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Sample records for zearalenone don fumonisin

  1. The occurrence of Fusarium toxins (zearalenone, DON, fumonisin, and T2) in some food commodities and feedstuffs in Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanem, I; Al-Arfe, M [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology

    2010-01-15

    The presence of four Fusarium toxins (namely, zearalenone, Don, fuminosin, and T2) was studied in 129 food commodities and feedstuff samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that the percentages of wheat samples contaminated with T2, fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone were : 33%, 31%, 11.6% and 12.5% for each toxin, respectively. Concentrations of these toxins in the contaminated samples fell in the range of 81 - 350, 330 - 1330, 270 - 420 and 42-67 {mu}g kg-1 for each toxin respectively. Barely samples showed higher percentages of contamination with those toxins amounting to 75.9%, 83.3%, 75% and 83.3% with concentrations ranging between 89-145, 270 - 1230, 650 - 3450 and 42-102 {mu}g kg-1 for T2, , fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone, respectively. Percentages of contaminated bran samples were 80% for T2 and 100% for each of fumonisin, Don and zearalenone. Concentrations of T2, fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone in bran samples ranged between 81-322 , 510 - 1670 , 280 - 750 and 42-81 {mu}g kg-1, respectively. All four tested toxins were present in corn samples. Levels of T2, , fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone in corn samples were in the range of 112-426 , 730 - 1820, 590 - 1080 and 63-112 {mu}g kg-1, respectively. Similarly, 100% of examined soya seed cake samples were found contaminated with various levels of the four assayed toxins, with levels of contamination ranging between 98-142 , 1340 - 2220 , 330 - 800 and 93-114 {mu}g kg-1, for T2, , fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone, respectively. All cotton seed cake samples were contaminated with the four tested toxins with contamination levels ranging between 94 - 142, 1120 - 1920, 280 - 1340 and 56 - 132 {mu}g kg-1 for T2, , fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone, respectively. Only 87% of the composite pelletted feed samples were contaminated with zearalenone, but all of theme were contaminated with various levels of the other three tested toxins. (author)

  2. The occurrence of Fusarium toxins (zearalenone, DON, fumonisin, and T2) in some food commodities and feedstuffs in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, I.; Al-Arfe, M.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of four Fusarium toxins (namely, zearalenone, Don, fuminosin, and T2) was studied in 129 food commodities and feedstuff samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that the percentages of wheat samples contaminated with T2, fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone were : 33%, 31%, 11.6% and 12.5% for each toxin, respectively. Concentrations of these toxins in the contaminated samples fell in the range of 81 - 350, 330 - 1330, 270 - 420 and 42-67 μg kg-1 for each toxin respectively. Barely samples showed higher percentages of contamination with those toxins amounting to 75.9%, 83.3%, 75% and 83.3% with concentrations ranging between 89-145, 270 - 1230, 650 - 3450 and 42-102 μg kg-1 for T2, , fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone, respectively. Percentages of contaminated bran samples were 80% for T2 and 100% for each of fumonisin, Don and zearalenone. Concentrations of T2, fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone in bran samples ranged between 81-322 , 510 - 1670 , 280 - 750 and 42-81 μg kg-1, respectively. All four tested toxins were present in corn samples. Levels of T2, , fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone in corn samples were in the range of 112-426 , 730 - 1820, 590 - 1080 and 63-112 μg kg-1, respectively. Similarly, 100% of examined soya seed cake samples were found contaminated with various levels of the four assayed toxins, with levels of contamination ranging between 98-142 , 1340 - 2220 , 330 - 800 and 93-114 μg kg-1, for T2, , fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone, respectively. All cotton seed cake samples were contaminated with the four tested toxins with contamination levels ranging between 94 - 142, 1120 - 1920, 280 - 1340 and 56 - 132 μg kg-1 for T2, , fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone, respectively. Only 87% of the composite pelletted feed samples were contaminated with zearalenone, but all of theme were contaminated with various levels of the other three tested toxins. (author)

  3. Effect of Maize Hybrid Maturity and Grain Hardness on Fumonisin and Zearalenone Contamination

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    Amedeo Reyneri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The level of resistance in commercial hybrids for Fusarium ear rot is still not in general adequate to prevent unacceptable toxin concentrations in field. The purpose of this experiment was to verify the behaviour of commercial dent maize hybrids for fumonisin and zearalenone contamination and to identify the variety traits that influence the production of these toxins. Field experiments were carried out in 2000, 2001 and 2002 to evaluate the effect of maize hybrid maturity and endosperm hardness on European Corn Borer (ECB incidence, fungal ear rot incidence and severity and on fumonisin B1 and zearalenone contents. Nineteen yellow soft commercial hybrids, from the 500, 600 and 700 FAO maturity groups, were compared in 4 sites in NW Italy. Hybrid were grouped in 3 endosperm hardness categories (hard, intermediate, soft in function of Hard/Soft (H/S endosperm ratio. No effect due to endosperm hardness or hybrid maturity on the ECB infestation or fungal ear rot incidence and severity was observed. Grain hardness significant influenced fumonisin B1 content: hard endosperm hybrids showed 50% lower contamination than soft hybrids. The presence of fumonisin B1 in the grain of different maturity hybrids only resulted to be significantly different in 2001 experiment, with a mean concentration 2 times higher in the later hybrids (FAO rating 700 compared to the medium and medium-late hybrids. The zearalenone content never resulted to be significantly different in function of the endosperm hardness, while, late maturing hybrids, in which grain moisture content decreases slowly below 30%, are more susceptible to zearalenone contamination. This research has highlighted the presence of variety traits that can influence mycotoxin contamination. An accurate choice of hybrid, considering the territorial and cultivation context, could contribute to achieve products, that contain mycotoxins, which do not exceed the maximum international and UE regulation levels.

  4. Incidence and Levels of Deoxynivalenol, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contaminants in Animal Feeds Used in Korea in 2012

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    Dong-Ho Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and levels of deoxynivalenol (DON, fumonisins B1 and B2 (FBs, and zearalenone (ZEN contaminants in animal feeds used in Korea in 2012. Contamination with DON was observed in 91.33% and 53.33% in compound feeds and feed ingredients, respectively. Among compound feeds, poultry layer feed (laying exhibited the highest contaminant level of 1.492 mg/kg. FBs contaminants were present in compound feeds and feed ingredients at 93.33% and 83.33%, respectively. Most poultry broiler (early feeds were highly contaminated with FBs, and one of these feeds detected the level as 12.823 mg/kg as the highest level. The levels of ZEN in compound feeds and feed ingredients were 71.33% and 47%, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of compound feeds for cattle were contaminated with ZEN, and the highest contamination level of 0.405 mg/kg was observed in cattle fatting feeds.

  5. Mycobiota in poultry feeds and natural occurrence of aflatoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Glenda R; Ribeiro, Jessika M; Fraga, Marcelo E; Cavaglieri, Lilia R; Direito, Gloria M; Keller, Kelly M; Dalcero, Ana M; Rosa, Carlos A

    2006-11-01

    The intake of mycotoxin-contaminated feeds can lead to nutrient losses and may have adverse effects on animal health and on productivity. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the mycobiota present in poultry feed samples, and (2) to evaluate the natural occurrence of aflatoxin B(1), fumonisin B(1) and zearalenone. Fungal counts were similar between all culture media tested (10(3 )CFU g(-1)). The most frequent genus isolated was Penicillium spp. (41.26%) followed by Aspergillus spp. (33.33%) and Fusarium spp. (20.63%). High precision liquid chromatography was applied to quantify aflatoxin B(1) and fumonisin B(1). Thin layer chromatography was used to determine zearalenone levels. Aflatoxin B(1 )values ranged between 1.2 and 17.5 microg kg(-1). Fumonisin B(1) levels ranged between 1.5 and 5.5 microg g(-1). Zearalenone levels ranged between 0.1 and 7 microg g(-1). The present study shows the simultaneous occurrence of two carcinogenic mycotoxins, aflatoxin B(1) and fumonisin B(1), together with another Fusarium mycotoxin (zearalenone) in feed intended for poultry consumption. Many samples contained AFB(1 )levels near the permissible maximum and it could affect young animals. A synergistic toxic response is possible in animals under simultaneous exposure.

  6. Individual and Combined Effects of Fumonisin B1, Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on the Hepatic and Renal Membrane Lipid Integrity of Rats

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    András Szabó

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background and (2 Methods: A 14-day in vivo, multitoxic (pure mycotoxins rat experiment was conducted with zearalenone (ZEA; 15 μg/animal/day, deoxynivalenol (DON; 30 μg/animal/day and fumonisin B1 (FB1; 150 μg/animal/day, as individual mycotoxins, binary (FD, FZ and DZ and ternary combinations (FDZ, via gavage in 1 mL water boluses. (3 Results: Body weight was unaffected, while liver (ZEA↑ vs. DON and kidney weight (ZEA↑ vs. FDZ increased. Hepatocellular membrane lipid fatty acids (FAs referred to ceramide synthesis disturbance (C20:0, C22:0, and decreased unsaturation (C22:5 n3 and unsat. index, mainly induced by DON and to a lesser extent by ZEA. The DON-FB1 interaction was additive on C20:0 in liver lipids. In renal phospholipids, ZEA had the strongest effect on the FA profile, affecting the saturated (C18:0 and many n6 FAs; ZEA was in an antagonistic relationship with FB1 (C18:0 or DON (C18:2 n6, C20:1 n9. Hepatic oxidative stress was the most expressed in FD (reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase, while the nephrotoxic effect was further supported by lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde in the DON treatment. (4 Conclusions: In vivo study results refer to multiple mycotoxin interactions on membrane FAs, antioxidants and lipid peroxidation compounds, needing further testing.

  7. Effect of an esterified glucomannan on laying hens exposed to combined mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and fumonisin B1)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Zaghini; A. Altafini; M. Simioli; L. Rizzi

    2011-01-01

    Mycotoxin toxicity depends on species, exposure time, age, sex, health and possible synergistic effects of other mycotoxins present in feed. In poultry, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are associated with poor growth performance, lowered feed utilization efficiency, liver damage and immunosuppression; metabolites may persist in tissues and eggs. Exposure of mature hens to zearalenone (ZEN) apparently does not cause adverse effects, but ZEN residues and α and β zearalenol...

  8. Effect of an esterified glucomannan on laying hens exposed to combined mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and fumonisin B1

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    A. Zaghini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin toxicity depends on species, exposure time, age, sex, health and possible synergistic effects of other mycotoxins present in feed. In poultry, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and fumonisin B1 (FB1 are associated with poor growth performance, lowered feed utilization efficiency, liver damage and immunosuppression; metabolites may persist in tissues and eggs. Exposure of mature hens to zearalenone (ZEN apparently does not cause adverse effects, but ZEN residues and α and β zearalenol persist in liver and muscle (Kuiper-Goodman et al., 1987 and may be transmitted to egg yolk (Dailey et al., 1990. Various treatments and dietary strategies have been tried to reduce mycotoxin levels in contaminated commodities...

  9. Effects of temperature and time on deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZON content in corn

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    Jauković Marko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisins are Fusarium mycotoxins that occur in corn and corn-based foods and they have been implicated in several animal and human diseases. Their effect on human health is unclear, however, fumonisins are considered to be risk factors for cancer. Baking, frying, and extrusion cooking of corn at high temperatures (190°C reduce fumonisin concentrations in foods, with the amount of reduction achieved depending on cooking time, temperature, recipe, and other factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of temperature (200 and 220 °C and time (15 and 20 min on the detoxification of corn flour deliberately contaminated with DON and ZON. After processing at 200°C for 15 min, an average of 12% and after 20 min an average of 15% of DON was lost. At 200°C ZON content was reduced by 22% (after 15 min and by 27% (after 20 min. Higher temperature (220°C did not significantly affect further reduction of DON or ZON content. The process was only partially effective in both cases. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31023 i br. TR-31053

  10. Fumonisins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumonisins are fungal toxins found in corn and in foods made from corn. Fumonisins are toxic to animals but their impact on human health is uncertain. Epidemiological evidence suggests that fumonisins may be risk factors for birth defects known as neural tube defects (NTDs) and for growth retardat...

  11. Mycological analysis of cereal samples and screening of Fusarium strains' ability to form deoxynivalenole (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) mycotoxins--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłyszejko, Adriana; Kubus, Zaneta; Zakowska, Zofia

    2005-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are cosmopolitan microorganisms found in almost all environments. It should be pointed out that occurance of moulds on food or feed may cause health disorders in humans and animals. Mycoflora appears as a source of toxic methabolites, mycotoxins, which hepatotoxic, genotoxic, nefrotoxic and carcinogenic abilities were already proven in several studies. Hense mycological analysis of cereal grains raises as an important manner in evaluation of food and feed health features. Among the most frequent cereal contaminants Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium strains are mentioned. Due to their ability to grow on cereals during both its field growth and storage, Fusarium moulds occure to be an important contamination factors in food and feed industry. In this study Fusarium strains isolates from wheat and maize were examined in order to recognize their abilities to produce two toxins: zearalenon (ZEA) and deoxynivalenole (DON). Mycological analysis shown differentiation within fungal microflora occuring in samples of different storage conditions, where Fusarium strains represented aproximately 20-70% of all mould species present. In purpose of Fusarium strains species evaluation, isolates were mycologically analysed. In the second step of the project, toxicological screening of isolates was performed using Thin Liquid Chromatography (TLC) evaluating toxigenic potential of single strains' production of ZEA and DON. This data gives the possibility of pointing the most toxigenic strains and also shows differentiations in their occurance in cereals. This paper presents introductory research data, which can be useful in recognition of cereal contamination with moulds and their toxic methabolites.

  12. Incidência de fumonisina B1, aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona em produtos de milho Occurrence of fumonisin B1, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in corn products

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    Luciane Mie Kawashima

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Levantamentos de ocorrência de micotoxinas em alimentos foram realizados nas últimas duas décadas nas regiões Sudeste e Sul do Brasil. Levantamentos em alimentos comercializados em outras regiões têm-se limitado a aflatoxinas em amendoim e castanhas do Brasil. O presente trabalho pesquisou a presença de fumonisina B1, aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona em 74 amostras de produtos a base de milho adquiridas no comércio da cidade de Recife, PE, durante o período de 1999 a 2001. Fumonisina B1 foi determinada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detecção por fluorescência e as demais toxinas foram determinadas por cromatografia em camada delgada. Fumonisina B1 foi encontrada em 94,6% das amostras em concentrações variando de 20 a 8600 µg/kg. Apenas 5 amostras continham aflatoxina B1 e o teor máximo encontrado foi 20 µg/kg. Duas amostras ultrapassaram o limite de 20 µg/kg para a somatória das aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2 (farinha de milho pré-cozida com 21,5 µg/kg e quirera (xerém com 23,3 µg/kg. As aflatoxinas G1 e G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona não foram detectadas em nenhuma das amostras. Todas as amostras contaminadas com aflatoxinas também apresentaram fumonisina B1.Research concerning the presence of mycotoxin in food has been conducted in the Southwest and South regions of Brazil over the last two decades. Research in other regions has been limited to aflatoxin in peanuts and Brazil nuts. The aim of this work is to study the presence of fumonisin B1, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in 74 samples of corn products acquired in shops and food markets in the city of Recife (PE from 1999 to 2001. Fumonisin B1 was determined by high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence was detected. The other toxins were determined by thin layer chromatography. Fumonisin B1 was found in 94.6% of the samples in levels from 20 to 8600 µg/kg. Only 5 samples contained

  13. Evaluation of Chitosan and Cellulosic Polymers as Binding Adsorbent Materials to Prevent Aflatoxin B1, Fumonisin B1, Ochratoxin, Trichothecene, Deoxynivalenol, and Zearalenone Mycotoxicoses Through an In Vitro Gastrointestinal Model for Poultry

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    Bruno Solís-Cruz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary toxic metabolites that are produced by fungi representing threats to human and animal health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity of Chitosan (CHI, and three cellulosic polymers (HPMC, CMC, and MCC, on six mycotoxins (AFB1; FUB1; OTA; T-2; DON; and, ZEA using an in vitro digestive model for poultry. The adsorbent capacity of the materials in the supernatant of each compartment was evaluated by a non-competitive chemiluminescent assay. Control groups with no adsorbent material had an adsorption value of 0.00% against all six mycotoxins that were evaluated. All four materials tested showed significant (p < 0.05 binding activity against all of the mycotoxins when compared with the control non-treated group. However HPMC, CMC, and MCC showed better adsorbent capacity when compared with CHI.

  14. Biotransformation of zearalenone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sharkawy, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    Zearalenone is a non-steroidal mold metabolite which as been associated with the estrogenising syndromes in swines and reproduction problems in cattle when fed with infected grains. This study investigates the metabolism of zearalenone by microorganisms using different fungal species as a model system employing the two-stage fermentation protocol. Screening with 170 microorganisms was carried out and those fermentations showing appreciable transformation were scaled up for large-scale fermentation. Following extraction of the fermentation with chloroform, the solvent was concentrated and the residue purified by silica gel columns or preparative thin layer chromatography. The identification of the purified metabolites was established by using IR, 'H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, and high resolution mass spectral analysis, as well as comparison of their R/sub f/ values and R/sub t/ on thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The binding characteristics of zearalenone as well as its derivatives to estrogen-receptors using the 3 H-estradiol receptor competition assay were determined. Six metabolites were shown to interact directly with the estrogen receptors. Alpha-zearalanol was found to be the most active competitor for estradiol binding. The remaining six metabolites lacked the ability to bind to the estrogen receptor and are therefore biologically inactive

  15. Molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticle-based assay (MINA): application for fumonisin B1 determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawar, Hasim; Smolinska-Kempisty, Katarzyna; Cruz, Alvaro Garcia; Canfarotta, Francesco; Piletska, Elena; Karim, Khalku; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2018-06-20

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been used as a standard tool for monitoring food and animal feed contamination from the carcinogenic fumonisin B1 (FB1). Unfortunately, ELISA is not always efficient due to the instability of the antibody and enzyme components in the immunoassay, the presence of natural enzyme inhibitors in the samples and the high levels of non-specific protein binding. Additionally, the production of antibodies for ELISA can be time-consuming and costly, due to the involvement of animals in the manufacturing process. To overcome these limiting factors, a molecularly imprinted nanoparticle based assay (MINA) has been developed, where the molecularly imprinted nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) replace the primary antibody used in a competitive ELISA. Herein, computational modelling was used to design the nanoMIPs by selecting monomers that specifically interact with FB1. The affinity of the monomers to FB1 was verified by measuring their binding in affinity chromatography experiments. The nanoMIPs were produced by solid phase synthesis and the results showed that nanoMIPs had a hydrodynamic diameter of around 249 ± 29 nm. The assay tested in model samples is highly selective and does not show cross-reactivity with other mycotoxins such as fumonisin B2 (FB2), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), citrinin (CTT), zearalenone (ZEA), and deoxynivalenol (DON). The MINA allows the detection of FB1 in the concentration range of 10 pM-10 nM with a detection limit of 1.9 pM and a recovery of 108.13-113.76%.

  16. Fumonisins and co-occurring mycotoxins in north Serbian corn

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    Jakšić Sandra M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of fumonisin has not been regulated in the legislation of the Republic of Serbia. Therefore, the data on contamination of cereals, especially corn, which is highly susceptible to contamination by this toxin, are not sufficient. This paper presents the results of testing the corn samples collected in the autumn 2009 on the territory of Bačka. Samples were analyzed for the contents of fumonisins and it was determined whether there is a correlation between the moisture content, total number and class of fungi, as well as the content of aflatoxin, ochratoxin and zearalenone. Using enzymatic immunoaffinity method it was discovered that the highest percentage of samples were contaminated with fumonisins, which was probably due to the presence of Fusarium molds as the most abundant ones. The positive samples contained fumonisin in the concentrations from 0.030 to 1.52 mg kg−1. The influence of the climate and moisture content of grain on fungal contamination and mycotoxin production was analyzed in order to investigate the predictability of the presence of mycotoxins.

  17. Analysis of the mycotoxigenic fungi associated with southeastern U.S. winegrapes reveals a large population of Fusarium fujikuroi isolates producing high levels of fumonisins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins pose a serious challenge to a consistently safe food supply worldwide, and their threat is only expected to worsen with our changing climate. Species of Fusarium produce one or more of several mycotoxins, including tricothecenes, zearalenone, and fumonisins, which have been associated wi...

  18. Tolerance and excretion of the mycotoxins aflatoxin B1, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, and ochratoxin A by alphitobius diaperinus and hermetia illucens from contaminated substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camenzuli, Louise; Dam, van Ruud; Rijk, de Theo; Andriessen, Rob; Schelt, van Jeroen; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.I.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of mycotoxins in the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus, LMW) and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, BSF) larvae. Feed was spiked with aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol (DON), ochratoxin A or zearalenone, and as a mixture of mycotoxins,

  19. Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in Commercial Fish Feed: An Initial Study

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    Sven Dänicke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of mycotoxins is a global challenge not only in human consumption but also in nutrition of farm animals including aquatic species. Fusarium toxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEN, are common contaminants of animal feed but no study reported the occurrence of both mycotoxins in fish feed so far. Here, we report for the first time the occurrence of DON and ZEN in samples of commercial fish feed designed for nutrition of cyprinids collected from central Europe. A maximal DON concentration of 825 μg kg−1 feed was found in one feed whereas average values of 289 μg kg−1 feed were noted. ZEN was the more prevalent mycotoxin but the concentrations were lower showing an average level of 67.9 μg kg−1 feed.

  20. Effect of surfactants on the spectrofluorimetric properties of zearalenone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appell, Michael; Bosma, Wayne B.

    2011-01-01

    The chemiluminescent properties of the estrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone in the presence of aqueous micellar media were investigated using steady state fluorescence techniques. Micelles of surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and non-ionic Triton X-100 enhanced the fluorescence intensity of zearalenone in aqueous solutions. The binding constants have been determined and indicate zearalenone has the highest affinity for Triton X-100, followed by CTAB, and then by SDS. The encapsulation of zearalenone by the micelles studied is spontaneous and exothermic. The selective microenvironments provided by organized micellar systems offer an attractive medium to modulate fluorescence detection of zearalenone. - Highlights: → Surfactants can selectively modulate the fluorescence detection of zearalenone. → Binding studies provide information on the zearalenone-surfactant interactions. → Fluorescence intensity of zearalenone is related to the micelle microenvironment.

  1. Difficulties in fumonisin determination: the issue of hidden fumonisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Asta, Chiara; Mangia, Mattia; Berthiller, Franz; Molinelli, Alexandra; Sulyok, Michael; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Krska, Rudolf; Galaverna, Gianni; Dossena, Arnaldo; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, the results obtained by five independent methods for the quantification of fumonisins B(1), B(2), and B(3) in raw maize are reported. Five naturally contaminated maize samples and a reference material were analyzed in three different laboratories. Although each method was validated and common calibrants were used, a poor agreement about fumonisin contamination levels was obtained. In order to investigate the interactions among analyte and matrix leading to this lack of consistency, the occurrence of fumonisin derivatives was checked. Significant amounts of hidden fumonisins were detected for all the considered samples. Furthermore, the application of an in vitro digestion protocol to raw maize allowed for a higher recovery of native fumonisins, suggesting that the interaction occurring among analytes and matrix macromolecules is associative rather than covalent. Depending on the analytical method as well as the maize sample, only 37-68% of the total fumonisin concentrations were found to be extractable from the samples. These results are particularly impressive and significant in the case of the certified reference material, underlying the actual difficulties in ascertaining the trueness of a method for fumonisin determination, opening thus an important issue for risk assessment.

  2. Incidence of trichothecenes and zearalenone in poultry feed mixtures from Slovakia.

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    Labuda, Roman; Parich, Alexandra; Berthiller, Franz; Tancinová, Dana

    2005-11-15

    A total of 50 samples of poultry feed mixtures of Slovakian origin were analyzed for eight toxicologically significant Fusarium mycotoxins, namely zearalenone (ZON), A-trichothecenes: diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), T-2 toxin (T-2) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2) and B-trichothecenes: deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON) and nivalenol (NIV). The A-trichothecenes and the B-trichothecenes were detected by means of high pressure liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection (HPLC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography electron capture detection (GC-ECD), respectively. Reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector (RP-HPLC-FLD) was used for ZON detection. The most frequent mycotoxin detected was T-2, which was found in 45 samples (90%) in relatively low concentrations ranging from 1 to 130 microg kg(-1) (average 13 microg kg(-1)), followed by ZON that was found in 44 samples (88%) in concentrations ranging from 3 to 86 microg kg(-1) (average 21 microg kg(-1)). HT-2 and DON were detected in 38 (76%) and 28 (56%) samples, respectively, in concentrations of 2 to 173 (average 18 microg kg(-1)) for HT-2 and 64 to 1230 microg kg(-1) sample (average 303 microg kg(-1)) for DON. The acetyl-derivatives of DON were in just four samples, while NIV was not detected in any of the samples investigated. In as many as 22 samples (44%), a combination of four simultaneously co-occurring mycotoxins, i.e. T-2, HT-2, ZON and DON, was revealed. Despite the limited number of samples investigated during this study poultry feed mixtures may represent a risk from a toxicological point of view and should be regarded as a potential source of the Fusarium mycotoxins in Central Europe. This is the first reported study dealing with zearalenone and trichothecene contamination of poultry mixed feeds from Slovakia.

  3. Recent research on fumonisins: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, P M

    2012-01-01

    Fumonisins are well known mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides, F. proliferatum and other Fusarium species. Many new fumonisins and fumonisin-like compounds have been detected by mass spectrometry in cultures of F. verticillioides. Recently, fumonisins B(2) and B(4) were produced by Aspergillus niger isolated from coffee and fumonisin B(2) in A. niger from grapes. Fumonisin B(2) was itself detected in coffee beans, wine and beer, adding to the list of foodstuffs and feedstuffs other than corn (maize) and sorghum in which fumonisins have been found in recent years. Fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) can bind to proteins (PB FB(1)) and to other matrix components during food processing involving heat. The occurrence of bound fumonisins in processed corn foods is common. Another type of binding (or association) relates to observed instability of fumonisins in rice flour, corn starch and corn meal at room temperature; this can affect the immunoaffinity column clean-up procedure in analysis of naturally contaminated starch-containing corn foods for fumonisins. The occurrence of N-fatty acylated fumonisin derivatives in retail fried corn foods has also been demonstrated. Bioaccessibility of free FB(1) and total bound FB(1) (TB FB(1)) present in corn flakes has been estimated by in vitro digestion experiments. Intentional binding of fumonisins to cholestyramine has been demonstrated in vivo and is a potential means of detoxification of animal feed.

  4. The impact of low concentrations of aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol or fumonisin in diets on growing pigs and poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    In the present review, the quantitative impact of dietary aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin concentrations on performance of pigs and broilers is evaluated, with special emphasis on low concentrations of these toxins. Also, responses in performance of pigs and broilers to these three

  5. Explaining combinatorial effects of mycotoxins Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in mice with urinary metabolomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jian; Zhu, Pei; Blaženović, Ivana; Cui, Fangchao; Gholami, Morteza; Sun, Jiadi; Habimana, Jean; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2018-02-28

    Urine metabolic profiling of mice was conducted utilizing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the combinatory effect of mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) on the metabolism of the mice. Experiments were conducted by means of five-week-old mice which were individually exposed to 2 mg/kg DON, 20 mg/kg ZEN and the mixture of DON and ZEN (2 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, respectively). The intragastric administration was applied for three weeks and urine samples were collected for metabolic analysis. Univariate and multivariate analysis were applied to data matrix processing along with respective pathway analysis by MetaMapp and CytoScape. The results showed that the combined DON and ZEN administration resulted in lower significant changes, compared to the individual mycotoxin treated groups verified by heatmap. Metabolic pathways network mapping indicated that the combined mycotoxins treated groups showed a little effect on the metabolites in most pathways, especially in glucose metabolism and its downstream amino acid metabolism. In glucose metabolism, the content of galactose, mannitol, galactonic acid, myo-inositol, tagatose was drastically down-regulated. Furthermore, the organic acids, pyruvate, and amino acids metabolism displayed the same phenomenon. In conclusion, the combined DON/ZEN administration might lead to an "antagonistic effect" in mice metabolism.

  6. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in brewing barley grains from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, Karim C; Rocha, L O; Savi, G D; Carnielli-Queiroz, L; Almeida, F G; Minella, E; Corrêa, B

    2018-03-09

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important cereal crop for food and represents one of the main ingredients in beer production. Considering the importance of barley and its derived products, the knowledge about the mycotoxin contamination in the barley production is essential in order to assess its safety. In this study, the levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) in brewing barley were determined using a LC-MS/MS method. A survey was conducted in 2015 to estimate the mycotoxin levels in these products (n = 76) from four crop regions in Brazil. The results showed high levels of DON and ZEN in the analyzed samples, with contamination levels of 94 and 73.6%, respectively. The mean levels of DON and ZEN ranged from 1700 to 7500 μg/kg and from 300 to 630 μg/kg, respectively. Barley samples from regions 1 and 2 presented higher levels of ZEN and DON, respectively, and those from region 4 presented lower levels of both. Co-occurrence of DON and ZEN was seen in the majority of the barley grain samples, and the mycotoxin content was above the maximum levels established by the Brazilian and European regulations.

  7. Natural contamination of dietary rice straw with zearalenone and urinary zearalenone concentrations in a cattle herd

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasunuma, H.; Takagi, M.; Kawamura, O.; Taniguchi, C.; Chuma, T.; Uno, S.; Kokushi, E.; Matsumoto, D.; Tshering, C.; Deguchi, E.; Fink-Gremmels, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/119949997

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to 1) identify the natural source of feed contamination by zearalenone (ZEN), which was suspected to have caused persistently increased urinary ZEN concentrations in one of our experimental cattle herds, and 2) evaluate the effects of intervention against this source

  8. Susceptibility of broiler chickens to coccidiosis when fed subclinical doses of deoxynivalenol and fumonisins – special emphasis on the immunological response and the mycotoxin interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in livestock diets. The effect of subclinical doses of mycotoxins in chickens is largely unknown, and in particular the susceptibility of birds to pathogenic challenge when fed these ...

  9. Tolerance and Excretion of the Mycotoxins Aflatoxin B1, Zearalenone, Deoxynivalenol, and Ochratoxin A by Alphitobius diaperinus and Hermetia illucens from Contaminated Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Camenzuli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of mycotoxins in the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus, LMW and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, BSF larvae. Feed was spiked with aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol (DON, ochratoxin A or zearalenone, and as a mixture of mycotoxins, to concentrations of 1, 10, and 25 times the maximum limits set by the European Commission for complete feed. This maximum limit is 0.02 mg/kg for aflatoxin B1, 5 mg/kg for DON, 0.5 mg/kg for zearalenone and 0.1 mg/kg for ochratoxin A. The mycotoxins and some of their metabolites were analysed in the larvae and residual material using a validated and accredited LC-MS/MS-based method. Metabolites considered were aflatoxicol, aflatoxin P1, aflatoxin Q1, and aflatoxin M1, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON and DON-3-glycoside, and α- and β-zearalenol. No differences were observed between larvae reared on mycotoxins individually or as a mixture with regards to both larvae development and mycotoxin accumulation/excretion. None of the mycotoxins accumulated in the larvae and were only detected in BSF larvae several orders of magnitude lower than the concentration in feed. Mass balance calculations showed that BSF and LMW larvae metabolized the four mycotoxins to different extents. Metabolites accounted for minimal amounts of the mass balance, except for zearalenone metabolites in the BSF treatments, which accounted for an average maximum of 86% of the overall mass balance. Both insect species showed to excrete or metabolize the four mycotoxins present in their feed. Hence, safe limits for these mycotoxins in substrates to be used for these two insect species possibly could be higher than for production animals. However, additional analytical and toxicological research to fully understand the safe limits of mycotoxins in insect feed, and thus the safety of the insects, is required.

  10. Tolerance and Excretion of the Mycotoxins Aflatoxin B1, Zearalenone, Deoxynivalenol, and Ochratoxin A by Alphitobius diaperinus and Hermetia illucens from Contaminated Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenzuli, Louise; Van Dam, Ruud; de Rijk, Theo; Andriessen, Rob; Van Schelt, Jeroen; Van der Fels-Klerx, H. J. (Ine)

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of mycotoxins in the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus, LMW) and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, BSF) larvae. Feed was spiked with aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol (DON), ochratoxin A or zearalenone, and as a mixture of mycotoxins, to concentrations of 1, 10, and 25 times the maximum limits set by the European Commission for complete feed. This maximum limit is 0.02 mg/kg for aflatoxin B1, 5 mg/kg for DON, 0.5 mg/kg for zearalenone and 0.1 mg/kg for ochratoxin A. The mycotoxins and some of their metabolites were analysed in the larvae and residual material using a validated and accredited LC-MS/MS-based method. Metabolites considered were aflatoxicol, aflatoxin P1, aflatoxin Q1, and aflatoxin M1, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON and DON-3-glycoside, and α- and β-zearalenol. No differences were observed between larvae reared on mycotoxins individually or as a mixture with regards to both larvae development and mycotoxin accumulation/excretion. None of the mycotoxins accumulated in the larvae and were only detected in BSF larvae several orders of magnitude lower than the concentration in feed. Mass balance calculations showed that BSF and LMW larvae metabolized the four mycotoxins to different extents. Metabolites accounted for minimal amounts of the mass balance, except for zearalenone metabolites in the BSF treatments, which accounted for an average maximum of 86% of the overall mass balance. Both insect species showed to excrete or metabolize the four mycotoxins present in their feed. Hence, safe limits for these mycotoxins in substrates to be used for these two insect species possibly could be higher than for production animals. However, additional analytical and toxicological research to fully understand the safe limits of mycotoxins in insect feed, and thus the safety of the insects, is required. PMID:29495278

  11. Optimization for the Production of Deoxynivalenoland Zearalenone by Fusarium graminearum UsingResponse Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEN are the most common contaminants in cereals worldwide, causing a wide range of adverse health effects on animals and humans. Many environmental factors can affect the production of these mycotoxins. Here, we have used response surface methodology (RSM to optimize the Fusarium graminearum strain 29 culture conditions for maximal toxin production. Three factors, medium pH, incubation temperature and time, were optimized using a Box-Behnken design (BBD. The optimized conditions for DON production were pH 4.91 and an incubation temperature of 23.75 °C for 28 days, while maximal ZEN production required pH 9.00 and an incubation temperature of 15.05 °C for 28 days. The maximum levels of DON and ZEN production were 2811.17 ng/mL and 23789.70 ng/mL, respectively. Considering the total level of DON and ZEN, desirable yields of the mycotoxins were still obtained with medium pH of 6.86, an incubation temperature of 17.76 °C and a time of 28 days. The corresponding experimental values, from the validation experiments, fitted well with these predictions. This suggests that RSM could be used to optimize Fusarium mycotoxin levels, which are further purified for use as potential mycotoxin standards. Furthermore, it shows that acidic pH is a determinant for DON production, while an alkaline environment and lower temperature (approximately 15 °C are favorable for ZEN accumulation. After extraction, separation and purification processes, the isolated mycotoxins were obtained through a simple purification process, with desirable yields, and acceptable purity. The mycotoxins could be used as potential analytical standards or chemical reagents for routine analysis.

  12. Phytic acid decreases deoxynivalenol and fumonisin B1-induced changes on swine jejunal explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Olegário da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of phytic acid (IP6 on morphological and immunohistochemical parameters on intestinal explants exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisin B1 (FB1. The jejunal explants were exposed for 4 h to different treatments: control, DON (10 μM, DON plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6, FB1 (70 μM, and FB1 plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6. Both mycotoxins induced significant intestinal lesions and decreased villi height. The presence of 2.5 mM and 5 mM IP6 significantly inhibited the morphological changes caused by the mycotoxins. DON induced a significant increase in caspase-3 (83% and cyclooxygenase-2 (71.3% expression compared with the control. The presence of 5 mM IP6 induced a significant decrease in caspase-3 (43.7% and Cox-2 (48% expression compared with the DON group. FB1 induced a significant increase in caspase-3 expression (47% compared to the control, whereas IP6 induced no significant change in this expression. A significant decrease in cell proliferation was observed when explants were exposed to 5 mM of IP6 in comparison with the DON and FB1 groups. The present data provide evidence that phytic acid modulates the toxic effects induced by DON and FB1 on intestinal tissue.

  13. The effect of agmatine on trichothecene type B and zearalenone production in Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum and F. poae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Pasquali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Agmatine and other putrescines are known for being strong inducers of deoxynivalenol (DON production in Fusarium graminearum. Other important species produce DON and/or other trichothecene type B toxins (3 acetylated DON, 15 acetylated DON, Fusarenon-X, Nivalenol, such as F. culmorum and F. poae. In order to verify whether the mechanism of the regulation of trichothecene type B induction by agmatine is shared by different species of Fusarium, we tested the hypothesis on 19 strains belonging to 3 Fusarium species (F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. poae with diverse genetic chemotypes (3ADON, 15ADON, NIV by measuring trichothecene B toxins such as DON, NIV, Fusarenon-X, 3ADON and 15ADON. Moreover, we tested whether other toxins like zearalenone were also boosted by agmatine. The trichothecene type B boosting effect was observed in the majority of strains (13 out of 19 in all the three species. Representative strains from all three genetic chemotypes were able to boost toxin production after agmatine treatment. We identified the non-responding strains to the agmatine stimulus, which may contribute to deciphering the regulatory mechanisms that link toxin production to agmatine (and, more generally, polyamines.

  14. Identification of N-acyl-fumonisin B1 as new cytotoxic metabolites of fumonisin mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, Henning; Laviad, Elad L; Humpf, Hans Ulrich; Futerman, Anthony H

    2013-03-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species. The predominant derivative, fumonisin B1 (FB1), occurs in food and feed and is of health concern due to its hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects. However, the role of FB1 metabolites on the mechanism of the toxicity, the inhibition of the ceramide synthesis, is unknown. The aim of this study was to identify new fumonisin metabolites and to evaluate their cytotoxic potential. MS, molecular biology, and in vitro enzyme assays were used to investigate fumonisin metabolism in mammalian cells overexpressing human ceramide synthase (CerS) genes. N-acyl-FB1 derivatives were detected as new metabolites in cultured cells at levels of up to 10 pmol/mg of protein. The N-acylation of FB1 and hydrolyzed FB1 was analyzed in several cell lines, including cells overexpressing CerS. The acyl-chain length of the N-acyl fumonisins depends on the CerS isoform acylating them. The N-acyl fumonisins are more cytotoxic than the parent fumonisin B1. The identification of N-acyl fumonisins with various acyl chain lengths together with the observed cytotoxicity of these compounds is a new aspect of fumonisin-related toxicity. Therefore, these new metabolites might play an important role in the mode of action of fumonisins. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Deoxynivanelol and Fumonisin, Alone or in Combination, Induce Changes on Intestinal Junction Complexes and in E-Cadherin Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Basso

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Fusariotoxins such as fumonisin B1 (FB1 and deoxynivalenol (DON cause deleterious effects on the intestine of pigs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of these mycotoxins, alone and in combination, on jejunal explants from piglets, using histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural assays. Five 24-day old pigs were used for sampling the explants. Forty-eight explants were sampled from each animal. Explants were incubated for 4 hours in culture medium and medium containing FB1 (100 µM, DON (10 µM and both mycotoxins (100 µM FB1 plus 10 µM DON. Exposure to all treatments induced a significant decrease in the normal intestinal morphology and in the number of goblet cells, which were more severe in explants exposed to DON and both mycotoxins. A significant reduction in villus height occurred in groups treated with DON and with co-contamination. Expression of E-cadherin was significantly reduced in explants exposed to FB1 (40%, DON (93% and FB1 plus DON (100%. The ultrastructural assay showed increased intercellular spaces and no junction complexes on enterocytes exposed to mycotoxins. The present data indicate that FB1 and DON induce changes in cell junction complexes that could contribute to increase paracellular permeability. The ex vivo model was adequate for assessing intestinal toxicity induced by exposure of isolated or associated concentrations of 100 µM of FB1 and 10 µM of DON.

  16. [Advance in study on zearalenone's toxicity and determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing-Hua; Xu, Yang

    2005-07-01

    The article is intended to introduce the zearalenone's toxicity, determination methods and prevention. Zearalenone is one of the most widely distributed mycotoxins produces by Fusarium Species, it is harm to animals and human. And it can induce human liver cancer,carcinoma of tesis esophagus cancer. Now we use high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, thin layer chromatography, non-toxicity determinations to detect it.

  17. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Zearalenone-14-Sulfate, Zearalenone-14-Glucoside and Zearalenone-16-Glucoside Using Common Fungal Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Borzekowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEN and its phase II sulfate and glucoside metabolites have been detected in food and feed commodities. After consumption, the conjugates can be hydrolyzed by the human intestinal microbiota leading to liberation of ZEN that implies an underestimation of the true ZEN exposure. To include ZEN conjugates in routine analysis, reliable standards are needed, which are currently not available. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a facilitated biosynthesis of ZEN-14-sulfate, ZEN-14-glucoside and ZEN-16-glucoside. A metabolite screening was conducted by adding ZEN to liquid fungi cultures of known ZEN conjugating Aspergillus and Rhizopus strains. Cultivation conditions and ZEN incubation time were varied. All media samples were analyzed for metabolite formation by HPLC-MS/MS. In addition, a consecutive biosynthesis was developed by using Fusarium graminearum for ZEN biosynthesis with subsequent conjugation of the toxin by utilizing Aspergillus and Rhizopus species. ZEN-14-sulfate (yield: 49% is exclusively formed by Aspergillus oryzae. ZEN-14-glucoside (yield: 67% and ZEN-16-glucoside (yield: 39% are formed by Rhizopus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus, respectively. Purities of ≥73% ZEN-14-sulfate, ≥82% ZEN-14-glucoside and ≥50% ZEN-16-glucoside were obtained by 1H-NMR. In total, under optimized cultivation conditions, fungi can be easily utilized for a targeted and regioselective synthesis of ZEN conjugates.

  18. Chronic toxicity of fumonisins in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, D; Bailly, J-D; Skiba, F; Métayer, J-P; Grosjean, F; Guerre, P

    2007-09-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins that are found worldwide. They are mainly produced by Fusarium verticillioides during its development on corn. The main toxic effects of these molecules have been well characterized in poultry in the case of acute exposure, but the subclinical and economic effects of chronic exposure are less known. Whereas the latest European recommendations suggest that maximal levels of fumonisins in corn could reach 60 mg/kg and the maximal contamination of poultry feeds could reach 20 mg/kg, no study is available at this level in turkeys. The aim of the present work was thus to characterize the effects of exposure to fumonisins (concentrations of 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg of fumonisin B1 + fumonisin B2/kg of feed) on feed consumption and growth in turkeys over a period of 9 wk. Main biochemical parameters of the liver and alteration of sphingolipid metabolism were investigated in plasma, liver, and kidney. The main results showed no effect on feed consumption and growth in exposed turkeys. Moreover, no effect was observed on the weight of tissues and markers of liver injury. By contrast, a disruption of sphingolipid metabolism was clear at a level of exposure of 10 and 20 mg of fumonisin B1 + fumonisin B2 mg/kg of feed. Both hepatic and kidney concentrations of sphinganine increased gradually throughout the exposure period. These results reveal that disruption of sphingolipid metabolism is an early and sensitive biomarker of fumonisins exposure in turkeys; the consequences on these alterations remain to be established.

  19. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol in feed ingredients and complete feed from different Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study was carried out to provide a reference for monitory of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, zearalenone (ZEN and deoxynivalenol (DON contamination in feed ingredients and complete feeds were collected from different Province in China from 2013 to 2015. Methods A total of 443 feed ingredients, including 220 corn, 24 wheat, 24 domestic distillers dried grains with soluble (DDGS, 55 bran, 20 wheat shorts and red dog, 37 imported DDGS, 34 corn germ meal and 29 soybean meal as well as 127 complete feeds including 25 pig complete feed (powder, 90 pig complete feed (pellet, six duck complete feed and six cattle complete feed were randomly collected from different Province in China, respectively, by high-performance chromatography in combined with UV or fluorescence analysis. Results The incidence rates of AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds were 80.8, 92.3 and 93.9 %, respectively. The percentage of positive samples for DON ranged from 66.7 to 100 %. Domestic DDGS and imported DDGS presented the most serious contamination AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination levels of feeds ranged from 61.5 to 100 %, indicated that serious contamination over the studied 3-year period. Conclusion The current data provide clear evidence that AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds in different Province in China is serious and differs over past 3-year. The use of corn, domestic DDGS, imported DDGS and corn germ meal, which may be contaminated with these three mycotoxins, as animal feed may triggered a health risk for animal. Feeds are most contaminated with DON followed by ZEN and AFB1. Mycotoxins contamination in feed ingredients and complete feeds should be monitored routinely in China.

  20. Significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard

    Fumonisins is a well-studied group of mycotoxins, mainly produced in maize by Fusarium species. However with the recent discovery of a fumonisin production by Aspergillus niger, other food commodities are at risk, since A. niger is a ubiquitous contaminant of many food and feed products....... The objective of this thesis was to determine the significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger in food, the frequency of fumonisin production in A. niger isolates, as well as studies of the effect of physiological factors affecting fumonisin production. Major findings in this context have...... been the ocumentation of the production of fumonisins in raisins and peanuts, and occurrence of A. niger derived fumonisins in retail wine and raisins. Physiological investigations have demonstrated that fumonisin production in A. niger occurs at temperatures between 20-37 °C. Three water activity...

  1. Chronic Exposure to Deoxynivalenol Has No Influence on the Oral Bioavailability of Fumonisin B1 in Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonissen, Gunther; Devreese, Mathias; Van Immerseel, Filip; De Baere, Siegrid; Hessenberger, Sabine; Martel, An; Croubels, Siska

    2015-01-01

    Both deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are common contaminants of feed. Fumonisins (FBs) in general have a very limited oral bioavailability in healthy animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that chronic exposure to DON impairs the intestinal barrier function and integrity, by affecting the intestinal surface area and function of the tight junctions. This might influence the oral bioavailability of FB1, and possibly lead to altered toxicity of this mycotoxin. A toxicokinetic study was performed with two groups of 6 broiler chickens, which were all administered an oral bolus of 2.5 mg FBs/kg BW after three-week exposure to either uncontaminated feed (group 1) or feed contaminated with 3.12 mg DON/kg feed (group 2). No significant differences in toxicokinetic parameters of FB1 could be demonstrated between the groups. Also, no increased or decreased body exposure to FB1 was observed, since the relative oral bioavailability of FB1 after chronic DON exposure was 92.2%. PMID:25690690

  2. Assessment of human exposure to fumonisin B1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, M. de; Egmond, H.P. van; Nauta, M.; Rombouts, F.M.; Notermans, S.H.W.

    1998-01-01

    Fumonisin B1 is currently regarded as the most significant mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp. It has carcinogenic properties and may play a role in the etiology of human esophageal cancer. The human population is exposed to fumonisin B1 primarily by intake of fumonisin B1-contaminated maize. Maize

  3. Risk assessment of fumonisin B1 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; Speijers GJA; Paulsch WE; van Egmond HP; SIR; ARO

    2004-01-01

    Fumonisine B1 is een mycotoxine, dat kan worden gevormd door bepaalde Fusarium schimmels. Het toxine wordt vooral in mais (-producten) aangetroffen, maar het kan ook voorkomen in tarwe (-producten). De inname van fumonisine B1 in de Nederlandse populatie is geschat door fumonisine B1 concentraties

  4. Isolation and NMR Characterization of Fumonisin B-2 and a New Fumonisin B-6 from Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Klejnstrup, Marie Louise; Phipps, Richard Kerry

    2010-01-01

    A new fumonisin, fumonisin B-6 (1), has been isolated by cation-exchange and reverse-phase chromatography, together with fumonisin B-2 (2), from,stationary cultures of the fungus Aspergillus niger NRRL 326. Analysis of mass spectrometric and NMR data determined that FB6 is a positional isomer...

  5. Induction of apoptosis in cultured human proximal tubule cells by fumonisins and fumonisin metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seefelder, W; Humpf, H -U; Schwerdt, G; Freudinger, R; Gekle, M

    2003-10-15

    Fumonisin B{sub 1} (FB{sub 1}) causes apoptosis in a variety of cell types and tissues but the apoptotic potential of other fumonisins and fumonisin metabolites has not been determined and the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. In our studies we exposed human proximal tubule-derived cells (IHKE cells) to FB{sub 1}, fumonisin B{sub 2} (FB{sub 2}), fumonisin B{sub 3} (FB{sub 3}), hydrolyzed fumonisin B{sub 1} (HFB{sub 1}) and N-palmitoyl-hydrolyzed fumonisin B{sub 1} (N-Pal-HFB{sub 1}) and investigated caspase-3 activation, chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Exposure to 10 {mu}mol/L FB{sub 1} for 24 h led to a significant increase in caspase-3 activity, chromatin condensation and to DNA fragmentation. All other tested compounds did not show any significant activation of caspase-3 activity nor chromatin condensation and DNA-fragmentation. Furthermore, we examined if a sphinganine accumulation is correlated with an induction of apoptosis in IHKE cells. Therefore we used a liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry(LC/ESI-MS)-method using phytosphingosine as an internal standard to determine sphinganine and sphingosine concentrations in IHKE cells. Whereas a significant increase of sphinganine (up to 7000% compared to control cells) was observed with all fumonisin-derivates, sphingosine levels nearly remained unchanged indicating that all substrates inhibited ceramide synthase effectively. These results demonstrate that all compounds let to increased sphinganine levels in IHKE cells but only FB{sub 1} was able to induce apoptosis. We conclude that the inhibition of the ceramide synthase is not per se a predictor whether or not fumonisins induce apoptosis.

  6. Induction of apoptosis in cultured human proximal tubule cells by fumonisins and fumonisin metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seefelder, W.; Humpf, H.-U.; Schwerdt, G.; Freudinger, R.; Gekle, M.

    2003-01-01

    Fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) causes apoptosis in a variety of cell types and tissues but the apoptotic potential of other fumonisins and fumonisin metabolites has not been determined and the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. In our studies we exposed human proximal tubule-derived cells (IHKE cells) to FB 1 , fumonisin B 2 (FB 2 ), fumonisin B 3 (FB 3 ), hydrolyzed fumonisin B 1 (HFB 1 ) and N-palmitoyl-hydrolyzed fumonisin B 1 (N-Pal-HFB 1 ) and investigated caspase-3 activation, chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Exposure to 10 μmol/L FB 1 for 24 h led to a significant increase in caspase-3 activity, chromatin condensation and to DNA fragmentation. All other tested compounds did not show any significant activation of caspase-3 activity nor chromatin condensation and DNA-fragmentation. Furthermore, we examined if a sphinganine accumulation is correlated with an induction of apoptosis in IHKE cells. Therefore we used a liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry(LC/ESI-MS)-method using phytosphingosine as an internal standard to determine sphinganine and sphingosine concentrations in IHKE cells. Whereas a significant increase of sphinganine (up to 7000% compared to control cells) was observed with all fumonisin-derivates, sphingosine levels nearly remained unchanged indicating that all substrates inhibited ceramide synthase effectively. These results demonstrate that all compounds let to increased sphinganine levels in IHKE cells but only FB 1 was able to induce apoptosis. We conclude that the inhibition of the ceramide synthase is not per se a predictor whether or not fumonisins induce apoptosis

  7. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-Producing Fusarium Species and Reduction of the Fumonisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Johanna F; van Zyl, Willem H; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof, or clay minerals pre- and post-harvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Post-harvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although, the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, post-harvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) production, and storage management, together with

  8. Fumonisin contamination and fumonisin producing black Aspergilli in dried vine fruits of different origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, J; Kocsubé, S; Suri, K; Szigeti, Gy; Szekeres, A; Varga, M; Tóth, B; Bartók, T

    2010-10-15

    Aspergillus niger isolates are able to produce fumonisins in high quantities on agar media with a low water activity. Several agricultural products fit this criterion, including dried vine fruits, dates and figs. Data on the occurrence and role of this species in fumonisin contamination of agricultural products with high sugar content are needed to clarify the importance of A. niger in human health. The mycobiota and fumonisin contamination of various dried vine fruit samples collected from different countries were examined to clarify the role of black Aspergilli in fumonisin contamination of such products. All except two of the examined samples were contaminated with black Aspergilli. Species assignment of the isolates was carried out using sequence analysis of part of the calmodulin gene. The range of fumonisin isomers present in the raisins samples, and produced by A. niger isolates collected from dried vine fruits was also examined using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/ESI-ITMS). Among the 30 A. niger/A. awamori isolates identified, 20 were found to be able to produce fumonisins (average contamination: 5.16 mg/kg; range: 0.017-19.6 mg/kg). The average fumonisin content of the 7 dried vine fruit samples which were found to be contaminated by potential fumonisin producing black Aspergilli was 7.22 mg/kg (range: 4.55-35.49 mg/kg). The isolates produced several fumonisin isomers also present in the dried vine fruit samples, including fumonisins B(1-4), 3-epi-FB(3), 3-epi-FB(4), iso-FB(1), and two iso-FB(2,3) forms. Fumonisin B(1) was detected for the first time in A. niger cultures. Most of these isomers have previously only been identified in Fusarium species. Our data indicate that A. niger and A. awamori are responsible for fumonisin contamination of dried vine fruits worldwide. The observed levels of contamination are alarming and pose a new threat for food safety. Copyright

  9. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-producing Fusarium species and Reduction of the Fumonisins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Francina Alberts

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof or clay minerals pre- and postharvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Postharvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, postharvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP production and storage management

  10. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-Producing Fusarium Species and Reduction of the Fumonisins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Johanna F.; van Zyl, Willem H.; Gelderblom, Wentzel C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof, or clay minerals pre- and post-harvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Post-harvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although, the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, post-harvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) production, and storage management, together with

  11. The Effects of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on the Pig Large Intestine. A Light and Electron Microscopy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Przybylska-Gornowicz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of feed with mycotoxins results in reduced growth, feed refusal, immunosuppression, and health problems. Deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEN are among the most important mycotoxins. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of low doses of these mycotoxins on the histological structure and ultrastructure of the large intestine in the pig. The study was performed on 36 immature gilts of mixed breed (White Polish Big × Polish White Earhanging, which were divided into four groups administrated per os with ZEN at 40 µg/kg BW, DON at 12 µg/kg BW, a mixture of ZEN (40 µg/kg BW and DON (12 µg/kg BW or a placebo. The pigs were killed by intravenous overdose of pentobarbital after one, three, and six weeks of treatment. The cecum, ascending and descending colon samples were prepared for light and electron microscopy. Administration of toxins did not influence the architecture of the mucosa and submucosa in the large intestine. ZEN and ZEN + DON significantly decreased the number of goblet cells in the cecum and descending colon. The mycotoxins changed the number of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the large intestine, which usually increased in number. However, this effect differed between the intestine segments and toxins. Mycotoxins induced some changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium. They did not affect the expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen and the intestinal barrier permeability. The obtained results indicate that mycotoxins especially ZEN may influence the defense mechanisms of the large intestine.

  12. Variation in the fumonisin biosynthetic gene cluster in fumonisin-producing and nonproducing black aspergilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susca, Antonia; Proctor, Robert H; Butchko, Robert A E; Haidukowski, Miriam; Stea, Gaetano; Logrieco, Antonio; Moretti, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    The ability to produce fumonisin mycotoxins varies among members of the black aspergilli. Previously, analyses of selected genes in the fumonisin biosynthetic gene (fum) cluster in black aspergilli from California grapes indicated that fumonisin-nonproducing isolates of Aspergillus welwitschiae lack six fum genes, but nonproducing isolates of Aspergillus niger do not. In the current study, analyses of black aspergilli from grapes from the Mediterranean Basin indicate that the genomic context of the fum cluster is the same in isolates of A. niger and A. welwitschiae regardless of fumonisin-production ability and that full-length clusters occur in producing isolates of both species and nonproducing isolates of A. niger. In contrast, the cluster has undergone an eight-gene deletion in fumonisin-nonproducing isolates of A. welwitschiae. Phylogenetic analyses suggest each species consists of a mixed population of fumonisin-producing and nonproducing individuals, and that existence of both production phenotypes may provide a selective advantage to these species. Differences in gene content of fum cluster homologues and phylogenetic relationships of fum genes suggest that the mutation(s) responsible for the nonproduction phenotype differs, and therefore arose independently, in the two species. Partial fum cluster homologues were also identified in genome sequences of four other black Aspergillus species. Gene content of these partial clusters and phylogenetic relationships of fum sequences indicate that non-random partial deletion of the cluster has occurred multiple times among the species. This in turn suggests that an intact cluster and fumonisin production were once more widespread among black aspergilli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of mycotoxin zearalenone on the swine reproductive failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanov-Radulović Jasna Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive failure in swine is often a difficult diagnostic problem. If diagnoses of infectious disease or management related problems are not obtained, feed quality and safety may be questioned. Mycotoxins are often present in swine feed in the amount that can have detrimental impact on production and reproduction. Problems are expressed only as alterations of the reproductive cycle, reduced feed intake, slow growth or impaired feed efficiency. In Serbia, generally speaking, high concentrations of mycotoxins were noticed, especially mycotoxin zearalenone. High presence of zearalenone in swine feed is probably due to climatic influence and should be monitored constantly. This paper includes field observations regarding the influence of moldy feed containing mycotoxin zearalenone on the occurrence of the reproductive failure in swine breeding categories (sows, gilts and boars. The material for this research was obtained from four swine farms where certain reproductive disorders and health problems in breeding animals were detected. Depending on the specificity of each evaluated case and available material, the applied research methods included: anamnestic and clinical evaluation, pathomorphological examination, standard laboratory testing for detection of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and microbiological feed testing, in order to examine the presence of fungi and mycotoxins by applying the method of thin layer chromatography. On the basis of the obtained results, it could be concluded that mycotoxin zearalenone was detected in all examined feed samples. The presence of mycotoxin in feed was directly related to the reproductive failures in the examined swine categories (vulvovaginitis, endometritis, rebreeding, infertility. Swine reproduction represents the base for intensive swine production. The presence of mycotoxins in swine feed have influence on the reproduction and health status of pigs and under certain conditions may significantly

  14. Mechanistic Insight into the Biosynthesis and Detoxification of Fumonisin Mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Kevin M N; Renaud, Justin B; McDowell, Tim; Sumarah, Mark W

    2016-09-16

    Fumonisins, notably FB1, FB2, FB3, and FB4, are economically important mycotoxins produced by a number Fusarium sp. that occur on corn, rice, and sorghum as well as by Aspergillus sp. on grapes. The fumonisin scaffold is comprised of a C18 polyketide backbone functionalized with two tricarballylic esters and an alanine derived amine. These functional groups contribute to fumonisin's ability to inhibit sphingolipid biosynthesis in animals, plants, and yeasts. We report for the first time the isolation and structure elucidation of two classes of nonaminated fumonisins (FPy and FLa) produced by Aspergillus welwitschiae. Using a Lemna minor (duckweed) bioassay, these new compounds were significantly less toxic in comparison to the fumonisin B mycotoxins, providing new insight into the mechanism of fumonisin toxicity. Time course fermentations monitoring the production of FB4, FPy4, and FLa4, as well as (13)C and (15)N stable isotope incorporation, suggest a novel postbiosynthetic oxidative deamination process for fumonisins. This pathway was further supported by a feeding study with FB1, a fumonisin not produced by Aspergillus sp., which resulted in its transformation to FPy1. This study demonstrates that Aspergillus have the ability to produce enzymes that could be used for fumonisin detoxification.

