables associated with pharyngeal weakness, inclusion was limited to patients with iatrogenic and idiopathic UVFI. Data abstracted included patient demographics, etiology of UVFI, pharyngeal constriction ratio (PCR), and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening (UESmax). Data were compared to age/gender-matched controls with no history of dysphagia or UVFI. Discrete variables were analyzed using a chi-square test of independence, and an independent samples t test was used to compare the UVFI and control groups (P = 0.05). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare iatrogenic and idiopathic UVFI groups. The mean age of the cohort (n = 25) was 61 (±14 SD) years and 52% was female. The etiologies of UVFI were iatrogenic (n = 17) and idiopathic (n = 8). Thirty-eight percent of UVFI patients (n = 25) aspirated compared to 0% of controls (P  0.05). Individuals with UVFI of iatrogenic and idiopathic etiologies with subjective dysphagia demonstrate objective evidence of pharyngeal weakness. The increased prevalence of aspiration in this population may not be solely the result of impaired airway protection. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Level-ARCH Short Rate Models with Regime Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    This paper introduces regime switching volatility into level- ARCH models for the short rates of the US, the UK, and Germany. Once regime switching and level effects are included there are no gains from including ARCH effects. It is of secondary importance exactly how the regime switching is spec...

  19. Towards a comprehensive catalog of zebrafish behavior 1.0 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalueff, Allan V; Gebhardt, Michael; Stewart, Adam Michael; Cachat, Jonathan M; Brimmer, Mallorie; Chawla, Jonathan S; Craddock, Cassandra; Kyzar, Evan J; Roth, Andrew; Landsman, Samuel; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Robinson, Kyle; Baatrup, Erik; Tierney, Keith; Shamchuk, Angela; Norton, William; Miller, Noam; Nicolson, Teresa; Braubach, Oliver; Gilman, Charles P; Pittman, Julian; Rosemberg, Denis B; Gerlai, Robert; Echevarria, David; Lamb, Elisabeth; Neuhauss, Stephan C F; Weng, Wei; Bally-Cuif, Laure; Schneider, Henning

    2013-03-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly gaining popularity in translational neuroscience and behavioral research. Physiological similarity to mammals, ease of genetic manipulations, sensitivity to pharmacological and genetic factors, robust behavior, low cost, and potential for high-throughput screening contribute to the growing utility of zebrafish models in this field. Understanding zebrafish behavioral phenotypes provides important insights into neural pathways, physiological biomarkers, and genetic underpinnings of normal and pathological brain function. Novel zebrafish paradigms continue to appear with an encouraging pace, thus necessitating a consistent terminology and improved understanding of the behavioral repertoire. What can zebrafish 'do', and how does their altered brain function translate into behavioral actions? To help address these questions, we have developed a detailed catalog of zebrafish behaviors (Zebrafish Behavior Catalog, ZBC) that covers both larval and adult models. Representing a beginning of creating a more comprehensive ethogram of zebrafish behavior, this effort will improve interpretation of published findings, foster cross-species behavioral modeling, and encourage new groups to apply zebrafish neurobehavioral paradigms in their research. In addition, this glossary creates a framework for developing a zebrafish neurobehavioral ontology, ultimately to become part of a unified animal neurobehavioral ontology, which collectively will contribute to better integration of biological data within and across species.

  20. In vivo Study of the Accuracy of Dual-arch Impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Luciana Martinelli Santayana; Borges, Gilberto Antonio; Junior, Luiz Henrique Burnett; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated in vivo the accuracy of metal (Smart®) and plastic (Triple Tray®) dual-arch trays used with vinyl polysiloxane (Flexitime®), in the putty/wash viscosity, as well as polyether (Impregum Soft®) in the regular viscosity. In one patient, an implant-level transfer was screwed on an implant in the mandibular right first molar, serving as a pattern. Ten impressions were made with each tray and impression material. The impressions were poured with Type IV gypsum. The width and height of the pattern and casts were measured in a profile projector (Nikon). The results were submitted to Student's t-test for one sample (α = 0.05). For the width distance, the plastic dual-arch trays with vinyl polysiloxane (4.513 mm) and with polyether (4.531 mm) were statistically wider than the pattern (4.489 mm). The metal dual-arch tray with vinyl polysiloxane (4.504 mm) and with polyether (4.500 mm) did not differ statistically from the pattern. For the height distance, only the metal dual-arch tray with polyether (2.253 mm) differed statistically from the pattern (2.310 mm). The metal dual-arch tray with vinyl polysiloxane, in the putty/wash viscosities, reproduced casts with less distortion in comparison with the same technique with the plastic dual-arch tray. The plastic or metal dual-arch trays with polyether reproduced cast with greater distortion. How to cite the article: Santayana de Lima LM, Borges GA, Burnett LH Jr, Spohr AM. In vivo study of the accuracy of dual-arch impressions. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):50-5.

  1. Barium and meat. A comparison between pharyngeal swallow of fluid and solid boluses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekberg, O.; Liedberg, B.; Oewall, B.

    The influence of bolus consistency on pharyngeal swallow was radiologically studied in 24 individuals by comparing liquid barium and solid meat after chewing. Pharyngeal function was apparently performed synchronously and symmetrically on both boluses. No definite conclusion about the influence on epiglottic mobility, closure of the laryngeal vestibule and relaxation of the circopharyngeal muscle could be drawn from this study. There was no difference in the elevation of the pharynx and larynx. The transit time for a solid bolus was shorter compared with that of a fluid bous. The transit time for the apex of the bolus was shorter than for the tail. A more marked elevation of the pharynx and larynx was followed by a shorter transit time. The width of the pharyngo-esophageal segment was larger in the transverse than in the sagittal diameter during the passage of the bolus and larger on solid compared with fluid swallow. Our results reflect the ability of pharyngeal swallow to be executed with precision and with few alterations due to variable bolus consistency.

  2. The zebrafish genome: a review and msx gene case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postlethwait, J H

    2006-01-01

    Zebrafish is one of several important teleost models for understanding principles of vertebrate developmental, molecular, organismal, genetic, evolutionary, and genomic biology. Efficient investigation of the molecular genetic basis of induced mutations depends on knowledge of the zebrafish genome. Principles of zebrafish genomic analysis, including gene mapping, ortholog identification, conservation of syntenies, genome duplication, and evolution of duplicate gene function are discussed here using as a case study the zebrafish msxa, msxb, msxc, msxd, and msxe genes, which together constitute zebrafish orthologs of tetrapod Msx1, Msx2, and Msx3. Genomic analysis suggests orthologs for this difficult to understand group of paralogs.

  3. STUDIES ON DETERMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL LEVELS OF ZINC IONS IN THE PHARYNGEAL TONSILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Nogaj

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The zinc is one of the most important microelements. Element this conditions has corrected the functioning the nervous system of, immunological, sense of taste and smell. It the weakness of activity was manifested was the shortage of zinc and children’s motive development. The aim of this study was samples of pharyngeal tonsils from children living on Malopolska Region, Silesia and village (made up the area of reference of Southern Poland. We investigated population 95 children, in this 40 girls (42% and 55 boys (58% in age from 2 till 15 years (average 6,8 years. The content of zinc was determined by ICP – AES method. Average the content of zinc in pharyngeal tonsils in whole studied children’s population carried out 74,51 µg/g. The statistical differences were not affirmed among average (the average geometrical content of ions of zinc in studied come from girls – 73,15 µg/g and the boys – 75,49 µg/g. The differences between sex appear, in case of ranges of changes, at boys range this it is clearly larger (55,86–97,59 µg/g in comparison to girls (58,34–88,68 µg/g how also near comparison of content answering 95 percentylowi (the incidental resulting with large environmental exposition contents it in the pharyngeal boys’ tonsils is larger – (87,73 µg/g in comparison to young girls (81,98 µg/g. It was established, on basis of report of changes quotient content zinc in pharyngeal tonsils in function of changes of content zinc in air dust, the physiological quantities of zinc in pharyngeal tonsil on level 42 µg/g.

  4. Pharyngeal Electrical Stimulation for Treatment of Dysphagia in Subacute Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bath, Philip M W; Scutt, Polly; Love, Jo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dysphagia is common after stroke, associated with increased death and dependency, and treatment options are limited. Pharyngeal electric stimulation (PES) is a novel treatment for poststroke dysphagia that has shown promise in 3 pilot randomized controlled trials. METHODS...

  5. Examination of a Palatogenic Gene Program in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Mary E.; Sheehan-Rooney, Kelly; Dixon, Michael J.; Eberhart, Johann K.

    2011-01-01

    Human palatal clefting is debilitating and difficult to rectify surgically. Animal models enhance our understanding of palatogenesis and are essential in strategies designed to ameliorate palatal malformations in humans. Recent studies have shown that the zebrafish palate, or anterior neurocranium, is under similar genetic control to the amniote palatal skeleton. We extensively analyzed palatogenesis in zebrafish to determine the similarity of gene expression and function across vertebrates. By 36 hpf palatogenic cranial neural crest cells reside in homologous regions of the developing face compared to amniote species. Transcription factors and signaling molecules regulating mouse palatogenesis are expressed in similar domains during palatogenesis in zebrafish. Functional investigation of a subset of these genes, fgf10a, tgfb2, pax9 and smad5 revealed their necessity in zebrafish palatogenesis. Collectively, these results suggest that the gene regulatory networks regulating palatogenesis may be conserved across vertebrate species, demonstrating the utility of zebrafish as a model for palatogenesis. PMID:22016187

  6. Dental arch dimensions, form and tooth size ratio among a Saudi sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidi Omar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the dental arch dimensions and arch forms in a sample of Saudi orthodontic patients, to investigate the prevalence of Bolton anterior and overall tooth size discrepancies, and to compare the effect of gender on the measured parameters. Methods: This study is a biometric analysis of dental casts of 149 young adults recruited from different orthodontic centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The dental arch dimensions were measured. The measured parameters were arch length, arch width, Bolton’s ratio, and arch form. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS software version 22.0 (IBM Corporation, New York, USA; this cross-sectional study was conducted between April 2015 and May 2016. Results: Dental arch measurements, including inter-canine and inter-molar distance, were found to be significantly greater in males than females (p less than 0.05. The most prevalent dental arch forms were narrow tapered (50.3% and narrow ovoid (34.2%, respectively. The prevalence of tooth size discrepancy in all cases was 43.6% for anterior ratio and 24.8% for overall ratio. The mean Bolton’s anterior ratio in all malocclusion classes was 79.81%, whereas the mean Bolton’s overall ratio was 92.21%. There was no significant difference between males and females regarding Bolton’s ratio. Conclusion: The most prevalent arch form was narrow tapered, followed by narrow ovoid. Males generally had larger dental arch measurements than females, and the prevalence of tooth size discrepancy was more in Bolton’s anterior teeth ratio than in overall ratio.

  7. Zebrafish models in neuropsychopharmacology and CNS drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kanza M; Collier, Adam D; Meshalkina, Darya A; Kysil, Elana V; Khatsko, Sergey L; Kolesnikova, Tatyana; Morzherin, Yury Yu; Warnick, Jason E; Kalueff, Allan V; Echevarria, David J

    2017-07-01

    Despite the high prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders, their aetiology and molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasingly utilized as a powerful animal model in neuropharmacology research and in vivo drug screening. Collectively, this makes zebrafish a useful tool for drug discovery and the identification of disordered molecular pathways. Here, we discuss zebrafish models of selected human neuropsychiatric disorders and drug-induced phenotypes. As well as covering a broad range of brain disorders (from anxiety and psychoses to neurodegeneration), we also summarize recent developments in zebrafish genetics and small molecule screening, which markedly enhance the disease modelling and the discovery of novel drug targets. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. First Branchial Arch Fistula: A Rarity and a Surgical Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, J S; Ganesh, Deepa; Anirudh, J R; Akbar, S; Joshi, Niraj

    2016-06-01

    Although 2(nd) Branchial arch fistulae (from incomplete closure of Cervical sinus of His) are well known, 1(st) arch fistulae are much rarer (branchial arch fistula of the type II Arnot classification, which presented with two external openings of more than 20 years duration. Patient had a successful resection of all the concerned fistulous tract. Review of literature and the surgical challenges of the procedure are presented herewith.

  9. Variations in tooth size and arch dimensions in Malay schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Khalid W; Rajion, Zainul A; Hassan, Rozita; Noor, Siti Noor Fazliah Mohd

    2009-11-01

    To compare the mesio-distal tooth sizes and dental arch dimensions in Malay boys and girls with Class I, Class II and Class III malocclusions. The dental casts of 150 subjects (78 boys, 72 girls), between 12 and 16 years of age, with Class I, Class II and Class III malocclusions were used. Each group consisted of 50 subjects. An electronic digital caliper was used to measure the mesio-distal tooth sizes of the upper and lower permanent teeth (first molar to first molar), the intercanine and intermolar widths. The arch lengths and arch perimeters were measured with AutoCAD software (Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, U.S.A.). The mesio-distal dimensions of the upper lateral incisors and canines in the Class I malocclusion group were significantly smaller than the corresponding teeth in the Class III and Class II groups, respectively. The lower canines and first molars were significantly smaller in the Class I group than the corresponding teeth in the Class II group. The lower intercanine width was significantly smaller in the Class II group as compared with the Class I group, and the upper intermolar width was significantly larger in Class III group as compared with the Class II group. There were no significant differences in the arch perimeters or arch lengths. The boys had significantly wider teeth than the girls, except for the left lower second premolar. The boys also had larger upper and lower intermolar widths and lower intercanine width than the girls. Small, but statistically significant, differences in tooth sizes are not necessarily accompanied by significant arch width, arch length or arch perimeter differences. Generally, boys have wider teeth, larger lower intercanine width and upper and lower intermolar widths than girls.

  10. Lucy's flat feet: the relationship between the ankle and rearfoot arching in early hominins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy M DeSilva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the Plio-Pleistocene, the hominin foot evolved from a grasping appendage to a stiff, propulsive lever. Central to this transition was the development of the longitudinal arch, a structure that helps store elastic energy and stiffen the foot during bipedal locomotion. Direct evidence for arch evolution, however, has been somewhat elusive given the failure of soft-tissue to fossilize. Paleoanthropologists have relied on footprints and bony correlates of arch development, though little consensus has emerged as to when the arch evolved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we present evidence from radiographs of modern humans (n = 261 that the set of the distal tibia in the sagittal plane, henceforth referred to as the tibial arch angle, is related to rearfoot arching. Non-human primates have a posteriorly directed tibial arch angle, while most humans have an anteriorly directed tibial arch angle. Those humans with a posteriorly directed tibial arch angle (8% have significantly lower talocalcaneal and talar declination angles, both measures of an asymptomatic flatfoot. Application of these results to the hominin fossil record reveals that a well developed rearfoot arch had evolved in Australopithecus afarensis. However, as in humans today, Australopithecus populations exhibited individual variation in foot morphology and arch development, and "Lucy" (A.L. 288-1, a 3.18 Myr-old female Australopithecus, likely possessed asymptomatic flat feet. Additional distal tibiae from the Plio-Pleistocene show variation in tibial arch angles, including two early Homo tibiae that also have slightly posteriorly directed tibial arch angles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study finds that the rearfoot arch was present in the genus Australopithecus. However, the female Australopithecus afarensis "Lucy" has an ankle morphology consistent with non-pathological flat-footedness. This study suggests that, as in humans today, there was variation in arch

  11. Detection of vitellogenin incorporation into zebrafish oocytes by FITC fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoi Hayato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large volumes of lymph can be collected from the eye-sacs of bubble-eye goldfish. We attempted to induce vitellogenin (Vtg in the eye-sac lymph of bubble-eye goldfish and develop a method for visualizing Vtg incorporation by zebrafish oocytes using FITC-labeling. Methods Estrogen efficiently induced Vtg in the eye-sac lymph of goldfish. After FITC-labeled Vtg was prepared, it was injected into mature female zebrafish. Results Incorporation of FITC-labeled Vtg by zebrafish oocytes was detected in in vivo and in vitro experiments. The embryos obtained from zebrafish females injected with FITC-labeled Vtg emitted FITC fluorescence from the yolk sac and developed normally. Conclusion This method for achieving Vtg incorporation by zebrafish oocytes could be useful in experiments related to the development and endocrinology of zebrafish oocytes.

  12. Definition of the zebrafish genome using flow cytometry and cytogenetic mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The zebrafish (Danio rerio is an important vertebrate model organism system for biomedical research. The syntenic conservation between the zebrafish and human genome allows one to investigate the function of human genes using the zebrafish model. To facilitate analysis of the zebrafish genome, genetic maps have been constructed and sequence annotation of a reference zebrafish genome is ongoing. However, the duplicative nature of teleost genomes, including the zebrafish, complicates accurate assembly and annotation of a representative genome sequence. Cytogenetic approaches provide "anchors" that can be integrated with accumulating genomic data. Results Here, we cytogenetically define the zebrafish genome by first estimating the size of each linkage group (LG chromosome using flow cytometry, followed by the cytogenetic mapping of 575 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones onto metaphase chromosomes. Of the 575 BAC clones, 544 clones localized to apparently unique chromosomal locations. 93.8% of these clones were assigned to a specific LG chromosome location using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and compared to the LG chromosome assignment reported in the zebrafish genome databases. Thirty-one BAC clones localized to multiple chromosomal locations in several different hybridization patterns. From these data, a refined second generation probe panel for each LG chromosome was also constructed. Conclusion The chromosomal mapping of the 575 large-insert DNA clones allows for these clones to be integrated into existing zebrafish mapping data. An accurately annotated zebrafish reference genome serves as a valuable resource for investigating the molecular basis of human diseases using zebrafish mutant models.

  13. Crozat appliance therapy for an arch-length discrepancy problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M

    1991-01-01

    The case involved a white male subject, aged 10 years 6 months, with a Class I molar relationship complicated by a deep overbite and impaction of all four permanent canines, which were completely blocked out of the arches. The growth rate of the arches was found to be abnormal, and there was premature loss of the deciduous teeth. Over a period of approximately 5 years, with intermittent pauses to allow growth to catch up with treatment, the Crozat removable appliance was used to help establish the arch form and correct the plane of occlusion.

  14. Patterns of spatial and temporal visceral arch muscle development in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Rolf; Olsson, Lennart

    2004-08-01

    Vertebrate head development is a classical topic that has received renewed attention during the last decade. Most reports use one of a few model organisms (chicken, mouse, zebrafish) and have focused on molecular mechanisms and the role of the neural crest, while cranial muscle development has received less attention. Here we describe cranial muscle differentiation and morphogenesis in the Mexican axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum. To determine the onset of differentiation we use antibodies against desmin and optical sectioning using confocal laser scanning microscopy on whole-mount immunostained embryos. This technique makes it possible to document the cranial muscle in three dimensions while keeping the specimens intact. Desmin expression starts almost simultaneously in the first, second, and third visceral arch muscles (as in other amphibians studied). Muscle anlagen divide up early into the different elements which constitute the larval cranial musculature. We extend and refine earlier findings, e.g., by documenting a clear division between interhyoideus and interhyoideus posterior. The timing of cranial muscle differentiation differs among vertebrate groups, but seems to be constant within each group. This study provides a morphological foundation for further studies of muscle cell fate and early differentiation. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Biosecurity and Health Monitoring at the Zebrafish International Resource Center

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Katrina N.; Varga, Zolt?n M.; Kent, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The Zebrafish International Resource Center (ZIRC) is a repository and distribution center for mutant, transgenic, and wild-type zebrafish. In recent years annual imports of new zebrafish lines to ZIRC have increased tremendously. In addition, after 15 years of research, we have identified some of the most virulent pathogens affecting zebrafish that should be avoided in large production facilities, such as ZIRC. Therefore, while importing a high volume of new lines we prioritize safeguarding ...

  16. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity in the Midas cichlid fish pharyngeal jaw and its relevance in adaptive radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salzburger Walter

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenotypic evolution and its role in the diversification of organisms is a central topic in evolutionary biology. A neglected factor during the modern evolutionary synthesis, adaptive phenotypic plasticity, more recently attracted the attention of many evolutionary biologists and is now recognized as an important ingredient in both population persistence and diversification. The traits and directions in which an ancestral source population displays phenotypic plasticity might partly determine the trajectories in morphospace, which are accessible for an adaptive radiation, starting from the colonization of a novel environment. In the case of repeated colonizations of similar environments from the same source population this "flexible stem" hypothesis predicts similar phenotypes to arise in repeated subsequent radiations. The Midas Cichlid (Amphilophus spp. in Nicaragua has radiated in parallel in several crater-lakes seeded by populations originating from the Nicaraguan Great Lakes. Here, we tested phenotypic plasticity in the pharyngeal jaw of Midas Cichlids. The pharyngeal jaw apparatus of cichlids, a second set of jaws functionally decoupled from the oral ones, is known to mediate ecological specialization and often differs strongly between sister-species. Results We performed a common garden experiment raising three groups of Midas cichlids on food differing in hardness and calcium content. Analyzing the lower pharyngeal jaw-bones we find significant differences between diet groups qualitatively resembling the differences found between specialized species. Observed differences in pharyngeal jaw expression between groups were attributable to the diet's mechanical resistance, whereas surplus calcium in the diet was not found to be of importance. Conclusions The pharyngeal jaw apparatus of Midas Cichlids can be expressed plastically if stimulated mechanically during feeding. Since this trait is commonly differentiated - among

  17. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity in the Midas cichlid fish pharyngeal jaw and its relevance in adaptive radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschick, Moritz; Barluenga, Marta; Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel

    2011-04-30

    Phenotypic evolution and its role in the diversification of organisms is a central topic in evolutionary biology. A neglected factor during the modern evolutionary synthesis, adaptive phenotypic plasticity, more recently attracted the attention of many evolutionary biologists and is now recognized as an important ingredient in both population persistence and diversification. The traits and directions in which an ancestral source population displays phenotypic plasticity might partly determine the trajectories in morphospace, which are accessible for an adaptive radiation, starting from the colonization of a novel environment. In the case of repeated colonizations of similar environments from the same source population this "flexible stem" hypothesis predicts similar phenotypes to arise in repeated subsequent radiations. The Midas Cichlid (Amphilophus spp.) in Nicaragua has radiated in parallel in several crater-lakes seeded by populations originating from the Nicaraguan Great Lakes. Here, we tested phenotypic plasticity in the pharyngeal jaw of Midas Cichlids. The pharyngeal jaw apparatus of cichlids, a second set of jaws functionally decoupled from the oral ones, is known to mediate ecological specialization and often differs strongly between sister-species. We performed a common garden experiment raising three groups of Midas cichlids on food differing in hardness and calcium content. Analyzing the lower pharyngeal jaw-bones we find significant differences between diet groups qualitatively resembling the differences found between specialized species. Observed differences in pharyngeal jaw expression between groups were attributable to the diet's mechanical resistance, whereas surplus calcium in the diet was not found to be of importance. The pharyngeal jaw apparatus of Midas Cichlids can be expressed plastically if stimulated mechanically during feeding. Since this trait is commonly differentiated--among other traits--between Midas Cichlid species, its plasticity

  18. Comparative Study of 5-Day and 10-Day Cefditoren Pivoxil Treatments for Recurrent Group A β-Hemolytic Streptococcus pharyngitis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Kikuta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of short-course therapy with cephalosporins for treatment of group A β-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS pharyngitis is still controversial. Subjects were 226 children with a history of at least one episode of GABHS pharyngitis. Recurrence within the follow-up period (3 weeks after initiation of therapy occurred in 7 of the 77 children in the 5-day treatment group and in 1 of the 149 children in the 10-day treatment group; the incidence of recurrence being significantly higher in the 5-day treatment group. Bacteriologic treatment failure (GABHS isolation without overt pharyngitis at follow-up culture was observed in 7 of the 77 children in the 5-day treatment group and 17 of the 149 children in the 10-day treatment group. There was no statistical difference between the two groups. A 5-day course of oral cephalosporins is not always recommended for treatment of GABHS pharyngitis in children who have repeated episodes of pharyngitis.

  19. Zebrafish models for the functional genomics of neurogenetic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabashi, Edor; Brustein, Edna; Champagne, Nathalie; Drapeau, Pierre

    2011-03-01

    In this review, we consider recent work using zebrafish to validate and study the functional consequences of mutations of human genes implicated in a broad range of degenerative and developmental disorders of the brain and spinal cord. Also we present technical considerations for those wishing to study their own genes of interest by taking advantage of this easily manipulated and clinically relevant model organism. Zebrafish permit mutational analyses of genetic function (gain or loss of function) and the rapid validation of human variants as pathological mutations. In particular, neural degeneration can be characterized at genetic, cellular, functional, and behavioral levels. Zebrafish have been used to knock down or express mutations in zebrafish homologs of human genes and to directly express human genes bearing mutations related to neurodegenerative disorders such as spinal muscular atrophy, ataxia, hereditary spastic paraplegia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), epilepsy, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, fronto-temporal dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. More recently, we have been using zebrafish to validate mutations of synaptic genes discovered by large-scale genomic approaches in developmental disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, and non-syndromic mental retardation. Advances in zebrafish genetics such as multigenic analyses and chemical genetics now offer a unique potential for disease research. Thus, zebrafish hold much promise for advancing the functional genomics of human diseases, the understanding of the genetics and cell biology of degenerative and developmental disorders, and the discovery of therapeutics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Zebrafish Models of Neurological Diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of persistent fifth aortic arch in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Yumin; Zhu, Ming; Sun, Aimin; Li, Yuhua; Jaffe, Richard B.; Gao, Wei

    2007-01-01

    Cine angiography and echocardiography have been utilized to diagnose congenital aortic arch anomalies. However, the visualization of great vessels by echocardiography is limited, while cine angiography requires cardiac catheterization with ionizing radiation. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a noninvasive modality suitable for visualization of congenital aortic arch anomalies. To evaluate the utility of contrast-enhanced MRA in the diagnosis of persistent fifth aortic arch, a rare congenital aortic arch anomaly, and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of MRA with that of echocardiography and cine angiography. In four pediatric patients, contrast-enhanced MRA studies were performed for diagnosing persistent fifth aortic arch. The findings of MRA were compared with echocardiographic findings and confirmed by cine angiography and operation. Transthoracic surface echocardiography noted an aberrant vessel arising from the ascending aorta in two of four patients; the etiology of this vessel was uncertain. In the other two patients a diagnosis of coarctation was made. Of the four patients, only one was diagnosed with interruption of the aortic arch. Contrast-enhanced MRA clarified uncertain echocardiographic findings, enabling the correct diagnosis of persistent fifth aortic arch with fourth aortic arch interruption in all four patients. Contrast-enhanced MRA is a safe, accurate, and fast imaging technique for the evaluation of persistent fifth aortic arch and may obviate the need for conventional cine angiography. Cardiac catheterization may be reserved for some types of complicated congenital heart disease and for obtaining hemodynamic information. (orig.)

  1. Is the South African exchange rate volatile? Application of the arch framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thato Julius Mokoma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study applies the autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (ARCH model to forecast exchange rate volatility in South Africa for the period 1990Q1 to 2014Q2. The ARCH (1 and ARCH (2 models were constructed using four variables; namely, exchange rate, gross domestic product, inflation and interest rates. Upon addressing the issue of stationarity, the models were fitted and the ARCH (1 model was found to be fit. This model revealed a high volatility of exchange rate compared to the ARCH (2 model. Prior to forecasting, the selected model was subjected to a battery of diagnostics tests and was found to be stable and well specified. The forecasts from the ARCH (1 model proved that in the near future, exchange rate will not be highly volatile though SA will experience depreciation in its currency.

  2. Clinical signs suggestive of pharyngeal dysphagia in preschool children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the discriminative validity, reproducibility, and prevalence of clinical signs suggestive of pharyngeal dysphagia according to gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). It was a cross-sectional population-based study of 130 children diagnosed with CP at 18-36 months (mean=27.4, 81 males) and 40 children with typical development (TD, mean=26.2, 18 males). Sixteen signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment were directly observed in a videoed mealtime by a speech pathologist, and reported by parents on a questionnaire. Gross motor function was classified using the Gross Motor Function Classification System. The study found that 67.7% of children had clinical signs, and this increased with poorer gross motor function (OR=1.7, pDysphagia cut-points were modified to exclude a single cough on fluids, with a modified prevalence estimate proposed as 50.8%. Clinical signs suggestive of pharyngeal dysphagia are common in children with CP, even those with ambulatory CP. Parent-report on 16 specific signs remains a feasible screening method. While coughing was consistently identified by clinicians, it may not reflect children's regular performance, and was not sufficiently discriminative in children aged 18-36 months. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Clark's twin-block appliance (CTB and non-extraction fixed mechano-therapy on the pharyngeal dimensions of growing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Ali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Narrow airway dimensions due to mandibular deficiency can predispose an individual to severe respiratory distress. Hence, treatment with mandibular advancement devices at an early age might help improving the pharyngeal passage and reduce the risk of respiratory difficulties. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the mean changes in the pharyngeal dimensions of children with mandibular deficiency treated with Clark's twin-block appliance (CTB followed by fixed orthodontic treatment. Methods: Orthodontic records of 42 children with mandibular deficiency were selected. Records comprised three lateral cephalograms taken at the start of CTB treatment, after CTB removal and at the end of fixed appliance treatment, and were compared with 32 controls from the Bolton-Brush study. Friedman test was used to compare pre-treatment, mid-treatment and post-treatment pharyngeal dimensions. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the airway between pre-treatment and post follow-up controls. Mann-Whitney U test was applied to compare the mean changes in pharyngeal dimensions between treatment group and controls from T2 to T0. Post-hoc Dunnet T3 test was used for multiple comparisons of treatment outcomes after CTB and fixed appliances, taking a p-value of ≤ 0.05 as statistically significant. Results: Superior pharyngeal space (p < 0.001 and upper airway thickness (p = 0.035 were significantly increased after CTB, and the change in superior pharyngeal space remained stable after fixed mechano-therapy. Conclusion: CTB can have a positive effect in improving pharyngeal space and the resultant increase in airway remains stable on an average of two and a half years.

  4. Effect of palatal augmentation prosthesis on pharyngeal manometric pressure in a patient with functional dysphagia: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Tomohisa; Ohno, Ryo; Fujishima, Ichiro

    2017-10-01

    A 53-year-old institutionalized male patient with a history of postoperative bilateral hypoglossal nerve injury was admitted for treatment of dysphagia. He experienced dysphagia involving oral cavity-to-pharynx bolus transportation because of restricted tongue movement and was treated with a palatal augmentation prosthesis (PAP), which resulted in improved bolus transportation, pharyngeal swallowing pressure, and clearance of oral and pharyngeal residue. The mean pharyngeal swallowing pressure at tongue base with the PAP (145.5±7.5mmHg) was significantly greater than that observed immediately after removal of the PAP (118.3±10.1mmHg; pDysphagia rehabilitation with the PAP was continued. Approximately 1 month after PAP application, the patient could orally consume three meals, with the exception of foods particularly difficult to swallow. The supporting contact between the tongue and palate enabled by the PAP resulted in improvement of bolus transportation, which is the most important effect of a PAP. The increase in pharyngeal swallowing pressure at the tongue base because of PAP-enabled tongue-palate contact might play an important role in this improvement. Since a PAP augments the volume of the palate, it enables easy contact between the tongue and palate, resulting in the formation of an anchor point for tongue movement during swallowing. Thus, application of a PAP increases the tongue force, especially that of the basal tongue. A palatal augmentation prosthesis helps improve pharyngeal swallowing pressure at the basal tongue region and might contribute to the decrease of oral as well as pharyngeal residue. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hallucigenia's head and the pharyngeal armature of early ecdysozoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin R; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2015-07-02

    The molecularly defined clade Ecdysozoa comprises the panarthropods (Euarthropoda, Onychophora and Tardigrada) and the cycloneuralian worms (Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Priapulida, Loricifera and Kinorhyncha). These disparate phyla are united by their means of moulting, but otherwise share few morphological characters--none of which has a meaningful fossilization potential. As such, the early evolutionary history of the group as a whole is largely uncharted. Here we redescribe the 508-million-year-old stem-group onychophoran Hallucigenia sparsa from the mid-Cambrian Burgess Shale. We document an elongate head with a pair of simple eyes, a terminal buccal chamber containing a radial array of sclerotized elements, and a differentiated foregut that is lined with acicular teeth. The radial elements and pharyngeal teeth resemble the sclerotized circumoral elements and pharyngeal teeth expressed in tardigrades, stem-group euarthropods and cycloneuralian worms. Phylogenetic results indicate that equivalent structures characterized the ancestral panarthropod and, seemingly, the ancestral ecdysozoan, demonstrating the deep homology of panarthropod and cycloneuralian mouthparts, and providing an anatomical synapomorphy for the ecdysozoan supergroup.

  6. Characterization of behavioral and endocrine effects of LSD on zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Leah; Utterback, Eli; Stewart, Adam; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Chung, Kyung Min; Suciu, Christopher; Wong, Keith; Elegante, Marco; Elkhayat, Salem; Tan, Julia; Gilder, Thomas; Wu, Nadine; Dileo, John; Cachat, Jonathan; Kalueff, Allan V

    2010-12-25

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogenic drug that strongly affects animal and human behavior. Although adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) are emerging as a promising neurobehavioral model, the effects of LSD on zebrafish have not been investigated previously. Several behavioral paradigms (the novel tank, observation cylinder, light-dark box, open field, T-maze, social preference and shoaling tests), as well as modern video-tracking tools and whole-body cortisol assay were used to characterize the effects of acute LSD in zebrafish. While lower doses (5-100 microg/L) did not affect zebrafish behavior, 250 microg/L LSD increased top dwelling and reduced freezing in the novel tank and observation cylinder tests, also affecting spatiotemporal patterns of activity (as assessed by 3D reconstruction of zebrafish traces and ethograms). LSD evoked mild thigmotaxis in the open field test, increased light behavior in the light-dark test, reduced the number of arm entries and freezing in the T-maze and social preference test, without affecting social preference. In contrast, LSD affected zebrafish shoaling (increasing the inter-fish distance in a group), and elevated whole-body cortisol levels. Overall, our findings show sensitivity of zebrafish to LSD action, and support the use of zebrafish models to study hallucinogenic drugs of abuse. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural properties and out-of-plane stability of roller bent steel arches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoorenberg, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    In contemporary architecture the use of steel arches has seen a significant increase. They are applied in buildings and large span bridges, combining structural design with architectural merits. For arches lacking lateral support (or freestanding arches) the out-of-plane structural stability

  8. Asymptotics of the QMLE for General ARCH(q) Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Dennis; Rahbek, Anders Christian

    2009-01-01

    -ARCH -- are derived. Strong consistency is established under the assumptions that the ARCH process is geometrically ergodic, the conditional variance function has a finite log-moment, and finite second moment of the rescaled error. Asymptotic normality of the estimator is established under the additional assumption...

  9. Comparative analysis of the construction solution variants for flat arch coverings of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibragimov Aleksandr Mayorovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Arch structures of long span buildings’ coverings are more beneficial in respect to material expenses, than beam and frame systems. Constructive schemes of roof frameworks of arch coverings are diverse, which means their operation under loading differs much. The authors offer a number of construction solutions for flat arch coverings of long span buildings. The comparative analysis of these construction solutions is presented. The operation of radial link arch is observed. The arch consists of discontinuous top chord and radial bowstring under the single load (uniformly distributed and concentrated in nods with different spans and rises. The problem of radial link arch optimization is solved in dependence with arising forces and rise. The optimal camber of arch was found. In further works the authors plan to analyze spans more than 36 meters and solve the problem in case of asymmetrical loadings.

  10. Characterization of the Zebrafish Homolog of Zipper Interacting Protein Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon W. Carr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK is a conserved vertebrate-specific regulator of actomyosin contractility in smooth muscle and non-muscle cells. Murine ZIPK has undergone an unusual divergence in sequence and regulation compared to other ZIPK orthologs. In humans, subcellular localization is controlled by phosphorylation of threonines 299 and 300. In contrast, ZIPK subcellular localization in mouse and rat is controlled by interaction with PAR-4. We carried out a comparative biochemical characterization of the regulation of the zebrafish ortholog of ZIPK. Like the human orthologs zebrafish ZIPK undergoes nucleocytoplasmic-shuttling and is abundant in the cytoplasm, unlike the primarily nuclear rat ZIPK. Rat ZIPK, but not human or zebrafish ZIPK, interacts with zebrafish PAR-4. Mutation of the conserved residues required for activation of the mammalian orthologs abrogated activity of the zebrafish ZIPK. In contrast to the human ortholog, mutation of threonine 299 and 300 in the zebrafish ZIPK has no effect on the activity or subcellular localization. Thus, we found that zebrafish ZIPK functions in a manner most similar to the human ZIPK and quite distinct from murine orthologs, yet the regulation of subcellular localization is not conserved.

  11. A preliminary evaluation of myoelectrical energy distribution of the front neck muscles in pharyngeal phase during normal swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingxing Zhu; Wanzhang Yang; Samuel, Oluwarotimi Williams; Yun Xiang; Jianping Huang; Haiqing Zou; Guanglin Li

    2016-08-01

    Pharyngeal phase is a central hub of swallowing in which food bolus pass through from the oral cavity to the esophageal. Proper understanding of the muscular activities in the pharyngeal phase is useful for assessing swallowing function and the occurrence of dysphagia in humans. In this study, high-density (HD) surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to study the muscular activities in the pharyngeal phase during swallowing tasks involving three healthy male subjects. The root mean square (RMS) of the HD sEMG data was computed by using a series of segmented windows as myoelectrical energy. And the RMS of each window covering all channels (16×5) formed a matrix. During the pharyngeal phase of swallowing, three of the matrixes were chosen and normalized to obtain the HD energy maps and the statistical parameter. The maps across different viscosity levels offered the energy distribution which showed the muscular activities of the left and right sides of the front neck muscles. In addition, the normalized average RMS (NARE) across different viscosity levels revealed a left-right significant correlation (r=0.868±0.629, pstronger correlation when swallowing water. This pilot study suggests that HD sEMG would be a potential tool to evaluate muscular activities in pharyngeal phase during normal swallowing. Also, it might provide useful information for dysphagia diagnosis.

  12. The Effect of Pharyngeal Packing during Nasal Surgery on the Incidence of Post Operative Nausea, Vomiting, and Sore Throat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karbasfrushan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nausea and vomiting after ear, nose and throat (ENT surgery is one of the most common and notable problems facing anesthesiologists in this area. This study was conducted to determine the effect of a pharyngeal pack on the severity of nausea, vomiting, and sore throat among patients after ear, pharynx, and throat surgeries.   Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical study was performed in 140 patients (61 men and 79 women; age range, 20–40 years who had undergone nasal surgery in 2010. Patients were divided into two groups: the first group were treated using a pharyngeal pack (case group and the second group were managed without a pharyngeal pack (control group. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney U test. SPSS software was used for data analysis.   Results: The mean severity of nausea and vomiting in the two groups was 2.057, 1.371 and 1.100, respectively, with no significant differences between groups. However, the mean severity of sore throat was 1.714 in the group with the pharyngeal pack and 1.385 in the group without pharyngeal pack (P=0.010.   Conclusion:  Not only does a pharyngeal pack in ENT surgery not reduce the extent and severity of nausea and vomiting, but it also increases the severity of sore throat in patients when leaving the recovery room and discharging hospital.

  13. Lateral testing of glued laminated timber tudor arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer; Philip Line

    2016-01-01

    Glued laminated timber Tudor arches have been in wide use in the United States since the 1930s, but detailed knowledge related to seismic design in modern U.S. building codes is lacking. FEMA P-695 (P-695) is a methodology to determine seismic performance factors for a seismic force resisting system. A limited P-695 study for glued laminated timber arch structures...

  14. Twin - Arch technique. Revival of the "edgewise -Technique"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Karp

    2012-01-01

    The SNB – Bracket brings a new dimension into the orthodontic world which is most apparent in extraction cases. Its Teflon – like material has a very low friction coefficient thus, reducing the treatment time considerably. Through the use of low dimensioned arch wires, the Twin – Arch Technique becomes a Light – wire system and simultaneously provides good anchorage and torque control.

  15. Dental arch changes associated with rapid maxillary expansion: A retrospective model analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivor M D′Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transverse deficiency of the maxilla is a common clinical problem in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. Transverse maxillary deficiency, isolated or associated with other dentofacial deformities, results in esthetic and functional impairment giving rise to several clinical manifestations such as asymmetrical facial growth, positional and functional mandibular deviations, altered dentofacial esthetics, adverse periodontal responses, unstable dental tipping, and other functional problems. Orthopedic maxillary expansion is the preferred treatment approach to increase the maxillary transverse dimension in young patients by splitting of the mid palatal suture. This orthopedic procedure has lately been subject of renewed interest in orthodontic treatment mechanics because of its potential for increasing arch perimeter to alleviate crowding in the maxillary arch without adversely affecting facial profile. Hence, the present investigation was conducted to establish a correlation between transverse expansion and changes in the arch perimeter, arch width and arch length. Methods: For this purpose, 10 subjects (five males, five females were selected who had been treated by rapid maxillary expansion (RME using hyrax rapid palatal expander followed by fixed mechanotherapy (PEA. Pretreatment (T1, postexpansion (T2, and posttreatment (T3 dental models were compared for dental changes brought about by RME treatment and its stability at the end of fixed mechanotherapy. After model measurements were made, the changes between T1-T2, T2-T3 and T1-T3 were determined for each patient. The mean difference between T1-T2, T2-T3 and T1-T3 were compared to assess the effects of RME on dental arch measurements. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and are compared by repeated measures analysis of variance followed by a post-hoc test. Arch perimeter changes are correlated with changes in arch widths at the canine, premolar and molar

  16. Pharyngeal transit time measured by scintigraphic and biomagnetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miquelin, C.A.; Braga, F.J.H.N.; Baffa, O.

    1996-01-01

    A comparative evaluation between scintigraphic and biomagnetic method to measure the pharyngeal transit is presented. Three volunteers have been studied. The aliment (yogurt) was labeled with 9 9 m Technetium for the scintigraphic test and with ferrite for the biomagnetic one. The preliminary results indicate a difference between the values obtained, probably due to the biomagnetic detector resolution

  17. Chronic Pharyngitis And Multiple Soft Palate Peforation In An HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report is at advocating the need for repeated investigation and screening for HIV particularly when there is persistent clinical feature strongly suggestive of AIDS. Should we even start to contemplate therapeutic of antiretroviral dugs in some cases? KEY WORDS: Chronic pharyngitis, Soft palate perforation, AIDS, HIV ...

  18. HCV IRES-mediated core expression in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhao

    Full Text Available The lack of small animal models for hepatitis C virus has impeded the discovery and development of anti-HCV drugs. HCV-IRES plays an important role in HCV gene expression, and is an attractive target for antiviral therapy. In this study, we report a zebrafish model with a biscistron expression construct that can co-transcribe GFP and HCV-core genes by human hepatic lipase promoter and zebrafish liver fatty acid binding protein enhancer. HCV core translation was designed mediated by HCV-IRES sequence and gfp was by a canonical cap-dependent mechanism. Results of fluorescence image and in situ hybridization indicate that expression of HCV core and GFP is liver-specific; RT-PCR and Western blotting show that both core and gfp expression are elevated in a time-dependent manner for both transcription and translation. It means that the HCV-IRES exerted its role in this zebrafish model. Furthermore, the liver-pathological impact associated with HCV-infection was detected by examination of gene markers and some of them were elevated, such as adiponectin receptor, heparanase, TGF-β, PDGF-α, etc. The model was used to evaluate three clinical drugs, ribavirin, IFNα-2b and vitamin B12. The results show that vitamin B12 inhibited core expression in mRNA and protein levels in dose-dependent manner, but failed to impact gfp expression. Also VB12 down-regulated some gene transcriptions involved in fat liver, liver fibrosis and HCV-associated pathological process in the larvae. It reveals that HCV-IRES responds to vitamin B12 sensitively in the zebrafish model. Ribavirin did not disturb core expression, hinting that HCV-IRES is not a target site of ribavirin. IFNα-2b was not active, which maybe resulted from its degradation in vivo for the long time. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of the zebrafish model for screening of anti-HCV drugs targeting to HCV-IRES. The zebrafish system provides a novel evidence of using zebrafish as a HCV model organism.

  19. Analysis of Lethality and Malformations During Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Azhwar; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2018-01-01

    The versatility offered by zebrafish (Danio rerio) makes it a powerful and an attractive vertebrate model in developmental toxicity and teratogenicity assays. Apart from the newly introduced chemicals as drugs, xenobiotics also induce abnormal developmental abnormalities and congenital malformations in living organisms. Over the recent decades, zebrafish embryo/larva has emerged as a potential tool to test teratogenicity potential of these chemicals. Zebrafish responds to compounds as mammals do as they share similarities in their development, metabolism, physiology, and signaling pathways with that of mammals. The methodology used by the different scientists varies enormously in the zebrafish embryotoxicity test. In this chapter, we present methods to assess lethality and malformations during zebrafish development. We propose two major malformations scoring systems: binomial and relative morphological scoring systems to assess the malformations in zebrafish embryos/larvae. Based on the scoring of the malformations, the test compound can be classified as a teratogen or a nonteratogen and its teratogenic potential is evaluated.

  20. Discussion on construction project of lining arch reinforcing stone arch bridge%内衬拱加固石拱桥施工方案探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔钧

    2012-01-01

    分析了石拱桥的常见病害及其原因,总结了石拱桥的加固技术,结合一个工程实例,对内衬拱加固石拱桥的有效施工方案进行了详细阐述,并证明了该加固方案的有效性。%This paper analysed the common diseases and its reasons of stone arch bridge, summed up the reinforcement technology of stone arch bridge, combining with an engineering example, elaborated in detail the effective construction scheme of lining arch reinforcing stone arch bridge, and proved the effectiveness of this reinforcement scheme.

  1. A zebrafish model of inflammatory lymphangiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhide S. Okuda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a disabling chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. IBD patients have increased intestinal lymphatic vessel density and recent studies have shown that this may contribute to the resolution of IBD. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in IBD-associated lymphangiogenesis are still unclear. In this study, we established a novel inflammatory lymphangiogenesis model in zebrafish larvae involving colitogenic challenge stimulated by exposure to 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS or dextran sodium sulphate (DSS. Treatment with either TNBS or DSS resulted in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (Vegfr-dependent lymphangiogenesis in the zebrafish intestine. Reduction of intestinal inflammation by the administration of the IBD therapeutic, 5-aminosalicylic acid, reduced intestinal lymphatic expansion. Zebrafish macrophages express vascular growth factors vegfaa, vegfc and vegfd and chemical ablation of these cells inhibits intestinal lymphatic expansion, suggesting that the recruitment of macrophages to the intestine upon colitogenic challenge is required for intestinal inflammatory lymphangiogenesis. Importantly, this study highlights the potential of zebrafish as an inflammatory lymphangiogenesis model that can be used to investigate the role and mechanism of lymphangiogenesis in inflammatory diseases such as IBD.

  2. Optimal graft diameter and location reduce postoperative complications after total arch replacement with long elephant trunk for arch aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Haruhiko; Funatsu, Toshihiro; Toda, Koich; Kainuma, Satoshi; Kuki, Satoru; Taniguchi, Kazuhiro

    2011-08-01

    Total arch replacement with an elephant trunk is a standard treatment for arch aneurysm, but serious complications, such as paraplegia and peripheral embolization caused by flapping of the elephant trunk, remain. Moreover, dilation of the descending aorta and retrograde flow into the peri-graft space at the distal elephant trunk are frequent problems. We hypothesized that optimal graft diameter and location would reduce complications after total arch replacement with a long elephant trunk by achieving complete thrombosis and minimal dilation of the descending aorta around the elephant trunk. We treated 65 patients with arch aneurysm by total arch replacement with a long elephant trunk anastomosed at the base of the innominate artery. The graft diameter was undersized (10%-20% of the distal aorta's diameter). Elephant trunk length was determined by preoperative computed tomography to locate the distal end at Th6 to Th8. Thrombosis around the elephant trunk, diameter of the descending aorta, and distance between the descending aorta and the graft near the distal end of the elephant trunk were evaluated using computed tomography. The distal end of the elephant trunk was located at Th 8 ± 1. There were no operative deaths, 3 patients (5%) died in the hospital, and 3 patients (5%) experienced spinal cord injury, including 1 in whom permanent paraplegia developed. Computed tomography revealed complete thrombosis around the elephant trunk in 58 patients (89%). The descending aorta did not dilate further, and distance between the descending aorta and the graft progressively decreased. Optimal graft diameter and location minimized postoperative complications, with complete thrombosis and no dilation of the descending aorta around the long elephant trunk in most patients. Copyright © 2011 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Trends in oral cavity, pharyngeal, oesophageal and gastric cancer mortality rates in Spain, 1952-2006: an age-period-cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane-Mato, Daniel; Aragonés, Nuria; Ferreras, Eva; García-Pérez, Javier; Cervantes-Amat, Marta; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2014-04-11

    Although oral cavity, pharyngeal, oesophageal and gastric cancers share some risk factors, no comparative analysis of mortality rate trends in these illnesses has been undertaken in Spain. This study aimed to evaluate the independent effects of age, death period and birth cohort on the mortality rates of these tumours. Specific and age-adjusted mortality rates by tumour and sex were analysed. Age-period-cohort log-linear models were fitted separately for each tumour and sex, and segmented regression models were used to detect changes in period- and cohort-effect curvatures. Among men, the period-effect curvatures for oral cavity/pharyngeal and oesophageal cancers displayed a mortality trend that rose until 1995 and then declined. Among women, oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer mortality increased throughout the study period whereas oesophageal cancer mortality decreased after 1970. Stomach cancer mortality decreased in both sexes from 1965 onwards. Lastly, the cohort-effect curvature showed a certain degree of similarity for all three tumours in both sexes, which was greater among oral cavity, pharyngeal and oesophageal cancers, with a change point in evidence, after which risk of death increased in cohorts born from the 1910-1920s onwards and decreased among the 1950-1960 cohorts and successive generations. This latter feature was likewise observed for stomach cancer. While the similarities of the cohort effects in oral cavity/pharyngeal, oesophageal and gastric tumours support the implication of shared risk factors, the more marked changes in cohort-effect curvature for oral cavity/pharyngeal and oesophageal cancer could be due to the greater influence of some risk factors in their aetiology, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. The increase in oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer mortality in women deserves further study.

  4. Silver nanoparticles induce endoplasmatic reticulum stress response in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, Verena [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Capelle, Martinus [Crucell, P.O. Box 2048, NL-2301 Leiden (Netherlands); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Department of Environmental Systems Science, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2013-10-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) find increasing applications, and therefore humans and the environment are increasingly exposed to them. However, potential toxicological implications are not sufficiently known. Here we investigate effects of AgNPs (average size 120 nm) on zebrafish in vitro and in vivo, and compare them to human hepatoma cells (Huh7). AgNPs are incorporated in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL) and Huh7, and in zebrafish embryos. In ZFL cells AgNPs lead to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress response, and TNF-α. Transcriptional alterations also occur in pro-apoptotic genes p53 and Bax. The transcriptional profile differed in ZFL and Huh7 cells. In ZFL cells, the ER stress marker BiP is induced, concomitant with the ER stress marker ATF-6 and spliced XBP-1 after 6 h and 24 h exposure to 0.5 g/L and 0.05 g/L AgNPs, respectively. This indicates the induction of different pathways of the ER stress response. Moreover, AgNPs induce TNF-α. In zebrafish embryos exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 5 mg/L AgNPs hatching was affected and morphological defects occurred at high concentrations. ER stress related gene transcripts BiP and Synv are significantly up-regulated after 24 h at 0.1 and 5 mg/L AgNPs. Furthermore, transcriptional alterations occurred in the pro-apoptotic genes Noxa and p21. The ER stress response was strong in ZFL cells and occurred in zebrafish embryos as well. Our data demonstrate for the first time that AgNPs lead to induction of ER stress in zebrafish. The induction of ER stress can have several consequences including the activation of apoptotic and inflammatory pathways. - Highlights: • Effects of silver nanoparticles (120 nm AgNPs) are investigated in zebrafish. • AgNPs induce all ER stress reponses in vitro in zebrafish liver cells. • AgNPs induce weak ER stress in zebrafish embryos. • AgNPs induce oxidative stress and transcripts of pro-apoptosis genes.

  5. Silver nanoparticles induce endoplasmatic reticulum stress response in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, Verena; Capelle, Martinus; Fent, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) find increasing applications, and therefore humans and the environment are increasingly exposed to them. However, potential toxicological implications are not sufficiently known. Here we investigate effects of AgNPs (average size 120 nm) on zebrafish in vitro and in vivo, and compare them to human hepatoma cells (Huh7). AgNPs are incorporated in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL) and Huh7, and in zebrafish embryos. In ZFL cells AgNPs lead to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress response, and TNF-α. Transcriptional alterations also occur in pro-apoptotic genes p53 and Bax. The transcriptional profile differed in ZFL and Huh7 cells. In ZFL cells, the ER stress marker BiP is induced, concomitant with the ER stress marker ATF-6 and spliced XBP-1 after 6 h and 24 h exposure to 0.5 g/L and 0.05 g/L AgNPs, respectively. This indicates the induction of different pathways of the ER stress response. Moreover, AgNPs induce TNF-α. In zebrafish embryos exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 5 mg/L AgNPs hatching was affected and morphological defects occurred at high concentrations. ER stress related gene transcripts BiP and Synv are significantly up-regulated after 24 h at 0.1 and 5 mg/L AgNPs. Furthermore, transcriptional alterations occurred in the pro-apoptotic genes Noxa and p21. The ER stress response was strong in ZFL cells and occurred in zebrafish embryos as well. Our data demonstrate for the first time that AgNPs lead to induction of ER stress in zebrafish. The induction of ER stress can have several consequences including the activation of apoptotic and inflammatory pathways. - Highlights: • Effects of silver nanoparticles (120 nm AgNPs) are investigated in zebrafish. • AgNPs induce all ER stress reponses in vitro in zebrafish liver cells. • AgNPs induce weak ER stress in zebrafish embryos. • AgNPs induce oxidative stress and transcripts of pro-apoptosis genes

  6. NASA ARCH- A FILE ARCHIVAL SYSTEM FOR THE DEC VAX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    The function of the NASA ARCH system is to provide a permanent storage area for files that are infrequently accessed. The NASA ARCH routines were designed to provide a simple mechanism by which users can easily store and retrieve files. The user treats NASA ARCH as the interface to a black box where files are stored. There are only five NASA ARCH user commands, even though NASA ARCH employs standard VMS directives and the VAX BACKUP utility. Special care is taken to provide the security needed to insure file integrity over a period of years. The archived files may exist in any of three storage areas: a temporary buffer, the main buffer, and a magnetic tape library. When the main buffer fills up, it is transferred to permanent magnetic tape storage and deleted from disk. Files may be restored from any of the three storage areas. A single file, multiple files, or entire directories can be stored and retrieved. archived entities hold the same name, extension, version number, and VMS file protection scheme as they had in the user's account prior to archival. NASA ARCH is capable of handling up to 7 directory levels. Wildcards are supported. User commands include TEMPCOPY, DISKCOPY, DELETE, RESTORE, and DIRECTORY. The DIRECTORY command searches a directory of savesets covering all three archival areas, listing matches according to area, date, filename, or other criteria supplied by the user. The system manager commands include 1) ARCHIVE- to transfer the main buffer to duplicate magnetic tapes, 2) REPORTto determine when the main buffer is full enough to archive, 3) INCREMENT- to back up the partially filled main buffer, and 4) FULLBACKUP- to back up the entire main buffer. On-line help files are provided for all NASA ARCH commands. NASA ARCH is written in DEC VAX DCL for interactive execution and has been implemented on a DEC VAX computer operating under VMS 4.X. This program was developed in 1985.

  7. A theoretical method for calculating the collapse load of steel circular arches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoorenberg, R.C.; Snijder, H.H.; Hoenderkamp, J.C.D.

    2012-01-01

    Arches are frequently used in large span structures like bridges and roofs. Although these structural elements may be prone to various instability phenomena, stocky arches or slender arches with sufficient lateral bracing fail due to plastic collapse instead of in-plane buckling or out-of-plane

  8. Culturable gut microbiota diversity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantas, Leon; Sørby, Jan Roger Torp; Aleström, Peter; Sørum, Henning

    2012-03-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an increasingly used laboratory animal model in basic biology and biomedicine, novel drug development, and toxicology. The wide use has increased the demand for optimized husbandry protocols to ensure animal health care and welfare. The knowledge about the correlation between culturable zebrafish intestinal microbiota and health in relation to environmental factors and management procedures is very limited. A semi-quantitative level of growth of individual types of bacteria was determined and associated with sampling points. A total of 72 TAB line zebrafish from four laboratories (Labs A-D) in the Zebrafish Network Norway were used. Diagnostic was based on traditional bacterial culture methods and biochemical characterization using commercial kits, followed by 16S rDNA gene sequencing from pure subcultures. Also selected Gram-negative isolates were analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility to 8 different antibiotics. A total of 13 morphologically different bacterial species were the most prevalent: Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas sobria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Photobacterium damselae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas luteola, Comamonas testosteroni, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus capitis, and Staphylococcus warneri. Only Lab B had significantly higher levels of total bacterial growth (OR=2.03), whereas numbers from Lab C (OR=1.01) and Lab D (OR=1.12) were found to be similar to the baseline Lab A. Sexually immature individuals had a significantly higher level of harvested total bacterial growth than mature fish (OR=0.82), no statistically significant differences were found between male and female fish (OR=1.01), and the posterior intestinal segment demonstrated a higher degree of culturable bacteria than the anterior segment (OR=4.1). Multiple antibiotic (>3) resistance was observed in 17% of the strains. We propose that a rapid conventional

  9. Genetic determinants of hyaloid and retinal vasculature in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyde David R

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The retinal vasculature is a capillary network of blood vessels that nourishes the inner retina of most mammals. Developmental abnormalities or microvascular complications in the retinal vasculature result in severe human eye diseases that lead to blindness. To exploit the advantages of zebrafish for genetic, developmental and pharmacological studies of retinal vasculature, we characterised the intraocular vasculature in zebrafish. Results We show a detailed morphological and developmental analysis of the retinal blood supply in zebrafish. Similar to the transient hyaloid vasculature in mammalian embryos, vessels are first found attached to the zebrafish lens at 2.5 days post fertilisation. These vessels progressively lose contact with the lens and by 30 days post fertilisation adhere to the inner limiting membrane of the juvenile retina. Ultrastructure analysis shows these vessels to exhibit distinctive hallmarks of mammalian retinal vasculature. For example, smooth muscle actin-expressing pericytes are ensheathed by the basal lamina of the blood vessel, and vesicle vacuolar organelles (VVO, subcellular mediators of vessel-retinal nourishment, are present. Finally, we identify 9 genes with cell membrane, extracellular matrix and unknown identity that are necessary for zebrafish hyaloid and retinal vasculature development. Conclusion Zebrafish have a retinal blood supply with a characteristic developmental and adult morphology. Abnormalities of these intraocular vessels are easily observed, enabling application of genetic and chemical approaches in zebrafish to identify molecular regulators of hyaloid and retinal vasculature in development and disease.

  10. Toxicity assessment of zebrafish following exposure to CdTe QDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei, E-mail: wzhang@ecust.edu.cn [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Chemistry, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Lin, Kuangfei, E-mail: kflin@ecust.edu.cn [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Chemistry, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Miao, Youna [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Chemistry, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Dong, Qiaoxiang; Huang, Changjiang; Wang, Huili [Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab for Technology and Application of Model Organisms, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Guo, Meijin [State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Cui, Xinhong [Shanghai Institute of Landscape Gardening, Shanghai 200233 (China)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The LC{sub 50} of TGA-CdTe for zebrafish at 120 hpf was 185.9 nM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zebrafish exposed to TGA-CdTe resulted in lower hatch rate and more malformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Body length and heart beat of zebrafish declined after exposure to TGA-CdTe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Larvae exposure to TGA-CdTe elicited a higher basal swimming rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Abnormal vascular of FLI-1 transgenic zebrafish larvae exposed to TGA-CdTe occurred. - Abstract: CdTe quantum dots (QDs) are nanocrystals of unique composition and properties that have found many new commercial applications; therefore, their potential toxicity to aquatic organisms has become a hot research topic. The lab study was performed to determine the developmental and behavioral toxicities to zebrafish under continuous exposure to low concentrations of CdTe QDs (1-400 nM) coated with thioglycolic acid (TGA). The results show: (1) the 120 h LC{sub 50} of 185.9 nM, (2) the lower hatch rate and body length, more malformations, and less heart beat and swimming speed of the exposed zebrafish, (3) the brief burst and a higher basal swimming rate of the exposed zebrafish larvae during a rapid transition from light-to-dark, and (4) the vascular hyperplasia, vascular bifurcation, vascular crossing and turbulence of the exposed FLI-1 transgenic zebrafish larvae.

  11. Oral Cavity, Pharyngeal, and Laryngeal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about factors that may influence the risk of developing oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancers and about approaches that may help in the prevention of these diseases.

  12. Persistence after treatment of pharyngeal gonococcal infections in patients of the STI clinic, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2012-2015: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hananta, I Putu Yuda; De Vries, Henry John Christiaan; van Dam, Alje P; van Rooijen, Martijn Sebastiaan; Soebono, Hardyanto; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten Franciscus

    2017-11-01

    Infection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the pharynx (pharyngeal Ng) is associated with gonococcal transmission and development of antimicrobial resistance. We assessed proportion of and determinants for persistence after treatment of pharyngeal Ng. At the STI clinic of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, females-at-risk and men who have sex with men are routinely screened for pharyngeal Ng using an RNA-based nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT; Aptima Combo 2). Patients with pharyngeal Ng were invited for a test-of-cure (TOC) 7 days after treatment with a 500 mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly. We retrospectively examined medical records of patients with pharyngeal Ng (January 2012-August 2015) who returned for a TOC 7-28 days after treatment. Persistence was defined as a positive NAAT at TOC. Out of 2204 pharyngeal Ng cases recorded in the study period, 781 cases (median time between first treatment and TOC of 8 (IQR 7-12) days) were included in the analysis. Persistence after treatment was found in 36 (4.6%) and was less likely among patients who received ceftriaxone in combination with other antibiotics (vs monotherapy) (adjusted OR (aOR) 0.36, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.04) and with longer time from treatment to TOC (aOR 0.74, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.90, per extra day). In those with a TOC 15-28 days after treatment, Ng persisted in only 1.0% (1/105 cases). A small proportion of pharyngeal Ng persists despite appropriate treatment. Combining ceftriaxone with other antibiotics appears to lead to faster clearance. A TOC for pharyngeal Ng 7 days after treatment may be too soon. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. CREATIVITY METHODS IN TEACHING THE ARCH-DESIGN STUDIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EIGBEONAN Andrew B.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to search and find methods of fostering creativity or ideas relating to creativity in teaching the arch-design studio. Teaching creativity through its methods will be making the students grounded in designing with creativity ideas and therefore we can have professionals that design and build with satisfaction, safety and complementary. It means we can have real buildings and places that satisfy our clients, the society and in harmony with the environment. Although there are similarities in the curricula of training architects all over the world, but educators go about it in their own convenient and suitable ways and styles. The ideas of creativity have been part of architecture from the onset, but are not deligently applied and also not formally incorporated in the curricula of training. The topic is also very relevant and timely as arch-educators and other stakeholders are of the opinion that something has to be done to improve the ways and methods of training architects, especially the teaching of the arch-design studio with regards to creativity. Through exploration of literature and interviews (physical and telephone call this paper finds methods of stimulating creativity ideas in the teaching of arch-design studio. Some of the methods of motivating creativity found in teaching the arch-design studio are: analogy, metaphors, biomimicry, brainstorming, attribute listing, mental map, TRIZ, restrictions, charrette, browsing, excursions, focus groups, other peoples viewpoints, using crazy ideas, using experts, visualizing a goal, working with dreams and images and giving students design tools such as drawings CAD and model making.

  14. Zebrafish syntenic relationship to human/mouse genomes revealed by radiation hybrid mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samonte, Irene E.

    2007-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an excellent model system for vertebrate developmental analysis and a new model for human disorders. In this study, however, zebrafish was used to determine its syntenic relationship to human/mouse genomes using the zebrafish-hamster radiation hybrid panel. The focus was on genes residing on chromosomes 6 and 17 of human and mouse, respectively, and some other genes of either immunologic or evolutionary importance. Gene sequences of interest and zebrafish expressed sequence tags deposited in the GenBank were used in identifying zebrafish homologs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, cloning and subcloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis were done to confirm the homology of the candidate genes in zebrafish. The promising markers were then tested in the 94 zebrafish-hamster radiation hybrid panel cell lines and submitted for logarithm of the odds (LOD) score analysis to position genes on the zebrafish map. A total of 19 loci were successfully mapped to zebrafish linkage groups 1, 14, 15, 19, and 20. Four of these loci were positioned in linkage group 20, whereas, 3 more loci were added in linkage group 19, thus increasing to 34 loci the number of human genes syntenic to the group. With the sequencing of the zebrafish genome, about 20 more MHC genes were reported linked on the same group. (Author)

  15. Motion planning and synchronized control of the dental arch generator of the tooth-arrangement robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jin-Gang; Zhang, Yong-De

    2013-03-01

    The traditional, manual method of reproducing the dental arch form is prone to numerous random errors caused by human factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the automatic acquisition of the dental arch and implement the motion planning and synchronized control of the dental arch generator of the multi-manipulator tooth-arrangement robot for use in full denture manufacture. First, the mathematical model of the dental arch generator was derived. Then the kinematics and control point position of the dental arch generator of the tooth arrangement robot were calculated and motion planning of each control point was analysed. A hardware control scheme is presented, based on the industrial personal computer and control card PC6401. In order to gain single-axis, precise control of the dental arch generator, we studied the control pulse realization of high-resolution timing. Real-time, closed-loop, synchronous control was applied to the dental arch generator. Experimental control of the dental arch generator and preliminary tooth arrangement were gained by using the multi-manipulator tooth-arrangement robotic system. The dental arch generator can automatically generate a dental arch to fit a patient according to the patient's arch parameters. Repeated positioning accuracy is 0.12 mm for the slipways that drive the dental arch generator. The maximum value of single-point error is 1.83 mm, while the arc-width direction (x axis) is -33.29 mm. A novel system that generates the dental arch has been developed. The traditional method of manually determining the dental arch may soon be replaced by a robot to assist in generating a more individual dental arch. The system can be used to fabricate full dentures and bend orthodontic wires. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Poststreptococcal keratouveitis associated with group C streptococcus pharyngitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataneli N

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nathaniel Nataneli1, Zenia P Aguilera1, Pearl S Rosenbaum1, Tamar Goldstein1,2, Martin Mayers11Department of Ophthalmology, Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; 2Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, IsraelPurpose: To report the first case of poststreptococcal syndrome uveitis (PSU in association with group C streptococcus (GCS.Patients and methods: Chart review of a 24-year-old man who presented with bilateral ocular redness, pain, and photophobia for 5 days and "white rings" around his eyes for a duration of 3 days. The patient further reported fever and sore throat in the preceding week. Slit-lamp examination showed bilateral keratouveitis. A thorough uveitis workup, antistreptolysin O (ASLO titer, and throat culture were obtained. The patient was treated with frequent topical steroids and systemic doxycycline. The uveitis and keratitis subsided over the next few weeks, leaving extensive peripheral keratolysis.Results: The results of laboratory diagnostic testing revealed an elevated ASLO, C-reactive protein, as well as HLA-B27 positivity. Throat cultures grew beta-hemolytic GCS; group A streptococcus was culture negative.Conclusion: GCS pharyngitis may be a causative organism of PSU.Keywords: pharyngitis, keratolysis, keratouveitis

  17. Dynamic stability analysis of circular arch subjected to follower forces with small disturbances; Judo kaju wo ukeru enkei arch no yuran ni yoru doteki kyodo to anteisei kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, N.; Okada, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hirano, Y. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-04

    This paper describes the deformation and dynamic stability of circular arch subjected to follower forces in a submerged membrane type marine structure reinforced by arch frames. Governing equations for finite deformations of the circular arch subjected to follower forces are introduced using an embedded curve coordinate, which are formulated by applying Galerkin method. In addition, equations of motion due to small disturbances under given condition of loading are introduced. Based on these equations, dynamic stability of the arch is analyzed by means of Runnge-Kutta-Gill method, to clarify the relationship between disturbances and instability regions and the resulting phenomena. Near the boundary regions of stability, both amplitude and cycle of deformation are greatly affected by the amplitude of disturbances. The dynamic instability is governed by the inverse symmetry primary mode with minimum characteristic frequency which is specific for the circular arch. The dynamic stability has high parameter dependency, and the instability regions have a complicated shapes. Although flattened arch has a smaller static critical load, it provides the dynamic stability against the disturbance. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Strengthening Masonry Arches with Lime-Based Mortar Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Alecci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, many strengthening interventions on masonry elements were performed by using fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs. These advanced materials proved to be effective to increase the load-carrying capacity of masonry elements and to improve their structural behavior, avoiding the most critical failure modes. Despite the advantages of this technique compared to more traditional methods, FRP systems have disadvantages related to their low resistance to high temperatures, impossibility of application on wet surfaces, low permeability, and poor compatibility with masonry supports. Therefore, composite materials made of a fiber textile embedded in an inorganic matrix were recently proposed as alternatives to FRPs for strengthening historic masonry constructions. These composite materials are easier to install, have higher resistance to high temperatures, and permit higher vapor permeability than FRPs. The inorganic matrix is frequently a cement-based mortar, and the composite materials made of a fiber textile embedded in a cement-based mortar are usually identified as FRCM (fabric reinforced cementitious matrix composites. More recently, the use of natural lime mortar as an inorganic matrix has been proposed as an alternative to cement-based mortars when historic compatibility with the substrate is strictly required, as in case of restoration of historic buildings. In this paper, the effectiveness of a fabric made of basalt fibers embedded in lime mortar matrix (Basalt-FRLM for the strengthening of masonry arches is investigated. An experimental investigation was performed on 1:2 scaled brick masonry arches strengthened at the extrados with a layer of Basalt-FRLM and tested under vertical load. The results obtained are compared with previous results obtained by the authors by testing masonry arches strengthened at their extrados with FRCM and FRP composites. This investigation highlights the effectiveness of Basalt-FRLM in increasing load

  19. Myomaker mediates fusion of fast myocytes in zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landemaine, Aurélie; Rescan, Pierre-Yves; Gabillard, Jean-Charles, E-mail: Jean-charles.gabillard@rennes.inra.fr

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Myomaker is transiently expressed in fast myocytes during embryonic myogenesis. • Myomaker is essential for fast myocyte fusion in zebrafish. • The function of myomaker is conserved among Teleostomi. - Abstract: Myomaker (also called Tmem8c), a new membrane activator of myocyte fusion was recently discovered in mice. Using whole mount in situ hybridization on zebrafish embryos at different stages of embryonic development, we show that myomaker is transiently expressed in fast myocytes forming the bulk of zebrafish myotome. Zebrafish embryos injected with morpholino targeted against myomaker were alive after yolk resorption and appeared morphologically normal, but they were unable to swim, even under effect of a tactile stimulation. Confocal observations showed a marked phenotype characterized by the persistence of mononucleated muscle cells in the fast myotome at developmental stages where these cells normally fuse to form multinucleated myotubes. This indicates that myomaker is essential for myocyte fusion in zebrafish. Thus, there is an evolutionary conservation of myomaker expression and function among Teleostomi.