  15. Effects of deoxynivalenol- and zearalenone-contaminated feed on the gene expression profiles in the kidneys of piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondreddy Eswar Reddy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEN, common contaminants in the feed of farm animals, cause immune function impairment and organ inflammation. Consequently, the main objective of this study was to elucidate DON and ZEN effects on the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other immune related genes in the kidneys of piglets. Methods Fifteen 6-week-old piglets were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments for 4 weeks: control diet, and diets contaminated with either 8 mg DON/kg feed or 0.8 mg ZEN/kg feed. Kidney samples were collected after treatment, and RNA-seq was used to investigate the effects on immune-related genes and gene networks. Results A total of 186 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were screened (120 upregulated and 66 downregulated. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the immune response, and cellular and metabolic processes were significantly controlled by these DEGs. The inflammatory stimulation might be an effect of the following enriched Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathway analysis found related to immune and disease responses: cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, chemokine signaling pathway, toll-like receptor signaling pathway, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, tuberculosis, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and chemical carcinogenesis. The effects of DON and ZEN on genome-wide expression were assessed, and it was found that the DEGs associated with inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 receptor, beta, chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 9, CXCL10, chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 4, proliferation (insulin like growth factor binding protein 4, IgG heavy chain, receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase C, cytochrome P450 1A1, ATP-binding cassette sub-family 8, and other immune response networks (lysozyme, complement component 4 binding protein alpha, oligoadenylate synthetase 2, signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-9, α-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase

  16. Analysis of the photophysical properties of zearalenone using density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intrinsic photophysical properties of the resorcylic acid moiety of zearalenone offer a convenient label free method to determine zearalenone levels in contaminated agricultural products. Density functional theory and steady-state fluorescence methods were applied to investigate the role of stru...

  17. Risk assessment of fumonisin B1 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; Speijers GJA; Paulsch WE; Egmond HP van; SIR; ARO

    2004-01-01

    Fumonisin B1 is a mycotoxin that can be produced by certain Fusarium species. The toxin is found, in particular, in maize and maize products, but occurrence in boeth wheat and wheat products, and rice and rice products, has also been reported. The intake of fumonisin B1 by the population in the

  18. Screening and Initial Binding Assessment of Fumonisin B1 Aptamers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. DeRosa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum, fungi that are ubiquitous in corn (maize. Insect damage and some other environmental conditions result in the accumulation of fumonisins in corn-based products worldwide. Current methods of fumonisin detection rely on the use of immunoaffinity columns and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The use of aptamers offers a good alternative to the use of antibodies in fumonisin cleanup and detection due to lower costs and improved stability. Aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides that are selected using Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX for their ability to bind to targets with high affinity and specificity. Sequences obtained after 18 rounds of SELEX were screened for their ability to bind to fumonisin B1. Six unique sequences were obtained, each showing improved binding to fumonisin B1 compared to controls. Sequence FB1 39 binds to fumonisin with a dissociation constant of 100 ± 30 nM and shows potential for use in fumonisin biosensors and solid phase extraction columns.

  19. OECD 28-days oral toxicity study on fumonisin B1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs M de; Egmond HP van; Jong WH de; Loveren H van; LPI; ARO; MGB

    1999-01-01

    Het beschreven experiment werd uitgevoerd om inzicht te verkrijgen over effecten van lage doseringen fumonisine B1 op target organen en het immuunsysteem. Mannelijke ratten van drie weken oud werden oraal via maagsonde behandeld met 0, 0,19, 0,75 of 3 mg/kg lichaamsgewicht fumonisine B1,

  20. Reduction of Fumonisin Toxicity by Extrusion and Nixtamalization (Alkaline Cooking)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumonisins are found in corn. They are toxic to animals, cause cancer in rodents, and neural tube defects in LM/Bc mice. Reducing their concentrations in corn-based foods is therefore desirable. Chemical analysis or in vitro bioassays of food extracts might not detect toxic fumonisin reaction pro...

  1. Zearalenone detoxification by zearalenone hydrolase is important for the antagonistic ability of Clonostachys rosea against mycotoxigenic Fusarium graminearum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosawang, Chatchai; Karlsson, Magnus; Vélëz, Heriberto

    2014-01-01

    The fungus Clonostachys rosea is antagonistic against plant pathogens, including Fusarium graminearum, which produces the oestrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA). ZEA inhibits other fungi, and C. rosea can detoxify ZEA through the enzyme zearalenone lactonohydrolase (ZHD101). As the relevance...... wheat seedlings against foot rot caused by the ZEA-producing F. graminearum. These data show that ZEA detoxification by ZHD101 is important for the biocontrol ability of C. rosea against F. graminearum....

  2. Fumonisins in Aspergillus niger: Industrial and food aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Mogensen, Jesper

    Introduction: Fumonisins are toxic seconday metabolites from Fusarium verticillioides and other Fusaria, from Tolypocladium and Aspergillus niger 1,2. Being a generalist Aspergillus niger is the workhorse in a very large number of industrial applications, and is also a common contaminant in foods....... Fumonisin production by A. niger is depending on temperature and water activity, but is produced mostly on substrates with high maounts of sugar or salt 1,3,4. We wanted to find out whether industrial strains could produce fumonisins in worst case scenarios and if fumonisin production was only a feature...... ever used in biotechnology could produce fuminisins B2, B4 & B6. The strains could be subdivided into two clades (representing A. niger and the “phylospecies” A. awamori), and there were fumonisin producers in both clades. Ochratoxin A was also produced by strains in both clades, but only...

  3. Widespread Occurrence of the Mycotoxin Fumonisin B-2 in Wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2010-01-01

    Fumonisins are important mycotoxins because they are suspected to cause human and animal toxicoses by the consumption of contaminated corn-based food and feeds. However, with the discovery of fumonisin production in grapes by Aspergillus niger, wine may also be a fumonisin-containing commodity....... In the present study, we have developed a simple and quantitative cation-exchange-based purification method for the subsequent isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of fumonisins in wine. A comparative study of seven different solid-phase extraction (SPE......) columns showed that polymeric mixed-mode reversed-phase (RP) cation-exchange columns were superior to classic silica-based cation and mixed-mode cation-exchange columns. A total of 77 wine samples from 13 countries were subsequently tested, and surprisingly, 18 (23%) were found to contain fumonisin B-2...

  4. Multiplex PCR analysis of fumonisin biosynthetic genes in fumonisin-nonproducing Aspergillus niger and A. awamori strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to determine the genetic basis for loss of fumonisin B¬2 (FB2) biosynthesis in FB2 non-producing A. niger strains, we developed multiplex PCR primer sets to amplify fragments of eight fumonisin biosynthetic pathway (fum) genes. Fragments of all eight fum genes were amplified in FB2-produci...

  5. Metabolism of Zearalenone in the Course of Beer Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mizutani, Kohei; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZON) is a mycotoxin with estrogenic activity, produced by members of Fusarium species, and is found worldwide in a number of cereal crops. It is known to have four active metabolites (a-zearalenol (a-ZOL), b-zearalenol (b-ZOL), a-zearalanol (a-ZAL), and b-zearalanol (b-ZAL)). A highly sensitive analytical method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS/MS) has been established and validated in order to analyze ZON and its metab...

  6. [Analysis on contamination of zearalenone and dietary exposure assessment in food samples of Shaanxi Province in 2013-2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiawei; Wang, Caixia; Tian, Li; Wang, Minjuan; Guo, Rong; Qiao, Haiou

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the contamination of zearalenone in food in Shaanxi Province, and to assess the dietary zearalenone exposure and the health risk of intaking zearalenone from corn products for Shaanxi residents. In 2013-2016, samples of five kinds of food including grains, vegetable oil, liquor and infants' food were collected randomly from ten cities, and determined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Dietary intake assessment of human exposure to zearalenone was carried out in combination of food consumption data with concentration of zearalenone. 1193 samples were detected zearalenone and the total detection rate was 17. 27%, with the mean value of 13. 5 μg/kg. Among all food samples, oil products were more seriously polluted than other kinds of foods, its detection rate was 79. 37%. And 12 samples of grain products exceed the standard, the exceeding standard rate was 1. 64%, which were all corn products. The level of zearalenone detected in wheat flour, rice, millet, beer and bakery products was low. The overall level of zearalenone contamination inmarket food is common, but corn products may be the severely contaminated foods with zearalenone in Shaanxi Province. The risk assessmentresult suggests that the current dietary intake of zearalenone from corn products in Shaanxi Province has no appreciable effect on health, however, the concentrations of zearalenone in corn products are relatively high, and need to be monitored in the future.

  7. Extraction and analysis of fumonisins and compounds indicative of fumonisin exposure in plant and mammalian tissues and cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitomer, Nicholas C; Riley, Ronald T

    2011-01-01

    Fumonisin mycotoxins are common contaminants in many grains, often at very low levels. Maize is -particularly problematic as one of the organisms that commonly produce fumonisins, the fungus Fusarium verticillioides, often exists as an endophyte of maize. Fumonisin is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme ceramide synthase, and this inhibition results in the accumulation of a variety of upstream compounds, most notably, the sphingoid bases sphingosine, sphinganine, 1-deoxysphinganine and, in plants, phytosphingosine. Fumonisin exposure results in a wide variety of species, sex, and strain-specific responses. This method provides a relatively fast means of extracting fumonisins, sphingoid bases, and sphingoid base 1-phosphates from tissues and cells, as well as the subsequent analyses and quantification of these compounds using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

  8. Determination of Zearalenone concenteration in wheat, Oat and Maize breads in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rahimi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone is a mycotoxin that poses a risk to human health due to its oestrogenic, immunotoxigenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects. This study was undertaken to determine the concentration of zearolenone in different types of bread consumed in Isfahan. In a descriptive study, a total of 60 samples consisting of wheat, oat and maize breads was obtained from Isfahan retails from October 2011 to December 2012. Using ELISA method the samples were surveyed for the presence of zearalenone. According to the results, concentration of zearalenone in positive samples ranged between 0.35 and 45.38 ng/g. Moreover, the mean and standard deviation of zearalenone concentration in wheat, oat and maize breads were estimated as 3.94 ± 6.21, 8.52 ±12.81 and 9.53 ±10.35 ng/g, respectively. Any positive sample contained zearalenone concentration more than the maximum level of 50 ng/g set by the European Regulation for zearalenone in cereals and bread. However, it is essential to continuously monitor the zearalenone contamination level in cereals and particularly in wheat.

  9. Risk assessment of fumonisin B1 in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker MI; Speijers GJA; Paulsch WE; van Egmond HP; SIR; ARO

    2004-01-01

    Fumonisin B1 is a mycotoxin that can be produced by certain Fusarium species. The toxin is found, in particular, in maize and maize products, but occurrence in boeth wheat and wheat products, and rice and rice products, has also been reported. The intake of fumonisin B1 by the population in the Netherlands was estimated in an exposure assessment using data on concentrations of fumonisin B1 in different food products combined with the consumption rate of these products. From the (limited) resu...

  10. Effects of irradiation on fungi and fumonisin B(1) in corn, and of microwave-popping on fumonisins in popcorn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ovidio, K L; Trucksess, M W; Devries, J W; Bean, G

    2007-07-01

    Fumonisins are metabolites produced in corn primarily by the fungus Fusarium verticillioides (F. moniliforme) and are toxic to humans and animals. Fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) is the primary fumonisin produced and is found frequently in corn kernels, some of which may be used as food or food ingredients. A three-part study was conducted to determine the effects of gamma- and electron beam irradiation on the levels of fumonisins in naturally contaminated field corn, and the effects of microwave-popping on fumonisins in selected, naturally contaminated popcorn. To date, no effective means have been found to reduce consistently mycotoxin levels once foods are contaminated. Aqueous solutions of FB(1) at various concentrations, samples of whole corn, and samples of ground corn containing known levels of FB(1) were irradiated with various levels of cobalt and electron beam irradiation. Popcorn samples, taken from the reject streams of popcorn processing, were popped using normal microwave-popping conditions. FB(1) in aqueous solutions was reduced by 99.7% using a minimal level of irradiation (0.5 kGray). Gamma- and electron beam irradiation did not significantly reduce levels of FB(1) in whole and ground corn. Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. and Fusarium sp. fungi were totally eliminated at 30 kGray in ground corn and at 100 kGray in whole corn. The normal commercial cleaning processes for microwave popcorn before packaging reduced fumonisins to fumonisins resulted in significant reduction of the mould toxin.

  11. Aluminosilikat Berpotensi Menekan Gangguan Reproduksi Mikotoksin Zearalenon Berdasarkan Pengamatan Jumlah Folikel dan Ekspresi Caspase-9 Ovarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Thohawi Elziyad Purnama

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone is a resorcylic acid lactone produced by fungal Fusarium graminearum in contaminated edible grains and can cause reproduction disorder in animals by binding to estrogen receptors on target cells. The aim of this study was to assess the potential use of aluminosilicates as mycotoxin binders to eliminate the adverse effect of zearalenone by examining the number of follicles and caspase-9 expression in the ovary of mice. The study adopted a completely randomized simple design using 20 mices which were randomly divided into five group each of which consisted of four mices. Five treatment groups consisted of K+ (without zearalenone and aluminosilicates; K- (treated with zearalenone 0.1 mg/mice/day; P1 (treated with zearalenone 0.1 mg/mice/day and aluminosilicates 0.5 mg/mice/day; P2 (treated with zearalenone 0.1 mg/mice/day and aluminosilicates 1 mg/mice/day; and P3 were treated with zearalenone 0,1 mg/mice/day and aluminosilicates 2 mg/mice/day with gastric tube daily for 10 days. The data obtained from this study were analyzed by analysis of variance and proceeded with Duncan test. The result showed that the primary follicles, secondary follicles, tertiary follicles and de Graaf follicles increased significantly on P3 treatment group. Caspase-9 expressions decreased significantly in all of aluminosilicates groups as compared to positive control. The treatment of mice with zearalenone and aluminosilicates increases the number of follicles and decreased caspase-9 expression in the ovary of mice. ABSTRAK Zearalenon merupakan senyawa resorcylic acid lactone yang diproduksi oleh jamur Fusarium graminearum dan dapat mengakibatkan gangguan reproduksi pada ternak dengan membentuk ikatan pada reseptor estrogen. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji potensi aluminosilikat terhadap mencit yang telah dipapar zearalenon pada aspek jumlah folikel dan ekspresi caspase-9 organ ovarium. Penelitian ini menggunakan 20 ekor mencit yang dibagi menjadi lima

  12. Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Thrane, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were...... examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B(2), B(4), and B(6)) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83......%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also...

  13. Assessment of pre-harvest aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of pre-harvest aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize in Babati District, Tanzania. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... As well as participating in a development program, Africa Research in ...

  14. Aflatoxins and fumonisin contamination of marketed maize, maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxins and fumonisin contamination of marketed maize, maize bran and maize used as animal feed in northern ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development.

  15. Effect of the bread-making process on zearalenone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Sara; Milani, Jafar; Nazari, Seyed Saman Seyed Jafar

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the bread-making process including fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum) and baking at 200°C on zearalenone (ZEA) levels were investigated. Standard solutions of ZEA were added to flour and then loaves of bread were prepared. Sourdough and three types of yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast were used for the fermentation of dough. ZEA levels in flour, dough and bread were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection after extraction and clean-up on an immunoaffinity column. The highest reduction in levels of ZEA was found in the first fermentation (first proof), while the lowest reduction was observed in the baking stage. In addition, the results showed that compressed yeast had the maximum reduction potential on ZEA levels even at the baking stage.

  16. Reduction of Fumonisin Toxicity by Extrusion and Nixtamalization (Alkaline Cooking).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Kenneth; Ryu, Dojin; Jackson, Lauren; Riley, Ronald; Gelineau-van Waes, Janee

    2017-08-23

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins found in corn. They are toxic to animals and cause cancer in rodents and neural tube defects in LM/Bc mice. Reducing their concentrations in corn-based foods is therefore desirable. Chemical analysis or in vitro bioassays of food extracts might not detect toxic fumonisin reaction products that are unknown or unextractable from food matrices, thus potentially underestimating in vivo toxicity. The effectiveness of two common cooking methods, extrusion and nixtamalization (alkaline cooking), to reduce the toxicity of fumonisin-contaminated corn grits (extrusion) and whole kernel corn (nixtamalization) was shown by means of rat feeding bioassays using fumonisin-specific kidney effects as indicators of potential toxicity. A third bioassay showed that in contrast to fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ), hydrolyzed fumonisin B 1 (HFB 1 ; formed from FB 1 during nixtamalization) did not cause neural tube defects in LM/Bc mice. The findings indicate that extrusion and nixtamalization reduce the potential toxicity of FB 1 -contaminated corn.

  17. The determination of zearalenone levels in wheat flour of bakeries in Khorramabad city by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gholamreza Houshmand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Zearalenone is an estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several Fusarium species and is of particular interest because of its widespread occurrence and strong estrogenic effects. Wheat and its flour is amongst the most important food and feeds sources that may become contaminated with zearalenone. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the zearalenone concentration in wheat flour. Materials and Methods: After extraction of zearalenone from wheat flour samples with extraction solvent acetonitrile - water, toxin purification step was conducted using immunoaffinity columns. Samples were analyzed by HPLC using C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm ID, 5µm with a fluorescence detector, mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (3:2 v/v at flow rate of 1ml/min. Results: Results of the study showed that the level of found zearalenone in 5% of the samples was higher than maximum level of 200 μg/kg. The mean concentration of zearalenone in samples was 54 µg/kg. LOD and LOQ of this method were 3.5 and 10 ng/g respectively. Conclusion: Although the mean concentration of zearalenone in investigated wheat flour samples was lower than the maximum level recommended by the Codex Alimentations, but high incidence of zearalenone in these samples indicates the need for improving storage conditions in order to reduce the incidence and level of zearalenone contamination in samples

  18. Mycotoxin analysis of industrial beers from Brazil: The influence of fumonisin B1 and deoxynivalenol in beer quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, Karim C; Rocha, Liliana O; Fontes, Lívia C; Carnielli, Lorena; Reis, Tatiana A; Corrêa, Benedito

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide, barley is the main source of carbohydrate in the brewing process. However, corn is often used as an adjunct to improve and accelerate the fermentation process. Considering that, these two substrates are susceptible to fungal contamination as well as mycotoxins. The objective of the current study is to determine the incidence of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) in industrial beers. The method applied for mycotoxin analyses included high performance liquid chromatography . The mean levels for recovery experiments were 89.6% for DON and 93.3% for FB 1 . DON was not detected in any of the analyzed samples whereas FB 1 was found in 49% of the 114 samples. The current survey demonstrated levels of FB 1 contamination in industrial beer, possibly due to the addition of contaminated adjuncts. It is necessary to establish maximum levels of mycotoxins in beer in Brazil and other countries in order to reduce health risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reducing production of fumonisin mycotoxins in Fusarium verticillioides by RNA interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Fusarium verticillioides (Fv) is a maize pathogen that can produce fumonisin mycotoxins in ears under certain environmental conditions. Because fumonisins pose health risks to humans and livestock, control strategies with minimal risk to the environment are needed to reduce fumonisin cont...

  20. A bioassay approach for determining the effect of cooking on fumonisin toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumonisins are considered potential risk factors for cancer and congenital malformations known as neural tube defects (NTD) in populations that consume maize as a diet staple. Cooking variably reduces fumonisin concentrations. However, fumonisin concentrations and potential toxicity of foods might b...

  1. Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Thrane, Ulf; Meijer, Martin; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A.; Nielsen, Kristian F.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B2, B4, and B6) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins. PMID:21853139

  2. Determination of zearalenone content in cereals and feedstuffs by immunoaffinity column coupled with liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazekas, B; Tar, A

    2001-01-01

    The zearalenone content of maize, wheat, barley, swine feed, and poultry feed samples was determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup followed by liquid chromatography (IAC-LC). Samples were extracted in methanol-water (8 + 2, v/v) solution. The filtered extract was diluted with distilled water and applied to immunoaffinity columns. Zearalenone was eluted with methanol, dried by evaporation, and dissolved in acetonitrile-water (3 + 7, v/v). Zearalenone was separated by isocratic elution of acetonitrile-water (50 + 50, v/v) on reversed-phase C18 column. The quantitative analysis was performed by fluorescence detector and confirmation was based on the UV spectrum obtained by a diode array detector. The mean recovery rate of zearalenone was 82-97% (RSD, 1.4-4.1%) on the original (single-use) immunoaffinity columns. The limit of detection of zearalenone by fluorescence was 10 ng/g at a signal-to-noise ratio of 10:1 and 30 ng/g by spectral confirmation in UV. A good correlation was found (R2 = 0.89) between the results obtained by IAC-LC and by the official AOAC-LC method. The specificity of the method was increased by using fluorescence detection in parallel with UV detection. This method was applicable to the determination of zearalenone content in cereals and other kinds of feedstuffs. Reusability of immunoaffinity columns was examined by washing with water after sample elution and allowing columns to stand for 24 h at room temperature. The zearalenone recovery rate of the regenerated columns varied between 79 and 95% (RSD, 3.2-6.3%). Columns can be regenerated at least 3 times without altering their performance and without affecting the results of repeated determinations.

  3. Detection of Fumonisins in Fresh and Dehydrated Commercial Garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonti, Stefano; Mandrioli, Mara; Nipoti, Paola; Pisi, Annamaria; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Prodi, Antonio

    2017-08-16

    An epidemic fungal disease caused by Fusarium proliferatum, responsible for fumonisin production (FB1, FB2, and FB3), has been reported in the main garlic-producing countries in recent years. Fumonisins are a group of structurally related toxic metabolites produced by this pathogen. The aim of this work was to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure, mostly applied to cereals, that is suitable for fumonisin detection in garlic and compare these results to those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and screening of fresh and dehydrated garlic for toxicological risk. The results show good correlation between the two analytical methods. In fresh symptomatic garlic, fumonisin levels were higher in the basal plates than those in the portions with necrotic spots. Among the 56 commercially dehydrated garlic samples screened, three were positive by ELISA test and only one was above the limit of quantitation. The same samples analyzed by HPLC showed the presence of FB1 in trace amounts that was below the limit of quantitation; FB2 and FB3 were absent. The results are reassuring, because no substantial contamination by fumonisins was found in commercial garlic.

  4. PRELIMINARY DATA ON FUMONISINS PRESENCE IN PIG LIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pagliuca

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are heterogeneous chemical compounds characterized by a low molecular weight and synthesized by the secondary metabolism of different molds. Fumonisins are water-soluble mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species spoiling corn and derived products. These mycotoxins can enter the food chain also through the consumption of meat of exposed animals. Fumonisins and their metabolites have been associated with several animal and human diseases. They are suspected risk factors for esophageal and liver cancers, neural tube defects and cardiovascular problems. Improved methods are needed to accurately assess fumonisin concentrations in food from vegetable and animal origin to prevent acute and chronic human exposure. The aim of the present work was to develop a sensitive and selective method for quantification and unambiguous identification of fumonisin B1 (FB1, fumonisin B2 (FB2 and their complete hydrolyzed products (HFB1 and HFB2, in order to determine their presence in pig liver. Furthermore, the developed method was applied, in order to test its efficacy, on liver samples of weaned piglets fed a diet in compliance with the FB1 and FB2 contamination limits set by EU. All the samples showed the presence of at least one of the analytes. In particular FB1 was found in 5 out of 7 samples and the average level of contamination found was 28 ppb.

  5. Fate of Fumonisin B1 in Naturally Contaminated Corn during Ethanol Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Bothast, R. J.; Bennett, G. A.; Vancauwenberge, J. E.; Richard, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Two lots of corn naturally contaminated with fumonisin B1 (15 and 36 ppm) and a control lot (no fumonisin B1 detected) were used as substrates for ethanol production in replicate 8.5-liter yeast fermentations. Ethanol yields were 8.8% for both the control and low-fumonisin corn, while the high-fumonisin corn contained less starch and produced 7.2% ethanol. Little degradation of fumonisin occurred during fermentation, and most was recovered in the distillers' grains, thin stillage, and distill...

  6. Metabolism of Zearalenone in the Course of Beer Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Mochizuki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZON is a mycotoxin with estrogenic activity, produced by members of Fusarium species, and is found worldwide in a number of cereal crops. It is known to have four active metabolites (a-zearalenol (a-ZOL, b-zearalenol (b-ZOL, a-zearalanol (a-ZAL, and b-zearalanol (b-ZAL. A highly sensitive analytical method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS/MS has been established and validated in order to analyze ZON and its metabolites in beer and malt samples. The metabolism of ZON in the course of beer fermentation was further characterized using the artificially contaminated wort by this established method. In the fermented sample, 85.9% of ZON was converted to b-ZOL, which has lower estrogenic activity than that of ZON. These findings indicate that the health risk to humans due to ZON in beer is reduced during the fermentation process.

  7. [Impact of zearalenone on male fertility: An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jian; Cao, Quan-Fu; Sun, Zhong-Yi

    2016-11-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a nonsteroidal estrogen-like mycotoxin widely distributed in maize, wheat, rice and other cereals with its derivants. It also presents in meat or dairy products or even in the aquatic ecosystem via rain, and thus can affect human health. ZEA affects the body function in various ways. On the one hand, it can disturb the synthesis of estrogen and its combination with the receptor, influence the reproductive ability via the estrogen signaling pathway, and cause the dysfunction of the reproductive systems. On the other hand, it can disturb the synthesis of DNA and proteins and result in lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity by inducing the apoptosis of germ cells. It is known that exposure to different doses of ZEA can affect the female reproductive system by increasing the apoptosis of germ cells and inducing germ cell prematurity, sexual precocity, endocrine disorder, reproductive cycle disorder, and so on. But studies of its influence on the male reproductive system are relatively rare, especially about its unique male-related action mechanisms. This review presents an overview of the studies on the mechanisms of ZEA affecting male fertility and the phenotype changes in the male reproductive system after exposure to ZEA, hoping to provide some new ideas for the protection of human fertility.

  8. Immunomodulation by Zearalenone in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Pietsch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN is a frequent contaminant of animal feeds, but its effects on fish have not yet been investigated extensively. In order to fill this gap a feeding trial with juvenile carp was conducted. Three groups of fish were fed feeds contaminated with ZEN at three concentrations (low: 332 μg kg−1, medium: 621 μg kg−1, and high: 797 μg kg−1 feed for four weeks. Possible reversible effects of ZEN were evaluated by feeding additional groups with the ZEN-contaminated feeds for four weeks, followed by the uncontaminated diet for two weeks. Immune function of isolated leukocytes from head kidney and trunk kidney was assessed using the assessment of NO production, the respiratory burst assay, the chemiluminescence assay, and the measurement of arginase activities. These investigations frequently revealed increased immune responses after exposure of fish to low ZEN concentrations and reduced immune responses after exposure to high mycotoxin concentrations. Moreover, the feeding of the uncontaminated diet for further two weeks did not improve the immune responses in most cases. These results indicate that cellular immune functions in ZEN-contaminated carp are influenced which may be relevant for fish health in aquaculture.

  9. Degradation of Zearalenone by Essential Oils under In vitro Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczak, Adam; Juś, Krzysztof; Marchwińska, Katarzyna; Gwiazdowska, Daniela; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Goliński, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils are volatile compounds, extracted from plants, which have a strong odor. These compounds are known for their antibacterial and antifungal properties. However, data concerning degradation of mycotoxins by these metabolites are very limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of essential oils (cedarwood, cinnamon leaf, cinnamon bark, white grapefruit, pink grapefruit, lemon, eucalyptus, palmarosa, mint, thymic, and rosemary) on zearalenone (ZEA) reduction under various in vitro conditions, including the influence of temperature, pH, incubation time and mycotoxin and essential oil concentrations. The degree of ZEA reduction was determined by HPLC method. It was found that the kind of essential oil influences the effectiveness of toxin level reduction, the highest being observed for lemon, grapefruit, eucalyptus and palmarosa oils, while lavender, thymic and rosemary oils did not degrade the toxin. In addition, the decrease in ZEA content was temperature, pH as well as toxin and essential oil concentration dependent. Generally, higher reduction was observed at higher temperature in a wide range of pH, with clear evidence that the degradation rate increased gradually with time. In some combinations (e.g., palmarosa oil at pH 6 and 4 or 20°C) a toxin degradation rate higher than 99% was observed. It was concluded that some of the tested essential oils may be effective in detoxification of ZEA. We suggested that essential oils should be recognized as an interesting and effective means of ZEA decontamination and/or detoxification. PMID:27563298

  10. Production of Fumonisin B-2 and B-4 by Aspergillus niger on Grapes and Raisins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Thrane, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    The recent discovery of fumonisin production in Aspergillus niger, raises concerns about the presence of these mycotoxins in grapes and raisins as well as other commodities where A. niger is a frequent contaminant. Here we investigate the potential production of fumonisins in A. niger cultured...... on grapes and raisins. Sixty-six A. niger, 4 A. tubingensis, and 16 A. acidus strains isolated from raisins were tested for fumonisin production on laboratory media. Neither A. tubingensis nor A. acidus strains produced fumonisins, but 77% of A. niger strains did. None of the strains produced ochratoxin A....... Ten selected fumonisin producing A. niger strains were further able to produce fumonisin B2 and fumonisin B4 on grapes in the range 171−7841 μg fumonisin B2/kg and 14−1157 μg fumonisin B4/kg. Four selected strains were able to produce fumonisin B2 (5−6476 μg/kg) and fumonisin B4 (12−672 μg...

  11. Production of carbon 14-labeled fumonisin in liquid culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell, B. A.; Miller, J. D.; Savard, M. E.

    1994-03-15

    Currently, fumonisin B{sub 1} is obtained primarily by using solid culture methods. Although fumonisin B{sub 1} concentrations obtained in solid culture are typically quite high, subsequent extraction and purification present problems. In addition, current methods utilize complex media which makes analysis of biosynthetic pathways and control mechanisms difficult. Liquid culture methods of production could eliminate many problems associated with production in solid culture. However, in the past, concentrations obtained in liquid culture have been relatively low. In this work, factors affecting the production of fumonisin B{sub 1} from a shake flask scale of 100 ml to a fermenter scale of 100 liters were examined. Best results were obtained by using a fed batch method that is nitrogen limited, with pH control. With this method, concentrations in excess of 1000 ppm can be obtained. (author)

  12. Production of carbon 14-labeled fumonisin in liquid culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, B.A.; Miller, J.D.; Savard, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    Currently, fumonisin B 1 is obtained primarily by using solid culture methods. Although fumonisin B 1 concentrations obtained in solid culture are typically quite high, subsequent extraction and purification present problems. In addition, current methods utilize complex media which makes analysis of biosynthetic pathways and control mechanisms difficult. Liquid culture methods of production could eliminate many problems associated with production in solid culture. However, in the past, concentrations obtained in liquid culture have been relatively low. In this work, factors affecting the production of fumonisin B 1 from a shake flask scale of 100 ml to a fermenter scale of 100 liters were examined. Best results were obtained by using a fed batch method that is nitrogen limited, with pH control. With this method, concentrations in excess of 1000 ppm can be obtained. (author)

  13. Fumonisins B, A and C profile and masking in Fusarium verticillioides strains on fumonisin-inducing and maize-based media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, Irene; Falavigna, Claudia; Dall'asta, Chiara; Proctor, Robert H; Galaverna, Gianni; Battilani, Paola

    2012-10-01

    The production of fumonisin B, A and C and hidden and partially hydrolysed fumonisin occurrence was investigated in 3 strains of Fusarium verticillioides isolated from maize, cultured for 21-45days on malt extract medium at 25°C and 0.955-0.990 water activity (a(w)). Fumonisin A-B and C series were produced by all the strains in all conditions studied, with B-fumonisin≫C-fumonisin>A-fumonisin following a similar trend. The dynamic of fumonisin production was significantly influenced by factors considered and their interaction, with a(w)=0.990 as favourable condition in ITEM 10026 and ITEM 10027. All fumonisins were maximised at 30days incubation in ITEM 10027 and ITEM 1744 and at 45days incubation in ITEM 10026. Partially hydrolysed fumonisins were detected only for the B-group. Hidden fumonisins were never observed in Fusarium cultures grown on malt extract medium but were detected in the additional trial on maize-based medium, suggesting that the masking phenomenon can occur only in a complex matrix. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolism of Zearalenone and Its Major Modified Forms in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina B. Binder

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Fusarium mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN can be conjugated with polar molecules, like sugars or sulfates, by plants and fungi. To date, the fate of these modified forms of ZEN has not yet been elucidated in animals. In order to investigate whether ZEN conjugates contribute to the total ZEN exposure of an individual, ZEN (10 µg/kg b.w. and equimolar amounts of two of its plant metabolites (ZEN-14-O-β-glucoside, ZEN-16-O-β-glucoside and of one fungal metabolite (ZEN-14-sulfate were orally administered to four pigs as a single bolus using a repeated measures design. The concentrations of ZEN, its modified forms and its mammalian metabolites ZEN-14-glucuronide, α-zearalenol (α-ZEL and α-ZEL-14-glucuronide in excreta were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS based methods. The biological recovery of ZEN in urine was 26% ± 10%, the total biological recovery in excreta was 40% ± 8%. Intact ZEN-14-sulfate, ZEN-14-O-β-glucoside and ZEN-16-O-β-glucoside were neither detected in urine nor in feces. After ZEN-14-sulfate application, 19% ± 5% of the administered dose was recovered in urine. In feces, no ZEN metabolites were detected. The total biological recoveries of ZEN-14-O-β-glucoside and ZEN-16-O-β-glucoside in the form of their metabolites in urine were 19% ± 11% and 13% ± 7%, respectively. The total biological recoveries in urine and feces amounted to 48% ± 7% and 34 ± 3%. An explanation for the low biological recoveries could be extensive metabolization by intestinal bacteria to yet unknown metabolites. In summary, ZEN-14-sulfate, ZEN-14-O-β-glucoside, and ZEN-16-O-β-glucoside were completely hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract of swine, thus contributing to the overall toxicity of ZEN.

  15. Occurrence and stability of masked fumonisins in corn silage samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Alicia; Dagnac, Thierry; Lorenzo, Bruno Fernández; Llompart, María

    2015-12-15

    Corn plants contaminated with Fusarium verticilloides were harvested at two dates and ensiled in laboratory silos. The stability of Fumonisins B1 and B2 (FB1, FB2) was studied and the effects of inoculant use (Lactobacillus buchneri) and of the ensiling time were assessed. The occurrence of masked fumonisins was also investigated. After the extraction of the free forms (FB1, FB2), the residue was subjected to an alkaline hydrolysis resulting in the release of derivates subsequently detected by LC-HESI-MS/MS. The ensiling time has shown to be a significant factor for the evolution of free FB1 and FB2 at the 2nd harvest date. Moreover, the use of inoculant had a significant effect on the stability of hidden and total FB1 at the two harvest dates. Samples previously ensiled and exposed to aerobic conditions for 7days have shown higher fumonisin levels than those not exposed to air. Our results showed that 65% and 39% of the total FB1 and FB2 contents in silage were due to hidden fumonisins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The structure of a complex of the lactonohydrolase zearalenone hydrolase with the hydrolysis product of zearalenone at 1.60 Å resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Qi; Yang, Wen Jing; Zhou, Hu Jian; Ming, Deng Ming; Sun, Kai Lei; Xu, Tian Yu; Hu, Xiao Jian; Lv, Hong

    2017-07-01

    Zearalenone hydrolase (ZHD) is an α/β-hydrolase that detoxifies and degrades the lactone zearalenone (ZEN), a naturally occurring oestrogenic mycotoxin that contaminates crops. Several apoenzyme and enzyme-substrate complex structures have been reported in the resolution range 2.4-2.6 Å. However, the properties and mechanism of this enzyme are not yet fully understood. Here, a 1.60 Å resolution structure of a ZHD-product complex is reported which was determined from a C-terminally His 6 -tagged ZHD crystal soaked with 2 mM ZEN for 30 min. It shows that after the lactone-bond cleavage, the phenol-ring region moves closer to residues Leu132, Tyr187 and Pro188, while the lactone-ring region barely moves. Comparisons of the ZHD-substrate and ZHD-product structures show that the hydrophilic interactions change, especially Trp183 N ℇ1 , which shifts from contacting O2 to O12', suggesting that Trp183 is responsible for the unidirectional translational movement of the phenol ring. This structure provides information on the final stage of the catalytic mechanism of zearalenone hydrolysis.

  17. Fumonisin detection and analysis of potential fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) in Zhejiang Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiansheng; Wang, Xiaoping; Zhou, Ying; Du, Liangcheng; Wang, Qiaomei

    2010-04-15

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by a number of Fusarium species, including several pathogens of asparagus plants. China is one of the largest asparagus producers in the world. In this study, we analysed the contamination of fumonisins and fumonisin-producing fungi in asparagus spear samples from Zhejiang Province, the major asparagus production province in China. The asparagus did not contain a detectable level of fumonisins. However, the recovery of Fusarium in asparagus was 72.7%, including F. proliferatum (40.9%), F. oxysporum (22.7%), F. acuminatum (4.55%) and F. equesti (4.55%). A multiplex PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer sequence (ITS), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF), and key biosynthetic genes FUM1 and FUM8, was used to simultaneously determine the identity and the biosynthetic ability of the fungal isolates. Fungal isolates containing the FUM genes also produced fumonisins in cultures, ranging from 28 to 4204 microg g(-1). F. proliferatum was the only fumonisin-producing Fusarium species in asparagus. Although no fumonisin contamination was detected in asparagus in the current survey, we found that the majority of samples contained Fusarium spp. Because F. proliferatum is a high fumonisin-producing species, potential health risks for human consumption of asparagus exist, if the appropriate environmental conditions are present for this fungus. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. The Occurrence of Zearalenone in South Korean Feedstuffs between 2009 and 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hansub; Kim, Woori; Park, Ju-Hee; Kim, Dongho; Kim, Choong-Ryeol; Chung, Soohyun; Lee, Chan

    2017-07-15

    Mycotoxins produced by Fusarium plant pathogen species have harmful effects on humans and livestock by natural contamination in food and feed. Zearalenone, one of the well-known Fusarium mycotoxins, causes hyperestrogenism and toxicosis resulting in reproductive dysfunction in animals. This study investigated the occurrence of zearalenone in feedstuffs (compound feeds, feed ingredients) between 2009 and 2016 in South Korea to obtain information on zearalenone contamination in feeds for management. A total of 653 animal feed samples (494 compound feeds, 159 feed ingredients) produced domestically were sampled five times from 2009 to 2016 (2009, 2010, 2012, 2014, and 2016) from feed factories in South Korea. The levels of zearalenone were analyzed every year by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after pretreatment with an immunoaffinity column showing limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.1-3 μg/kg and 0.3-8 μg/kg, respectively. Four feed samples out of 494 compound feeds exceeded the EU and South Korea commission regulations over the eight-year test period, and no feed ingredients exceeded the guidelines.

  19. The role of wastewater treatment in reducing pollution of surface waters with zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromadzka, Karolina; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Świetlik, Joanna; Bocianowski, Jan; Goliński, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species in food and feed. The toxicity of ZEA and its metabolites is related to the chemical structure of the mycotoxin, which is similar to naturally occurring oestrogens. Currently, there is increasing awareness of the presence of fungi and their toxic metabolites in the aquatic environment. One of the sources of these compounds are the effluents from wastewater treatment plants. The average annual efficiency of zearalenone reduction in the Łęczyca plant in our three-year study was in the range from 51.35 to 69.70 %. The threeway analysis of variance (year, month, and kind of wastewater) shows that the main effects of all factors and all interactions between them were significant for zearalenone and dissolved organic carbon content. Our findings suggest that wastewater is not the main source of surface water pollution with zearalenone. Future research should investigate the means to reduce ZEA and its migration from the fields through prevention strategies such as breeding for crops, plant debris management (crop rotation, tillage), and/or chemical and biological control.

  20. Urinary fumonisin B1 and estimated fumonisin intake in women from high and low exposure communities in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scope: Fumonisin (FB) intake can be high when maize is a dietary staple. We determined 1) urinary FB (UFB) in women consuming maize in high and low exposure communities in Guatemala, 2) the FB levels in maize, 3) the stoichiometric relationship between UFB and FB intake, and 4) the relative excreti...

  1. Fate of Fumonisin B1 in Naturally Contaminated Corn during Ethanol Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothast, R. J.; Bennett, G. A.; Vancauwenberge, J. E.; Richard, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Two lots of corn naturally contaminated with fumonisin B1 (15 and 36 ppm) and a control lot (no fumonisin B1 detected) were used as substrates for ethanol production in replicate 8.5-liter yeast fermentations. Ethanol yields were 8.8% for both the control and low-fumonisin corn, while the high-fumonisin corn contained less starch and produced 7.2% ethanol. Little degradation of fumonisin occurred during fermentation, and most was recovered in the distillers' grains, thin stillage, and distillers' solubles fractions. No toxin was detected in the distilled alcohol or centrifuge solids. Ethanol fermentation of fumonisin-contaminated corn coupled with effective detoxification of distillers' grains and aqueous stillage is suggested as a practical process strategy for salvaging contaminated corn. PMID:16348623

  2. Modification of nanocellulose by poly-lysine can inhibit the effect of fumonisin B1 on mouse liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebali, Ali; Yasini Ardakani, Seyed Ali; Shahdadi, Hossein; Balal Zadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhossein

    2015-02-01

    Fumonisin B1 is an important mycotoxin, mainly produced by Fusarium verticillioides. It has toxic effects on liver, brain, and kidney cells. The first aim of this study was to synthesize nanocellulose modified with poly-lysine (NMPL), and the second aim was to evaluate the adsorption of fumonisin B1 by NMPL. As third aim, the function of mouse liver cells was investigated after exposure to fumonisin B1, and fumonisin B1+ NMPL. In this study, NMPL was prepared using cross-linker, and then incubated with fumonisin B1 at controlled conditions. After incubation, the adsorption and release of fumonisin B1 were evaluated in each condition. Next, mouse liver cells were separately exposed to fumonisin B1, NMPL, and (fumonisin B1+NMPL). Then, the level of aniline aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was evaluated. It was found that both adsorption and release of fumonisin B1 were not affected by temperature and incubation time, but affected by pH and concentration of NMPL. Also, this study showed NMPL could adsorb fumonisin B1 in different foodstuffs. Importantly, although the levels of ALT and AST were increased when the cells were treated with fumonisin B1 alone, they were not affected when exposed to NMPL or (fumonisin B1+NMPL). The authors suggest that NMPL is a good adsorbent to remove and inhibit fumonisin B1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. PRELIMINARY STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION OF SOME FUMONISIN METABOLITES BY DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Bors

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is often contaminated with Fusarium verticillioides. This harmful fungus produces fumonisins as secondary metabolites. These fumonisins can appear both free and hidden form in planta. The hidden form is usually bound covalently to cereal starch. From the hidden fumonisins, during enzymatic degradation, glycosides are formed, and the fumonisin is further decomposed during a de-esterification step. In this short communication some preliminary DFT calculated structural results which could be useful in the future to help to understand the van der Waals force controlled molecular interactions between these kinds of mycotoxin molecules and enzymes are demonstrated.

  4. Proteomics analysis of Fusarium proliferatum under various initial pH during fumonisin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taotao; Gong, Liang; Wang, Yong; Chen, Feng; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Jian, Qijie; Duan, Xuewu; Jiang, Yueming

    2017-07-05

    Fusarium proliferatum as a fungal pathogen can produce fumonisin which causes a great threat to animal and human health. Proteomic approach was a useful tool for investigation into mycotoxin biosynthesis in fungal pathogens. In this study, we analyzed the fumonisin content and mycelium proteins of Fusarium proliferatum cultivated under the initial pH5 and 10. Fumonisin production after 10days was significantly induced in culture condition at pH10 than pH5. Ninety nine significantly differently accumulated protein spots under the two pH conditions were detected using two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 89 of these proteins were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF and LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Among these 89 proteins, 45 were up-regulated at pH10 while 44 were up-accumulated at pH5. At pH10, these proteins were found to involve in the modification of fumonisin backbone including up-regulated polyketide synthase, cytochrome P450, S-adenosylmethionine synthase and O-methyltransferase, which might contribute to the induction of fumonisin production. At pH5, these up-regulated proteins such as l-amino-acid oxidase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and citrate lyase might inhibit the condensation of fumonisin backbone, resulting in reduced production of fumonisins. These results may help us to understand the molecular mechanism of the fumonisin synthesis in F. proliferatum. To extend our understanding of the mechanism of the fumonisin biosynthesis of F. proliferatum, we reported the fumonisin production in relation to the differential proteins of F. proliferatum mycelium under two pH culture conditions. Among these 89 identified spots, 45 were up-accumulated at pH10 while 44 were up-accumulated at pH5. Our results revealed that increased fumonisin production at pH10 might be related to the induction of fumonisin biosynthesis caused by up-regulation of polyketide synthase, cytochrome P450, S-adenosylmethionine synthase and O-methyltransferase. Meanwhile, the

  5. De novo transcriptome assembly associated with fumonisin production by the rice pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerthi S. Guruge

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study employed a next-generation sequencing method to assemble a de novo transcriptome database designed to distinguish gene expression changes exhibited by the fumonisin-producing fungus Fusarium fujikuroi when grown under ‘fumonisin-producing’ compared to ‘non-fumonisin-producing’ conditions. The raw data of this study have been deposited at DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ under the accession ID DRA006146. Keywords: Fusarium fujikuroi, Fumonisin, Next-generation sequencing, Transcriptome, Gene-expression

  6. Don Quijote y Hamlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúdovik B. Osterc

    2002-12-01

    Hamlet está loco, es un alucinado que duda de sus propios sentidos. Para él existe sólo un lado negro de la existencia, su único objeto es llegar más pronto al descubrimiento del crimen. Es egocentrico, ne cree en nada, eternamente mira en su interior, se alimenta en su desprecio de sí mismo y su sufrimiento es mucho más doloroso.que aquel de Don Quijote. Don Quijote, al contrario, cree en el hombre y su futuro. Su ideal es implantar por la fuerza, la verdad, el bien y la justicia en la tierra. Para servir a su ideal, está dispuesto a sufrir todas las posibles privaciones. Representa la fe en la verdad. Es ridículo y quizás el más cómico tipo disenado jamás por un literato. Hamlet es el hijo del rey muerte, mientras que Don Quijote está pobre. Se hace los enemigos imaginarios y lucha contra ellos, mientras que Hamlet no cree en las ilusiones (siempre duda, y tampoco no combatiría si supiera que son sinónimos de opresores. Continua con la examinación de la actitud del pueblo o sus representantes hacia Don Quijote y Hamlet y viceversa. Polonia es el representante de las multitudes populares ante Hamlet, Sancho lo es ante su senor. El primero es de sano pensamiento y al mismo tiempo un viejo charalatán. Para él Hamlet no es tanto un loco como un nino y le parece inútil para la sociedad. Sancho Pansa está persuadido de que su senor está loco, pero le está leal hasta la muerte. Don Quijote simpatiza profundamente con el pueblo, pero la única persona con la que se entiende verdaderamente es Sancho Pansa (uno no puede vivir sin otro. La actitud de Hamlet es completamente diferente, él desprecia las multitudes populares, porque también desprecia a sí mismo. social: el tedio, el hastío, el descontento de la vida, desorientación espiritual y la eclipse de la fe, miéntras que Don Quijote encarna el mundo libre, bien estar y la felicidad de los seres humanos. Por eso y porque es un ideal el más humano, generoso, noble y elevado, el autor del

  7. The Dent Stage of Maize Kernels Is the Most Conducive for Fumonisin Biosynthesis under Field Conditions ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Picot, Adeline; Barreau, Christian; Pinson-Gadais, Laëtitia; Piraux, François; Caron, Daniel; Lannou, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2011-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Fusarium verticillioides infects maize ears and produces fumonisins, known for their adverse effects on human and animal health. Basic questions remain unanswered regarding the kernel stage(s) associated with fumonisin biosynthesis and the kernel components involved in fumonisin regulation during F. verticillioides-maize interaction under field conditions. In this 2-year field study, the time course of F. verticillioides growth and fumonisin accumulation in developing maiz...

  8. Carbon Sources Influence Fumonisin Production in Fusarium proliferatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taotao; Gong, Liang; Jiang, Guoxiang; Wang, Yong; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Qu, Hongxia; Duan, Xuewu; Wang, Jiasheng; Jiang, Yueming

    2017-10-01

    Fusarium proliferatum is a worldwide fungal pathogen that produces fumonisins which are harmful to animal and human health. However, environmental factors affecting fumonisin biosynthesis in F. proliferatum are not well understood. Based on our preliminary results, in this study, we investigated the effect of sucrose or mannose as the sole carbon source on fumonisin B (FB) production by F. proliferatum and studied their underlying mechanisms via proteome and gene expression analysis. Our results showed that mannose, used as the sole carbon source, significantly blocked fumonisin B 1 and B 2 production by F. proliferatum as compared with the use of sucrose. Fifty-seven differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified. The downregulated proteins in the mannose-cultured strain were mainly involved in carbon metabolism, response to stress, and methionine metabolism, as compared with the sucrose-cultured strain. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that expression of several key genes involved in FB biosynthetic pathway and in transcription regulation were significantly downregulated in the mannose-cultured F. proliferatum, whereas expression of histone deacetylation-related genes were significantly upregulated. These results suggested that the blockage of FB biosynthesis by mannose was associated with the decreases in conversion of acetyl-CoA to polyketide, methionine biosynthesis, and NADPH regeneration. More importantly, milder oxidative stress, downregulated expression of genes involved in biosynthetic pathway and transcription regulation, and upregulated expression of genes with histone deacetylation possibly were responsible for the blockage of FB biosynthesis in F. proliferatum. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Development of an Electrochemical Immunosensor for Fumonisins Detection in Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Mohamad Kamal Abdul; Tothill, Ibtisam E.

    2010-01-01

    An electrochemical affinity sensor for the determination of fumonisins mycotoxins (Fms) using monoclonal antibody modified screen-printed gold electrode with carbon counter and silver-silver chloride pseudo-reference electrode is reported in this work. A direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was initially developed, exhibiting a detection limit of 100 µg·L-1 for fumonisins. This was then transferred to the surface of a bare gold screen-printed electrode (SPGE) and detection was performed by chronoamperometry, monitoring the reaction of 3,3’,5,5’-Tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) catalysed by HRP at −100 mV potential vs. onboard Ag-AgCl pseudo-reference electrode. The immunosensor exhibited detection limit of 5 µg·L−1 fumonisins with a dynamic range from 1 µg·L−1–1000 µg·L−1. The sensor also performed well in extracted corn samples. PMID:22069591

  10. Characterization of the fumonisin B2 biosynthetic gene cluster in Aspergillus niger and A. awamori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus niger and A. awamori strains isolated from grapes cultivated in Mediterranean basin were examined for fumonisin B2 (FB2) production and presence/absence of sequences within the fumonisin biosynthetic gene (fum) cluster. Presence of 13 regions in the fum cluster was evaluated by PCR assay...

  11. Effect of fumonisin-containing diet on the myenteric plexus of the jejunum in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Fernando Carlos; Schamber, Christiano Rodrigues; Amorin, Sandra Sheila Seron; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal

    2014-10-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins that naturally occur as contaminants in grains that are destined for animal and human consumption. These mycotoxins cause hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, immunotoxic, and neurotoxic effects in different intensities based on dose, time of exposure, and animal species. In the present study, male Wistar rats were fed between postnatal days 21 and 63 with diets that contained fumonisins B1+B2 at concentrations of 1 and 3mg/kg. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of fumonisins on food intake, growth, weight gain, serum activity of the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase enzymes, and quantitative and morphometric parameters of myenteric neurons in the jejunum that are immunoreactive to HuC/D protein and neuronal nitric oxide synthase enzyme (nNOS). Diets that contained fumonisins did not significantly alter food intake or body and blood parameters. We did not observe significant differences in the neuronal density and proportion of nitrergic neurons but found a significant reduction of cell body areas in both neuronal populations. This study is the first to report the effects of fumonisins in the enteric nervous system. The possible mechanisms by which fumonisins impair neuronal development and the use of the enteric nervous system as a tool for the study of the neurotoxic effects of fumonisins are discussed. In conclusion, fumonisin-containing food negatively affected the growth of myenteric neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fumonisins production potential of Fusarium verticillioides isolated from Serbian maize and wheat kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstović Saša Z.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of fumonisins by potentially toxigenic Fusarium verticillioides isolates originating from Serbian maize and wheat kernels was tested in vitro. A total of six F. verticillioides isolates were incubated on yeast extract sucrose medium (YESA for 4 weeks at 25 °C in the dark. Their toxin production potential was tested by applying a modified HPLC method for determination of fumonisins in cereals, since the TLC method gave no results. Analyses were performed on a HPLC-FLD system after sample extraction from YESA and extract cleanup on a SPE column. Although the isolates were tested for fumonisin B1, B2 and B3, only fumonisin B1 was detected. The results showed that all tested isolates had toxigenic potential for fumonisin B1 production. The average fumonisin B1 production of the isolates ranged from 7 to 289 μg/kg, thus indicating a highly variable toxigenic potential among the isolates. Isolate 1282 expressed the highest toxigenic potential for fumonisin B1 production (289 μg/kg, while isolate 2533/A showed a questionable potential for fumonisin production (7 μg/kg. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR 31023

  13. Variation in sequence and location of the fumonisin mycotoxin niosynthetic gene cluster in Fusarium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proctor, R.H.; Hove, van F.; Susca, A.; Stea, A.; Busman, M.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Waalwijk, C.; Moretti, A.

    2010-01-01

    In Fusarium, the ability to produce fumonisins is governed by a 17-gene fumonisin biosynthetic gene (FUM) cluster. Here, we examined the cluster in F. oxysporum strain O-1890 and nine other species selected to represent a wide range of the genetic diversity within the GFSC.

  14. Immunosuppressive effects of fumonisin B1 in the Trichinella spiralis model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs M de; Egmond HP van; Jong WH de; Loveren H van; LPI; ARO; MGB

    Fumonisin B1 is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium moniliforme and is found mainly in maize. Fumonisin B1 has been associated with human esophageal cancer, lung edema in pigs and leuko-encephalomalacia in equine species. Adverse effects of this mycotoxin on the immune system can be expected but were

  15. StuA is a key regulator of fumonisin production and virulence in Fusarium verticillioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium verticillioides is one of the most important pathogens of maize, producing fumonisin mycotoxins during infection. Ingestion of fumonisin-contaminated corn causes fatal toxicity in livestock and is associated with neural tube birth defects and growth stunting in children. It is also a potent...

  16. Influence of Kernel Age on Fumonisin B1 Production in Maize by Fusarium moniliforme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, Colleen Y.; Gilchrist, David G.

    1999-01-01

    Production of fumonisins by Fusarium moniliforme on naturally infected maize ears is an important food safety concern due to the toxic nature of this class of mycotoxins. Assessing the potential risk of fumonisin production in developing maize ears prior to harvest requires an understanding of the regulation of toxin biosynthesis during kernel maturation. We investigated the developmental-stage-dependent relationship between maize kernels and fumonisin B1 production by using kernels collected at the blister (R2), milk (R3), dough (R4), and dent (R5) stages following inoculation in culture at their respective field moisture contents with F. moniliforme. Highly significant differences (P ≤ 0.001) in fumonisin B1 production were found among kernels at the different developmental stages. The highest levels of fumonisin B1 were produced on the dent stage kernels, and the lowest levels were produced on the blister stage kernels. The differences in fumonisin B1 production among kernels at the different developmental stages remained significant (P ≤ 0.001) when the moisture contents of the kernels were adjusted to the same level prior to inoculation. We concluded that toxin production is affected by substrate composition as well as by moisture content. Our study also demonstrated that fumonisin B1 biosynthesis on maize kernels is influenced by factors which vary with the developmental age of the tissue. The risk of fumonisin contamination may begin early in maize ear development and increases as the kernels reach physiological maturity. PMID:10388675

  17. Preparation and application of new fluorescein-labeled fumonisins B1 in fluorescence polarization analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To prepare a new fluorescent tracer against common mycotoxins such as fumonisin B1 in order to replace 6-(4,6-Dichlorotriazinyl) aminofluorescein (6-DTAF), an expensive marker, and to develop a technique for quick detection of fumonisin B1 based on the principle of fluorescence polarizati...

  18. Fusarium spp. and levels of fumonisins in maize produced by subsistence farmers in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ncube, E.; Flett, B.C.; Waalwijk, C.; Viljoen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium spp. produce fumonisins - mycotoxins that are of importance to maize production in South Africa. Fumonisins have been associated with human oesophageal cancer and cause various diseases in animals that are of concern to the animal feed industry. Maize samples, collected from subsistence

  19. Effect of zearalenone on reproductive parameters and expression of selected testicular genes in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žatecká, Eva; Děd, Lukáš; Elzeinová, Fatima; Kubátová, Alena; Dorosh, Andriy; Margaryan, Hasmik; Dostálová, Pavla; Korenková, Vlasta; Hošková, K.; Pěknicová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, june (2014), s. 20-30 ISSN 0890-6238 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/12/1834; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : zearalenone * fertility * reproductive parameters in male mice * spermatogenesis * gene expression * qPCR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.227, year: 2014

  20. Production of fumonisins B2 and B4 in Tolypocladium species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Møller, Kirsten Amalie; von Freiesleben, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Tolypocladium inflatum is known primarily for its production of the cyclosporines that are used as an immunosuppressive drug. However, we report here the production of the carcinogenic fumonisins B2 and B4 by this biotechnologically relevant fungal genus. These mycotoxins were detected in 11...... strains tested from three species: Tolypocladium inflatum, T. cylindrosporum, and T. geodes. Production of fumonisins by Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus niger is highly medium- and temperature-dependent, so the effect of these parameters on fumonisin production by three T. inflatum strains was studied....... Maximum production was achieved on media with high sugar content incubated at 25–30°C. Since these results demonstrate that fumonisin production could be widespread within the genus Tolypocladium, the potential contamination of commercial cyclosporine preparations with fumonisins needs to be investigated....