  20. Transcriptome analysis of zebrafish embryogenesis using microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinnakaruppan Mathavan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Zebrafish (Danio rerio is a well-recognized model for the study of vertebrate developmental genetics, yet at the same time little is known about the transcriptional events that underlie zebrafish embryogenesis. Here we have employed microarray analysis to study the temporal activity of developmentally regulated genes during zebrafish embryogenesis. Transcriptome analysis at 12 different embryonic time points covering five different developmental stages (maternal, blastula, gastrula, segmentation, and pharyngula revealed a highly dynamic transcriptional profile. Hierarchical clustering, stage-specific clustering, and algorithms to detect onset and peak of gene expression revealed clearly demarcated transcript clusters with maximum gene activity at distinct developmental stages as well as co-regulated expression of gene groups involved in dedicated functions such as organogenesis. Our study also revealed a previously unidentified cohort of genes that are transcribed prior to the mid-blastula transition, a time point earlier than when the zygotic genome was traditionally thought to become active. Here we provide, for the first time to our knowledge, a comprehensive list of developmentally regulated zebrafish genes and their expression profiles during embryogenesis, including novel information on the temporal expression of several thousand previously uncharacterized genes. The expression data generated from this study are accessible to all interested scientists from our institute resource database (http://giscompute.gis.a-star.edu.sg/~govind/zebrafish/data_download.html.

  1. The zebrafish world of colors and shapes: preference and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jessica; Silveira, Mayara; Chacon, Diana; Luchiari, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Natural environment imposes many challenges to animals, which have to use cognitive abilities to cope with and exploit it to enhance their fitness. Since zebrafish is a well-established model for cognitive studies and high-throughput screening for drugs and diseases that affect cognition, we tested their ability for ambient color preference and 3D objects discrimination to establish a protocol for memory evaluation. For the color preference test, zebrafish were observed in a multiple-chamber tank with different environmental color options. Zebrafish showed preference for blue and green, and avoided yellow and red. For the 3D objects discrimination, zebrafish were allowed to explore two equal objects and then observed in a one-trial test in which a new color, size, or shape of the object was presented. Zebrafish showed discrimination for color, shape, and color+shape combined, but not size. These results imply that zebrafish seem to use some categorical system to discriminate items, and distracters affect their ability for discrimination. The type of variables available (color and shape) may favor zebrafish objects perception and facilitate discrimination processing. We suggest that this easy and simple memory test could serve as a useful screening tool for cognitive dysfunction and neurotoxicological studies.

  2. Microcystin-LR exposure induces developmental neurotoxicity in zebrafish embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qin; Yan, Wei; Liu, Chunsheng; Li, Li; Yu, Liqin; Zhao, Sujuan; Li, Guangyu

    2016-01-01

    Microcystin-LR (MCLR) is a commonly acting potent hepatotoxin and has been pointed out of potentially causing developmental neurotoxicity, but the exact mechanism is little known. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0, 0.8, 1.6 or 3.2 mg/L MCLR for 120 h. MCLR exposure through submersion caused serious hatching delay and body length decrease. The content of MCLR in zebrafish larvae was analyzed and the results demonstrated that MCLR can accumulate in zebrafish larvae. The locomotor speed of zebrafish larvae was decreased. Furthermore, the dopamine and acetylcholine (ACh) content were detected to be significantly decreased in MCLR exposure groups. And the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was significantly increased after exposure to 1.6 and 3.2 mg/L MCLR. The transcription pattern of manf, chrnα7 and ache gene was consistent with the change of the dopamine content, ACh content and AChE activity. Gene expression involved in the development of neurons was also measured. α1-tubulin and shha gene expression were down-regulated, whereas mbp and gap43 gene expression were observed to be significantly up-regulated upon exposure to MCLR. The above results indicated that MCLR-induced developmental toxicity might attribute to the disorder of cholinergic system, dopaminergic signaling, and the development of neurons. - Highlights: • MCLR accumulation induces developmental neurotoxicity in zebrafish embryo. • The decrease of dopamine levels might be associated with the MCLR-induced developmental neurotoxicity in zebrafish larvae. • The alternation of cholinergic system might contribute to the change of neurobehavior in zebrafish larvae exposure with MCLR. - MCLR accumulation induces developmental neurotoxicity by affecting cholinergic system, dopaminergic signaling, and the development of neurons in zebrafish embryo.

  3. Maxillary Arch Dimension Changes of 3-5 Years Old Filipino Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Hamid Zafarmand

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the dental arch dimensions in primary dentition of 3-5 years old Filipino children and determining the existence of sexual dimorphism.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 60 Filipino preschool children aged 3-5 years old were selected from Manila city. Study casts were used for measurements of 3 arch dimensions: bicanine width, bimolar width, and arch length. The analyses were performed to compare values within age-groups and within gender-groups, besides reporting mean and standard deviations. The data were subjected to One-way ANOVA and Student t-test.Results: Significant differences were observed regarding dental arch dimensions among different ages and genders (p<0.05. Comparison between genders showed a statistically significant difference in bicanine width at the age of 4 (p=0.04, in bimolar width at age of 5 (p=0.006, and in arch length at age of 4 (p=0.03 and 5 (p=0.02. Differences within male group for different ages showed only arch length dimension was statistically significant (p=0.021. In females, however the comparison between age-groups also revealed a statistically significant difference in bicanine (p= 0.016 and bimolar widths (p=0.027 dimensions.Conclusion: The present study showed that dental arch dimensions, vary among different ages and genders of children. It also showed that a sexual dimorphism does exist between the gender groups.

  4. Reliability and Correlation of Static and Dynamic Foot Arch Measurement in a Healthy Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Timo; Zech, Astrid; Wegscheider, Karl; Lezius, Susanne; Braumann, Klaus-Michael; Sehner, Susanne; Hollander, Karsten

    2017-09-01

    Measurement of the medial longitudinal foot arch in children is a controversial topic, as there are many different methods without a definite standard procedure. The purpose of this study was to 1) investigate intraday and interrater reliability regarding dynamic arch index and static arch height, 2) explore the correlation between both arch indices, and 3) examine the variation of the medial longitudinal arch at two different times of the day. Eighty-six children (mean ± SD age, 8.9 ± 1.9 years) participated in the study. Dynamic footprint data were captured with a pedobarographic platform. For static arch measurements, a specially constructed caliper was used to assess heel-to-toe length and dorsum height. A mixed model was established to determine reliability and variation. Reliability was found to be excellent for the static arch height index in sitting (intraday, 0.90; interrater, 0.80) and standing positions (0.88 and 0.85) and for the dynamic arch index (both 1.00). There was poor correlation between static and dynamic assessment of the medial longitudinal arch (standing dynamic arch index, r = -0.138; sitting dynamic arch index, r = -0.070). Static measurements were found to be significantly influenced by the time of day (P body mass index (P mind. For clinical purposes, static and dynamic arch data should be interpreted separately.

  5. A 10-year review of perioperative complications in pharyngeal flap surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofer, SOP; Dhar, BK; Robinson, PH; Goorhuis-Brouwer, SM; Nicolai, JPA

    2002-01-01

    A 10-year retrospective study was undertaken to investigate perioperative complications in pharyngeal flap surgery in one institution using inferiorly and superiorly based flaps. In this fashion the current practice of surgical technique based on local findings and perioperative care, through

  6. Zebrafish Axenic Larvae Colonization with Human Intestinal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Jayo, Nerea; Alonso-Saez, Laura; Ramirez-Garcia, Andoni; Pardo, Miguel A

    2018-04-01

    The human intestine hosts a vast and complex microbial community that is vital for maintaining several functions related with host health. The processes that determine the gut microbiome composition are poorly understood, being the interaction between species, the external environment, and the relationship with the host the most feasible. Animal models offer the opportunity to understand the interactions between the host and the microbiota. There are different gnotobiotic mice or rat models colonized with the human microbiota, however, to our knowledge, there are no reports on the colonization of germ-free zebrafish with a complex human intestinal microbiota. In the present study, we have successfully colonized 5 days postfertilization germ-free zebrafish larvae with the human intestinal microbiota previously extracted from a donor and analyzed by high-throughput sequencing the composition of the transferred microbial communities that established inside the zebrafish gut. Thus, we describe for first time which human bacteria phylotypes are able to colonize the zebrafish digestive tract. Species with relevant interest because of their linkage to dysbiosis in different human diseases, such as Akkermansia muciniphila, Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Prevotella spp., or Roseburia spp. have been successfully transferred inside the zebrafish digestive tract.

  7. Persistence after treatment of pharyngeal gonococcal infections in patients of the STI clinic, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2012–2015: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Henry John Christiaan; van Dam, Alje P; van Rooijen, Martijn Sebastiaan; Soebono, Hardyanto; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten Franciscus

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Infection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the pharynx (pharyngeal Ng) is associated with gonococcal transmission and development of antimicrobial resistance. We assessed proportion of and determinants for persistence after treatment of pharyngeal Ng. Methods At the STI clinic of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, females-at-risk and men who have sex with men are routinely screened for pharyngeal Ng using an RNA-based nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT; Aptima Combo 2). Patients with pharyngeal Ng were invited for a test-of-cure (TOC) 7 days after treatment with a 500 mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly. We retrospectively examined medical records of patients with pharyngeal Ng (January 2012–August 2015) who returned for a TOC 7–28 days after treatment. Persistence was defined as a positive NAAT at TOC. Results Out of 2204 pharyngeal Ng cases recorded in the study period, 781 cases (median time between first treatment and TOC of 8 (IQR 7–12) days) were included in the analysis. Persistence after treatment was found in 36 (4.6%) and was less likely among patients who received ceftriaxone in combination with other antibiotics (vs monotherapy) (adjusted OR (aOR) 0.36, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.04) and with longer time from treatment to TOC (aOR 0.74, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.90, per extra day). In those with a TOC 15–28 days after treatment, Ng persisted in only 1.0% (1/105 cases). Conclusion A small proportion of pharyngeal Ng persists despite appropriate treatment. Combining ceftriaxone with other antibiotics appears to lead to faster clearance. A TOC for pharyngeal Ng 7 days after treatment may be too soon. PMID:28822976

  8. Zebrafish Database: Customizable, Free, and Open-Source Solution for Facility Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakulov, Toma Antonov; Walz, Gerd

    2015-12-01

    Zebrafish Database is a web-based customizable database solution, which can be easily adapted to serve both single laboratories and facilities housing thousands of zebrafish lines. The database allows the users to keep track of details regarding the various genomic features, zebrafish lines, zebrafish batches, and their respective locations. Advanced search and reporting options are available. Unique features are the ability to upload files and images that are associated with the respective records and an integrated calendar component that supports multiple calendars and categories. Built on the basis of the Joomla content management system, the Zebrafish Database is easily extendable without the need for advanced programming skills.

  9. Complex branchial fistula: a variant arch anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caluwé, D; Hayes, R; McDermott, M; Corbally, M T

    2001-07-01

    A 5-year-old boy presented with an infected left-sided branchial fistula. Despite antibiotic treatment and repeated excision of the fistula, purulent discharge from the wound persisted. Three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) reconstruction greatly facilitated the diagnosis and management of this case by showing the course of the fistulous tract. The complexity of the tract suggests that this represents a variant arch anomaly because it contains features of first, second, third, and fourth arch remnants. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  10. Inflammatory potential of diet and risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer in a large case-control study from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R; Rosato, Valentina; Garavello, Werner; Serraino, Diego; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2017-08-01

    Diet and inflammation have been suggested to be important risk factors for oral and pharyngeal cancer. We examined the association between dietary inflammatory index (DII™) and oral and pharyngeal cancer in a large case-control study conducted between 1992 and 2009 in Italy. This study included 946 cases with incident, histologically confirmed oral and pharyngeal cancer, and 2,492 controls hospitalized for acute non-neoplastic diseases. The DII was computed based on dietary intake assessed by a valid 78-item food frequency questionnaire and was adjusted for nonalcohol energy intake using the residual approach (E-DII™). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for age, sex, non-alcohol energy intake, study center, year of interview, education, body mass index, tobacco smoking, and alcohol drinking. Subjects with higher DII scores (i.e., with a more pro-inflammatory diet) had a higher risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer, the OR being 1.80 (95% CI 1.36-2.38) for the highest versus the lowest DII quartile and 1.17 (95% CI 1.10-1.25) for a one-unit increase (8% of the DII range). When stratified by selected covariates, a stronger association was observed among women (OR quartile4 v.1 3.30, 95% CI 1.95-5.57). We also observed a stronger association for oral cancers and a strong combined effect of higher DII score and tobacco smoking or alcohol consumption on oral and pharyngeal cancer. These results indicate that the pro-inflammatory potential of the diet, as shown by higher DII scores, is associated with higher odds of oral and pharyngeal cancer. © 2017 UICC.

  11. Method for somatic cell nuclear transfer in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siripattarapravat, Kannika; Cibelli, Jose B

    2011-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been a well-known technique for decades and widely applied to generate identical animals, including ones with genetic alterations. The system has been demonstrated successfully in zebrafish. The elaborated requirements of SCNT, however, limit reproducibility of the established model to a few groups in zebrafish research community. In this chapter, we meticulously outline each step of the published protocol as well as preparations of equipments and reagents used in zebrafish SCNT. All describable detailed-tips are elaborated in texts and figures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Zebrafish Models of Human Leukemia: Technological Advances and Mechanistic Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Nicholas R; Laroche, Fabrice J F; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Feng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Insights concerning leukemic pathophysiology have been acquired in various animal models and further efforts to understand the mechanisms underlying leukemic treatment resistance and disease relapse promise to improve therapeutic strategies. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a vertebrate organism with a conserved hematopoietic program and unique experimental strengths suiting it for the investigation of human leukemia. Recent technological advances in zebrafish research including efficient transgenesis, precise genome editing, and straightforward transplantation techniques have led to the generation of a number of leukemia models. The transparency of the zebrafish when coupled with improved lineage-tracing and imaging techniques has revealed exquisite details of leukemic initiation, progression, and regression. With these advantages, the zebrafish represents a unique experimental system for leukemic research and additionally, advances in zebrafish-based high-throughput drug screening promise to hasten the discovery of novel leukemia therapeutics. To date, investigators have accumulated knowledge of the genetic underpinnings critical to leukemic transformation and treatment resistance and without doubt, zebrafish are rapidly expanding our understanding of disease mechanisms and helping to shape therapeutic strategies for improved outcomes in leukemic patients.

  13. FEATURES OF DESIGN OF TIED-ARCH BRIDGES WITH FLEXIBLE INCLINED SUSPENSION HANGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Samosvat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigation and analysis of the hanger arrangement and the structural stability of a Network arch bridge – a tied-arch bridge with inclined hangers that cross each other at least twice. It is also necessary to make a comparative analysis with other types of hanger arrangements. Methodology. The authors in their research investigated a large number of parameters to determine their influence in the force distribution in the arch. Eventually they determined optimal values for all parameters. These optimal values allowed developing a design guide that leads to optimal arch design. When solving this problem, the authors used three-dimensional finite element models and the objective was to determine the most suitable solution for a road bridge, with a span of 100 meters, consisting of two inclined steel arches, located on a road with two traffic lanes, subjected to medium traffic. The virtual prototype of the model is performed by finite element simulator Midas Civil. Findings. In this study, for the bridge deck, a concrete tie appears to be the best solution considering the structural behavior of network arches, but economic advantages caused by easier erection may lead to steel or a composite bridge deck as better alternatives. Design requirements and local conditions of each particular bridge project will decide the most economic deck design.Originality. To ensure passenger comfort and the stability and continuity of the track, deformations of bridges are constricted. A network arch is a stiff structure with small deflections and therefore suitable to comply with such demands even for high speed railway traffic.
A network arch bridge with a concrete tie usually saves more than half the steel required for tied arches with vertical hangers and concrete ties. Practical value. Following the study design advice given in this article leads to savings of about 60 % of structural steel compared with conventional tied arch bridges with

  14. Tracheal Compression Caused by a Mediastinal Hematoma After Interrupted Aortic Arch Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Qingwang; Lin, Zhiyong; Hu, Xingti; Zhao, Qifeng

    2017-08-03

    Congenital abnormalities of the aortic arch include interrupted aortic arch (IAA), coarctation of the aorta (CoA), and double aortic arch (DAA). Aortic arch repair is difficult and postoperative complications are common. However, postoperative tracheobronchial stenosis with respiratory insufficiency is an uncommon complication and is usually caused by increased aortic anastomotic tension. We report here a case of tracheal compression by a mediastinal hematoma following IAA surgery. The patient underwent a repeat operation to remove the hematoma and was successfully weaned off the ventilator.In cases of tracheobronchial stenosis after aortic arch surgery, airway compression by increased aortic anastomotic tension is usually the first diagnosis considered by clinicians. Other causes, such as mediastinal hematomas, are often ignored. However, the severity of symptoms with mediastinal hematomas makes this an important entity.

  15. UPLC/MS MS data of testosterone metabolites in human and zebrafish liver microsomes and whole zebrafish larval microsomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moayad Saad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article represents data regarding a study published in Toxicology in vitro entitled “ in vitro CYP-mediated drug metabolism in the zebrafish (embryo using human reference compounds” (Saad et al., 2017 [1]. Data were acquired with ultra-performance liquid chromatography – accurate mass mass spectrometry (UPLC-amMS. A full spectrum scan was conducted for the testosterone (TST metabolites from the microsomal stability assay in zebrafish and humans. The microsomal proteins were extracted from adult zebrafish male (MLM and female (FLM livers, whole body homogenates of 96 h post fertilization larvae (EM and a pool of human liver microsomes from 50 donors (HLM. Data are expressed as the abundance from the extracted ion chromatogram of the metabolites.

  16. A review of monoaminergic neuropsychopharmacology in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximino, Caio; Herculano, Anderson Manoel

    2010-12-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitters are the major regulatory mechanisms in the vertebrate brain, involved in the adjustment of motivation, emotion, and cognition. The chemical anatomy of these systems is thought to be highly conserved in the brain of all vertebrates, including zebrafish. Recently, the development of behavioral assays in zebrafish allowed the neuropsychopharmacological investigation of these circuits and its functions. Here we review neuroanatomical, genetic, neurochemical, and psychopharmacological evidence regarding the roles of histaminergic, dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic, and melatonergic systems in this species. We conclude that, in spite of species differences, zebrafish are suitable for the investigation of neuropsychopharmacology of drugs that affect theses systems; nonetheless, more thorough validation of behavioral methods is still needed.

  17. Hypoxia-induced retinopathy model in adult zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Ziquan; Jensen, Lasse D.; Rouhi, Pegah

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced vascular responses, including angiogenesis, vascular remodeling and vascular leakage, significantly contribute to the onset, development and progression of retinopathy. However, until recently there were no appropriate animal disease models recapitulating adult retinopathy available....... In this article, we describe protocols that create hypoxia-induced retinopathy in adult zebrafish. Adult fli1: EGFP zebrafish are placed in hypoxic water for 3-10 d and retinal neovascularization is analyzed using confocal microscopy. It usually takes 11 d to obtain conclusive results using the hypoxia......-induced retinopathy model in adult zebrafish. This model provides a unique opportunity to study kinetically the development of retinopathy in adult animals using noninvasive protocols and to assess therapeutic efficacy of orally active antiangiogenic drugs....

  18. Recurrent neck infection with branchial arch fistula in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madana, J; Yolmo, Deeke; Kalaiarasi, R; Gopalakrishnan, S; Saxena, S K; Krishnapriya, S

    2011-09-01

    Acute suppurative neck infections associated with third or fourth branchial arch fistulas are frequently recurrent. Third and fourth branchial arch anomalies are much less common than those of second arch and usually present with left thyroid lobe inflammation. The authors present their experience with 15 cases of pyriform sinus fistulae (PSF) of third branchial arch origin and 3 cases of fourth arch origin, all of which presented as recurrent neck infection mainly on the left side. A retrospective review of 18 cases of third and fourth arch fistulae treated at JIPMER from 2005 to 2010. This study includes 18 patients with PSF diagnosed by the existence of fistulous tract radiologically and intraoperatively with pathological correlation. Neck exploration with excision of tract and left hemithyroidectomy was performed in all cases. The patients consisted of 7 males and 11 females, and the ages ranged from 3 to 15 years. All of them presented with recurrent episodes of neck infection. Investigations performed include computed tomography (CT) fistulography, barium swallow and ultrasound which were useful in delineating pyriform sinus fistulous tract preoperatively. All cases were on the left side and the fistula was identified by barium swallow in 14 cases (80%), while intraoperative and pathologic confirmation of the tract was possible in all cases (100%). Neck exploration with an emphasis on complete exposure of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and exposure of the pyriform sinus opening to facilitate complete fistulous tract excision with left hemithyroidectomy was successful in all patients. A follow up period of 1-3 years showed no recurrence. Recurrent neck infection in a child should alert the physician to the possibility of an underlying pyriform sinus fistula of branchial origin and CT fistulography should be performed after the resolution of the neck infection to delineate the tract anatomically. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  19. Initial arch wires for tooth alignment during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Fan; Lai, Wenli; Furness, Susan; McIntyre, Grant T; Millett, Declan T; Hickman, Joy; Wang, Yan

    2013-04-30

    Initial arch wires are the first arch wires to be inserted into the fixed appliance at the beginning of orthodontic treatment and are used mainly for the alignment of teeth by correcting crowding and rotations. With a number of different types of orthodontic arch wires available for initial tooth alignment, it is important to understand which wire is most efficient, as well as which wires cause the least amount of root resorption and pain during the initial aligning stage of treatment. This is an update of the review 'Initial arch wires for alignment of crooked teeth with fixed orthodontic braces' first published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 4. To assess the effects of initial arch wires for alignment of teeth with fixed orthodontic braces in relation to alignment speed, root resorption and pain intensity. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 2 August 2012), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 7), MEDLINE via OVID (1950 to 2 August 2012) and EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 2 August 2012). We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles. There was no restriction with regard to publication status or language of publication. We contacted all authors of included studies to identify additional studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of initial arch wires to align teeth with fixed orthodontic braces. Only studies involving participants with upper and/or lower full arch fixed orthodontic appliances were included. Two review authors were responsible for study selection, validity assessment and data extraction. All disagreements were resolved by discussion amongst the review team. Corresponding authors of included studies were contacted to obtain missing information. Nine RCTs with 571 participants were included in this review. All trials were at high risk of bias and a number of methodological limitations were identified. All trials had at least one

  20. Sleep apnea syndrome. Examination of pharyngeal obstruction with high-speed MR and polysomnography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Y.; Inoue, Y.

    1995-01-01

    We attempted to determine the usefulness of high-speed MR imaging for evaluating the severity of sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) by comparing findings of pharyngeal obstruction obtained with high-speed MR with those of all-night polysomnography (PSG). A total of 33 patients with SAS underwent turbo-FLASH MR examination, while awake and after i.v. injection of hydroxyzine hydrochloride. Serial images were examined by cinemode. Pharyngeal findings on MR were divided into single-site obstruction (SO) at the velopharynx, multiple-site obstruction (MO), and no obstruction (NO). PSG findings were analyzed to determine the predominant type of apnea, severity as evaluated by an apnea index (AI), and the lowest SaO 2 value during sleep. Seventy-five percent of the central apnea group had SO, and 70% of the mixed apneas had MO, while only 15% of the obstructed apneas had MO. The percentage of patients with severe SAS (AI of 20% or higher) was 48% for the SO, and 70% for the MO. The lowest SaO 2 value tended to be low in the mixed apnea in the case of PSG, and tended to be low in the MO at MR examination. Analysis of pharyngeal dynamics using high-speed MR may provide some useful information for evaluating the severity of SAS. (orig.)

  1. Functional inhibition of UQCRB suppresses angiogenesis in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yoon Sun; Jung, Hye Jin [Chemical Genomics National Research Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Seok, Seung Hyeok [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Experimental Animals, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Payumo, Alexander Y.; Chen, James K. [Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kwon, Ho Jeong, E-mail: kwonhj@yonsei.ac.kr [Chemical Genomics National Research Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: ► This is the first functional characterization of UQCRB in vivo model. ► Angiogenesis is inhibited with UQCRB loss of function in zebrafish. ► UQCRB is introduced as a prognostic marker for mitochondria- and angiogenesis-related diseases. -- Abstract: As a subunit of mitochondrial complex III, UQCRB plays an important role in complex III stability, electron transport, and cellular oxygen sensing. Herein, we report UQCRB function regarding angiogenesis in vivo with the zebrafish (Danio rerio). UQCRB knockdown inhibited angiogenesis in zebrafish leading to the suppression of VEGF expression. Moreover, the UQCRB-targeting small molecule terpestacin also inhibited angiogenesis and VEGF levels in zebrafish, supporting the role of UQCRB in angiogenesis. Collectively, UQCRB loss of function by either genetic and pharmacological means inhibited angiogenesis, indicating that UQCRB plays a key role in this process and can be a prognostic marker of angiogenesis- and mitochondria-related diseases.

  2. Phenotype classification of zebrafish embryos by supervised learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Jeanray

    Full Text Available Zebrafish is increasingly used to assess biological properties of chemical substances and thus is becoming a specific tool for toxicological and pharmacological studies. The effects of chemical substances on embryo survival and development are generally evaluated manually through microscopic observation by an expert and documented by several typical photographs. Here, we present a methodology to automatically classify brightfield images of wildtype zebrafish embryos according to their defects by using an image analysis approach based on supervised machine learning. We show that, compared to manual classification, automatic classification results in 90 to 100% agreement with consensus voting of biological experts in nine out of eleven considered defects in 3 days old zebrafish larvae. Automation of the analysis and classification of zebrafish embryo pictures reduces the workload and time required for the biological expert and increases the reproducibility and objectivity of this classification.

  3. Functional inhibition of UQCRB suppresses angiogenesis in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yoon Sun; Jung, Hye Jin; Seok, Seung Hyeok; Payumo, Alexander Y.; Chen, James K.; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This is the first functional characterization of UQCRB in vivo model. ► Angiogenesis is inhibited with UQCRB loss of function in zebrafish. ► UQCRB is introduced as a prognostic marker for mitochondria- and angiogenesis-related diseases. -- Abstract: As a subunit of mitochondrial complex III, UQCRB plays an important role in complex III stability, electron transport, and cellular oxygen sensing. Herein, we report UQCRB function regarding angiogenesis in vivo with the zebrafish (Danio rerio). UQCRB knockdown inhibited angiogenesis in zebrafish leading to the suppression of VEGF expression. Moreover, the UQCRB-targeting small molecule terpestacin also inhibited angiogenesis and VEGF levels in zebrafish, supporting the role of UQCRB in angiogenesis. Collectively, UQCRB loss of function by either genetic and pharmacological means inhibited angiogenesis, indicating that UQCRB plays a key role in this process and can be a prognostic marker of angiogenesis- and mitochondria-related diseases

  4. [Species and quantitative characteristics of pharyngeal mucosa microflora in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshcheriakova, A K; Kostinov, M P; Magarshak, O O; Zaĭtseva, E V

    2014-01-01

    Species and quantitative characteristics of upper respiratory tract (URT) mucosa microflora in women at gestation period. The results of a bacteriological study of 68 samples of mucus from posterior pharyngeal wall in women at gestation period (from 14 weeks), 52 of those--from pregnant women with acute respiratory infection (ARI) symptoms and 16--from women without signs of disease, are presented. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora was studied by a generally accepted bacteriological method. During primary bacteriological study 111 microorganism cultures were isolated. 88 (79.3%) of strains belonged to Gram-positive flora, 20 (18.0%)--to Gram-negative, and Candida genus fungi constituted 3 (2.7%) isolates. Streptococcus pyogenes and Moraxella catarrhalis were isolated from pregnant women with ARI signs at 23.1% and 5.8% frequency of occurrence, respectively. A higher detectability of Staphylococcus aureus--in 31.3% and Candida spp.--in 6.3% of women who did not complain as opposed to patients with URT lesions (in 21.2 and 3.9%, respectively) was determined. In patients without ARI signs the amount of bacteria did not exceed 10(5)--10(6) CFU/ml, in pregnant women with ARI diagnosis in 8 of 52 cases semination of pharyngeal mucuswas observed--10(7)--10(8) CFU/ml. Prevalence of S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, S. pyogenes, Streptococcus mutans in composition of pharyngeal mucus microflora of pregnant women both with URT lesion signs and without them was shown, however the degree of semination by pathogens in the groups was different that determined the severity of disease manifestations.

  5. Social learning of an associative foraging task in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zala, Sarah M.; Määttänen, Ilmari

    2013-05-01

    The zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is increasingly becoming an important model species for studies on the genetic and neural mechanisms controlling behaviour and cognition. Here, we utilized a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to study social learning in zebrafish. We tested whether social interactions with conditioned demonstrators enhance the ability of focal naïve individuals to learn an associative foraging task. We found that the presence of conditioned demonstrators improved focal fish foraging behaviour through the process of social transmission, whereas the presence of inexperienced demonstrators interfered with the learning of the control focal fish. Our results indicate that zebrafish use social learning for finding food and that this CPP paradigm is an efficient assay to study social learning and memory in zebrafish.

  6. Effects of Asthma and Inhalation corticosteroids on the dental arch morphology in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hereditary, environmental and developmental factors play an important role in dentofacial development, as well as the initiation of malocclusion disorder. Allergic phenomenon such as asthma that induces an alternative mode of breathing in patients is a contributing factor in development of the dental arch. Aim: Our aim in this study was to evaluate the dentoalveolar morphology in asthmatic children and to analyze the effects of asthmatic medications on the dental arch. Setting and Design : This study is centered on 44 asthmatic children aged between 6-12 years from J.S.S Hospital, Mysore. Selected variables from model analysis of the casts of the asthmatic group were subjected to comparison with those of the non-asthmatic group, which comprised of 44 non-asthmatic children. Selected parameters were arch width, arch length and palatal depth. Materials and Methods : Impressions of upper and lower arches were made with rubber based impression material. A sliding digital caliper was used to measure the casts for arch width and arch length. A palatal depth gauge was used to measure the palatal depth. Statistical Analysis : Differences in arch widths, arch lengths and palatal depths between asthmatics and non-asthmatics groups were evaluated by independent sample t-tests. Chi-square test was applied to assess the frequency of occurrence of malocclusion in the asthmatic children. Result: The results obtained revealed that the arch length and palatal depth of asthmatic group had higher values compared to that of non-asthmatic groups for both age groups (6 to 8-year-old males and females, 10 to 12-year-old males and females. Inter molar width showed a significant lower value in asthmatics in the maxillary arches of 10 to 12-year-old females. Fifty percent of the asthmatic children aged 10 to 12-years had open-bite. Children under regular medication showed significant deviation in the dentoalveolar morphology as compared to those under

  7. Complete-arch accuracy of intraoral scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treesh, Joshua C; Liacouras, Peter C; Taft, Robert M; Brooks, Daniel I; Raiciulescu, Sorana; Ellert, Daniel O; Grant, Gerald T; Ye, Ling

    2018-04-30

    Intraoral scanners have shown varied results in complete-arch applications. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the complete-arch accuracy of 4 intraoral scanners based on trueness and precision measurements compared with a known reference (trueness) and with each other (precision). Four intraoral scanners were evaluated: CEREC Bluecam, CEREC Omnicam, TRIOS Color, and Carestream CS 3500. A complete-arch reference cast was created and printed using a 3-dimensional dental cast printer with photopolymer resin. The reference cast was digitized using a laboratory-based white light 3-dimensional scanner. The printed reference cast was scanned 10 times with each intraoral scanner. The digital standard tessellation language (STL) files from each scanner were then registered to the reference file and compared with differences in trueness and precision using a 3-dimensional modeling software. Additionally, scanning time was recorded for each scan performed. The Wilcoxon signed rank, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn tests were used to detect differences for trueness, precision, and scanning time (α=.05). Carestream CS 3500 had the lowest overall trueness and precision compared with Bluecam and TRIOS Color. The fourth scanner, Omnicam, had intermediate trueness and precision. All of the scanners tended to underestimate the size of the reference file, with exception of the Carestream CS 3500, which was more variable. Based on visual inspection of the color rendering of signed differences, the greatest amount of error tended to be in the posterior aspects of the arch, with local errors exceeding 100 μm for all scans. The single capture scanner Carestream CS 3500 had the overall longest scan times and was significantly slower than the continuous capture scanners TRIOS Color and Omnicam. Significant differences in both trueness and precision were found among the scanners. Scan times of the continuous capture scanners were faster than the single capture scanners

  8. Evaluation of arch form between Vietnamese and North American Caucasians using 3-dimensional virtual models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Vu Thi Thu; Park, Jae Hyun; Bayome, Mohamed; Shastry, Shruti; Mellion, Alex; Kook, Yoon-Ah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) morphologic differences in the mandibular arch of Vietnamese and North American White subjects. The sample included 113 Vietnamese subjects (41 Class I, 37 Class II and 35 Class III) and 96 White subjects (29 Class I, 30 Class II and 37 Class III). The samples were regrouped according to arch form types (tapered, ovoid, and square) to compare the frequency distribution of the three arch forms between ethnic groups in each angle classification. The facial axis point of each tooth was digitized on 3D virtual models. Four linear and two ratio variables were measured. In comparing arch dimensions, the intercanine and intermolar widths were wider in Vietnamese than in Whites (p Vietnamese group, the square arch form was the most frequent followed by tapered and ovoid arch forms. The arch forms of Whites were narrower than Vietnamese. In North American Whites, the distribution of the arch form types showed similar frequency. In Vietnamese, the square arch form was more frequent.