  1. Effect of baking on reduction of free and hidden fumonisins in gluten-free bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryła, Marcin; Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Słowik, Elżbieta; Obiedziński, Mieczysław W

    2014-10-22

    The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of the baking process on the fumonisin content in gluten-free bread. The dough was made using two methods: without sourdough and with sourdough. Fumonisins were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ion-trap mass spectrometry. This study showed that the bread baking process caused a statistically significant drop in the mean concentration of free fumonisins: the reduction levels were 30 and 32% for the direct and sourdough-based methods, respectively. The lower reduction after baking was observed for hidden fumonisins: 19 and 10%, respectively. The presence of some compounds (such as proteins or starch) capable of stabilizing fumonisins during the baking process might be responsible for the observed increase in the hidden-to-free ratio from an initial 0.72 in flour to 0.83 in bread made from sourdough and to 0.95 in sourdough-free bread.

  2. Impact of industrial dry-milling on fumonisin redistribution in non-transgenic corn in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordini, Jaqueline Gozzi; Ono, Mario Augusto; Garcia, Glauco Tironi; Fazani, Victor Hugo Meconi; Vizoni, Édio; Rodrigues, Karem Caroline Bonacin; Hirooka, Elisa Yoko; Ono, Elisabete Yurie Sataque

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fate of fumonisins B 1 (FB 1 ) and B 2 (FB 2 ) during industrial dry-milling in two lots from 2014 (n=120) and 2015 (n=120) of non-transgenic corn and their fractions (germ, pericarp, endosperm, cornmeal and grits), collected from one of the major Brazilian milling industries. Fumonisins were concentrated in the germ and pericarp at a rate of 322% and 188% (lot 1) and 311% and 263% (lot 2), respectively. In the endosperm, cornmeal and grits fumonisin levels decreased from 60 to 95%. Fumonisin levels in cornmeal and grits were below the maximum limit tolerated by the European Commission. Therefore, corn industrial dry-milling can contribute to reducing fumonisin levels in corn products intended for human consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Single-kernel analysis of fumonisins and other fungal metabolites in maize from South African subsistence farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Sørensen, S.M.; Sulyok, M.

    2011-01-01

    Fumonisins are important Fusarium mycotoxins mainly found in maize and derived products. This study analysed maize from five subsistence farmers in the former Transkei region of South Africa. Farmers had sorted kernels into good and mouldy quality. A total of 400 kernels from 10 batches were...... analysed; of these 100 were visually characterised as uninfected and 300 as infected. Of the 400 kernels, 15% were contaminated with 1.84-1428 mg kg(-1) fumonisins, and 4% (n = 15) had a fumonisin content above 100 mg kg(-1). None of the visually uninfected maize had detectable amounts of fumonisins....... The total fumonisin concentration was 0.28-1.1 mg kg(-1) for good-quality batches and 0.03-6.2 mg kg(-1) for mouldy-quality batches. The high fumonisin content in the batches was apparently caused by a small number (4%) of highly contaminated kernels, and removal of these reduced the average fumonisin...

  4. In Vitro Production of Fumonisins by Fusarium verticillioides under Oxidative Stress Induced by H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigo, Davide; Raiola, Alessandro; Bogialli, Sara; Bortolini, Claudio; Tapparo, Andrea; Causin, Roberto

    2015-05-20

    The effects of oxidative stress induced by H2O2 were tested in liquid cultures in the fumonisin-producing fungus Fusarium verticillioides. The quantitative analysis of fumonisins B1, B2, B3, and B4 was achieved by means of liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Two effects in F. verticillioides, consisting of different abilities to produce fumonisins in response to oxidative stress, were identified. Following H2O2 addition, two F. verticillioides strains produced significantly more fumonisin (>300%) while three other strains produced significantly less (fumonisin and either no or minimal changes in the strain that made less fumonisin. Our data indicate the important role of oxidative stress toward the modulation of the fumonisin biosynthesis and suggest the necessity to verify the presence of such divergent behavior in F. verticillioides populations under natural conditions.

  5. Control of fusarium moulds and fumonisin B1 in grains by gamma Irradiation * Key words: Irradiated grains, Mycotoxins, Fusarium moulds, Fumonisins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, N H; Shahin, A A.M.; Mahrous, S R [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); El-Far, F M [Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza (Egypt)

    2007-07-01

    The distribution of naturally occurring Fusarium moulds producing fumonisin B1 in seeds was determined. Fusarium infection of grain samples ranged from 10 to 60% and F.moniliforme was the predominant species. Fusarium counts in wheat grains were 8.1 x 10{sup 4} cfu/g, 6.3 x 10{sup 6} cfu/g in maize and 4.8 x 10{sup 3} cfu/g in barley. Wheat, maize and barley grains naturally contaminated with varying levels of fumonisin B1 (1.4 - 5.8, 8.0 - 13.8 and 0.1 - 0.5 {mu}g/g, respectively). Fusarium moniliforme and F. proliferatum were the major Fusarium contaminants producing fumonisin B1 . The effect of gamma irradiation on Fusarium moulds and levels of fumonisin B1 were also determined. The viable counts of Fusarium in grains was decreased by increasing the radiation dose levels, and the growth of Fusarium spp was inhibited at 4.0 KGy for barley and 6.0 KGy for wheat and maize. Application of gamma radiation dose at 5 KGy inactivated fumonisin B1 by 96.6, 87.1 and 100% for wheat, maize and barley, respectively, and a dose of 7 KGy was sufficient for complete destruction of fumonisin B1 in wheat and maize.

  6. Control of fusarium moulds and fumonisin B1 in grains by gamma Irradiation * Key words: Irradiated grains, Mycotoxins, Fusarium moulds, Fumonisins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, N.H.; Shahin, A.A.M.; Mahrous, S.R.; El-Far, F.M.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of naturally occurring Fusarium moulds producing fumonisin B1 in seeds was determined. Fusarium infection of grain samples ranged from 10 to 60% and F.moniliforme was the predominant species. Fusarium counts in wheat grains were 8.1 x 10 4 cfu/g, 6.3 x 10 6 cfu/g in maize and 4.8 x 10 3 cfu/g in barley. Wheat, maize and barley grains naturally contaminated with varying levels of fumonisin B1 (1.4 - 5.8, 8.0 - 13.8 and 0.1 - 0.5 μg/g, respectively). Fusarium moniliforme and F. proliferatum were the major Fusarium contaminants producing fumonisin B1 . The effect of gamma irradiation on Fusarium moulds and levels of fumonisin B1 were also determined. The viable counts of Fusarium in grains was decreased by increasing the radiation dose levels, and the growth of Fusarium spp was inhibited at 4.0 KGy for barley and 6.0 KGy for wheat and maize. Application of gamma radiation dose at 5 KGy inactivated fumonisin B1 by 96.6, 87.1 and 100% for wheat, maize and barley, respectively, and a dose of 7 KGy was sufficient for complete destruction of fumonisin B1 in wheat and maize

  7. Natural occurrence of Fusarium species, fumonisin production by toxigenic strains, and concentrations of fumonisins B1, and B2 in conventional and organic maize grown in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariño, Agustín; Juan, Teresa; Estopañan, Gloria; González-Cabo, José F

    2007-01-01

    Sixty samples of corn from both conventional and organic farms were tested for internal fungal contamination. Molds were identified to genus, and those belonging to the genus Fusarium were identified to species. Twenty isolates of Fusarium verticillioides were tested with a high-performance liquid chromatography-naphthalene dicarboxaldehyde-fluorescence method for their ability to produce fumonisins B1 and B2. The internal fungal infection in organic maize (63.20%) was significantly higher than that in conventional maize (40.27%) (P fumonisins on conventional or organic corn. Up to 13.3% of the conventional corn samples contained fumonisins B1 and B2 at mean concentrations of 43 and 22 ng/g, respectively. Organic corn samples had somewhat lower levels of contamination: 35 ng/g fumonisin B1 and 19 ng/g fumonisin B2 (P > 0.05). The organic farming system, with well-balanced crop rotation, tillage, and compost fertilization, produced corn that was less likely to be contaminated with Fusarium species, although no significant difference in fumonisin concentrations was found between the two types of contaminated corn.

  8. Mimesis in Don Quixote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle von der Walde

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Frente a argumentos tomados de las poéticas neoaristotélicas que esgrime el canónigo para condenar los libros de caballerías, don Quijote pretende mostrar con su propio ejemplo, que ese tipo de lecturas no llevan a la locura ni al abandono de sí mismo, sino que, por el contrario, sacan lo mejor de la naturaleza de un individuo y lo hacen mejor persona. Este es el único tipo de imitación que Platón acepta en la República, pues más que un remedo o una suplantación, implica emulación. Este escrito se propone mirar, a partir del diálogo con el canónigo de Toledo (I, 49-50, cómo en sus conductas miméticas desde el comienzo de la obra, don Quijote entiende la imitación como emulación; en consecuencia se intenta demostrar que el efecto de la literatura en el caballero manchego parece ser el tipo de mimesis que Platón acepta en el libro III de la República.Abstract:Don Quijote demonstrates with the example of his own life the error made by the Canon of Toledo when the latter uses the arguments of the neo-Aristotelian poets to condemn the novels of chivalric romance. Quijote tries to show that reading the chivalric romances leads to neither madness nor the abandonment of the self, but, on the contrary, brings out the best in a person’s nature, and makes one a better person. This is the only type of imitation that Plato accepts in the Republic, because, unlike the mere copying of a person, or the substitution of one person for another, it implies a type of emulation. Starting with the dialogue of the Canon of Toledo (I, 49-50, this paper shows how, in his mimetic behavior, Don Quijote understands imitation as emulation. As a result, the paper shows that the effect of literature on the gentleman from La Mancha is the type of mimesis of which Plato approves in book III of the Republic.

  9. Don Isidoro Laverde Amaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos López Narváez

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available A la calidad sustantiva de los polígrafos, -estirpe de los Vergara, Eduardo Posada, Gustavo Arboleda, Otero Muñoz, Samper Ortega, Gómez Restrepo para nombrar solo algunos de los que "nos han precedido con la señal de la fe", como dice el sacro ritual, y en el servicio de las Letras patrias- pertenece con mérito eximio el prócer de la bibliografía colombiana, don Isidoro Laverde Amaya.

  10. Toxicological effects of fumonisin B1 alone and in combination with other fusariotoxins on bovine granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albonico, Marco; Schütz, Luis F; Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Spicer, Leon J

    2016-08-01

    There is now overwhelming evidence of global contamination of commodities with Fusarium mycotoxins. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a Fusarium mycotoxin frequently occurring in corn in combination with deoxynivalenol (DON), α-zearalenol (α-ZEA) and β-zearalenol (β-ZEA). The aim of this study was to determine if FB1, alone and combined with DON or α-ZEA or β-ZEA, can affect cell proliferation and steroid production of bovine granulosa cells (GC). A species-specific model with bovine granulosa cells (GC) was used to study the potential endocrine disruptor effects of FB1 alone and in co-exposure. In the presence of β-ZEA (30 ng/mL), FB1 at 30 ng/mL showed a stimulatory effect on GC numbers. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1)-stimulated cell proliferation was decreased after exposure to β-ZEA alone at 5.0 μg/mL and FB1 with α-ZEA and β-ZEA at the same concentration. Regarding steroid production, FB1 at 30 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL amplified the inhibitory effect of β-ZEA (30 ng/mL) on estradiol (E2) production, while FB1 alone increased (P < 0.05) IGF1-induced E2 production. α-ZEA alone decreased (P < 0.05) E2 production, whereas β-ZEA alone and in combination with FB1 decreased (P < 0.05) E2 production. These studies indicate for the first time that the Fusarium mycotoxin FB1 along with other mycotoxins can affect GC proliferation and steroid production, which ultimately could influence reproductive function in cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The HAP Complex Governs Fumonisin Biosynthesis and Maize Kernel Pathogenesis in Fusarium verticillioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, John B; Smith, Jonathon E; Bluhm, Burton H

    2016-09-01

    Contamination of maize ( Zea mays ) with fumonisins produced by the fungus Fusarium verticillioides is a global concern for food safety. Fumonisins are a group of polyketide-derived secondary metabolites linked to esophageal cancer and neural tube birth defects in humans and numerous toxicoses in livestock. Despite the importance of fumonisins in global maize production, the regulation of fumonisin biosynthesis during kernel pathogenesis is poorly understood. The HAP complex is a conserved, heterotrimeric transcriptional regulator that binds the consensus sequence CCAAT to modulate gene expression. Recently, functional characterization of the Hap3 subunit linked the HAP complex to the regulation of secondary metabolism and stalk rot pathogenesis in F. verticillioides . Here, we determine the involvement of HAP3 in fumonisin biosynthesis and kernel pathogenesis. Deletion of HAP3 suppressed fumonisin biosynthesis on both nonviable and live maize kernels and impaired pathogenesis in living kernels. Transcriptional profiling via RNA sequencing indicated that the HAP complex regulates at least 1,223 genes in F. verticillioides , representing nearly 10% of all predicted genes. Disruption of the HAP complex caused the misregulation of biosynthetic gene clusters underlying the production of secondary metabolites, including fusarins. Taken together, these results reveal that the HAP complex is a central regulator of fumonisin biosynthesis and kernel pathogenesis and works as both a positive and negative regulator of secondary metabolism in F. verticillioides .

  12. Fusarium proliferatum strains change fumonisin biosynthesis and accumulation when exposed to host plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górna, Karolina; Pawłowicz, Izabela; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Fumonisin concentrations in mycelia and media were studied in liquid Fusarium proliferatum cultures supplemented with host plant extracts. Furthermore, the kinetics of fumonisin accumulation in media and mycelia collected before and after extract addition was analysed as well as the changes in the expression of the FUM1 gene. Fumonisin content in culture media increased in almost all F. proliferatum strains shortly after plant extracts were added. The asparagus extract induced the highest FB level increase and the garlic extract was the second most effective inducer. Fumonisin level decreased constantly until 14th day of culturing, though for some strains also at day 8th an elevated FB level was observed. Pineapple extract induced the highest increase of fum1 transcript levels as well as fumonisin synthesis in many strains, and the peas extract inhibited fungal growth and fumonisin biosynthesis. Moreover, fumonisins were accumulated in mycelia of studied strains and in the respective media. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Strategies to reduce exposure of fumonisins from complementary foods in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimanya, Martin E; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Van Camp, John; Baert, Katleen; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    Feeding infants with maize can expose them to fumonisin mycotoxins. We assessed fumonisin exposure from complementary foods in rural Tanzania and determined strategies to reduce the exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study in four villages of Tarakea division, Northern Tanzania. We used a repeat 24-hour dietary recall to collect data of maize consumption as complementary food for 254 infants aged 6-8 months. Fumonisin concentrations in the maize were also estimated. Fumonisin exposure was assessed using @risk analysis software. With the software, several maximum fumonisin contamination and maize consumption patterns were combined in order to determine effective strategies for minimizing fumonisin exposure. Of the infants, 89% consumed maize at amounts up to 158g/person/day (mean; 43g/person/day±28). The maize was contaminated with fumonisins at levels up to 3201µgkg(-1) . Risk of fumonisin intake above the provisional maximum tolerable daily limit of 2µgkg(-1) body weight was 15% (95% confidence interval; 10-19). The risk was minimized when the maximum contamination was set at 150µgkg(-1) . The risk was also minimized when the maximum consumption was set at 20g/child/day while keeping the maximum contamination at the European Union (EU) maximum tolerated limit (MTL) of 1000µgkg(-1) . Considering the economical and technological limitations of adopting good agricultural practices in rural Tanzania, it is practically difficult to reduce contamination in maize to 150µgkg(-1) . We suggest adoption of the EU MTL of 1000µgkg(-1) for fumonisins in maize and reduction, by replacement with another cereal, of the maize component in complementary foods to a maximum intake of 20g/child/day. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Light affects fumonisin production in strains of Fusarium fujikuroi, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium verticillioides isolated from rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matić, Slavica; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2013-09-16

    Three Fusarium species associated with bakanae disease of rice (Fusarium fujikuroi, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium verticillioides) were investigated for their ability to produce fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) under different light conditions, and for pathogenicity. Compared to darkness, the conditions that highly stimulated fumonisin production were yellow and green light in F. verticillioides strains; white and blue light, and light/dark alternation in F. fujikuroi and F. proliferatum strains. In general, all light conditions positively influenced fumonisin production with respect to the dark. Expression of the FUM1 gene, which is necessary for the initiation of fumonisin production, was in accordance with the fumonisin biosynthetic profile. High and low fumonisin-producing F. fujikuroi strains showed typical symptoms of bakanae disease, abundant fumonisin-producing F. verticillioides strains exhibited chlorosis and stunting of rice plants, while fumonisin-producing F. proliferatum strains were asymptomatic on rice. We report that F. fujikuroi might be an abundant fumonisin producer with levels comparable to that of F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, highlighting the need of deeper mycotoxicological analyses on rice isolates of F. fujikuroi. Our results showed for the first time the influence of light on fumonisin production in isolates of F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides from rice. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Correlation of concentration of fumonisins and yield grain of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protić Nada M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat from different locations was served for the isolation of Fusarium spp. Isolates were precisely identified and multiplied for artificial inoculation. Three sorts of winter wheat were chosen: PKB Lepoklasa Jugoslavija and Francuska. To these sorts three different treatments were applied: artificial inoculation with the isolates of Fusarium spp. protection of wheat with fungicide Impact-C and follow-up of a spontaneous infection in different phenophasis of wheat development. The control was done with the same sort, of the same location, not covered by an experiment. The research lasted for three years. Phytopathological evaluation was done twice during vegetation. The sort of Jugoslavija had an average of 85% of infected plants, Francuska 65%, but PKB Lepoklasa during each of three years had 100% of infection by Fusarium spp. fungi. Presence of fungi Fusarium spp. causes production of numerous mycotoxins and we determined presence of fumonisins. The mentioned mycotoxin was found only in the treatment of artificial inoculation for each sort. Presence of fumonisins was proved by fluorometric method and concentration was by sorts as follows: Jugoslavija 0.30 mg/kg, Francuska 0.62 mg/kg, and PKB Lepoklasa 0.56mg/kg. In grains 100% infected by fungus, the concentration of mentioned toxins is of a greater quantity.

  16. Yeast cell based feed additives: Studies on aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Thirty commercially available yeast cell wall products and two reference bentonites were tested for their ability to bind aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and zearalenone (ZON) in buffer solutions at pH 3 and pH 6.5 as well as in real gastric juice. For most products, the binding efficacy of AFB1 correlated with the ash content which was between 2.6 and 89% and constituted the inorganic non-volatile components, like mineral clays, of the samples. Samples with smectite as main ash compo...

  17. The evaluation of the efficacy of sodium carbonate as zearalenone destructor in feeding stuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, M; Gajecki, M; Kulik, T; Łuczyński, M K; Obremski, K; Góra, M; Gajecka, M; Jakimiuk, E; Zielonka, Ł

    2009-01-01

    Contamination of feed with zearalenone (ZEA) is still a serious problem in farm animals feeding, especially in gilts, sensitive to this compound. The relative failure of current methods of decontamination and quality control lead us to look for new techniques. The commonly accepted method for breaking down ZEA was performed in controlled temperature and time conditions. Various sodium carbonate doses (0.5 - 4%) were added to feed naturally contaminated with ZEA (ZEA biosynthesis by F. graminearum isolates). These doses were found to be effective in in vitro studies. The addition of 2% sodium carbonate gave the best results in reducing the phytoestrogen in the feed.

  18. Risks for animal health related to the presence of fumonisins, their modified forms and hidden forms in feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    2018-01-01

    Fumonisins, mycotoxins primarily produced by Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum, occur predominantly in cereal grains, especially in maize. The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risk to animal health related to fumonisins and their modified and hidden...... forms in feed. Fumonisin B1 (FB1), FB2 and FB3 are the most common forms of fumonisins in feedstuffs and thus were included in the assessment. FB1, FB2 and FB3 have the same mode of action and were considered as having similar toxicological profile and potencies. For fumonisins, the EFSA Panel......, dogs, cats and mink. The dietary exposure was estimated on 18,140 feed samples on FB1–3 representing most of the feed commodities with potential presence of fumonisins. Samples were collected between 2003 and 2016 from 19 different European countries, but most of them from four Member States. To take...

  19. Effect of temperature and water activity on the production of fumonisins by Aspergillus niger and different Fusarium species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Samson, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Fumonisins are economically important mycotoxins which until recently were considered to originate from only a few Fusarium species. However recently a putative fumonisin gene cluster was discovered in two different Aspergillus niger strains followed by detection of an actual fumonisin B......2 (FB2) production in four strains of this biotechnologically important workhorse. Results In the present study, a screening of 5 A. niger strains and 25 assumed fumonisin producing Fusarium strains from 6 species, showed that all 5 A. niger strains produced FB2 and 23 of 25 Fusarium produced...... fumonisin B1 and other isoforms (fumonisin B2 and B3). Five A. niger and five Fusarium spp. were incubated at six different temperatures from 15-42°C on Czapek Yeast Agar +5% salt or Potato Dextrose Agar. A. niger had the highest production of FB2 at 25-30°C whereas Fusarium spp. had the maximal production...

  20. Determination of fumonisin B1 levels in body fluids and hair from piglets fed fumonisin B1-contaminated diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Pollyana C M C; Jager, Alessandra V; Tonin, Fernando G; Petta, Tânia; Di Gregório, Mayra C; Cossalter, Anne-Marie; Pinton, Philippe; Oswald, Isabelle P; Rottinghaus, George E; Oliveira, Carlos A F

    2017-10-01

    The levels of fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) residues in plasma, urine, feces and hair from 24 piglets fed FB 1 -contaminated diets containing 3.1, 6.1 or 9.0 μg FB 1 .g -1 for 28 days were determined using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The levels of FB 1 in plasma, urine, feces and pooled hair (n = 3) samples varied from 0.15 to 1.08 μg.L -1 , 16.09-75.01 μg.L -1 , 1.87-13.89 μg.g -1 and 2.08-8.09 ng.g -1 , respectively. Significant correlations (r = 0.808-0.885; P 14 days). The possibility to evaluate hair as a biomarker of fumonisin exposure was established, although further studies are needed to provide physiologically based toxicokinetics of residual FB 1 in the pig hair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fumonisin concentrations and in vivo toxicity of nixtamalized Fusarium verticillioides culture material: evidence for fumonisin-matrix interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, T D; Snook, M E; Riley, R T; Voss, K A

    2008-08-01

    The toxic potential of nixtamalized foods can be underestimated if, during cooking, reversible fumonisin-food matrix interactions reduce the amount of mycotoxin that is detected but not the amount that is bioavailable. Fusarium verticillioides culture material (CM) was nixtamalized as is (NCM) or after mixing with ground corn (NCMC). Additional portions were sham nixtamalized without (SCM) or with corn (SCMC). Nixtamalization and sham nixtamalization reduced FB(1); CM, NCM, and SCM diets contained 9.08, 2.08, and 1.19 ppm, respectively. FB(1) was further reduced in the NCMC (0.49 ppm) but not the SCMC (1.01 ppm) diets compared to their NCM and SCM counterparts. Equivalent weights of the cooked products, uncooked CM, corn (UC) or nixtamalized UC (NUC) were fed to rats for up to three weeks. Kidney lesions in the NCM-fed group were less severe than in the CM-fed, positive control group and no lesions were found in the NCMC and other groups. Group kidney sphinganine (biomarker of fumonisin exposure) concentrations decreased in the order: CM (absolute concentration (nmol/g)=600-800)>NCM (400-600)>SCM and SCMC (30-90)>NCMC, UC and NUC (<8). Together, these results suggest that mycotoxin-corn matrix interactions during nixtamalization reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of FB(1).

  2. Four-year surveillance for ochratoxin a and fumonisins in retail foods in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Koji; Nakajima, Masahiro; Tabata, Setsuko; Ishikuro, Eiichi; Tanaka, Toshitsugu; Norizuki, Hiroko; Itoh, Yoshinori; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Kai, Shigemi; Tsutsumi, Toru; Takahashi, Masanori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Iizuka, Seiichiro; Ogiso, Motoki; Maeda, Mamoru; Yamaguchi, Shigeaki; Sugiyama, Kei-Ichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kumagai, Susumu

    2010-02-01

    Between 2004 and 2007 we examined foods from Japanese retail shops for contamination with ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins B(1), B(2), and B(3). A total of 1,358 samples of 27 different products were examined for OTA, and 831 samples of 16 different products were examined for fumonisins. The limits of quantification ranged from 0.01 to 0.5 microg/kg for OTA and 2 to 10 microg/kg for the fumonisins. OTA was detected in amounts higher than limits of quantification in wheat flour, pasta, oatmeal, rye, buckwheat flour and dried buckwheat noodles, raisins, wine, beer, coffee beans and coffee products, chocolate, cocoa, and coriander. OTA was found in more than 90% of the samples of instant coffee and cocoa, and the highest concentration of OTA, 12.5 microg/kg, was detected in raisins. The concentration of OTA in oatmeal, rye, raisins, wine, and roasted coffee beans varied remarkably from year to year. Fumonisins were detected in frozen and canned corn, popcorn grain, corn grits, cornflakes, corn soups, corn snacks, beer, soybeans, millet, and asparagus. The highest concentrations of fumonisins B(1), B(2), and B(3) were detected in corn grits (1,670, 597, and 281 microg/kg, respectively). All of the samples of corn grits were contaminated with fumonisins, and more than 80% of the samples of popcorn grain and corn snacks contained fumonisins. OTA and fumonisins were detected in several food products in Japan; however, although Japan has not set regulatory levels for these mycotoxins, their concentrations were relatively low.

  3. Incidence of Fusarium spp. and Levels of Fumonisin B1 in Maize in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedera, C. J.; Plattner, R. D.; Desjardins, A. E.

    1999-01-01

    Maize kernel samples were collected in 1996 from smallholder farm storages in the districts of Bomet, Bungoma, Kakamega, Kericho, Kisii, Nandi, Siaya, Trans Nzoia, and Vihiga in the tropical highlands of western Kenya. Two-thirds of the samples were good-quality maize, and one-third were poor-quality maize with a high incidence of visibly diseased kernels. One hundred fifty-three maize samples were assessed for Fusarium infection by culturing kernels on a selective medium. The isolates obtained were identified to the species level based on morphology and on formation of the sexual stage in Gibberella fujikuroi mating population tests. Fusarium moniliforme (G. fujikuroi mating population A) was isolated most frequently, but F. subglutinans (G. fujikuroi mating population E), F. graminearum, F. oxysporum, F. solani, and other Fusarium species were also isolated. The high incidence of kernel infection with the fumonisin-producing species F. moniliforme indicated a potential for fumonisin contamination of Kenyan maize. However, analysis of 197 maize kernel samples by high-performance liquid chromatography found little fumonisin B1 in most of the samples. Forty-seven percent of the samples contained fumonisin B1 at levels above the detection limit (100 ng/g), but only 5% were above 1,000 ng/g, a proposed level of concern for human consumption. The four most-contaminated samples, with fumonisin B1 levels ranging from 3,600 to 11,600 ng/g, were from poor-quality maize collected in the Kisii district. Many samples with a high incidence of visibly diseased kernels contained little or no fumonisin B1, despite the presence of F. moniliforme. This result may be attributable to the inability of F. moniliforme isolates present in Kenyan maize to produce fumonisins, to the presence of other ear rot fungi, and/or to environmental conditions unfavorable for fumonisin production. PMID:9872757

  4. Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin contamination in Bt and non-Bt maize cultivated in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Vinícius M; Rocha, Liliana O; Reis, Tatiana A; Reis, Gabriela M; Duarte, Aildson P; Michelotto, Marcos D; Correa, Benedito

    2017-05-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is one of the main pathogens of maize, causing ear and stalk rots. This fungus is also able to produce high levels of fumonisins, which have been linked to various illnesses in humans and animals. Previous studies have shown that maize hybrids genetically modified with the cry genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) presented lower incidence of F. verticillioides and fumonisin levels, presumably through the reduction of insects, which could act as vectors of fungi. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of F. verticillioides and the concentration of fumonisins in Bt and isogenic non-Bt hybrids (2B710Hx, 30F35YG, 2B710, and 30F35, respectively). The samples of 2B710Hx and 30F35YG presented lower F. verticillioides frequency than 2B710 and 30F35 samples. However, there was no statistical difference between fumonisin contamination when Bt and non-Bt samples were compared (P > 0.05). The results suggest that other environmental parameters could possibly trigger fumonisin production during plant development in the field; consequently, other management strategies should be applied to aid controlling fumonisin contamination in maize.

  5. Occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Fumonisins in Stored Wheat Grains Marketed in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baharuddin Salleh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grains are well known to be invaded by Fusarium spp. under field and storage conditions and contaminated with fumonisins. Therefore, determining Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in wheat grains is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Eighty-two stored wheat samples produced in Iran were collected from various supermarkets and tested for the presence of Fusarium spp. by agar plate assay and fumonisins by HPLC. A total of 386 Fusarium strains were isolated and identified through morphological characteristics. All these strains belonged to F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides. Of the Fusarium species, F. graminearum was the most prevalent species, followed by F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum and then F. culmorum. Natural occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1 could be detected in 56 (68.2% samples ranging from 15–155 μg/kg, fumonisin B2 (FB2 in 35 (42.6% samples ranging from 12–86 μg/kg and fumonisin B3 (FB3 in 26 (31.7% samples ranging from 13–64 μg/kg. The highest FB1 levels were detected in samples from Eilam (up to 155 μg/kg and FB2 and FB3 in samples from Gilan Gharb (up to 86 μg/kg and 64 μg/kg.

  6. Occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Fumonisins in Stored Wheat Grains Marketed in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehri, Khosrow; Jahromi, Saeed Tamadoni; Reddy, Kasa R. N.; Abbasi, Saeed; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2010-01-01

    Wheat grains are well known to be invaded by Fusarium spp. under field and storage conditions and contaminated with fumonisins. Therefore, determining Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in wheat grains is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Eighty-two stored wheat samples produced in Iran were collected from various supermarkets and tested for the presence of Fusarium spp. by agar plate assay and fumonisins by HPLC. A total of 386 Fusarium strains were isolated and identified through morphological characteristics. All these strains belonged to F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides. Of the Fusarium species, F. graminearum was the most prevalent species, followed by F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum and then F. culmorum. Natural occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) could be detected in 56 (68.2%) samples ranging from 15–155 μg/kg, fumonisin B2 (FB2) in 35 (42.6%) samples ranging from 12–86 μg/kg and fumonisin B3 (FB3) in 26 (31.7%) samples ranging from 13–64 μg/kg. The highest FB1 levels were detected in samples from Eilam (up to 155 μg/kg) and FB2 and FB3 in samples from Gilan Gharb (up to 86 μg/kg and 64 μg/kg). PMID:22069576

  7. Occurrence of Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in stored wheat grains marketed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehri, Khosrow; Jahromi, Saeed Tamadoni; Reddy, Kasa R N; Abbasi, Saeed; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2010-12-01

    Wheat grains are well known to be invaded by Fusarium spp. under field and storage conditions and contaminated with fumonisins. Therefore, determining Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in wheat grains is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Eighty-two stored wheat samples produced in Iran were collected from various supermarkets and tested for the presence of Fusarium spp. by agar plate assay and fumonisins by HPLC. A total of 386 Fusarium strains were isolated and identified through morphological characteristics. All these strains belonged to F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum and F.verticillioides. Of the Fusarium species, F. graminearum was the most prevalent species, followed by F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum and then F. culmorum. Natural occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) could be detected in 56 (68.2%) samples ranging from 15-155 μg/kg, fumonisin B2 (FB2) in 35 (42.6%) samples ranging from 12-86 μg/kg and fumonisin B3 (FB3) in 26 (31.7%) samples ranging from 13-64 μg/kg. The highest FB1 levels were detected in samples from Eilam (up to 155 μg/kg) and FB2 and FB3 in samples from Gilan Gharb (up to 86 μg/kg and 64 μg/kg).

  8. Critical environmental and genotypic factors for Fusarium verticillioides infection, fungal growth and fumonisin contamination in maize grown in northwestern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ana; Santiago, Rogelio; Ramos, Antonio J; Souto, Xosé C; Aguín, Olga; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Butrón, Ana

    2014-05-02

    In northwestern Spain, where weather is rainy and mild throughout the year, Fusarium verticillioides is the most prevalent fungus in kernels and a significant risk of fumonisin contamination has been exposed. In this study, detailed information about environmental and maize genotypic factors affecting F. verticillioides infection, fungal growth and fumonisin content in maize kernels was obtained in order to establish control points to reduce fumonisin contamination. Evaluations were conducted in a total of 36 environments and factorial regression analyses were performed to determine the contribution of each factor to variability among environments, genotypes, and genotype × environment interactions for F. verticillioides infection, fungal growth and fumonisin content. Flowering and kernel drying were the most critical periods throughout the growing season for F. verticillioides infection and fumonisin contamination. Around flowering, wetter and cooler conditions limited F. verticillioides infection and growth, and high temperatures increased fumonisin contents. During kernel drying, increased damaged kernels favored fungal growth, and higher ear damage by corn borers and hard rainfall favored fumonisin accumulation. Later planting dates and especially earlier harvest dates reduced the risk of fumonisin contamination, possibly due to reduced incidence of insects and accumulation of rainfall during the kernel drying period. The use of maize varieties resistant to Sitotroga cerealella, with good husk coverage and non-excessive pericarp thickness could also be useful to reduce fumonisin contamination of maize kernels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Dent Stage of Maize Kernels Is the Most Conducive for Fumonisin Biosynthesis under Field Conditions ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Adeline; Barreau, Christian; Pinson-Gadais, Laëtitia; Piraux, François; Caron, Daniel; Lannou, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2011-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Fusarium verticillioides infects maize ears and produces fumonisins, known for their adverse effects on human and animal health. Basic questions remain unanswered regarding the kernel stage(s) associated with fumonisin biosynthesis and the kernel components involved in fumonisin regulation during F. verticillioides-maize interaction under field conditions. In this 2-year field study, the time course of F. verticillioides growth and fumonisin accumulation in developing maize kernels, along with the variations in kernel pH and amylopectin content, were monitored using relevant and accurate analytical tools. In all experiments, the most significant increase in fumonisin accumulation or in fumonisin productivity (i.e., fumonisin production per unit of fungus) was shown to occur within a very short period of time, between 22/32 and 42 days after inoculation and corresponding to the dent stage. This stage was also characterized by acidification in the kernel pH and a maximum level of amylopectin content. Our data clearly support published results based on in vitro experiments suggesting that the physiological stages of the maize kernel play a major role in regulating fumonisin production. Here we have validated this result for in planta and field conditions, and we demonstrate that under such conditions the dent stage is the most conducive for fumonisin accumulation. PMID:21984235

  10. Single-kernel analysis of fumonisins and other fungal metabolites in maize from South African subsistence farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, J M; Sørensen, S M; Sulyok, M; van der Westhuizen, L; Shephard, G S; Frisvad, J C; Thrane, U; Krska, R; Nielsen, K F

    2011-12-01

    Fumonisins are important Fusarium mycotoxins mainly found in maize and derived products. This study analysed maize from five subsistence farmers in the former Transkei region of South Africa. Farmers had sorted kernels into good and mouldy quality. A total of 400 kernels from 10 batches were analysed; of these 100 were visually characterised as uninfected and 300 as infected. Of the 400 kernels, 15% were contaminated with 1.84-1428 mg kg(-1) fumonisins, and 4% (n=15) had a fumonisin content above 100 mg kg(-1). None of the visually uninfected maize had detectable amounts of fumonisins. The total fumonisin concentration was 0.28-1.1 mg kg(-1) for good-quality batches and 0.03-6.2 mg kg(-1) for mouldy-quality batches. The high fumonisin content in the batches was apparently caused by a small number (4%) of highly contaminated kernels, and removal of these reduced the average fumonisin content by 71%. Of the 400 kernels, 80 were screened for 186 microbial metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, detecting 17 other fungal metabolites, including fusaric acid, equisetin, fusaproliferin, beauvericin, cyclosporins, agroclavine, chanoclavine, rugulosin and emodin. Fusaric acid in samples without fumonisins indicated the possibility of using non-toxinogenic Fusaria as biocontrol agents to reduce fumonisin exposure, as done for Aspergillus flavus. This is the first report of mycotoxin profiling in single naturally infected maize kernels. © 2011 Taylor & Francis

  11. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Metabolite Profiling of Japanese Black Cattle Naturally Contaminated with Zearalenone and Sterigmatocystin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toda, Katsuki; Kokushi, Emiko; Uno, Seiichi; Shiiba, Ayaka; Hasunuma, Hiroshi; Fushimi, Yasuo; Wijayagunawardane, Missaka P B; Zhang, Chunhua; Yamato, Osamu; Taniguchi, Masayasu; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Takagi, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the metabolic profile of cattle fed with or without zearalenone (ZEN) and sterigmatocystin (STC)-contaminated diets using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics approach. Urinary samples were collected from individual animals (n = 6 per herd)

  12. Assessing the zearalenone-binding activity of adsorbent materials during passage through a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avantaggiato, G.; Havenaar, R.; Visconti, A.

    2003-01-01

    A novel approach is presented herein to study the intestinal absorption of mycotoxins by using a laboratory model that mimics the metabolic processes of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of healthy pigs. This model was used to evaluate the small-intestinal absorption of zearalenone from contaminated

  13. Susceptibility of Broiler Chickens to Coccidiosis When Fed Subclinical Doses of Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisins-Special Emphasis on the Immunological Response and the Mycotoxin Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Bertrand; Dohnal, Ilse; Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Eicher, Susan D; Selvaraj, Ramesh K; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Applegate, Todd J

    2016-07-27

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in livestock diets. The effect of subclinical doses of mycotoxins in chickens is largely unknown, and in particular the susceptibility of birds to pathogenic challenge when fed these fungal metabolites. Therefore, the present study reports the effects of DON and FB on chickens challenged with Eimeria spp, responsible for coccidiosis. Broilers were fed diets from hatch to day 20, containing no mycotoxins, 1.5 mg DON/kg, 20 mg FB/kg, or both toxins (12 pens/diet; 7 birds/pen). At day 14, six pens of birds per diet (half of the birds) were challenged with a 25×-recommended dose of coccidial vaccine, and all birds (challenged and unchallenged) were sampled 6 days later. As expected, performance of birds was strongly affected by the coccidial challenge. Ingestion of mycotoxins did not further affect the growth but repartitioned the rate of reduction (between the fraction due to the change in maintenance and feed efficiency), and reduced apparent nitrogen digestibility. Intestinal lesions and number of oocysts in the jejunal mucosa and feces of challenged birds were more frequent and intense in the birds fed mycotoxins than in birds fed control feed. The upregulation of cytokines (interleukin (IL) IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) following coccidial infection was higher in the jejunum of birds fed mycotoxins. Further, the higher intestinal immune response was associated with a higher percentage of T lymphocytes CD4⁺CD25⁺, also called Tregs, observed in the cecal tonsils of challenged birds fed mycotoxins. Interestingly, the increase in FB biomarker of exposure (sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in serum and liver) suggested a higher absorption and bioavailability of FB in challenged birds. The interaction of DON and FB was very dependent on the endpoint assessed, with three endpoints reporting antagonism, nine additivity, and two synergism. In conclusion

  14. Evidence for fumonisin inhibition of ceramide synthase in humans consuming maize-based foods and living in high exposure communities in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a toxic chemical produced by molds. The molds that produce fumonisin are common in corn. Consumption of contaminated corn by farm animals has been shown to be the cause of disease. Fumonisin has been hypothesized to be an environmental risk factor for diseases in humans in c...

  15. Effect of baking and frying on the in vivo toxicity to rats of cornmeal containing fumonisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Kenneth A; Meredith, Filmore I; Bacon, Charles W

    2003-08-27

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides (=F. moniliforme) and other Fusarium species. They are found in corn and corn-based foods. Cooking decreases fumonisin concentrations in food products under some conditions; however, little is known about how cooking effects biological activity. Baked cornbread, pan-fried corncakes, and deep-fried fritters were made from cornmeal that was spiked with 5% w/w F. verticillioides culture material (CM). The cooked materials and the uncooked CM-spiked cornmeal were fed to male rats (n = 5/group) for 2 weeks at high (20% w/w spiked cornmeal equivalents) or low (2% w/w spiked cornmeal equivalents) doses. A control group was fed a diet containing 20% w/w unspiked cornmeal. Toxic response to the uncooked CM-spiked cornmeal and the cooked products included decreased body weight gain (high-dose only), decreased kidney weight, and microscopic kidney and liver lesions of the type caused by fumonisins. Fumonisin concentration, as determined by HPLC analysis, in the 20% w/w pan-fried corncake diet [92.2 ppm of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1))] was slightly, but not statistically significantly, lower than those of the 20% w/w baked cornbread (132.2 ppm of FB(1)), deep-fried fritter (120.2 ppm of FB(1)) and CM-spiked cornmeal (130.5 of ppm FB(1)) diets. Therefore, baking and frying had no significant effect on the biological activity or concentration of fumonisins in these corn-based products, and the results provided no evidence for the formation of novel toxins or "hidden" fumonisins during cooking.

  16. Reduction of fumonisin B₁ in corn grits by twin-screw extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lauren S; Jablonski, Joseph; Bullerman, Lloyd B; Bianchini, Andreia; Hanna, Milford A; Voss, Kenneth A; Hollub, April D; Ryu, Dojin

    2011-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the fate of fumonisins in flaking corn grits during twin-screw extrusion by measuring fumonisin B₁ (FB₁) and its analogs with a mass balance approach. Food grade corn grits and 2 batches of grits contaminated with FB₁ at 10 and 50 μg/g by Fusarium verticillioides M-2552 were processed with or without glucose supplementation (10%, w/w) with a twin-screw extruder. Extrusion reduced FB₁ in contaminated grits by 64% to 72% without glucose and 89% to 94% with added glucose. In addition, extrusion alone resulted in 26% to 73% reduction in the levels of fumonisin B₂ and fumonisin B₃, while levels of both mycotoxins were reduced by >89% in extruded corn grits containing 10% glucose. Mass balance analysis showed that 38% to 46% of the FB₁ species detected in corn extruded with glucose was N-(deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-FB₁, while 23% to 37% of FB₁ species detected in extruded corn grits with and without added glucose was bound to the matrix. It was also found that the hydrolyzed form of FB₁ was a minor species in extruded corn grits with or without added glucose, representing fumonisin analogues measured in this study. Research is needed to identify the reaction products resulting from extrusion processing of fumonisin-contaminated corn products. Twin-screw extrusion is widely used in food industry for its versatility. This technology may reduce the level of fumonisins in corn particularly with added glucose. Journal of Food Science © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  17. Characterization of Fumonisin A-Series by High-Resolution Liquid Chromatography-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Tamura

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisin A-series (FAs in a reference material of corn sample that was naturally contaminated with fumonisins was characterized using high-resolution liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-Orbitap MS. Peaks for fumonisin B1 (FB1, fumonisin B2 (FB2, and fumonisin B3 (FB3, in addition to three peaks corresponding to unknown compounds I, II, and III, were detected in the chromatogram for the corn sample. Fragment ion analysis for FB1, FB2, and FB3 showed that while the ions formed at m/z values of 200–800 were similar to those formed by the cleavage of the tricarballylic acids and the hydroxyl groups, the fragmentation patterns at m/z values of 50–200 varied depending on the hydroxyl group locations in the compounds. Fragment ion analysis of compounds I–III revealed structural similarities to FBs, only differing by an additional C2H2O in the unknown compounds. Using these results and by comparing the product ion mass spectra of compound I with fumonisin A1 (FA1 synthesized from FB1 standards, compounds I–III were hypothesized to be N-acetyl analogs of FBs: fumonisins A1 (FA1, A2 (FA2, and A3 (FA3. The method for determining concentrations was validated with FA1, FB1, FB2, and FB3 standards and applied to analyze the reference material. The FB1, FB2, and FB3 analytical levels were within acceptance limits and the amount of FA1 in the material was ~15% of FB1 amount at 4.2 mg/kg.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis, fumonisin production and pathogenicity of Fusarium fujikuroi strains isolated from rice in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Alejandra; Marín, Patricia; González-Jaén, M Teresa; Aguilar, Kristel Grace I; Cumagun, Christian Joseph R

    2013-09-01

    Fusarium fujikuroi Nirenberg is a maize and rice pathogen causing important agricultural losses and produces fumonisins - mycotoxins which pose health risk to humans and farm animals. However, little information is available about the phylogenetics of this species and its ability to produce fumonisins in rice. We studied 32 strains isolated from rice in the Philippines and performed a phylogenetic analysis using the partial sequence of Elongation Factor 1 alpha (EF-1α) including isolates belonging to closely related species. Fumonisin B1 (FB1 ) production was analyzed in 7-day-old cultures grown in fumonisin-inducing medium by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based method and by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using primers for FUM1 gene, a key gene in fumonisin biosynthesis. Nucleotide diversities per site (π) were 0.00024 ± 0.00022 (standard deviation) for the 32 F. fujikuroi strains from the Philippines and 0.00189 ± 0.00143 for all 34 F. fujikuroi strains, respectively. F. fujikuroi isolates grouped into one cluster separated from the rest of isolates belonging to the closely related F. proliferatum and showed very low variability, irrespective of their geographic origin. The cluster containing strains of F. proliferatum showed higher intraspecific variability than F. fujikuroi. Thirteen of the 32 strains analyzed were FB1 producers (40.62%), with production ranging from 0.386 to 223.83 ppm. All isolates analyzed showed FUM1 gene expression above 1 and higher than the CT value of the non-template control sample. Both seedling stunting and elongation were induced by the isolates in comparison with the control. F. fujikuroi are distinct from F. proliferatum isolates based on phytogenetic analysis and are potential fumonisin producers because all are positive for FUM1 gene expression. No relationship between fumonisin production and pathogenicity could be observed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Relationship between fumonisin production and FUM gene expression in Fusarium verticillioides under different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Francesca; Iversen, Anita; Logrieco, Antonio F; Mulè, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is the main source of fumonisins, a group of mycotoxins that can contaminate maize-based food and feed and cause diseases in humans and animals. The study of the effect of different environmental conditions on toxin production should provide information that can be used to develop strategies to minimize the risk. This study analysed the effect of temperature (15°C-35°C), water activity (a(w): 0.999-0.93), salinity (0-125 g l(-1) NaCl) and pH (5-8) on the growth and production of fumonisins B(1) (FB1), B(2) (FB2) and B(3) (FB3) and the expression of FUM1 and FUM21 in F. verticillioides. The highest growth rate was measured at 25°C, a(w) of 0.998-0.99 and 0-25 g l(-1) of NaCl. Optimal conditions for fumonisin production were 30°C, a(w) of 0.99, 25 g l(-1) of NaCl and pH 5; nevertheless, the strain showed a good adaptability and was able to produce moderate levels of fumonisins under a wide range of conditions. Gene expression mirrored fumonisin production profile under all conditions with the exception of temperature: FUM1 and FUM21 expression was highest at 15°C, while maximum fumonisin production was at 30°C. These data indicate that a post-transcriptional regulation mechanism could account for the different optimal temperatures for FUM gene expression and fumonisin production.

  20. Relative severity of fumonisin contamination of cereal crops in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vismer, Hester F; Shephard, Gordon S; Rheeder, John P; van der Westhuizen, Liana; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit

    2015-01-01

    Traditional and improved varieties of maize, pearl millet and sorghum were planted by small-scale farmers under the direction of the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture in two Nigerian agro-ecological zones: the Sudan Savanna and the Northern Guinea Savanna. Samples were collected for the determination of Fusarium infection and fumonisin (B1, B2 and B3) contamination. A previous paper reported Aspergillus infection and aflatoxin contamination of these samples. Fusarium infection levels, measured by per cent kernels infected, were modest with mean levels for the above cereals of 16% ± 11% (SD), 12% ± 7% and 13% ± 16%, respectively. However, the Fusarium species recovered from maize were predominantly the fumonisin producers F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, together making an infection rate of 15% ± 10%, whereas these species were present to a limited extent only in the other two cereals, 1% ± 1% for pearl millet and 2% ± 6% for sorghum. Fumonisin contamination was variable but reflected the diversity of Fusarium producers in these three cereals. Mean levels were 228 ± 579 µg kg(-1) (range fumonisins in maize as well as in the traditional African cereals, millet and sorghum (89% co-occurrence across all three cereals). The low fumonisin levels may be ascribed to the use of good agricultural practices. Of the Fusarium species present, those in maize consisted mainly of fumonisin producers, the opposite of what was observed in pearl millet and sorghum. It is concluded that replacement of maize by pearl millet and sorghum could improve food safety with regards to aflatoxin B and fumonisin B exposure.

  1. Characterization of fumonisin A-series by high-resolution liquid chromatography-orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Masayoshi; Mochizuki, Naoki; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2014-08-21

    Fumonisin A-series (FAs) in a reference material of corn sample that was naturally contaminated with fumonisins was characterized using high-resolution liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-Orbitap MS). Peaks for fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2), and fumonisin B3 (FB3), in addition to three peaks corresponding to unknown compounds I, II, and III, were detected in the chromatogram for the corn sample. Fragment ion analysis for FB1, FB2, and FB3 showed that while the ions formed at m/z values of 200-800 were similar to those formed by the cleavage of the tricarballylic acids and the hydroxyl groups, the fragmentation patterns at m/z values of 50-200 varied depending on the hydroxyl group locations in the compounds. Fragment ion analysis of compounds I-III revealed structural similarities to FBs, only differing by an additional C2H2O in the unknown compounds. Using these results and by comparing the product ion mass spectra of compound I with fumonisin A1 (FA1) synthesized from FB1 standards, compounds I-III were hypothesized to be N-acetyl analogs of FBs: fumonisins A1 (FA1), A2 (FA2), and A3 (FA3). The method for determining concentrations was validated with FA1, FB1, FB2, and FB3 standards and applied to analyze the reference material. The FB1, FB2, and FB3 analytical levels were within acceptance limits and the amount of FA1 in the material was ~15% of FB1 amount at 4.2 mg/kg.

  2. Fumonisins in plant-origin food and fodder--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryła, Marcin; Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Obiedziński, Mieczysław W; Sękul, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by the Fusarium group of fungi commonly found on crops, mainly on maize. Some data suggest that as much as 25% of world crops may be lost because of mycotoxin contamination. Therefore, researchers in many countries (particularly in those in which relatively large amounts of maize are directly consumed by humans) are concerned with fumonisin levels in plant-origin foodstuffs and feeds available in their local markets. There is no doubt the levels are strongly correlated with the climate conditions prevailing in the region in which the maize was cultivated: the hotter the climate, the more serious the problem. Negative consequences of consumption of fumonisin-contaminated food by humans include an increased risk of oesophagus cancer and decreased body mass growth. In recent years some trials have been undertaken to reduce fumonisin levels in food and feed by the application of isothiocyanates naturally occurring in plants or peptidoglycans isolated from lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The results of these studies suggested that some reduction in contamination levels might be achieved. Additionally, some recent studies indicate that Sphingopyxis sp. bacteria produce enzymes that are able to break down the fumonisin molecule. Some fumonisins present in food may be bound/coupled with other compounds, and therefore difficult to detect. Such complexes in which the toxins are masked or hidden may even be at higher levels than the not-bound (free) molecules. The problem of how to evaluate effectively and efficiently the concentration of fumonisins in various foodstuffs is therefore a real-life challenge for scientists.

  3. Urinary fumonisin B1 and estimated fumonisin intake in women from high- and low-exposure communities in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Olga; Matute, Jorge; Gelineau-van Waes, Janee; Maddox, Joyce R; Gregory, Simon G; Ashley-Koch, Allison E; Showker, Jency L; Zitomer, Nicholas C; Voss, Kenneth A; Riley, Ronald T

    2014-05-01

    Fumonisin (FB) intake can be high when maize is a dietary staple. We determined (i) urinary FB (UFB) in women consuming maize in high- and low-exposure communities in Guatemala, (ii) the FB levels in maize, (iii) the relationship between UFB and FB intake, and (iv) the relative excretion of UFB1 , UFB2 , and UFB3 . Urine and maize were analyzed for FB for 1 year in three departments. Maize consumption was estimated by an interview questionnaire. Fumonisin B1 , B2 , and B3 (FB1 , FB2 and FB3 ), were detected in 100% of maize samples. FB1 in maize and urine was significantly higher in Jutiapa compared to Chimaltenango or Escuintla. The FB intake paralleled UFB1 in a dose-dependent manner but UFB1 was present in much higher levels than UFB2 or UFB3 compared to maize. In Jutiapa, agroecological conditions favored FB production. UFB1 mirrored the estimated FB intake. UFB1 > 0.1 ng/mL resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the risk of exceeding FB intake of 2 μg/kg b.w./day compared to women with no detectable UFB1 . More than 50% exceeded 2 μg/kg b.w./day when UFB1 was >0.5 ng/mL. UFB2 and UFB3 were rarely detected confirming that FB1 is either absorbed better or preferentially excreted in urine. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Bioconversion of α-[14C]Zearalenol and β-[14C]Zearalenol into [14C]Zearalenone by Fusarium roseum Gibbosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, K.E.; Hagler, W.M. Jr.; Hamilton, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    Cultures of Fusarium roseum Gibbosum on rice were treated with [ 14 C]zearalenone, α-[ 14 C]zearalenol, or β-[ 14 C]zearalenol to determine whether a precursor-product relationship exists among these closely related fungal metabolites. Culture extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and fractionated by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and the level of radioactivity was determined. Within 7 days, the β-[ 14 C]zearalenol was converted to zearalenone, and no residual β-[ 14 C]zearalenol was detectable. Most of the α-[ 14 C]zearalenol added was also converted into zearalenone within 14 days. In cultures treated with [ 14 C]zearalenone, no radioactivity was noted in any other components

  5. Correlation of Mycotoxin Fumonisin B2 Production and Presence of the Fumonisin Biosynthetic Gene fum8 in Aspergillus niger from Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins associated with cancer and several other serious diseases in humans and animals. Production of the mycotoxins has been reported for over two decades in Fusarium species, but has been reported only recently in strains of Aspergillus niger. In addition, a homologue of the f...

  6. Development of antibodies for N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) fumonisin B1 and cross-reaction with modified fumonisins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins that are routinely found worldwide in commodities such as maize. The group, which has many members, is generally characterized by the presence of one or more tricarballylic acid groups esterified to a long carbon backbone. The diversity of this group of toxins is...

  7. Preliminary evaluation of fumonisins by the Nordic countries and occurrence of fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) in corn-based foods on the Danish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette; Thorup, Inger

    2001-01-01

    Experts from the Nordic countries (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland) have carried out an evaluation of fumonisins. The working group members concluded that, at that time point, it was not possible to carry out a complete risk assessment. However, it was recommended that the human daily...... intake of fumonisins should be less than 1 mug/kg bw/day. Subsequently, the presence of the Fusarium mycotoxins fumonisin B-1 and B-2 (FB1 and FB2) in corn-based food on the Danish retail market has been determined. A total of 70 samples were analysed and 37% contained FB1 and 21% contained FB2....... No fumonisins were found in sweet corn (canned or frozen), corn-on-the-cob, corn starch or gruel powder for babies. FB1 was found in about half of the corn flakes, corn snack and popcorn (not popped) samples, whereas FB2 was seen to a lesser extent. Both FB1 and FB2 were found in 75% or more of the corn flour...

  8. Detoxification of zearalenone from corn oil by adsorption of functionalized GO systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaojuan; Sun, Changpo; Xu, Jing; Liu, Di; Han, Yangying; Wu, Songling; Luo, Xiaohong

    2018-02-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) and its functionalized systems have very unique structural advantages as excellent adsorbent or substrate material in the removal of organic contaminants. Herein, we reported a strategy to establish functionalized GO system (FGO) using amphiphilic molecules didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) as a modifier for the detoxification of zearalenone (ZEN) from corn oil. The adsorption property for the removal of ZEN from edible corn oils under different experimental conditions such as pH, amphiphilic molecules, time and temperature was investigated in detail. The morphology structure, adsorption isotherm, adsorption kinetics and the recyclability of FGO systems have also been researched, systematically. The FGO systems exhibit a higher adsorption efficiency, recyclability and thermostability in comparison with the traditional adsorbent materials. It provides an insight into the detoxification of mycotoxin from edible oils by graphene-based new materials.

  9. Zearalenone Uptake and Biotransformation in Micropropagated Triticum durum Desf. Plants: A Xenobolomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolli, Enrico; Righetti, Laura; Galaverna, Gianni; Suman, Michele; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Bruni, Renato

    2018-02-14

    A model was set up to elucidate the uptake, translocation, and metabolic fate of zearalenone (ZEN) in durum wheat. After treatment with ZEN, roots and shoots were profiled with LC-HRMS. A comprehensive description of in planta ZEN biotransformation and a biotechnological evaluation of the model were obtained. Up to 200 μg ZEN were removed by each plantlet after 14 days. Most ZEN and its masked forms were retained in roots, while minimal amounts were detected in leaves. Sixty-two chromatographic peaks were obtained, resulting in 7 putative phase I and 18 putative phase II metabolites. ZEN16Glc and ZEN14Glc were most abundant in roots, sulfo-conjugates and zearalenol derivatives were unable to gain systemic distribution, while distinct isomers of malonyl conjugates were found in leaves and roots. This study underlines the potential ZEN occurrence in plants without an ongoing Fusarium infection. Micropropagation may represent a tool to investigate the interplay between mycotoxins and wheat.

  10. Degradation of zearalenone and ochratoxin A in three Danish agricultural soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, G.K.; Strobel, B.W.; Hansen, H.C.B.

    2006-01-01

    Degradation of two mycotoxins: zearalenone (ZON) produced by species of Fusarium and ochratoxin A (OTA) produced by species of Penicillium were followed in pot experiments using agricultural topsoils from Danish experimental farms: a sandy soil, a sandy clay soil and a gyttja soil with a high...... content of silt. Experiments with unplanted soil and pots planted with barley were included. Soil samples were withdrawn during a period of 225 days and analysed for the content of OTA and ZON. The degradation of both toxins consisted of an initial fast degradation followed by a slower transformation step......, whereas the half-lives for OTA were about 0.2-1 day. The slowest degradation was measured in soil rich in clay. After 225 days, neither OTA nor ZON was detected in any of the soil types. Generally, the degradation of ZON and OTA was faster in planted soil than in unplanted soil, probably due to higher...

  11. Media for identification of Gibberella zeae and production of F-2-(Zearalenone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C W; Robbins, J D; Porter, J K

    1977-02-01

    Media are described for the isolaton of Fusarium graminearum in the perithecial state, Gibberella zeae, and for the production of F-2 (zearalenone) by Fusarium species. On soil extract-corn meal agar isolated medium, G. Zeae produced perithecia in 9 to 14 days under a 12-h photoperiod. Species of Fusarium were screened for F-2 production on a liquid medium. From strains that produced F-2, the yields, from stationary cultures of G. zeae and F. culmorum after 12 days of incubation, ranged from 22 to 86 mg/liter. Three strains produced no F-2. Glumatic acid, starch, yeast extract,and the proper ratio of medium volume-to-flask volume were necessary for F-2 synthesis.

  12. Pathogenicity of fumonisin-producing and nonproducing strains of Aspergillus species in section Nigri to maize ears and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species of Aspergillus section Nigri are commonly associated with maize kernels, and some strains can produce fumonisin mycotoxins. However, there is little information about the extent to which these fungi contribute to fumonisin contamination in grain, the damage they cause to maize ears, or their...

  13. The FlbA-regulated predicted transcription factor Fum21 of Aspergillus niger is involved in fumonisin production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aerts, David; Hauer, Esther E.; Ohm, Robin A.

    2018-01-01

    , including 10 out of 12 genes of the fumonisin cluster. This was accompanied by absence of fumonisin production in the deletion strain and a 25% reduction in production of pyranonigrin A. Together, these results link FlbA-mediated sporulation-inhibited secretion with mycotoxin production....

  14. Effect of temperature and water activity on the production of fumonisins by Aspergillus niger and different Fusarium species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mogensen, J.M.; Nielsen, K.F.; Samson, R.A.; Frisvad, J.C.; Thrane, U.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fumonisins are economically important mycotoxins which until recently were considered to originate from only a few Fusarium species. However recently a putative fumonisin gene cluster was discovered in two different Aspergillus niger strains followed by detection of an actual

  15. Exposure to Zearalenone During Early Pregnancy Causes Estrogenic Multitoxic Effects in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunishige, Kohji; Kawate, Noritoshi; Inaba, Toshio; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2017-03-01

    Although zearalenone (ZEN; Sigma Chemicals, St Louis, Missouri) is a well-known mycotoxin with estrogenic activity, the toxic effects of ZEN during pregnancy are unknown. This study compared the effects of daily subcutaneous injections of ZEN (2, 4, or 8 mg/kg) with those of 17β-estradiol (E2; [Sigma Chemicals] 0.8, 1.6, or 3.2 μg/kg) in mice. Injections were administered on gestational days (GDs) 1 to 5, the period including implantation which is sensitive to hormonal balance. The effects of ZEN or E2 were evaluated by comparing the number of live fetuses, their weight, and absorbed conceptuses on GD 18, with those in vehicle-treated controls. In addition, implantation, embryos in the oviducts and those in uteri without implantation sites were investigated on GD 5. In mice treated with the highest dose of ZEN or E2, decidual responses and plasma progesterone concentrations were measured on GDs 5 and 6, respectively, and delayed implantation was investigated on GDs 9 and 14. The results showed that treatment with ZEN, in a manner similar to that seen for E2, led to obstruction of essential processes for establishing and maintaining pregnancy, such as embryo migration from oviducts to uteri, the decidual response, and activation of luteal function. Zearalenone also induced delayed implantation and loss of conceptuses and at low doses caused a retarded growth of the fetuses after normal implantation. It was therefore concluded that ZEN causes multiple estrogenic toxic actions when administered during early pregnancy in mice.

  16. Effect of fungicide on Fusarium verticillioidesmycelial morphology and fumonisin B1 production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de Á. Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M on the mycelial morphology, sporulation and fumonisin B1 production by Fusarium verticillioides 103 F was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the fungicide caused inhibition of hyphal growth and defects on hyphae morphology such as cell wall disruption, withered hyphae, and excessive septation. In addition, extracellular material around the hyphae was rarely observed in the presence of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M. While promoting the reduction of mycelial growth, the fungicide increased sporulation of F. verticillioides compared to the control, and the highest production occurred on the 14th day in the treatments and on the 10th day in the control cultures. Fumonisin B1production in the culture media containing the fungicide (treatment was detected from the 7th day incubation, whereas in cultures without fungicide (control it was detected on the 10th day. The highest fumonisin B1 production occurred on the 14th day, both for the control and for the treatment. Fludioxonil + metalaxyl - M can interfere in F. verticillioides mycelial morphology and sporulation and increase fumonisin B1 levels. These data indicate the importance of understanding the effects of fungicide to minimize the occurrence of toxigenic fungi and fumonisins.

  17. Assessing Risk of Fumonisin Contamination in Maize Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Levasseur-Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisins are major mycotoxins found worldwide in maize and maize products. Because of their toxicity for both human and animals, European Union regulations were created to fix the maximal fumonisin B1 and B2 content allowed in foods and feeds. Unfortunately, directly measuring these mycotoxins by current analytical techniques is tedious and expensive and most measurement methods do not lend themselves to online control. Alternative approaches to chemical analysis have been developed and involve models that allow the mycotoxin contamination to be predicted based on environmental conditions and analysis by near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy. In the present work, we use NIR spectroscopy to determine the fumonisin and fungal contents of 117 samples of maize. The determination coefficient between fumonisin and fungal-biomass content was 0.44. We establish herein a threshold for the number of CFUs for fungal biomass beyond which the fumonisin content is likely to exceed the European regulatory level of 4000 μg/kg. In addition, we determine the fungal content by using a NIR-spectroscopy model that allows us to sort samples of maize. Upon calibration, the percentage of well-classified samples was 96%, which compares favorably to the 82% obtained by independent verification.

  18. Effect of fungicide on Fusarium verticillioides mycelial morphology and fumonisin B₁ production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Tatiana de Á; Bordini, Jaqueline G; Saito, Gervásio H; Andrade, Célia G T de J; Ono, Mario A; Hirooka, Elisa Y; Vizoni, Édio; Ono, Elisabete Y S

    2015-03-01

    The effect of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M on the mycelial morphology, sporulation and fumonisin B 1 production by Fusarium verticillioides 103 F was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the fungicide caused inhibition of hyphal growth and defects on hyphae morphology such as cell wall disruption, withered hyphae, and excessive septation. In addition, extracellular material around the hyphae was rarely observed in the presence of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M. While promoting the reduction of mycelial growth, the fungicide increased sporulation of F. verticillioides compared to the control, and the highest production occurred on the 14 (th) day in the treatments and on the 10 (th) day in the control cultures. Fumonisin B 1 production in the culture media containing the fungicide (treatment) was detected from the 7 (th) day incubation, whereas in cultures without fungicide (control) it was detected on the 10 (th) day. The highest fumonisin B 1 production occurred on the 14 (th) day, both for the control and for the treatment. Fludioxonil + metalaxyl - M can interfere in F. verticillioides mycelial morphology and sporulation and increase fumonisin B 1 levels. These data indicate the importance of understanding the effects of fungicide to minimize the occurrence of toxigenic fungi and fumonisins.

  19. Open Field Study of Some Zea mays Hybrids, Lipid Compounds and Fumonisins Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorni, Paola; Dall’Asta, Chiara; Reverberi, Massimo; Scala, Valeria; Ludovici, Matteo; Cirlini, Martina; Galaverna, Gianni; Fanelli, Corrado; Battilani, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Lipid molecules are increasingly recognized as signals exchanged by organisms interacting in pathogenic and/or symbiotic ways. Some classes of lipids actively determine the fate of the interactions. Host cuticle/cell wall/membrane components such as sphingolipids and oxylipins may contribute to determining the fate of host–pathogen interactions. In the present field study, we considered the relationship between specific sphingolipids and oxylipins of different hybrids of Zea mays and fumonisin by F. verticillioides, sampling ears at different growth stages from early dough to fully ripe. The amount of total and free fumonisin differed significantly between hybrids and increased significantly with maize ripening. Oxylipins and phytoceramides changed significantly within the hybrids and decreased with kernel maturation, starting from physiological maturity. Although the correlation between fumonisin accumulation and plant lipid profile is certain, the data collected so far cannot define a cause-effect relationship but open up new perspectives. Therefore, the question—“Does fumonisin alter plant lipidome or does plant lipidome modulate fumonisin accumulation?”—is still open. PMID:26378580

  20. Open Field Study of Some Zea mays Hybrids, Lipid Compounds and Fumonisins Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Giorni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipid molecules are increasingly recognized as signals exchanged by organisms interacting in pathogenic and/or symbiotic ways. Some classes of lipids actively determine the fate of the interactions. Host cuticle/cell wall/membrane components such as sphingolipids and oxylipins may contribute to determining the fate of host–pathogen interactions. In the present field study, we considered the relationship between specific sphingolipids and oxylipins of different hybrids of Zea mays and fumonisin by F. verticillioides, sampling ears at different growth stages from early dough to fully ripe. The amount of total and free fumonisin differed significantly between hybrids and increased significantly with maize ripening. Oxylipins and phytoceramides changed significantly within the hybrids and decreased with kernel maturation, starting from physiological maturity. Although the correlation between fumonisin accumulation and plant lipid profile is certain, the data collected so far cannot define a cause-effect relationship but open up new perspectives. Therefore, the question—“Does fumonisin alter plant lipidome or does plant lipidome modulate fumonisin accumulation?”—is still open.

  1. Effect of fungicide on Fusarium verticillioides mycelial morphology and fumonisin B 1 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Tatiana de Á.; Bordini, Jaqueline G.; Saito, Gervásio H.; Andrade, Célia G.T. de J.; Ono, Mario A.; Hirooka, Elisa Y.; Vizoni, Édio; Ono, Elisabete Y.S.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M on the mycelial morphology, sporulation and fumonisin B 1 production by Fusarium verticillioides 103 F was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the fungicide caused inhibition of hyphal growth and defects on hyphae morphology such as cell wall disruption, withered hyphae, and excessive septation. In addition, extracellular material around the hyphae was rarely observed in the presence of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M. While promoting the reduction of mycelial growth, the fungicide increased sporulation of F. verticillioides compared to the control, and the highest production occurred on the 14 th day in the treatments and on the 10 th day in the control cultures. Fumonisin B 1 production in the culture media containing the fungicide (treatment) was detected from the 7 th day incubation, whereas in cultures without fungicide (control) it was detected on the 10 th day. The highest fumonisin B 1 production occurred on the 14 th day, both for the control and for the treatment. Fludioxonil + metalaxyl - M can interfere in F. verticillioides mycelial morphology and sporulation and increase fumonisin B 1 levels. These data indicate the importance of understanding the effects of fungicide to minimize the occurrence of toxigenic fungi and fumonisins. PMID:26221120

  2. Gastrointestinal Degradation of Fumonisin B₁ by Carboxylesterase FumD Prevents Fumonisin Induced Alteration of Sphingolipid Metabolism in Turkey and Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masching, Sabine; Naehrer, Karin; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi-Elisabeth; Sărăndan, Mihai; Schaumberger, Simone; Dohnal, Ilse; Nagl, Veronika; Schatzmayr, Dian

    2016-03-21

    The mycotoxin fumonisin B₁ (FB₁) is a frequent contaminant of feed and causes various adverse health effects in domestic animals. Hence, effective strategies are needed to prevent the impact of fumonisins on livestock productivity. Here we evaluated the capability of the fumonisin carboxylesterase FumD to degrade FB₁ to its less toxic metabolite hydrolyzed FB₁ (HFB₁) in the gastrointestinal tract of turkeys and pigs. First, an ex vivo pig model was used to examine the activity of FumD under digestive conditions. Within 2 h of incubation with FumD, FB₁ was completely degraded to HFB₁ in the duodenum and jejunum, respectively. To test the efficacy of the commercial application of FumD (FUMzyme) in vivo, female turkeys (n = 5) received either basal feed (CON), fumonisin-contaminated feed (15 mg/kg FB₁+FB₂; FB) or fumonisin-contaminated feed supplemented with FUMzyme (15 U/kg; FB+FUMzyme) for 14 days ad libitum. Addition of FUMzyme resulted in significantly decreased levels of FB₁ in excreta, whereas HFB₁ concentrations were significantly increased. Compared to the FB group (0.24 ± 0.02), the mean serum sphinganine-to-sphingosine (Sa/So) ratio was significantly reduced in the FB+FUMzyme group (0.19 ± 0.02), thus resembling values of the CON group (0.16 ± 0.02). Similarly, exposure of piglets (n = 10) to 2 mg/kg FB₁+FB₂ for 42 days caused significantly elevated serum Sa/So ratios (0.39 ± 0.15) compared to the CON group (0.14 ± 0.01). Supplementation with FUMzyme (60 U/kg) resulted in gastrointestinal degradation of FB₁ and unaffected Sa/So ratios (0.16 ± 0.02). Thus, the carboxylesterase FumD represents an effective strategy to detoxify FB₁ in the digestive tract of turkeys and pigs.

  3. Genetic Factors Involved in Fumonisin Accumulation in Maize Kernels and Their Implications in Maize Agronomic Management and Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rogelio; Cao, Ana; Butrón, Ana

    2015-08-20

    Contamination of maize with fumonisins depends on the environmental conditions; the maize resistance to contamination and the interaction between both factors. Although the effect of environmental factors is a determinant for establishing the risk of kernel contamination in a region, there is sufficient genetic variability among maize to develop resistance to fumonisin contamination and to breed varieties with contamination at safe levels. In addition, ascertaining which environmental factors are the most important in a region will allow the implementation of risk monitoring programs and suitable cultural practices to reduce the impact of such environmental variables. The current paper reviews all works done to address the influence of environmental variables on fumonisin accumulation, the genetics of maize resistance to fumonisin accumulation, and the search for the biochemical and/or structural mechanisms of the maize plant that could be involved in resistance to fumonisin contamination. We also explore the outcomes of breeding programs and risk monitoring of undertaken projects.

  4. Aflatoxins and fumonisins contamination of home-made food (weanimix) from cereal-legume blends for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumi, J; Mitchell, N J; Asare, G A; Dotse, E; Kwaa, F; Phillips, T D; Ankrah, N-A

    2014-09-01

    Weanimix is an important food for children in Ghana. Mothers are trained to prepare homemade weanimix from beans, groundnuts and maize for their infants. Groundnuts and maize are prone to aflatoxin contamination while fumonisin contaminates maize. Aflatoxin, is produced by the Asperguillus fungi while fumonisin, is produced by Fusarium fungi. These mycotoxins occur in tropical areas worldwide due to favorable climate for their growth. The objective of the study was to determine the levels of aflatoxin and fumonisin in homemade weanimix in the Ejura-Sekyedumase district in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Thirty six homemade weanimix samples (50g each) were collected from households. Aflatoxin and fumonisin were measured using a fluorometric procedure described by the Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC official method 993.31, V1 series 4). Aflatoxin and fumonisin were detected in all 36 samples, range 7.9-500ppb. Fumonisin levels range: 0.74-11.0ppm). Thirty (83.3%) of the thirty six samples were over the action limit of 20ppb for aflatoxin with an overall mean of 145.2 ppb whiles 58.3% of the samples had fumonisins above the action limit of 4 ppm with an overall mean of 4.7 ppm. There were significant aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of homemade weanimix. Children fed on this nutritional food were being exposed to unacceptable levels of aflatoxin and fumonisin. Therefore there is a critical need to educate mothers on the dangers of mycotoxin exposure and to develop strategies to eliminate exposure of children fed homemade weanimix to aflatoxin and fumonisin.

  5. Monoculture Maize (Zea mays L. Cropped Under Conventional Tillage, No-tillage and N Fertilization: (II Fumonisin Incidence on Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Marocco

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Planting maize under no-tillage is an increasing farming practice for sustainable agriculture and sound environmental management. Although several studies on yield of no-till maize have been done, there is few information about the effect of tillage on fumonisin contamination. The present study was done to determine the effect of notillage and conventional tillage with two rates of nitrogen on fumonisin content in kernels of continuous maize. Average grain contamination with fumonisins B1 and B2 over the years 2004-06 was not significantly different, with mean values of 1682, 1984 and 2504 μg kg-1, respectively. Fumonisin B1 was the most abundant toxin found in the samples. No-tillage significantly affected the incidence of fumonisins during the first year of the trial, in which fumonisin content was significantly higher with no-till (2008 μg kg-1 compared with conventional tillage (1355 μg kg-1. However, no-tillage did not significantly affect the incidence of fumonisins in the second and third years of the study. Fumonisin content at the rate of 300 kg N ha-1 was not statistically different compared to that obtained without N fertilization. The interaction between the soil management system and the rate of applied nitrogen was only evident in the second year. Our results indicate that fumonisin contamination was affected by no-tillage only in the first year. Nitrogen fertilization had no significant effect on fumonisin content in any year. The weather conditions during susceptible stages of maize development have probably overridden the effect of nitrogen fertilization.

  6. Validation of fumonisin biomarkers in F344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Qingsong; Tang Lili; Wang Jiasheng

    2007-01-01

    Fumonisins (FNs) are ubiquitous contaminants of cereal grains. Fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) was linked to several animal and human diseases. To validate FB 1 biomarkers for studying human disease risks, F344 rats were administered by gavage with either a single dose of 0, 10 or 25 mg FB 1 /kg body weight (BW) or repeated doses of 0, 1.0, or 2.5 mg FB 1 /kg BW/day for 5 weeks. FB 1 excretion and FB 1 -induced metabolic alterations of sphingolipids in rat urine, feces and serum were assessed. Dose-dependent urinary and fecal excretion of free FB 1 were found in both single-dose- and repeat-dose-treated rats. In the single-dose study, urinary sphinganine (Sa) to sphingosine (So) ratio (Sa/So) reached a maximum at day 7 for the high-dose group and at day 5 for the low-dose group, whereas serum Sa/So showed only marginal changes. In the repeat-dose study, urinary Sa/So was persistently elevated at 2 weeks, while serum Sa/So was unchanged. Time course changes of sphinganine 1-phosphate (SaP) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (SoP) were also examined. Although serum Sa/So and SaP/SoP ratios showed no signs of time- or dose-dependent changes, a 10-fold increase in urinary SaP/SoP was observed, suggesting that urinary SaP/SoP is a more sensitive biomarker for FB 1 exposure. The accumulation of SaP and SoP was evident in the time course of SaP/Sa and SoP/So, which may reflect activity changes of enzymes closely related to the metabolism and catabolism of SaP and SoP. These results provide concrete evidence towards the practical use of excreted FB 1 , Sa/So and SaP/SoP as biomarkers of exposure to FNs

  7. Validation of fumonisin biomarkers in F344 rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qingsong, Cai; Lili, Tang [Department of Environmental Toxicology and Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Box 41163, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Wang Jiasheng [Department of Environmental Toxicology and Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Box 41163, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)], E-mail: js.wang@ttu.edu

    2007-11-15

    Fumonisins (FNs) are ubiquitous contaminants of cereal grains. Fumonisin B{sub 1} (FB{sub 1}) was linked to several animal and human diseases. To validate FB{sub 1} biomarkers for studying human disease risks, F344 rats were administered by gavage with either a single dose of 0, 10 or 25 mg FB{sub 1}/kg body weight (BW) or repeated doses of 0, 1.0, or 2.5 mg FB{sub 1}/kg BW/day for 5 weeks. FB{sub 1} excretion and FB{sub 1}-induced metabolic alterations of sphingolipids in rat urine, feces and serum were assessed. Dose-dependent urinary and fecal excretion of free FB{sub 1} were found in both single-dose- and repeat-dose-treated rats. In the single-dose study, urinary sphinganine (Sa) to sphingosine (So) ratio (Sa/So) reached a maximum at day 7 for the high-dose group and at day 5 for the low-dose group, whereas serum Sa/So showed only marginal changes. In the repeat-dose study, urinary Sa/So was persistently elevated at 2 weeks, while serum Sa/So was unchanged. Time course changes of sphinganine 1-phosphate (SaP) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (SoP) were also examined. Although serum Sa/So and SaP/SoP ratios showed no signs of time- or dose-dependent changes, a 10-fold increase in urinary SaP/SoP was observed, suggesting that urinary SaP/SoP is a more sensitive biomarker for FB{sub 1} exposure. The accumulation of SaP and SoP was evident in the time course of SaP/Sa and SoP/So, which may reflect activity changes of enzymes closely related to the metabolism and catabolism of SaP and SoP. These results provide concrete evidence towards the practical use of excreted FB{sub 1}, Sa/So and SaP/SoP as biomarkers of exposure to FNs.

  8. Trouble Don't Last

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, Shelley

    2004-01-01

    Even as a child, Pearsall questioned social injustice and prejudice. In her own community in Ohio and, as she grew, all over the world, she saw social inequities she could neither understand nor accept. Her novel "Trouble Don't Last," takes place during the era of the Underground Railroad. The chapter included here pulls us in…

  9. Kulturel liminalitet i Don Quixote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fastrup, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i og i kontrast til nogle af hovedlinierne i den nyere litteratur om Don Quixote søger artiklen tilbage til de mere specifikke og lokale historiske forhold, som er romanens baggrund, bl.a. til Cervantes' »algierske erfaring« med tyrkisk fangenskab. Artiklen forsøger at kombinere ...

  10. Fumonisins in conventional and transgenic, insect-resistant maize intended for fuel ethanol production: implications for fermentation efficiency and DDGS co-product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Erin L; Munkvold, Gary P

    2014-09-22

    Mycotoxins in maize grain intended for ethanol production are enriched in co-product dried distiller's grains and solubles (DDGS) and may be detrimental to yeast in fermentation. This study was conducted to examine the magnitude of fumonisin enrichment in DDGS and to analyze the impacts of insect injury, Fusarium ear rot severity, and fumonisin contamination on final ethanol yield. Samples of naturally-contaminated grain (0 to 35 mg/kg fumonisins) from field trials conducted in 2008-2011 were fermented and DDGS collected and analyzed for fumonisin content. Ethanol yield (determined gravimetrically) was unaffected by fumonisins in the range occurring in this study, and was not correlated with insect injury or Fusarium ear rot severity. Ethanol production was unaffected in fumonisin B1-spiked grain with concentrations from 0 to 37 mg/kg. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize often has reduced fumonisins due to its protection from insect injury and subsequent fungal infection. DDGS derived from Bt and non-Bt maize averaged 2.04 mg/kg and 8.25 mg/kg fumonisins, respectively. Fumonisins were enriched by 3.0× for 50 out of 57 hybrid × insect infestation treatment combinations; those seven that differed were fumonisin enrichment in DDGS, with measurements traceable to individual samples. Under significant insect pest pressures, DDGS derived from Bt maize hybrids were consistently lower in fumonisins than DDGS derived from non-Bt hybrids.

  11. Fumonisin B2 production by Aspergillus niger in Thai coffee beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanaku, W.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2009-01-01

    During 2006 and 2007, a total of 64 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites in Chiangmai Province and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora) from two growing sites in Chumporn Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for fumonisin contamination...... by black Aspergilli. No Fusarium species known to produce fumonisin were detected, but black Aspergilli had high incidences on both Arabica and Robusta Thai coffee beans. Liquid chromatography (LC) with high-resolution mass spectrometric (HRMS) detection showed that 67% of Aspergillus niger isolates from...... coffee beans were capable of producing fumonisins B2 (FB2) and B4 when grown on Czapek Yeast Agar with 5% NaCl. Small amounts (1-9.7 ng g-1) of FB2 were detected in seven of 12 selected coffee samples after ion-exchange purification and LC-MS/MS detection. Two samples also contained FB4...

  12. Electrochemical immunoassay using magnetic beads for the determination of zearalenone in baby food: an anticipated analytical tool for food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervás, Miriam; López, Miguel Angel; Escarpa, Alberto

    2009-10-27

    In this work, electrochemical immunoassay involving magnetic beads to determine zearalenone in selected food samples has been developed. The immunoassay scheme has been based on a direct competitive immunoassay method in which antibody-coated magnetic beads were employed as the immobilisation support and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as enzymatic label. Amperometric detection has been achieved through the addition of hydrogen peroxide substrate and hydroquinone as mediator. Analytical performance of the electrochemical immunoassay has been evaluated by analysis of maize certified reference material (CRM) and selected baby food samples. A detection limit (LOD) of 0.011 microg L(-1) and EC(50) 0.079 microg L(-1) were obtained allowing the assessment of the detection of zearalenone mycotoxin. In addition, an excellent accuracy with a high recovery yield ranging between 95 and 108% has been obtained. The analytical features have shown the proposed electrochemical immunoassay to be a very powerful and timely screening tool for the food safety scene.

  13. Occurrence of fungal metabolites--fumonisins at the ng/L level in aqueous environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Bocianowski, Jan; Perczak, Adam; Goliński, Piotr

    2015-08-15

    The B-series fumonisins (FBs) are some of the most prevalent mycotoxins produced as a secondary metabolite by Fusarium species growing on cereals. For decades they have been studied extensively in food and feed products, but there is no information about their occurrence in the aquatic environment or about how these mycotoxins are transported to the surface water and the groundwater. The aim of this study was to clarify the causes of fumonisin occurrence in aquatic ecosystems by examining the relation between mycotoxin contamination of crops and their levels in the aquatic environment. Water samples were collected from drainage ditches and wells or watercourses located in agricultural areas in the Wielkopolska region, Poland. Our research conducted on an annual basis showed the seasonal variability of fumonisin B1 concentration in the analyzed water samples, with the highest concentration in the post-harvest season (September to October) at 48.2 ng L(-1), and the lowest in winter and spring at 21.9 ng L(-1). Fumonisins B2 and B3 in water samples were not detected. Cereal samples were collected in the harvest season from each agricultural area close to tested water bodies. Mycotoxins were present in all cereal samples at concentrations from 43.3 to 1055.9 ng g(-1). Our results confirm that fumonisins are transported to aquatic systems by rainwater through soil. On the basis of available literature, this is the first report concerning the presence of fumonisin B1 in different aquatic environments. To date their ecotoxicological effects are largely unknown and require further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fumonisins in corn (Zea mays L.) from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scussel, Vildes M; Savi, Geovana D; Costas, Lea Luzia Freitas; Xavier, José Junior Mendonça; Manfio, Daniel; Bittencourt, Karoline O; Aguiar, Kin; Stein, Stephanie M

    2014-01-01

    A total of 232 samples of corn commercialised in Santa Catarina state, Southern Brazil (temperate zone climate), were evaluated from 2007 to 2012 for fumonisins (FBs: FB1 and FB2). Before performing this study, a FBs method with liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection (ex. 335; em. 440 nm) was validated first. FBs were detected in 46.6% (108 samples), with values ranging from 66 to 7832 µg kg(-1) for FB1 and 110 to 1201 µg kg(-1) for FB2. The number of contaminated corn samples for FB1 and FB2 varied and often presented contamination of FB1 only. Per year of analysis, the numbers were: n = 22/8(FB1/FB2), 44/5(FB1/FB2), 25/12(FB1/FB2), 4(FB1), 6(FB1) and 7(FB1) in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. The contamination percentage was 42.3/15.4, 59.5/6.8, 43.8/21.1, 36.4, 35.3 and 33.3%, respectively, during these years. Consumers can be exposed to these mycotoxins and their health can be at risk through the consumption of contaminated corn.

  15. Quantification of Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum by real-time PCR system and zearalenone assessment in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atoui, A.; El Khoury, A.; Kallassy, M.; Lebrihi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin produced by some species of Fusarium, especially by Fusarium grami- nearum and F. culmorum. ZEA induces hyperoestrogenic responses in mammals and can result in reproductive disorders in farm animals. In the present study, a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay has been successfully developed for the detection and quantification of Fusarium graminearum based on primers targeting the gene PKS13 involved in ZEA biosynthesis. A standard curve was developed by plotting the logarithm of known concentrations of F. graminearum DNA against the cycle threshold (Ct) value. The developed real time PCR system was also used to analyze the occurrence of zearalenone producing F. graminearum strains on maize. In this context, DNA extractions were performed from thirty-two maize samples, and subjected to real time PCR. Maize samples also were analyzed for zearalenone content by HPLC. F. graminearum DNA content (pg DNA/ mg of maize) was then plotted against ZEA content (ppb) in maize samples. The regression curve showed a positive and good correlation (R2 = 0.760) allowing for the estimation of the potential risk from ZEA contamination. Consequently, this work offers a quick alternative to conventional methods of ZEA quantification and mycological detection and quantification of F. graminearum in maize. (author)

  16. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin and fumonisin among Tanzanian children as determined using biomarkers of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirima, Candida P.; Kimanya, Martin E.; Kinabo, Joyce L.; Routledge, Michael N.; Srey, Chou; Wild, Christopher P.; Gong, Yun Yun

    2014-01-01

    Scope The study aims to evaluate the status of dietary exposure to aflatoxin and fumonisin in young Tanzanian children, using previously validated biomarkers of exposure. Methods and results A total of 148 children aged 12 to 22 months, were recruited from three geographically distant villages in Tanzania; Nyabula, Kigwa and Kikelelwa. Plasma aflatoxin-albumin adducts (AF-alb) and urinary fumonisin B1 (UFB1) were measured by ELISA and LC-MS, respectively. AF-alb was detectable in 84% of children, was highest in fully weaned children (pfumonisin through contaminated diet, although the level of exposure varies markedly between the three villages studied. PMID:23776058

  17. Evaluation of ear rot (Fusarium verticillioides resistance and fumonisin accumulation in Italian maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta BALCONI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin contamination of maize (Zea mays L. grain is a global threat to the safety of both human food and animal feed. Hence, the development of maize genotypes with reduced mycotoxin accumulation in grain is of major importance. In order to find maize germplasm sources of resistance to Fusarium ear rot, 34 Italian and six public inbred lines were evaluated by means of artificial inoculation in field experiments during 2009 and 2010. Relationships between ear rot and fumonisin concentration in the ears were investigated. Primary ears were challenged with a mixture of two Fusarium verticillioides isolates from Northern Italy, through kernel inoculation, and ear rot severity was assessed.The average number of visibly infected kernels per ear, after inoculation, ranged from 2 to 68 in 2009 and from 0 to 120 in 2010. Fumonisin concentrations in the inoculated ears were greater than in the experimental controls for both years. Variability was found between the inbred lines: fumonisin accumulation ranged from 0.56 to 240.83 mg kg-1 in 2009 and from 1.09 to 190.60 mg kg-1 in 2010. In both years, six inbred lines showed high fumonisin content (≥100 mg kg-1, while the other genotypes were almost equally split into two groups, low (≤10 mg kg-1 and medium (from 11 to 100 mg kg-1 fumonisin content. The number of infected kernels after artificial inoculation correlated with fumonisin concentration both in 2009 (r = 0.94; P≤0.01 and 2010 (r = 0.67; P≤0.01. Additionally, the percentage of internally infected kernels correlated positively with fumonisin concentration (r = 0.37; P≤0.01 and with the number of infected kernels (r = 0.29; P≤0.05. This research has demonstrated that Italian maize germplasm is a valid source of resistance to Fusarium ear rot. Furthermore, there is a strong association of visible Fusarium symptoms with fumonisin concentration, suggesting that selection in maize for reduced visible moulds should reduce the risk of

  18. Effect of Low Dose of Fumonisins on Pig Health: Immune Status, Intestinal Microbiota and Sensitivity to Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burel, Christine; Tanguy, Mael; Guerre, Philippe; Boilletot, Eric; Cariolet, Roland; Queguiner, Marilyne; Postollec, Gilbert; Pinton, Philippe; Salvat, Gilles; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Fravalo, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the effects of chronic exposure to fumonisins via the ingestion of feed containing naturally contaminated corn in growing pigs infected or not with Salmonella spp. This exposure to a moderate dietary concentration of fumonisins (11.8 ppm) was sufficient to induce a biological effect in pigs (Sa/So ratio), but no mortality or pathology was observed over 63 days of exposure. No mortality or related clinical signs, even in cases of inoculation with Salmonella (5 × 104 CFU), were observed either. Fumonisins, at these concentrations, did not affect the ability of lymphocytes to proliferate in the presence of mitogens, but after seven days post-inoculation they led to inhibition of the ability of specific Salmonella lymphocytes to proliferate following exposure to a specific Salmonella antigen. However, the ingestion of fumonisins had no impact on Salmonella translocation or seroconversion in inoculated pigs. The inoculation of Salmonella did not affect faecal microbiota profiles, but exposure to moderate concentrations of fumonisins transiently affected the digestive microbiota balance. In cases of co-infection with fumonisins and Salmonella, the microbiota profiles were rapidly and clearly modified as early as 48 h post-Salmonella inoculation. Therefore under these experimental conditions, exposure to an average concentration of fumonisins in naturally contaminated feed had no effect on pig health but did affect the digestive microbiota balance, with Salmonella exposure amplifying this phenomenon. PMID:23612754

  19. Effect of temperature and water activity on the production of fumonisins by Aspergillus niger and different Fusarium species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Fumonisins are economically important mycotoxins which until recently were considered to originate from only a few Fusarium species. However recently a putative fumonisin gene cluster was discovered in two different Aspergillus niger strains followed by detection of an actual fumonisin B2 (FB2) production in four strains of this biotechnologically important workhorse. Results In the present study, a screening of 5 A. niger strains and 25 assumed fumonisin producing Fusarium strains from 6 species, showed that all 5 A. niger strains produced FB2 and 23 of 25 Fusarium produced fumonisin B1 and other isoforms (fumonisin B2 and B3). Five A. niger and five Fusarium spp. were incubated at six different temperatures from 15-42°C on Czapek Yeast Agar +5% salt or Potato Dextrose Agar. A. niger had the highest production of FB2 at 25-30°C whereas Fusarium spp. had the maximal production of FB1 and FB2 at 20-25°C. Addition of 2.5-5% NaCl, or 10-20% sucrose increased the FB2 production of A. niger, whereas addition of glycerol reduced FB2 production. All three water activity lowering solutes reduced the fumonisin production of the Fusarium species. Conclusion The present study shows that the regulation of fumonisin production is very different in A. niger and Fusarium, and that food and feeds preserved by addition of sugar or salts may be good substrates for fumonisin B2 production by A. niger. PMID:20043849

  20. Effect of temperature and water activity on the production of fumonisins by Aspergillus niger and different Fusarium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frisvad Jens C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fumonisins are economically important mycotoxins which until recently were considered to originate from only a few Fusarium species. However recently a putative fumonisin gene cluster was discovered in two different Aspergillus niger strains followed by detection of an actual fumonisin B2 (FB2 production in four strains of this biotechnologically important workhorse. Results In the present study, a screening of 5 A. niger strains and 25 assumed fumonisin producing Fusarium strains from 6 species, showed that all 5 A. niger strains produced FB2 and 23 of 25 Fusarium produced fumonisin B1 and other isoforms (fumonisin B2 and B3. Five A. niger and five Fusarium spp. were incubated at six different temperatures from 15-42°C on Czapek Yeast Agar +5% salt or Potato Dextrose Agar. A. niger had the highest production of FB2 at 25-30°C whereas Fusarium spp. had the maximal production of FB1 and FB2 at 20-25°C. Addition of 2.5-5% NaCl, or 10-20% sucrose increased the FB2 production of A. niger, whereas addition of glycerol reduced FB2 production. All three water activity lowering solutes reduced the fumonisin production of the Fusarium species. Conclusion The present study shows that the regulation of fumonisin production is very different in A. niger and Fusarium, and that food and feeds preserved by addition of sugar or salts may be good substrates for fumonisin B2 production by A. niger.

  1. A new zearalenone biodegradation strategy using non-pathogenic Rhodococcus pyridinivorans K408 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriszt, Rókus; Krifaton, Csilla; Szoboszlay, Sándor; Cserháti, Mátyás; Kriszt, Balázs; Kukolya, József; Czéh, Arpád; Fehér-Tóth, Szilvia; Török, Lívia; Szőke, Zsuzsanna; Kovács, Krisztina J; Barna, Teréz; Ferenczi, Szilamér

    2012-01-01

    Zearalenone (hereafter referred to as ZEA) is a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several Fusarium spp. on cereal grains. ZEA is one of the most hazardous natural endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) which induces hyper estrogenic responses in mammals. This can result in reproductive disorders in farm animals as well as in humans. Consequently, detoxification strategies for contaminated crops are crucial for food safety. In this study we have developed a bacterial based detoxification system using a non-pathogen Rhodococcus pyridinivorans K408 strain. Following 5 days treatment of ZEA with R. pyridinivorans K408 strain HPLC analyses showed an 87.21% ZEA-degradation efficiency of the bacterial enzyme systems. In another approach, the strain biotransformation ability has also been confirmed by a bioluminescent version of the yeast estrogen screening system (BLYES), which detected an 81.75% of biodegradability of ZEA, in a good agreement with the chemical analyses. Furthermore, the capacity of R. pyridinivorans to eliminate the estrogenic effects of ZEA was tested by using an immature uterotrophic assay. Prepubertal female rats were treated with vehicle (olive oil), 17β-estradiol, ZEA (0.1-1-5-10 mg/kg body weight) and LB broth containing 500 mg/l ZEA that has already been incubated with or without Rhodococcus pyridinivorans K408 strain. Uterine weights were measured and the mRNA level changes relating to apelin, aquaporin 5, complement component 2, and calbindin-3 genes were measured by qRT-PCR. These genes represent the major pathways that are affected by estromimetic compounds. Zearalenone feeding significantly increased the uterus weight in a dose dependent manner and at the same time upregulated complement component 2 and calbindin-3 expression as well as decreased apelin and aquaporin 5 mRNA levels comparable to that seen in 17β-estradiol exposed rats. In contrast, LB broth in which ZEA was incubated with Rhodococcus pyridinivorans K408 prior to

  2. A new zearalenone biodegradation strategy using non-pathogenic Rhodococcus pyridinivorans K408 strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rókus Kriszt

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (hereafter referred to as ZEA is a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several Fusarium spp. on cereal grains. ZEA is one of the most hazardous natural endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC which induces hyper estrogenic responses in mammals. This can result in reproductive disorders in farm animals as well as in humans. Consequently, detoxification strategies for contaminated crops are crucial for food safety. In this study we have developed a bacterial based detoxification system using a non-pathogen Rhodococcus pyridinivorans K408 strain. Following 5 days treatment of ZEA with R. pyridinivorans K408 strain HPLC analyses showed an 87.21% ZEA-degradation efficiency of the bacterial enzyme systems. In another approach, the strain biotransformation ability has also been confirmed by a bioluminescent version of the yeast estrogen screening system (BLYES, which detected an 81.75% of biodegradability of ZEA, in a good agreement with the chemical analyses. Furthermore, the capacity of R. pyridinivorans to eliminate the estrogenic effects of ZEA was tested by using an immature uterotrophic assay. Prepubertal female rats were treated with vehicle (olive oil, 17β-estradiol, ZEA (0.1-1-5-10 mg/kg body weight and LB broth containing 500 mg/l ZEA that has already been incubated with or without Rhodococcus pyridinivorans K408 strain. Uterine weights were measured and the mRNA level changes relating to apelin, aquaporin 5, complement component 2, and calbindin-3 genes were measured by qRT-PCR. These genes represent the major pathways that are affected by estromimetic compounds. Zearalenone feeding significantly increased the uterus weight in a dose dependent manner and at the same time upregulated complement component 2 and calbindin-3 expression as well as decreased apelin and aquaporin 5 mRNA levels comparable to that seen in 17β-estradiol exposed rats. In contrast, LB broth in which ZEA was incubated with Rhodococcus pyridinivorans K

  3. Cornmeal and starch influence the dynamic of fumonisin B, A and C production and masking in Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, Irene; Falavigna, Claudia; Galaverna, Gianni; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Battilani, Paola

    2013-08-16

    Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum can infect maize ears and produce fumonisins. The fumonisin B (FB) series is the most prolifically produced, followed by fumonisin C (FC), A (FA) and P (FP); moreover hidden forms of fumonisins have been detected in maize and derivatives. There is a lack of information about which maize component may affect fumonisin pattern production. Therefore, in this work we studied the role of cornmeal and corn starch, as the sole source of nutrition, in the production dynamic of all fumonisin series, hidden forms included, in different strains of F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum incubated at 25°C for 7-45days. Both Fusarium species produced high amounts of FB, following the chemotype FB1>FB2>FB3; FC and FA were produced in lesser amounts, showing the chemotypes: FA2+FA3>FA1 and FC1>FC2+FC3>FC4, respectively; while no FP were detected. F. verticillioides was more prolific than F. proliferatum in fumonisin production (ten times more on average) in all the tested conditions. Fumonisin production was higher in cornmeal than in starch based medium in both Fusarium species; FA and FC were detected only in the former medium. An important role of amylopectin as an inducing factor for fumonisin biosynthesis was suggested, as were acid pH conditions. Fumonisin hidden forms may occur in cornmeal medium, whereas they were never found at significant levels in corn starch medium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fumonisin B1 contamination in breast milk and its exposure in infants under 6 months of age in Rombo, Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoha, Happy; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Kimanya, Martin; Hipolite, Danstan; Lachat, Carl; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    The carry-over of fumonisin B1 from contaminated feed into dairy milk also suggests its carry-over from contaminated food into breast milk. This study assessed fumonisin B1 contamination in breast milk and associated exposures of infants under 6 months of age. Breast milk samples were collected from 131 lactating mothers and the weight of their infants was measured during the first month of lactation. Fumonisin B1 was extracted using methanol:acetone, cleaned up with Strong Anion Exchange columns and quantified by HPLC. Fumonisin B1 exposure in each child was estimated using deterministic approach. Out of the 131 samples, 58 (44.3%) contained fumonisin B1 at levels ranging from 6.57 to 471.05 ng/ml. Of the contaminated samples, 10.3% had fumonisin B1 levels above the EU limit of 200 ppb for fumonisins in infants' food. Exposure in the infants ranged from 0.78 to 64.93 µg/kg body weight (bw) per day (median, 3 µg/kg bw/day) and exceeded the provisional maximum tolerable limit of 2 µg/kg bw/day in 29% of the infants. In conclusion, breast milk from mothers in Northern Tanzania is contaminated with fumonisins at levels that lead to unacceptable exposures in infants. Strategies to prevent lactating mothers from fumonisin exposure are urgently needed to minimise fumonisin exposure in infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluating three commonly used growth media for assessing fumonisin analogues FB1, FB2 and FB3 production by nine Fusarium verticillioides isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, A; Flett, B C; Janse van Rensburg, B

    2017-02-01

    Maize is most often infected by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium verticillioides. Total fumonisins of natural infected grain is made up of FB 1 , FB 2 and FB 3 with FB 1 occurring naturally at higher levels. A maize plant can be infected with more than one F. verticillioides isolate, and finding a reliable method to elucidate the toxigenic potential of these isolates is important to extrapolate the possible fumonisin risk to consumers of grain. It is not clear whether F. verticillioides produces similar fumonisin levels, as well as fumonisin analogue ratios, across media. In this study, nine F. verticillioides isolates were subjected to three methods of fumonisin testing using liquid media, maize patties and a field trial (silk inoculation of grain) in Potchefstroom, South Africa. Spore concentrations of 1 × 10 6 conidia ml - 1 of each isolate were used to inoculate the different media and levels fumonisin analogues were measured using HPLC. Fumonisin production per isolate was highly variable and was influenced by the two-way interaction of F. verticillioides isolate × growth media. Total fumonisins produced in the liquid medium ranged from 0 to 21.3 ppm, on maize patties fumonisins they ranged from 0 to 21.5 ppm, and in the silk inoculation technique they ranged from 0 to 15.5 ppm. The fumonisin analogue FB 1 occurred at higher levels followed by FB 3 in both in vitro studies. In the silk inoculation technique, fumonisin analogue FB 2 was the second highest occurring analogue after FB 1 . Isolate GCI 282 produced higher FB 2 and FB 3 levels than FB 1 in the patties and grain, respectively. In order not to miscalculate the fumonisin and analogue ratio levels per F. verticillioides isolate, the growth medium will have to be optimised for each isolate and more than one growth medium used.

  6. Hydrolysed fumonisin B1 and N-(deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-fumonisin B1: stability and catabolic fate under simulated human gastrointestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirlini, Martina; Hahn, Irene; Varga, Elisabeth; Dall'Asta, Margherita; Falavigna, Claudia; Calani, Luca; Berthiller, Franz; Del Rio, Daniele; Dall'Asta, Chiara

    2015-02-01

    Food processing may induce thermal degradation of fumonisins in corn via Maillard-type reactions, or alkaline hydrolysis via loss of the two tricarballylic acid moieties. In the former case, N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-fumonisin B(1) (NDF) can be formed, while the latter derivative is called hydrolysed fumonisin B(1) (HFB(1)). The aim of this study was to deepen the knowledge about the gastrointestinal stability of HFB(1) and NDF in humans. Due to the lack of standard, NDF was chemically synthesised and cleaned up in high purity to be used for further experiments. While NDF is already partially cleaved (about 41%) during simulated digestion, it remained rather stable towards human colon microflora. In contrast to this, HFB(1) is partially metabolised by the colon microflora to unknown compounds after 24 h of fermentation, as seen by a loss of about 22%. Concluding, the cleavage of NDF during digestion as well as the likely metabolisation of HFB(1) emphasise the need for animal trials to ascertain their toxicity in vivo.

  7. Co-occurence of aflatoxins and fumonisins in maize: guatemala as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are found in maize. AFB1 is a genotoxic carcinogen (IARC Group 1) and FB1 a liver cancer promoter in rodents and trout (IARC Group 2B). Therefore, the possibility of co-exposure is a health concern, most notably in areas where maize serves as a dietary st...

  8. Air analysis in the assessment of fumonisin contamination risk in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torelli, Emanuela; Gubiani, Rino; Firrao, Giuseppe; Cividino, Sirio; Locci, Romano; Gobbi, Emanuela

    2010-03-15

    In maize-growing areas where fumonisin contamination is endemic, there is an urgent need for novel methods to assess the quality of grain lots before their delivery to common drying and storage collection centres. Aerobiological samples of fungal spores released during harvest were analysed to establish a relationship between fumonisin contamination and the abundance of pathogen propagules collected in the combine harvester using a cyclone and membrane filters. Filter-captured propagules were analysed by direct plating, immunoenzymatic assay of specific Fusarium extracellular polysaccharides and real time polymerase chain reaction of the extracted DNA using fum1, a gene involved in the biosynthesis of fumonisin, as a target. The results showed that time of harvest and environmental conditions strongly influenced the efficiency and performance of the collection system. The data obtained were informative in comparing individual samples collected under similar conditions. The immunoenzymatic assay provided the most reliable data, which improved the ability of a neural network to predict the fumonisin content of lots, when added to agronomic, environmental and phytosanitary data. This is the first attempt to evaluate the Fusarium propagules dispersed during harvesting as a predictive means to assess maize quality. A method based on cyclone/filter capture and immunological detection has been shown to be feasible and to have the potential for the development of a continuous monitoring system, but the prediction capabilities in the present implementation were limited.

  9. Genetic variability and fumonisin production by Fusarium proliferatum isolated from durum wheat grains in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, S A; Susca, A; Haidukowski, M; Stea, G; Cendoya, E; Ramírez, M L; Chulze, S N; Farnochi, M C; Moretti, A; Torres, A M

    2015-05-18

    Fusarium proliferatum is a member of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) involved in the maize ear rot together with Fusarium verticillioides, which is a very closely related species. Recently, different studies have detected natural fumonisin contamination in wheat kernels and most of them have shown that the main species isolated was F. proliferatum. Fusarium strains obtained from freshly harvested durum wheat samples (2008 to 2011 harvest seasons) from Argentina were characterized through a phylogenetic analysis based on translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) and calmodulin (CaM) genes, determination of mating type alleles, and evaluation of fumonisin production capability. The strains were identified as F. proliferatum (72%), F. verticillioides (24%) and other Fusarium species. The ratio of mating type alleles (MAT-1 and MAT-2) obtained for both main populations suggests possible occurrence of sexual reproduction in the wheat fields, although this seems more frequent in F. proliferatum. Phylogenetic analysis revealed greater nucleotide variability in F. proliferatum strains than in F. verticillioides, however this was not related to origin, host or harvest year. The fumonisin-producing ability was detected in 92% of the strains isolated from durum wheat grains. These results indicate that F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, among the fumonisin producing species, frequently contaminate durum wheat grains in Argentina, presenting a high risk for human and animal health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Exposure to Aflatoxin and Fumonisin in Children at Risk for Growth Impairment in Rural Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Stunted growth is a major public health issue for children in Tanzania. We examined dietary exposures to aflatoxin and fumonisin and their potential roles in growth impairment in children under 36 months of age in Haydom, Tanzania. Methods. Plasma samples collected at 24 months of age ...

  11. Relationship between fumonisin production and FUM gene expression in Fusarium verticillioides under different environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanelli, Francesca; Iversen, Anita; Logrieco, Antonio F.

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is the main source of fumonisins, a group of mycotoxins that can contaminate maize-based food and feed and cause diseases in humans and animals. The study of the effect of different environmental conditions on toxin production should provide information that can be used...... to develop strategies to minimize the risk. This study analysed the effect of temperature (15°C-35°C), water activity (aw: 0.999-0.93), salinity (0-125 g l-1 NaCl) and pH (5-8) on the growth and production of fumonisins B1 (FB1), B2 (FB2) and B3 (FB3) and the expression of FUM1 and FUM21 in F....... verticillioides. The highest growth rate was measured at 25°C, aw of 0.998-0.99 and 0-25 g l-1 of NaCl. Optimal conditions for fumonisin production were 30°C, aw of 0.99, 25 g l-1 of NaCl and pH 5; nevertheless, the strain showed a good adaptability and was able to produce moderate levels of fumonisins under...

  12. Fumonisin B2 production by Aspergillus niger in Thai coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Nielsen, K.F.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    During 2006 and 2007, a total of 64 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites in Chiangmai Province and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora) from two growing sites in Chumporn Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for fumonisin contamination by

  13. Appropriateness to set a group health‐based guidance value for fumonisins and their modified forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    2018-01-01

    The EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) established a tolerable daily intake (TDI) for fumonisin B1 (FB1) of 1.0 μg/kg body weight (bw) per day based on increased incidence of megalocytic hepatocytes found in a chronic study with mice. The CONTAM Panel considered the limited data...

  14. Occurrence and fumonisin B2 producing potential of Aspergillus section Nigri in Brazil nuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferranti, Larissa S.; Correa, Benedito; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.

    2017-01-01

    and to verify the toxigenic potential for fumonisin B2 (FB2) production of these isolates along with the presence of this mycotoxin in Brazil nut samples. The fungal infection ranged from 0 to 80% at the different stages of the harvest and processing chain and the water activity of the nuts from 0.273 to 0...

  15. Inhibition of apoptic cell death induced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tabaci and mycotoxin fumonisin B1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, E.T.; Batchvorova, R.; Kapchina, V.; Popov, T.; Atanassov, A.; Woltering, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of programmed cell death (PCD) inhibitors on lesion formation and biochemical events in transgenic (ttr line) and non-transgenic (Nevrokop 1164) tobacco infected with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci was tested. Programmed cell death in tomato cell culture was induced by Fumonisin B1 (FUM)

  16. Simultaneous determination of ochratoxin A, mycophenolic acid and fumonisin B-2 in meat products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Marie; Mogensen, Jesper; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2010-01-01

    Here we present a method for simultaneous determination of the fungal metabolites mycophenolic acid, ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B-2 (FB2) in meat products. Extraction was performed with water-acetonitrile, followed by acetone-induced precipitation of salts and proteins. Purification...

  17. Selection and application of strand displacement probes for a fumonisin B1 aptamer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a toxin produced by Fusarium moniliforme, mainly on contaminated maize and maize products. In this study a solid surface chain displacement strategy was used to isolate oligonucleotide displacement probes for a FB1 aptamer. The probes were used as the basis for the development ...

  18. Effect of fumonisin B1 on rat hepatic P450 system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spotti, M.; Maas, R.F.M.; Nijs, C.M. de; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) on the hepatic cytochrome P450 system were investigated in male rats dosed daily by oral gavage with 3 mg FB1 per kg body weight for 9 consecutive days. FB1 treatment resulted in a reduced weight gain. At the same time, CYP2E activity was increased,

  19. Toxicity of the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 on the insect Sf9 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Zhang, Liyang; Diao, Xue; Li, Na; Liu, Chenglan

    2017-04-01

    Fumonisins are a type of mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp., mainly F. proliferatum and F. vertieilliodes, and represent a potential hazard to the health of animals and human beings. The toxicity and mechanism of action of fumonisins is ambiguous, and it is unclear whether fumonisins are toxic to insect cells. This study examines the toxicity of fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) and its mechanism of action in the Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cell line. We found that FB 1 inhibited Sf9 cellular proliferation and arrested cell growth at the G 2 /M phase. Morphological observation showed that FB 1 induced swelling, vacuole formation, and loss of adhesion in Sf9 cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed that FB 1 caused depolarization of the cell membrane potential and hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential. To uncover potential genes associated with the molecular mechanisms of FB 1 , 41 differentially expressed genes were identified by transcriptome analyses after FB 1 treatment. These genes are putatively involved in detoxification metabolism, insect hormone regulation, cell apoptosis, and other related processes. Finally, six differentially expressed genes were chosen and validated by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR). Our test could provide a reference for other kinds of insect cells studies on FB 1 stress. At the same time, our studies try to provide a possible for FB 1 as a precursor compounds of biological insecticide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of Fungicides and Microalgal Phenolic Extracts for the Direct Control of Fumonisin Contamination in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglioni, Priscila Tessmer; Blandino, Massimo; Scarpino, Valentina; Giordano, Debora; Testa, Giulio; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2018-05-16

    Fungicides and, for the first time, microalgal phenolic extracts (MPE) from Spirulina sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. were applied on maize culture media under field conditions to evaluate their ability to minimize Fusarium species development and fumonisin production. An in vitro assay against F. verticillioides was carried out using maize grains as the culture medium. An open-field experiment was carried out in Northwest Italy under natural infection conditions. The compared treatments were factorial combinations of two insecticide treatments (an untreated control and pyrethroid, used against European Corn Borer), four antifungal treatments (an untreated control, MPE from Spirulina sp., MPE from Nannochloropsis sp., and a synthetic fungicide), and two timings of the application of the antifungal compounds (at maize flowering and at the milk stage). The MPE compounds were capable of inhibiting fumonisin production in vitro more efficiently than tebuconazole. Insecticide application reduced the infection by Fusarium species and subsequent fumonisin contamination. However, fumonisins in maize fields were not significantly controlled by either fungicide or MPE application.

  1. Synteny in toxigenic Fusarium species: the fumonisin gene cluster and the mating type region as examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalwijk, C.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Vries, de P.M.; Hesselink, T.; Arts, J.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative genomic approach was used to study the mating type locus and the gene cluster involved in toxin production ( fumonisin) in Fusarium proliferatum, a pathogen with a wide host range and a complex toxin profile. A BAC library, generated from F. proliferatum isolate ITEM 2287, was used to

  2. Chemical and Toxicological Fate of Fumonisin B1 during Extrusion Processing of Corn Grits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two batches of flaking corn grits were prepared by growing Fusarium verticillioides to contain low and high levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1), Batch-1 at 9.7 ppm and Batch-2 at 50 ppm FB1 as determined by HPLC. These two batches were extruded (Batch-1E; Batch-2E) or extruded with 10% w/w glucose supplem...

  3. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Cooperates in Zearalenone-Induced Cell Death of RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglei Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEA is a fungal mycotoxin that causes cell apoptosis and necrosis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of ZEA toxicity. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of ZEA on the proliferation and apoptosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages and to uncover the signaling pathway underlying the cytotoxicity of ZEA in RAW 264.7 macrophages. This study demonstrates that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress pathway cooperated in ZEA-induced cell death of the RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our results show that ZEA treatment reduced the viability of RAW 264.7 macrophages in a dose- and time-dependent manner as shown by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay (MTT and flow cytometry assay. Western blots analysis revealed that ZEA increased the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP, two ER stress-related marker genes. Furthermore, treating the cells with the ER stress inhibitors 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA or knocking down CHOP, using lentivirus encoded short hairpin interfering RNAs (shRNAs, significantly diminished the ZEA-induced increases in GRP78 and CHOP, and cell death. In summary, our results suggest that ZEA induces the apoptosis and necrosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages in a dose- and time-dependent manner via the ER stress pathway in which the activation of CHOP plays a critical role.

  4. Exploration of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in zearalenone-treated rat sertoli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming-Long; Hu, Jin; Guo, Bao-Ping; Niu, Ya-Ru; Xiao, Cheng; Xu, Yin-Xue

    2016-12-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced mainly by Fusarium. ZEA causes reproductive disorders and is both cytotoxic and genotoxic in animals; however, little is known regarding the molecular mechanism(s) leading to ZEA toxicity. Sertoli cells are somatic cells that support the development of spermatogenic cells. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of ZEA on the proliferation, apoptosis, and necrosis of rat Sertoli cells to uncover signaling pathways underlying ZEA cytotoxicity. ZEA reduced the proliferation of rat Sertoli cells in a dose-dependent manner, as indicated by a CCK8 assay, while flow cytometry revealed that ZEA caused both apoptosis and necrosis. Immunoblotting revealed that ZEA treatment increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, as well as the expression of FasL and caspases-3, -8, and -9, in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, these data suggest that ZEA induced apoptosis and necrosis in rat Sertoli cells via extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms by which ZEA exhibits cytotoxicity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1731-1739, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with magnetic nanoparticles for extraction of zearalenone in wheat samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Amoli-Diva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, sensitive and fast dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME coupled with micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE was developed for determination of zearalenone (ZEN in wheat samples. The DLLME was performed using acetonitrile/water (80:20 v/v as the disperser solvent and 1-octanol as the extracting solvent.  The acetonitrile/water (80:20 v/v solvent was also used to extract ZEN from solid wheat matrix, and was directly applied as the disperser solvent for DLLME process. Additionally, hydrophobic oleic-acid-modified magnetic nanoparticles were used in μ-SPE approach to retrieve the analyte from the DLLME step. So, the method uses high surface area and strong magnetism properties of these nanoparticles to avoid time-consuming column-passing processes in traditional SPE. Main parameters affecting the extraction efficiency and signal enhancement were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curve showed a good linearity in the range of 0.1-500 μg kg−1 (R2=0.9996 with low detection limit of 83 ng g−1. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (as RSD % in the range of 2.6-4.3 % and high recoveries ranging from 91.6 to 99.1 % were obtained. The pre-concentration factor was 3. The method is simple, inexpensive, accurate and remarkably free from interference effects.