  9. Cardiac Ca2+ signalling in zebrafish: Translation of findings to man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Opbergen, Chantal J M; van der Voorn, Stephanie M; Vos, Marc A; de Boer, Teun P; van Veen, Toon A B

    2018-05-07

    Sudden cardiac death is a leading cause of death worldwide, mainly caused by highly disturbed electrical activation patterns in the heart. Currently, murine models are the most popular model to study underlying molecular mechanisms of inherited or acquired cardiac electrical abnormalities, although the numerous electrophysiological discrepancies between mouse and human raise the question whether mice are the optimal model to study cardiac rhythm disorders. Recently it has been uncovered that the zebrafish cardiac electrophysiology seems surprisingly similar to the human heart, mainly because the zebrafish AP contains a clear plateau phase and ECG characteristics show alignment with the human ECG. Although, before using zebrafish as a model to study cardiac arrhythmogenesis, however, it is very important to gain a better insight into the electrophysiological characteristics of the zebrafish heart. In this review we outline the electrophysiological machinery of the zebrafish cardiomyocytes, with a special focus on the intracellular Ca 2+ dynamics and excitation-contraction coupling. We debate the potential of zebrafish as a model to study human cardiovascular diseases and postulate steps to employ zebrafish into a more 'humanized' model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantification of birefringence readily measures the level of muscle damage in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Joachim, E-mail: Joachim.Berger@Monash.edu [Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, EMBL Australia, Monash University, Clayton (Australia); Sztal, Tamar; Currie, Peter D. [Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, EMBL Australia, Monash University, Clayton (Australia)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Report of an unbiased quantification of the birefringence of muscle of fish larvae. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantification method readily identifies level of overall muscle damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compare zebrafish muscle mutants for level of phenotype severity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proposed tool to survey treatments that aim to ameliorate muscular dystrophy. -- Abstract: Muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic disorders that progressively weaken and degenerate muscle. Many zebrafish models for human muscular dystrophies have been generated and analysed, including dystrophin-deficient zebrafish mutants dmd that model Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Under polarised light the zebrafish muscle can be detected as a bright area in an otherwise dark background. This light effect, called birefringence, results from the diffraction of polarised light through the pseudo-crystalline array of the muscle sarcomeres. Muscle damage, as seen in zebrafish models for muscular dystrophies, can readily be detected by a reduction in the birefringence. Therefore, birefringence is a very sensitive indicator of overall muscle integrity within larval zebrafish. Unbiased documentation of the birefringence followed by densitometric measurement enables the quantification of the birefringence of zebrafish larvae. Thereby, the overall level of muscle integrity can be detected, allowing the identification and categorisation of zebrafish muscle mutants. In addition, we propose that the establish protocol can be used to analyse treatments aimed at ameliorating dystrophic zebrafish models.

  11. Quantification of birefringence readily measures the level of muscle damage in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Joachim; Sztal, Tamar; Currie, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Report of an unbiased quantification of the birefringence of muscle of fish larvae. ► Quantification method readily identifies level of overall muscle damage. ► Compare zebrafish muscle mutants for level of phenotype severity. ► Proposed tool to survey treatments that aim to ameliorate muscular dystrophy. -- Abstract: Muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic disorders that progressively weaken and degenerate muscle. Many zebrafish models for human muscular dystrophies have been generated and analysed, including dystrophin-deficient zebrafish mutants dmd that model Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Under polarised light the zebrafish muscle can be detected as a bright area in an otherwise dark background. This light effect, called birefringence, results from the diffraction of polarised light through the pseudo-crystalline array of the muscle sarcomeres. Muscle damage, as seen in zebrafish models for muscular dystrophies, can readily be detected by a reduction in the birefringence. Therefore, birefringence is a very sensitive indicator of overall muscle integrity within larval zebrafish. Unbiased documentation of the birefringence followed by densitometric measurement enables the quantification of the birefringence of zebrafish larvae. Thereby, the overall level of muscle integrity can be detected, allowing the identification and categorisation of zebrafish muscle mutants. In addition, we propose that the establish protocol can be used to analyse treatments aimed at ameliorating dystrophic zebrafish models.

  12. Direct Visualization of DNA Replication Dynamics in Zebrafish Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriya, Kenji; Higashiyama, Eriko; Avşar-Ban, Eriko; Tamaru, Yutaka; Ogata, Shin; Takebayashi, Shin-ichiro; Ogata, Masato; Okumura, Katsuzumi

    2015-12-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of DNA replication in the S-phase nucleus has been extensively studied in mammalian cells because it is tightly coupled with the regulation of other nuclear processes such as transcription. However, little is known about the replication dynamics in nonmammalian cells. Here, we analyzed the DNA replication processes of zebrafish (Danio rerio) cells through the direct visualization of replicating DNA in the nucleus and on DNA fiber molecules isolated from the nucleus. We found that zebrafish chromosomal DNA at the nuclear interior was replicated first, followed by replication of DNA at the nuclear periphery, which is reminiscent of the spatiotemporal regulation of mammalian DNA replication. However, the relative duration of interior DNA replication in zebrafish cells was longer compared to mammalian cells, possibly reflecting zebrafish-specific genomic organization. The rate of replication fork progression and ori-to-ori distance measured by the DNA combing technique were ∼ 1.4 kb/min and 100 kb, respectively, which are comparable to those in mammalian cells. To our knowledge, this is a first report that measures replication dynamics in zebrafish cells.

  13. Optical silencing of C. elegans cells with arch proton pump.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Okazaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optogenetic techniques using light-driven ion channels or ion pumps for controlling excitable cells have greatly facilitated the investigation of nervous systems in vivo. A model organism, C. elegans, with its small transparent body and well-characterized neural circuits, is especially suitable for optogenetic analyses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe the application of archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch, a recently reported optical neuronal silencer, to C. elegans. Arch::GFP expressed either in all neurons or body wall muscles of the entire body by means of transgenes were localized, at least partially, to the cell membrane without adverse effects, and caused locomotory paralysis of worms when illuminated by green light (550 nm. Pan-neuronal expression of Arch endowed worms with quick and sustained responsiveness to such light. Worms reliably responded to repeated periods of illumination and non-illumination, and remained paralyzed under continuous illumination for 30 seconds. Worms expressing Arch in different subsets of motor neurons exhibited distinct defects in the locomotory behavior under green light: selective silencing of A-type motor neurons affected backward movement while silencing of B-type motor neurons affected forward movement more severely. Our experiments using a heat-shock-mediated induction system also indicate that Arch becomes fully functional only 12 hours after induction and remains functional for more than 24 hour. CONCLUSIONS/SGNIFICANCE: Arch can be used for silencing neurons and muscles, and may be a useful alternative to currently widely used halorhodopsin (NpHR in optogenetic studies of C. elegans.

  14. Whole-body and multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Na; Xi, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Zebrafish is a top vertebrate model to study developmental biology and genetics, and it is becoming increasingly popular for studying human diseases due to its high genome similarity to that of humans and the optical transparency in embryonic stages. However, it becomes difficult for pure optical imaging techniques to volumetric visualize the internal organs and structures of wild-type zebrafish in juvenile and adult stages with excellent resolution and penetration depth. Even with the establishment of mutant lines which remain transparent over the life cycle, it is still a challenge for pure optical imaging modalities to image the whole body of adult zebrafish with micro-scale resolution. However, the method called photoacoustic imaging that combines all the advantages of the optical imaging and ultrasonic imaging provides a new way to image the whole body of the zebrafish. In this work, we developed a non-invasive photoacoustic imaging system with optimized near-infrared illumination and cylindrical scanning to image the zebrafish. The lateral and axial resolution yield to 80 μm and 600 μm, respectively. Multispectral strategy with wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm was employed to image various organs inside the zebrafish. From the reconstructed images, most major organs and structures inside the body can be precisely imaged. Quantitative and statistical analysis of absorption for organs under illumination with different wavelengths were carried out.

  15. Heart-specific expression of laminopathic mutations in transgenic zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay D; Parnaik, Veena K

    2017-07-01

    Lamins are key determinants of nuclear organization and function in the metazoan nucleus. Mutations in human lamin A cause a spectrum of genetic diseases that affect cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle as well as other tissues. A few laminopathies have been modeled using the mouse. As zebrafish is a well established model for the study of cardiac development and disease, we have investigated the effects of heart-specific lamin A mutations in transgenic zebrafish. We have developed transgenic lines of zebrafish expressing conserved lamin A mutations that cause cardiac dysfunction in humans. Expression of zlamin A mutations Q291P and M368K in the heart was driven by the zebrafish cardiac troponin T2 promoter. Homozygous mutant embryos displayed nuclear abnormalities in cardiomyocyte nuclei. Expression analysis showed the upregulation of genes involved in heart regeneration in transgenic mutant embryos and a cell proliferation marker was increased in adult heart tissue. At the physiological level, there was deviation of up to 20% from normal heart rate in transgenic embryos expressing mutant lamins. Adult homozygous zebrafish were fertile and did not show signs of early mortality. Our results suggest that transgenic zebrafish models of heart-specific laminopathies show cardiac regeneration and moderate deviations in heart rate during embryonic development. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  16. Developmental finite element analysis of cichlid pharyngeal jaws: Quantifying the generation of a key innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Gerd B.

    2018-01-01

    Advances in imaging and modeling facilitate the calculation of biomechanical forces in biological specimens. These factors play a significant role during ontogenetic development of cichlid pharyngeal jaws, a key innovation responsible for one of the most prolific species diversifications in recent times. MicroCT imaging of radiopaque-stained vertebrate embryos were used to accurately capture the spatial relationships of the pharyngeal jaw apparatus in two cichlid species (Haplochromis elegans and Amatitlania nigrofasciata) for the purpose of creating a time series of developmental stages using finite element models, which can be used to assess the effects of biomechanical forces present in a system at multiple points of its ontogeny. Changes in muscle vector orientations, bite forces, force on the neurocranium where cartilage originates, and stress on upper pharyngeal jaws are analyzed in a comparative context. In addition, microCT scanning revealed the presence of previously unreported cement glands in A. nigrofasciata. The data obtained provide an underrepresented dimension of information on physical forces present in developmental processes and assist in interpreting the role of developmental dynamics in evolution. PMID:29320528

  17. Developmental finite element analysis of cichlid pharyngeal jaws: Quantifying the generation of a key innovation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Peterson

    Full Text Available Advances in imaging and modeling facilitate the calculation of biomechanical forces in biological specimens. These factors play a significant role during ontogenetic development of cichlid pharyngeal jaws, a key innovation responsible for one of the most prolific species diversifications in recent times. MicroCT imaging of radiopaque-stained vertebrate embryos were used to accurately capture the spatial relationships of the pharyngeal jaw apparatus in two cichlid species (Haplochromis elegans and Amatitlania nigrofasciata for the purpose of creating a time series of developmental stages using finite element models, which can be used to assess the effects of biomechanical forces present in a system at multiple points of its ontogeny. Changes in muscle vector orientations, bite forces, force on the neurocranium where cartilage originates, and stress on upper pharyngeal jaws are analyzed in a comparative context. In addition, microCT scanning revealed the presence of previously unreported cement glands in A. nigrofasciata. The data obtained provide an underrepresented dimension of information on physical forces present in developmental processes and assist in interpreting the role of developmental dynamics in evolution.

  18. Ionic channels underlying the ventricular action potential in zebrafish embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday, Aintzane; Alonso, Hiart; Gallego, Monica; Urrutia, Janire; Letamendia, Ainhoa; Callol, Carles; Casis, Oscar

    2014-06-01

    Over the last years zebrafish has become a popular model in the study of cardiac physiology, pathology and pharmacology. Recently, the application of the 3Rs regulation and the characteristics of the embryo have reduced the use of adult zebrafish use in many studies. However, the zebrafish embryo cardiac physiology is poorly characterized since most works have used indirect techniques and direct recordings of cardiac action potential and ionic currents are scarce. In order to optimize the zebrafish embryo model, we used electrophysiological, pharmacological and immunofluorescence tools to identify the characteristics and the ionic channels involved in the ventricular action potentials of zebrafish embryos. The application of Na(+) or T-type Ca(+2) channel blockers eliminated the cardiac electrical activity, indicating that the action potential upstroke depends on Na(+) and T-type Ca(+2) currents. The plateau phase depends on L-type Ca(+2) channels since it is abolished by specific blockade. The direct channel blockade indicates that the action potential repolarization and diastolic potential depends on ERG K(+) channels. The presence in the embryonic heart of the Nav1.5, Cav1.2, Cav3.2 and ERG channels was also confirmed by immunofluorescence, while the absence of effect of specific blockers and immunostaining indicate that two K(+) repolarizing currents present in human heart, Ito and IKs, are absent in the embryonic zebrafish heart. Our results describe the ionic channels present and its role in the zebrafish embryo heart and support the use of zebrafish embryos to study human diseases and their use for drug testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High magnetic field induced otolith fusion in the zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais-Roldán, Patricia; Singh, Ajeet Pratap; Schulz, Hildegard; Yu, Xin

    2016-04-11

    Magnetoreception in animals illustrates the interaction of biological systems with the geomagnetic field (geoMF). However, there are few studies that identified the impact of high magnetic field (MF) exposure from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners (>100,000 times of geoMF) on specific biological targets. Here, we investigated the effects of a 14 Tesla MRI scanner on zebrafish larvae. All zebrafish larvae aligned parallel to the B0 field, i.e. the static MF, in the MRI scanner. The two otoliths (ear stones) in the otic vesicles of zebrafish larvae older than 24 hours post fertilization (hpf) fused together after the high MF exposure as short as 2 hours, yielding a single-otolith phenotype with aberrant swimming behavior. The otolith fusion was blocked in zebrafish larvae under anesthesia or embedded in agarose. Hair cells may play an important role on the MF-induced otolith fusion. This work provided direct evidence to show that high MF interacts with the otic vesicle of zebrafish larvae and causes otolith fusion in an "all-or-none" manner. The MF-induced otolith fusion may facilitate the searching for MF sensors using genetically amenable vertebrate animal models, such as zebrafish.

  20. Hybrid treatment of aortic arch disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Patrick Bastos; Rossi, Fabio Henrique; Moreira, Samuel Martins; Issa, Mario; Izukawa, Nilo Mitsuru; Dinkhuysen, Jarbas J.; Spina Neto, Domingos; Kambara, Antônio Massamitsu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The management of thoracic aortic disease involving the ascending aorta, aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta are technically challenging and is an area in constant development and innovation. Objective To analyze early and midterm results of hybrid treatment of arch aortic disease. Methods Retrospective study of procedures performed from January 2010 to December 2012. The end points were the technical success, therapeutic success, morbidity and mortality, neurologic outcomes, the rate of endoleaks and reinterventions. Results A total of 95 patients treated for thoracic aortic diseases in this period, 18 underwent hybrid treatment and entered in this study. The average ages were 62.3 years. The male was present in 66.7%. The technical and therapeutic success was 94.5% e 83.3%. The perioperative mortality rate of 11.1%. There is any death during one-year follow- up. The reoperation rates were 16.6% due 2 cases of endoleak Ia and one case of endoleak II. There is any occlusion of anatomic or extra anatomic bypass during follow up. Conclusion In our study, the hybrid treatment of aortic arch disease proved to be a feasible alternative of conventional surgery. The therapeutic success rates and re- interventions obtained demonstrate the necessity of thorough clinical follow-up of these patients in a long time. PMID:25714205

  1. Structural behaviour of masonry arch with no-horizontal springing settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zampieri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a calculation procedure for assessing the structural integrity of a masonry arch with non-horizontal springing settlement. By applying the Principle of Virtual Work (PVW to the deformed arch system, the procedure proposed herein details the reaction forces and thrust lines for each step of imposed settlement of the support. The procedure can also be used estimate the final displacement that causes complete failure of arch structural capacity. The results of the analysis procedure were compared against those obtained by experimental testing so as to validate the proposed calculation method

  2. Technical improvement of arch setting machine for roadway drive. Kusshin kirihayo sewakuki no hensen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, T [Taiheiyo Coal Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-09-25

    The following contents are described for a new type arch setting machine introduced to the Taiheiyo Coal Mining Co. (1) The excavation of drift in this coal mine is carried out by the excavating system combining the excavating machine (CM) and the transporter (SC) and the supporting method where arch type steel beams are used as the supporting material is used. (2) In order to automatize the arch setting work, this machine which combined the both functions of the arch lifter (developed in 1983) and the arch setting manipulator (ASM, developed in 1990). (3) This machine has the total weight of 1,500kg, is mounted on CM, and consists of the running part, the arm part, the boom part, and the end saucer part of steel arches. Further, simple fitting or removing can be made and the coal falling down is prevented by holding the coal wall during the arch setting work. (4) When this machine and the ASM were compared for the arch setting time in the working site, the former required about the half time period of the latter. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Neutrophil Reverse Migration Becomes Transparent with Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor W. Starnes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The precise control of neutrophil-mediated inflammation is critical for both host defense and the prevention of immunopathology. In vivo imaging studies in zebrafish, and more recently in mice, have made the novel observation that neutrophils leave a site of inflammation through a process called neutrophil reverse migration. The application of advanced imaging techniques to the genetically tractable, optically transparent zebrafish larvae was critical for these advances. Still, the mechanisms underlying neutrophil reverse migration and its effects on the resolution or priming of immune responses remain unclear. Here, we review the current knowledge of neutrophil reverse migration, its potential roles in host immunity, and the live imaging tools that make zebrafish a valuable model for increasing our knowledge of neutrophil behavior in vivo.

  4. The neurogenetic frontier--lessons from misbehaving zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Harold A; Granato, Michael

    2008-11-01

    One of the central questions in neuroscience is how refined patterns of connectivity in the brain generate and monitor behavior. Genetic mutations can influence neural circuits by disrupting differentiation or maintenance of component neuronal cells or by altering functional patterns of nervous system connectivity. Mutagenesis screens therefore have the potential to reveal not only the molecular underpinnings of brain development and function, but to illuminate the cellular basis of behavior. Practical considerations make the zebrafish an organism of choice for undertaking forward genetic analysis of behavior. The powerful array of experimental tools at the disposal of the zebrafish researcher makes it possible to link molecular function to neuronal properties that underlie behavior. This review focuses on specific challenges to isolating and analyzing behavioral mutants in zebrafish.

  5. Ductal Stent Implantation in Tetralogy of Fallot with Aortic Arch Abnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergul, Yakup; Saygi, Murat; Ozyilmaz, Isa; Guzeltas, Alper; Odemis, Ender

    2015-01-01

    Stenting of patent ductus arteriosus is an alternative to palliative cardiac surgery in newborns with duct-dependent or decreased pulmonary circulation; however, the use of this technique in patients with an aortic arch abnormality presents a challenge. Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect that is frequently associated with anomalies of the aortic arch and its branches. The association is even more common in patients with chromosome 22q11 deletion. We present the case of an 18-day-old male infant who had cyanosis and a heart murmur. After an initial echocardiographic evaluation, the patient was diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot and right-sided aortic arch. The pulmonary annulus and the main pulmonary artery and its branches were slightly hypoplastic; the ductus arteriosus was small. Conventional and computed tomographic angiograms revealed a double aortic arch and an aberrant left subclavian artery. The right aortic arch branched into the subclavian arteries and continued into the descending aorta, whereas the left aortic arch branched into the common carotid arteries and ended with the patent ductus arteriosus. After evaluation of the ductal anatomy, we implanted a 3.5 × 15-mm coronary stent in the duct. Follow-up injections showed augmented pulmonary flow and an increase in oxygen saturation from 65% to 94%. The patient was also found to have chromosome 22q11 deletion. PMID:26175649

  6. The clinical value of pharyngeal pH monitoring using a double-probe, triple-sensor catheter in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muderris, Togay; Gokcan, M Kursat; Yorulmaz, Irfan

    2009-02-01

    To determine the clinical value of pharyngeal pH monitoring for the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) by using a double-probe, triple-sensor catheter in patients with symptoms of LPR. Prospective review of pH values recorded at the pharyngeal sensor, with the sensor placed in the proximal esophagus in patients with suspected LPR. Tertiary care university hospital. Thirty-three consecutive patients with symptoms of LPR. A pH test result was considered abnormal if a single reflux episode was detected in the hypopharynx and if, in the proximal esophagus, the total percentage of time the pH value was below 4 was 1.0% or higher. Data obtained from sensors were compared to determine the validity of pharyngeal sensor. Correlation between patients' reflux finding scores, reflux finding indexes, and reflux episodes were analyzed. Of 33 patients, 17 had more than 1 reflux episode detected by the pharyngeal sensor and 19 had pathological reflux detected by the proximal esophageal sensor. Four patients who had pharyngeal reflux had a normal esophageal acid exposure time, and 6 patients who had pathological reflux detected by the proximal esophageal sensor did not experienced any pharyngeal reflux episode. Four patients would have had a false-negative test result and 6 subjects would have had a false-positive test result if a hypopharyngeal pH sensor was not implemented. The adjustable, bifurcated, triple-sensor pH probe allows identifying true hypopharyngeal reflux episodes. If single-probe, double-sensor pH monitoring is to be performed, the proximal probe should be placed in the pharynx, not in the upper esophagus.

  7. Significance of Interleukin-6 Signaling in the Resistance of Pharyngeal Cancer to Irradiation and the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-C.; Chen, W.-C.; Lu, C.-H.; Wang, W.-H.; Lin, P.-Y.; Lee, K.-D.; Chen, M.-F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Tumor eradication by chemoradiotherapy for pharyngeal cancer has not been particularly successful. Targeting epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) could be a potential treatment strategy providing additional benefits, but only a subset of these tumors gives a clinically significant response to EGFR inhibitors. The aim has been to identify the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling and its predictive power in the treatment response of pharyngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Human pharyngeal cancer cell lines, including the hypopharyngeal cancer cell line FaDu and its derived cell line FaDu-C225-R, were selected. Changes in tumor growth, response to treatment, and responsible signaling pathway were investigated in vitro. Furthermore, 95 pharyngeal cancer tissue specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining, and correlations were made between levels of IL-6, IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), p-AKT, and p-STAT3 expression and the clinical outcome of patients. Results: In vitro, either extrinsic IL-6 stimulation of cancer cells or intrinsically activated IL-6 signaling detected in FADu-C225-R cells results in resistance to irradiation and EGFR inhibitor. Blocking IL-6 signaling attenuated aggressive tumor behavior and sensitized the cells to treatments. The responsible mechanisms included decreased p-STAT3, less nuclear translocation of EGFR, and subsequently attenuated epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Regarding clinical data, staining of p-STAT3 and IL-6 was significantly linked with lower response rates to treatments and shorter survival in pharyngeal cancer patients. Conclusions: IL-6 and p-STAT3 may be significant predictors of pharyngeal carcinoma, and regulating IL-6 signaling can be considered a promising therapeutic approach.

  8. Husbandry stress exacerbates mycobacterial infections in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, J.M.; Watral, Virginia G.; Schreck, C.B.; Kent, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacteria are significant pathogens of laboratory zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton). Stress is often implicated in clinical disease and morbidity associated with mycobacterial infections but has yet to be examined with zebrafish. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of husbandry stressors on zebrafish infected with mycobacteria. Adult zebrafish were exposed to Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium chelonae, two species that have been associated with disease in zebrafish. Infected fish and controls were then subjected to chronic crowding and handling stressors and examined over an 8-week period. Whole-body cortisol was significantly elevated in stressed fish compared to non-stressed fish. Fish infected with M. marinum ATCC 927 and subjected to husbandry stressors had 14% cumulative mortality while no mortality occurred among infected fish not subjected to husbandry stressors. Stressed fish, infected with M. chelonae H1E2 from zebrafish, were 15-fold more likely to be infected than non-stressed fish at week 8 post-injection. Sub-acute, diffuse infections were more common among stressed fish infected with M. marinum or M. chelonae than non-stressed fish. This is the first study to demonstrate an effect of stress and elevated cortisol on the morbidity, prevalence, clinical disease and histological presentation associated with mycobacterial infections in zebrafish. Minimizing husbandry stress may be effective at reducing the severity of outbreaks of clinical mycobacteriosis in zebrafish facilities. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Full-scale load tests of Pearl-Chain arches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2017-01-01

    -Decks: First an investigation of the system’s elastic response (maximum load of 648kN), and second a demonstration of its collapse mechanism and ultimate capacity (maximum load of 970kN). The full-scale test showed formation of plastic hinges and clear warning signs are observed at 84% of the failure load......A full-scale load test is made of two Pearl-Chain (PC) concrete arches in order to evaluate the structural response and assess the design safety. Pearl-Chain structures and Pearl-Chain arches are invented and patented at the Technical University of Denmark. PC-Arches consist of specially designed....... The ultimate, experimental load capacity is 14% higher than the calculated mainly due to the assumed static system used for the calculation. In addition to the full-scale test bridge the first ever permanent PC-Bridge is erected in Denmark in 2015....

  10. In-Plane MEMS Shallow Arch Beam for Mechanical Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Kosuru, Lakshmoji; Ramini, Abdallah; Chappanda, Karumbaiah N.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a memory device based on the nonlinear dynamics of an in-plane microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) clamped–clamped beam resonator, which is deliberately fabricated as a shallow arch. The arch beam is made of silicon, and is electrostatically actuated. The concept relies on the inherent quadratic nonlinearity originating from the arch curvature, which results in a softening behavior that creates hysteresis and co-existing states of motion. Since it is independent of the electrostatic force, this nonlinearity gives more flexibility in the operating conditions and allows for lower actuation voltages. Experimental results are generated through electrical characterization setup. Results are shown demonstrating the switching between the two vibrational states with the change of the direct current (DC) bias voltage, thereby proving the memory concept.

  11. In-Plane MEMS Shallow Arch Beam for Mechanical Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al

    2016-10-18

    We demonstrate a memory device based on the nonlinear dynamics of an in-plane microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) clamped–clamped beam resonator, which is deliberately fabricated as a shallow arch. The arch beam is made of silicon, and is electrostatically actuated. The concept relies on the inherent quadratic nonlinearity originating from the arch curvature, which results in a softening behavior that creates hysteresis and co-existing states of motion. Since it is independent of the electrostatic force, this nonlinearity gives more flexibility in the operating conditions and allows for lower actuation voltages. Experimental results are generated through electrical characterization setup. Results are shown demonstrating the switching between the two vibrational states with the change of the direct current (DC) bias voltage, thereby proving the memory concept.

  12. Regional cerebral perfusion for surgical correction of neonatal aortic arch obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Pei; Hou, Jia; Li, Lei; Liu, Hu; Liu, Ruifang; Ji, Bingyang; Luo, Yi

    2009-05-01

    One-stage repair of aortic arch obstruction and associated cardiac anomalies is a surgical challenge in infants.The purpose of the present study is to review the current outcome using regional cerebral perfusion (RCP) during a procedure correcting interrupted aortic arch (IAA) and also isolated aortic coarctation (CoA) and CoA combined with hypoplastic aortic arch (CoA-HyAA) in our center. Between January 2007 and July 2008, 24 infant patients with interrupted aortic arch (IAA) (n=3), isolated aortic coarctation (iCoA) (n=9) and aortic coarctation with hypoplastic aortic arch (CoA-HyAA) (n=12) underwent one-stage surgical correction in our hospital. End-to-end anastomosis was employed in 12 infants (IAA n=3 and iCoA n=9); for the other 12 patients with CoA-HyAA, an end-to-end extended anastomosis was used in 8 cases, end-to-side anastomosis in 2 cases, and composite heterologous pericardial patch in 2 cases. RCP with 40 mL/kg/min through the innominate artery during aortic arch reconstruction was employed for all pediatric patients. One single-dose histidine-ketoglutarate-tryptophan (HTK) solution was used for myocardial protection during CPB. Cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross-clamp time were 165.6+/-32.4 min and 81.7+/-30.0 min, respectively. The mean regional cerebral perfusion time was 31.0+/-10.6 min; lowest nasopharyngeal temperature was 19.1+/-1.1 degrees C. Operative mortality rate in both groups was 8.3%. Mean follow-up was 10.5+/-4.8 months. There was no late mortality or postoperative neurologic, renal or hepatic complications. All patients are asymptomatic and are developing normally. One-stage total arch repair using the RCP technique is an excellent method that may minimize neurologic and renal complications. Our surgical strategy for arch anomaly has a low rate of residual and recurrent coarctation when performed in these infants.

  13. Assessment of the influence of jogging on the shape of female foot arches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslon, Agata; Golec, Joanna; Szczygiel, Elzbieta; Czechowska, Dorota; Golec, Boguslaw

    2017-12-23

    Both walking and its faster, running, consist of cyclical subsequent phases of swing and support; however, they differ in their time proportions as well as magnitude of acting forces. There is a lack of studies concerning the long-term consequences of repeated jogging cycles on the function of feet and, above all, on their permanent impact on the shape of foot arches. The objective of this study was to answer the question whether regular jogging changes the shape of the transverse and medial longitudinal arches of the feet. The research material consisted of 96 women with an average age of 26.57, and included 50 actively jogging women, and 46 of non-joggers. The study was performed with the use of EMED-SF force platform. The plantar surface of the foot was divided into 10 regions according to Cavanagh, for which peak pressure and contact time were established. Two indicators were defined: metatarsal bone pressure distribution pattern acc. to Kantali, and longitudinal arch index acc. to Cavanagh. The data obtained revealed more frequent occurrence of the greatest pressure under the centrally located metatarsal heads (lack of functional foot transverse arch) among the female joggers, compared with the non-joggers. Moreover, the findings indicate the higher frequency of medial longitudinal foot arch flattening among female runners, with a great deal of consistency between both feet, whereas results for the control group show asymmetrical medial arch shapes with right foot propensity to normal arch shape and left foot tendency for excessive arch. The observed differences in feet arch shapes between female joggers and non-joggers indicate the influence of jogging on feet functional adaptations.

  14. Zebrafish in Toxicology and Environmental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambino, Kathryn; Chu, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    As manufacturing processes and development of new synthetic compounds increase to keep pace with the expanding global demand, environmental health, and the effects of toxicant exposure are emerging as critical public health concerns. Additionally, chemicals that naturally occur in the environment, such as metals, have profound effects on human and animal health. Many of these compounds are in the news: lead, arsenic, and endocrine disruptors such as bisphenol A have all been widely publicized as causing disease or damage to humans and wildlife in recent years. Despite the widespread appreciation that environmental toxins can be harmful, there is limited understanding of how many toxins cause disease. Zebrafish are at the forefront of toxicology research; this system has been widely used as a tool to detect toxins in water samples and to investigate the mechanisms of action of environmental toxins and their related diseases. The benefits of zebrafish for studying vertebrate development are equally useful for studying teratogens. Here, we review how zebrafish are being used both to detect the presence of some toxins as well as to identify how environmental exposures affect human health and disease. We focus on areas where zebrafish have been most effectively used in ecotoxicology and in environmental health, including investigation of exposures to endocrine disruptors, industrial waste byproducts, and arsenic. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Axonal regeneration in zebrafish spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Subhra Prakash

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In the present review we discuss two interrelated events—axonal damage and repair—known to occur after spinal cord injury (SCI) in the zebrafish. Adult zebrafish are capable of regenerating axonal tracts and can restore full functionality after SCI. Unlike fish, axon regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system is extremely limited. As a consequence of an injury there is very little repair of disengaged axons and therefore functional deficit persists after SCI in adult mammals. In contrast, peripheral nervous system axons readily regenerate following injury and hence allow functional recovery both in mammals and fish. A better mechanistic understanding of these three scenarios could provide a more comprehensive insight into the success or failure of axonal regeneration after SCI. This review summarizes the present understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of axonal regeneration, in both the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system, and large scale gene expression analysis is used to focus on different events during regeneration. The discovery and identification of genes involved in zebrafish spinal cord regeneration and subsequent functional experimentation will provide more insight into the endogenous mechanism of myelination and remyelination. Furthermore, precise knowledge of the mechanism underlying the extraordinary axonal regeneration process in zebrafish will also allow us to unravel the potential therapeutic strategies to be implemented for enhancing regrowth and remyelination of axons in mammals. PMID:29721326

  16. Effects of alpha particles on zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yum, E.H.W.; Choi, V.W.Y.; Yu, K.N.; Li, V.W.T.; Cheng, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Ionizing radiation such as X-ray and alpha particles can damage cellular macromolecules, which can lead to DNA single- and double-strand breaks. In the present work, we studied the effects of alpha particles on dechorionated zebrafish embryos. Thin polyallyldiglycol carbonate (PADC) films with a thickness of 16 μm were prepared from commercially available PADC films (with thickness of 100 μm) by chemical etching and used as support substrates for holding zebrafish embryos for alpha-particle irradiation. These films recorded alpha-particle hit positions, quantified the number and energy of alpha particles actually incident on the embryo cells, and thus enabled the calculation of the dose absorbed by the embryo cells. Irradiation was made at 1.25 hours post fertilization (hpf) with various absorbed dose. TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed on the embryos at different time stages after irradiation. Marked apoptosis was detected only in embryos at earlier time stages. The results showed that DNA double-strand break during zebrafish embryogenesis can be induced by alpha-particle irradiation, which suggests that zebrafish is a potential model for assessing the effects of alpha-particle radiation

  17. Defective glycinergic synaptic transmission in zebrafish motility mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Hirata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic transmission due to a lack of synaptic aggregation of GlyRs. Due to the consequent loss of reciprocal inhibition of motor circuits between the two sides of the spinal cord, motor neurons activate simultaneously on both sides resulting in bilateral contraction of axial muscles of beo mutants, eliciting the so-called ‘accordion’ phenotype. Similar defects in GlyR subunit genes have been observed in several mammals and are the basis for human hyperekplexia/startle disease. By contrast, zebrafish shocked (sho mutants have a defect in slc6a9, encoding GlyT1, a glycine transporter that is expressed by astroglial cells surrounding the glycinergic synapse in the hindbrain and spinal cord. GlyT1 mediates rapid uptake of glycine from the synaptic cleft, terminating synaptic transmission. In zebrafish sho mutants, there appears to be elevated extracellular glycine resulting in persistent inhibition of postsynaptic neurons and subsequent reduced motility, causing the ‘twitch once’ phenotype. We review current knowledge regarding zebrafish ‘accordion’ and ‘twitch once’ mutants, including beo and sho, and report the identification of a new α2 subunit that revises the phylogeny of zebrafish GlyRs.

  18. Defective Glycinergic Synaptic Transmission in Zebrafish Motility Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Hiromi; Carta, Eloisa; Yamanaka, Iori; Harvey, Robert J.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2009-01-01

    Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo) mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR) β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic transmission due to a lack of synaptic aggregation of GlyRs. Due to the consequent loss of reciprocal inhibition of motor circuits between the two sides of the spinal cord, motor neurons activate simultaneously on both sides resulting in bilateral contraction of axial muscles of beo mutants, eliciting the so-called ‘accordion’ phenotype. Similar defects in GlyR subunit genes have been observed in several mammals and are the basis for human hyperekplexia/startle disease. By contrast, zebrafish shocked (sho) mutants have a defect in slc6a9, encoding GlyT1, a glycine transporter that is expressed by astroglial cells surrounding the glycinergic synapse in the hindbrain and spinal cord. GlyT1 mediates rapid uptake of glycine from the synaptic cleft, terminating synaptic transmission. In zebrafish sho mutants, there appears to be elevated extracellular glycine resulting in persistent inhibition of postsynaptic neurons and subsequent reduced motility, causing the ‘twitch-once’ phenotype. We review current knowledge regarding zebrafish ‘accordion’ and ‘twitch-once’ mutants, including beo and sho, and report the identification of a new α2 subunit that revises the phylogeny of zebrafish GlyRs. PMID:20161699

  19. BMP signaling modulates hepcidin expression in zebrafish embryos independent of hemojuvelin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Gibert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemojuvelin (Hjv, a member of the repulsive-guidance molecule (RGM family, upregulates transcription of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin by activating the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling pathway in mammalian cells. Mammalian models have identified furin, neogenin, and matriptase-2 as modifiers of Hjv's function. Using the zebrafish model, we evaluated the effects of hjv and its interacting proteins on hepcidin expression during embryonic development. We found that hjv is strongly expressed in the notochord and somites of the zebrafish embryo and that morpholino knockdown of hjv impaired the development of these structures. Knockdown of hjv or other hjv-related genes, including zebrafish orthologs of furin or neogenin, however, failed to decrease hepcidin expression relative to liver size. In contrast, overexpression of bmp2b or knockdown of matriptase-2 enhanced the intensity and extent of hepcidin expression in zebrafish embryos, but this occurred in an hjv-independent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrated that zebrafish hjv can activate the human hepcidin promoter and enhance BMP responsive gene expression in vitro, but is expressed at low levels in the zebrafish embryonic liver. Taken together, these data support an alternative mechanism for hepcidin regulation during zebrafish embryonic development, which is independent of hjv.

  20. The HDAC Inhibitor TSA Ameliorates a Zebrafish Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nathan M; Farr, Gist H; Maves, Lisa

    2013-09-17

    Zebrafish are an excellent model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In particular, zebrafish provide a system for rapid, easy, and low-cost screening of small molecules that can ameliorate muscle damage in dystrophic larvae. Here we identify an optimal anti-sense morpholino cocktail that robustly knocks down zebrafish Dystrophin (dmd-MO). We use two approaches, muscle birefringence and muscle actin expression, to quantify muscle damage and show that the dmd-MO dystrophic phenotype closely resembles the zebrafish dmd mutant phenotype. We then show that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor TSA, which has been shown to ameliorate the mdx mouse Duchenne model, can rescue muscle fiber damage in both dmd-MO and dmd mutant larvae. Our study identifies optimal morpholino and phenotypic scoring approaches for dystrophic zebrafish, further enhancing the zebrafish dmd model for rapid and cost-effective small molecule screening.

  1. Zebrafish Expression Ontology of Gene Sets (ZEOGS): A Tool to Analyze Enrichment of Zebrafish Anatomical Terms in Large Gene Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsico, Annalisa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an established model organism for developmental and biomedical research. It is frequently used for high-throughput functional genomics experiments, such as genome-wide gene expression measurements, to systematically analyze molecular mechanisms. However, the use of whole embryos or larvae in such experiments leads to a loss of the spatial information. To address this problem, we have developed a tool called Zebrafish Expression Ontology of Gene Sets (ZEOGS) to assess the enrichment of anatomical terms in large gene sets. ZEOGS uses gene expression pattern data from several sources: first, in situ hybridization experiments from the Zebrafish Model Organism Database (ZFIN); second, it uses the Zebrafish Anatomical Ontology, a controlled vocabulary that describes connected anatomical structures; and third, the available connections between expression patterns and anatomical terms contained in ZFIN. Upon input of a gene set, ZEOGS determines which anatomical structures are overrepresented in the input gene set. ZEOGS allows one for the first time to look at groups of genes and to describe them in terms of shared anatomical structures. To establish ZEOGS, we first tested it on random gene selections and on two public microarray datasets with known tissue-specific gene expression changes. These tests showed that ZEOGS could reliably identify the tissues affected, whereas only very few enriched terms to none were found in the random gene sets. Next we applied ZEOGS to microarray datasets of 24 and 72 h postfertilization zebrafish embryos treated with beclomethasone, a potent glucocorticoid. This analysis resulted in the identification of several anatomical terms related to glucocorticoid-responsive tissues, some of which were stage-specific. Our studies highlight the ability of ZEOGS to extract spatial information from datasets derived from whole embryos, indicating that ZEOGS could be a useful tool to automatically analyze gene

  2. Zebrafish Expression Ontology of Gene Sets (ZEOGS): a tool to analyze enrichment of zebrafish anatomical terms in large gene sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prykhozhij, Sergey V; Marsico, Annalisa; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H

    2013-09-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an established model organism for developmental and biomedical research. It is frequently used for high-throughput functional genomics experiments, such as genome-wide gene expression measurements, to systematically analyze molecular mechanisms. However, the use of whole embryos or larvae in such experiments leads to a loss of the spatial information. To address this problem, we have developed a tool called Zebrafish Expression Ontology of Gene Sets (ZEOGS) to assess the enrichment of anatomical terms in large gene sets. ZEOGS uses gene expression pattern data from several sources: first, in situ hybridization experiments from the Zebrafish Model Organism Database (ZFIN); second, it uses the Zebrafish Anatomical Ontology, a controlled vocabulary that describes connected anatomical structures; and third, the available connections between expression patterns and anatomical terms contained in ZFIN. Upon input of a gene set, ZEOGS determines which anatomical structures are overrepresented in the input gene set. ZEOGS allows one for the first time to look at groups of genes and to describe them in terms of shared anatomical structures. To establish ZEOGS, we first tested it on random gene selections and on two public microarray datasets with known tissue-specific gene expression changes. These tests showed that ZEOGS could reliably identify the tissues affected, whereas only very few enriched terms to none were found in the random gene sets. Next we applied ZEOGS to microarray datasets of 24 and 72 h postfertilization zebrafish embryos treated with beclomethasone, a potent glucocorticoid. This analysis resulted in the identification of several anatomical terms related to glucocorticoid-responsive tissues, some of which were stage-specific. Our studies highlight the ability of ZEOGS to extract spatial information from datasets derived from whole embryos, indicating that ZEOGS could be a useful tool to automatically analyze gene expression

  3. Quaternary and tertiary aldoxime antidotes for organophosphate exposure in a zebrafish model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Hayden R. [Department of Biology, Whittier College, Whittier, CA 90608 (United States); Radić, Zoran; Taylor, Palmer [Department of Pharmacology, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0650 (United States); Fradinger, Erica A., E-mail: efrading@whittier.edu [Department of Biology, Whittier College, Whittier, CA 90608 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    The zebrafish is rapidly becoming an important model system for screening of new therapeutics. Here we evaluated the zebrafish as a potential pharmacological model for screening novel oxime antidotes to organophosphate (OP)-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The k{sub i} values determined for chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) and dichlorvos (DDVP) showed that CPO was a more potent inhibitor of both human and zebrafish AChE, but overall zebrafish AChE was less sensitive to OP inhibition. In contrast, aldoxime antidotes, the quaternary ammonium 2-PAM and tertiary amine RS-194B, showed generally similar overall reactivation kinetics, k{sub r}, in both zebrafish and human AChE. However, differences between the K{sub ox} and k{sub 2} constants suggest that zebrafish AChE associates more tightly with oximes, but has a slower maximal reactivation rate than human AChE. Homology modeling suggests that these kinetic differences result from divergences in the amino acids lining the entrance to the active site gorge. Although 2-PAM had the more favorable in vitro reactivation kinetics, RS-194B was more effective antidote in vivo. In intact zebrafish embryos, antidotal treatment with RS-194B rescued embryos from OP toxicity, whereas 2-PAM had no effect. Dechorionation of the embryos prior to antidotal treatment allowed both 2-PAM and RS-194B to rescue zebrafish embryos from OP toxicity. Interestingly, RS-194B and 2-PAM alone increased cholinergic motor activity in dechorionated embryos possibly due to the reversible inhibition kinetics, K{sub i} and αK{sub i}, of the oximes. Together these results demonstrate that the zebrafish at various developmental stages provides an excellent model for investigating membrane penetrant antidotes to OP exposure. - Highlights: • Zebrafish AChE shares significant structural similarities with human AChE. • OP-inhibited zebrafish and human AChE exhibit similar reactivation kinetics. • The zebrafish chorion is permeable to BBB penetrant and not

  4. Highly tunable NEMS shallow arches

    KAUST Repository

    Kazmi, Syed N. R.; Hajjaj, Amal Z.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2017-01-01

    and surface nanomachining of a highly conductive device layer on a silicon-on-insulator wafer. By designing the structures to have gap to thickness ratio of more than four, the mid-plane stretching of the nano arches is maximized such that an increase

  5. Electrostatically Tunable Nanomechanical Shallow Arches

    KAUST Repository

    Kazmi, Syed N. R.; Hajjaj, Amal Z.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2017-01-01

    -beam lithography and surface nanomachining of a highly conductive device layer on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The experimental results show good agreement with the analytical results with a maximum tunability of 108.14% for 180 nm thick arch with a

  6. Selective cerebro-myocardial perfusion in complex congenital aortic arch pathology: a novel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rita, Fabrizio; Lucchese, Gianluca; Barozzi, Luca; Menon, Tiziano; Faggian, Giuseppe; Mazzucco, Alessandro; Luciani, Giovanni Battista

    2011-11-01

    Simultaneous cerebro-myocardial perfusion has been described in neonatal and infant arch surgery, suggesting a reduction in cardiac morbidity. Here reported is a novel technique for selective cerebral perfusion combined with controlled and independent myocardial perfusion during surgery for complex or recurrent aortic arch lesions. From April 2008 to April 2011, 10 patients with arch pathology underwent surgery (two hypoplastic left heart syndrome [HLHS], four recurrent arch obstruction, two aortic arch hypoplasia + ventricular septal defect [VSD], one single ventricle + transposition of the great arteries + arch hypoplasia, one interrupted aortic arch type B + VSD). Median age was 63 days (6 days-36 years) and median weight 4.0 kg (1.6-52). Via midline sternotomy, an arterial cannula (6 or 8 Fr for infants) was directly inserted into the innominate artery or through a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft (for neonates cerebro-myocardial perfusion was 39 ± 18 min (17-69). Weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass was achieved without inotropic support in three and with low dose in seven patients. One patient required veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Four patients, body weight cerebro-myocardial perfusion is feasible in patients with complex or recurrent aortic arch disease, starting from premature newborn less than 2.0 kg of body weight to adults. The technique is as safe as previously reported methods of cerebro-myocardial perfusion and possibly more versatile. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Reduction of Zygomatic Arch Isolated Fracture Using Ultra Sound and Needle Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Sik; Park, Young Ji; Lee, Yoon Jung; Kim, Nam Gyun; Lee, Kyung Suk

    2016-12-01

    Zygomatic arch is a bony arch constituting the lateral midface, which consists of 25% of all midface fractures. There are a number of ways to evaluate the extent of zygomatic arch fracture. Some authors have reported successful treatment outcomes using ultrasound (U/S). To add to the previous methods, we have considered ways to accurately display the location of the fracture line while using U/S with 23 gauge needle marking. We introduce our method, which provided satisfactory results for reduction using a portable U/S, and it can evaluate the fracture line simultaneously when reduction of an isolated zygomatic arch fracture is necessary, and needle marking, which can easily point out the fracture line on U/S. We studied 21 patients with an isolated zygomatic arch fracture who underwent closed reduction using U/S and needle marking between 2013 and 2015. We achieved satisfactory results in all our cases with respect to reduction by using the Dingman elevator after performing a temporal approach incision, while confirming relative positioning between needle marking and zygomatic fracture at the same time, after insertion of a 23 gauge needle in the skin above the zygomatic arch fracture line parallel to it. We treated 21 patients with an isolated zygomatic arch fracture using U/S and the needle marking method, which provided satisfactory results because the extent of reduction of the fracture could be evaluated in real-time during the operation and exposure to radiation was reduced.

  8. Three-dimensional evaluation of pharyngeal airway in individuals with varying growth patterns using cone beam computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Rohan Diwakar; Maninder Singh Sidhu; Mona Prabhakar; Seema Grover; Ritu Phogat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharyngeal airway volume in individuals with different vertical growth patterns. Methods: Cone beam computed tomography scans were evaluated of 40 subjects with the age range from 14 to 25 years and were divided into three groups. Horizontal growers consisted of 13 subjects, normal growers consisted of 14 subjects, and the vertical growers consisted of 13 subjects. The pharyngeal airway volume was measured using In Vivo Dental 5.1 so...

  9. Defects of the Glycinergic Synapse in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Kazutoyo; Hirata, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Glycine mediates fast inhibitory synaptic transmission. Physiological importance of the glycinergic synapse is well established in the brainstem and the spinal cord. In humans, the loss of glycinergic function in the spinal cord and brainstem leads to hyperekplexia, which is characterized by an excess startle reflex to sudden acoustic or tactile stimulation. In addition, glycinergic synapses in this region are also involved in the regulation of respiration and locomotion, and in the nociceptive processing. The importance of the glycinergic synapse is conserved across vertebrate species. A teleost fish, the zebrafish, offers several advantages as a vertebrate model for research of glycinergic synapse. Mutagenesis screens in zebrafish have isolated two motor defective mutants that have pathogenic mutations in glycinergic synaptic transmission: bandoneon (beo) and shocked (sho). Beo mutants have a loss-of-function mutation of glycine receptor (GlyR) β-subunit b, alternatively, sho mutant is a glycinergic transporter 1 (GlyT1) defective mutant. These mutants are useful animal models for understanding of glycinergic synaptic transmission and for identification of novel therapeutic agents for human diseases arising from defect in glycinergic transmission, such as hyperekplexia or glycine encephalopathy. Recent advances in techniques for genome editing and for imaging and manipulating of a molecule or a physiological process make zebrafish more attractive model. In this review, we describe the glycinergic defective zebrafish mutants and the technical advances in both forward and reverse genetic approaches as well as in vivo visualization and manipulation approaches for the study of the glycinergic synapse in zebrafish. PMID:27445686

  10. Human evaluation in association to the mathematical analysis of arch forms: Two-dimensional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabidin, Nurwahidah; Mohamed, Alizae Marny; Zaharim, Azami; Marizan Nor, Murshida; Rosli, Tanti Irawati

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the relationship between human evaluation of the dental-arch form, to complete a mathematical analysis via two different methods in quantifying the arch form, and to establish agreement with the fourth-order polynomial equation. This study included 64 sets of digitised maxilla and mandible dental casts obtained from a sample of dental arch with normal occlusion. For human evaluation, a convenient sample of orthodontic practitioners ranked the photo images of dental cast from the most tapered to the less tapered (square). In the mathematical analysis, dental arches were interpolated using the fourth-order polynomial equation with millimetric acetate paper and AutoCAD software. Finally, the relations between human evaluation and mathematical objective analyses were evaluated. Human evaluations were found to be generally in agreement, but only at the extremes of tapered and square arch forms; this indicated general human error and observer bias. The two methods used to plot the arch form were comparable. The use of fourth-order polynomial equation may be facilitative in obtaining a smooth curve, which can produce a template for individual arch that represents all potential tooth positions for the dental arch. Copyright © 2018 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Pharmacological Modulation of Hemodynamics in Adult Zebrafish In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brönnimann

    Full Text Available Hemodynamic parameters in zebrafish receive increasing attention because of their important role in cardiovascular processes such as atherosclerosis, hematopoiesis, sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis. To study underlying mechanisms, the precise modulation of parameters like blood flow velocity or shear stress is centrally important. Questions related to blood flow have been addressed in the past in either embryonic or ex vivo-zebrafish models but little information is available for adult animals. Here we describe a pharmacological approach to modulate cardiac and hemodynamic parameters in adult zebrafish in vivo.Adult zebrafish were paralyzed and orally perfused with salt water. The drugs isoprenaline and sodium nitroprusside were directly applied with the perfusate, thus closely resembling the preferred method for drug delivery in zebrafish, namely within the water. Drug effects on the heart and on blood flow in the submental vein were studied using electrocardiograms, in vivo-microscopy and mathematical flow simulations.Under control conditions, heart rate, blood flow velocity and shear stress varied less than ± 5%. Maximal chronotropic effects of isoprenaline were achieved at a concentration of 50 μmol/L, where it increased the heart rate by 22.6 ± 1.3% (n = 4; p < 0.0001. Blood flow velocity and shear stress in the submental vein were not significantly increased. Sodium nitroprusside at 1 mmol/L did not alter the heart rate but increased blood flow velocity by 110.46 ± 19.64% (p = 0.01 and shear stress by 117.96 ± 23.65% (n = 9; p = 0.03.In this study, we demonstrate that cardiac and hemodynamic parameters in adult zebrafish can be efficiently modulated by isoprenaline and sodium nitroprusside. Together with the suitability of the zebrafish for in vivo-microscopy and genetic modifications, the methodology described permits studying biological processes that are dependent on hemodynamic alterations.

  12. Influence of shovel-shaped incisors on the dental arch crowding in Mongolian females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yuh; Terada, Kazuto; Kageyama, Ikuo; Tsukada, Shin-ichi; Uzuka, Satoshi; Nakahara, Rizako; Nakahara, Sen

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of shovel-shaped incisors on the dental arch crowding in the samples of modern young female adult Mongolians (belonging to the Khalkha-Mogol grouping) ranged between 18.5 and 25.0 years, with a mean age of 20.7 years. Materials in this study comprised of 33 dental casts. Plaster replicas of the A.S.U. system plaques were used to facilitate standardization in scoring and classify shoveling regarding both upper central and lateral incisors. Dimensions of the dental arch namely, overjet, overbite, arch depth, arch width and irregularity index were measured. The correlation between the shovel shape of the central incisor and the lateral incisor was highly significant. Significantly relations were found between the grades of shoveling and the mesiodistal diameters of upper first molars and lower incisors. Positive correlation was admitted between the shoveling and upper arch depth anterior, and upper arch depth. It may be considered that the grades of shoveling are indirectly related with upper and/or lower anterior crowding. Although crowding is looks like an expression of disharmony between teeth and alveolar arch, it may be caused by multiple etiologic factors interacted directly and/or indirectly.

  13. The part of soluble and insoluble forms of Pb, Be, Ba, Ca, Mg, Sr in particulate matter and in the pharyngeal tonsils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gerycka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Previous studies have confirmed that the pharyngeal tonsil is a good biomarker of exposure due to its position relative to inhaled air so that multiple elements can be accumulated in this organ. The aim of the study is to determine the share of soluble and insoluble compounds of individual elements in suspended particles in the accumulation of Pb, Be, Ba, Sr, Ca,Mg by the pharyngeal tonsils. Material and methods. The content of the analyzed elements is defined in 86 samples of pharyngeal tonsils from children living in Tychy and in 76 samples of pharyngeal tonsils from children living in Chorzów, as well as in the suspended particles in the air occurring in soluble and insoluble form. The specified coefficients k1, k2 present in the equation division allow the indication the greater importance of soluble and insoluble fraction of an element present in the inhaled air. Results. The value of the coefficients in the equation division based on gender confirmed its importance. Conclusions. The values detect area variation in relation to passive smoking in the extent of accumulation of Pb, Be, Ba, Sr, Mg, Ca in pharyngeal tonsils.

  14. A Lateral Cephalometric Study of the Pharyngeal Growth in Korean Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ki Chae; Lee, Sang Rae; Lee, Man Sup

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to investigate the growth of the pharynx and sexual differences in the lateral cephalograms of Korean children. The material includes 173 cepalograms from two groups composed of 51 males aged 12.0 years and 39 females aged 12.2 years in group 2, and 45 males aged 7.4 years and 39 females aged 7.5 year in group 1, respectively. In order to study and measure the pharyngeal area the following skeletal landmarks were selected: S, N, A, Ptm, B, H, H', M, S-N, FH and CV, and the angle CV-FH was measured to provide a factor for correction of error resulting from improper head positioning of subjects, especially in relative positions of A and H, while radiography. For each variable the statistically treated data have been presented in the table II, III, IV. The main results are presented as follows: 1. In general, the measurements of male were larger than those of female in antero-posterior dimension of pharyngeal cavity, but all variables did not show significant sexual differences in both groups when evaluated statistically. 2. All of the measurements were larger in male than in female in vertical dimensions of pharyngeal cavity in group 2, and there were statistical significances of sexual differences in the variables except M-H', but all variables did not show significant sexual differences in group 1 when evaluated statistically. 3. The dimensional increase of the pharynx by the growth in the vertical dimensions was shown to be greater than in the antero-posterior dimensions in the both sexes.

  15. Effects of pelvic rotation and needle angle on pubic arch interference during transperineal prostate implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tincher, Sandra A.; Kim, Robert Y.; Ezekiel, Mark P.; Zinsli, Tom; Fiveash, John B.; Raben, David A.; Bueschen, Anton J.; Urban, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Pubic arch interference due to an enlarged prostate gland or a narrow pubic arch is often a limiting factor in adequate prostate coverage during transperineal brachytherapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of both pelvic rotation and needle angles on pubic arch interference using CT-based 3-D information. Methods and Materials: Seven patients had CT imaging in both supine and lithotomy positions and 3-D treatment planning was performed with three needle angles (20 downward, 0, 20 upward). The pubic arch interference was then measured and comparisons were made for each needle trajectory and pelvic position. Results: Increasing pelvic rotation from supine to lithotomy position shows less pubic arch interference. Directing the needle tip upward shows less pubic arch interference in both supine and lithotomy positions when compared to needle tips directed downward. Conclusions: Both pelvic position and needle angles are important factors influencing pubic arch interference. Preplanning CT-based 3-D information may assist for individualized treatment planning in patients with a significant bony interference, thus avoiding pubic arch interference during implantation

  16. Zebrafish Models of Prader-Willi Syndrome: Fast Track to Pharmacotherapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma D. Spikol

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by an insatiable appetite, leading to chronic overeating and obesity. Additional features include short stature, intellectual disability, behavioral problems and incomplete sexual development. Although significant progress has been made in understanding the genetic basis of PWS, the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of the disorder remain poorly understood. Treatment for PWS consists mainly of palliative therapies; curative therapies are sorely needed. Zebrafish, Danio rerio, represent a promising way forward for elucidating physiological problems such as obesity and identifying new pharmacotherapeutic options for PWS. Over the last decade, an increased appreciation for the highly conserved biology among vertebrates and the ability to perform high-throughput drug screening has seen an explosion in the use of zebrafish for disease modeling and drug discovery. Here, we review recent advances in developing zebrafish models of human disease. Aspects of zebrafish genetics and physiology that are relevant to PWS will be discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages of zebrafish models will be contrasted with current animal models for this syndrome. Finally, we will present a paradigm for drug screening in zebrafish that is potentially the fastest route for identifying and delivering curative pharmacotherapies to PWS patients.

  17. ESX-5-deficient Mycobacterium marinum is hypervirulent in adult zebrafish

    KAUST Repository

    Weerdenburg, Eveline M.

    2012-02-15

    ESX-5 is a mycobacterial type VII protein secretion system responsible for transport of numerous PE and PPE proteins. It is involved in the induction of host cell death and modulation of the cytokine response in vitro. In this work, we studied the effects of ESX-5 in embryonic and adult zebrafish using Mycobacterium marinum. We found that ESX-5-deficient M.marinum was slightly attenuated in zebrafish embryos. Surprisingly, the same mutant showed highly increased virulence in adult zebrafish, characterized by increased bacterial loads and early onset of granuloma formation with rapid development of necrotic centres. This early onset of granuloma formation was accompanied by an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and tissue remodelling genes in zebrafish infected with the ESX-5 mutant. Experiments using RAG-1-deficient zebrafish showed that the increased virulence of the ESX-5 mutant was not dependent on the adaptive immune system. Mixed infection experiments with wild-type and ESX-5 mutant bacteria showed that the latter had a specific advantage in adult zebrafish and outcompeted wild-type bacteria. Together our experiments indicate that ESX-5-mediated protein secretion is used by M.marinum to establish a moderate and persistent infection. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Expression of CALR mutants causes mpl-dependent thrombocytosis in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K-H; Chang, Y-C; Chiang, Y-H; Lin, H-C; Chang, C-Y; Lin, C-S; Huang, L; Wang, W-T; Gon-Shen Chen, C; Chou, W-C; Kuo, Y-Y

    2016-10-07

    CALR mutations are identified in about 30% of JAK2/MPL-unmutated myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) including essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis. Although the molecular pathogenesis of CALR mutations leading to MPNs has been studied using in vitro cell lines models, how mutant CALR may affect developmental hematopoiesis remains unknown. Here we took advantage of the zebrafish model to examine the effects of mutant CALR on early hematopoiesis and model human CALR-mutated MPNs. We identified three zebrafish genes orthologous to human CALR, referred to as calr, calr3a and calr3b. The expression of CALR-del52 and CALR-ins5 mutants caused an increase in the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells followed by thrombocytosis without affecting normal angiogenesis. The expression of CALR mutants also perturbed early developmental hematopoiesis in zebrafish. Importantly, morpholino knockdown of mpl but not epor or csf3r could significantly attenuate the effects of mutant CALR. Furthermore, the expression of mutant CALR caused jak-stat signaling activation in zebrafish that could be blocked by JAK inhibitors (ruxolitinib and fedratinib). These findings showed that mutant CALR activates jak-stat signaling through an mpl-dependent mechanism to mediate pathogenic thrombopoiesis in zebrafish, and illustrated that the signaling machinery related to mutant CALR tumorigenesis are conserved between human and zebrafish.

  19. The neurogenetic frontier—lessons from misbehaving zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Michael

    2008-01-01

    One of the central questions in neuroscience is how refined patterns of connectivity in the brain generate and monitor behavior. Genetic mutations can influence neural circuits by disrupting differentiation or maintenance of component neuronal cells or by altering functional patterns of nervous system connectivity. Mutagenesis screens therefore have the potential to reveal not only the molecular underpinnings of brain development and function, but to illuminate the cellular basis of behavior. Practical considerations make the zebrafish an organism of choice for undertaking forward genetic analysis of behavior. The powerful array of experimental tools at the disposal of the zebrafish researcher makes it possible to link molecular function to neuronal properties that underlie behavior. This review focuses on specific challenges to isolating and analyzing behavioral mutants in zebrafish. PMID:18836206

  20. Cephalometric evaluation of the pharyngeal airway space after orthognathic surgery and distraction osteogenesis of the jaw bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ganapathy Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Orthognathic surgeries and distraction osteogenesis (DO of the jaw bones cause a change in the pharyngeal airway space (PAS. The aim of our study was to evaluate the magnitude of changes occurring in the pharyngeal airway after mandibular set-back surgeries and DO of maxilla/mandible. Materials and Methods: The study undertaken was a retrospective cephalometric study. Subjects included in our study had undergone mandibular set-back surgery or DO of maxilla/mandible. Lateral cephalograms of the subjects taken pre-operatively (T0, immediate post-operatively (T1 and after a minimum follow-up period of 6 months (T2 were studied. The cephalograms were traced manually and the following parameters were evaluated: Surface area of the PAS, pharyngeal airway width at the level of the base of the tongue, position of the hyoid bone and the tongue. Repeated measure ANOVA test was done to assess the presence of any significant changes in the proposed parameters at T0, T1 and T2. A correlation analysis was made between the mandibular/maxillary movements and the corresponding changes in the PAS. Results: Surgical movements of maxilla and mandible do have an effect on the pharyngeal airway. Conclusion: It was clearly evident that the effects of mandibular movements on the PAS and the hyoid bone is more significant than the maxillary movements.

  1. Pharyngeal and cervical cancer incidences significantly correlate with personal UV doses among whites in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Dianne E; Tang, Rong; Merrill, Stephen J

    2014-09-01

    Because we found UV-exposed oral tissue cells have reduced DNA repair and apoptotic cell death compared with skin tissue cells, we asked if a correlation existed between personal UV dose and the incidences of oral and pharyngeal cancer in the United States. We analyzed the International Agency for Research on Cancer's incidence data for oral and pharyngeal cancers by race (white and black) and sex using each state's average annual personal UV dose. We refer to our data as 'white' rather than 'Caucasian,' which is a specific subgroup of whites, and 'black' rather than African-American because blacks from other countries around the world reside in the U.S. Most oropharyngeal carcinomas harboured human papilloma virus (HPV), so we included cervical cancer as a control for direct UV activation. We found significant correlations between increasing UV dose and pharyngeal cancer in white males (p=0.000808) and females (p=0.0031) but not in blacks. Shockingly, we also found cervical cancer in whites to significantly correlate with increasing UV dose (p=0.0154). Thus, because pharyngeal and cervical cancer correlate significantly with increasing personal UV dose in only the white population, both direct (DNA damage) and indirect (soluble factors) effects may increase the risk of HPV-associated cancer. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Mutagenesis and phenotyping resources in zebrafish for studying development and human disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Gaurav Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an important model organism for studying development and human disease. The zebrafish has an excellent reference genome and the functions of hundreds of genes have been tested using both forward and reverse genetic approaches. Recent years have seen an increasing number of large-scale mutagenesis projects and the number of mutants or gene knockouts in zebrafish has increased rapidly, including for the first time conditional knockout technologies. In addition, targeted mutagenesis techniques such as zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases and clustered regularly interspaced short sequences (CRISPR) or CRISPR-associated (Cas), have all been shown to effectively target zebrafish genes as well as the first reported germline homologous recombination, further expanding the utility and power of zebrafish genetics. Given this explosion of mutagenesis resources, it is now possible to perform systematic, high-throughput phenotype analysis of all zebrafish gene knockouts. PMID:24162064

  3. The application of data measurement before the pedicle vertebral arch fixed operation with spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zenian; Luo Zhongyao; Chen Yong'an

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Authors carry out volume scans and 3D surface reconstruction. Then authors get the precise data of pedicle of vertebral arch, entering nail angle on horizontal direction, entering nail screw length, and the smallest horizontal diameter and entering nails' distance on pedicle of vertebral arch before the pedicle vertebral arch fixed operation. Method: Select the axial image of the widest pedicle of vertebral arch and it SSD image, measure the entering nail distance on the pedicle of vertebral arch, TSA, entering nail screw length, and the smallest horizontal diameter of the pedicle of vertebral arch. Result: The method helps to prepare the length, size and location of the nail and TSA for the pedicle of vertebral arch fixed operation, increase the operation success rate. Conclusion: This is a simple and reliable method to prepare the precise data of the nail length and size, TSA for the operation

  4. Multi-detector row computed tomographic evaluation of a rare type of complete vascular ring: Double aortic arch with atretic left arch distal to the origin of left subclavian artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Ying Ying; Fu, Ching Yun; Wei, Hao Ji; Tsai, I Chen; Chen, Clayton Chi Chang [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (China)

    2013-10-15

    Double aortic arch with an atretic left arch distal to the origin of left subclavian artery was diagnosed with multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) in two children with dysphagia. This rare type of complete vascular ring is clinically important because it may be confused with right aortic arch in mirror imaging. Anatomic details of this rare type of complete vascular ring demonstrated on MDCT facilitated appropriate surgical treatment.

  5. Evaluation of color preference in zebrafish for learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdesh, Avdesh; Martin-Iverson, Mathew T; Mondal, Alinda; Chen, Mengqi; Askraba, Sreten; Morgan, Newman; Lardelli, Michael; Groth, David M; Verdile, Giuseppe; Martins, Ralph N

    2012-01-01

    There is growing interest in using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. A zebrafish model of tauopathies has recently been developed and characterized in terms of presence of the pathological hallmarks (i.e., neurofibrillary tangles and cell death). However, it is also necessary to validate these models for function by assessing learning and memory. The majority of tools to assess memory and learning in animal models involve visual stimuli, including color preference. The color preference of zebrafish has received little attention. To validate zebrafish as a model for color-associated-learning and memory, it is necessary to evaluate its natural preferences or any pre-existing biases towards specific colors. In the present study, we have used four different colors (red, yellow, green, and blue) to test natural color preferences of the zebrafish using two procedures: Place preference and T-maze. Results from both experiments indicate a strong aversion toward blue color relative to all other colors (red, yellow, and green) when tested in combinations. No preferences or biases were found among reds, yellows, and greens in the place preference procedure. However, red and green were equally preferred and both were preferred over yellow by zebrafish in the T-maze procedure. The results from the present study show a strong aversion towards blue color compared to red, green, and yellow, with yellow being less preferred relative to red and green. The findings from this study may underpin any further designing of color-based learning and memory paradigms or experiments involving aversion, anxiety, or fear in the zebrafish.

  6. Persistence after treatment of pharyngeal gonococcal infections in patients of the STI clinic, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2012-2015: a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hananta, I. Putu Yuda; de Vries, Henry John Christiaan; van Dam, Alje P.; van Rooijen, Martijn Sebastiaan; Soebono, Hardyanto; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten Franciscus

    2017-01-01

    Infection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the pharynx (pharyngeal Ng) is associated with gonococcal transmission and development of antimicrobial resistance. We assessed proportion of and determinants for persistence after treatment of pharyngeal Ng. At the STI clinic of Amsterdam, the Netherlands,

  7. The surgical importance of an axillary arch in sentinel node biopsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ridgway, P F

    2011-03-01

    When Carl Langer described the aberrant axillary arch in 1846 its relevance in sentinel node biopsy (SNB) surgery could not have been contemplated. The authors define an incidence and elucidate relevance of the arch in SNB of the axilla.

  8. Adverse Health Effects of Betel Quid and the Risk of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ho Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global reports estimate 600 million betel quid (BQ chewers. BQ chewing has been demonstrated not only to be a risk factor for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD but also to cause other cancers and adverse health effects. Herein, we summarized the international comparison data to aid in the understanding of the close relationship between the prevalence of BQ chewing, the occurrence of oral and pharyngeal cancers, and adverse health effects. Potential biomarkers of BQ carcinogens, such as areca nut, alkaloids, and 3-methylnitrosaminopropionitrile (MNPN, are closely associated with human health toxicology. Molecular mechanisms or pathways involving autophagy, hypoxia, COX-2, NF-κB activity, and stemness are known to be induced by BQ ingredients and are very closely related to the carcinogenesis of cancers of oral and pharynx. BQ abuse-related monoamine oxidase (MAO gene was associated with the occurrence and progress of oral and pharyngeal cancers. In summary, our review article provides important insights into the potential roles of environmental BQ (specific alkaloid biomarkers and nitrosamine products MNPN and genetic factors (MAO and offers a basis for studies aiming to reduce or eliminate BQ-related OPMD and oral/pharyngeal cancer incidences in the future.