  6. Circulating zearalenone and its metabolites differ in women due to body mass index and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, T; Hao, L; Pop, L C; Buckley, B; Schneider, S H; Bandera, E V; Shapses, S A

    2018-04-17

    The environmental estrogen, zearalenone (ZEA), is found in the food supply from Fusarium fungal contamination in grains and sometimes used as a growth promoter for beef cattle. Long-term exposure to ZEA and its metabolites may present health risk due to higher estrogenic activity. Serum ZEA metabolites were measured to determine the exposure and the association with food intake in 48 overweight/obese women (52 ± 9 years). The free and conjugated ZEA indicated the highest detection rate of all the metabolites. Conjugated ZEA and total ZEA metabolites were lower (p = 0.02) in overweight/obese than normal weight women, and free metabolites were either the same or showed a trend to be higher. In addition, those with highest (280-480 g/d) compared those with lowest (metabolite concentrations (p metabolites. These findings indicate that ZEA and its metabolites are detectable in nearly all women and concentrations are associated with greater meat intake, and influenced by body mass index. Determining how the food supply influences human concentrations of ZEA metabolites is warranted, as well as determining vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Adsorption of aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and ochratoxin A by microorganisms isolated from Kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheur, Fadia Ben; Fedhila, Kais; Chaieb, Kamel; Kouidhi, Bochra; Bakhrouf, Amina; Abrunhosa, Luís

    2017-06-19

    A strategy to reduce the deleterious effects of mycotoxins is to use dietary supplements that contain microorganisms that bind mycotoxins and decrease their gastrointestinal absorption. Novel strains were isolated from a Kefir culture and assessed for their mycotoxin adsorption and biotransformation ability. The most active strains were identified using DNA sequencing, and the stability of microorganism/mycotoxin complexes was evaluated using buffer solutions to simulate the pH conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. Our results showed that the microorganism consortium of Kefir grains adsorbed 82 to 100% of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEA) and ochratoxin A (OTA) when cultivated in milk. The main strains that were capable of mycotoxin adsorption were identified as Lactobacillus kefiri, Kazachstania servazzii and Acetobacter syzygii. The strain L. kefiri KFLM3 was the most active, adsorbing 80 to 100% of the studied mycotoxins when cultivated in milk. Nonetheless, the strain K. servazzii KFGY7 retained more mycotoxin after the desorption experiments (65, 69 and 67% for AFB1, OTA and ZEA, respectively). These findings suggest that Kefir consumption may help to reduce gastrointestinal absorption of these mycotoxins and consequently reduce their toxic effects. The isolated strains may be of interest for the development of fermented dairy products for human consumption that have a new probiotic characteristic, the adsorption of mycotoxins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Pietsch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L. were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp.

  9. Species composition of and fumonisin production by the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex isolated from Korean cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Hye; Lee, Seolhee; Nah, Ju-Young; Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Paek, Ji-Seon; Lee, Soohyung; Ham, Hyeonheui; Hong, Sung Kee; Yun, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Theresa

    2018-02-21

    To assess the risk of fumonisin contamination in Korean cereals, we isolated colonies of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) from barley, maize, rice and soybean samples from 2011 to 2015. A total of 878 FFSC strains were isolated mostly from maize and rice, and species identity of the isolates were determined using the DNA sequence of the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF-1α) and RNA polymerase II (RPB2) genes. Fusaria recovered from Korean cereals included F. fujikuroi (317 isolates and a frequency of 36%), F. proliferatum (212 isolates and 24.1%), F. verticillioides (170 isolates and 19.4%), F. concentricum (86 strains and 9.8%), F. andiyazi (56 isolates and 6.4%), F. subglutinans (28 isolates and 3.2%), F. thapsinum (5 isolates and 0.6%), and F. circinatum (2 isolates and 0.2%). The rice samples were dominated by F. fujikuroi (47.4%), F. proliferatum (27.3%), and F. concentricum (15.1%), whereas maize samples were dominated by F. verticillioides (33.9%), F. fujikuroi (25.3%), and F. proliferatum (21.1%). A phylogenetic analysis of 70 representative isolates demonstrated that each species was resolved as genealogically exclusive in the ML tree. Fumonisin production potential was evaluated using a PCR assay for the fumonisin biosynthesis gene, FUM1 in all of the isolates. Most of the isolates tested (94%) were positive for FUM1. All of the isolates assigned to F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides and F. thapsinum were positive for FUM1 irrespective of their host origin. Seventy-seven representative isolates positive for FUM1 were examined for fumonisin production in rice medium. The majority of F. proliferatum (26/27, 96.3%), F. verticillioides (16/17, 94.1%) and F. fujikuroi (19/25, 76.0%) produced both FB 1 and FB 2 . Notably, 16 of 19 fumonisin-producing F. fujikuroi produced >1000μg/g of fumonisins (FB 1 +FB 2 ) in rice medium, which is higher than that in previous reports. These results suggest that F. fujikuroi can produce

  10. Antifungal Attributes of Lactobacillus plantarum MYS6 against Fumonisin Producing Fusarium proliferatum Associated with Poultry Feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepthi, B V; Poornachandra Rao, K; Chennapa, G; Naik, M K; Chandrashekara, K T; Sreenivasa, M Y

    2016-01-01

    Fumonisins, being common in occurrence in maize-based feeds, pose a great threat to animal and human health. The present study is aimed at determining the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus plantarum MYS6 against a fumonisin producing fungus, Fusarium proliferatum MYS9. The isolate was subjected to standard tests for determining its probiotic attributes and antifungal properties. L. plantarum MYS6 thrived well at pH 3.0 and 6.0, and exhibited strong resistance up to 3% bile. The isolate showed a high degree of cell surface hydrophobicity corresponding to its strong adhesion to chicken crop epithelial cells. Co-inoculation with the fungus on modified de Man Rogosa Sharpe medium revealed the inhibitory effect of L. plantarum MYS6 on fungal growth and biomass. Observation using scanning electron microscopy showed distortion of hyphal structures, swollen tips and disrupted conidia. Conidia germination inhibition assay restrained germination and showed deformed hyphae. The bioprotective feature of the isolate was evident by the inhibition of fungal development in maize-kernel treated with the cell free supernatant of L. plantarum MYS6. Both the isolate and its extracellular metabolites lowered fumonisin content in feed model up to 0.505 mg/Kg of feed and 0.3125 mg/Kg of feed respectively when compared to the level of 0.870 mg/Kg of feed in control. The major antifungal compounds produced by the isolate were 10-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester; palmitic acid, methyl ester; heptadecanoic acid, 16-methyl ester; stearic acid and lauric acid. L. plantarum MYS6 reduced 61.7% of fumonisin possibly by a binding mechanism. These findings suggest the application of L. plantarum MYS6 as an efficient probiotic additive and biocontrol agent in feed used in poultry industry. Additionally, the antifungal metabolites pose a conspicuous inhibition of Fusarium growth and fumonisin production.

  11. Surveys of rice sold in Canada for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and fumonisins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, J.; Pantazopoulos, P.; Tam, J.; Cavlovic, P.; Kwong, K.; Turcotte, A.-M.; Lau, B.P.-Y.; Scott, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 200 samples of rice (including white, brown, red, black, basmati and jasmine, as well as wild rice) from several different countries, including the United States, Canada, Pakistan, India and Thailand, were analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins by separate liquid Chromatographic methods in two different years. The mean concentrations for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were 0.19 and 0.17 ng g−1 with respective positive incidences of 56% and 43% (≥ the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.002 ng g−1). Twenty-three samples analysed in the second year also contained aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) at levels ≥LOD of 0.002 ng g−1 The five most contaminated samples in each year contained 1.44–7.14 ng AFB1 g−1 (year 1) and 1.45–3.48 ng AFB1 g−1 (year 2); they were mostly basmati rice from India and Pakistan and black and red rice from Thailand. The average concentrations of ochratoxin A (OTA) were 0.05 and 0.005 ng g−1 in year 1 and year 2, respectively; incidences of samples containing ≥LOD of 0.05 ng g−1 were 43% and 1%, respectively, in the 2 years. All positive OTA results were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. For fumonisins, concentrations of fumonisin B1 (FB1) averaged 4.5 ng g−1 in 15 positive samples (≥0.7 ng g−1) from year 1 (n = 99); fumonisin B2 (FB2) and fumonisin B3 (FB3) were also present (≥1 ng g−1). In the second year there was only one positive sample (14 ng g−1 FB1) out of 100 analysed. All positive FB1 results were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. PMID:21623501

  12. A Fumonisins Immunosensor Based on Polyanilino-Carbon Nanotubes Doped with Palladium Telluride Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masikini, Milua; Mailu, Stephen N.; Tsegaye, Abebaw; Njomo, Njagi; Molapo, Kerileng M.; Ikpo, Chinwe O.; Sunday, Christopher Edozie; Rassie, Candice; Wilson, Lindsay; Baker, Priscilla G. L.; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I.

    2015-01-01

    An impedimetric immunosensor for fumonisins was developed based on poly(2,5-dimethoxyaniline)-multi-wall carbon nanotubes doped with palladium telluride quantum dots onto a glassy carbon surface. The composite was assembled by a layer-by-layer method to form a multilayer film of quantum dots (QDs) and poly(2,5-dimethoxyaniline)-multi-wall carbon nanotubes (PDMA-MWCNT). Preparation of the electrochemical immunosensor for fumonisins involved drop-coating of fumonisins antibody onto the composite modified glassy carbon electrode. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy response of the FB1 immunosensor (GCE/PT-PDMA-MWCNT/anti-Fms-BSA) gave a linear range of 7 to 49 ng L−1 and the corresponding sensitivity and detection limits were 0.0162 kΩ L ng−1 and 0.46 pg L−1, respectively, hence the limit of detection of the GCE/PT-PDMA-MWCNT immunosensor for fumonisins in corn certified material was calculated to be 0.014 and 0.011 ppm for FB1, and FB2 and FB3, respectively. These results are lower than those obtained by ELISA, a provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) for fumonisins (the sum of FB1, FB2, and FB3) established by the Joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives and contaminants of 2 μg kg−1 and the maximum level recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for protection of human consumption (2–4 mg L−1). PMID:25558993

  13. Antifungal Attributes of Lactobacillus plantarum MYS6 against Fumonisin Producing Fusarium proliferatum Associated with Poultry Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepthi, B. V.; Poornachandra Rao, K.; Chennapa, G.; Naik, M. K.; Chandrashekara, K. T.; Sreenivasa, M. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Fumonisins, being common in occurrence in maize-based feeds, pose a great threat to animal and human health. The present study is aimed at determining the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus plantarum MYS6 against a fumonisin producing fungus, Fusarium proliferatum MYS9. The isolate was subjected to standard tests for determining its probiotic attributes and antifungal properties. L. plantarum MYS6 thrived well at pH 3.0 and 6.0, and exhibited strong resistance up to 3% bile. The isolate showed a high degree of cell surface hydrophobicity corresponding to its strong adhesion to chicken crop epithelial cells. Co-inoculation with the fungus on modified de Man Rogosa Sharpe medium revealed the inhibitory effect of L. plantarum MYS6 on fungal growth and biomass. Observation using scanning electron microscopy showed distortion of hyphal structures, swollen tips and disrupted conidia. Conidia germination inhibition assay restrained germination and showed deformed hyphae. The bioprotective feature of the isolate was evident by the inhibition of fungal development in maize-kernel treated with the cell free supernatant of L. plantarum MYS6. Both the isolate and its extracellular metabolites lowered fumonisin content in feed model up to 0.505 mg/Kg of feed and 0.3125 mg/Kg of feed respectively when compared to the level of 0.870 mg/Kg of feed in control. The major antifungal compounds produced by the isolate were 10-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester; palmitic acid, methyl ester; heptadecanoic acid, 16-methyl ester; stearic acid and lauric acid. L. plantarum MYS6 reduced 61.7% of fumonisin possibly by a binding mechanism. These findings suggest the application of L. plantarum MYS6 as an efficient probiotic additive and biocontrol agent in feed used in poultry industry. Additionally, the antifungal metabolites pose a conspicuous inhibition of Fusarium growth and fumonisin production. PMID:27285317

  14. Gastrointestinal Degradation of Fumonisin B1 by Carboxylesterase FumD Prevents Fumonisin Induced Alteration of Sphingolipid Metabolism in Turkey and Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Masching

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1 is a frequent contaminant of feed and causes various adverse health effects in domestic animals. Hence, effective strategies are needed to prevent the impact of fumonisins on livestock productivity. Here we evaluated the capability of the fumonisin carboxylesterase FumD to degrade FB1 to its less toxic metabolite hydrolyzed FB1 (HFB1 in the gastrointestinal tract of turkeys and pigs. First, an ex vivo pig model was used to examine the activity of FumD under digestive conditions. Within 2 h of incubation with FumD, FB1 was completely degraded to HFB1 in the duodenum and jejunum, respectively. To test the efficacy of the commercial application of FumD (FUMzyme in vivo, female turkeys (n = 5 received either basal feed (CON, fumonisin-contaminated feed (15 mg/kg FB1+FB2; FB or fumonisin-contaminated feed supplemented with FUMzyme (15 U/kg; FB+FUMzyme for 14 days ad libitum. Addition of FUMzyme resulted in significantly decreased levels of FB1 in excreta, whereas HFB1 concentrations were significantly increased. Compared to the FB group (0.24 ± 0.02, the mean serum sphinganine-to-sphingosine (Sa/So ratio was significantly reduced in the FB+FUMzyme group (0.19 ± 0.02, thus resembling values of the CON group (0.16 ± 0.02. Similarly, exposure of piglets (n = 10 to 2 mg/kg FB1+FB2 for 42 days caused significantly elevated serum Sa/So ratios (0.39 ± 0.15 compared to the CON group (0.14 ± 0.01. Supplementation with FUMzyme (60 U/kg resulted in gastrointestinal degradation of FB1 and unaffected Sa/So ratios (0.16 ± 0.02. Thus, the carboxylesterase FumD represents an effective strategy to detoxify FB1 in the digestive tract of turkeys and pigs.

  15. Gastrointestinal Degradation of Fumonisin B1 by Carboxylesterase FumD Prevents Fumonisin Induced Alteration of Sphingolipid Metabolism in Turkey and Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masching, Sabine; Naehrer, Karin; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi-Elisabeth; Sărăndan, Mihai; Schaumberger, Simone; Dohnal, Ilse; Nagl, Veronika; Schatzmayr, Dian

    2016-01-01

    The mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a frequent contaminant of feed and causes various adverse health effects in domestic animals. Hence, effective strategies are needed to prevent the impact of fumonisins on livestock productivity. Here we evaluated the capability of the fumonisin carboxylesterase FumD to degrade FB1 to its less toxic metabolite hydrolyzed FB1 (HFB1) in the gastrointestinal tract of turkeys and pigs. First, an ex vivo pig model was used to examine the activity of FumD under digestive conditions. Within 2 h of incubation with FumD, FB1 was completely degraded to HFB1 in the duodenum and jejunum, respectively. To test the efficacy of the commercial application of FumD (FUMzyme) in vivo, female turkeys (n = 5) received either basal feed (CON), fumonisin-contaminated feed (15 mg/kg FB1+FB2; FB) or fumonisin-contaminated feed supplemented with FUMzyme (15 U/kg; FB+FUMzyme) for 14 days ad libitum. Addition of FUMzyme resulted in significantly decreased levels of FB1 in excreta, whereas HFB1 concentrations were significantly increased. Compared to the FB group (0.24 ± 0.02), the mean serum sphinganine-to-sphingosine (Sa/So) ratio was significantly reduced in the FB+FUMzyme group (0.19 ± 0.02), thus resembling values of the CON group (0.16 ± 0.02). Similarly, exposure of piglets (n = 10) to 2 mg/kg FB1+FB2 for 42 days caused significantly elevated serum Sa/So ratios (0.39 ± 0.15) compared to the CON group (0.14 ± 0.01). Supplementation with FUMzyme (60 U/kg) resulted in gastrointestinal degradation of FB1 and unaffected Sa/So ratios (0.16 ± 0.02). Thus, the carboxylesterase FumD represents an effective strategy to detoxify FB1 in the digestive tract of turkeys and pigs. PMID:27007395

  16. Identification of Select Fumonisin Forming Fusarium Species Using PCR Applications of the Polyketide Synthase Gene and its Relationship to Fumonisin Production in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Scruggs

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A polymerase chain reaction (PCR based diagnostic assay was used to develop markers for detection of Fusarium verticillioides (=F. moniliforme, a fumonisin producing fungus in maize tissues. Species-specific primers were designed based on sequence data from the polyketide synthase (PKS gene (FUM1- previously FUM5 responsible for fumonisin production in fungi. Four sets of oligonucleotide primers were tested for their specificity using 24 strains of F. verticillioides, 10 F. proliferatum, and 12 of other Fusarium species. In addition, 13 species of other fungal genera, from four phyla, were tested as negative controls. Among the four sets, primer set B consistently amplified a 419- bp fragment from the DNA 96% of all F. verticillioides strains and 83% of F. proliferatum. All other fungi tested were negative using primer set B. A total of 38% of the F. verticillioides strains grown on a selective liquid medium produced fumonisin and 92% formed the toxin on standard rice medium. When fumonisin formed in culture, PCR assay using primer set B detected every strain of F. verticillioides, but only amplified 80% of F. proliferatum strains that produced the toxin. PCR detection was consistent at 100 pg/μl concentration of genomic DNA from 4 F. verticillioides strains, but varied at 10 pg/μl. Two duplicate greenhouse tests using artificially inoculated maize plants, had greater levels of F. verticillioides detected after re-evaluting using primer set B than from culturing of the tissues. The molecular protocols described in this study requires only 1 day for completion compared to approximately 10 days for cultural work and morphological determination. In conclusion, conventional PCR assay using primer set B provides a sensitive and accurate detection assay that can be used as a primary or secondary confirmation method for identification and occurrence of F. verticillioides within the maize tissues. However, studies using primer set B for

  17. Glucuronidation of deoxynivalenol (DON) by different animal species: identification of iso-DON glucuronides and iso-deepoxy-DON glucuronides as novel DON metabolites in pigs, rats, mice, and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi E; Hametner, Christian; Nagl, Veronika; Fiby, Iris; Macheiner, Lukas; Winkler, Janine; Dänicke, Sven; Clark, Erica; Pestka, James J; Berthiller, Franz

    2017-12-01

    The Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a frequent contaminant of cereal-based food and feed. Mammals metabolize DON by conjugation to glucuronic acid (GlcAc), the extent and regioselectivity of which is species-dependent. So far, only DON-3-glucuronide (DON-3-GlcAc) and DON-15-GlcAc have been unequivocally identified as mammalian DON glucuronides, and DON-7-GlcAc has been proposed as further DON metabolite. In the present work, qualitative HPLC-MS/MS analysis of urine samples of animals treated with DON (rats: 2 mg/kg bw, single bolus, gavage; mice: 1 mg/kg bw, single i.p. injection; pigs: 74 µg/kg bw, single bolus, gavage; cows: 5.2 mg DON/kg dry mass, oral for 13 weeks) revealed additional DON and deepoxy-DON (DOM) glucuronides. To elucidate their structures, DON and DOM were incubated with human (HLM) and rat liver microsomes (RLM). Besides the expected DON/DOM-3- and 15-GlcAc, minor amounts of four DON- and four DOM glucuronides were formed. Isolation and enzymatic hydrolysis of four of these compounds yielded iso-DON and iso-DOM, the identities of which were eventually confirmed by NMR. Incubation of iso-DON and iso-DOM with RLM and HLM yielded two main glucuronides for each parent compound, which were isolated and identified as iso-DON/DOM-3-GlcAc and iso-DON/DOM-8-GlcAc by NMR. Iso-DON-3-GlcAc, most likely misidentified as DON-7-GlcAc in the literature, proved to be a major DON metabolite in rats and a minor metabolite in pigs. In addition, iso-DON-8-GlcAc turned out to be one of the major DON metabolites in mice. DOM-3-GlcAc was the dominant DON metabolite in urine of cows and an important DON metabolite in rat urine. Iso-DOM-3-GlcAc was detected in urine of DON-treated rats and cows. Finally, DON-8,15-hemiketal-8-glucuronide, a previously described by-product of DON-3-GlcAc production by RLM, was identified in urine of DON-exposed mice and rats. The discovery of several novel DON-derived glucuronides in animal urine requires adaptation of

  18. Fumonisin B1 and beauvericin accumulation in wheat kernels after seed-borne infection with Fusarium proliferatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Guo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium proliferatum is a fungal pathogen causing ear rot of maize. The fungus infects a range of other plants but the economic impact of these diseases has not been established. Recently, F. proliferatum and its mycotoxin fumonisin were found in wheat grains. Here we report that seed-borne infection of wheat with F. proliferatum resulted in systemic colonization of wheat plants and contamination of wheat grains with fumonisins and beauvericin. F. proliferatum strains originating from different hosts were able to infect wheat via seeds. Colonization of wheat plants with the fungus was highest in the stems, followed by leaves; one third of the strains reached kernels, causing accumulation of fumonisins and beauvericin to 15–55 µg kg-1. The results show that seed-borne infection of wheat with F. proliferatum can lead to contamination of wheat kernels with mycotoxins fumonisins and beauvericin.  

  19. Influence of water activity and temperature on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium proliferatum strains on irradiated wheat grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendoya, Eugenia; Monge, María Del Pilar; Chiacchiera, Stella Maris; Farnochi, María Cecilia; Ramirez, María Laura

    2018-02-02

    Wheat is the most important cereal consumed by the Argentine population. In previous studies performed in durum and common wheat grains in this country it has been observed fumonisin contamination as well as high incidence of Fusarium proliferatum. Fumonisins are toxic fungal metabolites, and consumption of fumonisin-contaminated maize has been epidemiologically associated with oesophageal cancer and neural tube defects in some human populations. Using irradiated wheat-grains, the effects of abiotic factors, temperature (15, 25, and 30°C) and water activity (a W ; 0.995, 0.98, 0.96, 0.94, 0.92, and 0.88), on mycelial growth and fumonisin biosynthesis were compared for three F. proliferatum strains isolated from wheat grains in Argentina. Although all isolates showed similar profiles of growth, the fumonisin production profiles were slightly different. Maximum growth rates were obtained at the highest a W (0.995) and 25°C, with growth decreasing as the a W of the medium was reduced. Maximum amounts of total fumonisins (FB 1 , FB 2 and FB 3 ) were produced at 0.995 a W and 15°C for 2 strains, and at 25°C and 0.995 a W for the third one. Fumonisins concentrations varied considerably depending on the a W and temperature interactions assayed. Studied strains showed different fumonisin production profiles. Two-dimensional profiles of a W by temperature interactions were developed from these data to identify areas where conditions indicate a significant risk of fumonisins accumulation on wheat. As a result, temperature and a W conditions that resulted in fumonisins production are those found during wheat grain development (especially milk and dough stages) in the field. This is the first study made using irradiated wheat grains and provides useful baseline data on conditions representing a low or a high risk for fumonisins contamination of wheat grains which is of concern because this cereal is destined mainly for human consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  20. Associations of planting date, drought stress, and insects with Fusarium ear rot and fumonisin B1 contamination in California maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M W; Munkvold, G P

    2010-05-01

    Fusarium ear rot, caused by Fusarium verticillioides, is one of the most common diseases of maize, causing yield and quality reductions and contamination of grain by fumonisins and other mycotoxins. Drought stress and various insects have been implicated as factors affecting disease severity. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the interactions and relative influences of drought stress, insect infestation, and planting date upon Fusarium ear rot severity and fumonisin B1 contamination. Three hybrids varying in partial resistance to Fusarium ear rot were sown on three planting dates and subjected to four irrigation regimes to induce differing levels of drought stress. A foliar-spray insecticide treatment was imposed to induce differing levels of insect injury. Populations of thrips (Frankliniella spp.), damage by corn earworm (Helicoverpa zeae), Fusarium ear rot symptoms, and fumonisin B1 levels were assessed. There were significant effects of hybrid, planting date, insecticide treatment, and drought stress on Fusarium ear rot symptoms and fumonisin B1 contamination, and these factors also had significant interacting effects. The most influential factors were hybrid and insecticide treatment, but their effects were influenced by planting date and drought stress. The more resistant hybrids and the insecticide-treated plots consistently had lower Fusarium ear rot severity and fumonisin B1 contamination. Later planting dates typically had higher thrips populations, more Fusarium ear rot, and higher levels of fumonisin B1. Insect activity was significantly correlated with disease severity and fumonisin contamination, and the correlations were strongest for thrips. The results of this study confirm the influence of thrips on Fusarium ear rot severity in California, USA, and also establish a strong association between thrips and fumonisin B1 levels.

  1. FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES IN MAIZE: HOW ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC FACTORS CAN INFLUENCE GROWTH AND FUMONISINS PRODUCTION IN FIELD AND DURING STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    FORMENTI, SILVIA

    2010-01-01

    In questa tesi di dottorato sono stati indagati i punti critici legati ai fattori biotici e abiotici che possono influenzare la crescita del fungo Fusarium verticillioides, produttore di fumonisine in mais. le fumonisine sono metaboliti secondari prodotte da funghi appartenenti al genere Fusarium e sono state classificate come possibili cancerogene per l’uomo e per gli animali. Gli argomenti trattati nei vari capitoli sono stati: parametri ecologici che condizionano la crescita e l’accumulo d...

  2. Don Germán

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Luis Mejía

    1991-01-01

    El veranillo de San Juan hace soportable el mediodía. Los "chorros d'oro" inundan de amarillo los antejardines del Prado. Las golondrinas veraneras invaden, al atardecer, los alrededores de la Biblioteca Departamental. Los voceadores de la suerte del paseo Bolívar claman a los cuatro vientos el número que cambiará su destino . Pero algo falta definitivamente en esta Barranquilla. De alguna manera la ciudad ya no es la misma. Falta Don Germán.

  3. [Don Quijote, a lucid mad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Fernández, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    The case of a 50-year-old hidalgo who believed to be transformed into a knight-errant named Don Quijote is a megalomaniac systematized delusion of transformation of the self, a delusion of metamorphosis in reference to the patient's own identity. The outward projection of this syndrome produces some delusional misidentifications of others, things and animals and include elements of a persecutory delusion which increase the grandiosity of the self. At the same time the hidalgo was maniac with a pathway of bipolar disorder. The phenomenon of donquijotismo is described as the defence of wasted causes and Sancho Panza as an illiterate Sócrates.

  4. Don Germán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Mejía

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available El veranillo de San Juan hace soportable el mediodía. Los "chorros d'oro" inundan de amarillo los antejardines del Prado. Las golondrinas veraneras invaden, al atardecer, los alrededores de la Biblioteca Departamental. Los voceadores de la suerte del paseo Bolívar claman a los cuatro vientos el número que cambiará su destino . Pero algo falta definitivamente en esta Barranquilla. De alguna manera la ciudad ya no es la misma. Falta Don Germán.

  5. Effect of alkaline cooking of maize on the content of fumonisins B1 and B2 and their hydrolysed forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Girolamo, A; Lattanzio, V M T; Schena, R; Visconti, A; Pascale, M

    2016-02-01

    The effect of nixtamalization on the content of fumonisins (FBs), hydrolysed (HFBs) and partially hydrolysed (PHFBs) fumonisins in maize was investigated at laboratory-scale. Maize naturally contaminated with FBs and PHFBs was cooked with lime. Starting raw maize, steeping and washing waters and final masa fractions were analysed for toxin content. Control-cooking experiments without lime were also carried out. The nixtamalization reduced the amount of FBs and PHFBs in masa and converted them to HFBs. However, the three forms of fumonisins collected in all fractions amounted to 183%, indicating that nixtamalization made available forms of matrix-associated fumonisins that were then converted to their hydrolysed forms. Control-cooking enhanced FBs and PHFBs reduction, due to the solubility of fumonisins in water during the steeping process, but did not form HFBs. These findings indicate that benefits associated with enhancing the nutritional value of nixtamalized maize are also associated with a safer product in terms of fumonisin contamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Timing clorpirifos + cypermethrin and indoxacarb applications to control European corn borer damage and fumonisin contamination in maize kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandino, Massimo; Peila, Alessandro; Reyneri, Amedeo

    2010-02-01

    European corn borer (ECB) is the main maize pest in central and southern Europe and it promotes the infection of maize with Fusarium verticillioides, which is able to produce fumonisins. Field experiments were performed from 2006 to 2007 in northwestern Italy to determine the effects of the timing of insecticide applications on maize fungal ear rot and fumonisin contamination in natural infection conditions. Four application timings and two insecticides (clorpirifos + cypermethrin and indoxacarb) were compared each year. In both years, the treatments applied at the beginning of a consistent ECB flight activity and at the flight peak showed the best efficacy to control the insect damage on ears. Fungal ear rot and fumonisin contamination were clearly affected by ECB control. The efficacy of the best application timing to control fumonisin occurrence was 73% in 2006 and 84% in 2007. Earlier insecticide applications showed lower fumonisin contamination than treatments applied after the adult flight peak. The production of maize and maize-based foods with a low fumonisin content may be enhanced through correct insecticide application against the second ECB generation. The optimum timing of insecticides is between the beginning of a consistent adult flight activity and the flight peak.

  7. Analysis of potential fumonisin-producing Fusarium species in corn products from three main maize-producing areas in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Jiansheng; Zhang, Chulong; Wang, Qiaomei

    2013-02-01

    Fusarium species are common fungal contaminants of maize and a number of them can produce mycotoxin fumonisins. China is one of the largest maize producers in the world. This study investigated the contamination of maize samples from three areas in eastern China by Fusarium and fumonisin-producing fungi as well as their fumonisin-producing potential. A total of 22 Fusarium strains were isolated, 19 of which were able to produce fumonisin. Among the 19 strains, 16 belonged to F. verticillioides, two to F. subglutinans and one to F. proliferatum. The majority (17/19) of the fumonisin-forming strains were high FB(1) producers, which is a potential health risk for the population in these areas. Fusarium contamination in samples from the mideastern area was the most serious (11 Fusarium strains, with nine producing fumonisin, isolated from 24 samples), followed by the northeastern area (nine Fusarium strains, with all nine producing fumonisin, isolated from 21 samples) and the southeastern area (two Fusarium strains, with one producing fumonisin, isolated from 19 samples). Although the overall levels of FBs and contamination by fumonisin-producing fungi in corn samples were not serious, the contaminating Fusarium strains possessed fairly strong toxicogenic ability and potential risk for food safety. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Modification and characterization of montmorillonite clay for the extraction of zearalenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Kerri-Ann Alicia

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of organisms belonging to the fungus kingdom. The cost associated with mycotoxin contamination in the USA and Canada is approximately US $5 billion. Zearalenone (ZEN), a resorcylic acid lactone, is produced by various members of the genus Fusarium . These fungi often colonize a variety of foods and feedstuffs including, corn, sorghum, wheat, oats, barley, and other cereal grains. This metabolite has estrogenic effects in farm animals with pigs being the most sensitive. ZEN induces hyperestrogenism and can cause infertility, reduced sex drive, fetal mummification, and abortions. Clays have successfully been used in the animal feed industry as an adsorbent and binders for certain small, water soluble mycotoxins. These mycotoxins are attracted to the electrical imbalance between the layers of the clays caused by isomorphic substitution of structural atoms. The mycotoxins are sequestered in the clay layers and pass harmlessly through the animal. However, ZEN is water insoluble and is not extracted easily with aluminosilicate clays. Therefore the modification of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) clays with organic cations has been proposed to render the clays hydrophobic and increase the ZEN binding capacity. The goal of this study was to develop a safe and cost effective organophilic material able to bind and extract zearalenone, to investigate the factors most important to extraction, and to investigate the fundamental properties between the clay-surfactant-mycotoxin systems that lead to extraction. The clay was modified by cation exchange reactions with tricaprylmethylammonium (TCMA) chloride and generic corn oil. The organophilic clays were then characterized using XRD, FTIR, and TGA analytical techniques. These techniques were used to determine the change in fundamental clay properties that would lead to the extraction of ZEN. Desorption studies were performed to determine any increase in toxicity that might be

  9. Estrogen Receptor α Is Crucial in Zearalenone-Induced Invasion and Migration of Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kowalska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEA, a mycotoxin produced in the genus Fusarium, binds to estrogen receptors (ER and is therefore regarded as an endocrine disruptor. ZEA has also been found to modulate the proliferation and apoptosis of prostate cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. This study evaluates whether the effect of a low dose of ZEA (0.1 and 0.001 nM on the invasion and migration of prostate cancer cell line PC3 is associated with ERs expression. The invasion and migration was evaluated by modified Boyden chamber assay, scratch assay, gelatin zymography, Real Time qPCR (RTqPCR and Western blot. The involvement of ERs was evaluated with the selective ER antagonists: estrogen receptor α (ERα antagonist 1,3-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl-4-methyl-5-[4-(2-piperidinylethoxy phenol]-1H-pyrazole dihydrochloride (MPP and estrogen receptor β (ERβ antagonist 4-[2–phenyl-5,7–bis (trifluoromethyl pyrazolo [1,5-a]-pyrimidin-3-yl] phenol (PHTPP. ZEA was found to modulate cell motility dependent on estrogen receptors, particularly ERα. Increased cell migration and invasion were associated with increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity as well as the up-regulation of the EMT-associated genes vimentin (VIM, zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1/2 (ZEB1/2 and transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1. In conclusion, ZEA might modulate the invasiveness of prostate cancer cells dependently on ERα expression.

  10. Physiologically-Based Toxicokinetic Modeling of Zearalenone and Its Metabolites: Application to the Jersey Girl Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Dwaipayan; Royce, Steven G.; Alexander, Jocelyn A.; Buckley, Brian; Isukapalli, Sastry S.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Zarbl, Helmut; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA), a fungal mycotoxin, and its metabolite zeranol (ZAL) are known estrogen agonists in mammals, and are found as contaminants in food. Zeranol, which is more potent than ZEA and comparable in potency to estradiol, is also added as a growth additive in beef in the US and Canada. This article presents the development and application of a Physiologically-Based Toxicokinetic (PBTK) model for ZEA and ZAL and their primary metabolites, zearalenol, zearalanone, and their conjugated glucuronides, for rats and for human subjects. The PBTK modeling study explicitly simulates critical metabolic pathways in the gastrointestinal and hepatic systems. Metabolic events such as dehydrogenation and glucuronidation of the chemicals, which have direct effects on the accumulation and elimination of the toxic compounds, have been quantified. The PBTK model considers urinary and fecal excretion and biliary recirculation and compares the predicted biomarkers of blood, urinary and fecal concentrations with published in vivo measurements in rats and human subjects. Additionally, the toxicokinetic model has been coupled with a novel probabilistic dietary exposure model and applied to the Jersey Girl Study (JGS), which involved measurement of mycoestrogens as urinary biomarkers, in a cohort of young girls in New Jersey, USA. A probabilistic exposure characterization for the study population has been conducted and the predicted urinary concentrations have been compared to measurements considering inter-individual physiological and dietary variability. The in vivo measurements from the JGS fall within the high and low predicted distributions of biomarker values corresponding to dietary exposure estimates calculated by the probabilistic modeling system. The work described here is the first of its kind to present a comprehensive framework developing estimates of potential exposures to mycotoxins and linking them with biologically relevant doses and biomarker measurements

  11. Two-dimensional environmental profiles of growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium proliferatum on a wheat-based substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendoya, Eugenia; Farnochi, María Cecilia; Chulze, Sofia Noemi; Ramirez, María Laura

    2014-07-16

    The effect of water activity (aW; 0.995, 0.99, 0.98, 0.96, 0.94, 0.92, and 0.90), temperature (15, 25, and 30°C), incubation time (7, 14, 21 and 28days), and their interactions on mycelial growth and fumonisin production on wheat-based medium by three Fusarium proliferatum strains isolated from wheat in Argentina was evaluated. Maximum growth rates were obtained at the highest aW (0.995) and 30°C, with growth decreasing as the aW of the medium was reduced. Maximum amounts of total fumonisins (FB1, FB2 and FB3) were produced at 0.99 aW and 25°C after 21 and 28days of incubation for 2 strains, and at 15°C and 0.98 aW after 28days of incubation for the third strain. The fumonisin concentrations varied considerably depending on the aW and temperature interactions assayed. The studied strains had different fumonisin production profiles. F. proliferatum ITEM 15661 and ITEM 15664 produced FB1 and FB2 whereas F. proliferatum ITEM 15654 was able to produce FB1, FB2 and FB3. Interestingly, fumonisin production profiles for each particular strain were related to incubation temperatures. Fumonisins were produced from 15 to 30°C and at aW values of 0.92 to 0.995 after 21 to 28days of incubation. However at 7 and 14days of incubation small amounts of fumonisin were produced at aW lower than 0.94. Two-dimensional profiles of aW by temperature interactions were developed from these data to identify areas where conditions indicate a significant risk from fumonisin accumulation on wheat. Temperature and aW conditions that resulted in fumonisin production are those found during wheat grain development (especially milk and dough stages) in the field. This study provides useful base line data on conditions representing a high and a low risk for contamination of wheat by fumonisins which is becoming of greater concern because this cereal is destined mainly for human consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbial biotransformation of DON: molecular basis for reduced toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierron, Alix; Mimoun, Sabria; Murate, Leticia S.; Loiseau, Nicolas; Lippi, Yannick; Bracarense, Ana-Paula F. L.; Schatzmayr, Gerd; He, Jian Wei; Zhou, Ting; Moll, Wulf-Dieter; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2016-07-01

    Bacteria are able to de-epoxidize or epimerize deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin, to deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (deepoxy-DON or DOM-1) or 3-epi-deoxynivalenol (3-epi-DON), respectively. Using different approaches, the intestinal toxicity of 3 molecules was compared and the molecular basis for the reduced toxicity investigated. In human intestinal epithelial cells, deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON were not cytotoxic, did not change the oxygen consumption or impair the barrier function. In intestinal explants, exposure for 4 hours to 10 μM DON induced intestinal lesions not seen in explants treated with deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON. A pan-genomic transcriptomic analysis was performed on intestinal explants. 747 probes, representing 323 genes, were differentially expressed, between DON-treated and control explants. By contrast, no differentially expressed genes were observed between control, deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON treated explants. Both DON and its biotransformation products were able to fit into the pockets of the A-site of the ribosome peptidyl transferase center. DON forms three hydrogen bonds with the A site and activates MAPKinases (mitogen-activated protein kinases). By contrast deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON only form two hydrogen bonds and do not activate MAPKinases. Our data demonstrate that bacterial de-epoxidation or epimerization of DON altered their interaction with the ribosome, leading to an absence of MAPKinase activation and a reduced toxicity.

  13. Electrochemical immunoassay using magnetic beads for the determination of zearalenone in baby food: An anticipated analytical tool for food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervas, Miriam; Lopez, Miguel Angel; Escarpa, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    In this work, electrochemical immunoassay involving magnetic beads to determine zearalenone in selected food samples has been developed. The immunoassay scheme has been based on a direct competitive immunoassay method in which antibody-coated magnetic beads were employed as the immobilisation support and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as enzymatic label. Amperometric detection has been achieved through the addition of hydrogen peroxide substrate and hydroquinone as mediator. Analytical performance of the electrochemical immunoassay has been evaluated by analysis of maize certified reference material (CRM) and selected baby food samples. A detection limit (LOD) of 0.011 μg L -1 and EC 50 0.079 μg L -1 were obtained allowing the assessment of the detection of zearalenone mycotoxin. In addition, an excellent accuracy with a high recovery yield ranging between 95 and 108% has been obtained. The analytical features have shown the proposed electrochemical immunoassay to be a very powerful and timely screening tool for the food safety scene.

  14. Electrochemical immunoassay using magnetic beads for the determination of zearalenone in baby food: An anticipated analytical tool for food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hervas, Miriam; Lopez, Miguel Angel [Departamento Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Alcala, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona, Km. 33600, E-28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Escarpa, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.escarpa@uah.es [Departamento Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Alcala, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona, Km. 33600, E-28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-27

    In this work, electrochemical immunoassay involving magnetic beads to determine zearalenone in selected food samples has been developed. The immunoassay scheme has been based on a direct competitive immunoassay method in which antibody-coated magnetic beads were employed as the immobilisation support and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as enzymatic label. Amperometric detection has been achieved through the addition of hydrogen peroxide substrate and hydroquinone as mediator. Analytical performance of the electrochemical immunoassay has been evaluated by analysis of maize certified reference material (CRM) and selected baby food samples. A detection limit (LOD) of 0.011 {mu}g L{sup -1} and EC{sub 50} 0.079 {mu}g L{sup -1} were obtained allowing the assessment of the detection of zearalenone mycotoxin. In addition, an excellent accuracy with a high recovery yield ranging between 95 and 108% has been obtained. The analytical features have shown the proposed electrochemical immunoassay to be a very powerful and timely screening tool for the food safety scene.

  15. Mycoflora and fumonisin contamination in Brazilian corn from sowing to harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Adriana P; Fonseca, Homero; Fancelli, Antônio Luiz; Direito, Glória Maria; Ortega, Edwin M; Corrêa, Benedito

    2002-06-19

    The present study aimed to analyze the mycoflora and potential mycotoxin contamination of soil and corn samples collected at different plant maturity stages in Capão Bonito and Ribeirão Preto, two regions of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. In addition, the data obtained were correlated with the occurrence of wind-dispersed fungi and the predominant climatic conditions of the two regions studied. Corn mycoflora profiles showed that Fusarium verticillioides prevailed in 35% of the samples from Capão Bonito and in 49% of the samples from Ribeirão Preto. Examination of wind-dispersed fungi also revealed a high incidence of F. verticillioides. Soil mycoflora analyses showed that Penicilliumwas the most prevalent genus, although F. verticillioides was present in 55.5% of Capão Bonito's samples and in 26.7% of Ribeirão Preto's samples. With respect to water activity, the corn kernels most contaminated with F. verticillioides had water activity levels of 0.70-0.80. HPLC analysis of fumonisins revealed that 88.5% of Capão Bonito's kernels were contaminated with fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) (0.09-10.87 microg/g) and 53.8% with fumonisin B(2) (FB(2)) (0.05-0.52 microg/g); Ribeirão Preto's kernels presented contamination levels of 93.5% for FB(1) (0.11-17.69 microg/g) and 61.3% for FB(2) (0.05-5.24 microg/g). No aflatoxins were detected by thin-layer chromatography in corn grains of either region. The concomitant occurrence of F. verticillioides and fumonisins in most of the field corn assayed demonstrates the importance of an effective control of cultivation throughout the plant maturity stages.

  16. Evaluation of maize inbred lines for resistance to pre-harvest aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhu Guo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Two important mycotoxins, aflatoxin and fumonisin, are among the most potent naturally occurring carcinogens, contaminating maize (Zea mays and affecting crop yield and quality. Resistance of maize to pre-harvest mycotoxin contamination, specifically aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and fumonisin produced by Fusarium verticillioides, is a goal in breeding programs that screen for these important traits with the aim of developing resistant commercial hybrids. We conducted two years of field evaluations on 87 inbred lines originating primarily in China and Mexico and not previously screened for resistance. The objectives of our study were to identify resistant germplasm for breeding purposes and to examine possible relationships between resistances to the two mycotoxins. Aflatoxin and fumonisin were present in samples harvested from all lines in both years. Concentrations of total aflatoxin ranged from 52.00 ± 20.00 to 1524.00 ± 396.00 μg kg−1, while those of fumonisin ranged from 0.60 ± 0.06 to 124.00 ± 19.50 mg kg−1. The inbred lines TUN15, TUN61, TUN37, CY2, and TUN49 showed the lowest aflatoxin accumulation and CN1, GT601, TUN09, TUN61, and MP717 the lowest fumonisin accumulation. TUN61 showed the lowest accumulation of both mycotoxins. This study confirmed previous observations that high levels of aflatoxin can coexist with fumonisin, with 55 maize lines showing a positive correlation coefficient between the concentrations of aflatoxin and fumonisin and 32 lines showing a negative correlation coefficient. These selected lines, particularly TUN61, may provide sources of resistance to mycotoxin contamination in breeding programs. However, the mechanism of resistance in this germplasm remains to be identified. Future research should also address factors that influence the fungus–plant interaction, such as herbivory and environmental stress.

  17. Application of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy for Rapid Detection of Fumonisin B2 in Raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heperkan, Dilek; Gökmen, Ece

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of FTIR spectroscopy as a rapid screening method to detect fumonisin produced by Aspergillus niger. A. niger spore suspensions isolated from raisins were inoculated in Petri dishes prepared with sultana raisin or black raisin extracts containing agar and malt extract agar (MEA). After 9 days of incubation at 25°C, fumonisin B2 (FB2) production on each agar plate was determined by subjecting the agar plugs to IR spectroscopy. The presence of amino group (at 1636-1639 cm(-1)) was especially indicative of fumonisin production in MEA and the raisin extracts containing agar. The results were confirmed by HPLC analysis of the agar sample extracts after immunoaffinity column cleanup. It was determined that A. niger produced more FB2 in sultana raisins than in MEA, with no FB2 being produced in black raisin extract agar. This study demonstrated that proper sample preparation procedure followed by FTIR analysis is a useful technique for identifying toxigenic molds and their mycotoxin production in agricultural commodities.

  18. Rapid determination of fumonisins in corn-based products by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Herrman, Timothy J; Dai, Susie Y

    2010-01-01

    A simple, fast, and robust method was developed for the determination of fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2), and fumonisin B3 (FB3) in corn-based human food and animal feed (cornmeal). The method involves a single extraction step followed by centrifugation and filtration before analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatographylelectrospray ionization (UPLC/ESI)-MS/MS. The LC/MS/MS method developed here represents the fastest and simplest procedure (<30 min) among both conventional HPLC methods and other LC/MS methods using SPE cleanup. The potential for high throughput analysis makes the method particularly beneficial for regulatory agencies and analytical laboratories with a high sample volume. A single-laboratory validation was conducted by testing three different spiking levels (200, 500, and 1000 ng/g for FB1 and FB2; 100, 250, and 500 ng/g for FB3) for accuracy and precision. Recoveries of FB1 ranged from 93 to 98% with RSD values of 3-8%. Recoveries of FB2 ranged from 104 to 108%, with RSD values of 2-6%. Recoveries of FB3 ranged from 94 to 108%, with RSD values of 2-5%.

  19. Equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM due to fumonisins B1 and B2 in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Giannitti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In August 2007 an outbreak of neurological disease and sudden death in Arabian horses occurred in a farm located in Coronel Rosales County, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The animals were on a pasture of native grasses and supplemented ad libitum with corn kernels and wheat bran. Three horses were observed having acute neurologic signs including blindness, four leg ataxia, hyperexcitability, aimless walking and circling, followed by death in two of them. Four other horses were found dead overnight without a history of neurologic signs. The morbidity, mortality and lethality rates were 11.6%, 10% and 85.7%, respectively. Grossly, the brain showed focal areas of hemorrhage, brown-yellow discoloration and softening of the sub-cortical white matter. The microscopic brain lesions consisted of extensive areas of malacia within the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres, brainstem and cerebellum, characterized by rarefaction of the white matter with cavitations filled with proteinaceous edema, multifocal hemorrhages and mild infiltration by neutrophils, and rare eosinophils. Swollen glial cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, distinct cell borders, intracytoplasmic deeply eosinophilic globules and eccentric, hyperchromatic, occasionally pyknotic nucleus were present throughout the areas of rarefaction hemorrhage, edema and necrosis. The feed supplements contained 12,490µg/kg of fumonisin B1 and 5,251µg/ kg of fumonisin B2. This is the first reported outbreak of ELEM associated with consumption of feed supplements containing high concentrations of fumonisins in Argentina.

  20. A fluorescent immunochromatographic strip test using Quantum Dots for fumonisins detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nardo, F; Anfossi, L; Giovannoli, C; Passini, C; Goftman, V V; Goryacheva, I Y; Baggiani, C

    2016-04-01

    A fluorescent immunochromatographic strip test (ICST) based on the use of Quantum Dots (QD) was developed and applied to detect fumonisins in maize samples. A limit of detection for fumonisin B1 of 2.8 µg L(-1) was achieved, with an analytical working range of 3-350 µg L(-1), corresponding to 30-3500 µg kg(-1) in maize flour samples, according with the extraction procedure. The time required to perform the analysis was 22 min, including sample preparation. Recovery values in the range from 91.4% to 105.4% with coefficients of variation not exceeding 5% were obtained for fortified and naturally contaminated maize flour samples. To evaluate the possible improvements due to the use of QD for ICST technology, we performed a direct comparison of the proposed QD-ICST to a gold nanoparticles- and a chemiluminescent-ICST previously developed for fumonisins detection, in which the same immunoreagents were employed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. FvVE1 Regulates Biosynthesis of Fumonisins and Fusarins in Fusarium verticillioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    MYUNG, KYUNG; LI, SHAOJIE; BUTCHKO, ROBERT A.E.; BUSMAN, MARK; PROCTOR, ROBERT H; ABBAS, HAMED K.; CALVO, ANA M.

    2009-01-01

    The veA gene positively regulates sterigmatocystin production in Aspergillus nidulans and aflatoxin production in A. parasiticus and A. flavus. Whether veA homologs have a role in regulating secondary metabolism in other fungal genera is unknown. In this study, we examined the role of the veA homolog, FvVE1, on production of two mycotoxin families, fumonisins and fusarins, in the important corn pathogen F. verticillioides. We found that FvVE1 deletion completely suppressed fumonisin production on two natural substrates, corn and rice. Furthermore, our results revealed that FvVE1 is necessary for the expression of the pathway-specific regulatory gene FUM21 and structural genes in the fumonisin biosynthetic gene (FUM) cluster. FvVE1 deletion also blocked production of fusarins. The effects of FvVE1 deletion on the production of these toxins were found to be the same in two separate mating types. Our results strongly suggest that FvVE1 play an important role in regulating mycotoxin production in F. verticillioides. PMID:19382792

  2. MALDI-Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Ochratoxin A and Fumonisins in Mold-Infected Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickert, Sebastian; Cramer, Benedikt; Letzel, Matthias C; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-09-06

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by various fungi. Their distribution within contaminated material is of high interest to obtain insight into infection mechanisms and the possibility of reducing contamination during food processing. Various vegetable foodstuffs were infected with fungi of the genera Fusarium and Aspergillus. The localization of the produced mycotoxins was studied by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-MSI) of cryosections obtained from infected material. The results were confirmed by HPLC-electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). The mycotoxins ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins of the B- and C-series (FB 1 , FB 2 , FB 3 , FB 4 , FC 2/3 , and FC 4 ) as well as partially hydrolyzed fumonisins (pHFB 1 , pHFB 2 , pHFB 3 , pHFC 1 , and pHFC 2/3 ) could successfully be detected by MALDI-IMS in mold-infested foodstuffs. The toxins are distributed differently in the material: OTA is co-localized with visible fungal spoilage while fumonisins could be detected throughout the whole sample. This work shows the applicability of MALDI-Imaging Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MSI) to mycotoxin analysis. It has been demonstrated that the analyzed mycotoxins are differently distributed within moldy foodstuffs. These findings show the potential of MALDI-MSI for the localization of these hazardous compounds in various plant tissues. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of zinc compounds on Fusarium verticillioides growth, hyphae alterations, conidia, and fumonisin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Geovana D; Vitorino, Vinícius; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Scussel, Vildes M

    2013-10-01

    Several strategies are used to eliminate toxigenic fungi that produce fumonisins in grains. Fusarium verticillioides can be controlled by the application of synthetic fungicides in the field or during storage. However, there may also be residuals, which may remain in the foods. Inorganic compounds such as zinc are cheap, stable and could present strong antifungal activity. Some Zn compounds can be utilized as dietary supplements and are authorized for the fortification of foods. Knowing the advantages and that low concentrations of Zn can have antimicrobial activity, our objective was to evaluate the effects of Zn compounds on the growth of F. verticillioides and the production of fumonisin and conidia. In addition, we aimed to verify that Zn compounds cause morphological alterations of the hyphae, mortality and production of reactive oxygen species. Zn compounds efficiently reduced fungal growth and fumonisin production. Treatment using zinc perchlorate gave the best results. All treatments inhibited conidia production and caused morphological alterations of the hyphae. It was possible to observe cell death and production of reactive oxygen species. Zn compounds have advantages compared to other antifungal compounds. In particular, they are non-toxic for the organism in appropriate amounts. They could be studied further as potential fungicides in agriculture. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Dose-response effects of estrogenic mycotoxins (zearalenone, alpha- and beta-zearalenol on motility, hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colenbrander Ben

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of the Fusarium fungus-derived mycotoxin, zearalenone and its derivatives alpha-zearalenol and beta-zearalenol on motility parameters and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm. Since the toxic effects of zearalenone and its derivatives are thought to result from their structural similarity to 17beta-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol was used as a positive control for 'estrogen-like' effects. Methods Stallion spermatozoa were exposed in vitro to zearalenone, alpha-zearalenol, beta-zearalenol or 17beta-estradiol at concentrations ranging from 1 pM - 0.1 mM. After 2 hours exposure, motility parameters were evaluated by computer-assisted analysis, and acrosome integrity was examined by flow cytometry after staining with fluoroscein-conjugated peanut agglutinin. Results Mycotoxins affected sperm parameters only at the highest concentration tested (0.1 mM after 2 hours exposure. In this respect, all of the compounds reduced the average path velocity, but only alpha-zearalenol reduced percentages of motile and progressively motile sperm. Induction of motility patterns consistent with hyperactivation was stimulated according to the following rank of potency: alpha-zearalenol >17beta-estradiol > zearalenone = beta-zearalenol. The hyperactivity-associated changes observed included reductions in straight-line velocity and linearity of movement, and an increase in the amplitude of lateral head displacement, while curvilinear velocity was unchanged. In addition, whereas alpha- and beta- zearalenol increased the percentages of live acrosome-reacted sperm, zearalenone and 17beta-estradiol had no apparent effect on acrosome status. In short, alpha-zearalenol inhibited normal sperm motility, but stimulated hyperactive motility in the remaining motile cells and simultaneously induced the acrosome reaction. Beta-zearalenol induced the acrosome reaction without altering motility

  5. Investigations on Fusarium spp. and their mycotoxins causing Fusarium ear rot of maize in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala-Mayrhofer, Vitore; Varga, Elisabeth; Marjakaj, Robert; Berthiller, Franz; Musolli, Agim; Berisha, Defrime; Kelmendi, Bakir; Lemmens, Marc

    2013-01-01

    After wheat, maize (Zea mays L.) is the second most important cereal crop in Kosovo and a major component of animal feed. The purpose of this study was to analyse the incidence and identity of the Fusarium species isolated from naturally infected maize kernels in Kosovo in 2009 and 2010, as well as the mycotoxin contamination. The disease incidence of Fusarium ear rot (from 0.7% to 40% diseased ears) on maize in Kosovo is high. The most frequently Fusarium spp. identified on maize kernels were Fusarium subglutinans, F. verticillioides/F. proliferatum and F. graminearum. Maize kernel samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS and found to be contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON), DON-3-glucoside, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON, zearalenone, zearalenone-14-sulphate, moniliformin, fumonisin B1 and fumonisin B2. This is the first report on the incidence and identification of Fusarium species isolated from naturally infected maize as well as the mycotoxin contamination in Kosovo.

  6. “Is that right?” – Don Favareau, Don Corleone & the semiotics of friendship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmeche, Claus

    2017-01-01

    A chapter commenting specifically on John Poinsot's "Tractatus de Signis", John Deely's interpretation of Poinsot's mentioning of "friendship" as an example of a triadic relation, Don Favareau's contribution to the biosemiotic community, and Don Corleone as a symbol of a different kind of "friend......A chapter commenting specifically on John Poinsot's "Tractatus de Signis", John Deely's interpretation of Poinsot's mentioning of "friendship" as an example of a triadic relation, Don Favareau's contribution to the biosemiotic community, and Don Corleone as a symbol of a different kind...... of "friendship", and generally on the philosophy of friendship....

  7. Effects of purified zearalenone on selected immunological measurements of blood in post-weaning gilts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEA, an estrogenic mycotoxin, is produced mainly by Fusarium fungi. Previous studies have indicated that acute ZEA exposure induced various damages in different species; however, its transparent hematotoxicity in female piglets at dietary levels of 1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg has not been shown. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ZEA (1.1–3.2 mg/kg on hematology, T lymphocyte subset, immunoglobulin, antibody titer, lymphocyte proliferation rate (LPR, and interleukin-2 (IL-2 in peripheral blood of post-weaning gilts. A total of 20 female piglets (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc, weaned at 42 d with an average body weight of 10.36 ± 1.21 kg were used in the study. Female piglets were kept in a temperature controlled room, divided into four treatments, and fed a diet based on corn-soybean meal-fishmeal-whey, with an addition of 0, 1.1, 2.0, or 3.2 mg/kg purified ZEA for 18 d ad libitum. Feed intake and refusal were measured daily and individual pigs were weighed weekly. Blood and serum samples were collected for selected immunological measurements. Female piglets fed different levels of dietary ZEA grew similarly with no difference in feed intake. Hematological values including leukocytes, platelets, lymphocytes, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH decreased linearly (P < 0.05 as dietary ZEA increased. Female piglets fed diets containing 2.0 mg/kg ZEA or greater showed significantly decreased CD4+CD8+, CD4+, and CD4+/CD8+ in comparison to the control (P < 0.05, whereas CD8+ was significantly increased (P = 0.026 in the gilts which were fed the diet containing 3.2 mg/kg ZEA. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG and the antibody titer on d 18 were reduced linearly as dietary ZEA levels increased (P < 0.001. Linear decrease in LPR was observed (P < 0.05. Female piglets fed diets containing 2.0 mg/kg ZEA or more showed significantly decreased IL-2 in comparison to the control (P < 0

  8. Oxidative stress induced by zearalenone in porcine granulosa cells and its rescue by curcumin in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunsi Qin

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS, as a signal of aberrant intracellular mechanisms, plays key roles in maintaining homeostasis for organisms. The occurrence of OS due to the disorder of normal cellular redox balance indicates the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS and/or deficiency of antioxidants. Once the balance is broken down, repression of oxidative stress is one of the most effective ways to alleviate it. Ongoing studies provide remarkable evidence that oxidative stress is involved in reproductive toxicity induced by various stimuli, such as environmental toxicants and food toxicity. Zearalenone (ZEA, as a toxic compound existing in contaminated food products, is found to induce mycotoxicosis that has a significant impact on the reproduction of domestic animals, especially pigs. However, there is no information about how ROS and oxidative stress is involved in the influence of ZEA on porcine granulosa cells, or whether the stress can be rescued by curcumin. In this study, ZEA-induced effect on porcine granulosa cells was investigated at low concentrations (15 μM, 30 μM and 60 μM. In vitro ROS levels, the mRNA level and activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were obtained. The results showed that in comparison with negative control, ZEA increased oxidative stress with higher ROS levels, reduced the expression and activity of antioxidative enzymes, increased the intensity of fluorogenic probes 2', 7'-Dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate and dihydroethidium in flow cytometry assay and fluorescence microscopy. Meanwhile, the activity of glutathione (GSH did not change obviously following 60 μM ZEA treatment. Furthermore, the underlying protective mechanisms of curcumin on the ZEA-treated porcine granulosa cells were investigated. The data revealed that curcumin pre-treatment significantly suppressed ZEA-induced oxidative stress. Collectively, porcine granulosa cells were sensitive to ZEA, which may induce

  9. Don Zhuanu otdajutsja tolko po ljubvi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Eestisse tuleb külla Roman Viktjuki Teater, 1. nov. mängitakse Vene Kultuurikeskuses Jean Genet' "Toatüdrukuid" (lavastaja Roman Viktjuk), 23. nov. etendatakse Eric-Emmanuel Scmitti "Don Juani viimast armastust" (lavastaja Roman Viktjuk)

  10. Don't Take This with That!

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Special Features Don't take this with that! Share ... Drug Interactions: What You Should Know More in Special Features Page Last Updated: 12/17/2015 Note: ...

  11. Evidence for ceramide synthase inhibition in humans exposed to fumonisins in maize-based foods and living in low or high exposure communities in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumonisins (FB) are mycotoxins commonly found in corn and in foods made from corn. Fumonisin B1 (FB1), the most common FB, causes diseases in farm animals and causes liver and kidney toxicity and cancer in rodents. The key event in its mechanism of toxicity in animals is inhibition of the enzyme c...

  12. Fumonisin exposure in women linked to inhibition of an enzyme that is a key event in farm and laboratory animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a toxic chemical produced by molds. The molds that produce fumonisin are common in corn. Consumption of contaminated corn by farm animals has been shown to be the cause of animal disease. The proximate cause (key event) in the induction of diseases in animals is inhibition of t...

  13. Evidence for inhibition of ceramide synthase by fumonisins in maize-based foods: studies in high- and low-exposure communities in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumonisins (FB) are found predominantly in corn and corn-based foods. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is the most common FB and causes species-specific diseases in animals including hepto- and nephrotoxicity in rodents and neural tube defects (NTDs; serious birth defects) in mice. The critical event in the mec...

  14. Toxicokinetics of fumonisin B1 in turkey poults and tissue persistence after exposure to a diet containing the maximum European tolerance for fumonisins in avian feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, Didier; Bailly, Jean-Denis; Skiba, Fabien; Grosjean, François; Guerre, Philippe

    2008-09-01

    The kinetic of fumonisin B1 (FB1) after a single IV and oral dose, and FB1 persistence in tissue were investigated in turkey poults by HPLC after purification of samples on columns. After IV administration (single-dose: 10mg FB1/kg bw), serum concentration-time curves were best described by a three-compartment open model. Elimination half-life and mean residence time of FB1 were 85 and 52min, respectively. After oral administration (single-dose: 100mg FB1/kg bw) bioavailability was 3.2%; elimination half-life and mean residence time were 214 and 408min, respectively. Clearance of FB1 was 7.6 and 7.5ml/min/kg for IV and oral administration, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the administration of FB1 by the intravenous route, liver and kidney contained the highest levels of FB1 in tissues, level in muscle was low or below the limit of detection (LD, 13microg/kg). The persistence of FB1 in tissue was also studied after administration for 9 weeks of a feed that contained 5, 10 and 20mg FB1+FB2/kg diet. Eight hours after the last intake of 20mg FB1+FB2/kg feed (maximum recommended concentration of fumonisins established by the EU for avian feed), hepatic and renal FB1 concentrations were 119 and 22microg/kg, level in muscles was below the LD.

  15. Enzyme characteristics of aminotransferase FumI of Sphingopyxis sp. MTA144 for deamination of hydrolyzed fumonisin B₁.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartinger, Doris; Schwartz, Heidi; Hametner, Christian; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Haltrich, Dietmar; Moll, Wulf-Dieter

    2011-08-01

    Fumonisins are carcinogenic mycotoxins that are frequently found as natural contaminants in maize from warm climate regions around the world. The aminotransferase FumI is encoded as part of a gene cluster of Sphingopyxis sp. MTA144, which enables this bacterial strain to degrade fumonisin B(1) and related fumonisins. FumI catalyzes the deamination of the first intermediate of the catabolic pathway, hydrolyzed fumonisin B(1). We used a preparation of purified, His-tagged FumI, produced recombinantly in Escherichia coli in soluble form, for enzyme characterization. The structure of the reaction product was studied by NMR and identified as 2-keto hydrolyzed fumonisin B(1). Pyruvate was found to be the preferred co-substrate and amino group receptor (K (M) = 490 μM at 10 μM hydrolyzed fumonisin B(1)) of FumI, but other α-keto acids were also accepted as co-substrates. Addition of the co-enzyme pyridoxal phosphate to the enzyme preparation enhanced activity, and saturation was already reached at the lowest tested concentration of 10 μM. The enzyme showed activity in the range of pH 6 to 10 with an optimum at pH 8.5, and in the range of 6°C to 50°C with an optimum at 35°C. The aminotransferase worked best at low salt concentration. FumI activity could be recovered after preincubation at pH 4.0 or higher, but not lower. The aminotransferase was denatured after preincubation at 60°C for 1 h, and the residual activity was also reduced after preincubation at lower temperatures. At optimum conditions, the kinetic parameters K (M) = 1.1 μM and k (cat) = 104/min were determined with 5 mM pyruvate as co-substrate. Based on the enzyme characteristics, a technological application of FumI, in combination with the fumonisin carboxylesterase FumD for hydrolysis of fumonisins, for deamination and detoxification of hydrolyzed fumonisins seems possible, if the enzyme properties are considered.

  16. Fate of Fusarium mycotoxins in maize flour and grits during extrusion cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudamore, Keith A; Guy, Robin C E; Kelleher, Brian; MacDonald, Susan J

    2008-11-01

    Extrusion technology is used widely in the manufacture of a range of breakfast cereals and snacks for human consumption and animal feeds. To minimise consumer exposure to mycotoxins, the levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) in cereals/cereal products and fumonisins B(1) and B(2) (FB(1) and FB(2)) in maize are controlled by European Union legislation. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the loss of Fusarium mycotoxins during processing. The behaviour of FB(1), FB(2) and fumonisin B(3) (FB(3)), DON and ZON during extrusion of naturally contaminated maize flour and maize grits is examined using pilot-scale equipment. DON and ZON are relatively stable during extrusion cooking but the fumonisins are lost to varying degrees. There is some loss of ZON when present in low concentrations and extruded at higher moisture contents. The presence of additives, such as reducing sugars and sodium chloride, can also affect mycotoxin levels. Moisture content of the cereal feed during extrusion is important and has a greater effect than temperature, particularly on the loss of fumonisins at the lower moistures. The effects are complex and not easy to explain, although more energy input to the extruder is required for drier materials. However, on the basis of these studies, the relationship between the concentration of Fusarium toxins in the raw and finished product is toxin- and process-dependent.

  17. Molecular characterization of black Aspergillus species from onion and their potential for ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherbawy, Youssuf; Elhariry, Hesham; Kocsubé, Sándor; Bahobial, Abdulaziz; Deeb, Bahig El; Altalhi, Abdulla; Varga, János; Vágvölgyi, Csaba

    2015-05-01

    Onion bulbs can become contaminated with various molds during the storage period, the most important causal agents being black aspergilli (Aspergillus section Nigri). Taxonomic studies have revealed that this group of Aspergillus contains many species that cannot be reliably identified using standard morphological methods. Therefore, it is necessary to define the fungus causing this problem in the onion exactly, especially since some species assigned to section Nigri are well known as ochratoxin and/or fumonisin producers. Sixty fungal isolates belonging to 10 fungal genera were isolated from 40 onion samples originated from the Taif region in Saudi Arabia. Black aspergilli were detected in 37 onion samples. Using primer pairs (awaspec and Cmd6) designed based on partial calmodulin gene sequence data, 37 isolates were identified as A. welwitschiae. The ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 contents of the onion samples were examined. No ochratoxins were detected in the collected samples, while fumonisin B2 was detected in 37.5% of the onion samples. Eighteen of 37 isolates of Aspergillus welwitschiae were recognized as potential producers for fumonisin B2. Multiplex polymerase chain reactions designed to detect biosynthetic genes of fumonisins confirmed these results.

  18. Detection of N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) Fumonisins B₂ and B₃ in Corn by High-Resolution LC-Orbitrap MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Yosuke; Takahara, Kentaro; Sago, Yuki; Kushiro, Masayo; Nagashima, Hitoshi; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-16

    The existence of glucose conjugates of fumonisin B₂ (FB₂) and fumonisin B₃ (FB₃) in corn powder was confirmed for the first time. These "bound-fumonisins" (FB₂ and FB₃ bound to glucose) were identified as N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) fumonisin B₂ (NDfrc-FB₂) and N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) fumonisin B₃ (NDfrc-FB₃) respectively, based on the accurate mass measurements of characteristic ions and fragmentation patterns using high-resolution liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-Orbitrap MS) analysis. Treatment on NDfrc-FB₂ and NDfrc-FB₃ with the o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) reagent also supported that D-glucose binding to FB₂ and FB₃ molecules occurred to their primary amine residues.

  19. Don\\'t Ask, Don\\'t Tell: Ethical Issues Concerning Learning and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Informed consent procedures and requirements must be clearly established and communicated. The learning and proficiency practices should be restricted to the staff that can truly benefit from the experience. The practice of 'don't ask, don't tell' is not an option. South African Journal of Family Practice Vol. 50 (4) 2008: pp.

  20. Guidelines : the do's, don'ts and don't knows of feedback for clinical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefroy, Janet; Watling, Chris; Teunissen, Pim W; Brand, Paul

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The guidelines offered in this paper aim to amalgamate the literature on formative feedback into practical Do's, Don'ts and Don't Knows for individual clinical supervisors and for the institutions that support clinical learning. METHODS: The authors built consensus by an iterative

  1. Buscando a don Claudio Moyano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan González Ruiz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available (ES En el primer número de esta revista digital "Cabás", Antonio Montero Alcalde hizo un pormenorizado y útil análisis de la llamada Ley Moyano, la Ley de Instrucción Pública promulgada en 1857; la importancia de este texto legal en el desarrollo de la educación en España a lo largo de más de un siglo ha sido puesta de relieve en multitud de estudios históricos referidos a la época contemporánea. Nacido en una pequeña población zamorana el día 30 de octubre de 1809, la vida pública de don Claudio Moyano Samaniego, el firmante de la ley que lleva su nombre, se desarrolló básicamente en la corte madrileña; no obstante, rastrear en el entorno de su tierra natal algunos aspectos y circunstancias de su persona puede tener interés para completar la figura de una personalidad tan citada por su obra como desconocida por su vida. Y, al menos, sirve como curioso entretenimiento de un impenitente viajero a la búsqueda de huellas históricas de las escuelas de otros tiempos y de los hombres dedicados a ellas.

  2. Seed biopriming with novel strain of Trichoderma harzianum for the control of toxigenic Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisins in maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nayaka, S.Chandra; Niranjana, S.R.; Shankar, A.C. Uday

    2010-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is one of the most important fungal pathogens in maize causing both pre- and post-harvest losses and also capable of producing Fumonisins. In the present study attempts have been made for screening potential T. harzianum from native rhizosphere and to study its effect...... on Fusarium ear rot disease, fumonisin accumulation in different maize cultivars grown in India. Eight isolates of T. harzianum were isolated and T. harzianum isolate Th-8 exhibited better antifungal activity than carbendizim. Th-8 was formulated in different solid substrates like wheat bran, paddy husk...... of 10 g/kg. Treated seeds were subjected to evaluate F. verticillioides incidence, seed germination, seedling vigour and field emergence, yield, thousand seed weight and fumonisin production. It was found that the pure culture of T. harzianum was more effective in reducing the F. verticillioides...

  3. Diversity of Pea-Associated F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides Populations Revealed by FUM1 Sequence Analysis and Fumonisin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz; Wilman, Karolina; Kachlicki, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum and F. verticillioides are considered as minor pathogens of pea (Pisum sativum L.). Both species can survive in seed material without visible disease symptoms, but still contaminating it with fumonisins. Two populations of pea-derived F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides strains were subjected to FUM1 sequence divergence analysis, forming a distinct group when compared to the collection strains originating from different host species. Furthermore, the mycotoxigenic abilities of those strains were evaluated on the basis of in planta and in vitro fumonisin biosynthesis. No differences were observed in fumonisin B (FB) levels measured in pea seeds (maximum level reached 1.5 μg g−1); however, in rice cultures, the majority of F. proliferatum genotypes produced higher amounts of FB1–FB3 than F. verticillioides strains. PMID:23470545

  4. Scientific opinion on risks for animal health related to the presence of zearalenone and its modified forms in feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    (CONTAM) established no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for pig (piglets and gilts), poultry (chicken and fattening turkeys), sheep and fish (extrapolated from carp) and lowest observed effect level (LOAEL) for dogs. No reference points could be established for cattle, ducks, goats, horses...... of adverse health effects of feed containing ZEN was considered extremely low for poultry and low for sheep, dog, pig and fish. The same conclusions also apply to the sum of ZEN and its modified forms.......Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin primarily produced by Fusarium fungi, occurs predominantly in cereal grains. The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risk to animal health related to ZEN and its modified forms in feed. Modified forms of ZEN occurring in feed include phase I...

  5. Oral exposure to culture material extract containing fumonisins predisposes swine to the development of pneumonitis caused by Pasteurella multocida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halloy, David J.; Gustin, Pascal G.; Bouhet, Sandrine; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2005-01-01

    Fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum that commonly occurs in maize. In swine, consumption of contaminated feed induces liver damage and pulmonary edema. Pasteurella multocida is a secondary pathogen, which can generate a respiratory disorder in predisposed pigs. In this study, we examined the effect of oral exposure to fumonisin-containing culture material on lung inflammation caused by P. multocida. Piglets received by gavage a crude extract of fumonisin, 0.5 mg FB 1 /kg body weight/day, for 7 days. One day later, the animals were instilled intratracheally with a non toxin producing type A strain of P. multocida and followed up for 13 additional days. Pig weight and cough frequency were measured throughout the experiment. Lung lesions, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell composition and the expression of inflammatory cytokines were evaluated at the autopsy. Ingestion of fumonisin culture material or infection with P. multocida did not affect weight gain, induced no clinical sign or lung lesion, and only had minimal effect on BALF cell composition. Ingestion of mycotoxin extract increased the expression of IL-8, IL-18 and IFN-γ mRNA compared with P. multocida infection that increased the expression of TNF-α. The combined treatment with fumonisin culture material and P. multocida delayed growth, induced cough, and increased BALF total cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. Lung lesions were significantly enhanced in these animals and consisted of subacute interstitial pneumonia. TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-18 mRNA expression was also increased. Taken together, our data showed that fumonisin culture material is a predisposing factor to lung inflammation. These results may have implications for humans and animals consuming FB 1 contaminated food or feed

  6. Oral exposure to culture material extract containing fumonisins predisposes swine to the development of pneumonitis caused by Pasteurella multocida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halloy, David J [Department of Functional Sciences, Unit of Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, Liege (Belgium); Gustin, Pascal G [Department of Functional Sciences, Unit of Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, Liege (Belgium); Bouhet, Sandrine [INRA, UR66, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 180 Chemin de Tournefeuille, BP3, 31931 Toulouse (France); Oswald, Isabelle P [INRA, UR66, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 180 Chemin de Tournefeuille, BP3, 31931 Toulouse (France)

    2005-09-15

    Fumonisin B{sub 1} (FB{sub 1}) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum that commonly occurs in maize. In swine, consumption of contaminated feed induces liver damage and pulmonary edema. Pasteurella multocida is a secondary pathogen, which can generate a respiratory disorder in predisposed pigs. In this study, we examined the effect of oral exposure to fumonisin-containing culture material on lung inflammation caused by P. multocida. Piglets received by gavage a crude extract of fumonisin, 0.5 mg FB{sub 1}/kg body weight/day, for 7 days. One day later, the animals were instilled intratracheally with a non toxin producing type A strain of P. multocida and followed up for 13 additional days. Pig weight and cough frequency were measured throughout the experiment. Lung lesions, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell composition and the expression of inflammatory cytokines were evaluated at the autopsy. Ingestion of fumonisin culture material or infection with P. multocida did not affect weight gain, induced no clinical sign or lung lesion, and only had minimal effect on BALF cell composition. Ingestion of mycotoxin extract increased the expression of IL-8, IL-18 and IFN-{gamma} mRNA compared with P. multocida infection that increased the expression of TNF-{alpha}. The combined treatment with fumonisin culture material and P. multocida delayed growth, induced cough, and increased BALF total cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. Lung lesions were significantly enhanced in these animals and consisted of subacute interstitial pneumonia. TNF-{alpha}, IFN-{gamma} and IL-18 mRNA expression was also increased. Taken together, our data showed that fumonisin culture material is a predisposing factor to lung inflammation. These results may have implications for humans and animals consuming FB{sub 1} contaminated food or feed.

  7. Product ion filtering with rapid polarity switching for the detection of all fumonisins and AAL-toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Justin B; Kelman, Megan J; Qi, Tianyu F; Seifert, Keith A; Sumarah, Mark W

    2015-11-30

    Fumonisins and AAL-toxins are structurally similar mycotoxins that contaminate agricultural crops and foodstuffs. Traditional analytical screening methods are designed to target the known compounds for which standards are available but there is clear evidence that many other derivatives exist and could be toxic. A fast, semi-targeted method for the detection of all known fumonisins, AAL-toxins and related emerging toxins is required. Strains of Fusarium verticillioides, Alternaria arborescens and Aspergillus welwitschiae were grown on their associated crops (maize, tomatoes, and grapes, respectively). Extracts were first analyzed in negative mode using product ion filtering to detect the tricarballylic ester product ion that is common to fumonisins and AAL-toxins (m/z 157.0142). During the same liquid chromatography (LC) run, rapid polarity switching was then used to collect positive mode tandem mass spectrometric (MS(2) ) data for characterization of the detected compounds. Fumonisin B1 , B2 , B3 and B4 were detected on Fusarium contaminated maize, AAL-toxins TA, TB, TD, TE were detected on Alternaria inoculated tomatoes and fumonisin B2 , B4 and B6 on Aspergillus contaminated grapes. Additionally, over 100 structurally related compounds possessing a tricarballylic ester were detected from the mould inoculated plant material. These included a hydroxyl-FB1 from F. verticillioides inoculated maize, keto derivatives of AAL-toxins from A. arborescens inoculated tomatoes, and two previously unreported classes of non-aminated fumonisins from Asp. welwitschiae contaminated grapes. A semi-targeted method for the detection of all fumonisins and AAL-toxins in foodstuffs was developed. The use of the distinctive tricarballylic ester product anion for detection combined with rapid polarity switching and positive mode MS(2) is an effective strategy for differentiating between known isomers such as FB1 and FB6 . This analytical tool is also effective for the identification of

  8. Aspergillus acidus from Puerh tea and black tea does not produce ochratoxin A and fumonisin B-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Varga, J.; Thrane, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    the mycotoxins ochratoxin A, fumonisins B-2 and B-4. With this in mind, we performed a preliminary study to determine if production of these mycotoxins by black Aspergilli isolated from Puerh and black tea can occur. An examination of 47 isolates from Puerh tea and black tea showed that none of these was A....... niger. A part of the calmodulin gene in 17 isolates were sequenced, and these 17 isolates were all identified as Aspergillus acidus (=A. foetidus var. acidus). The rest of the 47 isolates were also identified as A. acidus from their metabolite profile. Neither production of ochratoxin A nor fumonisins B...

  9. Comparison of species composition and fumonisin production in Aspergillus section Nigri populations in maize kernels from USA and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susca, Antonia; Moretti, Antonio; Stea, Gaetano; Villani, Alessandra; Haidukowski, Miriam; Logrieco, Antonio; Munkvold, Gary

    2014-10-01

    Fumonisin contamination of maize is considered a serious problem in most maize-growing regions of the world, due to the widespread occurrence of these mycotoxins and their association with toxicosis in livestock and humans. Fumonisins are produced primarily by species of Fusarium that are common in maize grain, but also by some species of Aspergillus sect. Nigri, which can also occur on maize kernels as opportunistic pathogens. Understanding the origin of fumonisin contamination in maize is a key component in developing effective management strategies. Although some fungi in Aspergillus sect. Nigri are known to produce fumonisins, little is known about the species which are common in maize and whether they make a measurable contribution to fumonisin contamination of maize grain. In this work, we evaluated populations of Aspergillus sect. Nigri isolated from maize in USA and Italy, focusing on analysis of housekeeping genes, the fum8 gene and in vitro capability of producing fumonisins. DNA sequencing was used to identify Aspergillus strains belonging to sect. Nigri, in order to compare species composition between the two populations, which might influence specific mycotoxicological risks. Combined beta-tubulin/calmodulin sequences were used to genetically characterize 300 strains (199 from Italy and 101 from USA) which grouped into 4 clades: Aspergillus welwitschiae (syn. Aspergillus awamori, 14.7%), Aspergillus tubingensis (37.0%) and Aspergillus niger group 1 (6.7%) and group 2 (41.3%). Only one strain was identified as Aspergillus carbonarius. Species composition differed between the two populations; A. niger predominated among the USA isolates (69%), but comprised a smaller percentage (38%) of Italian isolates. Conversely, A. tubingensis and A. welwitschiae occurred at higher frequencies in the Italian population (42% and 20%, respectively) than in the USA population (27% and 5%). The evaluation of FB2 production on CY20S agar revealed 118 FB2 producing and 84

  10. Effects of prolonged oral administration of fumonisin B1 and aflatoxin B1 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, C R; Corrêa, B; Xavier, J G; Direito, G M; Orsi, R B; Matarazzo, S V

    2001-01-01

    The effects of prolonged oral administration (21 days) of fumonisin B1 (FB1) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were evaluated on male Wistar rats. The animals were housed in individual metabolic cages and submitted to the following treatments: 1-0 microg AFB1 + 0 mg FB1/100g bw.; 2-72 microg AFB1+ 0 mg FB1/100 g bw; 3-0 microg AFB1 + 0.5 mg FB1 g bw; 4-0 microg AFB1 + 1.5 mg FB1/100 g bw; 5-72 microg AFB1 + 0.5 mg FB1/100g bw; 6-72 microgAFB1 + 1.5 mg FB1/100g bw. On day 21, the rats were sacrificed for evaluation. The results showed that treated animals presented differences in body weight and absolute/relative weights of liver and kidney as well as altered hepatic function and cholesterol blood levels. Rats fed with the greatest doses of AFB1 and FB1 gained less weight (2.79 g/day) at the end of the experimental period; their blood concentrations of liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) were above control levels (130.35 micro/l and 471.00 micro/l, respectively). Blood cholesterol increased in the groups treated with the highest dose of FB1 or FB1 associated with AFB1. Histopathology revealed the occurrence of apoptosis in the liver of rats exposed to FB1. The association of aflatoxin B1 with fumonisin B1 at higher dose probably potentiated the effects of the higher dose of fumonisin B1 acting singly.

  11. Comparison of fumonisin contamination using HPLC and ELISA methods in bt and near-isogenic maize hybrids infested with European corn borer or western bean cutworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Erin; Hellmich, Richard; Munkvold, Gary

    2014-07-09

    Field trials were conducted from 2007 to 2010 to compare grain fumonisin levels among non-Bt maize hybrids and Bt hybrids with transgenic protection against manual infestations of European corn borer (ECB) and Western bean cutworm (WBC). HPLC and ELISA were used to measure fumonisin levels. Results of the methods were highly correlated, but ELISA estimates were higher. Bt hybrids experienced less insect injury, Fusarium ear rot, and fumonisin contamination compared to non-Bt hybrids. WBC infestation increased fumonisin content compared to natural infestation in non-Bt and hybrids expressing Cry1Ab protein in five of eight possible comparisons; in Cry1F hybrids, WBC did not impact fumonisins. These results indicate that WBC is capable of increasing fumonisin levels in maize. Under WBC infestation, Cry1F mitigated this risk more consistently than Cry1Ab or non-Bt hybrids. Transgenically expressed Bt proteins active against multiple lepidopteran pests can provide broad, consistent reductions in the risk of fumonisin contamination.

  12. Exposure assessment to fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 through consumption of gluten-free foodstuffs intended for people affected by celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Francesco; Fasano, Evelina; Scognamiglio, Gelsomina; Nardone, Antonio; Triassi, Maria; Cirillo, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species and affecting maize crops. Some analogues of fumonisins are known for their toxic and possible carcinogenic effects on humans and animals. Because of their occurrence in corn-based food, diet is the main source of exposure to these mycotoxins, especially among people affected by celiac disease. Hence, the purpose of this paper was to evaluate the amount of fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 in maize-based products and to assess the exposure of people affected by celiac disease to fumonisins. The sample consisted of 154 gluten-free products analyzed according to method UNI EN 14352:2005. Results showed a heterogeneous contamination by fumoninisin B1, B2 and B3, although below limits of Commission Regulation No 1126/2007 and consistent with other European literature data. Exposure to fumonisins was evaluated for different age groups. In some cases exposure to fumonisins could not be ignored since the total intake could exceed EFSA Provisional Maximum Tolerable Intake up to 150%. Therefore, in the light of an overall contamination by fumonisins the total dietary exposure could be underrated not only in people affected by celiac disease, but also in non-celiac population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation of an In-House Reference Material Containing Fumonisins in Thai Rice and Matrix Extension of the Analytical Method for Japanese Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaludin, Norhafniza; Nagata, Reiko; Kawasaki, Tomomi; Kushiro, Masayo

    2009-01-01

    Mycotoxin contamination in rice is less reported, compared to that in wheat or maize, however, some Fusarium fungi occasionally infect rice in the paddy field. Fumonisins are mycotoxins mainly produced by Fusarium verticillioides, which often ruins maize. Rice adherent fungus Gibberella fujikuroi is taxonomically near to F. verticillioides, and there are sporadic reports of fumonisin contamination in rice from Asia, Europe and the United States. Therefore, there exists the potential risk of fumonisin contamination in rice as well as the need for the validated analytical method for fumonisins in rice. Although both natural and spiked reference materials are available for some Fusarium mycotoxins in matrices of wheat and maize, there are no reference materials for Fusarium mycotoxins in rice. In this study, we have developed a method for the preparation of a reference material containing fumonisins in Thai rice. A ShakeMaster grinding machine was used for the preparation of a mixed material of blank Thai rice and F. verticillioides-infected Thai rice. The homogeneity of the mixed material was confirmed by one-way analysis of variance, which led this material to serve as an in-house reference material. Using this reference material, several procedures to extract fumonisins from Thai rice were compared. Accordingly, we proved the applicability of an effective extraction procedure for the determination of fumonisins in Japanese rice. PMID:22069540

  14. Fusarium verticillioides strains isolated from corn feed: characterization by fumonisin production and RAPD fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Yurie Sataque Ono

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study a total of 16 Fusarium verticillioides strains isolated from corn feed samples were characterized by fumonisin (FB production and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD. All the strains produced FB1 and FB2 with levels ranging from 2.41 to 3996.36 µg/g, and from 1.18 to 1209.91 µg/g, respectively. From the 16 F. verticillioides strains, four were identified as low (3.59 to 1289.84 µg/g, eight as intermediate (>1289.84 to 3772.44 µg/g and four strains as high (>3772.44 µg/g fumonisin producers. From the total of 105 loci amplified, 60 (57.14% were polymorphic. RAPD analysis showed very similar patterns among low, moderate and high fumonisin-producing strains. Although RAPD markers were capable of discriminating the different F. verticillioides strains, there was no clear association between these makers and fumonisin production.Neste estudo, 16 cepas de F. verticillioides isoladas de amostras de ração de milho foram caracterizadas com base na produção de fumonisinas (FB e em marcadores de polimorfismos de DNA amplificado ao acaso (RAPD. Todas as cepas produziram FB1 e FB2, com níveis variando, respectivamente, de 2,41 a 3996,36 µg/g e 1,18 a 1209,91 µg/g. De acordo com a produção de fumonisinas totais (FB1 + FB2 e a distribuição por análise de quartis, do total de 16 cepas de F. verticillioides, quatro foram identificadas como baixas produtoras de fumonisinas (3,59 a 1289,84 µg/g, oito como intermediárias (>1289,84 a 3772,44 µg/g e quatro como altas produtoras de fumonisinas (>3772,44 µg/g. Os 10 primers utilizados amplificaram 105 locos, 60 (57,14% dos quais foram polimórficos. As análises de RAPD mostraram padrões muito similares entre as cepas baixas, médias e altas produtoras de fumonisinas. Embora os marcadores RAPD tenham se mostrado capazes de discriminar as diferentes cepas de F. verticillioides, não foi detectada nenhuma associação entre estes marcadores e a produção de fumonisinas.

  15. Effect of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and fumonisin B1 toxin on the lung in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Kovács

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors examined the combined effect of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh and fumonisin B1 (FB1 mycotoxin in pigs. Computed tomography (CT was applied to follow up the pathological events in the lung. Piglets were infected with Mh, or treated with FB1, or both infected and treated with Mh and FB1. The Mh infection produced lung lesions in all piglets the severity of which was increased by FB1. The CT is a suitable method for studying the pathological conditions in the lower respiratory tract of swine.

  16. Anti-Fusarium moniliforme activity and fumonisin biodegradation by corn and silage microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone B. Camilo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to isolate microorganisms from corn and silage screened for their ability to inhibit F. moniliforme growth (strain 113F in association with fumonisin detoxification. Among 150 isolates four Gram-positive bacilli and one yeast with inhibitory activity were selected. The inhibition zone ranged from 50 to 72.5 mm using cultures, and from 25 to 52.5mm for crude alcoholic extract. The isolates S9, S10, S69 (sporulated bacilli and SE3071 (yeast degraded 43, 48, 83 and 57% of the initial FB1 concentration, respectively. The pH increased gradually in the medium during incubation for biodegradation process.

  17. Enzymatic hydrolysis of fumonisins in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, B; Schwartz-Zimmermann, H E; Gruber-Dorninger, C; Dohnal, I; Aleschko, M; Schatzmayr, G; Moll, W D; Applegate, T J

    2017-12-01

    Fumonisins (FB) are among the most frequently detected mycotoxins in feedstuffs and finished feed, and recent data suggest that the functions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in poultry species might be compromised at doses ranging from 10 to 20 mg/kg, close to field incidences and below the US and EU guidelines. Strategies are therefore necessary to reduce the exposure of poultry to FB. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of fumonisin esterase FumD (EC 3.1.1.87, commercial name FUMzyme®) to cleave the tricarballylic acid side chains of FB, leading to the formation of non-toxic hydrolyzed fumonisins in the GIT of broiler chickens. Broiler chickens were fed for 14 d (7 to 21 d of age) 3 different diets (6 birds/cage, 6 cages/diet), i) control feed (negative control group), ii) feed contaminated with 10 mg FB/kg (FB group), and iii) feed contaminated with 10 mg FB/kg and supplemented with 100 units of FUMzyme®/kg (FB+FUMzyme® group). To determine the degree of reduction of FB in the GIT, 2 characteristics were analyzed. First, the sphinganine-to-sphingosine ratio in the serum and liver was determined as a biomarker of effect for exposure to FB. Second, the concentration of fumonisin B1 and its hydrolyzed forms was evaluated in the gizzard, the proximal and distal parts of the small intestine, and the excreta. Significantly reduced sphinganine-to-sphingosine ratios in the serum and liver of the FB+FUMzyme® group (serum: 0.15 ± 0.01; liver: 0.17 ± 0.01) compared to the FB group (serum: 0.20 ± 0.01; liver: 0.29 ± 0.03) proved that supplementation of broiler feed with FUMzyme® was effective in partially counteracting the toxic effect of dietary FB. Likewise, FB concentrations in digesta and excreta were significantly reduced in the FB+FUMzyme® group compared to the FB group (P Poultry Science Association.

  18. Identification and quantification of fumonisin A1, A2, and A3 in corn by high-resolution liquid chromatography-orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Masayoshi; Mochizuki, Naoki; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Harayama, Koichi; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2015-02-16

    Three compounds, hypothesized as fumonisin A1 (FA1), fumonisin A2 (FA2), and fumonisin A3 (FA3), were detected in a corn sample contaminated with mycotoxins by high-resolution liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-Orbitrap MS). One of them has been identified as FA1 synthesized by the acetylation of fumonisin B1 (FB1), and established a method for its quantification. Herein, we identified the two remaining compounds as FA2 and FA3, which were acetylated fumonisin B2 (FB2) and fumonisin B3 (FB3), respectively. Moreover, we examined a method for the simultaneous analysis of FA1, FA2, FA3, FB1, FB2, and FB3. The corn samples were prepared by extraction using a QuEChERS kit and purification using a multifunctional cartridge. The linearity, recovery, repeatability, limit of detection, and limit of quantification of the method were >0.99, 82.9%-104.6%, 3.7%-9.5%, 0.02-0.60 μg/kg, and 0.05-1.98 μg/kg, respectively. The simultaneous analysis of the six fumonisins revealed that FA1, FA2, and FA3 were present in all corn samples contaminated with FB1, FB2, and FB3. The results suggested that corn marketed for consumption can be considered as being contaminated with both the fumonisin B-series and with fumonisin A-series. This report presents the first identification and quantification of FA1, FA2, and FA3 in corn samples.

  19. Genio y figura de don Alfonso Reyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carranza

    1968-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre varias, escojo esta: por sobria y conmovida a un tiempo. La escribió Juan Fernández Figueroa para su revista " Indice", de Madrid. Nos parece ver a don Alfonso en el rellano de la escalera -al fondo, sus libros; más allá, toda su vida, noble y pura- nos parece verle por última vez, inclinado ya sobre la baranda de la muerte. Tiene la calidad y el dinamismo de unos cuantos dibujos rápidos, nerviosos, esta imagen última de don Alfonso Reyes.

  20. Stability of DON and DON-3-glucoside during baking as affected by the presence of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Arnau; Sanchis, Vicente; Ramos, Antonio J; Marín, Sonia

    2018-03-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most common mycotoxins of cereals worldwide, and its occurrence has been widely reported in raw wheat. The free mycotoxin form is not the only route of exposure; modified forms can also be present in cereal products. Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside) is a common DON plant conjugate. The mycotoxin concentration could be affected by food processing; here, we studied the stability of DON and DON-3-glucoside during baking of small doughs made from white wheat flour and other ingredients. A range of common food additives and ingredients were added to assess possible interference: ascorbic acid (E300), citric acid (E330), sorbic acid (E200), calcium propionate (E282), lecithin (E322), diacetyltartaric acid esters of fatty acid mono- and diglycerides (E472a), calcium phosphate (E341), disodium diphosphate (E450i), xanthan gum (E415), polydextrose (E1200), sorbitol (E420i), sodium bicarbonate (E500i), wheat gluten and malt flour. The DON content was reduced by 40%, and the DON-3-glucoside concentration increased by >100%, after baking for 20 min at 180°C. This confirmed that DON and DON-3-glucoside concentrations can vary during heating, and DON-3-glucoside could even increase after baking. However, DON and DON-3-glucoside are not affected significantly by the presence of the food additives tested.

  1. Evidence for Fumonisin inhibition of ceramide synthase in humans: validation in follow-up studies in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumonisins (FB) are mycotoxins found in corn. FB1 is the most common FB. It is the cause of farm animal diseases and is carcinogenic in rodents. The mode of action is the inhibition of ceramide synthase (CerS). Inhibition of CerS in mice causes a dose-dependent accumulation of sphinganine 1-phosphat...

  2. Co-exposure to fumonisins and aflatoxins in maize-based foods in central america: guatemala as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a human liver carcinogen having a genotoxic mechanism of action. The ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a liver cancer promoter in rats and trout. Both mycotoxins are found in maize so that the possibility of co-exposure is a health concern, especially in Centra...

  3. Evaluation of maize inbred lines for resistance to pre-harvest aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two important mycotoxins, aflatoxin and fumonisin, are among the most potent naturally occurring carcinogens, contaminating maize (Zea mays L.) and affecting the crop yield and quality. Resistance of maize to pre-harvest mycotoxin contamination, specifically aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus ...

  4. Quantitative detection of Fusarium spp. and its correlation with fumonisin content in maize from South African subsistence farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalwijk, C.; Koch, S.H.; Ncube, E.; Allwood, J.; Flett, B.; Vries, de P.M.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    A quantitative detection tool was developed to enable the monitoring of fumonisin-producing fungi in food and feed commodities. To this end, a quantitative PCR (TaqMan) was developed that targets a conserved region in the polyketide synthase gene fum1, which is involved in the biosynthesis of

  5. Removal of fumonisin B1 and B2 from model solutions and red wine using polymeric substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Sánchez, Verónica; Kreitman, Gal Y; Folch-Cano, Christian; Elias, Ryan J; Laurie, V Felipe

    2017-06-01

    Fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins found in various foods whose consumption is known to be harmful for human health. In this study, we evaluated the ability of three polymers (Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, PVPP; a resin of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and triallyl isocyanurate, PVP-DEGMA-TAIC; and poly(acrylamide-co-ethylene glycol-dimethacrylate), PA-EGDMA) to remove fumonisin B 1 (FB1) and fumonisin B 2 (FB2) from model solutions and red wine. Various polymer concentrations (1, 5 and 10mgmL -1 ) and contact times (2, 8 and 24h) were tested, with all polymers exhibiting fumonisin removal capacities (monitored by LC-MS). The impact of all polymers on polyphenol removal was also assessed. PA-EGDMA showed to be the most promising polymer, removing 71% and 95% of FB 1 , and FB 2 , respectively, with only a 22.2% reduction in total phenolics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fumonisins B₁, B₂ and B₃ in corn products, wheat flour and corn oil marketed in Shandong province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fenghua; Jiang, Dafeng; Zheng, Fengjia; Chen, Jindong; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this study a total of 522 samples were collected from Shandong province of China in 2014 and analysed for the occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1), FB2 and FB3 by isotope dilution ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Fumonisins were detected in 98.1% of the corn products, with the average total level of 369.2 μg kg(-1). The individual average values of FB1, FB2 and FB3 in corn products were 268.3, 53.7 and 47.2 μg kg(-1), respectively. The simultaneous occurrence of FB1, FB2 and FB3 was observed in 76.7% of the corn products. Especially, the results demonstrated that the difference in the contamination levels for fumonisins in these three types of corn products was apparent. In addition, 6.2% of the wheat flour samples were contaminated with FB1, with concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 34.6 µg kg(-1). No FB2 or FB3 was detected in wheat flour. In corn oil samples no fumonisins were detected.

  7. Aflatoxins and fumonisins in rice and maize staple cereals in Northern Vietnam and dietary exposure in different ethnic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Huong Mai; Tuyen, Le Dahn; Do, Tran Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins in food are increasingly a food safety hazard concern in particular in developing countries. This study was performed to determine the occurrence and determinants of aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in rice and maize and to assess health risks through dietary intake exposure among...

  8. Elevated nuclear sphingoid base-1-phosphates and decreased histone deacetylase activity after Fumonisin B1 treatment in mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by a common fungal contaminant of corn. Administration of FB1 to pregnant LM/Bc mice induces exencephaly in embryos, and ingestion of FB1-contaminated food during early pregnancy is associated with increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) in humans. ...

  9. A Fusarium fujikuroi population isolated from grapes reveals the need to re-evaluate the species' fumonisin production potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins pose a documented threat to crops worldwide, making plant pathology and food science collaboration necessary for the safety and growth of our food supply. The genus Fusarium produces several mycotoxins, including fumonisins, associated with serious diseases of animals. F. verticillioides ...

  10. Effects of different extrusion conditions on the chemical and toxicological fate of fumonisin B1 in maize: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of experiments to investigate the chemical and toxicological fate of fumonisin B1 (FB1) under different extrusion conditions using both single- and twin-screw extruders is described. Maize grits were contaminated with FB1 at different concentrations by fermentation with Fusarium verticilli...

  11. Control of Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc. Nirenberg and Fumonisins by Using a Combination of Crop Protection Products and Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Raphael Madege

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium verticillioides is the most common fungal pathogen associated with maize ear rot in Tanzania. In a two-year trial, we investigated the efficacy of crop protection (insecticide and/or fungicide and fertilizer (nitrogen and/or phosphorus treatments in reducing the occurrence of F. verticillioides and its mycotoxins in maize grown in Tanzania. Seasonal differences were seen to have a substantial influence on the incidence and severity of insect infestation, Fusarium ear and kernel rot, biomass of F. verticillioides and contamination with fumonisins. With regard to the application of fertilizers, it was concluded that the impact on maize stalk borer injury, Fusarium symptoms and fumonisin levels was not significant, whereas crop protection significantly reduced maize damage. The application of an insecticide was most effective in reducing insect injury and as a result of the reduced insect injury the insecticide treatment also resulted in a significant decrease in Fusarium symptoms. In 2014, fumonisin levels were also significantly lower in maize treated with an insecticide. Additionally, significant positive correlations between insect damage and Fusarium symptoms were observed. In conclusion, this study clearly shows that application of an insecticide alone or in combination with a fungicide at anthesis significantly reduces insect damage and consequently reduces F. verticillioides infection and associated fumonisin contamination.

  12. The rise of repeal: policy entrepreneurship and Don't Ask, Don't Tell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Christopher L; Edgell, Luke R

    2013-01-01

    We report on policy entrepreneurship by Servicemembers Legal Defense Network (SLDN) and how its legislative strategies used mini-windows of opportunity to shift Capitol Hill perspectives of Don't Ask, Don't Tell (DADT) from political plutonium to an emerging issue requiring a second look. Four phases in the legislative history of DADT are identified: radioactive, contested, emerging, and viable. In all, this article argues that SLDN's entrepreneurship focused on contesting congressional sensibilities to wait or defer on repeal, maintained that every discharge was damaging and transitioned toward a post-repeal mind set. Finally, we illustrate the importance of these transitions by comparing SLDN's 2004 estimated vote count for the introduction of the Military Readiness Enhancement Act with the final 2010 voting results on the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act.

  13. Rapid detection of fumonisin B1 using a colloidal gold immunoassay strip test in corn samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Sumei; Wang, Rongzhi; Gu, Xiaosong; Wen, Can; Chen, Lingling; Chen, Zhibin; Chen, Qing-Ai; Xiao, Shiwei; Yang, Yanling; Zhuang, Zhenhong; Wang, Shihua

    2015-12-15

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is the most common and highest toxic of fumonisins species, exists frequently in corn and corn-based foods, leading to several animal and human diseases. Furthermore, FB1 was reported that it was associated with the human esophageal cancer. In view of the harmful of FB1, it is urgent to develop a feasible and accuracy method for rapid detection of FB1. In this study, a competitive immunoassay for FB1 detection was developed based on colloidal gold-antibody conjugate. The FB1-keyhole limpet hemoeyanin (FB1-KLH) conjugate was embedded in the test line, and goat anti-mouse IgG antibody embedded in the control line. The color density of the test line correlated with the concentration of FB1 in the range from 2.5 to 10 ng/mL, and the visual limit detection of test for FB1 was 2.5 ng/mL. The results indicated that the test strip is specific for FB1, and no cross-reactivity to other toxins. The quantitative detection for FB1 was simple, only needing one step without complicated assay performance and expensive equipment, and the total time of visual evaluation was less than 5 min. Hence, the developed colloidal gold-antibody assay can be used as a feasible method for FB1 rapid and quantitative detection in corn samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of administering a diet contamined with fumonisins on the kidneys of wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Cabestre Venancio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisins (FBs are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium molds. Several works have shown contamination of maize by this toxin. Fumonisin B1 (FB-1 is found in greatest proportion (about 70%, resistant to several industrialization processes. In that context, the objective of this work was to analyze the effect of administering a diet contaminated with FB-1 on the morphophysiology of the kidneys of 21-day old male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into 2 groups: G0 (with animals receiving feed free of FBs and G6 (6mg of FB1 kg-1 of feed. The diet was administered during 42 days. After that period, the animals were placed in metabolic cages for urine collection, blood was collected for analysis of plasma creatinine, and the kidneys were fixed and stained with Masson's trichrome. We observed that FB1 administration did not affect feed intake, body weight gain and animal growth. The normal levels of plasma creatinine suggest that the toxin did not lead to glomerular lesion. There was also no change in water intake, osmolarity and excretion of sodium in urine. However, there was a significant increase in urine volume and potassium excretion in urine, with mild tubulointerstitial changes in the outer cortex for the group receiving the mycotoxin.

  15. USE OF SACCHROMYCES CERVISIAE TO SUPPRESS THE EFFECTS OF FUMONISIN MYCOTOXICOSIS IN JAPANESE QUAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABU TALEB, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, 400 unsexed Japanese quail chicks (1 day old) were used. The quail chicks were randomly assigned into four groups of 100 birds in each. The first group was served as control. The other experimental groups were fed on a basal diet supplemented with 0.5% yeast/kg diet (G2), 0.5% yeast/kg diet ± 200 mg fumonicin-B1/kg diet (G3) and 200 mg fumonicin-B1/kg diet (G4). The results showed significant increases in mortality rate, GPT (ALT), GOT (AST), cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and decreases in body weight, hatchability, fertility and hatching weight, serum total proteins, globulin and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in group of quails received fumonisin (G4) in comparison with the control group (G1) and all treatments. Yeast led to partial improvement in the parameters in group two (G2). Also, yeast suppressed the toxic effect of fumonisin B-1 (G3)

  16. Mycoflora and aflatoxin/fumonisin production by fungal isolates from freshly harvested corn hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Adriana P.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycoflora of 3 hybrids of freshly harvested corn grains collected from three regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil (Assis, Capão Bonito and Ribeirão Preto was investigated. A total of 66 samples were analyzed focusing on the influence of abiotic factors (moisture content, water activity, temperature and rainfall on both the prevalence of Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium moniliforme, and the ability of these genera isolates to produce aflatoxins and fumonisins, respectively. In the three surveyed regions, the fungal population comprised mainly Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. and 2 others filamentous fungal genera, which were isolated from corn kernels showing water activity of 0.30 to 0.99 and moisture content of 5.0% to 20.2%. Among the genera Fusarium and Aspergillus, the most frequent species were F. moniliforme and A. flavus, respectively. Concerning the toxigenic potential of F. moniliforme, all isolated strains (40 produced fumonisins at 20 mug/g to 2168 mug/g (FB1 and/or 10 mug/g to 380 mug/g (FB2. From the 10 A. flavus isolates, 6 strains (60.0% produced aflatoxins at 615 mug/kg to 30.750 mug/kg (AFB1 and/or 11 mug/kg to 22 mug/kg (AFB2.

  17. USE OF SACCHROMYCES CERVISIAE TO SUPPRESS THE EFFECTS OF FUMONISIN MYCOTOXICOSIS IN JAPANESE QUAIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ABU TALEB, A M [Biological Applications Dept., Radioisotope Applications Division, Nuclear Research Center, Abou-Zaable, Inshas (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    In this study, 400 unsexed Japanese quail chicks (1 day old) were used. The quail chicks were randomly assigned into four groups of 100 birds in each. The first group was served as control. The other experimental groups were fed on a basal diet supplemented with 0.5% yeast/kg diet (G2), 0.5% yeast/kg diet {+-} 200 mg fumonicin-B1/kg diet (G3) and 200 mg fumonicin-B1/kg diet (G4). The results showed significant increases in mortality rate, GPT (ALT), GOT (AST), cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and decreases in body weight, hatchability, fertility and hatching weight, serum total proteins, globulin and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in group of quails received fumonisin (G4) in comparison with the control group (G1) and all treatments. Yeast led to partial improvement in the parameters in group two (G2). Also, yeast suppressed the toxic effect of fumonisin B-1 (G3)

  18. High-sensitivity immunochromatographic assay for fumonisin B1 based on indirect antibody labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urusov, Alexandr E; Petrakova, Alina V; Gubaydullina, Milyausha K; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Eremin, Sergei A; Kong, Dezhao; Liu, Liqiang; Xu, Chuanlai; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2017-05-01

    To develop a high-sensitivity immunochromatographic test for fumonisin B1 in plant extracts. Unlike conventional immunochromatographic tests, this assay is performed in two stages: competitive reaction with free specific antibodies and identifying immune complexes by their interaction with the anti-species antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles. The use of a new geometry for the test strip membranes and a novel reagent application method ensures the proper order of these stages without additional manipulations. The contact of the ready-to-use test strip with the liquid sample suffices in initiating all stages of the assay and obtaining test results. The developed test was used on corn extracts; its instrumental limit of fumonisin B1 detection was 0.6 ng ml -1 at 15 min of assay duration. The proposed approach is flexible and can be used for a wide range of low molecular compounds. The use of anti-species antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles in immunochromatography significantly facilitates the development of test systems by eliminating the need to synthesize and characterize the conjugates with specific antibodies for each new compound to be detected.

  19. Guidelines: the do's, don'ts and don't knows of feedback for clinical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefroy, Janet; Watling, Chris; Teunissen, Pim W; Brand, Paul

    2015-12-01

    The guidelines offered in this paper aim to amalgamate the literature on formative feedback into practical Do's, Don'ts and Don't Knows for individual clinical supervisors and for the institutions that support clinical learning. The authors built consensus by an iterative process. Do's and Don'ts were proposed based on authors' individual teaching experience and awareness of the literature, and the amalgamated set of guidelines were then refined by all authors and the evidence was summarized for each guideline. Don't Knows were identified as being important questions to this international group of educators which if answered would change practice. The criteria for inclusion of evidence for these guidelines were not those of a systematic review, so indicators of strength of these recommendations were developed which combine the evidence with the authors' consensus. A set of 32 Do and Don't guidelines with the important Don't Knows was compiled along with a summary of the evidence for each. These are divided into guidelines for the individual clinical supervisor giving feedback to their trainee (recommendations about both the process and the content of feedback) and guidelines for the learning culture (what elements of learning culture support the exchange of meaningful feedback, and what elements constrain it?) Feedback is not easy to get right, but it is essential to learning in medicine, and there is a wealth of evidence supporting the Do's and warning against the Don'ts. Further research into the critical Don't Knows of feedback is required. A new definition is offered: Helpful feedback is a supportive conversation that clarifies the trainee's awareness of their developing competencies, enhances their self-efficacy for making progress, challenges them to set objectives for improvement, and facilitates their development of strategies to enable that improvement to occur.

  20. Don't Take This with That!

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Special Features Don't take ... worth the squeeze…especially when combining grapefruit with medicines. While it can be part of a balanced ...

  1. Don't Take This with That!

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Special Features Don't take ... more than fifty prescription and over-the-counter drugs known to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ...

  2. Don Quijote en Canadá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Botella González

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Conocer a Cervantes y su obra.- Descubrir otros países y artistas.- Conocer al personaje de Don Quijote.- Familiarizarse con los personajes principales.- Relacionar la pintura y la literatura.- Desarrollar habilidades manuales y artísticas.- Potenciar la creatividad.

  3. Don't Take This with That!

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Special Features Don't take this with that! Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ...

  4. Don't Take This with That!

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Special Features Don't ...

  5. Dewey or Don't We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, Devona J.

    2013-01-01

    "Dewey or don't we?" is the question that hundreds, if not thousands, of school librarians across the country are currently asking themselves. Do they throw out what is old but trusted for new organizational systems, or do they continue using the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system and make changes and adjustments to the…

  6. Cervantes and the Lirical Poetry: Don Quixote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Romo Feito

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the lyrical poems included in the first and the second part of Don Quixote. The different classes of poems are studied attending to its narrative context. But the poetry is also studied by relating it with metrical and aesthetical categories: Realism, Parody, Manierism…

  7. Fumonisins in corn: correlation with Fusarium sp. count, damaged kernels, protein and lipid content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Yurie Sataque Ono

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fungal and fumonisin contamination were evaluated in 109 freshly harvested corn samples from Paraná State and correlated to damaged kernels (%. In addition, healthy and damaged kernels of 24 corn samples were selected in order to compare the mycoflora profile and fumonisin levels. The correlation among protein/lipid content and fumonisin levels was also analyzed in the 15 most frequently cultivated corn hybrids. Total fungal colony count in 109 freshly harvested corn samples ranged from 1.9x10(4 to 3.5x10(6 CFU/g, Fusarium sp. count from 1.0x10³ to 2.2x10(6 CFU/g, and fumonisin levels from 0.13 to 20.38 µg/g. Total fungal colony/Fusarium sp. count and fumonisin levels showed positive correlation (p A contaminação natural por fungos e fumonisinas foi avaliada em 109 amostras de milho recém-colhido do Estado do Paraná e correlacionada com grãos ardidos (%. Além disso, grãos sadios e ardidos de 24 amostras de milho foram selecionados a fim de comparar o perfil da microbiota fúngica e níveis de fumonisinas. A correlação entre os teores de proteínas/lipídios e os níveis de fumonisinas também foi analisada nos 15 híbridos de milho mais freqüentemente cultivados no Estado do Paraná. A contagem total de fungos em 109 amostras de milho recém-colhido variou de 1,9x10(4 a 3,5x10(6 UFC/g, Fusarium sp. de 1,0x10³ a 2,2x10(6 UFC/g e, níveis de fumonisinas de 0,13 a 20,38 µg/g. A contagem total de fungos/Fusarium spp. e níveis de fumonisinas apresentaram correlação positiva (p<0,05. Adicionalmente, houve uma correlação positiva entre grãos ardidos (% e a contagem total de fungos/ Fusarium spp. (p < 0,05. Os níveis de fumonisinas nos grãos sadios variaram de 0,57 a 20,38 µg/g, enquanto que nos grãos ardidos variaram de 68,96 a 336,38 µg/g. Não foi observada correlação significativa entre os níveis de fumonisinas e os teores de proteínas/lipídios. Esses resultados ratificam a importância do monitoramento

  8. Detection of N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl) Fumonisins B2 and B3 in Corn by High-Resolution LC-Orbitrap MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Yosuke; Takahara, Kentaro; Sago, Yuki; Kushiro, Masayo; Nagashima, Hitoshi; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The existence of glucose conjugates of fumonisin B2 (FB2) and fumonisin B3 (FB3) in corn powder was confirmed for the first time. These “bound-fumonisins” (FB2 and FB3 bound to glucose) were identified as N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl) fumonisin B2 (NDfrc-FB2) and N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl) fumonisin B3 (NDfrc-FB3) respectively, based on the accurate mass measurements of characteristic ions and fragmentation patterns using high-resolution liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-Orbitrap MS) analysis. Treatment on NDfrc-FB2 and NDfrc-FB3 with the o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) reagent also supported that d-glucose binding to FB2 and FB3 molecules occurred to their primary amine residues. PMID:26389955

  9. Proteome analysis of Aspergillus niger: Lactate added in starch-containing medium can increase production of the mycotoxin fumonisin B2 by modifying acetyl-CoA metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Marie; Lametsch, Rene; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2009-01-01

    Background Aspergillus niger is a filamentous fungus found in the environment, on foods and feeds and is used as host for production of organic acids, enzymes and proteins. The mycotoxin fumonisin B2 was recently found to be produced by A. niger and hence very little is known about production...... and regulation of this metabolite. Proteome analysis was used with the purpose to reveal how fumonisin B2 production by A. niger is influenced by starch and lactate in the medium. Results Fumonisin B2 production by A. niger was significantly increased when lactate and starch were combined in the medium....... Production of a few other A. niger secondary metabolites was affected similarly by lactate and starch (fumonisin B4, orlandin, desmethylkotanin and pyranonigrin A), while production of others was not (ochratoxin A, ochratoxin alpha, malformin A, malformin C, kotanin, aurasperone B and tensidol B...

  10. Extraction of fumonisins B1 and B2 from white rice flour and their stability in white rice flour, cornstarch, cornmeal, and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Scott, Peter M; Lau, Ben P-Y; Lewis, David A

    2002-06-05

    To extract fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) from Thai white rice flour, different solvent mixtures, temperatures, pH values, and addition of enzymes or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (Na2EDTA) were examined. Three extractions with 0.1 M Na2EDTA achieved the highest recoveries. Initial recoveries of fumonisins added to white rice flour, cornstarch, cornmeal, and glucose varied with commodity. Fumonisins disappeared in Thai white rice flour after 12 h, but 55% remained in another white rice flour. With cornstarch 20-30% fumonisins remained after 24 h; only 43% of 14C-labeled FB1 materials extracted from cornstarch was eluted with methanol from an immunoaffinity column. Fumonisins were stable in cornmeal for 24 h but only approximately 50% remained after 30 days. With glucose, 25% of FB1 and FB2 remained 24 h after addition; N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)FB(1) andN-(carboxymethyl)FB(1) were detected in lower amounts than residual FB(1) after 3 months.

  11. Abiotic conditions leading to FUM gene expression and fumonisin accumulation by Fusarium proliferatum strains grown on a wheat-based substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendoya, Eugenia; Pinson-Gadais, Laetitia; Farnochi, María C; Ramirez, María L; Chéreau, Sylvain; Marcheguay, Giselè; Ducos, Christine; Barreau, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2017-07-17

    Fusarium proliferatum produces fumonisins B not only on maize but also on diverse crops including wheat. Using a wheat-based medium, the effects of abiotic factors, temperature and water activity (a W ), on growth, fumonisin biosynthesis, and expression of FUM genes were compared for three F. proliferatum strains isolated from durum wheat in Argentina. Although all isolates showed similar profiles of growth, the fumonisin production profiles were slightly different. Regarding FUM gene transcriptional control, both FUM8 and FUM19 expression showed similar behavior in all tested conditions. For both genes, expression at 25°C correlated with fumonisin production, regardless of the a w conditions. However, at 15°C, these two genes were as highly expressed as at 25°C although the amounts of toxin were very weak, suggesting that the kinetics of fumonisin production was slowed at 15°C. This study provides useful baseline data on conditions representing a low or a high risk for contamination of wheat kernels with fumonisins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fusarium species and fumonisins in subsistence maize in the former Transkei region, South Africa: a multi-year study in rural villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheeder, J P; Van der Westhuizen, L; Imrie, G; Shephard, G S

    2016-09-01

    Fumonisin occurrence was investigated in subsistence maize in four rural villages in each of Mbizana and Centane areas, South Africa. Samples (total 211) were analysed morphologically for Fusarium species and by high performance liquid chromatography for fumonisins. The mean incidence levels of Fusarium verticillioides in Centane good maize were 16% for both 1997 and 2000, but increased to 32% in 2003, whereas Mbizana good maize contained levels of 17% and 11% (2000 and 2003 seasons, respectively). The mean total fumonisin level in good maize in Centane for 1997 and 2000 was 575 and 975 µg/kg and 2150 µg/kg in 2003. In Mbizana, the mean total fumonisin level in good maize for 2000 was 950 µg/kg, but decreased to 610 µg/kg in 2003. The 2003 drought conditions led to a substantial increase in fumonisin levels in dry subhumid Centane, compared to humid subtropical Mbizana. This study emphasises the seasonal fluctuation in fumonisin levels.