  9. Adverse Health Effects of Betel Quid and the Risk of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Chiang, Tai-An

    2017-01-01

    Global reports estimate 600 million betel quid (BQ) chewers. BQ chewing has been demonstrated not only to be a risk factor for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) but also to cause other cancers and adverse health effects. Herein, we summarized the international comparison data to aid in the understanding of the close relationship between the prevalence of BQ chewing, the occurrence of oral and pharyngeal cancers, and adverse health effects. Potential biomarkers of BQ carcinogens, such as areca nut, alkaloids, and 3-methylnitrosaminopropionitrile (MNPN), are closely associated with human health toxicology. Molecular mechanisms or pathways involving autophagy, hypoxia, COX-2, NF-κB activity, and stemness are known to be induced by BQ ingredients and are very closely related to the carcinogenesis of cancers of oral and pharynx. BQ abuse-related monoamine oxidase (MAO) gene was associated with the occurrence and progress of oral and pharyngeal cancers. In summary, our review article provides important insights into the potential roles of environmental BQ (specific alkaloid biomarkers and nitrosamine products MNPN) and genetic factors (MAO) and offers a basis for studies aiming to reduce or eliminate BQ-related OPMD and oral/pharyngeal cancer incidences in the future. PMID:29376073

  10. Intracapsular tonsillectomy for keratosis pharyngeous: A pilot study of postoperative recovery and surgical efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, Philip A; Gessler, Eric M

    2017-09-01

    Our objective was to perform a pilot study comparing intracapsular radiofrequency ablation tonsillectomy with subcapsular tonsillectomy in adult patients with keratosis pharyngeous. Patients diagnosed with keratosis pharyngeous between December 2010 and February 2013 were randomized to undergo either intracapsular or subcapsular tonsillectomy using radiofrequency ablation. Postoperative pain scores and amount of pain medication taken were recorded for 2 weeks. A 6-month follow-up questionnaire was used to assess efficacy of the procedure. Twenty-two patients completed the initial 2-week questionnaire. Eighteen completed the 6-month follow-up questionnaire. The amount of pain medication consumed on postoperative days 8 (p = 0.0293), 9 (p = 0.0146), and 10 (p = 0.035) was significantly less in the intracapsular group. Risk of recurrence of tonsilloliths was significantly greater at the 6-month follow-up in the intracapsular cohort (p = 0.0291). Based on these findings, in patients undergoing tonsillectomy for keratosis pharyngeous, intracapsular radiofrequency ablation tonsillectomy may result in decreased pain medication consumption compared with subcapsular tonsillectomy. Intracapsular tonsillectomy, however, resulted in a higher rate of recurrence of tonsilloliths. The benefit of decreased pain medication may be offset by the greater likelihood for symptoms to recur. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  11. Knocking Down Snrnp200 Initiates Demorphogenesis of Rod Photoreceptors in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The small nuclear ribonucleoprotein 200 kDa (SNRNP200 gene is a fundamental component for precursor message RNA (pre-mRNA splicing and has been implicated in the etiology of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP. This study aims to determine the consequences of knocking down Snrnp200 in zebrafish. Methods. Expression of the Snrnp200 transcript in zebrafish was determined via whole mount in situ hybridization. Morpholino oligonucleotide (MO aiming to knock down the expression of Snrnp200 was injected into zebrafish embryos, followed by analyses of aberrant splicing and expression of the U4/U6-U5 tri-small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs components and retina-specific transcripts. Systemic changes and retinal phenotypes were further characterized by histological study and immunofluorescence staining. Results. Snrnp200 was ubiquitously expressed in zebrafish. Knocking down Snrnp200 in zebrafish triggered aberrant splicing of the cbln1 gene, upregulation of other U4/U6-U5 tri-snRNP components, and downregulation of a panel of retina-specific transcripts. Systemic defects were found correlated with knockdown of Snrnp200 in zebrafish. Only demorphogenesis of rod photoreceptors was detected in the initial stage, mimicking the disease characteristics of RP. Conclusions. We conclude that knocking down Snrnp200 in zebrafish could alter regular splicing and expression of a panel of genes, which may eventually trigger rod defects.

  12. Pharyngeal airway changes associated with maxillary distraction osteogenesis in adult cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Muge; Taner, Tülin; Sahin-Veske, Pınar; Kocadereli, Ilken; Konas, Ersoy; Mavili, Mehmet Emin

    2012-02-01

    To investigate 1) the changes in pharyngeal airway sizes associated with maxillary distraction osteogenesis and 2) the correlations between maxillary skeletal variables and the pharyngeal airway in adult patients with cleft lip and palate. The study was carried out in 14 adult subjects with cleft lip and palate. Predistraction records were taken at a mean age of 22.7 ± 4.6 years. All patients had placement of a rigid external distraction device (RED I; KLS Martin, Tuttlingen, Germany) after Le Fort I osteotomy. Lateral cephalograms were assessed before surgery and at short-term follow-up (8.0 ± 6.4 months). The cephalometric skeletal and pharyngeal airway variables were statistically evaluated by use of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Spearman ρ correlation was performed to check the correlations between maxillary skeletal and pharyngeal variables. The maxillary movement was 8.7 mm (P maxillary depth angle (+7.9°) and effective maxillary length (9.4 mm) increased significantly (P distraction, whereas the palatal plane angle remained unchanged. Anterior nasal spine (8.2 mm) and Posterior nasal spine (6.9 mm) moved anteriorly. The overjet increased (9.5 mm) significantly (P maxillary movement. PNS changes showed the highest correlation with posterior airway changes. The significant anterior movement of the maxilla resulted in significant increases in posterior, superoposterior, and middle airway spaces. The posterior airway space showed the highest significant positive correlation with the movement of PNS. The posterior and superoposterior airway spaces also showed significant positive correlations with the maxillary skeletal variables. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Parascapular mass revealing primary tuberculosis of the posterior arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbault, Anais; Ornetti, Paul; Chevallier, Olivier; Avril, Julien; Pottecher, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a parascapular abscess revealing primary tuberculosis of the posterior arch in a 31-year-old man. Sectional imaging is essential in order to detect the different lesions of this atypical spinal tuberculosis as osteolysis of the posterior arch extendible to vertebral body, osteocondensation, epidural extension which is common in this location, and high specificity of a zygapophysial, costo-vertebral or transverse arthritis. PMID:27709081

  14. Contemporary results of surgical repair of recurrent aortic arch obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mery, Carlos M; Khan, Muhammad S; Guzmán-Pruneda, Francisco A; Verm, Raymond; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Watrin, Carmen H; Adachi, Iki; Heinle, Jeffrey S; McKenzie, E Dean; Fraser, Charles D

    2014-07-01

    There is a paucity of data on the current outcomes of surgical intervention for recurrent aortic arch obstruction (RAAO) after initial aortic arch repair in children. The goal of this study is to report the long-term results in these patients. All patients undergoing surgical intervention for RAAO at Texas Children's Hospital from 1995 to 2012 were included. The cohort was divided into four groups based on initial procedure: (1) simple coarctation repair, (2) Norwood procedure, (3) complex congenital heart disease, and (4) interrupted aortic arch. A total of 48 patients age 9 months (range, 22 days to 36 years) underwent 49 procedures for RAAO. All patients had an anatomic repair consisting of either patch aortoplasty (n=27, 55%), aortic arch advancement (n=8, 16%), sliding arch aortoplasty (n=6, 12%), placement of an interposition graft (n=2, 17%), reconstruction with donor allograft (n=4, 8%), extended end-to-end anastomosis (n=1, 2%), or redo Norwood-type reconstruction (n=1, 2%). Most procedures (n=46, 94%) were performed through a median sternotomy using cardiopulmonary bypass. At a median follow-up of 6.1 years (range, 9 days to 17 years), only 2 patients required surgical or catheter-based intervention for RAAO. Hypertension was present in 10% of patients at last follow-up. There were no neurologic or renal complications. There was 1 perioperative death after an aortic arch advancement in group 1. Four other patients have died during follow-up, none of the deaths related to RAAO. Anatomic repair of RAAO is a safe procedure associated with low morbidity and mortality, and low long-term reintervention rates. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute Aortic Arch Perforation During Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Bicuspid Aortic Stenosis and a Gothic Aortic Arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan-Iturbe, Oscar; Sawaya, Fadi J; Bieliauskas, Gintautas; Chow, Danny H F; De Backer, Ole; Søndergaard, Lars

    2017-09-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has evolved from a novel technology to an established therapy for high/intermediate-risk patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). Although TAVR is used to treat bicuspid severe AS, the large randomized trials typically excluded bicuspid AS because of its unique anatomic features. This case report describes an acute aortic perforation during delivery of a transcatheter heart valve to treat a severe bicuspid AS with a "gothic aortic arch"; more careful evaluation of the preprocedural multislice computed tomographic scan would have unveiled a sharply angulated aortic arch. This life-threatening complication was successfully treated by thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Response of Clamped Shallow Sandwich Arches with Metallic Foam Cores to Projectile Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Fan

    Full Text Available Abstract The dynamic response and energy absorption capabilities of clamped shallow sandwich arches with aluminum foam core were numerically investigated by impacting the arches at mid-span with metallic foam projectiles. The typical deformation modes, deflection response, and core compression of sandwich arches obtained from the tests were used to validate the computation model. The resistance to impact loading was quantified by the permanent transverse deflection at mid-span of the arches as a function of projectile momentum. The sandwich arches have a higher shock resistance than the monolithic arches of equal mass, and shock resistance could be significantly enhanced by optimizing geometrical configurations. Meanwhile, decreasing the face-sheet thickness and curvature radius could enhance the energy absorption capability of the sandwich arches. Finite element calculations indicated that the ratio of loading time to structural response time ranged from 0.1 to 0.4. The projectile momentum, which was solely used to quantify the structural response of sandwich arches, was insufficient. These findings could provide guidance in conducting further theoretical studies and producing the optimal design of metallic sandwich structures subjected to impact loading.

  17. Evaluation of MWNT toxic effects on daphnia and zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olasagasti, Maider; Rainieri, Sandra [AZTI-TECNALIA, Parque Tecnologico de Bizkaia 609, 48160 Derio (Spain)], E-mail: srainieri@azti.es; Alvarez, Noelia; Vera, Carolina [INASMET-TECNALIA, Mikeletegi pasealekua, 2, Parque Tecnologico, 20009 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2009-05-01

    Organisms of daphnia (Daphnia magna) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to a range of different concentrations of COOH-functionalized MWCNT suspended in an aqueous solution of Tween 20. Immobilization of daphnia and growth retardation, inhibition and malformation of zebrafish embryos were the endpoints tested after 24 and 48 hours. Immobilization of daphnia could be observed from 3 to 16 ppm and an increasing mortality of zebrafish embryo was detected at all the concentration tested. To identify more subtle toxic effects, we took advantage of the extensive information available on the zebrafish genome and monitored by RT-PCR the expression patterns of different zebrafish genes that could act as toxicity bio-markers. At some of the concentrations tested, changes in the expression profiles of the genes examined were detected. Our results suggest that MWCNT could potentially represent a risk to human health and environment, therefore a wider range of concentrations and further testing of this molecules should be carried out to define possible limitations in their use.

  18. Pharmacological analyses of learning and memory in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jordan M; Oliveri, Anthony N; Levin, Edward D

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade, zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become valuable as a complementary model in behavioral pharmacology, opening a new avenue for understanding the relationships between drug action and behavior. This species offers a useful intermediate approach bridging the gap between in vitro studies and traditional mammalian models. Zebrafish offer great advantages of economy compared to their rodent counterparts, their complex brains and behavioral repertoire offer great translational potential relative to in vitro models. The development and validation of a variety of tests to measure behavior, including cognition, in zebrafish have set the stage for the use of this animal for behavioral pharmacology studies. This has led to research into the basic mechanisms of cognitive function as well as screening for potential cognition-improving drug therapies, among other lines of research. As with all models, zebrafish have limitations, which span pharmacokinetic challenges to difficulties quantifying behavior. The use, efficacy and limitations associated with a zebrafish model of cognitive function are discussed in this review, within the context of behavioral pharmacology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. THREE-DIMENSIONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE PHARYNGEAL AIRWAY AND MAXILLARY SINUS VOLUMES IN INDIVIDUALS WITH NON-SYNDROMIC CLEFT LIP AND PALATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana NEMȚOI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children with cleft lip and palate (CLP are known to have airway problems. Introduction of ConeBeam CT (CBCT and imaging software has facilitated generation of 3D images for assessing the volume of maxillary sinuses and pharyngeal airway. Consequently, the present study aimed at evaluating and comparing the maxillary sinus and pharyngeal airway volume of patients with cleft lip and palate in healthy patients, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT images. Materials and method: The sample group included 27 individuals (15 with cleft lip and palate subjects and 12 healthy subjects. The pharyngeal airway and each maxillary sinus were three-dimensionally assessed, segmented and their volume was calculated. A comparison between the right and left sinus was performed by Student t-test, and the differences between the control and cleft groups were calculated using ANOVA. Results: No statistically significant differences were found when the maxillary sinuses volumes from each side were compared (p >0.05. The unilateral CLP patients presented the lowest sinus volume. Individuals with CLP did not exhibit a total airway volume smaller than the nonCLP controls. Conclusions: 3D imaging using CBCT and Romexis software is reliable for assessing maxillary sinus and pharyngeal airway volume. The present study showed that the pharyngeal airway is not compromised in CLP individuals. The unilateral CLP individuals present maxillary sinuses with smaller volumes, no differences being recorded between the cleft and non-cleft side.

  20. Initial arch wires for alignment of crooked teeth with fixed orthodontic braces.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    The initial arch wire is the first arch wire to be inserted into the fixed appliance at the beginning of orthodontic treatment and is used mainly for correcting crowding and rotations of teeth. With a number of orthodontic arch wires available for initial tooth alignment, it is important to understand which wire is most efficient, as well as which wires cause the least amount of root resorption and pain during the initial aligning stage of treatment.

  1. Observation the swallowing mechanism in elderly patients with pharyngeal dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ximena Campo-Cañar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Observation of the swallowing dynamics is an issue that demands close attention by the health professionals involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with dysphagia. This article is a review of the literature aimed to enhance the knowledge regarding the speech therapy assessment of pharyngeal dysphagia in elder adults. The disorder of the swallowing is called dysphagia and it is defined as difficulty swallowing. The dysphagia is often caused by affectation of mechanical or neuromuscular components of the swallowing mechanism. This type of disorder is likely to impact the the oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases of the swallowing. The speech therapist should take into account assessing aspects such as level of consciousness, vital signs, whether or not the patient is ventilator dependent, means of feeding, if intubated what type of cannula, whether or not the patient uses a speaking valve (if a trach tube is present, nutritional status, the patient’s expressive and receptive language, the anatomical and physiological state of the oral motor structures. When assessing swallowing clinicians should also make sure to develop an adequate beside clinical, voice assessment and videofluoroscopy.

  2. Expression of prostaglandin synthases (pgds and pges) during zebrafish gonadal differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John E; Nielsen, Betina Frydenlund

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at elucidating whether the expression pattern of the membrane bound form of prostaglandin E2 synthase (pges) and especially the lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase (pgds) indicates involvement in gonadal sex differentiation in zebrafish as has previously been found....... In this study, a sexually dimorphic expression of pgds was found in gonads of adult zebrafish with expression in testis but not in ovaries. To determine whether the sex-specific expression pattern of pgds was present in gonads of juvenile zebrafish and therefore could be an early marker of sex in zebrafish, we...... microdissected gonads from four randomly selected individual zebrafish for every second day in the period 2-20 days post hatch (dph) and 0-1 dph. The temporal expression of pgds and pges was investigated in the microdissected gonads, however, no differential expression that could indicate sex-specific difference...

  3. Relation of Gothic arch apex to dentist-assisted centric relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M; Dziejma, R; Goldberg, J; Ross, R; Sharry, J

    1980-07-01

    These data suggest that the widely held belief that thumb pressure can position the mandible consistently more posterior than the position indicated by the Gothic arch apex is unfounded. Furthermore, this study provides no evidence to support the contention that the dentist-assisted jaw relation is more reproducible than the relation indicated by the Gothic arch apex.

  4. Zebrafish Lacking Circadian Gene per2 Exhibit Visual Function Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-feng Huang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The retina has an intrinsic circadian clock, but the importance of this clock for vision is unknown. Zebrafish offer many advantages for studying vertebrate vision and circadian rhythm. Here, we explored the role of zebrafish per2, a light-regulated gene, in visual behavior and the underlying mechanisms. We observed that per2 mutant zebrafish larvae showed decreased contrast sensitivity and visual acuity using optokinetic response (OKR assays. Using a visual motor response (VMR assay, we observed normal OFF responses but abnormal ON responses in mutant zebrafish larvae. Immunofluorescence showed that mutants had a normal morphology of cone photoreceptor cells and retinal organization. However, electron microscopy showed that per2 mutants displayed abnormal and decreased photoreceptor ribbon synapses with arciform density, which resulted in retinal ON pathway defect. We also examined the expression of three cone opsins by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, and the expression of long-wave-sensitive opsin (opn1lw and short-wave-sensitive opsin (opn1sw was reduced in mutant zebrafish larvae. qRT-PCR analyses also showed a down-regulation of the clock genes cry1ba and bmal1b in the adult eye of per2 mutant zebrafish. This study identified a mechanism by which a clock gene affects visual function and defined important roles of per2 in retinal information processing.

  5. The effects of initial rise and axial loads on MEMS arches

    KAUST Repository

    Tella, Sherif Adekunle

    2017-04-07

    Arch microbeams have been utilized and proposed for many uses over the past few years due to their large tunability and bistability. However, recent experimental data have shown different mechanical behavior of arches when subjected to axial loads. This paper aims to investigate in depth the influence of the competing effects of initial rise and axial loads on the mechanical behavior of micromachined arches; mainly their static deflection and resonant frequencies. Based on analytical solutions, the static response and eigenvalue problems are analyzed for various values of initial rises and axial loads. Universal curves showing the variation of the first three resonance frequencies of the arch are generated for various values of initial rise under both tensile and compressive axial loads. This study shows that increasing the tensile or compressive axial loads for different values of initial rise may lead to either increase in the stiffness of the beam or initial decrease in the stiffness, which later increases as the axial load is increased depending on the dominant effect of the initial rise of the arch and the axial load. The obtained universal curves represent useful design tools to predict the tunability of arches under axial loads for various values of initial rises. The use of the universal curves is demonstrated with an experimental case study. Analytical formulation is developed to predict the point of minimum where the trend of the resonance frequency versus axial loads changes qualitatively due to the competing effects of axial loads and initial curvature.

  6. Pharyngeal cavity and the gills are the target organ for the repellent action of pardaxin in shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primor, N

    1985-05-15

    Pardaxin, an active principle of the repellent secretion of the Red Sea flatfish, Pardachirus marmoratus, elicited severe struggling, mouth paralysis, and transient increase in urea leakage from the gills only when administered to the medium bathing the shark's pharyngeal cavity and gills. An apparatus was constructed which prevents a mixing of the outflow from shark's gills with water bathing its surface skin. It is concluded that in sharks the gills and/or the pharyngeal cavity are the target organ for the repellent action of pardaxin.

  7. TOXICITY EVALUATION OF NEW ENGINEERED NANOMATERIALS IN ZEBRAFISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Violetta Brundo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the nanoparticles on the marine organisms, depends on their size, chemical composition, surface structure, solubility and shape.In order to take advantage from their activity, preserving the surrounding environment from a possible pollution, we are trying to trap the nanoparticles into new nanomaterials. The nanomaterials tested were synthesized proposing a ground-breaking approach by an upside-down vision of the Au/TiO2nano-system to avoid the release of nanoparticles. The system was synthesized by wrapping Au nanoparticles with a thin layer of TiO2. The non-toxicity of the nano-system was established by testing the effect of the material on zebrafish larvae. Danio rerio o zebrafish was considered a excellent model for the environmental biomonitoring of aquatic environments and the Zebrafish Embryo Toxicity Test is considered an alternative method of animal test. For this reason zebrafish larvae were exposed to different concentrations of nanoparticles of TiO2 and Au and new nanomaterials. As biomarkers of exposure, we evaluated the expression of metallothioneins by immunohistochemistry analysis and western blotting analysis also. The results obtained by toxicity test showed that neither mortality as well as sublethal effects were induced by the different nanomaterials and nanoparticles tested. Only zebrafish larvae exposed to free Au nanoparticles showed a different response to anti-MT antibody. In fact, the immunolocalization analysis highlighted an increase of the metallothioneins synthesis.

  8. Study on real working performance and overload safety factor of high arch dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Considering the fact that high arch dams have problems such as complicated stress,high cost,and hazards after being damaged,this paper intends to study the effects of load,material strength,and safety analysis method on dam safety and working performance of arch dams.In this article,the effects of temperature,self weight exaction way and water loading on structure response are first discussed,and a more reasonable way of considering is then put forward.By taking into consideration the mechanical property of materials and comparing the effects of different yield criteria on overloading safety of high arch dams,this paper concludes that brittle characteristics of concrete should be fully considered when conducting safety assessment for high arch dams to avoid overestimating the bearing capacity of the dams.By comparing several typical projects,this paper works out a safety assessment system of multiple safety and relevant engineering analogical analysis methods,which is closer to the actual situation,and thus is able to assess the response of high arch dam structure in a more comprehensive way,elicit the safety coefficients in different situations,and provide a new way of considering the safety assessment of high arch dams.

  9. A medium-chain fatty acid receptor Gpr84 in zebrafish: expression pattern and roles in immune regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoyan; Feng, Dong; Liu, Kai; Wang, Peng; Xiao, Hongyan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Shicui; Liu, Zhenhui

    2014-08-01

    Gpr84 was recently identified as a receptor for medium-chain fatty acids, but its functions remain to be clarified. We reported the identification of a zebrafish Gpr84 homologue (zGpr84), which has a higher gene expression in the tissues of intestine, heart and liver. During embryogenesis, zGpr84 is maternally expressed and a significant increase is observed at segmentation period, and it is mainly restricted to the head region, pectoral fins, branchial arches, intestine and lateral line neuromast. Fasting or treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce significant up-regulation of zGpr84. We further demonstrated that zGpr84 is involved in the accumulation of lipid droplets in cells. Moreover, undecanoic acid (UA) can amplify LPS induced production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-12 p40 through zGpr84, supporting the proposal that Gpr84 may play a role in directly linking fatty acid metabolism to immunological regulation. The resulting data in fish lay a foundation for a comprehensive exploration of the functions and evolution of Gpr84. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Short-term developmental effects and potential mechanisms of azoxystrobin in larval and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fangjie; Wu, Peizhuo; Huang, Lan; Li, Hui; Qian, Le; Pang, Sen; Qiu, Lihong

    2018-05-01

    Previous study indicated that azoxystrobin had high acute toxicity to zebrafish, and larval zebrafish were more sensitive to azoxystrobin than adult zebrafish. The objective of the present study was to investigate short-term developmental effects and potential mechanisms of azoxystrobin in larval and adult zebrafish. After zebrafish embryos and adults were exposed to 0.01, 0.05 and 0.20 mg/L azoxystrobin (equal to 25, 124 and 496 nM azoxystrobin, respectively) for 8 days, the lethal effect, physiological responses, liver histology, mitochondrial ultrastructure, and expression alteration of genes related to mitochondrial respiration, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis and innate immune response were determined. The results showed that there was no significant effect on larval and adult zebrafish after exposure to 0.01 mg/L azoxystrobin. However, increased ROS, MDA concentration and il1b in larval zebrafish, as well as increased il1b, il8 and cxcl-c1c in adult zebrafish were induced after exposure to 0.05 mg/L azoxystrobin. Reduced mitochondrial complex III activity and ATP concentration, increased SOD activity, ROS and MDA concentration, decreased cytb, as well as increased sod1, sod2, cat, il1b, il8 and cxcl-c1c were observed both in larval and adult zebrafish after exposure to 0.20 mg/L azoxystrobin; meanwhile, increased p53, bax, apaf1 and casp9, alteration of liver histology and mitochondrial ultrastructure in larval zebrafish, and alteration of mitochondrial ultrastructure in adult zebrafish were also induced. The results demonstrated that azoxytrobin induced short-term developmental effects on larval zebrafish and adult zebrafish, including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis and innate immune response. Statistical analysis indicated that azoxystrobin induced more negative effects on larval zebrafish, which might be the reason for the differences of developmental toxicity between larval and adult zebrafish caused by

  11. Pharyngitis – fatal infectious disease or medical error?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rorat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reporting on adverse events is essential to create a culture of safety, which focuses on protecting doctors and patients from medical errors. We present a fatal case of Streptococcus C pharyngitis in a 56-year-old man. The clinical course and the results of additional diagnostics and autopsy showed that sepsis followed by multiple organ failure was the ultimate cause of death. The clinical course appeared fatal due to a chain of adverse events, including errors made by the physicians caring for the patient for 10 days.

  12. Lymphogranuloma venereum in men screened for pharyngeal and rectal infection, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haar, Karin; Dudareva-Vizule, Sandra; Wisplinghoff, Hilmar; Wisplinghoff, Fabian; Sailer, Andrea; Jansen, Klaus; Henrich, Birgit; Marcus, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    To determine prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum among men who have sex with men in Germany, we conducted a multicenter study during 2009-2010 and found high rates of rectal and pharyngeal infection in men positive for the causative agent, Chlamydia trachomatis. Many infections were asymptomatic. An adjusted C. trachomatis screening policy is justified in Germany.

  13. Cutoff Value of Pharyngeal Residue in Prognosis Prediction After Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Therapy for Dysphagia in Subacute Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jeong Mee; Yong, Sang Yeol; Kim, Ji Hyun; Jung, Hong Sun; Chang, Sei Jin; Kim, Ki Young; Kim, Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the cutoff value of the pharyngeal residue for predicting reduction of aspiration, by measuring the residue of valleculae and pyriformis sinuses through videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS) after treatment with neuromuscular electrical stimulator (VitalStim) in stroke patients with dysphagia. Methods VFSS was conducted on first-time stroke patients before and after the VitalStim therapy. The results were analyzed for comparison of the pharyngeal residue in the im...

  14. A bioenergetic model for zebrafish Danio rerio (Hamilton)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizinski, C.J.; Sharma, Bibek; Pope, K.L.; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    A bioenergetics model was developed from observed consumption, respiration and growth rates for zebrafish Danio rerio across a range (18-32?? C) of water temperatures, and evaluated with a 50 day laboratory trial at 28?? C. No significant bias in variable estimates was found during the validation trial; namely, predicted zebrafish mass generally agreed with observed mass. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  15. Oral and pharyngeal cancer : Analysis of patient delay at different tumor stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouha, XDR; Tromp, DM; Hordijk, GJ; Winnubst, JAM; de Leeuw, JRJ

    2005-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to examine which factors are related to patient delay in a cohort of consecutive patients with pharyngeal cancer and oral cancer and to determine whether the different stages of patient delay (ie, appraisal, illness, behavioral, and scheduling) were related to

  16. Cartilage and bone malformations in the head of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos following exposure to disulfiram and acetic acid hydrazide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strecker, Ruben, E-mail: Ruben.Strecker@cos.uni-heidelberg.de [Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Center for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Weigt, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.weigt@merckgroup.com [Institute of Toxicology, Merck KGaA, 64293 Darmstadt (Germany); Braunbeck, Thomas, E-mail: braunbeck@uni-hd.de [Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Center for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    In order to investigate teratogenic effects, especially on cartilage and bone formation, zebrafish embryos were exposed for 144 h to the dithiocarbamate pesticide disulfiram (20–320 μg/L) and acetic acid hydrazide (0.375–12 g/L), a degradation product of isoniazid. After fixation and full-mount staining, disulfiram could be shown to induce strong cartilage malformations after exposure to ≥ 80 μg/L, whereas acetic acid hydrazide caused cartilage alterations only from 1.5 g/L. Undulating notochords occurred after exposure to disulfiram even at the lowest test concentration of 20 μg/L, whereas at the two lowest concentrations of acetic acid hydrazide (0.375 and 0.75 g/L) mainly fractures of the notochord were observed. Concentrations of acetic acid hydrazide ≥ 1.5 g/L resulted in undulated notochords similar to disulfiram. Cartilages and ossifications of the cranium, including the cleithrum, were individually analyzed assessing the severity of malformation and the degree of ossification in a semi-quantitative approach. Cartilages of the neurocranium such as the ethmoid plate proved to be more stable than cartilages of the pharyngeal skeleton such as Meckel's cartilage. Hence, ossification proved significantly more susceptible than cartilage. The alterations induced in the notochord as well as in the cranium might well be of ecological relevance, since notochord malformation is likely to result in impaired swimming and cranial malformation might compromise regular food uptake. - Highlights: ► Disulfiram and acetic acid hydrazide as notochord, cartilage and bone teratogens ► Zebrafish embryos to model effects on single cartilages and bones in the head ► LC50 calculation and head length measurements after six days post-fertilization ► Lethality, head length and teratogenic effects are dose-dependent. ► Cartilages of the neurocranium are the most stable elements in the head.

  17. Cartilage and bone malformations in the head of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos following exposure to disulfiram and acetic acid hydrazide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strecker, Ruben; Weigt, Stefan; Braunbeck, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate teratogenic effects, especially on cartilage and bone formation, zebrafish embryos were exposed for 144 h to the dithiocarbamate pesticide disulfiram (20–320 μg/L) and acetic acid hydrazide (0.375–12 g/L), a degradation product of isoniazid. After fixation and full-mount staining, disulfiram could be shown to induce strong cartilage malformations after exposure to ≥ 80 μg/L, whereas acetic acid hydrazide caused cartilage alterations only from 1.5 g/L. Undulating notochords occurred after exposure to disulfiram even at the lowest test concentration of 20 μg/L, whereas at the two lowest concentrations of acetic acid hydrazide (0.375 and 0.75 g/L) mainly fractures of the notochord were observed. Concentrations of acetic acid hydrazide ≥ 1.5 g/L resulted in undulated notochords similar to disulfiram. Cartilages and ossifications of the cranium, including the cleithrum, were individually analyzed assessing the severity of malformation and the degree of ossification in a semi-quantitative approach. Cartilages of the neurocranium such as the ethmoid plate proved to be more stable than cartilages of the pharyngeal skeleton such as Meckel's cartilage. Hence, ossification proved significantly more susceptible than cartilage. The alterations induced in the notochord as well as in the cranium might well be of ecological relevance, since notochord malformation is likely to result in impaired swimming and cranial malformation might compromise regular food uptake. - Highlights: ► Disulfiram and acetic acid hydrazide as notochord, cartilage and bone teratogens ► Zebrafish embryos to model effects on single cartilages and bones in the head ► LC50 calculation and head length measurements after six days post-fertilization ► Lethality, head length and teratogenic effects are dose-dependent. ► Cartilages of the neurocranium are the most stable elements in the head

  18. Effective way to reconstruct arch bridges using concrete walls and transverse strands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusáček, Ladislav; Pěkník, Robin; Nečas, Radim

    2017-09-01

    There are more than 500 masonry arch bridges in the Czech Road system and about 2500 in the Czech Railway system. Many of them are cracked in the longitudinal (span) direction. The barrel vaults are separated by the cracks into partial masonry arches without load bearing connection in transverse direction. These constructions are about 150 years old and they are also too narrow for the current road system. This paper presents a strengthening method for masonry arch bridges using transverse post-tensioning. This method is very useful not only for strengthening in the transverse direction, but widening of masonry arches can be taken as secondary effect especially in case of road bridges. Several bridges were successfully repaired with the use of this system which seems to be effective and reliable.

  19. Zebrafish models of cardiovascular diseases and their applications in herbal medicine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Sai-Wang; Kiat, Hosen; Lee, Simon M Y; Bensoussan, Alan; Sun, Yu-Ting; Hoi, Maggie P M; Chang, Dennis

    2015-12-05

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently become a powerful animal model for cardiovascular research and drug discovery due to its ease of maintenance, genetic manipulability and ability for high-throughput screening. Recent advances in imaging techniques and generation of transgenic zebrafish have greatly facilitated in vivo analysis of cellular events of cardiovascular development and pathogenesis. More importantly, recent studies have demonstrated the functional similarity of drug metabolism systems between zebrafish and humans, highlighting the clinical relevance of employing zebrafish in identifying lead compounds in Chinese herbal medicine with potential beneficial cardiovascular effects. This paper seeks to summarise the scope of zebrafish models employed in cardiovascular studies and the application of these research models in Chinese herbal medicine to date. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In-silico experiments of zebrafish behaviour: modeling swimming in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwaffo, Violet; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish is fast becoming a species of choice in biomedical research for the investigation of functional and dysfunctional processes coupled with their genetic and pharmacological modulation. As with mammals, experimentation with zebrafish constitutes a complicated ethical issue that calls for the exploration of alternative testing methods to reduce the number of subjects, refine experimental designs, and replace live animals. Inspired by the demonstrated advantages of computational studies in other life science domains, we establish an authentic data-driven modelling framework to simulate zebrafish swimming in three dimensions. The model encapsulates burst-and-coast swimming style, speed modulation, and wall interaction, laying the foundations for in-silico experiments of zebrafish behaviour. Through computational studies, we demonstrate the ability of the model to replicate common ethological observables such as speed and spatial preference, and anticipate experimental observations on the correlation between tank dimensions on zebrafish behaviour. Reaching to other experimental paradigms, our framework is expected to contribute to a reduction in animal use and suffering.

  1. Evaluation of arch width variations among different skeletal patterns in South Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Mandava; Kannampallil, Senny Thomas; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar; George, Suja Ani; Shetty, Sharath Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Anterior cranial base can be taken as a reference line (SN) to determine the steepness of mandibular plane. Subjects with high mandibular plane angle tend to have a long face and one with low MP-SN angle has a shorter face. This study was done to investigate if dental arch widths correlated with vertical facial types and if there are any differences in arch widths between untreated male and female adults in South Indian population. Lateral cephalogram and dental casts were obtained from 180 untreated South Indian adults (90 males and 90 females) above 18 year old with no cross bite, minimal crowding and spacing. The angle between the anterior cranial base and the mandibular plane was measured on lateral cephalogram of each patient. Dental casts were used to obtain comprehensive dental measurements including maxillary and mandibular inter canine, inter premolar and inter molar widths, as well as amount of crowding or spacing. The results showed that male arch widths were significantly larger than those of females (P population. The results obtained in our study when compared with studies done in other population groups showed that there is difference in inter arch widths according to ethnicity and race. It was concluded that the dental arch width is associated with gender, race and vertical facial morphology. Thus using individualized arch wires according to each patient's pre treatment arch form and width is suggested during orthodontic treatment.

  2. Cost of skid roads for arch logging in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R., Jr. Trimble; Carl R. Barr

    1960-01-01

    In the mountain hardwood country of the northern Appalachians, tree-length skidding with tractor and arch has proved to be economical logging. One essential part of this type of logging is that tree-length logs are winched to the skid roads: tractor and arch do not run around through the woods. Winching distance is commonly 200 to 300 feet; and occasionally an extra...

  3. Simultaneous videoradiography and solid state intraluminal pharyngeal manometry during barium swallow; videomanometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Rolf

    1995-08-01

    The technique was used in nondysphagic volunteers and in dysphagic patients. Our normal values in nondysphagic volunteers are in accordance with normal values in the literature. Regarding catheter movement we found the a previously not described sensor movement where the sensor in the upper esophageal sphincter followed the laryngeal elevation with no response to soft palate elevation. We found a longitudinal asymmetry in the pharynx with higher contraction pressures at lower levels. In the experimental model we found that intrabolus pressure was dependent on bolus volume, lumen narrowing, sensor position, flow rate, and bolus viscosity. In patients with a cricopharyngeal indentation we found weak pharyngeal constrictors with outpouching of the lumen above and below. Finally, in dysphagic patients with a normal radiologic investigation, videomanometry displayed abnormalities in 74% of the patients. We conclude that barium swallow and manometry are complementary and we suggest the addition of pharyngeal solid state manometry, preferably with simultaneous videoradiography, in dysphagic patients. 128 refs, 4 figs.

  4. Simultaneous videoradiography and solid state intraluminal pharyngeal manometry during barium swallow; videomanometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Rolf.

    1995-08-01

    The technique was used in nondysphagic volunteers and in dysphagic patients. Our normal values in nondysphagic volunteers are in accordance with normal values in the literature. Regarding catheter movement we found the a previously not described sensor movement where the sensor in the upper esophageal sphincter followed the laryngeal elevation with no response to soft palate elevation. We found a longitudinal asymmetry in the pharynx with higher contraction pressures at lower levels. In the experimental model we found that intrabolus pressure was dependent on bolus volume, lumen narrowing, sensor position, flow rate, and bolus viscosity. In patients with a cricopharyngeal indentation we found weak pharyngeal constrictors with outpouching of the lumen above and below. Finally, in dysphagic patients with a normal radiologic investigation, videomanometry displayed abnormalities in 74% of the patients. We conclude that barium swallow and manometry are complementary and we suggest the addition of pharyngeal solid state manometry, preferably with simultaneous videoradiography, in dysphagic patients. 128 refs, 4 figs

  5. Reprimo tissue-specific expression pattern is conserved between zebrafish and human.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J Figueroa

    Full Text Available Reprimo (RPRM, a member of the RPRM gene family, is a tumor-suppressor gene involved in the regulation of the p53-mediated cell cycle arrest at G2/M. RPRM has been associated with malignant tumor progression and proposed as a potential biomarker for early cancer detection. However, the expression and role of RPRM, as well as its family, are poorly understood and their physiology is as yet unstudied. In this scenario, a model system like the zebrafish could serve to dissect the role of the RPRM family members in vivo. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that RPRM and RPRML have been differentially retained by most species throughout vertebrate evolution, yet RPRM3 has been retained only in a small group of distantly related species, including zebrafish. Herein, we characterized the spatiotemporal expression of RPRM (present in zebrafish as an infraclass duplication rprma/rprmb, RPRML and RPRM3 in the zebrafish. By whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, we demonstrate that rprm (rprma/rprmb and rprml show a similar spatiotemporal expression profile during zebrafish development. At early developmental stages rprmb is expressed in somites. After one day post-fertilization, rprm (rprma/rprmb and rprml are expressed in the notochord, brain, blood vessels and digestive tube. On the other hand, rprm3 shows the most unique expression profile, being expressed only in the central nervous system (CNS. We assessed the expression patterns of RPRM gene transcripts in adult zebrafish and human RPRM protein product in tissue samples by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC staining, respectively. Strikingly, tissue-specific expression patterns of the RPRM transcripts and protein are conserved between zebrafish and humans. We propose the zebrafish as a powerful tool to elucidate the both physiological and pathological roles of the RPRM gene family.

  6. ŁPw Steel Arch Support – Designing and Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Rotkegel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly difficult geological-mining conditions make it necessary to seek new and effective ways of securing roadways. The new types of support must meet very high strength requirements and must have very high load-bearing capacities. These two conditions were taken into consideration when an ŁPw type steel arch support was designed. High strength of the arches was obtained through using steel of improved mechanical parameters, while high load-bearing parameters were obtained through shaping elements of the support arches. The works were conducted within the framework of the targeted research project no. 6ZR8 2008 C/07012 undertaken by Huta Łabędy SA, Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy and Central Mining Institute between 2010 and 2012.

  7. The Hypocretin/Orexin Neuronal Networks in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaz, Idan; Levitas-Djerbi, Talia; Appelbaum, Lior

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamic Hypocretin/Orexin (Hcrt) neurons secrete two Hcrt neuropeptides. These neurons and peptides play a major role in the regulation of feeding, sleep wake cycle, reward-seeking, addiction, and stress. Loss of Hcrt neurons causes the sleep disorder narcolepsy. The zebrafish has become an attractive model to study the Hcrt neuronal network because it is a transparent vertebrate that enables simple genetic manipulation, imaging of the structure and function of neuronal circuits in live animals, and high-throughput monitoring of behavioral performance during both day and night. The zebrafish Hcrt network comprises ~16-60 neurons, which similar to mammals, are located in the hypothalamus and widely innervate the brain and spinal cord, and regulate various fundamental behaviors such as feeding, sleep, and wakefulness. Here we review how the zebrafish contributes to the study of the Hcrt neuronal system molecularly, anatomically, physiologically, and pathologically.

  8. Graph theoretical model of a sensorimotor connectome in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobb, Michael; Peterson, Joshua M; Mazzag, Borbala; Gahtan, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Mapping the detailed connectivity patterns (connectomes) of neural circuits is a central goal of neuroscience. The best quantitative approach to analyzing connectome data is still unclear but graph theory has been used with success. We present a graph theoretical model of the posterior lateral line sensorimotor pathway in zebrafish. The model includes 2,616 neurons and 167,114 synaptic connections. Model neurons represent known cell types in zebrafish larvae, and connections were set stochastically following rules based on biological literature. Thus, our model is a uniquely detailed computational representation of a vertebrate connectome. The connectome has low overall connection density, with 2.45% of all possible connections, a value within the physiological range. We used graph theoretical tools to compare the zebrafish connectome graph to small-world, random and structured random graphs of the same size. For each type of graph, 100 randomly generated instantiations were considered. Degree distribution (the number of connections per neuron) varied more in the zebrafish graph than in same size graphs with less biological detail. There was high local clustering and a short average path length between nodes, implying a small-world structure similar to other neural connectomes and complex networks. The graph was found not to be scale-free, in agreement with some other neural connectomes. An experimental lesion was performed that targeted three model brain neurons, including the Mauthner neuron, known to control fast escape turns. The lesion decreased the number of short paths between sensory and motor neurons analogous to the behavioral effects of the same lesion in zebrafish. This model is expandable and can be used to organize and interpret a growing database of information on the zebrafish connectome.

  9. Zebrafish as a Model for the Study of Human Myeloid Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Wei Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid malignancies are heterogeneous disorders characterized by uncontrolled proliferation or/and blockage of differentiation of myeloid progenitor cells. Although a substantial number of gene alterations have been identified, the mechanism by which these abnormalities interact has yet to be elucidated. Over the past decades, zebrafish have become an important model organism, especially in biomedical research. Several zebrafish models have been developed to recapitulate the characteristics of specific myeloid malignancies that provide novel insight into the pathogenesis of these diseases and allow the evaluation of novel small molecule drugs. This report will focus on illustrative examples of applications of zebrafish models, including transgenesis, zebrafish xenograft models, and cell transplantation approaches, to the study of human myeloid malignancies.

  10. Rearfoot eversion has indirect effects on plantar fascia tension by changing the amount of arch collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sae Yong; Hertel, Jay; Lee, Sung Cheol

    2010-01-01

    Rearfoot eversion motion and arch height are believed to contribute to increased tension on the plantar fascia and arch collapse during gait but the specifics of these relationships are not clear. To examine the relationships among static arch height, rearfoot eversion, dynamic arch height, and plantar fascia tension. 28 healthy males participated. After static arch height was measured, the subjects were asked to run at 4.5m/s while frontal plane rearfoot motion, dynamic arch height, and ground reaction forces were collected. The relationships among variables were examined with bivariate correlations and path analysis. The results indicated a high correlation between dynamic arch height and static arch height (r=0.642), plantar fascia tension (r=-0.797), and maximum rearfoot eversion motion during gait (r=-0.518). The path analysis model without the direct rearfoot eversion effect explained 81.2% of the variance in plantar fascia tension, while the model with the direct rearfoot eversion effect explained 82.1% of the variance in plantar fascia tension. Including the indirect effect of maximum rearfoot eversion motion on plantar fascia tension through control of dynamic arch height is the model that best explains the interrelationships of these foot characteristics. The amount of maximum rearfoot eversion motion itself is not a good predictor of plantar fascia tension, however, together with the arch height, maximum rearfoot eversion motion is a good predictor because it has a pronounced indirect effect on plantar fascia tension. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Recurrent Pneumonia due to Double Aortic Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sedighi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pneumonia is one of the most common infections during childhood. In children with recurrent bacterial pneumonia complete evaluation for underlying factors is necessary. The most common underlying diseases include: antibody deficiencies , cystic fibrosis , tracheoesophageal fistula and increased pulmonary blood flow. Vascular ring and its pressure effect is a less common cause of stridor and recurrent pneumonia. Congenital abnormalities in aortic arch and main branches which form vascular ring around esophagus and trachea with variable pressure effect cause respiratory symptoms such as stridor , wheezing and recurrent pneumoniaCase Report: A 2 year old boy was admitted in our hospital with respiratory distress and cough . Chest x-Ray demonstrated right lobar pneumonia. He had history of stridor and wheezing from neonatal period and hospitalization due to pneumonia for four times. The patient received appropriate antibiotics. Despite fever and respiratory distress improvement, wheezing continued. Review of his medical documents showed fixed pressure effect on posterior aspect of esophagus in barium swallow. In CT angiography we confirmed double aortic arch.Conclusion: Double aortic arch is one of the causes of persistant respiratory symptom and recurrent pneumonia in children for which fluoroscopic barium swallow is the first non-invasive diagnostic method.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:70-74

  12. Cyp1a reporter zebrafish reveals target tissues for dioxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun-Hee [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hye-Jeong [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hee [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suhyun [Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Williams, Darren R. [New Drug Targets Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myeong-Kyu [Department of Neurology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young Do [Department of Biochemistry, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Teraoka, Hiroki [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu (Japan); Park, Hae-Chul [Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Choy, Hyon E., E-mail: hyonchoy@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Boo Ahn, E-mail: bashin@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seok-Yong, E-mail: zebrafish@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); School of Biological Sciences and Technology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: •2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the most toxic anthropogenic substance ever identified. •Transgenic cyp1a reporter zebrafish reveals target tissues for TCDD. •The retinal bipolar cells, otic vesicle, lateral line, pancreas, cloaca and pectoral fin bud are novel targets in zebrafish for TCDD. •Our findings will further understanding of human health risks by TCDD. -- Abstract: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the unintentional byproduct of various industrial processes, is classified as human carcinogen and could disrupt reproductive, developmental and endocrine systems. Induction of cyp1a1 is used as an indicator of TCDD exposure. We sought to determine tissues that are vulnerable to TCDD toxicity using a transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. We inserted a nuclear enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (EGFP) into the start codon of a zebrafish cyp1a gene in a fosmid clone using DNA recombineering. The resulting recombineered fosmid was then used to generate cyp1a reporter zebrafish, embryos of which were exposed to TCDD. Expression pattern of EGFP in the reporter zebrafish mirrored that of endogenous cyp1a mRNA. In addition, exposure of the embryos to TCDD at as low as 10 pM for 72 h, which does not elicit morphological abnormalities of embryos, markedly increased GFP expression. Furthermore, the reporter embryos responded to other AhR ligands as well. Exposure of the embryos to TCDD revealed previously reported (the cardiovascular system, liver, pancreas, kidney, swim bladder and skin) and unreported target tissues (retinal bipolar cells, otic vesicle, lateral line, cloaca and pectoral fin bud) for TCDD. Transgenic cyp1a reporter zebrafish we have developed can further understanding of ecotoxicological relevance and human health risks by TCDD. In addition, they could be used to identify agonists of AhR and antidotes to TCDD toxicity.

  13. Spontaneous pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis RNA clearance. A cross-sectional study followed by a cohort study of untreated STI clinic patients in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, Martijn S.; van der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim; Morré, Servaas A.; van Dam, Alje P.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) might contribute to ongoing chlamydia transmission, yet data on spontaneous clearance duration are rare. We examined the prevalence, spontaneous clearance, chlamydial DNA concentration and genotypes of pharyngeal chlamydia among clinic patients

  14. Highly Tunable Electrothermally Actuated Arch Resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjaj, Amal Z.; Ramini, Abdallah; Alcheikh, Nouha; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    that after some electro-thermal voltage load, the third resonance frequency starts to become more sensitive to the axial thermal stress, while the first resonance frequency becomes less sensitive. These results can be used as guidelines to utilize arches

  15. In vitro assessment of the ability of probiotics, blueberry and food carbohydrates to prevent S. pyogenes adhesion on pharyngeal epithelium and modulate immune responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taverniti, Valentina; Dalla Via, Alessandro; Minuzzo, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Group A streptococci (GAS) cause 20-30% of pediatric pharyngitis episodes, which are a major cause of ambulatory care visits. Therefore, a strategy to prevent GAS dissemination in children could significantly benefit public healthcare. Contextually, we assessed the possibility of employing...... alternative food-grade strategies to be used with the oral probiotic L. helveticus MIMLh5 for the prevention of pharyngeal infections. First, we demonstrated through an antagonism-by-exclusion assay that guaran may potentially prevent S. pyogenes adhesion on pharyngeal cells. Subsequently, we showed...

  16. How to Perfuse: Concepts of Cerebral Protection during Arch Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Habertheuer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arch surgery remains undoubtedly among the most technically and strategically challenging endeavors in cardiovascular surgery. Surgical interventions of thoracic aneurysms involving the aortic arch require complete circulatory arrest in deep hypothermia (DHCA or elaborate cerebral perfusion strategies with varying degrees of hypothermia to achieve satisfactory protection of the brain from ischemic insults, that is, unilateral/bilateral antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP and retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP. Despite sophisticated and increasingly individualized surgical approaches for complex aortic pathologies, there remains a lack of consensus regarding the optimal method of cerebral protection and circulatory management during the time of arch exclusion. Many recent studies argue in favor of ACP with various degrees of hypothermic arrest during arch reconstruction and its advantages have been widely demonstrated. In fact ACP with more moderate degrees of hypothermia represents a paradigm shift in the cardiac surgery community and is widely adopted as an emergent strategy; however, many centers continue to report good results using other perfusion strategies. Amidst this important discussion we review currently available surgical strategies of cerebral protection management and compare the results of recent European multicenter and single-center data.

  17. How to Perfuse: Concepts of Cerebral Protection during Arch Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habertheuer, Andreas; Wiedemann, Dominik; Kocher, Alfred; Laufer, Guenther; Vallabhajosyula, Prashanth

    2015-01-01

    Arch surgery remains undoubtedly among the most technically and strategically challenging endeavors in cardiovascular surgery. Surgical interventions of thoracic aneurysms involving the aortic arch require complete circulatory arrest in deep hypothermia (DHCA) or elaborate cerebral perfusion strategies with varying degrees of hypothermia to achieve satisfactory protection of the brain from ischemic insults, that is, unilateral/bilateral antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) and retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP). Despite sophisticated and increasingly individualized surgical approaches for complex aortic pathologies, there remains a lack of consensus regarding the optimal method of cerebral protection and circulatory management during the time of arch exclusion. Many recent studies argue in favor of ACP with various degrees of hypothermic arrest during arch reconstruction and its advantages have been widely demonstrated. In fact ACP with more moderate degrees of hypothermia represents a paradigm shift in the cardiac surgery community and is widely adopted as an emergent strategy; however, many centers continue to report good results using other perfusion strategies. Amidst this important discussion we review currently available surgical strategies of cerebral protection management and compare the results of recent European multicenter and single-center data. PMID:26713319

  18. Influence of carbon nanotube length on toxicity to zebrafish embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jinping Cheng,1,2 Shuk Han Cheng11Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 2State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai, ChinaAbstract: There is currently a large difference of opinion in nanotoxicology studies of nanomaterials. There is concern about why some studies have indicated that there is strong toxicity, while others have not. In this study, the length of carbon nanotubes greatly affected their toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were sonicated in a nitric acid solution for 24 hours and 48 hours. The modified MWCNTs were tested in early developing zebrafish embryo. MWCNTs prepared with the longer sonication time resulted in severe developmental toxicity; however, the shorter sonication time did not induce any obvious toxicity in the tested developing zebrafish embryos. The cellular and molecular changes of the affected zebrafish embryos were studied and the observed phenotypes scored. This study suggests that length plays an important role in the in vivo toxicity of functionalized CNTs. This study will help in furthering the understanding on current differences in toxicity studies of nanomaterials.Keywords: length, carbon nanotubes, sonication, developmental toxicity, zebrafish

  19. Molecular genetics of pituitary development in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogoda, Hans-Martin; Hammerschmidt, Matthias

    2007-08-01

    The pituitary gland of vertebrates consists of two major parts, the neurohypophysis (NH) and the adenohypophysis (AH). As a central part of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system (HHS), it constitutes a functional link between the nervous and the endocrine system to regulate basic body functions, such as growth, metabolism and reproduction. The development of the AH has been intensively studied in mouse, serving as a model for organogenesis and differential cell specification. However, given that the AH is a relatively recent evolutionary advance of the chordate phylum, it is also interesting to understand its development in lower chordate systems. In recent years, the zebrafish has emerged as a powerful lower vertebrate system for developmental studies, being amenable for large-scale genetic approaches, embryological manipulations, and in vivo imaging. Here, we present an overview of current knowledge of the mechanisms and genetic control of pituitary formation during zebrafish development. First, we describe the components of the zebrafish HHS, and the different pituitary cell types and hormones, followed by a description of the different steps of normal pituitary development. The central part of the review deals with the genes found to be essential for zebrafish AH development, accompanied by a description of the corresponding mutant phenotypes. Finally, we discuss future directions, with particular focus on evolutionary aspects, and some novel functional aspects with growing medical and social relevance.

  20. A two-scale model for correlation between B cell VDJ usage in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Keyao; Deem, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of the model animals for study of immunology. The dynamics of the adaptive immune system in zebrafish is similar to that in higher animals. In this work, we built a two-scale model to simulate the dynamics of B cells in primary and secondary immune reactions in zebrafish and to explain the reported correlation between VDJ usage of B cell repertoires in distinct zebrafish. The first scale of the model consists of a generalized NK model to simulate the B cell maturation process in the 10-day primary immune response. The second scale uses a delay ordinary differential equation system to model the immune responses in the 6-month lifespan of zebrafish. The generalized NK model shows that mature B cells specific to one antigen mostly possess a single VDJ recombination. The probability that mature B cells in two zebrafish have the same VDJ recombination increases with the B cell population size or the B cell selection intensity and decreases with the B cell hypermutation rate. The ODE model shows a distribution of correlation in the VDJ usage of the B cell repertoires in two six-month-old zebrafish that is highly similar to that from experiment. This work presents a simple theory to explain the experimentally observed correlation in VDJ usage of distinct zebrafish B cell repertoires after an immune response.

  1. Anomalous Origin of the Left Vertebral Artery from the Aortic Arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Evan H; Song, Linda H; Villela, Natalia L A; Fasani-Feldberg, Gregory B; Jacobs, Jonathan L; Kim, Dolly O; Nathawat, Akshay; Patel, Devika; Bender, Roger B; Peters, Daniel F

    2016-04-01

    Anatomic anomalies of the aortic arch have implications for clinical practice if their significance is understood. Our case study involves a cadaveric finding of the left vertebral artery originating directly from the aortic arch. Although this anatomical variation has been documented, the prevalence of this anomaly may be generally underestimated. After noting this anomaly, we analyzed 27 cases and found that four female cadavers had the left vertebral artery originating from the aortic arch rather than the left subclavian artery. With a prevalence rate of 14.8%, it would seem that this anomaly is more significant than previously thought, which could have implications for surgical practice.

  2. A new method of stabilizing zygomatic complex and arch fractures. a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Antral packing cannot support fractures of the zygomatic arch properly because of the position, therefore the aim of this report was to document a new method by which both the zygomatic bone and arch can be stabilized. Method and Materials: Iodine soaked gauze was placed in the subzygomatic space ...

  3. Relationship between the mobility of medial longitudinal arch and postural control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansu Birinci

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that decrease of arch mobility on the dominant foot is associated with posterior sway by causing knee or hip strategy and preventing ankle strategy even in small perturbations. The rate of deviation from the equilibrium point and the degree of total swaying increase when arch mobility decreases.

  4. Variations of the aortic arch - a study on the most common branching patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, Marguerite; Schmitz, Bernd L; Schick, Melanie; Schloetzer, Wiebke; Pauls, Sandra; Roehrer, Stefan; Kapapa, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Anatomical variants of the aortic arch and its branching patterns often appear as an incidental finding during routine computed tomography (CT) scanning. These variations can be of relevance when performing angiography or endovascular interventions and may cause symptoms such as dysphagia. Purpose: To analyze common anatomical variations found within the arteries originating from the aortic arch in patients using contrast CT imaging techniques. Material and Methods: A total of 2033 contrast CT scans were analyzed. To obtain a truly representative sample, cases were chosen from different hospital departments without previous knowledge of the patient history. Results: The total percentage of variations within the analyzed patients was 13.3%. In 8.0% a truncus bicaroticus was found. 4.2% of the patients showed a left vertebral artery originating directly from the aortic arch, mostly proximal, and in 1 case distal to the left subclavian artery. In 1.0% we found an aberrant right subclavian artery. We also found a single case of a right descending aortic arch. Conclusion: Variations of the aortic arch and its branching are frequently found, mostly as an incidental finding during routine diagnostic scanning. A contrast-enhanced CT scan is a good method with which to study the aortic arch and its associated branching pattern

  5. Variations of the aortic arch - a study on the most common branching patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Marguerite; Schmitz, Bernd L; Schick, Melanie; Schloetzer, Wiebke (Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Section Neuroradiology, Univ. Ulm (Germany)), email: marguerite.mueller@uni-ulm.de; Pauls, Sandra (Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Univ. Ulm (Germany)); Roehrer, Stefan; Kapapa, Thomas (Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. Ulm (Germany))

    2011-09-15

    Background: Anatomical variants of the aortic arch and its branching patterns often appear as an incidental finding during routine computed tomography (CT) scanning. These variations can be of relevance when performing angiography or endovascular interventions and may cause symptoms such as dysphagia. Purpose: To analyze common anatomical variations found within the arteries originating from the aortic arch in patients using contrast CT imaging techniques. Material and Methods: A total of 2033 contrast CT scans were analyzed. To obtain a truly representative sample, cases were chosen from different hospital departments without previous knowledge of the patient history. Results: The total percentage of variations within the analyzed patients was 13.3%. In 8.0% a truncus bicaroticus was found. 4.2% of the patients showed a left vertebral artery originating directly from the aortic arch, mostly proximal, and in 1 case distal to the left subclavian artery. In 1.0% we found an aberrant right subclavian artery. We also found a single case of a right descending aortic arch. Conclusion: Variations of the aortic arch and its branching are frequently found, mostly as an incidental finding during routine diagnostic scanning. A contrast-enhanced CT scan is a good method with which to study the aortic arch and its associated branching pattern

  6. ZebrafishMiner: an open source software for interactive evaluation of domain-specific fluorescence in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reischl Markus

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput microscopy makes it possible to observe the morphology of zebrafish on large scale to quantify genetic, toxic or drug effects. The image acquisition is done by automated microscopy, images are evaluated automatically by image processing pipelines, tailored specifically to the requirements of the scientific question. The transfer of such algorithms to other projects, however, is complex due to missing guidelines and lack of mathematical or programming knowledge. In this work, we implement an image processing pipeline for automatic fluorescence quantification in user-defined domains of zebrafish embryos and larvae of different age. The pipeline is capable of detecting embryos and larvae in image stacks and quantifying domain activity. To make this protocol available to the community, we developed an open source software package called „ZebrafishMiner“ which guides the user through all steps of the processing pipeline and makes the algorithms available and easy to handle. We implemented all routines in an MATLAB-based graphical user interface (GUI that gives the user control over all image processing parameters. The software is shipped with a manual of 30 pages and three tutorial datasets, which guide the user through the manual step by step. It can be downloaded at https://sourceforge.net/projects/scixminer/.

  7. Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis (pfapa) syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semianchuk, Vira B

    Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome refers to a group of primary immunodeficiencies, namely autoinflammatory diseases. Most pediatricians and otolaryngologists do not suspect PFAPA syndrome when treating recurrent pharyngitis (according to Ukrainian classification - tonsillitis) and stomatitis. Therefore, patients with a given syndrome receive unnecessary treatment (antibiotic therapy or antiviral drugs) and the diagnosis is made late. The aim of the research was to provide pediatricians, family physicians and otolaryngologists with information on the importance of early diagnosis of PFAPA syndrome. The analysis of the prevalence and diagnosis of PFAPA syndrome in Ukraine and worldwide has been made as well as a late diagnosis of PFAPA syndrome in a child living in Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine has been described (case report). The Сase report 7-year-old boy, who grows and develops normally. The symptoms of pharyngitis including high body temperature (>40 º С), sore throat and white spots on the tonsils appeared for the first time at the age of two years. The boy received antibacterial drugs about 10 times a year. During a four-year period of recurrent episodes of the disease antimicrobial susceptibility testing to determine susceptibility of the oropharyngeal flora to the antibiotics were continuously performed, different blood tests for herpes viruses, Epstein-Barr virus infection and cytomegalovirus in particular were made using the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in addition to long-term treatment. An example of late diagnosing PFAPA syndrome (four years after the onset of first symptoms) resulting in regular examinations, medical manoeuvres, outpatient and inpatient treatment, use of antibiotic therapy including intravenous injections on a monthly basis has been studied.

  8. [Advantages and problems of traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of acute pharyngitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Xie, Yan-Ming; Li, Guang-Xi; Gao, Yang; Zhao, Yuan-Chen; Tang, Jing-Jing; Yao, Xiao-Yan; Li, Meng

    2017-10-01

    This paper systematically studies relevant literatures at home and abroad in recent years. China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) was used to collect the literatures for acute pharyngitis treated with traditional Chinese medicine from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2016, and the bibliometric method was employed for statistical analysis. A total of 493 papers were preliminarily selected. According to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria, 182 eligible articles were selected. According to the evaluation and analysis of the literatures, the Guidelines for Clinical Research of New Drugs is currently used as the common standards for the diagnosis and treatment of acute pharyngitis; Chinese patent medicines are the main traditional Chinese medicine for treating this disease; Decoctions for treatment of this disease include Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Scutellariae Radix, Platycodonis Radix, Forsythiae Fructus, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Scrophdlariae Radix, Isatidis Radix, and Ophiopogonis Radix; The bloodletting puncture is the common external therapy. Traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine have their own characteristics in the treatment of this disease. Western medicine for the treatment of acute pharyngitis are mainly antiviral, antibiotic and glucocorticoid drugs, whose disadvantages are toxicity, side effects, drug resistance and double infections. Traditional Chinese medicine doctors have rich experiences in the treatment of the disease, which is characterized by treatment determination based on syndrome differentiation, safe and reliable medication, significant curative effect, low drug resistance, and wide varieties of traditional Chinese medicine forms, convenient portability and taking, low price, and low toxic and side effects. It is an arduous and significant task to explore traditional Chinese medicine, and study and develop new-type effective drugs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Clinical analysis of pharyngeal musculature and genioglossus exercising to treat obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shi-xiong; Qing, Jing; Wang, Yao-wen; Chai, Liang; Zhang, Wei-min; Ye, Xian-wang; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Yi-qin; Cheng, Peng

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of pharyngeal musculature and genioglossus exercising on obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). We conducted a non-randomized retrospective clinical trial of 75 patients with OSAHS. Fifty-four patients were managed by exercising of the pharyngeal musculature and genioglossus (exercising group). Twenty-one patients, who refused to undertake any treatment, were defined as the control group. We took the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), checked patients' polysomnography, and took 320-detector computed tomography (CT) before treatment. Six and twelve months later, we made records of apnea hypopnea index (AHI), lowest arterial oxygen saturation (LSaO2), body mass index (BMI), the shortest sagittal diameter, and transverse diameter, and the effective rates of exercising were calculated and compared with the 21 patients without any treatment (control group) at the same time. SPSS 10.0 was used to analyze the data. Before treatment, the ESS value was 7.67; 6 and 12 months later, the values were 3.54 and 3.25, respectively in the exercising group. AHI was decreased to 15.36 after 6 months and 13.79 after 12 months from 22.84 at the beginning. LSaO2 values were up to 81.18% after 6 months and 81.93% after 12 months from 74.05% at the beginning. There were significant differences in ESS scores, AHI, and LSaO2 between pre-treatment and post-treatment in the exercising group (Pexercising. The effective rates were 70.37% and 74.07% after 6- and 12-month exercising, respectively. There were significant differences between the exercising and control groups (Pexercising group between 6 and 12 months of exercising (P>0.05). At 12 months of exercising, the compliance of the anteroposterior pharyngeal wall of the retropalatal area was lower (PExercising pharyngeal musculature and genioglossus is a kind of non-invasive and cost-effective method to treat some OSAHS patients, especially those who are old, without surgical complications, and especially

  10. Clinical analysis of pharyngeal musculature and genioglossus exercising to treat obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome*#

    Science.gov (United States)

    TANG, Shi-xiong; QING, Jing; WANG, Yao-wen; CHAI, Liang; ZHANG, Wei-min; Ye, Xian-wang; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Yi-qin; Cheng, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of pharyngeal musculature and genioglossus exercising on obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Methods: We conducted a non-randomized retrospective clinical trial of 75 patients with OSAHS. Fifty-four patients were managed by exercising of the pharyngeal musculature and genioglossus (exercising group). Twenty-one patients, who refused to undertake any treatment, were defined as the control group. We took the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), checked patients’ polysomnography, and took 320 detector computed tomography (CT) before treatment. Six and twelve months later, we made records of apnea hypopnea index (AHI), lowest arterial oxygen saturation (LSaO2), body mass index (BMI), the shortest sagittal diameter, and transverse diameter, and the effective rates of exercising were calculated and compared with the 21 patients without any treatment (control group) at the same time. SPSS 10.0 was used to analyze the data. Results: Before treatment, the ESS value was 7.67; 6 and 12 months later, the values were 3.54 and 3.25, respectively in the exercising group. AHI was decreased to 15.36 after 6 months and 13.79 after 12 months from 22.84 at the beginning. LSaO2 values were up to 81.18% after 6 months and 81.93% after 12 months from 74.05% at the beginning. There were significant differences in ESS scores, AHI, and LSaO2 between pre-treatment and post-treatment in the exercising group (Pexercising. The effective rates were 70.37% and 74.07% after 6- and 12-month exercising, respectively. There were significant differences between the exercising and control groups (Pexercising group between 6 and 12 months of exercising (P>0.05). At 12 months of exercising, the compliance of the anteroposterior pharyngeal wall of the retropalatal area was lower (PExercising pharyngeal musculature and genioglossus is a kind of non-invasive and cost-effective method to treat some OSAHS patients, especially those who are old, without

  11. Using local chromatin structure to improve CRISPR/Cas9 efficiency in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunru; Zeng, Shiyang; Hu, Ruikun; Wang, Xiangxiu; Huang, Weilai; Liu, Jiangfang; Wang, Luying; Liu, Guifen; Cao, Ying; Zhang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Although the CRISPR/Cas9 has been successfully applied in zebrafish, considerable variations in efficiency have been observed for different gRNAs. The workload and cost of zebrafish mutant screening is largely dependent on the mutation rate of injected embryos; therefore, selecting more effective gRNAs is especially important for zebrafish mutant construction. Besides the sequence features, local chromatin structures may have effects on CRISPR/Cas9 efficiency, which remain largely unexplored. In the only related study in zebrafish, nucleosome organization was not found to have an effect on CRISPR/Cas9 efficiency, which is inconsistent with recent studies in vitro and in mammalian cell lines. To understand the effects of local chromatin structure on CRISPR/Cas9 efficiency in zebrafish, we first determined that CRISPR/Cas9 introduced genome editing mainly before the dome stage. Based on this observation, we reanalyzed our published nucleosome organization profiles and generated chromatin accessibility profiles in the 256-cell and dome stages using ATAC-seq technology. Our study demonstrated that chromatin accessibility showed positive correlation with CRISPR/Cas9 efficiency, but we did not observe a clear correlation between nucleosome organization and CRISPR/Cas9 efficiency. We constructed an online database for zebrafish gRNA selection based on local chromatin structure features that could prove beneficial to zebrafish homozygous mutant construction via CRISPR/Cas9.