  13. Use of modified halloysite nanotubes in the feed reduces the toxic effects of zearalenone on sow reproduction and piglet development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Rui; Liu, Min; Shi, Baoming; Shan, Anshan; Cheng, Baojing

    2015-03-15

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a blend of corn contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on the physical condition of pregnant and suckling sows and the development of their offspring. Halloysite nanotubes modified using the surfactant, stearyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, were tested for its efficacy in protecting against the detrimental effects of zearalenone (ZEN) exposure. A total of 18 pregnant second parity Yorkshire sows (six per treatment) were fed control diet, contaminated grain diet (ZEN, 2.77 mg/kg), and contaminated grain + 1% modified halloysite nanotube (MHNT) diet (ZEN, 2.76 mg/kg) from 35 to 70 days in pregnancy (DIP), which is the critical period in development of fetuses. The results show that consumption of ZEN led to a reduction in sow's mass gain during 35 to 70 DIP and mass at 110 DIP, backfat at 70 DIP and weaning, placenta weight at 70 DIP and farrowing, the lactation average daily feed intake, and an increase in the weight of ovary at 70 DIP of sows (P halloysite nanotubes could be used as adsorbent in the feed to reduce the toxic effects of ZEN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Toxicity of zearalenone on the intestines of pregnant sows and their offspring and alleviation with modified halloysite nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Zhu, Dandan; Guo, Tao; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Shi, Baoming; Shan, Anshan; Chen, Zhihui

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of maternal exposure to zearalenone (ZEN) on the intestines of pregnant sows and offspring on postnatal days (PD) 1, 21 and 188. Eighteen pregnant sows (six per treatment) were fed a control diet (ZEN, 0.03 mg kg -1 ), ZEN diet (ZEN, 2.77 mg kg -1 ) and ZEN + 1% modified halloysite nanotube (MHNT) diet (ZEN, 2.76 mg kg -1 ) respectively from gestation days (GD) 35 to 70. At the end of the experiment, three sows of each group on GD70 and the offspring on PD1, PD21 and PD188 were killed to analyze the changes of intestines. The results showed that ZEN caused oxidative stress, an inflammatory response, changes in the structure of jejunum and alterations of the bacterial numbers in cecal digesta in pregnant sows and PD1 and PD21 piglets. On PD188, bacterial numbers were also altered. MHNTs supplementation reduced the amount of ZEN in the intestine and reversed to a large extent the effects induced by ZEN on the intestines of pregnant sows and offspring. The results obtained from this study indicated that MHNTs treatment was beneficial for the adsorption of ZEN in the intestine of sows. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Zearalenone altered the cytoskeletal structure via ER stress- autophagy- oxidative stress pathway in mouse TM4 Sertoli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wanglong; Wang, Bingjie; Si, Mengxue; Zou, Hui; Song, Ruilong; Gu, Jianhong; Yuan, Yan; Liu, Xuezhong; Zhu, Guoqiang; Bai, Jianfa; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, ZongPing

    2018-02-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the destruction of cytoskeletal structure by Zearalenone (ZEA) in mouse-derived TM4 cells. In order to investigate the role of autophagy, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum(ER) stress in the process of destruction of cytoskeletal structure, the effects of ZEA on the cell viability, cytoskeletal structure, autophagy, oxidative stress, ER stress, MAPK and PI3K- AKT- mTOR signaling pathways were studied. The data demonstrated that ZEA damaged the cytoskeletal structure through the induction of autophagy that leads to the alteration of cytoskeletal structure via elevated oxidative stress. Our results further showed that the autophagy was stimulated by ZEA through PI3K-AKT-mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways in TM4 cells. In addition, ZEA also induced the ER stress which was involved in the induction of the autophagy through inhibiting the ERK signal pathway to suppress the phosphorylation of mTOR. ER stress was involved in the damage of cytoskeletal structure through induction of autophagy by producing ROS. Taken together, this study revealed that ZEA altered the cytoskeletal structure via oxidative stress - autophagy- ER stress pathway in mouse TM4 Sertoli cells.

  16. Effect of Degradation of Zearalenone-Contaminated Feed by Bacillus licheniformis CK1 on Postweaning Female Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanhua Fu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEA, an estrogenic mycotoxin, is mainly produced by Fusarium fungi. In this study, Bacillus licheniformis CK1 isolated from soil with the capability of degrading ZEA was evaluated for its efficacy in reducing the adverse effects of ZEA in piglets. The gilts were fed one of the following three diets for 14 days: a basic diet for the control group; the basic diet supplemented with ZEA-contaminated basic diet for the treatment 1 (T1 group; and the basic diet supplemented with fermented ZEA-contaminated basic diet by CK1 for the treatment 2 (T2 group. The actual ZEA contents (analyzed were 0, 1.20 ± 0.11, 0.47 ± 0.22 mg/kg for the control, T1, and T2 diets, respectively. The results showed that the T1 group had significantly increased the size of vulva and the relative weight of reproductive organs compared to the control group at the end of the trial. The T1 group significantly decreased the concentration of the luteinizing hormone (LH compared with the control and T2 groups. Expression of ERβ was significantly up-regulated in the T2 group compared with the control. In addition, expression of ERβ was not different between the control and the T1 group. In summary, our results suggest that Bacillus licheniformis CK1 could detoxify ZEA in feed and reduce the adverse effects of ZEA in the gilts.

  17. Effect of Degradation of Zearalenone-Contaminated Feed by Bacillus licheniformis CK1 on Postweaning Female Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guanhua; Ma, Junfei; Wang, Lihong; Yang, Xin; Liu, Jeruei; Zhao, Xin

    2016-10-17

    Zearalenone (ZEA), an estrogenic mycotoxin, is mainly produced by Fusarium fungi. In this study, Bacillus licheniformis CK1 isolated from soil with the capability of degrading ZEA was evaluated for its efficacy in reducing the adverse effects of ZEA in piglets. The gilts were fed one of the following three diets for 14 days: a basic diet for the control group; the basic diet supplemented with ZEA-contaminated basic diet for the treatment 1 (T1) group; and the basic diet supplemented with fermented ZEA-contaminated basic diet by CK1 for the treatment 2 (T2) group. The actual ZEA contents (analyzed) were 0, 1.20 ± 0.11, 0.47 ± 0.22 mg/kg for the control, T1, and T2 diets, respectively. The results showed that the T1 group had significantly increased the size of vulva and the relative weight of reproductive organs compared to the control group at the end of the trial. The T1 group significantly decreased the concentration of the luteinizing hormone (LH) compared with the control and T2 groups. Expression of ERβ was significantly up-regulated in the T2 group compared with the control. In addition, expression of ERβ was not different between the control and the T1 group. In summary, our results suggest that Bacillus licheniformis CK1 could detoxify ZEA in feed and reduce the adverse effects of ZEA in the gilts.

  18. Zearalenone (ZEN and Its Influence on Regulation of Gene Expression in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. Liver Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Pietsch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEN is a frequently-occurring mycotoxin in both animal and fish feeds. In order to characterize its effects on carp, three groups of fish were fed for 28 days with feeds contaminated with three different levels of ZEN (low: 332 µg kg−1, medium: 621 µg kg−1, and high: 797 µg kg−1 feed. The reversibility of the effects of ZEN was assessed by feeding all of the groups with uncontaminated feed for a further 14 days. Gene expression of immune genes in the liver tissue of the fish was analysed, revealing reduced expressions of immune, antioxidative, and estrogen-related genes after the fish had been exposed to ZEN. However, the expression of vacuole-type H+ ATPase increased substantially with ZEN exposure, thus supporting the previously-reported sensitivity of lysosomal functions to ZEN. Feeding the fish with a ZEN-free diet for a further two weeks changed the effects of ZEN on the expression of some genes, including the expressions of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, and arginase 2, which were not influenced after four weeks of treatment, but showed lower values after the recovery phase in fish previously treated with ZEN compared with the control group. In summary, this study confirmed the broad effects of ZEN on different essential functions in carp and suggests that the current maximum allowable levels in compound feed are too high to prevent damage to fish.

  19. Zearalenone (ZEN) and Its Influence on Regulation of Gene Expression in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Liver Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Constanze

    2017-09-15

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a frequently-occurring mycotoxin in both animal and fish feeds. In order to characterize its effects on carp, three groups of fish were fed for 28 days with feeds contaminated with three different levels of ZEN (low: 332 µg kg -1 , medium: 621 µg kg -1 , and high: 797 µg kg -1 feed). The reversibility of the effects of ZEN was assessed by feeding all of the groups with uncontaminated feed for a further 14 days. Gene expression of immune genes in the liver tissue of the fish was analysed, revealing reduced expressions of immune, antioxidative, and estrogen-related genes after the fish had been exposed to ZEN. However, the expression of vacuole-type H⁺ ATPase increased substantially with ZEN exposure, thus supporting the previously-reported sensitivity of lysosomal functions to ZEN. Feeding the fish with a ZEN-free diet for a further two weeks changed the effects of ZEN on the expression of some genes, including the expressions of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, and arginase 2, which were not influenced after four weeks of treatment, but showed lower values after the recovery phase in fish previously treated with ZEN compared with the control group. In summary, this study confirmed the broad effects of ZEN on different essential functions in carp and suggests that the current maximum allowable levels in compound feed are too high to prevent damage to fish.

  20. Biomonitoring of the mycotoxin Zearalenone: current state-of-the art and application to human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mally, Angela; Solfrizzo, Michele; Degen, Gisela H

    2016-06-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin with high estrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo, is a widespread food contaminant that is commonly detected in maize, wheat, barley, sorghum, rye and other grains. Human exposure estimates based on analytical data on ZEN occurrence in various food categories and food consumption data suggest that human exposure to ZEN and modified forms of ZEN may be close to or even exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) derived by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for some consumer groups. Considering the inherent uncertainties in estimating dietary intake of ZEN that may lead to an under- or overestimation of ZEN exposure and consequently human risk and current lack of data on vulnerable consumer groups, there is a clear need for more comprehensive and reliable exposure data to refine ZEN risk assessment. Human biomonitoring (HBM) is increasingly being recognized as an efficient and cost-effective way of assessing human exposure to food contaminants, including mycotoxins. Based on animal and (limited) human data on the toxicokinetics of ZEN, it appears that excretion of ZEN and its major metabolites may present suitable biomarkers of ZEN exposure. In view of the limitations of available dietary exposure data on ZEN and its modified forms, the purpose of this review is to provide an overview of recent studies utilizing HBM to monitor and assess human exposure to ZEN. Considerations are given to animal and human toxicokinetic data relevant to HBM, analytical methods, and available HBM data on urinary biomarkers of ZEN exposure in different cohorts.

  1. Removal of zearalenone toxin from synthetics gastric and body fluids using talc and diatomite: a batch kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprynskyy, Myroslav; Gadzała-Kopciuch, Renata; Nowak, Karolina; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2012-06-01

    Adsorption kinetics of zearalenone (ZEA) toxin from synthetic gastric fluid (SGF) and synthetic body fluid (SBF) by talc and diatomite was studied in the batch experiments. Chemical composition, morphology and structure of the used adsorbents were examined by scanning electron microscopy, FTIR spectroscopy and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption method. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used for ZEA determining. The study results showed that ZEA is more effectively adsorbed on the talc (73% and 54% from SGF and SBF respectively). The efficiency on the diatomite was lower (53% and 42% from SGF and SBF respectively). The first order kinetics model was applied to describe the adsorption process. Rate of the ZEA adsorption from SGF is very rapid initially with about 95% of amount of the toxin adsorbed during first 5 min, while ZEA is adsorbed from SBF in two steps. The values of determined Gibbs free energy of adsorption (from -13 to -17 kJ/mol) indicated that adsorption of ZEA toxin by the both adsorbents are spontaneous and exothermic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Simulation of Fungal-Mediated Cell Death by Fumonisin B1 and Selection of Fumonisin B1–Resistant (fbr) Arabidopsis Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Julie M.; Heard, Jacqueline E.; Asai, Tsuneaki; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2000-01-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1), a programmed cell death–eliciting toxin produced by the necrotrophic fungal plant pathogen Fusarium moniliforme, was used to simulate pathogen infection in Arabidopsis. Plants infiltrated with 10 μM FB1 and seedlings transferred to agar media containing 1 μM FB1 develop lesions reminiscent of the hypersensitive response, including generation of reactive oxygen intermediates, deposition of phenolic compounds and callose, accumulation of phytoalexin, and expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Arabidopsis FB1-resistant (fbr) mutants were selected directly by sowing seeds on agar containing 1 μM FB1, on which wild-type seedlings fail to develop. Two mutants chosen for further analyses, fbr1 and fbr2, had altered PR gene expression in response to FB1. fbr1 and fbr2 do not exhibit differential resistance to the avirulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola (ES4326) expressing the avirulence gene avrRpt2 but do display enhanced resistance to a virulent isogenic strain that lacks the avirulence gene. Our results demonstrate the utility of FB1 for high-throughput isolation of Arabidopsis defense-related mutants and suggest that pathogen-elicited programmed cell death of host cells may be an important feature of compatible plant–pathogen interactions. PMID:11041878

  3. Sleep and sleep disorders in Don Quixote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; de Riquer, Martín

    2004-01-01

    In Don Quijote de la Mancha, Miguel de Cervantes presents Don Quixote as an amazing character of the 17th century who suffers from delusions and illusions, believing himself to be a medieval knight errant. Besides this neuropsychiatric condition, Cervantes included masterful descriptions of several sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep deprivation, disruptive loud snoring and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. In addition, he described the occurrence of physiological, vivid dreams and habitual, post-prandial sleepiness--the siesta. Cervantes' concept of sleep as a passive state where all cerebral activities are almost absent is in conflict with his description of abnormal behaviours during sleep and vivid, fantastic dreams. His concept of sleep was shared by his contemporary, Shakespeare, and could have been influenced by the reading of the classical Spanish book of psychiatry Examen de Ingenios (1575).

  4. Impedimetric aptamer-based determination of the mold toxin fumonisin B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiujuan; Huang, Yukun; Ma, Xiaoyuan; Jia, Fei; Guo, Xiaofei; Wang, Zhouping

    2015-01-01

    We are presenting an aptasensor for the sensitive determination of fumonisin B1 (FB-1) via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and applying aptamer-based biorecognition. A thiolated aptamer for FB-1 was anchored onto the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on a glassy carbon electrode. A significant increase in resistance (R et ) is found on interaction with FB-1 in the 0.1 nM to 100 μM concentration range, and the detection limit is as low as 2 pM. The assay was applied to determine FB-1 in spiked maize samples and gave recovery rates ranging from 91 to 105 %. The results demonstrate this method to present new possibilities in the application of aptamers in food safety analysis. (author)

  5. Evaluation of sphingolipids in Wistar rats treated to prolonged and single oral doses of fumonisin b₁.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Glória M; Almeida, Adriana P; Aquino, Simone; dos Reis, Tatiana Alves; Pozzi, Claudia Rodrigues; Corrêa, Benedito

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate sphingolipid levels (sphingosine-So and sphinganine-Sa) and to compare the Sa/So ratio in liver, serum and urine of Wistar rats after prolonged administration (21 days) of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)). In parallel, the kinetics of sphingolipid elimination in urine was studied in animals receiving a single dose of FB(1). Prolonged exposure to FB(1) caused an increase in Sa levels in urine, serum and liver. The most marked effect on sphingolipid biosynthesis was observed in animals treated with the highest dose of FB(1). Animals receiving a single dose of FB(1) presented variations in Sa and So levels and in the Sa/So ratio.

  6. Influence of mycotoxin zearalenone and its derivatives (alpha and beta zearalenol on apoptosis and proliferation of cultured granulosa cells from equine ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoia Paolo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA and its derivatives, alpha and beta-zearalenol (alpha and beta-ZOL, synthesized by genera Fusarium, often occur as contaminants in cereal grains and animal feeds. The importance of ZEA on reproductive disorders is well known in domestic animals species, particularly in swine and cattle. In the horse, limited data are available to date on the influence of dietary exposure to ZEA on reproductive health and on its in vitro effects on reproductive cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ZEA and its derivatives, alpha and beta-ZOL, on granulosa cells (GCs from the ovaries of cycling mares. Methods The cell proliferation was evaluated by using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT test after 3 days exposure at different concentrations of ZEA and its derivatives (from 1 × 10-7 to 0.1 microM. The apoptosis induction was evaluated after 1 day exposure, by DNA analysis using flow cytometry. Results An increase in cell proliferation with respect to the control was observed in the presence of ZEA at 1 × 10-3 and 1 × 10-4 microM and apoptosis was induced by all mycotoxins at different concentrations. Conclusion The simultaneous presence of apoptosis and proliferation in GC cultures treated with zearalenones could indicate that these mycotoxins could be effective in inducing follicular atresia. These effects of zearalenones may result from both direct interaction with oestrogen-receptors as well as interaction with the enzymes 3alpha (beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD, involved in the synthesis and metabolism of endogenous steroid hormones. These cellular disturbances, described for the first time in equine GCs cultured in vitro, could be hypothesized as referred to reproductive failures of unknown ethiology in the mare.

  7. Mycotoxins in poultry feed in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, M U; Al-Mutairi, M; Beg, K R; Al-Mazeedi, H M; Ali, L N; Saeed, T

    2006-05-01

    A survey was conducted at a poultry feed production unit in Kuwait for mycotoxin contamination in the samples of yellow maize, soybean meal, wheat bran used as raw material and the poultry feed prepared for broiler starter, broiler finisher, and layer mash. Individual aflatoxins were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography after immunoaffinity column purification. Repeated analysis revealed average aflatoxin concentration in maize at 0.27 ppb (range 0 to 1.69 ppb), soybean meal at 0.20 ppb (range 0 to 1.27 ppb), wheat bran at 0.15 ppb (range 0 to 1.07 ppb), prepared poultry feed for broiler starter at 0.48 ppb (range 0 to 3.26 ppb), broiler finisher at 0.39 ppb (range 0 to 1.05 ppb), and layer mash at 0.21 ppb (range 0 to 1.30 ppb). Other mycotoxins (ochratoxin, fumonisin, deoxynivalenol (DON), and zearalenone), were detected by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The average levels of ochratoxin A ranged from 4.6 to 9.6 ppb, fumonisin from 1.4 to 3.2 ppm, DON from 0.17 to 0.29 ppm, and zearalenone from 46.4 to 67.6 ppb in various commodities and prepared feed samples. The study revealed the coexistence of determined mycotoxins, although their concentrations in general were found to be lower than the permissible levels, wherever defined, for the poultry feed.

  8. Zearalenone exposure impairs ovarian primordial follicle formation via down-regulation of Lhx8 expression in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guo-Liang [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Sun, Xiao-Feng [Institute of Reproductive Sciences, College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong 266109 (China); Feng, Yan-Zhong [Institute of Animal Sciences, Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150086 (China); Li, Bo [Chengguo Station of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary, Laizhou 261437 (China); Li, Ya-Peng; Yang, Fan [Institute of Reproductive Sciences, College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong 266109 (China); Nyachoti, Charles Martin [Department of Animal Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Shen, Wei [Institute of Reproductive Sciences, College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong 266109 (China); Sun, Shi-Duo, E-mail: ssdsm@tom.com [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Li, Lan, E-mail: lilan9600@126.com [Institute of Reproductive Sciences, College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong 266109 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is an estrogenic mycotoxin mainly produced as a secondary metabolite by numerous species of Fusarium. Previous work showed that ZEA had a negative impact on domestic animals with regard to reproduction. The adverse effects and the mechanisms of ZEA on mammalian ovarian folliculogenesis remain largely unknown, particularly its effect on primordial follicle formation. Thus, we investigated the biological effects of ZEA exposure on murine ovarian germ cell cyst breakdown and primordial follicle assembly. Our results demonstrated that newborn mouse ovaries exposed to 10 or 30 μM ZEA in vitro had significantly less germ cell numbers compared to the control group. Moreover, the presence of ZEA in vitro increased the numbers of TUNEL and γH2AX positive cells within mouse ovaries and the ratio of mRNA levels of the apoptotic genes Bax/Bcl-2. Furthermore, ZEA exposure reduced the mRNA of oocyte specific genes such as LIM homeobox 8 (Lhx8), newborn ovary homeobox (Nobox), spermatogenesis and oogenesis helix-loop-helix (Sohlh2), and factor in the germline alpha (Figlα) in a dose dependent manner. Exposure to ZEA led to remarkable changes in the Lhx8 3′-UTR DNA methylation dynamics in oocytes and severely impaired folliculogenesis in ovaries after transplantation under the kidney capsules of immunodeficient mice. In conclusion, ZEA exposure impairs mouse primordial follicle formation in vitro. - Highlights: • First time to evaluate the impact of ZEA on primordial follicle formation • ZEA exposure increases oocyte apoptosis and delays germ cell cyst breakdown. • ZEA exposure impairs the expression of LHX8 by affecting its DNA methylation.

  9. The influence of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on damage of porcine oocyte exposed to zearalenone in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Fang-Nong [College of Life Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Institute of Reproductive Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Ma, Jun-Yu [Institute of Reproductive Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement in Universities of Shandong, College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Liu, Jing-Cai [College of Life Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Institute of Reproductive Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Wang, Jun-Jie; Cheng, Shun-Feng [Institute of Reproductive Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement in Universities of Shandong, College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Sun, Xiao-Feng [College of Life Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Institute of Reproductive Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Li, Lan [Institute of Reproductive Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement in Universities of Shandong, College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Li, Bo [Chengguo Station of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary, Laizhou 261437 (China); Nyachoti, Charles Martin [Department of Animal Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Shen, Wei, E-mail: wshen@qau.edu.cn [Institute of Reproductive Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement in Universities of Shandong, College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA), one of the mycotoxins produced by Fusarium fungi, impacts porcine reproduction by interfering with the estrogen signaling pathway. Previous studies have shown that ZEA inhibits porcine oocyte maturation through the formation of aberrant spindle. To explore the effect of ZEA on porcine oocyte meiotic maturation, the extent of both nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation was examined in this study. Compared with control group, presence of ZEA (3 μM) during oocyte maturation, significantly inhibited the polar body extrusions from 71% to 51%, and significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level (12.01 vs. 5.89). Intracellular glutathione (GSH) content in ZEA treatment group was lower than in the control group (1.08 pmol/oocyte vs. 0.18 pmol/oocyte), and cortical granules of cortical area distributed oocytes were reduced (88% vs. 62%). ZEA decreases cumulus expansion in both morphology and mRNA level (HAS2, PTX3, TNFAIP6 and CX43). Addition of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) to the oocyte maturation media reversed the ZEA-induced inhibition of polar body extrusion (from 69% to 81%), up-regulated ROS (from 7.9 to 6.5), down-regulated GSH content (from 0.16 to 0.82 pmol/oocyte) and recovered cumulus cells expansion in morphology and mRNA level. It is concluded that ZEA affects both oocyte nucleus and cytoplasmic maturation during in vitro maturation, and NAC can reverse these damages to some extent. - Highlights: • ZEA significantly inhibited the polar body extrusions during oocyte maturation. • ZEA significantly increased intracellular ROS level and reduced GSH content. • ZEA disturbed cortical granules of cortical area distributed oocytes. • NAC reversed the ZEA-induced inhibition of oocyte maturation.

  10. Antagonistic activity of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil on growth and zearalenone production by Fusarium graminearum in maize grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar eKalagatur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to establish the antagonistic effects of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil (OSEO on growth and zearalenone (ZEA production of Fusarium graminearum. GC-MS chemical profiling of OSEO revealed the existence of 43 compounds and the major compound was found to be eugenol (34.7%. DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50 of OSEO was determined to be 8.5µg/mL. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC of OSEO on F. graminearum were recorded as 1250 µg/mL and 1800 µg/mL, respectively. Scanning electron microscope observations showed significant micro morphological damage in OSEO exposed mycelia and spores compared to untreated control culture. Quantitative UHPLC studies revealed that OSEO negatively effected the production of ZEA; the concentration of toxin production was observed to be insignificant at 1500 µg/mL concentration of OSEO. On other hand ZEA concentration was quantified as 3.23 µg/mL in OSEO untreated control culture. Reverse transcriptase qPCR analysis of ZEA metabolic pathway genes (PKS4 and PKS13 revealed that increase in OSEO concentration (250 µg/mL to 1500 µg/mL significantly downregulated the expression of PKS4 and PKS13. These results were in agreement with the artificially contaminated maize grains as well. In conlusion, the antifungal and antimycotoxic effects of OSEO on F. graminearum in the present study reiterated that, the essential oil of O. sanctum could be a promising herbal fungicide in food processing industries as well as grain storage centers.

  11. Raphanus sativus extract protects against Zearalenone induced reproductive toxicity, oxidative stress and mutagenic alterations in male Balb/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Abbès, Samir; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A; Oueslati, Ridha

    2009-04-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium in cereals and agricultural products. It has been implicated in several mycotoxicosis in farm animals and in humans. There is unequivocal evidence of reproductive toxicity of ZEN in male mice although the mechanism of action is unknown. Several reports suggest that exposure to ZEN resulted in oxidative stress, genotoxicity and perturbation of reproductive parameters. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the protective effects of aqueous extract of Raphanus sativus growing in Tunisia against ZEN-induced reproductive toxicity and oxidative stress. Fifty male Balb/c mice were divided into five groups and treated for 28 days as follows: the control group, olive oil-treated groups, another treated with ZEN (40 mg/kg b.w), the last one treated with R. sativus extract alone (15 mg/kg b.w) and the other with ZEN + R. sativus extract. Testis samples were collected for the epididymal sperm count, testosterone concentration, and MDA level, GPx, CAT and SOD activities. Blood samples were collected for different biochemical analyses. Also, RAPD-PCR method was performed to assess the antigenotoxic effect of the extract in germ cells. The results indicated that ZEN-induced toxicological effects in accordance to those reported in the literature: decreasing in the sperm number, testosterone level and antioxidant enzyme status. The RAPD-PCR analysis revealed an alteration in the DNA bands patterns between control and ZEN-treated mice. The extract alone, rich in many antioxidant compounds, was safe and succeeded in counteracting the oxidative stress and protect against the toxicity resulting from ZEN.

  12. Zearalenone Altered the Serum Hormones, Morphologic and Apoptotic Measurements of Genital Organs in Post-weaning Gilts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. X. Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the adverse effects of dietary zearalenone (ZEA (1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg diet on serum hormones, morphologic and apoptotic measurements of genital organs in post-weaning gilts. A total of twenty gilts (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc weaned at 21 d with an average body weight of 10.36±1.21 kg were used in the study. Gilts were fed a basal diet with an addition of 0, 1.1, 2.0, or 3.2 mg/kg purified ZEA for 18 d ad libitum. Results showed that 3.2 mg/kg ZEA challenged gilts decreased (p<0.05 the serum levels of luteinizing hormone, however, serum levels of prolactin in gilts fed the diet containing 2.0 mg/kg ZEA or more were increased (p<0.05 compared to those in the control. Linear effects on all tested serum hormones except progesterone were observed as dietary ZEA levels increased (p<0.05. Gilts fed ZEA-contaminated diet showed increase (p<0.05 in genital organs size, hyperplasia of submucosal smooth muscles in the corpus uteri in a dose-dependent manner. However, the decreased numbers of follicles in the cortex and apoptotic cells in the ovarian were observed in gilts treated with ZEA in a dose-dependent manner. Degeneration and structural abnormalities of genital organs tissues were also observed in the gilts fed diet containing 1.1 mg/kg ZEA or more. Results suggested that dietary ZEA at 1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg can induce endocrine disturbance and damage genital organs in post-weaning gilts.

  13. Toxic effects of maternal zearalenone exposure on intestinal oxidative stress, barrier function, immunological and morphological changes in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal zearalenone (ZEN exposure on the intestine of pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and its offspring. Ninety-six pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into four groups and were fed with diets containing ZEN at concentrations of 0.3 mg/kg, 48.5 mg/kg, 97.6 mg/kg or 146.0 mg/kg from gestation days (GD 1 to 7. All rats were fed with mycotoxin-free diet until their offspring were weaned at three weeks of age. The small intestinal fragments from pregnant rats at GD8, weaned dams and pups were collected and studied for toxic effects of ZEN on antioxidant status, immune response, expression of junction proteins, and morphology. The results showed that ZEN induced oxidative stress, affected the villous structure and reduced the expression of junction proteins claudin-4, occludin and connexin43 (Cx43 in a dose-dependent manner in pregnant rats. Different effects on the expression of cytokines were also observed both in mRNA and protein levels in these pregnant groups. Ingestion of high levels of ZEN caused irreversible damage in weaned dams, such as oxidative stress, decreased villi hight and low expression of junction proteins and cytokines. Decreased expression of jejunal interleukin-8 (IL-8 and increased expression of gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase (GPx2 mRNA were detected in weaned offspring, indicating long-term damage caused by maternal ZEN. We also found that the Nrf2 expression both in mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated in the ZEN-treated groups of pregnant dams and the high-dose of ZEN group of weaned dams. The data indicate that modulation of Nrf2-mediated pathway is one of mechanism via which ZEN affects gut wall antioxidant and inflammatory responses.

  14. Oleoyl and linoleoyl esters of fumonisin B1 are differently produced by Fusarium verticillioides on maize and rice based media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falavigna, C; Lazzaro, I; Galaverna, G; Dall'Asta, C; Battilani, P

    2016-01-18

    Fatty acid esters of fumonisins, namely oleoyl- and linoleoyl esters of fumonisin B1 (EFB1OA and EFB1LA, respectively), are modified forms of fumonisins whose formation and occurrence have been reported so far in naturally infected maize and in artificially inoculated rice. There is a lack of knowledge about the mechanism of formation, mainly in relation to the role played by the substrate. Therefore, in this work we studied the dynamics of accumulation of the toxin and its esters, together with their precursor, in maize and rice based media inoculated with different strains of F. verticillioides and incubated at 25 °C for 7-45 days. The production pattern of FB1 and its modified forms was significantly influenced by growth media, reaching a higher concentration in cornmeal compared to rice based medium. Similarly, cornmeal was more supportive for the conversion of FB1 by considering the esterification rate, with a prevalence of linoleoyl esters compared to oleoyl esters resembling the OA/LA rate in both media. The conversion of FB1 into fatty acid esters was also shown as strain-related. Results, thus, strongly support the hypothesis that fatty acid esters of FB1 are produced by the fungus itself at a late stage of growth, or at a certain point of FB1 accumulation in the medium, using fatty acids from the substrate.

  15. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for the differential detection of trichothecene- and fumonisin-producing species of Fusarium in cornmeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhm, B H; Flaherty, J E; Cousin, M A; Woloshuk, C P

    2002-12-01

    The genus Fusarium comprises a diverse group of fungi including several species that produce mycotoxins in food commodities. In this study, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the group-specific detection of fumonisin-producing and trichothecene-producing species of Fusarium. Primers for genus-level recognition of Fusarium spp. were designed from the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) of rDNA. Primers for group-specific detection were designed from the TRI6 gene involved in trichothecene biosynthesis and the FUM5 gene involved in fumonisin biosynthesis. Primer specificity was determined by testing for cross-reactivity against purified genomic DNA from 43 fungal species representing 14 genera, including 9 Aspergillus spp., 9 Fusarium spp., and 10 Penicillium spp. With purified genomic DNA as a template, genus-specific recognition was observed at 10 pg per reaction; group-specific recognition occurred at 100 pg of template per reaction for the trichothecene producer Fusarium graminearum and at 1 ng of template per reaction for the fumonisin producer Fusarium verticillioides. For the application of the PCR assay, a protocol was developed to isolate fungal DNA from cornmeal. The detection of F. graminearum and its differentiation from F. verticillioides were accomplished prior to visible fungal growth at cornmeal. This level of detection is comparable to those of other methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the assay described here can be used in the food industry's effort to monitor quality and safety.

  16. Detection of fumonisin b1 and ochratoxin a in grain products using microsphere-based fluid array immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, George P; Kowtha, Vasudha A; Taitt, Chris R

    2010-02-01

    Grain products are a staple of diets worldwide and therefore, the ability to accurately and efficiently detect foodborne contaminants such as mycotoxins is of importance to everyone. Here we describe an indirect competitive fluid array fluoroimmunoassay to quantify the mycotoxins, fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A. Both toxins were immobilized to the surface of microspheres using a variety of intermediate molecules and binding of biotinylated "tracer" antibody tracers determined through flow cytometry using streptavidin-phycoerythrin conjugates and the Luminex100 flow cytometer. Competitive assays were developed where the binding of biotinylated monoclonal antibodies to fumonisin B and ochratoxin A was competitively inhibited by different concentrations of those toxins in solution. Concentrations of fumonisin giving 50% inhibition were 300 pg/mL in buffer, 100 ng/g in spiked oats, and 1 μg/g in spiked cornmeal; analogous concentrations for ochratoxin A were 30 ng/mL in buffer, 30 ng/g in spiked oats, and 10 ng/g in spiked corn. The future challenge will be to expand the number of mycotoxins tested both individually and in multiplexed format using this platform.

  17. Effects of muffin processing on fumonisins from 14C-labeled toxins produced in cultured corn kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avantaggiato, Giuseppina; De La Campa, Regina; Miller, J David; Visconti, Angelo

    2003-10-01

    The persistence of fumonisins during cooking is known to be affected by several factors, including thermal degradation and the presence of various ingredients in corn-based food recipes that can react with the toxin. A method for the production of corn kernels containing 14C-fumonisins was developed. The corn kernels were colonized by Fusarium verticillioides MRC 826 and supplemented with 1,2-14C-sodium acetate. The specific activity of 14C-FB1 produced made the study of its fate in cornmeal muffins possible. The double-extraction acetonitrile-water-methanol/immunoaffinity column/o-phthaldialdehyde high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to determine FB1 levels in cornmeal muffins. Reductions in FB1 levels in muffins spiked with 14C-labeled and unlabeled FB1 (43 and 48%, respectively) were similar, indicating that the extraction method was efficient and consistent with previous reports. However, with the labeled corn kernel material, recovery levels based on the 14C counts for the eluate from an immunoaffinity column were much higher (90%). This finding indicates that some fumonisin-related compounds other than FB1 that were present in the cornmeal were recognized by the antibodies but not by the HPLC method.

  18. Tissue persistence of fumonisin B1 in ducks and after exposure to a diet containing the maximum European tolerance for fumonisins in avian feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, Didier; Bailly, Jean-Denis; Benlashehr, Imad; Auby, Alienor; Jouglar, Jean-Yves; Guerre, Philippe

    2009-12-10

    Toxicity and persistence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) in liver, kidney and muscle were investigated in ducks fed 5, 10 and 20mg FB1+FB2/kg feed during force-feeding. Mortality and signs of toxicity were only obtained with 20mg/kg, whereas an increased Sa/So ratio was observed from 5mg/kg on. Persistence of FB1 was only found in liver (16 and 20 microg FB1/kg liver in ducks fed 10 and 20 mg FB1+FB2/kg feed, respectively). Toxicokinetic studies were conducted by the intravenous route (IV, single dose: 10mg FB1/kg body weight) and the oral route (single dose: 100mg FB1/kg body weight), in growing ducks and in ducks during force-feeding. After IV administration, serum concentration-time curves were described by a two-compartment open model. Elimination half-life and mean residence time of FB1 were 26 and 24 min, respectively, clearance was 19.3 ml/min/kg. After oral administration, bioavailability, elimination half-life, mean residence time and clearance varied during force-feeding and growth from 2-2.3%, 71-80 min, 200-188 min, 16.7-17 ml/min/kg, respectively. Taken together these results demonstrate that the risk of persistence of FB1 in ducks after force-feeding is very low, Sa/So being a good biomarker which increases before signs of toxicity and risk of persistence of FB1 in tissue (limit of detection 13 microg/kg).

  19. Resistance to Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin accumulation in maize inbred lines involves an earlier and enhanced expression of lipoxygenase (LOX) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschietto, Valentina; Marocco, Adriano; Malachova, Alexandra; Lanubile, Alessandra

    2015-09-01

    Fusarium verticillioides causes ear rot in maize and contaminates the kernels with the fumonisin mycotoxins. It is known that plant lipoxygenase (LOX)-derived oxylipins regulate defence against pathogens and that the host-pathogen lipid cross-talk influences the pathogenesis. The expression profiles of fifteen genes of the LOX pathway were studied in kernels of resistant and susceptible maize lines, grown in field condition, at 3, 7 and 14 days post inoculation (dpi) with F. verticillioides. Plant defence responses were correlated with the pathogen growth, the expression profiles of fungal FUM genes for fumonisin biosynthesis and fumonisin content in the kernels. The resistant genotype limited fungal growth and fumonisin accumulation between 7 and 14 dpi. Pathogen growth became exponential in the susceptible line after 7 dpi, in correspondence with massive transcription of FUM genes and fumonisins augmented exponentially at 14 dpi. LOX pathway genes resulted strongly induced after pathogen inoculation in the resistant line at 3 and 7 dpi, whilst in the susceptible line the induction was reduced or delayed at 14 dpi. In addition, all genes resulted overexpressed before infection in kernels of the resistant genotype already at 3 dpi. The results suggest that resistance in maize may depend on an earlier activation of LOX genes and genes for jasmonic acid biosynthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous determination of fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 contaminants in maize by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Yiping; Zhang Yu; Han Shiyun; Han Zheng; Wu Yongning

    2011-01-01

    The present work developed an analytical method for simultaneous determination of fumonisins B 1 , B 2 and B 3 residues in maize by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) under the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, and especially focused on the optimization of extraction, clean-up, UHPLC separation and MS/MS parameters. The method involves addition of fumonisins isotope internal standards, extraction with a mixture of acetonitrile and water and clean-up with solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges before UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. A single-laboratory method validation was conducted by testing three different spiking levels for repeatability and recovery according to International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) guidelines. The LOQ of FB 1 , FB 2 and FB 3 were 1.50, 1.65 and 0.4 μg kg -1 , respectively, which were lower than the criteria of EU, USA and other countries regarding minimum residue limits of fumonisins in foods including baby foods and feedstuffs. Recoveries of three fumonisins ranged from 80.9% to 97.0% with RSD values of 2.4-11.1%.The advantages of this method include simple pretreatment, rapid determination and high sensitivity, and it fulfills the requirements for food analysis with respect to minimum residue limits of fumonisins in various countries.

  1. Regulation of Fumonisin B1 Biosynthesis and Conidiation in Fusarium verticillioides by a Cyclin-Like (C-Type) Gene, FCC1†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Won-Bo; Woloshuk, Charles P.

    2001-01-01

    Fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins produced in corn kernels by the plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium verticillioides. A mutant of the fungus, FT536, carrying a disrupted gene named FCC1 (for Fusarium cyclin C1) resulting in altered fumonisin B1 biosynthesis was generated. FCC1 contains an open reading frame of 1,018 bp, with one intron, and encodes a putative 319-amino-acid polypeptide. This protein is similar to UME3 (also called SRB11 or SSN8), a cyclin C of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and contains three conserved motifs: a cyclin box, a PEST-rich region, and a destruction box. Also similar to the case for C-type cyclins, FCC1 was constitutively expressed during growth. When strain FT536 was grown on corn kernels or on defined minimal medium at pH 6, conidiation was reduced and FUM5, the polyketide synthase gene involved in fumonisin B1 biosynthesis, was not expressed. However, when the mutant was grown on a defined minimal medium at pH 3, conidiation was restored, and the blocks in expression of FUM5 and fumonisin B1 production were suppressed. Our data suggest that FCC1 plays an important role in signal transduction regulating secondary metabolism (fumonisin biosynthesis) and fungal development (conidiation) in F. verticillioides. PMID:11282612

  2. A Novel Population of Fusarium fujikuroi Isolated from Southeastern U.S. Winegrapes Reveals the Need to Re-Evaluate the Species' Fumonisin Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Stephanie L; Brannen, Phillip M; Glenn, Anthony E

    2016-08-31

    Mycotoxins pose a challenge to a safe food supply worldwide, and their threat is expected to worsen with our changing climate. The need for diligence is exemplified by the discovery of fumonisin B2 in wine, which joins ochratoxin A as a mycotoxin of concern in the grape-wine chain. To elucidate the mycotoxin risk in southeastern American wine, grape samples were collected from vineyards during harvest in 2013 and potentially mycotoxigenic fungi (Fusarium and Aspergillus) were isolated from the samples. Numerous Fusarium isolates were recovered and identified to the species level by comparison of translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences to verified strains. Fusarium fujikuroi was the most abundant species recovered (239 isolates), followed by F. proliferatum (52), F. incarnatum-equiseti (14), F. oxysporum (7), F. concentricum (1), and F. solani (1). In vitro assays quantified fumonisin production for representative isolates via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, nearly all F. fujikuroi isolates produced fumonisins B1, B2, and B3 at levels comparable to both the F. proliferatum isolates and the positive control, Fusarium verticillioides. Such capacity for fumonisin production refutes the generally accepted notion that F. fujikuroi produces undetectable or low levels of fumonisins and provides evidence to reconsider this species as a mycotoxigenic threat to economically significant crops.

  3. Fumonisins B1 and B2 in the corn-milling process and corn-based products, and evaluation of estimated daily intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Marchi, Djeini; Scussel, Vildes M

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of fumonisins (FBs: FB1 and FB2) in the corn-milling process and in corn-based products, as well as daily intake estimates for the Brazilian population were evaluated. Among corn fractions samples, corn meal had the highest mean concentration of FB1 (1305 µg kg(-1)) and FB2 (651 µg kg(-1)) and a distribution factors of 452% and 256% in relation to corn grain, respectively. On the other hand, the distribution factor of FB1 and FB2 in corn flour was found to be 144% and 88% respectively, which demonstrates that fumonisins in this fraction were reduced compared with corn grain. As a result, almost half the corn meal samples (47%) would be non-compliant with future Brazilian regulation (2017) for fumonisins. However, corn-based products, such as corn flakes and popcorn, were in compliance with the regulation. The average probable daily intake and maximum probable daily intake of fumonisins estimated for the Santa Catarina state (Brazil) population were below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for all corn samples. Despite this, the adoption of practices to control the occurrence of fumonisins should be applied to the corn-milling fractions that may contain a higher concentration of this toxin, such as corn meal, often used for animal feed in Brazil.

  4. Effects of orally administered fumonisin B₁ (FB₁), partially hydrolysed FB₁, hydrolysed FB₁ and N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) FB₁ on the sphingolipid metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Irene; Nagl, Veronika; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Varga, Elisabeth; Schwarz, Christiane; Slavik, Veronika; Reisinger, Nicole; Malachová, Alexandra; Cirlini, Martina; Generotti, Silvia; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Krska, Rudolf; Moll, Wulf-Dieter; Berthiller, Franz

    2015-02-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a Fusarium mycotoxin frequently occurring in maize-based food and feed. Alkaline processing like nixtamalisation of maize generates partially and fully hydrolysed FB1 (pHFB1 and HFB1) and thermal treatment in the presence of reducing sugars leads to formation of N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) fumonisin B1 (NDF). The toxicity of these metabolites, in particular their effect on the sphingolipid metabolism, is either unknown or discussed controversially. We produced high purity FB1, pHFB1a+b, HFB1 and NDF and fed them to male Sprague Dawley rats for three weeks. Once a week, urine and faeces samples were collected over 24 h and analysed for fumonisin metabolites as well as for the sphinganine (Sa) to sphingosine (So) ratio by validated LC-MS/MS based methods. While the latter was significantly increased in the FB1 positive control group, the Sa/So ratios of the partially and fully hydrolysed fumonisins were indifferent from the negative control group. Although NDF was partly cleaved during digestion, the liberated amounts of FB1 did not raise the Sa/So ratio. These results show that the investigated alkaline and thermal processing products of FB1 were, at the tested concentrations, non-toxic for rats, and suggest that according food processing can reduce fumonisin toxicity for humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Novel Population of Fusarium fujikuroi Isolated from Southeastern U.S. Winegrapes Reveals the Need to Re-Evaluate the Species’ Fumonisin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L. Bolton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins pose a challenge to a safe food supply worldwide, and their threat is expected to worsen with our changing climate. The need for diligence is exemplified by the discovery of fumonisin B2 in wine, which joins ochratoxin A as a mycotoxin of concern in the grape-wine chain. To elucidate the mycotoxin risk in southeastern American wine, grape samples were collected from vineyards during harvest in 2013 and potentially mycotoxigenic fungi (Fusarium and Aspergillus were isolated from the samples. Numerous Fusarium isolates were recovered and identified to the species level by comparison of translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences to verified strains. Fusarium fujikuroi was the most abundant species recovered (239 isolates, followed by F. proliferatum (52, F. incarnatum-equiseti (14, F. oxysporum (7, F. concentricum (1, and F. solani (1. In vitro assays quantified fumonisin production for representative isolates via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, nearly all F. fujikuroi isolates produced fumonisins B1, B2, and B3 at levels comparable to both the F. proliferatum isolates and the positive control, Fusarium verticillioides. Such capacity for fumonisin production refutes the generally accepted notion that F. fujikuroi produces undetectable or low levels of fumonisins and provides evidence to reconsider this species as a mycotoxigenic threat to economically significant crops.

  6. Fitness for Kids Who Don't Like Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Fitness for Kids Who Don't Like Sports KidsHealth / For Parents / Fitness for Kids Who Don' ... look for something new. Still Shopping for a Sport Some kids haven't found the right sport. ...

  7. Reading "Las Meninas": An Ekphrastic Approach to Teaching "Don Quijote"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuno, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Reading and teaching "Don Quijote" present multiple challenges to twenty-first century students and instructors who are culturally and historically distanced from the seventeenth century. With "Las Meninas" serving as a visual lexicon for cuing correlative themes and events in "Don Quijote", the instructor, through an ekphrastic, interdisciplinary…

  8. Fungal flora and deoxynivalenol (DON) level in wheat from Jeddah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to explore the fungal flora along with the DON concentration in the collected wheat samples from Jeddah market to correlate between this flora and the detected DON. Whole grain wheat samples were collected from Jeddah market and this represents imported and locally produced wheat. The results ...

  9. Don Quixote og romangenren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluge, Sofie

    Through the centuries Cervantes' Don Quixote (1605/1615) has delighted readers, inspired artists, and helped form our perception of early modern Spain. Moreover, it has played a major part in the development and theoretisation of one of the modern world's most central artistic forms: the novel. Don...

  10. An On-Site Simultaneous Semi-Quantification of Aflatoxin B1, Zearalenone, and T-2 Toxin in Maize- and Cereal-Based Feed via Multicolor Immunochromatographic Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-mycotoxin contamination has been frequently found in the agro-food monitoring due to the coexistence of fungi. However, many determination methods focused on a single mycotoxin, highlighting the demand for on-site determination of multiple mycotoxins in a single run. We develop a multicolor-based immunochromatographic strip (ICS for simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, zearalenone (ZEN and T-2 toxin in maize- and cereal-based animal feeds. The nanoparticles with different colors are conjugated with three monoclonal antibodies, which serve as the immunoassay probes. The decrease in color intensity is observed by the naked eyes, providing simultaneous quantification of three mycotoxins. The visible limits of detection for AFB1, ZEN and T-2 are estimated to be 0.5, 2, and 30 ng/mL, respectively. The cut-off values are 1, 10, and 50 ng/mL, respectively. Considerable specificity and stability are found using real samples. The results are in excellent agreement with those from high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The multi-color ICS boasts sensitive and rapid visual differentiation and simultaneous semi-quantification of aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and T-2 toxin in maize- and cereal-based feed samples within 20 min.

  11. Simultaneous determination of zearalenone and its derivatives in edible vegetable oil by gel permeation chromatography and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Mingrong; Zhang, Hu; Wu, Liqin; Jin, Nuo; Wang, Jianmei; Jiang, Kezhi

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive gas chromatographic-triple quadrupole mass spectrometric (GC-QqQ MS) analytical method, for the determination of zearalenone and its five derivatives in edible vegetable oil, was developed. After the vegetable oil samples were prepared using gel permeation chromatography, the eluent was collected, evaporated and dried with nitrogen gas. The residue was silylated with N,O-bis-trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide, containing 1% trimethylchlorosilane. GC-QqQ MS was performed in the reaction-monitoring mode to confirm and quantify mycotoxins in vegetable oil. The limits of quantitation were 0.03-0.2 μg kg(-1) for the six mycotoxins. The average recoveries, measured at 2, 20 and 200 μg kg(-1), were in the range 80.3-96.5%. Zearalenone was detected in the range 5.2-184.6 μg kg(-1) in nine maize oils and at 40.7 μg kg(-1) in a rapeseed oil from the local market. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Low Monotonic Doses of Zearalenone on Selected Reproductive Tissues in Pre-Pubertal Female Dogs—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Gajęcka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in toxic substances combined with advancements in biological sciences has shed a new light on the problem of mycotoxins contaminating feeds and foods. An interdisciplinary approach was developed by identifying dose-response relationships in key research concepts, including the low dose theory of estrogen-like compounds, hormesis, NOAEL dose, compensatory response and/or food tolerance, and effects of exposure to undesirable substances. The above considerations increased the researchers’ interest in risk evaluation, namely: (i clinical symptoms associated with long-term, daily exposure to low doses of a toxic compound; and (ii dysfunctions at cellular or tissue level that do not produce clinical symptoms. Research advancements facilitate the extrapolation of results and promote the use of novel tools for evaluating the risk of exposure, for example exposure to zearalenone in pre-pubertal female dogs. The arguments presented in this paper suggest that low doses of zearalenone in commercial feeds stimulate metabolic processes and increase weight gains. Those processes are accompanied by lower proliferation rates in the ovaries, neoangiogenesis and vasodilation in the ovaries and the uterus, changes in the steroid hormone profile, and changes in the activity of hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. All of the above changes result from exogenous hyperestrogenizm.

  13. DAYA ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN SENGGANI (Melastoma affine D. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Trisharyanti Dian Kusumowati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Melastoma affine D. Don had some activities such as anthelmintic, antibacteria, antiinfiammation, antifungal, and antitumor. The aims of this research was determine antibacteria activity of ethanolic extract of Melastoma affine D. Don. The antimicrobial activity was tested by solid dilution method to get Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC. The compounds in Melastoma affine D. Don was analyzed by tube test method and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC with chloroform : methanol : formic acid (8,5:1,5:0,5 as mobile phase and silica gel GF254 as stationary phase. The result showed ethanolic extract of Melastoma affine D. Don contains alkaloid, polyphenol, fiavonoid, saponin, and essential oil. The MIC of Senggani against Staphylococcus aureus was 2% and 3% against Escherichia coli and the extract could not inhibit Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli multiresistant until concentration 7% extract ethanol. Keywords: Melastoma affine D. Don, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli

  14. Lactobacillus plantarum MYS6 Ameliorates Fumonisin B1-Induced Hepatorenal Damage in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Deepthi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisin B1 (FB1, a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species is a predominant Group 2B carcinogen occurring in maize and maize-based poultry feeds. It is shown to be nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, neurotoxic, and immunosuppressing in animals. In this study, we report the ameliorating effects of a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus plantarum MYS6 on FB1-induced toxicity and oxidative damage in broilers. A 6-week dietary experiment consisting of 48 broilers was performed in six treatment groups. Probiotic treatment (109 cells/mL involved pre-colonization of broilers with L. plantarum MYS6 while co-administration treatment involved supplementation of probiotic and FB1-contaminated diet (200 mg/Kg feed simultaneously. At the end of the treatment period, growth performance, hematology, serum biochemistry, and markers of oxidative stress in serum and tissue homogenates were evaluated in all the broilers. The histopathological changes in hepatic and renal tissues were further studied. The results demonstrated that administration of L. plantarum MYS6 efficiently improved the feed intake, body weight and feed conversion ratio in broilers. It mitigated the altered levels of hematological indices such as complete blood count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Serum parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, creatinine, cholesterol, triglycerides, and albumin were significantly restored after administering the probiotic in FB1-intoxicated broilers. Additionally, L. plantarum MYS6 alleviated the levels of oxidative stress markers in serum and tissue homogenate of liver. The histopathological data of liver and kidney further substantiated the overall protection offered by L. plantarum MYS6 against FB1-induced cellular toxicity and organ damage in broilers. Our results indicated that co-administration of probiotic along with the toxin had better effect in detoxification compared to its pre-colonization in broilers

  15. Combined effect of chitosan and water activity on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum on maize-based media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrochio, Laura V; Cendoya, Eugenia; Zachetti, Vanessa G L; Farnochi, Maria C; Massad, Walter; Ramirez, Maria L

    2014-08-18

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the in vitro efficacy of chitosan (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0mg/mL) under different water availabilities (0.995, 0.99, 0.98, 0.96 and 0.93) at 25°C on lag phase, growth rate and fumonisin production by isolates of Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum. The presence of chitosan affected growth and fumonisin production, and this effect was dependent on the dose and aW treatment used. The presence of chitosan increased the lag phase, and reduced the growth rate of both Fusarium species significantly at all concentrations used, especially at 0.93 aW. Also, significant reduction of fumonisin production was observed in both Fusarium species at all conditions assayed. The present study has shown the combined effects of chitosan and aW on growth and fumonisin production by the two most important Fusarium species present on maize. Low molecular weight (Mw) chitosan with more than 70% of degree of deacetylation (DD) at 0.5mg/mL was able to significantly reduce growth rate and fumonisin production on maize-based media, with maximum levels of reduction in both parameters obtained at the highest doses used. As fumonisins are unavoidable contaminants in food and feed chains, their presence needs to be reduced to minimize their effects on human and animal health and to diminish the annual market loss through rejected maize. In this scenario post-harvest use of chitosan could be an important alternative treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of fumonisins B1 and B2 in food and feed using monolithic column and positive confirmation by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayoon, Wejdan Shakir; Saad, Bahruddin; Salleh, Baharuddin; Ismail, Nor Azliza; Abdul Manaf, Normaliza Hj; Abdul Latiff, Aishah

    2010-10-29

    The development of a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography fluorescence method for the determination of the mycotoxins fumonisin B(1) and fumonisin B(2) by using silica-based monolithic column is described. The samples were first extracted using acetonitrile:water (50:50, v/v) and purified by using a C(18) solid phase extraction-based clean-up column. Then, pre-column derivatization for the analyte using ortho-phthaldialdehyde in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol was carried out. The developed method involved optimization of mobile phase composition using methanol and phosphate buffer, injection volume, temperature and flow rate. The liquid chromatographic separation was performed using a reversed phase Chromolith(®) RP-18e column (100 mm × 4.6 mm) at 30 °C and eluted with a mobile phase of a mixture of methanol and phosphate buffer pH 3.35 (78:22, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). The fumonisins separation was achieved in about 4 min, compared to approximately 20 min by using a C(18) particle-packed column. The fluorescence excitation and emission were at 335 nm and 440 nm, respectively. The limits of detections were 0.01-0.04 μg g(-1) fumonisin B(1) and fumonisin B(2), respectively. Good recoveries were found for spiked samples (0.1, 0.5, 1.5 μg g(-1) fumonisins B(1) and B(2)), ranging from 84.0 to 106.0% for fumonisin B(1) and from 81.0 to 103.0% for fumonisin B(2). Fifty-three samples were analyzed including 39 food and feeds and 14 inoculated corn and rice. Results show that 12.8% of the food and feed samples were contaminated with fumonisin B(1) (range, 0.01-0.51 μg g(-1)) and fumonisin B(2) (0.05 μg g(-1)). The total fumonisins in these samples however, do not exceed the legal limits established by the European Union of 0.8 μg g(-1). Of the 14 inoculated samples, 57.1% contained fumonisin B(1) (0.16-41.0 μg g(-1)) and fumonisin B(2) (range, 0.22-50.0 μg g(-1)). Positive confirmation of selected samples was carried out using

  17. Bioavailability of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in wastewaters from animal feedlots and storage lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) transport from animal agriculture to surface waters can lead to eutrophication and dissolved oxygen depletion. Biodegradable DON (BDON) is a portion of DON that is mineralized by bacteria while bioavailable DON (ABDON) is utilized by bacteria and/or algae. This stu...

  18. Fumonisin B₁ (FB₁) Induces Lamellar Separation and Alters Sphingolipid Metabolism of In Vitro Cultured Hoof Explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Nicole; Dohnal, Ilse; Nagl, Veronika; Schaumberger, Simone; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Mayer, Elisabeth

    2016-03-24

    One of the most important hoof diseases is laminitis. Yet, the pathology of laminitis is not fully understood. Different bacterial toxins, e.g. endotoxins or exotoxins, seem to play an important role. Additionally, ingestion of mycotoxins, toxic secondary metabolites of fungi, might contribute to the onset of laminitis. In this respect, fumonsins are of special interest since horses are regarded as species most susceptible to this group of mycotoxins. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of fumonisin B₁ (FB₁) on primary isolated epidermal and dermal hoof cells, as well as on the lamellar tissue integrity and sphingolipid metabolism of hoof explants in vitro. There was no effect of FB₁ at any concentration on dermal or epidermal cells. However, FB₁ significantly reduced the separation force of explants after 24 h of incubation. The Sa/So ratio was significantly increased in supernatants of explants incubated with FB₁ (2.5-10 µg/mL) after 24 h. Observed effects on Sa/So ratio were linked to significantly increased sphinganine concentrations. Our study showed that FB₁ impairs the sphingolipid metabolism of explants and reduces lamellar integrity at non-cytotoxic concentrations. FB₁ might, therefore, affect hoof health. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary to elucidate the effects of FB₁ on the equine hoof in more detail.

  19. Selection and characterization of single stranded DNA aptamers recognizing fumonisin B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiujuan; Huang, Yukun; Duan, Nuo; Wu, Shijia; Xia, Yu; Ma, Xiaoyuan; Ding, Zhansheng; Wang, Zhouping; Zhu, Changqing; Jiang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    We present an improved method for the selection of single-stranded DNA aptamers that can recognize fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ). FB 1 is a carcinogenic mycotoxin mainly found in corn and corn-based food products worldwide, posing a global threat to feed and food safety. Selection was based on the mag-SELEX (magnetic bead systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) technology modified by adopting free analogs of targets rather than immobilized targets for counter selections. Firstly, aptamer candidates for FB 1 were selected from an 80 nt random DNA library after 13 rounds of selection. Next, binding assays were performed for affinity evaluation, and circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to investigate their conformation. A high-affinity aptamer designated as F10 (with a dissociation constant of 62 ± 5 nM) was identified and tested for its specificity by competitive binding assays. The results demonstrate that this improved mag-SELEX technology facilitates aptamer screening because it avoids the tedious immobilization of counter-selection molecules on magnetic beads. The aptamers obtained by this technique open new possibilities for the detection of FB 1 via aptasensors. (author)

  20. Effects of fumonisin B1 on selected biological responses and performance of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo H. Rauber

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of three doses of fumonisin B1 (0, 100, and 200mg/kg of feed on biological variables (relative weight of liver [RWL], total plasma protein [TPP], albumin [Alb], calcium [Ca], phosphorus [P], uric acid [UA], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma glutamyltransferase [GGT], alkaline phosphatase [AP], total cholesterol [Chol], triglycerides [Tri], sphinganine-to-sphingosine ratio [SA:SO], and C-reactive protein [CRP], morphological evaluation of the small intestine (villus height [VH], crypt depth [CD], and villus-to-crypt ratio [V:C], histological evaluation, and on performance (body weight [BW], feed intake [FI], and feed conversion rate [FCR] of broiler chickens. Significant effects of FB were observed on BW and FI (reduced, on RWL, TPP, Ca, ALT, AST, GGT, Chol, and Tri (increased at both 14 and 28 days evaluations. In addition, significant increase was observed on FCR, Alb, P, SA:SO, and CRP and significant reduction in UA, VH, and V:C only at the 28 days evaluation. Significant histological lesions were observed on liver and kidney of FB inoculated broilers at 14 and 28 days. Those results show that FB has a significant effect on biological and histological variables and on performance of broiler chickens.