  12. Trend of oral and pharyngeal cancer mortality in Brazil in the period of 2002 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Lillia Magali Estrada; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Boing, Antonio Fernando; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the trend of oral and pharyngeal cancer mortality rates in the period of 2002 to 2013 in Brazil according to sex, anatomical site, and macroregion of the country. METHODS The mortality data were obtained from the Mortality Information System and the population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. The trend of the rates standardized by sex and age was calculated using the Prais-Winsten estimation, and we obtained the annual percentage change and the respective 95% confidence intervals, analyzed according to sex, macroregion, and anatomical site. RESULTS The average coefficient of oral cancer mortality was 1.87 per 100,000 inhabitants and it remained stable during the study period. The coefficient of pharyngeal cancer mortality was 2.04 per 100,000 inhabitants and it presented an annual percentage change of -2.6%. Approximately eight in every 10 deaths occurred among men. There was an increase in the rates of oral cancer in the Northeast region (annual percentage change of 6.9%) and a decrease in the Southeast region (annual percentage change of -2.9%). Pharyngeal cancer mortality decreased in the Southeast and South regions with annual percentage change of -4.8% and -5.1% respectively. Cancer mortality for tonsil, other major salivary glands, hypopharynx, and other and unspecified parts of mouth and pharynx showed a decreasing trend while the other sites presented stability. CONCLUSIONS Pharyngeal cancer mortality decreased in the period of 2002 to 2013. Oral cancer increased only in the Northeast region. Mortality for tonsil cancer, other major salivary glands, hypopharynx, and other and ill-defined sites in the lip, oral cavity, and pharynx decreased. PMID:29412371

  13. Out-of-plane buckling of roller bent wide flange arches - imperfections and finite element modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoorenberg, R.C.; Snijder, H.H.; Hoenderkamp, J.C.D.; Beg, D.; Chan, S.L.; Shu, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    Steel arches are used more and more in contemporary architecture, combining structural efficiency with architectural merits. If lateral supports are absent, these arches are prone to out-of-plane buckling. Arches are often made by cold bending wide flange beams at ambient temperature. This

  14. Correlation and agreement of a digital and conventional method to measure arch parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawi, Nes; Mohamed, Alizae Marny; Marizan Nor, Murshida; Ashar, Nor Atika

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the overall reliability and validity of arch parameters measured digitally compared to conventional measurement. A sample of 111 plaster study models of Down syndrome (DS) patients were digitized using a blue light three-dimensional (3D) scanner. Digital and manual measurements of defined parameters were performed using Geomagic analysis software (Geomagic Studio 2014 software, 3D Systems, Rock Hill, SC, USA) on digital models and with a digital calliper (Tuten, Germany) on plaster study models. Both measurements were repeated twice to validate the intraexaminer reliability based on intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) using the independent t test and Pearson's correlation, respectively. The Bland-Altman method of analysis was used to evaluate the agreement of the measurement between the digital and plaster models. No statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between the manual and digital methods when measuring the arch width, arch length, and space analysis. In addition, all parameters showed a significant correlation coefficient (r ≥ 0.972; p digital and manual measurements. Furthermore, a positive agreement between digital and manual measurements of the arch width (90-96%), arch length and space analysis (95-99%) were also distinguished using the Bland-Altman method. These results demonstrate that 3D blue light scanning and measurement software are able to precisely produce 3D digital model and measure arch width, arch length, and space analysis. The 3D digital model is valid to be used in various clinical applications.

  15. Tributyltin and Zebrafish: Swimming in Dangerous Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemilson Berto-Júnior

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Zebrafish has been established as a reliable biological model with important insertion in academy (morphologic, biochemical, and pathophysiological studies and pharmaceutical industry (toxicology and drug development due to its molecular complexity and similar systems biology that recapitulate those from other organisms. Considering the toxicological aspects, many efforts using zebrafish models are being done in order to elucidate the effects of endocrine disruptors, and some of them are focused on tributyltin (TBT and its mechanism of action. TBT is an antifouling agent applied in ship’s hull that is constantly released into the water and absorbed by marine organisms, leading to bioaccumulation and biomagnification effects. Thus, several findings of malformations and changes in the normal biochemical and physiologic aspects of these marine animals have been related to TBT contamination. In the present review, we have compiled the most significant studies related to TBT effects in zebrafish, also taking into consideration the effects found in other study models.

  16. Tributyltin and Zebrafish: Swimming in Dangerous Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto-Júnior, Clemilson; de Carvalho, Denise Pires; Soares, Paula; Miranda-Alves, Leandro

    2018-01-01

    Zebrafish has been established as a reliable biological model with important insertion in academy (morphologic, biochemical, and pathophysiological studies) and pharmaceutical industry (toxicology and drug development) due to its molecular complexity and similar systems biology that recapitulate those from other organisms. Considering the toxicological aspects, many efforts using zebrafish models are being done in order to elucidate the effects of endocrine disruptors, and some of them are focused on tributyltin (TBT) and its mechanism of action. TBT is an antifouling agent applied in ship’s hull that is constantly released into the water and absorbed by marine organisms, leading to bioaccumulation and biomagnification effects. Thus, several findings of malformations and changes in the normal biochemical and physiologic aspects of these marine animals have been related to TBT contamination. In the present review, we have compiled the most significant studies related to TBT effects in zebrafish, also taking into consideration the effects found in other study models. PMID:29692757

  17. Disease modeling in genetic kidney diseases: zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Heiko; Müller-Deile, Janina; Kinast, Mark; Schiffer, Mario

    2017-07-01

    Growing numbers of translational genomics studies are based on the highly efficient and versatile zebrafish (Danio rerio) vertebrate model. The increasing types of zebrafish models have improved our understanding of inherited kidney diseases, since they not only display pathophysiological changes but also give us the opportunity to develop and test novel treatment options in a high-throughput manner. New paradigms in inherited kidney diseases have been developed on the basis of the distinct genome conservation of approximately 70 % between zebrafish and humans in terms of existing gene orthologs. Several options are available to determine the functional role of a specific gene or gene sets. Permanent genome editing can be induced via complete gene knockout by using the CRISPR/Cas-system, among others, or via transient modification by using various morpholino techniques. Cross-species rescues succeeding knockdown techniques are employed to determine the functional significance of a target gene or a specific mutation. This article summarizes the current techniques and discusses their perspectives.

  18. Use of zebrafish to study Shigella infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Gina M.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Shigella is a leading cause of dysentery worldwide, responsible for up to 165 million cases of shigellosis each year. Shigella is also recognised as an exceptional model pathogen to study key issues in cell biology and innate immunity. Several infection models have been useful to explore Shigella biology; however, we still lack information regarding the events taking place during the Shigella infection process in vivo. Here, we discuss a selection of mechanistic insights recently gained from studying Shigella infection of zebrafish (Danio rerio), with a focus on cytoskeleton rearrangements and cellular immunity. We also discuss how infection of zebrafish can be used to investigate new concepts underlying infection control, including emergency granulopoiesis and the use of predatory bacteria to combat antimicrobial resistance. Collectively, these insights illustrate how Shigella infection of zebrafish can provide fundamental advances in our understanding of bacterial pathogenesis and vertebrate host defence. This information should also provide vital clues for the discovery of new therapeutic strategies against infectious disease in humans. PMID:29590642

  19. Use of zebrafish to study Shigella infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina M. Duggan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Shigella is a leading cause of dysentery worldwide, responsible for up to 165 million cases of shigellosis each year. Shigella is also recognised as an exceptional model pathogen to study key issues in cell biology and innate immunity. Several infection models have been useful to explore Shigella biology; however, we still lack information regarding the events taking place during the Shigella infection process in vivo. Here, we discuss a selection of mechanistic insights recently gained from studying Shigella infection of zebrafish (Danio rerio, with a focus on cytoskeleton rearrangements and cellular immunity. We also discuss how infection of zebrafish can be used to investigate new concepts underlying infection control, including emergency granulopoiesis and the use of predatory bacteria to combat antimicrobial resistance. Collectively, these insights illustrate how Shigella infection of zebrafish can provide fundamental advances in our understanding of bacterial pathogenesis and vertebrate host defence. This information should also provide vital clues for the discovery of new therapeutic strategies against infectious disease in humans.

  20. C-arm guided closed reduction of zygomatic arch fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eo, Yoon Ki; Lee, Dong Kun; Kim, Jeong Sam; Jang, Young Il

    1999-01-01

    The zygomatic arch is structurally protruded and is easily fractured. The classic management of zygomatic arch fracture has been mentioned the Keen, Lothrop, Dingman and Alling and threaded K-wire. All of the above methods have advantages and disadvantages. To minimize the disadvantages, we performed threaded K-wire for the first time using C-arm image intensifier. The subjects were 16 patients with Knight North group II (Zygomatic arch fracture). Among them the C-arm was used in 12 patients and the operator used sensitivity general method in 4 patients and confirmed the operation by mobile X-ray equipment. In conclusion, both groups were satisfied surgically and cosmetically. Using the C-arm, actual image at the time operation was clear and satisfied, the surrounding tissue damage was minimized and at was more accurately completed. The operation time was shortened by 30 to 60 minutes proving it to be an efficient method. We suggest though that further studies be needed to evaluate the radiation effect on these patients

  1. Glyphosate and Roundup® alter morphology and behavior in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridi, Daiane; Altenhofen, Stefani; Gonzalez, Jonas Brum; Reolon, Gustavo Kellermann; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2017-12-01

    Glyphosate has become the most widely used herbicide in the world, due to the wide scale adoption of transgenic glyphosate resistant crops after its introduction in 1996. Glyphosate may be used alone, but it is commonly applied as an active ingredient of the herbicide Roundup ® . This pesticide contains several adjuvants, which may promote an unknown toxicity. The indiscriminate application poses numerous problems, both for the health of the applicators and consumers, and for the environment, contaminating the soil, water and leading to the death of plants and animals. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is quickly gaining popularity in behavioral research, because of physiological similarity to mammals, sensitivity to pharmacological factors, robust performance, low cost, short spawning intervals, external fertilization, transparency of embryos through larval stages, and rapid development. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of glyphosate and Roundup ® on behavioral and morphological parameters in zebrafish larvae and adults. Zebrafish larvae at 3days post-fertilization and adults were exposed to glyphosate (0.01, 0.065, and 0.5mg/L) or Roundup ® (0.01, 0.065, and 0.5mg/L) for 96h. Immediately after the exposure, we performed the analysis of locomotor activity, aversive behavior, and morphology for the larvae and exploratory behavior, aggression and inhibitory avoidance memory for adult zebrafish. In zebrafish larvae, there were significant differences in the locomotor activity and aversive behavior after glyphosate or Roundup ® exposure when compared to the control group. Our findings demonstrated that exposure to glyphosate at the concentration of 0.5mg/L, Roundup ® at 0.065 or 0.5mg/L reduced the distance traveled, the mean speed and the line crossings in adult zebrafish. A decreased ocular distance was observed for larvae exposed at 0.5mg/L of glyphosate. We verified that at 0.5mg/L of Roundup ® -treated adult zebrafish demonstrated a significant

  2. Graph theoretical model of a sensorimotor connectome in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stobb

    Full Text Available Mapping the detailed connectivity patterns (connectomes of neural circuits is a central goal of neuroscience. The best quantitative approach to analyzing connectome data is still unclear but graph theory has been used with success. We present a graph theoretical model of the posterior lateral line sensorimotor pathway in zebrafish. The model includes 2,616 neurons and 167,114 synaptic connections. Model neurons represent known cell types in zebrafish larvae, and connections were set stochastically following rules based on biological literature. Thus, our model is a uniquely detailed computational representation of a vertebrate connectome. The connectome has low overall connection density, with 2.45% of all possible connections, a value within the physiological range. We used graph theoretical tools to compare the zebrafish connectome graph to small-world, random and structured random graphs of the same size. For each type of graph, 100 randomly generated instantiations were considered. Degree distribution (the number of connections per neuron varied more in the zebrafish graph than in same size graphs with less biological detail. There was high local clustering and a short average path length between nodes, implying a small-world structure similar to other neural connectomes and complex networks. The graph was found not to be scale-free, in agreement with some other neural connectomes. An experimental lesion was performed that targeted three model brain neurons, including the Mauthner neuron, known to control fast escape turns. The lesion decreased the number of short paths between sensory and motor neurons analogous to the behavioral effects of the same lesion in zebrafish. This model is expandable and can be used to organize and interpret a growing database of information on the zebrafish connectome.

  3. Identification of estrogen target genes during zebrafish embryonic development through transcriptomic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixin Hao

    Full Text Available Estrogen signaling is important for vertebrate embryonic development. Here we have used zebrafish (Danio rerio as a vertebrate model to analyze estrogen signaling during development. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 1 µM 17β-estradiol (E2 or vehicle from 3 hours to 4 days post fertilization (dpf, harvested at 1, 2, 3 and 4 dpf, and subjected to RNA extraction for transcriptome analysis using microarrays. Differentially expressed genes by E2-treatment were analyzed with hierarchical clustering followed by biological process and tissue enrichment analysis. Markedly distinct sets of genes were up and down-regulated by E2 at the four different time points. Among these genes, only the well-known estrogenic marker vtg1 was co-regulated at all time points. Despite this, the biological functional categories targeted by E2 were relatively similar throughout zebrafish development. According to knowledge-based tissue enrichment, estrogen responsive genes were clustered mainly in the liver, pancreas and brain. This was in line with the developmental dynamics of estrogen-target tissues that were visualized using transgenic zebrafish containing estrogen responsive elements driving the expression of GFP (Tg(5xERE:GFP. Finally, the identified embryonic estrogen-responsive genes were compared to already published estrogen-responsive genes identified in male adult zebrafish (Gene Expression Omnibus database. The expressions of a few genes were co-regulated by E2 in both embryonic and adult zebrafish. These could potentially be used as estrogenic biomarkers for exposure to estrogens or estrogenic endocrine disruptors in zebrafish. In conclusion, our data suggests that estrogen effects on early embryonic zebrafish development are stage- and tissue- specific.

  4. Defective Glycinergic Synaptic Transmission in Zebrafish Motility Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Hirata, Hiromi; Carta, Eloisa; Yamanaka, Iori; Harvey, Robert J.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2010-01-01

    Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo) mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR) β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic ...

  5. Metastatic behaviour of primary human tumours in a zebrafish xenotransplantation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Ines J; Bagowski, Christoph P; Weiss, Frank Ulrich; Vlecken, Danielle H; Nitsche, Claudia; Bakkers, Jeroen; Lagendijk, Anne K; Partecke, Lars Ivo; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Lerch, Markus M

    2009-01-01

    Aberrant regulation of cell migration drives progression of many diseases, including cancer cell invasion and metastasis formation. Analysis of tumour invasion and metastasis in living organisms to date is cumbersome and involves difficult and time consuming investigative techniques. For primary human tumours we establish here a simple, fast, sensitive and cost-effective in vivo model to analyse tumour invasion and metastatic behaviour. We fluorescently labelled small explants from gastrointestinal human tumours and investigated their metastatic behaviour after transplantation into zebrafish embryos and larvae. The transparency of the zebrafish embryos allows to follow invasion, migration and micrometastasis formation in real-time. High resolution imaging was achieved through laser scanning confocal microscopy of live zebrafish. In the transparent zebrafish embryos invasion, circulation of tumour cells in blood vessels, migration and micrometastasis formation can be followed in real-time. Xenografts of primary human tumours showed invasiveness and micrometastasis formation within 24 hours after transplantation, which was absent when non-tumour tissue was implanted. Furthermore, primary human tumour cells, when organotopically implanted in the zebrafish liver, demonstrated invasiveness and metastatic behaviour, whereas primary control cells remained in the liver. Pancreatic tumour cells showed no metastatic behaviour when injected into cloche mutant embryos, which lack a functional vasculature. Our results show that the zebrafish is a useful in vivo animal model for rapid analysis of invasion and metastatic behaviour of primary human tumour specimen

  6. First and second branchial arch syndromes: multimodality approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senggen, Elodie; Laswed, Tarek; Meuwly, Jean-Yves; Maestre, Leonor Alamo; Meuli, Reto; Gudinchet, Francois [University Hospital of Lausanne, Radiology Department, Lausanne (Switzerland); Jaques, Bertrand [University Hospital of Lausanne, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-05-15

    First and second branchial arch syndromes (BAS) manifest as combined tissue deficiencies and hypoplasias of the face, external ear, middle ear and maxillary and mandibular arches. They represent the second most common craniofacial malformation after cleft lip and palate. Extended knowledge of the embryology and anatomy of each branchial arch derivative is mandatory for the diagnosis and grading of different BAS lesions and in the follow-up of postoperative patients. In recent years, many new complex surgical approaches and procedures have been designed by maxillofacial surgeons to treat extensive maxillary, mandibular and external and internal ear deformations. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the role of different imaging modalities (orthopantomogram (OPG), lateral and posteroanterior cephalometric radiographs, CT and MRI) in the diagnosis of a wide spectrum of first and second BAS, including hemifacial microsomia, mandibulofacial dysostosis, branchio-oto-renal syndrome, Pierre Robin sequence and Nager acrofacial dysostosis. Additionally, we aim to emphasize the importance of the systematic use of a multimodality imaging approach to facilitate the precise grading of these syndromes, as well as the preoperative planning of different reconstructive surgical procedures and their follow-up during treatment. (orig.)

  7. Modal parameters identification and monitoring of two arches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belloli Marco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the modal parameters identification and of the continuous monitoring of two arches built in the new area of Expo 2015 in Milan. The activities on the arches were performed during the erection stage and they were planned as a consequence of preliminary studies performed at Politecnico di Milano wind tunnel, that highlighted dynamic instability due to the wind. In particular, the first two bending modes of the structures showed a critical behaviour and for this reason a TMD (Tuned Mass Damping system was designed in order to control these modes. At first, frequencies, damping and modal deflected shapes were evaluated in order to check the numerical FEM model, to tune the TMD system and to check its correct functioning. The two arches were then monitored for several months to observe their dynamic behaviour under different wind conditions. A good database about the strongest and the most frequent winds in the site was obtained. The accelerations registered under strong wind conditions did not reach dangerous levels for the structures, moreover these results showed a good agreement with the wind tunnel ones.

  8. First and second branchial arch syndromes: multimodality approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senggen, Elodie; Laswed, Tarek; Meuwly, Jean-Yves; Maestre, Leonor Alamo; Meuli, Reto; Gudinchet, Francois; Jaques, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    First and second branchial arch syndromes (BAS) manifest as combined tissue deficiencies and hypoplasias of the face, external ear, middle ear and maxillary and mandibular arches. They represent the second most common craniofacial malformation after cleft lip and palate. Extended knowledge of the embryology and anatomy of each branchial arch derivative is mandatory for the diagnosis and grading of different BAS lesions and in the follow-up of postoperative patients. In recent years, many new complex surgical approaches and procedures have been designed by maxillofacial surgeons to treat extensive maxillary, mandibular and external and internal ear deformations. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the role of different imaging modalities (orthopantomogram (OPG), lateral and posteroanterior cephalometric radiographs, CT and MRI) in the diagnosis of a wide spectrum of first and second BAS, including hemifacial microsomia, mandibulofacial dysostosis, branchio-oto-renal syndrome, Pierre Robin sequence and Nager acrofacial dysostosis. Additionally, we aim to emphasize the importance of the systematic use of a multimodality imaging approach to facilitate the precise grading of these syndromes, as well as the preoperative planning of different reconstructive surgical procedures and their follow-up during treatment. (orig.)

  9. Zebrafish kidney phagocytes utilize macropinocytosis and Ca+-dependent endocytic mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Hohn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The innate immune response constitutes the first line of defense against invading pathogens and consists of a variety of immune defense mechanisms including active endocytosis by macrophages and granulocytes. Endocytosis can be used as a reliable measure of selective and non-selective mechanisms of antigen uptake in the early phase of an immune response. Numerous assays have been developed to measure this response in a variety of mammalian and fish species. The small size of the zebrafish has prevented the large-scale collection of monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes for these endocytic assays. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pooled zebrafish kidney hematopoietic tissues were used as a source of phagocytic cells for flow-cytometry based endocytic assays. FITC-Dextran, Lucifer Yellow and FITC-Edwardsiella ictaluri were used to evaluate selective and non-selective mechanisms of uptake in zebrafish phagocytes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Zebrafish kidney phagocytes characterized as monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes utilize macropinocytosis and Ca(2+-dependant endocytosis mechanisms of antigen uptake. These cells do not appear to utilize a mannose receptor. Heat-killed Edwardsiella ictaluri induces cytoskeletal interactions for internalization in zebrafish kidney monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes. The proposed method is easy to implement and should prove especially useful in immunological, toxicological and epidemiological research.

  10. Comparison of Antemortem and Environmental Samples for Zebrafish Health Monitoring and Quarantine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crim, Marcus J; Lawrence, Christian; Livingston, Robert S; Rakitin, Andrei; Hurley, Shane J; Riley, Lela K

    2017-01-01

    Molecular diagnostic assays offer both exquisite sensitivity and the ability to test a wide variety of sample types. Various types of environmental sample, such as detritus and concentrated water, might provide a useful adjunct to sentinels in routine zebrafish health monitoring. Similarly, antemortem sampling would be advantageous for expediting zebrafish quarantine, without euthanasia of valuable fish. We evaluated the detection of Mycobacterium chelonae, M. fortuitum, M. peregrinum, Pseudocapillaria tomentosa, and Pseudoloma neurophilia in zebrafish, detritus, pooled feces, and filter membranes after filtration of 1000-, 500-, and 150-mL water samples by real-time PCR analysis. Sensitivity varied according to sample type and pathogen, and environmental sampling was significantly more sensitive than zebrafish sampling for detecting Mycobacterium spp. but not for Pseudocapillaria neurophilia or Pseudoloma tomentosa. The results of these experiments provide strong evidence of the utility of multiple sample types for detecting pathogens according to each pathogen's life cycle and ecological niche within zebrafish systems. In a separate experiment, zebrafish subclinically infected with M. chelonae, M. marinum, Pleistophora hyphessobryconis, Pseudocapillaria tomentosa, or Pseudoloma neurophilia were pair-spawned and individually tested with subsets of embryos from each clutch that received no rinse, a fluidizing rinse, or were surface-disinfected with sodium hypochlorite. Frequently, one or both parents were subclinically infected with pathogen(s) that were not detected in any embryo subset. Therefore, negative results from embryo samples may not reflect the health status of the parent zebrafish. PMID:28724491

  11. A Modified Transpalatal Arch with Sleeve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally fabricated transpalatal arches often create deep grooves on the tongue causing discomfort to the patients. To ovecome this situation a modification has been devised which requires only a few minutes of lab time, thus enhancing patient′s compliance toward treatment.

  12. Imaging Subcellular Structures in the Living Zebrafish Embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerer, Peter; Plucinska, Gabriela; Thong, Rachel; Trovò, Laura; Paquet, Dominik; Godinho, Leanne

    2016-04-02

    In vivo imaging provides unprecedented access to the dynamic behavior of cellular and subcellular structures in their natural context. Performing such imaging experiments in higher vertebrates such as mammals generally requires surgical access to the system under study. The optical accessibility of embryonic and larval zebrafish allows such invasive procedures to be circumvented and permits imaging in the intact organism. Indeed the zebrafish is now a well-established model to visualize dynamic cellular behaviors using in vivo microscopy in a wide range of developmental contexts from proliferation to migration and differentiation. A more recent development is the increasing use of zebrafish to study subcellular events including mitochondrial trafficking and centrosome dynamics. The relative ease with which these subcellular structures can be genetically labeled by fluorescent proteins and the use of light microscopy techniques to image them is transforming the zebrafish into an in vivo model of cell biology. Here we describe methods to generate genetic constructs that fluorescently label organelles, highlighting mitochondria and centrosomes as specific examples. We use the bipartite Gal4-UAS system in multiple configurations to restrict expression to specific cell-types and provide protocols to generate transiently expressing and stable transgenic fish. Finally, we provide guidelines for choosing light microscopy methods that are most suitable for imaging subcellular dynamics.

  13. Numerical Analysis on Temperature Rise of a Concrete Arch Dam after Sealing Based on Measured Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingbin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal boundary conditions in the construction and operation phases of a concrete arch dam are always complex. After sealing, differences between the arch dam temperature and its sealing temperature can cause compressive or tensile stresses. Based on measured temperature of an arch dam located in China, a temperature rise phenomenon (TRP is found in the after-sealed regions of the arch dam. By mining and analyzing the temperature data of various monitoring apparatus embedded in the arch dam, higher environment temperature is considered to be the main cause for the occurrence of the TRP. Mathematical methods for complex thermal boundary conditions, including external boundary conditions and internal heat source conditions, are proposed in this paper. A finite element model is implemented with the concern of the construction phase and operation phase of the arch dam. Results confirm good agreement with the measured temperature and verify the conjecture that the TRP occurs mainly because the external temperature of the arch dam is higher than its sealing temperature.

  14. [Effects of removable partial dentures on the quality of life in people with shortened dental arches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armellini, D B; Heydecke, G; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2009-12-01

    In order to assess the enhanced value of removable partial dentures on the quality of life, patients at 2 university clinics were screened for the presence of complete or shortened dental arches. Those selected were assigned to 1 of 5 subgroups: 1) a shortened dental arch with all frontal teeth, 2) a shortened dental arch with one or more frontal diastemas, 3) a shortened dental arch with all frontal teeth, restored by a removable partial denture, 4) a shortened dental arch and several diastemas, restored by a removable partial denture, 5) a complete dental arch. The participants completed the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Clinical data recorded were: whether any teeth were missing and if so which, whether or not these had been replaced by a removable partial denture, and the number of occluding pairs of (pre)molars. The results revealed that a shortenend dental arch has a certain impact on the quality of life. However, the participants only experienced benefits from a removable partial denture if the denture also replaced frontal teeth.

  15. Objective classification of different head and neck positions and their influence on the radiographic pharyngeal diameter in sport horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Various head and neck positions in sport horses are significant as they can interfere with upper airway flow mechanics during exercise. Until now, research has focused on subjectively described head and neck positions. The objective of this study was to develop an objective, reproducible method for quantifying head and neck positions accurately. Results Determining the angle between the ridge of the nose and the horizontal plane (ground angle) together with the angle between the ridge of nose and the line connecting the neck and the withers (withers angle) has provided values that allow precise identification of three preselected head and neck positions for performing sport horses. The pharyngeal diameter, determined on lateral radiographs of 35 horses, differed significantly between the established flexed position and the remaining two head and neck positions (extended and neutral). There was a significant correlation between the pharyngeal diameter and the ground angle (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient −0.769, p horses. The ground angle and the withers angle show significant correlation with the measured pharyngeal diameter in resting horses. Hence, these angles provide an appropriate method for assessing the degree of head and neck flexion. Further research is required to examine the influence of increasing head and neck flexion and the related pharyngeal diameter on upper airway function in exercising horses. PMID:24886564

  16. Arch Venture Partners' investment considerations for CBRNE products and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, K.; Lazarus, S.; Gardner, P. J.

    2008-04-01

    ARCH is interested in building leading, highly-valued companies from leading research. Toward that end we value innovations created by the leading researchers in the world, many of which are funded to solve critical scientific challenges including those in the instrumentation and CBRNE area. The most important CBRNE innovations we have seen at ARCH are breakthroughs involving significant unaddressed technology risk and have the potential for broad proprietary intellectual property as a result. The model ARCH has evolved in instrumentation is to look for a breakthrough innovation, with strong intellectual property and continue to strengthen the patent estate through the life of the company. ARCH looks to build companies around leading interdisciplinary scientific and engineering teams, and we favor platform technology that can be applied to multiple market applications both commercial and government. As part of a strategy to build a great company, addressing important CBRNE challenges can help a company strengthen its technical team and its IP estate. This supports a focus on early low volume markets on the way toward addressing a fuller portfolio of applications. Experienced Venture Capitalists can help this process by identifying important executive talent, partners and applications, offering financial syndication strength, and helping shape the company's strategy to maximize the ultimate value realized.

  17. The gothic arch: a reliable measurement for developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herickhoff, Paul K; O'Brien, Megan K; Dolan, Lori A; Morcuende, Jose A; Peterson, Jonathan B; Weinstein, Stuart L

    2013-01-01

    The "Gothic Arch" is a radio-graphic finding on AP pelvis x-rays postulated to be predictive of hip osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of measurement of the Gothic Arch in patients with no known hip pathology and patients with unilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). After obtaining IRB approval, nine skeletally mature patients (18 hips) with no known hip pathology were selected to serve as the control group. The AP pelvis x-rays at skeletal maturity of eight patients (16 hips) with unilateral DDH treated with closed reduction and casting comprised the comparison group. A digitizing program was designed to measure the Gothic Arch based on landmarks identified by the user. Two pediatric orthopaedic surgeons and two orthopaedic residents completed the program on two separate occasions. Intra-and interobserver reliability were determined using intraclass cor-relation coefficients (ICC) for continuous variables. Both the unilateral DDH group and the control group demonstrated excellent inter- and intraobserver reliability (ICC >0.70) for base, height, area, and orientation of the Gothic Arch, but poor reliability (ICC Gothic Arch can be reliably measured on AP pelvis x-rays of patients with normal and dysplastic hips. III, Diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  18. Cross-Modal Learning between Visual and Vibration Signals in Zebrafish Danio Rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Yun Wang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Animals are always integrating environmental information from multiple sensory modalities, but the mechanisms underneath are highly underexploited. Crossmodal interactions in animal perception have been found in several species including human, mice and flies. Here we subjected zebrafish as model because its genetic effects on brain and sense organ development are well studied, but the attentional processes are mainly unexplored. Zebrafish show impressive behaviour capabilities with relatively small or “simple” brains which make their nervous system relatively more accessible to experimentation than large-brained mammals. When conditioned with both vision and vibration signals, zebrafish were able to make higher correct choices than only one sensation. After multimodal training, zebrafish were also able to transfer the memory to unimodal conditioning when only given vision or vibration signals. This study provided basic findings for how animals process multimodal sensory from the environment, and showed crossmodal interactions in zebrafish for the first time.

  19. Two-Photon-Based Photoactivation in Live Zebrafish Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Russek-Blum, Niva; Nabel-Rosen, Helit; Levkowitz, Gil

    2010-01-01

    Photoactivation of target compounds in a living organism has proven a valuable approach to investigate various biological processes such as embryonic development, cellular signaling and adult physiology. In this respect, the use of multi-photon microscopy enables quantitative photoactivation of a given light responsive agent in deep tissues at a single cell resolution. As zebrafish embryos are optically transparent, their development can be monitored in vivo. These traits make the zebrafish a...

  20. Differential distribution of the Ca (2+) regulator Pcp4 in the branchial arches is regulated by Hoxa2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Megan; Amin, Shilu; Luise, Fabiana; Zeef, Leo; Bobola, Nicoletta

    2013-01-01

    Branchial arches are externally visible tissue bands in the head region of all vertebrate embryos. Although initially formed from similar components, each arch will give rise to different head and neck structures. In a screen designed to characterize the molecular control of branchial arch identity in mouse, we identified Pcp4 as a second branchial arch-specific molecular signature. We further show that the transcription factor Hoxa2 binds to Pcp4 chromatin and regulates Pcp4 expression in the second arch. Hoxa2 is also sufficient to induce Pcp4 expression in anterior first arch cells, which are Pcp4-negative.

  1. Directed Differentiation of Zebrafish Pluripotent Embryonic Cells to Functional Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Xiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A cardiomyocyte differentiation in vitro system from zebrafish embryos remains to be established. Here, we have determined pluripotency window of zebrafish embryos by analyzing their gene-expression patterns of pluripotency factors together with markers of three germ layers, and have found that zebrafish undergoes a very narrow period of pluripotency maintenance from zygotic genome activation to a brief moment after oblong stage. Based on the pluripotency and a combination of appropriate conditions, we established a rapid and efficient method for cardiomyocyte generation in vitro from primary embryonic cells. The induced cardiomyocytes differentiated into functional and specific cardiomyocyte subtypes. Notably, these in vitro generated cardiomyocytes exhibited typical contractile kinetics and electrophysiological features. The system provides a new paradigm of cardiomyocyte differentiation from primary embryonic cells in zebrafish. The technology provides a new platform for the study of heart development and regeneration, in addition to drug discovery, disease modeling, and assessment of cardiotoxic agents.

  2. Outflow tract septation and the aortic arch system in reptiles: lessons for understanding the mammalian heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelmann, Robert E; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C; Biermans, Marcel W M; Dolfing, Anne I; Jagessar, Armand; van Hattum, Sam; Hoogenboom, Amanda; Wisse, Lambertus J; Vicente-Steijn, Rebecca; de Bakker, Merijn A G; Vonk, Freek J; Hirasawa, Tatsuya; Kuratani, Shigeru; Richardson, Michael K

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac outflow tract patterning and cell contribution are studied using an evo-devo approach to reveal insight into the development of aorto-pulmonary septation. We studied embryonic stages of reptile hearts (lizard, turtle and crocodile) and compared these to avian and mammalian development. Immunohistochemistry allowed us to indicate where the essential cell components in the outflow tract and aortic sac were deployed, more specifically endocardial, neural crest and second heart field cells. The neural crest-derived aorto-pulmonary septum separates the pulmonary trunk from both aortae in reptiles, presenting with a left visceral and a right systemic aorta arising from the unseptated ventricle. Second heart field-derived cells function as flow dividers between both aortae and between the two pulmonary arteries. In birds, the left visceral aorta disappears early in development, while the right systemic aorta persists. This leads to a fusion of the aorto-pulmonary septum and the aortic flow divider (second heart field population) forming an avian aorto-pulmonary septal complex. In mammals, there is also a second heart field-derived aortic flow divider, albeit at a more distal site, while the aorto-pulmonary septum separates the aortic trunk from the pulmonary trunk. As in birds there is fusion with second heart field-derived cells albeit from the pulmonary flow divider as the right 6th pharyngeal arch artery disappears, resulting in a mammalian aorto-pulmonary septal complex. In crocodiles, birds and mammals, the main septal and parietal endocardial cushions receive neural crest cells that are functional in fusion and myocardialization of the outflow tract septum. Longer-lasting septation in crocodiles demonstrates a heterochrony in development. In other reptiles with no indication of incursion of neural crest cells, there is either no myocardialized outflow tract septum (lizard) or it is vestigial (turtle). Crocodiles are unique in bearing a central shunt, the

  3. Elucidating the mechanism of action of tributyltin (TBT) in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Courtney L; Crivello, Joseph F

    2011-05-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), an antifouling agent, has been implicated in the masculinization of fish species worldwide, but the masculinizing mechanism is not fully understood. We have examined the actions of TBT as an endocrine disruptor in zebrafish (Danio rerio). In HeLa cells transiently co-transfected with plasmid constructs containing the zebrafish estrogen receptors (zfERα, zfERβ(1) and zfERβ(2)) and the zebrafish estrogen response element (zfERE-tk-luc), ethinyl estradiol (EE2) induced luciferase activity 4 to 6-fold and was inhibited by TBT. In HeLa cells transiently co-transfected with the zebrafish androgen receptor (zfAR) and the murine androgen receptor response element (ARE-slp-luc), testosterone induced luciferase activity was not inhibited by TBT. In HeLa cells co-transfected with zfERα, zfERβ(1) and zfERβ(2) and a plasmid containing zebrafish aromatase (zfCyp19b-luc), TBT inhibited luciferase activity. In zebrafish exposed to 1mg/kg and 5mg/kg TBT in vivo, there was a increase in liver sulfotransferase and a decrease acyl-CoA testosterone acyltransferase activity. Real-time PCR analysis of sexual differentiation markers in fish exposed to TBT in vivo revealed a tissue-specific response. In brain there was increased production of Sox9, Dax1, and SF1 mRNA, an androgenizing effect, while in the liver there was increased production of Dax1, Cyp19a and zfERβ(1) mRNA but decreased production of Sox9 mRNA, a feminizing effect. In the gonads there was increased production of zfERα and zfCyp19a mRNA, again a feminizing effect. TBT has an overall masculinizing effect but the masculinizing effect is tempered by a feminizing effect on gene transcription in certain tissues. These results are discussed in the context of TBT as an endocrine disruptor in zebrafish. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.