  1. Disruption of sphingolipid biosynthesis in hepatocyte nodules: selective proliferative stimulus induced by fumonisin B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westhuizen, Liana van der; Gelderblom, Wentzel C.A.; Shephard, Gordon S.; Swanevelder, Sonja

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of sphingolipid disruption in the cancer promoting potential of fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) in the development of hepatocyte nodules, male Fischer 344 rats were subjected to cancer initiation (FB 1 containing diet or diethylnitrosamine (DEN) by i.p. injection) and promotion (2-acetylaminofluorene with partial hepatectomy, 2-AAF/PH) treatments followed by a secondary FB 1 dietary regimen. Sphinganine (Sa) and sphingosine (So) levels were measured by high performance liquid chromatography in control, surrounding and nodular liver tissues of the rats. The disruption of sphingolipid biosynthesis by the secondary FB 1 treatment in the control rats was significantly (P 1 initiation and 2-AAF/PH promotion. When comparing the groups subjected to the secondary FB 1 treatment, the initiation effected by FB 1 was less (P 1 initiation was marginally increased in the nodules compared to the surrounding liver after 2-AAF/PH promotion and significantly (P 1 treatment. Although, the FB 1 -induced hepatocyte nodules were not resistant to the disruption of sphingolipid biosynthesis, the nodular So levels were increased and might provide a selective growth stimulus possibly induced by bio-active sphingoid intermediates such as sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)

  2. Fumonisin B1 hepatotoxicity in mice is attenuated by depletion of Kupffer cells by gadolinium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Quanren; Kim, Jiyoung; Sharma, Raghubir P.

    2005-01-01

    Fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) is a toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides found on corn worldwide. The biological effects of FB 1 are attributed to sphingolipid metabolism disruption as a result of ceramide synthase inhibition. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) is an important modulator of FB 1 hepatotoxicity. Kupffer cells are major source of cytokine production in liver. In the present study we investigated the effects of Kupffer cell depletion by gadolinium on FB 1 hepatotoxicity in female BALB/c mice. Mice were given saline or 50 mg/kg of gadolinium chloride once via the tail vein; 16 h later they were treated with subcutaneous injections of vehicle or 2.25 mg/kg/day FB 1 in saline for three successive days. Gadolinium significantly attenuated FB 1 -induced increases in the activities of circulating alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and reduced the FB 1 -induced hepatocyte apoptosis and free sphinganine accumulation in liver. Both gadolinium and FB 1 treatments individually increased the expression of selected cell signal factors; e.g., TNFα, TNF receptor 1, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, lymphotoxin β, interferon γ, and transforming growth factor β1; gadolinium chloride did not alter FB 1 -induced expression of the above genes. Results indicated that Kupffer cells play a role in FB 1 hepatotoxicity. Decreased FB 1 -induced sphinganine accumulation and increased protective TNFα signaling by gadolinium chloride may in part account for its ameliorating effect on FB 1 liver damage

  3. Decontamination of Fumonisin B1 in maize grain by Pleurotus eryngii and antioxidant enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam HAIDUKOWSKI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisin B1 (FB1 is among the most common mycotoxins found in maize kernels and maize products worldwide. The microbiological process of detoxification and transformation of toxic organic pollutants is a promising method for foodstuffs decontamination. Some basidiomycetes, such as the Pleurotus eryngii species complex, include several important commercial edible varieties that can detoxify polycyclic organic compounds and a range of wastes and pollutants. We investigated the potential role of P. eryngii, one of the most consumed mushrooms, in the decontamination of FB1 in maize. In addition, selected antioxidant enzymes, (soluble peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase, primarily involved in control of cell hydrogen peroxide levels, and lignin degradation, were analyzed, to evaluate their contributions to the molecular mechanisms of FB1 by P. eryngii. FB1 decontamination by P. eryngii and involvement of CAT and POD enzymes in the control of toxic decontamination levels of H2O2 were demonstrated. A consistent reduction of FB1 was observed at different incubation times. The average decrease levels of FB1, with respect to the control cultures, ranged from 45 to 61% (RSD < 15%. This study is a possible eco-friendly approach to reducing this mycotoxin in the feed supply chains.

  4. Selection and characterization of single stranded DNA aptamers recognizing fumonisin B{sub 1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiujuan; Huang, Yukun; Duan, Nuo; Wu, Shijia; Xia, Yu; Ma, Xiaoyuan; Ding, Zhansheng; Wang, Zhouping [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and Nutrition, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122 (China); Zhu, Changqing; Jiang, Yuan [Animal, Plant and Food Inspection Centre, Jiangsu Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Nanjing, 210001 (China)

    2014-08-01

    We present an improved method for the selection of single-stranded DNA aptamers that can recognize fumonisin B{sub 1} (FB{sub 1}). FB{sub 1} is a carcinogenic mycotoxin mainly found in corn and corn-based food products worldwide, posing a global threat to feed and food safety. Selection was based on the mag-SELEX (magnetic bead systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) technology modified by adopting free analogs of targets rather than immobilized targets for counter selections. Firstly, aptamer candidates for FB{sub 1} were selected from an 80 nt random DNA library after 13 rounds of selection. Next, binding assays were performed for affinity evaluation, and circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to investigate their conformation. A high-affinity aptamer designated as F10 (with a dissociation constant of 62 ± 5 nM) was identified and tested for its specificity by competitive binding assays. The results demonstrate that this improved mag-SELEX technology facilitates aptamer screening because it avoids the tedious immobilization of counter-selection molecules on magnetic beads. The aptamers obtained by this technique open new possibilities for the detection of FB{sub 1} via aptasensors. (author)

  5. The mechanism of Lactobacillus strains for their ability to remove fumonisins B1 and B2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongfei; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Junwen; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Bolin

    2016-11-01

    Two Lactobacillus strains, L. plantarum B7 and L. pentosus X8, exhibited high efficiency in removing fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) from aqueous medium. 52.9% FB1 and 85.2% FB2 were bound by L. plantarum B7, and 58.0% FB1 and 86.5% FB2 by L. pentosus X8, respectively. Temperature, incubation time, and pH affected the binding ability of two strains. Cell viability was not necessary for the binding ability. The various components of cell wall were determined for their ability to absorb FBS. The results revealed that the intact peptidoglycans exhibited the greatest capacity in binding FBs. Especially the better structural integrity of the peptidoglycans the more FBs was bound. Thus, the absorption of two bacterial cells to FBs is proposed to be a physical process, and peptidoglycans should be the main binding site. Additionally, Caco-2 cell lines were used to evaluate the ability of the two strains to reduce the damage of FBs in vitro. Caco-2 cell's death was reduced after the cell lines were subjected to both viable and non-viable L. pentosus X8, respectively. The two Lactobacillus strains might be used as a biological detoxification for the removal of FBs from diet and feed in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of oral administration of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, R B; Oliveira, C A F; Dilkin, P; Xavier, J G; Direito, G M; Corrêa, B

    2007-12-15

    The effects of prolonged oral administration (21 days) of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) were studied in male New Zealand rabbits by clinical, pathological, biochemical and sphingolipid analyses. Twenty-four animals were randomly divided into the following four experimental groups: (A) 0 mg FB(1)+0 microg AFB(1)/(kg body weight(bw)day) (control); (B) 0 mg FB(1)+30 microg AFB(1)/(kg bw day); (C) 1.5 mg FB(1)/(kg bw day)+30 microg AFB(1)/(kg bw day); (D) 1.5 mg FB(1)/(kg bw day)+0 microg AFB(1). Animals from group B and principally from group C presented clinical signs of intoxication. Rabbits from group C presented a lower body weight gain than controls. Differences were observed between intoxicated rabbits and controls with respect to absolute and relative liver and kidney weight, hepatic function, serum urea and creatinine levels and Sa/So ratio. The most frequent hepatic and renal injuries were vacuolar degeneration of the liver and kidney as shown by the histopathological and serum biochemical results. Combined administration of AFB(1) and FB(1) resulted in synergistic toxic effects both in the liver and in the kidney, but hepatic injuries were more marked.

  7. Comparative effects of fumonisins on sphingolipid metabolism and toxicity in ducks and turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlasher, Emad; Geng, Xiuyu; Nguyen, Ngoc Thanh Xuan; Tardieu, Didier; Bailly, Jean-Denis; Auvergne, Alain; Guerre, Philippe

    2012-03-01

    Fumonisins (FBs) are mycotoxins that are found worldwide in maize and maize products. Their main toxic effects have been well characterized in poultry, but differences between species have been demonstrated. Ducks appeared very sensitive to toxicity, whereas turkeys are more resistant. At the same time, alterations of sphingolipid metabolism, with an increase of the concentration of the free sphinganine (Sa) in serum and liver, have been demonstrated in the two species, but the link between the toxicity of FBs and Sa accumulation remains difficult to interpret. The aim of the present work was to compare the effects of FBs (10 mg FB1 + FB2/kg body weight) on sphingolipid metabolism in ducks and turkeys. Growth, feed consumption, and serum biochemistry were also investigated to evaluate toxicity. The main results showed that FBs increased Sa concentrations in liver and serum in ducks and turkeys, but these accumulations were not directly correlated with toxicity. Sa accumulation was higher in the livers of turkeys than in ducks, whereas Sa levels were higher in the sera of ducks than in turkeys. Hepatic toxicity was more pronounced in ducks than in turkeys and accompanied a decrease of body weight and an increase of serum biochemistry in ducks but not in turkeys. So, although FBs increase Sa concentration in the livers of both species, this effect is not directly proportional to toxicity. The mechanisms of FB toxicity and/or the mechanisms of protection of ducks and turkeys to the Sa accumulation within the liver remain to be established.

  8. Nanocellulose coated with various free fatty acids can adsorb fumonisin B1, and decrease its toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Mohammad Hossein Balal; Shahdadi, Hossein

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the adsorption and biological properties of nanocellulose coated with free fatty acids (NCCFFAs). At first, nanocellulose was synthesized by acid hydrolysis, and then separately coated with different free fatty acids (FFAs), including lauric acid, alpha linoleic acid, oleic acid, and palmitic acid. Next, the serial concentrations of NCCFFAs (1, 10, 100, and 1000 μg/mL) was separately added to fumonisin B1 (FB1) at 1000 μg/mL, and separately incubated at 37 °C for 1, 2, and 3h. Then, the percentage of adsorption was calculated. In the next experiment, the viability of mouse liver cells was measured when they exposed to serial concentrations of NCCFFAs, FFAs, and FB1. This study showed that the increase of incubation time and concentration of NCCFFAs led to increase of FB1 adsorption. Although FFAs and NCCFFAs had no remarkable toxicity, the high toxicity was observed for FB1. Importantly, the toxicity of FB1 was highly decreased, when incubated together with FFAs or NCCFFAs. These novel adsorbents, NCCFFAs, can be used together with different foodstuffs to remove FB1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In Vitro toxicological effects of Fumonisin B1 and Beauvericin on bovine granulosa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Albonico

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisin B1 (FB1 and beauvericin (BEA are fusariotoxins found to co-exist in food and feed commodities. The aim of this study is to evaluate the individual and combined effects of FB1 and BEA on bovine granulosa cell proliferation and steroid production. Granulosa cells (GC from small bovine follicles (1-5 mm were cultured for 48 hours in 10% fetal bovine serum followed by 48 hours in a serum-free medium containing 500 ng/ml of testosterone (as an estradiol precursor, 30 ng/ml of FSH and 30 ng/ml of IGF-I with and without FB1 (3 µM and BEA (3 µM. At the end of the experiment, the numbers of GC were determined using a Coulter counter (Beckman Coulter, USA and concentrations of progesterone and estradiol in the culture medium were determined by radioimmunoassay. FB1 and BEA, both individually and in combination, showed an inhibitory effect (P 0.05 on estradiol and progesterone production, whereas BEA (3 µM, both alone and in combination with FB1 (3 µM, was found to decrease (P < 0.001 the production of both steroids drastically. In conclusion, this in vitro study indicates that FB1 and BEA, both individually and in combination, may affect GC proliferation to different extents and shows the drastic inhibitory effects of BEA on steroid production.

  10. A comparative pathological finding in pigs exposed to fumonisin B1 and/or Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pósa, Roland; Stoev, Stoycho; Kovács, Melinda; Donkó, Tamás; Repa, Imre; Magyar, Tibor

    2016-06-01

    A more complicated pathology was observed in female pigs infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, when the same were exposed to 20 ppm dietary levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1) starting 14 days before infection for a period of 42 days as was assessed by gross pathology and pathomorphological examinations or computed tomography, and also manifested by the strong deterioration of the pneumonic process in two pigs and the subsequent euthanizing of one pig. Typical damages in FB1-fed pigs were a strong oedema in the lung and slight oedema in the other internal organs and mild degenerative changes in the kidneys, whereas the typical pathomorphological changes in M. hyopneumoniae-infected pigs corresponded to the morphologic pattern of a catarrhal bronchointerstitial pneumonia more pronounced in the cranial and middle lobes or in the cranial third of the caudal lobe of the lung. The pigs treated by both pathogens (toxic and infectious) revealed strong oedematous changes in the interstitium of lung in addition to deteriorated and extended bronchointerstitial pneumonic process. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. The President's pleasant surprise: how LGBT advocates ended Don't Ask, Don't Tell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the role of LGBT advocates in repealing the military's Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy in the U.S. Congress. It draws on the author's direct involvement with that effort as well as personal interviews and media evidence to consider the contributions of the Obama Administration, members of Congress, the media, and individuals and pressure groups in the repeal process. It argues that repeal succeeded not because of the effective implementation of a White House plan but because the pressure of LGBT advocates ultimately shattered several key obstacles including inadequate messaging and dysfunction and inertia among both politicians and interest groups in Washington. The article offers insight into the role of public pressure in forwarding social change.

  12. DON-induced changes in bone homeostasis in mink dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska Ewa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to investigate the mechanical and geometric properties as well as bone tissue and mineral density of long bones in mink dams exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON since one day after mating, throughout gestation (ca. 46 d and lactation to pelt harvesting. Material and Methods: Thirty clinically healthy multiparous minks (Neovison vison of the standard dark brown type were used. After the mating, the minks were randomly assigned into two equal groups: nontreated control group and DON group fed wheat contaminated naturally with DON at a concentration of 1.1 mg·kg-1 of feed. Results: The final body weight and weight and length of the femur did not differ between the groups. However, DON contamination decreased mechanical endurance of the femur. Furthermore, DON reduced the mean relative wall thickness and vertical wall thickness of the femur, while vertical cortical index, midshaft volume, and cross-sectional moment of inertia increased. Finally, DON contamination did not alter bone tissue density, bone mineral density, or bone mineral content, but decreased the values of all investigated structural and material properties. Conclusion: DON at applied concentration probably intensified the process of endosteal resorption, which was the main reason for bone wall thinning and the weakening of the whole bone.

  13. Proteome analysis of Aspergillus niger: Lactate added in starch-containing medium can increase production of the mycotoxin fumonisin B2 by modifying acetyl-CoA metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Marie; Lametsch, Rene; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2009-01-01

    containing nitrate and starch can increase fumonisin B2 production by A. niger as well as production of some other secondary metabolites. Changes in the balance of intracellular metabolites towards a higher level of carbon passing through acetyl-CoA and a high capacity to regenerate NADPH during growth...... on medium with starch and lactate were found to be the likely cause of this effect. The results lead to the hypothesis that fumonisin production by A. niger is regulated by acetyl-CoA....

  14. PENGARUH SUHU DAN KELEMBABAN TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Fusarium verticillioides BIO 957 DAN PRODUKSI FUMONISIN B1 (The Effect of Temperature and Humidity on the Growth of Fusarium verticillioides Bio 957 and Fumonisin B1 Productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Rahayu

    2015-09-01

    dan kedelai masing-masing yaitu 374 dan 67 ppb, pengamatan pada suhu 30 °C pada jagung dan 20 °C pada kedelai, keduanya pada kelembaban yang sama (90%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa  Bio 957 mampu tumbuh dengan baik dan menghasilkan konsentrasi FB1 paling tinggi pada jagung dan kedelai pada suhu 20 dan 30 °C dengan kelembaban 90%. Pada suhu 40 °C dengan kelembaban 70, 80 dan 90%,  Bio 957 tidak menunjukkan adanya pertumbuhan, sehingga pembentukan FB1 dapat dihindari. Kata kunci: Fumonisin B1, Bio 957, kelembaban, suhu

  15. Don Joaquin García Monge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Rodríguez Garavito

    1958-11-01

    Full Text Available Los conocimos personalmente y tratamos de cerca en su amada ciudad de San José de Costa Rica. Casi diariamente íbamos por su casa. Una mansión grande, de vastos y sonoros corredores, arcones antiguos, libros apilados por doquier. Don Joaquín mantenía el timón de El Repertorio Americano, una de las más nobles publicaciones intelectuales del Continente. Dialogábamos con él sobre temas de mucha entidad, mientras la noche caía lentamente sobre este dulce país de porcelana tan grato a las veladas antiguas, aquellas donde se puede oír el latido del corazón como en el poema chino.

  16. Don quijote, Christelike geloof en natuurwetenskap 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P.P. Lötter

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available The story about Don Qulchote and the windmills is used in this article as an analogy to typify the debates that have taken place in history between natural science and representatives of Christian religion. The analogy is tested on debates that took place around Galileo. Darwin, Newton, Cuvier and the Big Bang theory. The analogy matches these debates quite well and this Is explained by the view that scientific claims to knowledge, and claims to knowledge based on Christian faith, belong to different categories and are thus not concurrents for the same truth. Gilbert Ryle's criticism on Descartes' mind-body dualism is used here to strengthen this argument. The article is concluded by pointing out in what ways one can engage in a meaningful debate on the nature of the relationship between science and Christian religion.

  17. We don't need another hero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaracco, J L

    2001-09-01

    Everybody loves the stories of heroes like Martin Luther King, Jr., Mother Teresa, and Gandhi. But the heroic model of moral leadership usually doesn't work in the corporate world. Modesty and restraint are largely responsible for the achievements of the most effective moral leaders in business. The author, a specialist in business ethics, says the quiet leaders he has studied follow four basic rules in meeting ethical challenges and making decisions. The rules constitute an important resource for executives who want to encourage the development of such leaders among their middle managers. The first rule is "Put things off till tomorrow." The passage of time allows turbulent waters to calm and lets leaders' moral instincts emerge. "Pick your battles" means that quiet leaders don't waste political capital on fights they can't win; they save it for occasions when they really want to fight. "Bend the rules, don't break them" sounds easier than it is--bending the rules in order to resolve a complicated situation requires imagination, discipline, restraint, flexibility, and entrepreneurship. The fourth rule, "Find a compromise," reflects the author's finding that quiet leaders try not to see situations as polarized tests of ethical principles. These individuals work hard to craft compromises that are "good enough"--responsible and workable enough--to satisfy themselves, their companies, and their customers. The vast majority of difficult problems are solved through the consistent striving of people working far from the limelight. Their quiet approach to leadership doesn't inspire, thrill, or provide story lines for uplifting TV shows. But the unglamorous efforts of quiet leaders make a tremendous difference every day in the corporate world.

  18. Colloidal gold-McAb probe-based rapid immunoassay strip for simultaneous detection of fumonisins in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jingjing; Sun, Yaning; Li, Qingmei; Wang, Fangyu; Teng, Man; Yang, Yanyan; Deng, Ruiguang; Hu, Xiaofei

    2017-05-01

    Fumonisins are a kind of toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin. A rapid immunochromatographic test strip has been developed for simultaneous detection of fumonisin B 1 , B 2 and B 3 (FB 1 , FB 2 and FB 3 ) in maize based on colloidal gold-labelled monoclonal antibody (McAb) against FB 1 probe. The anti-FB 1 McAb (2E11-H3) was produced through immunisation and cell fusion, and identified as high affinity, specificity and sensitivity. The cross-reaction ratios with fumonisin B 2 and B 3 were accordingly 385% and 72.4%, while none with other analogues. The colloid gold-labelled anti-FB 1 McAb probe was successfully prepared and used for establishing the immunochromatographic strip. The test strip showed high sensitivity and specificity, the IC 50 for FB 1 was 58.08 ng mL -1 , LOD was 11.24 ng mL -1 , calculated from standard curve. Moreover, the test strip exhibited high cross-reactivity with FB 2 and FB 3 , and could be applied to the simultaneous detection of FBs (FB 1 :FB 2 :FB 3 = 12:4:1) in maize sample with high accuracy and precision. The average recoveries of FBs in maize ranged from 90.42% to 95.29%, and CVs were 1.25-3.77%. The results of the test strip for FBs samples showed good correlation with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The immunochromatographic test strip could be employed in the rapid simultaneous detection of FB 1 , FB 2 and FB 3 in maize samples on-site. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Interactions among filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger, Fusarium verticillioides and Clonostachys rosea: fungal biomass, diversity of secreted metabolites and fumonisin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Subhankar; Kuang, Yi; Splivallo, Richard; Chatterjee, Paramita; Karlovsky, Petr

    2016-05-10

    Interactions among fungi colonizing dead organic matter involve exploitation competition and interference competition. Major mechanism of interference competition is antibiosis caused by secreted secondary metabolites. The effect of competition on secondary metabolite production by fungi is however poorly understood. Fungal biomass was rarely monitored in interaction studies; it is not known whether dominance in pairwise interactions follows congruent patterns. Pairwise interactions of three fungal species with different life styles were studied. The saprophyte Aspergillus niger (A.n.), the plant pathogen Fusarium verticillioides (F.v.), and the mycoparasite Clonostachys rosea (C.r.) were grown in single and dual cultures in minimal medium with asparagine as nitrogen source. Competitive fitness shifted with time: in dual C.r./F.v. cultures after 10 d F.v. grew well while C.r. was suppressed; after 20 d C.r. recovered while F.v. became suppressed; and after 30 d most F.v. was destroyed. At certain time points fungal competitive fitness exhibited a rock-paper-scissors pattern: F.v. > A.n., A.n. > C.r., and C.r. > F.v. Most metabolites secreted to the medium at early stages in single and dual cultures were not found at later times. Many metabolites occurring in supernatants of single cultures were suppressed in dual cultures and many new metabolites not occurring in single cultures were found in dual cultures. A. niger showed the greatest ability to suppress the accumulation of metabolites produced by the other fungi. A. niger was also the species with the largest capacity of transforming metabolites produced by other fungi. Fumonisin production by F. verticillioides was suppressed in co-cultures with C. rosea but fumonisin B1 was not degraded by C. rosea nor did it affect the growth of C. rosea up to a concentration of 160 μg/ml. Competitive fitness in pairwise interactions among fungi is incongruent, indicating that species-specific factors and/or effects are

  20. Don't Panic! | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Phobias and Anxiety Disorders Don't Panic! Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Phobias and other anxiety disorders affect millions of Americans. ...

  1. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy: Don't Be Misled

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    ... on Minorities Don't Be Fooled By Health Fraud Scams Beware of Illegally Marketed Diabetes Treatments Products ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  2. Will 3552 Don Quixote escape from the Solar System?

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    Suryadi Siregar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Asteroid 1983 SA, well known as 3552 Don Quixote, is one of Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs which is the most probable candidate for the cometary origin, or otherwise as Jupiter-Family-Comets (JFCs. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of 3552 Don Quixote to be ejected from the Solar System. This paper presents an orbital evolution of 100 hypothetical asteroids generated by cloning 3552 Don Quixote. Investigation of its orbital evolution is conducted by using the SWIFT subroutine package, where the gravitational perturbations of eight major planets in the Solar System are considered. Over very short time scales (220 kyr relative to the Solar System life time (10 Gyr, the asteroid 3552 Don Quixote gave an example of chaotic motion that can cause asteroid to move outward and may be followed by escaping from the Solar System. Probability of ejection within the 220 kyr time scale is 50%.

  3. Inhibition of fumonisin B1 cytotoxicity by nanosilicate platelets during mouse embryo development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jing Liao

    Full Text Available Nanosilicate platelets (NSP, the form of natural silicate clay that was exfoliated from montmorillonite (MMT, is widely used as a feed additive for its high non-specific binding capacity with mycotoxins such as fumonisin B1 (FB1, and has been evaluated its safety for biomedical use including cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and lethal dosage (LD. In the study, we further examined its toxicity on the development of CD1 mouse embryos and its capacity to prevent teratogenesis-induced by FB1. In vitro cultures, NSP did not disturb the development and the quality of intact pre-implantation mouse embryos. Further, newborn mice from females consumed with NSP showed no abnormalities. NSP had an unexpected high adsorption capacity in vitro. In contrast to female mice consumed with FB1 only, a very low residual level of FB1 in the circulation, reduced incidence of neutral tube defects and significantly increased fetal weight were observed in the females consumed with FB1 and NSP, suggesting a high alleviation effect of NSP on FB1 in vivo. Furthermore, FB1 treatment disturbed the gene expression of sphingolipid metabolism enzymes (longevity assurance homolog 5, LASS 5; sphingosine kinase 1, Sphk1; sphingosine kinase 2, Sphk2; sphingosine 1- phosphate lyase, Sgpl1; sphingosine 1-phosphate phosphatase, Sgpp1 in the maternal liver, uterus, fetus, and placenta, but NSP administration reversed the perturbations. Based on these findings, we conclude that NSP is a feasible and effective agent for supplementary use in reducing the toxicity of FB1 to animals.

  4. Dynamic Fumonisin B₂ Production by Aspergillus niger Intented Used in Food Industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaomin; Jiang, Hongru; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Jing; Li, Fengqin

    2017-07-09

    There are a total of 30 strains including 27 strains of Aspergillus niger intended used in Chinese food industry, two strains used as control and one strain isolated from corn for fumonisin (FB) production on 3 media. It was found that FB₂ production by A. niger was function-dependent and highly related to culture media, as well as incubation time. All strains studied were unable to produce FB₁ and FB₃. Almost all strains were found to produce FB₂ on corn, rice and wheat bran. Based on their intended use in the food industry, the higher level of FB₂ producers were strains used for saccharifying enzyme ( n = 13) production, followed by organic acid ( n = 6), tannase ( n = 7) and β-galactosidase ( n = 1) production, with the FB₂ mean level of 3553-10,270 μg/kg, 1059-12,036 μg/kg, 3-7 μg/kg and 2-4 μg/kg on corn, 5455-9241 μg/kg, 559-2190 μg/kg, 4-9 μg/kg and 6-10 μg/kg on rice, 5959-7709 μg/kg, 9491-17,339 μg/kg, 8-14 μg/kg and 120-222 μg/kg on wheat bran, respectively. Comparatively, strains of Fusarium verticillioide were capable of producing fumonins simultaneously with broader spectrum including FB₁, FB₂ and FB₃, but at a much lower level. In conclusion, it is necessary to evaluate FB₂ production by A. niger before intended use in the food processing industry.

  5. Evaluation of Efficacy and Toxicity of Exfoliated Silicate Nanoclays as a Feed Additive for Fumonisin Detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chiao-Wei; Huang, Jie-Ting; Chen, Ching-Chin; Tang, Pin-Chi; Huang, Jenn-Wen; Lin, Jiang-Jen; Huang, San-Yuan; Chen, Shuen-Ei

    2017-08-09

    The efficacy of nanosilicate clay platelets (NSCP), exfoliated silicates from natural montmorillonites, as a feed additive for ameliorating fumonisin B1 (FB1) toxicosis was evaluated. Toxicological mechanisms by NSCP were examined through proteomic and biochemical analyses. Dietary supplementation with NSCP at a low level of 40 mg/kg of feed improved growth performances in chickens with respect to FB1 toxicosis. Other issues of ameliorated symptoms including serum and/or hepatic aspartate aminotransferase activity, oxidative stress indicators, and sphinganine/sphingosine ratio, a hallmark of FB1 toxicosis, were considered. Chickens with NSCP inclusion alone at 1000 mg/kg of feed exhibited no changes in hepatic histology, oxidative status, and serum parameters and even had a higher feed intake. Proteomic analysis with liver tissues identified 45 distinct proteins differentially affected by FB1 and/or NSCP, in which proteins involved in thiol metabolism and redox regulation, glycolysis, carcinogenesis, and detoxification by glutathione S-transferase were promoted by FB1, whereas NSCP caused differential changes of protein abundances related to methionine/cysteine and choline/glycine interconversion for glutathione synthesis, redox regulation by peroxiredoxin, toxin/metabolite delivery by albumin, glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, and chaperon escort for endoplasmic reticulum stress relief. Functional analyses confirmed the enhancement of hepatic metabolic processes for ATP and NAD(P)H production to meet the need for detoxification, antioxidative defense, and toxin/metabolite clearance by FB1 or NSCP ingestion. On the basis of the amelioration of FB1 toxicosis, global profile of hepatic protein expressions, and validated toxicological mechanisms, NSCP were concluded as a safe and effective agent for FB1 detoxification.

  6. Dynamic Fumonisin B2 Production by Aspergillus niger Intented Used in Food Industry in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaomin; Jiang, Hongru; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Jing; Li, Fengqin

    2017-01-01

    There are a total of 30 strains including 27 strains of Aspergillus niger intended used in Chinese food industry, two strains used as control and one strain isolated from corn for fumonisin (FB) production on 3 media. It was found that FB2 production by A. niger was function-dependent and highly related to culture media, as well as incubation time. All strains studied were unable to produce FB1 and FB3. Almost all strains were found to produce FB2 on corn, rice and wheat bran. Based on their intended use in the food industry, the higher level of FB2 producers were strains used for saccharifying enzyme (n = 13) production, followed by organic acid (n = 6), tannase (n = 7) and β-galactosidase (n = 1) production, with the FB2 mean level of 3553–10,270 μg/kg, 1059–12,036 μg/kg, 3–7 μg/kg and 2–4 μg/kg on corn, 5455–9241 μg/kg, 559–2190 μg/kg, 4–9 μg/kg and 6–10 μg/kg on rice, 5959–7709 μg/kg, 9491–17,339 μg/kg, 8–14 μg/kg and 120–222 μg/kg on wheat bran, respectively. Comparatively, strains of Fusarium verticillioide were capable of producing fumonins simultaneously with broader spectrum including FB1, FB2 and FB3, but at a much lower level. In conclusion, it is necessary to evaluate FB2 production by A. niger before intended use in the food processing industry. PMID:28698485

  7. Human health implications from co-exposure to aflatoxins and fumonisins in maize-based foods in Latin America: Guatemala as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co-occurence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in maize has been demonstrated in many surveys. Combined-exposure to FB1 and AFB1 was of concern to the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives because of the known genotoxicity of AFB1 and the ability of FB1 to induce regenerative...

  8. A novel population of Fusarium fujikuroi isolated from southeastern U.S. winegrapes reveals the need to re-evaluate the species’ fumonisin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins pose a challenge to a safe food supply worldwide, and their threat is expected to worsen with our changing climate. The need for diligence is exemplified by the discovery of fumonisin B2 in wine, which joins ochratoxin A as a mycotoxin of concern in the grape-wine chain. To elucidate th...

  9. Assessing pigmented pericarp of maize kernels as possible source of resistance to fusarium ear rot, Fusarium spp. infection and fumonisin accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Giovanni; Babazadeh, Laleh; Casati, Paola; Pilu, Roberto; Salomoni, Daiana; Toffolatti, Silvia L

    2016-06-16

    One of the purposes of maize genetic improvement is the research of genotypes resistant to fusarium ear rot (FER) and fumonisin accumulation. Flavonoids in the pericarp of the kernels are considered particularly able to reduce the fumonisin accumulation (FUM). The aim of this field study was to assess the effect of flavonoids, associated with anti-insect protection and Fusarium verticillioides inoculation, on FER symptoms and fumonisin contamination in maize kernels. Two isogenic hybrids, one having pigmentation in the pericarp (P1-rr) and the other without it (P1-wr), were compared. P1-rr showed lower values of FER symptoms and FUM contamination than P1-wr only if the anti-insect protection and the F. verticillioides inoculations were applied in combination. Fusarium spp. kernel infection was not influenced by the presence of flavonoids in the pericarp. Artificial F. verticillioides inoculation was more effective than anti-insect protection in enhancing the inhibition activity of flavonoids toward FUM contamination. The interactions between FUM contamination levels and FER ratings were better modeled in the pigmented hybrid than in the unpigmented one. The variable role that the pigment played in kernel defense against FER and FUM indicates that flavonoids alone may not be completely effective in the resistance of fumonisin contamination in maize. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Metabolic Fate of Deoxynivalenol and Its Acetylated Derivatives in a Wheat Suspension Culture: Identification and Detection of DON-15-O-Glucoside, 15-Acetyl-DON-3-O-Glucoside and 15-Acetyl-DON-3-Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Schmeitzl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a protein synthesis inhibitor produced by the Fusarium species, which frequently contaminates grains used for human or animal consumption. We treated a wheat suspension culture with DON or one of its acetylated derivatives, 3-acetyl-DON (3-ADON, 15-acetyl-DON (15-ADON and 3,15-diacetyl-DON (3,15-diADON, and monitored the metabolization over a course of 96 h. Supernatant and cell extract samples were analyzed using a tailored LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of DON metabolites. We report the formation of tentatively identified DON-15-O-β-D-glucoside (D15G and of 15-acetyl-DON-3-sulfate (15-ADON3S as novel deoxynivalenol metabolites in wheat. Furthermore, we found that the recently identified 15-acetyl-DON-3-O-β-D-glucoside (15-ADON3G is the major metabolite produced after 15-ADON challenge. 3-ADON treatment led to a higher intracellular content of toxic metabolites after six hours compared to all other treatments. 3-ADON was exclusively metabolized into DON before phase II reactions occurred. In contrast, we found that 15-ADON was directly converted into 15-ADON3G and 15-ADON3S in addition to metabolization into deoxynivalenol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (D3G. This study highlights significant differences in the metabolization of DON and its acetylated derivatives.

  11. Natural incidence of Fusarium species and fumonisins B1 and B2 associated with maize kernels from nine provinces in China in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Meng; Li, Renjie; Guo, Congcong; Pang, Minhao; Liu, Yingchao; Dong, Jingao

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium species, which can produce mycotoxins, are the predominant pathogens causing maize ear rot, a disease that results in severe economic losses and serves as a potential health risk for humans and animals. A survey was conducted in 2012 to investigate the contamination of maize by Fusarium species and fumonisins B1 and B2. A total of 250 maize samples were randomly collected from nine provinces (Hebei, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Ningxia) in China. Fusarium species were isolated and identified using morphological (electron microscope) and molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing). Fumonisins B1 and B2 were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) with OPA (2-Mercaptoethanol, o-phthaldialdehyde) post-column derivatisation. A total of 2321 Fusarium isolates (20.7%) were obtained from all the samples. These isolates included nine Fusarium species, namely, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum, F. temperatum, F. oxysporum, F. equiseti, F. meridionale and F. chlamydosporum. The incidence of occurrence of Fusarium species in Guizhou was the highest, while in Inner Mongolia it was the lowest. F. verticillioides was the dominant species of maize ear rot in Liaoning, Sichuan, Hebei and Ningxia. F. graminearum was the dominant species in Yunnan, Guizhou and Shanxi. F. subglutinans was the dominant species in Heilongjiang. F. verticillioides and F. graminearum percentages were the same in Inner Mongolia. The incidence of fumonisins in Liaoning was high (up to 81.0%) and in Heilongjiang low (up to 10.3%). Except Shanxi, more than 50% of maize samples from other provinces were contaminated with fumonisins, with concentrations less than 500 ng g(-1). About 33% of maize samples from Yunnan were contaminated with high levels of fumonisins, and average of fumonisin levels were 5191 ng g(-1). Fusarium species causing maize

  12. Prospecting for the incidence of genes involved in ochratoxin and fumonisin biosynthesis in Brazilian strains of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus welwitschiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Sartori, Daniele; de Souza Ferranti, Larissa; Iamanaka, Beatriz Thie; Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Vieira, Maria Lucia Carneiro; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli

    2016-03-16

    Aspergillus niger "aggregate" is an informal taxonomic rank that represents a group of species from the section Nigri. Among A. niger "aggregate" species Aspergillus niger sensu stricto and its cryptic species Aspergillus welwitschiae (=Aspergillus awamori sensu Perrone) are proven as ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 producing species. A. niger has been frequently found in tropical and subtropical foods. A. welwitschiae is a new species, which was recently dismembered from the A. niger taxon. These species are morphologically very similar and molecular data are indispensable for their identification. A total of 175 Brazilian isolates previously identified as A. niger collected from dried fruits, Brazil nuts, coffee beans, grapes, cocoa and onions were investigated in this study. Based on partial calmodulin gene sequences about one-half of our isolates were identified as A. welwitschiae. This new species was the predominant species in onions analyzed in Brazil. A. niger and A. welwitschiae differ in their ability to produce ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2. Among A. niger isolates, approximately 32% were OTA producers, but in contrast only 1% of the A. welwitschiae isolates revealed the ability to produce ochratoxin A. Regarding fumonisin B2 production, there was a higher frequency of FB2 producing isolates in A. niger (74%) compared to A. welwitschiae (34%). Because not all A. niger and A. welwitschiae strains produce ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2, in this study a multiplex PCR was developed for detecting the presence of essential genes involved in ochratoxin (polyketide synthase and radHflavin-dependent halogenase) and fumonisin (α-oxoamine synthase) biosynthesis in the genome of A. niger and A. welwitschiae isolates. The frequency of strains harboring the mycotoxin genes was markedly different between A. niger and A. welwitschiae. All OTA producing isolates of A. niger and A. welwitschiae showed in their genome the pks and radH genes, and 95.2% of the nonproducing

  13. Development of a screening fluorescence polarization immunoassay for the simultaneous detection of fumonisins B₁ and B₂ in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenglong; Mi, Tiejun; Conti, Gea Oliveri; Yu, Qing; Wen, Kai; Shen, Jianzhong; Ferrante, Margherita; Wang, Zhanhui

    2015-05-27

    This paper reports the development of a screening fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) for the simultaneous detection of fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2) in maize. Three FB1 tracers including FB1-fluorescein isothiocyanate isomer I (FB1-FITC), FB1-5-([4,6-dichlorotriazine-2-yl]amino)-fluorescein (FB1-5-DTAF), and FB1-Texas Red-X succinimidyl ester (FB1-TRX) were synthesized and studied to select appropriate tracer-antibody pairs using seven previously produced monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). An FPIA employing the pair of FB1-FITC and mAb 4B9 showing 98.9% cross-reactivity (CR) toward FB2 was used to simultaneously detect FB1 and FB2. Maize flour samples were extracted with methanol/water (2:3, v/v). After optimization, the FPIA revealed a limit of detection (LOD) of 157.4 μg/kg for FB1 and an LOD of 290.6 μg/kg for FB2, respectively. Recoveries were measured for spiked samples of FB1 or FB2 separately, ranging from 84.7 to 93.6%, with a coefficient of variation (CV) of fumonisins in maize.

  14. The FlbA-regulated predicted transcription factor Fum21 of Aspergillus niger is involved in fumonisin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, David; Hauer, Esther E; Ohm, Robin A; Arentshorst, Mark; Teertstra, Wieke R; Phippen, Christopher; Ram, Arthur F J; Frisvad, Jens C; Wösten, Han A B

    2018-03-01

    Aspergillus niger secretes proteins throughout the colony except for the zone that forms asexual spores called conidia. Inactivation of flbA that encodes a regulator of G-protein signaling results in colonies that are unable to reproduce asexually and that secrete proteins throughout the mycelium. In addition, the ΔflbA strain shows cell lysis and has thinner cell walls. Expression analysis showed that 38 predicted transcription factor genes are differentially expressed in strain ΔflbA. Here, the most down-regulated predicted transcription factor gene, called fum21, was inactivated. Growth, conidiation, and protein secretion were not affected in strain Δfum21. Whole genome expression analysis revealed that 63 and 11 genes were down- and up-regulated in Δfum21, respectively, when compared to the wild-type strain. Notably, 24 genes predicted to be involved in secondary metabolism were down-regulated in Δfum21, including 10 out of 12 genes of the fumonisin cluster. This was accompanied by absence of fumonisin production in the deletion strain and a 25% reduction in production of pyranonigrin A. Together, these results link FlbA-mediated sporulation-inhibited secretion with mycotoxin production.

  15. FUNGAL AND MICOTOXIN CONTAMINATION IN MIXED FEEDS: EVALUATING RISK IN CATTLE INTENSIVE REARING OPERATIONS (FEEDLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavaglieri LR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Argentina is the fourth global beef producer. Exposure to mycotoxins through contaminated feed is a major hazard for ruminants. In the present study we assess mycobiota, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, fumonisin B1 (FB1, deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEA levels in total mixed rations (TMRs during two consecutive years. Total fungal counts were evaluated and fungal species were identified. Also, ability of A. flavus isolates to produce AFB1 in vitro was tested. Natural contamination with AFB1 and FB1 was quantified by HPLC. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone were analysed by immunochromatography and thinlayer chromatogra- phy (TLC, respectively. Fungal counts varied from not detectable (ND to 2.10 x 108 CFU g-1. The prevalent genera were Aspergillus spp (60 % and Fusarium spp (66.7 %, respectively The prevalent species was Aspergillus fumigatus. 50 % of A. flavus strains produced 75 to 112.5 μg g-1 AFB1. 46 % of 2007 samples were contaminated with 4 to 10 μg kg-1 AFB1. Deoxynivalenol was detected in 33.3 % of the samples (≥ 1. 25 μg g-1. Fumonisin B1 and ZEA were not detected. This study can be useful to estimate the mycotoxicological risk of cattle TMRs in this region and to compare results with studies from other beef-producing countries.

  16. Fusariotoxins in Wheat Grain in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Stepanić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of wheat grain (41, collected during the 2010 harvest from seven localities inSerbia, were analysed for the presence of zearalenone (ZEA, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol (DONand fumonisine B1 (FB1. Results of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA showedthat all analysed samples were positive for the presence of at least one of four observedfusariotoxins. The most distributed mycotoxins were ZEA (90.2%, with the average concentrationof 442.6μg kg–1 and T-2 (90.2%, with the average concentration of 24.2 μg kg–1.DON (73.2% and FB1 (84.4% were detected in a somewhat smaller number of samples, buttheir average concentrations were higher (1988.1 μg DON kg–1 and 882.7 μg FB1 kg–1. Theestablished correlations between concentrations of DON and FB1 (r = 0.32 or DON and ZEA(r = 0.22 were not statistically significant. A negative correlation was established betweenconcentrations of T-2 and FB1 (r= -0.24, as well as, between T-2 and DON (r = -0.36. Detectedconcentrations of ZEA and T-2 were bellow the level prescribed by the World Health Organisation(WHO, while concentrations of FB1 and DON detected in five that is, 17 samples,respectively, were above the permissible limit for human consumption

  17. Don Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada. El Fundador

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    Alvaro López Pardo

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Discurso pronunciado por el Doctor Alvaro López Pardo Presidente de la Academia de Historia de Bogotá, al Consejo de Bogotá el día 6 de agosto de 1988. Sesión especial de los 450 años.

    Por el año de 1578, caminaba lentamente por las polvorientas calles del poblado de Mariquita, un anciano, casi octogenario, que mostraba en su piel huellas de un enfermedad que se decía era la de San Lázaro.

    Las gentes lo miraban pasar con una mezcla de respeto y de piedad. En su mirada, un tanto vaga, se podían apreciar destellos de la que fuera una recia personalidad. Esta pobre figura era nadie menos que el Mariscal Don Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada.

    En esta población ardiente y lejana, cargado de deudas, sin techo propio, iba a morir el gran señor, el Gran Capitán, el Gran Aventurero que fundara ésta nuestra noble y muy leal Santa Fe de Bogotá, cuyos 450 años celebramos en este día.

    Parece increíble que en aquella época y con una agitada vida, Don Gonzalo hubiera llegado a tan avanzada edad, es muestra de la fuerza de una raza y del templo de su espíritu, que se sobreponía a todas las adversidades y contratiempos.

    ¿Qué recuerdos vendrían a la mente de este anciano cuando, sentado en una pobre silla de vaqueta, contempla el azul cielo del trópico? ¿Quizá su infancia en España, en Córdoba, donde naciera o en la imponente Granada de los moros, recuperada hacía unos años por la Reina Isabel. Viendo los jardines de la Alhambra, el Generalife y al fondo el blanco perpetuo de la Sierra Nevada. O vendría a su mente el paso del fúnebre cortejo de Felipe el Hermoso y su lunática viuda Doña Juana?

    Sería tal vez el periodo de su juventud, oyendo las aventuras de Cortés en la Conquista de México, en medio de una Europa convulsionada y con España como centro de la misma. O quizás cuando estudiaba leyes en Salamanca y se metía en pleitos que no siempre ganaba y como

  18. Letter to the Editor ‘‘Analyses of Black Aspergillus Species of Peanut and Maize for Ochratoxins and Fumonisins,’’ A Comment on: J. Food Prot. 77(5):805–813 (2014)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Logrieco, Antonio F.

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article in Journal of Food Protection, Palencia and co-workers (34) published a survey on black Aspergillus species isolated from maize and peanuts reporting the production of some mycotoxins. An important claim in the article is their strains of Aspergillus niger produce fumonisins B1...... and B3. However, for many reasons, we consider the production of these two fumonisin isomers unlikely....

  19. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2009-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shephard, G.S.; Berthiller, F.; Burdaspal, P.; Crews, C.; Jonker, M.A.; Krska, R.; MacDonald, S.; Malone, B.; Maragos, C.; Sabino, M.; Solfrizzo, M.; Egmond, van H.P.; Whitaker, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    This review highlights developments in mycotoxin analysis and sampling over a period between mid-2009 and mid-2010. It covers the major mycotoxins aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. New and improved methods for mycotoxins

  20. [Spanish neuroscience in times of Don Quixote].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Araguz, Antonio; Mikola, Yvett; Almendral-Doncel, Raquel; Campos-Bueno, Javier

    2016-02-16

    Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra published his immortal work Don Quixote of La Mancha in a time of crisis and decadence in Spain that occurred during the transition between the 16th and 17th centuries. In 2016 we commemorate the fourth centenary of the death of our distinguished man of letters, and thus in this article we analyse the status of Hispanic neuroscience, both in the Quixote itself and in other works by the most significant contemporary writers of that time. Despite the adverse historical circumstances, the shift from the Renaissance to the Baroque periods, in the Crown of Castile, was a flourishing period for literature (Spanish Golden Age) and other Hispanic arts (painting, sculpture, architecture and music), as well as bearing witness to a prodigious creativity in the field of neuroscience, including the field of natural philosophy. In his book Antoniana Margarita the physician Gomez Pereira laid the foundations for brain mechanism and the concept of conditioned reflexes several decades ahead of his time. The apothecary Miguel Sabuco also anticipated the concept of neurotransmission centuries ahead of his time in his New Philosophy. The physician Juan Huarte de San Juan was the founder of neuropsychology and experimental psychology, and his Examination of Men's Wits has been one of the most influential and widely translated scientific texts of all times. Its concepts are clearly reflected in Cervantes' Quixote. This analysis of Cervantes' work within the cultural setting of the book is intended as a homage to the immortal figure of our 'Prince of Wits' in the fourth centenary of his death.

  1. Fertility potential of rabbit bucks fed maize-based diets containing graded levels of fumonisin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley Idahor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisin B1-contaminated maize-based diets have been reported to be mycotoxic in animal species, yet more validated data and biomarkers are needed. In this study, Fumonisin B1 (FB1 infected yellow-maize was used to formulate Diets 1, 2 and 3, containing 1,700, 1,800 and 1,900µg FB1/kg diet, respectively. Sixty sexually matured bucks and does were used, but only the bucks were fed the FB1-contaminated diets for eight weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, the treated bucks were mated to the dry does that were fed FB1-free yellow maize-based diet. Effects on testis and live weight, feed utilisation, conception rate, embryo development and spermatozoa production per gram testis were monitored. Results indicated significant depression (P<0.05 in feed intake, from 546.77±12.09g/week in Diet 1 with the lowest FB1 concentration, to 509.84±21.98g/week in Diet 3 with the highest FB1 concentration in the diets. Weight gain was drastically reduced (P<0.05 from 34.13±9.32g/week in Diet 1 to 20.38±22.13g/week in Diet 3. Meanwhile, some of the untreated does were pregnant in all the treatments, indicating that FB1 concentration at 2.0mg/kg diet may not be spermaticidal and there were no abnormalities in the embryos. It was observed that the paired testis weight value in Diet 1 (3.06±0.31 was not significantly different (P>0.05 from that of Diet 3 (2.94±0.23. The testicular elements were distorted by the dietary FB1, but did not follow a definite pattern. Spermatozoa production per gram testis values (31.1 – 37.3 x 106 recorded were much higher than 24 x 106 for a healthy rabbit buck. Consequently, FB1 concentration < 2.0mg/kg diet may not affect the fertility potentials of bucks orally dosed for a relatively short period. This observation further elucidates earlier discoveries that FB1 is not a reproductive toxicant. Hence, the United States Food and Drug Administration proposed a guideline of 2.0mg total fumonisins/kg diet, to be adopted with

  2. Viajando con Don Quijote en el siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilíe Rojas-López

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Don Quixote has ridden with us for a long time now, and as if his fight against windmills were not enough, Don Quixote still has many more difficult situations to combat in the present times. Will the Knight of the Sad Figure accomplish this new deed? It is our challenge to find an answer to this inquiry. For this purpose, the author of this essay inserts the Knight of the Sad Figure in XXI century society. The author transforms the values, costumes and points of view of the times of the literary piece and establishes a series of relationships between the literary text, the main character and several current daily life situations. Don Quixote will certainly continue his fight against all the conditions we encounter nowadays. There is no doubt, then, that this knight still lives among us.

  3. Dostoyevski and Don Quijote: Poetics and Aesthetics of a Delusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Djermanovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Fedor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky’s body of work (1821-1881 one can find more than thirty references to Don Quixote; while some of them allude to the novel of Don Quixote itself, other ones refer to Cervantes’ hero as an archetypal figure. Since decades ago, the Russian literary criticism has been interested in the Russian quixotism – including Dostoevsky’s work – and important studies on this subject have been published recently. This study follows Dostoevsky’s references on La Mancha’s Knight as an independent figure of Cervantes’ novel, and the different symbolism Don Quixote’s figure has had in both Russian people and Russian intelligentsia.

  4. Distributed Observer Network (DON), Version 3.0, User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, Rebecca A.; Conroy, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The Distributed Observer Network (DON) is a data presentation tool developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to distribute and publish simulation results. Leveraging the display capabilities inherent in modern gaming technology, DON places users in a fully navigable 3-D environment containing graphical models and allows the users to observe how those models evolve and interact over time in a given scenario. Each scenario is driven with data that has been generated by authoritative NASA simulation tools and exported in accordance with a published data interface specification. This decoupling of the data from the source tool enables DON to faithfully display a simulator's results and ensure that every simulation stakeholder will view the exact same information every time.

  5. Effect of addition of a detoxifying agent to laying hen diets containing uncontaminated or Fusarium toxin-contaminated maize on performance of hens and on carryover of zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänicke, S; Ueberschär, K H; Halle, I; Matthes, S; Valenta, H; Flachowsky, G

    2002-11-01

    16-wk experiment with laying hens was carried out to examine the effects of feeding of mycotoxin-contaminated maize (CM) on performance, nutrient digestibility, weight of organs, serum chemical parameters, and antibody titers to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in serum. Also tested were fimbrien antigen K88 in egg yolk and zearalenone (ZON) residues in eggs and tissues. The Fusarium-toxin-contaminated maize contained 17,630 microg deoxynivalenol and 1,580 microg ZON/kg. Moreover, Mycofix Plus (MP), a so-called detoxifying agent, was added to both the uncontaminated control (UCM) and to the CM diet (70% dietary maize inclusion). Each of the four resulting diets (UCM, UCM-MP, CM, CM-MP) was tested on 25 laying hybrids (Lohmann Brown). Feeding of the CM diets significantly depressed feed intake compared to the control groups by approximately 5%. This was mainly due to the effects observed at the beginning of the experiment. Daily egg mass production/hen was 56.6, 58.4, 53.9, and 55.2 g in groups UCM, UCM-MP, CM and CM-MP, respectively. Nutrient digestibility and metabolizability of gross energy were slightly depressed by feeding the CM diets and improved by MP addition. Feeding of the CM diets resulted in a significant decrease in serum titers to NDV and to an increase in yolk titers to antigen K88. No residues of ZON or of its metabolites were found in yolk, albumen, abdominal fat, breast meat, follicles greater than 1 cm in diameter, ovaries including follicles smaller than 1 cm in diameter, magnum, and serum. ZON and alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZOL) were detected in livers of hens fed the CM diets at mean concentrations of 2.1 and 3.7 microg/kg, respectively. It was concluded that feeding maize which was highly contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins adversely influenced performance of hens and modulated immune response. At the given level of zearalenone and at the indicated detection limits, no residues of ZON and its metabolites were found in eggs. The effects of the

  6. Maize (Zea Mays L landraces from the southern region of Brazil: contamination by Fusarium sp, zearalenone, physical and mechanical characteristics of the kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Roselena de Oliveira

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objectives the study of the physical and mechanical characteristics of maize kernels in relation to the contamination by Fusarium sp and by zearalenone in twenty landraces of maize from the southern region of Brazil. From the analyzed samples, 60 % has been considered to have a hard endosperm type and 40 % an intermediary one. A correlation between the physical and mechanical variables was observed as an indication that the higher is the proportion of hard endosperm, more dense will be the kernel and more force for its rupture will be necessary. The level of contamination by Fusarium sp was between 5.5 and 24.75% among the analyzed grains, correlating positively with the flotation index, indicating that the landraces of maize with a softer endosperm can present a higher contamination by this genus. The presence of zearalenone was verified in 75 % of the samples, in concentrations varying from 50 to 640 µg kg-1.Este trabalho teve por objetivos verificar as características físicas, mecânicas, contaminação por Fusarium sp e por zearalenona e suas relações, em vinte variedades crioulas de milho da região sul do Brasil. Verificou-se que das amostras analisadas, 60% foram consideradas como possuidoras de endosperma do tipo duro e 40% com endosperma do tipo intermediário. As variáveis físicas e mecânicas se correlacionaram, indicando que quanto maior a proporção de endosperma vítreo, mais denso e maior a força necessária até a ruptura do grão. A contaminação por Fusarium sp esteve entre 5,5% e 24,75% nos grãos analisados, correlacionando-se positivamente com o índice de flotação, indicando que as variedades crioulas de milho com uma maior proporção de endosperma macio podem apresentar uma maior contaminação por Fusarium sp, sugerindo-se a utilização de variedades crioulas com a textura do endosperma predominantemente vítrea. A presença de zearalenona foi verificada em 75% das amostras, em concentra

  7. Evaluation of Sphingolipids in Wistar Rats Treated to Prolonged and Single Oral Doses of Fumonisin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Glória M.; Almeida, Adriana P.; Aquino, Simone; dos Reis, Tatiana Alves; Pozzi, Claudia Rodrigues; Corrêa, Benedito

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate sphingolipid levels (sphingosine-So and sphinganine-Sa) and to compare the Sa/So ratio in liver, serum and urine of Wistar rats after prolonged administration (21 days) of fumonisin B1 (FB1). In parallel, the kinetics of sphingolipid elimination in urine was studied in animals receiving a single dose of FB1. Prolonged exposure to FB1 caused an increase in Sa levels in urine, serum and liver. The most marked effect on sphingolipid biosynthesis was observed in animals treated with the highest dose of FB1. Animals receiving a single dose of FB1 presented variations in Sa and So levels and in the Sa/So ratio. PMID:19333435

  8. Science and Fiction. On Don Quijote’s Epistemological Skepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Schmelzer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work seeks to analyze the representation of scientific knowledge in Cervantes’ Quixote, focusing on various passages that underline the scientific expertise of don Quixote himself. It is shown that the novel contains a subtle critique of science, based on an epistemological skepticism with regard to the arbitrariness of our world concepts. The characterization of don Quixote as a man of science even permits deducting that he suffers from a ‘double mental damage’, caused by the lecture of both books of cavalry and science. Cervantes thus would consider science to be fiction, a very modern point of view.

  9. Pia Petersen sous le signe de don Quichotte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Bautista Naranjo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This interview has been motivated by the Cervantean intertextuality of Pia Petersen’s (a French-speaking Danish author last novel, Le Chien de don Quichotte (2012. Departing from the values that the writer attributes to Cervantes’ work, I try to establish a connection with a specific critical trend in order to test, later on, to which extent this approach is used by the author to create a series of characters placed under the sign of don Quixote. Finally, I evaluate her novel’s relation with contemporary reality.

  10. Fuel elements assembling for the DON project exponential experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anca Abati, R. de

    1966-01-01

    It is described the fuel unit used in the DON exponential experience, the manufacturing installments and tools as well as the stages in the fabrication.These 74 elements contain each 19 cartridges loaded with synterized urania, uranium carbide and indium, gold, and manganese probes. They were arranged in calandria-like tubes and the process-tube. This last one containing a cooling liquid simulating the reactor organic. Besides being used in the DON reactor exponential experience they were used in critic essays by the substitution method in the French reactor AQUILON II. (Author) 6 refs

  11. FUM gene expression profile and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides inoculated in Bt and non-Bt maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Oliveira Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the levels of fumonisins produced by F. verticillioides and FUM gene expression on Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis and non-Bt maize, post harvest, during different periods of incubation. Transgenic hybrids 30F35 YG, 2B710 Hx and their isogenic (30F35 and 2B710 were collected from the field and a subset of 30 samples selected for the experiments. Maize samples were sterilized by gamma radiation at a dose of 20 kGy. Samples were then inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides and analysed under controlled conditions of temperature and relative humidity for fumonisin B1 and B2 (FB¬1 and FB2 production and FUM1, FUM3, FUM6, FUM7, FUM8, FUM13, FUM14, FUM15 and FUM19 expression. 2B710 Hx and 30F35 YG kernel samples were virtually intact when compared to the non-Bt hybrids that came from the field. Statistical analysis showed that FB¬1 production was significantly lower in 30F35 YG and 2B710 Hx than in the 30F35 and 2B710 hybrids (P 0.05. The kernel injuries observed in the non-Bt samples have possibly facilitated F. verticillioides penetration and promoted FB1 production under controlled conditions. FUM genes were expressed by F. verticillioides in all of the samples. However, there was indication of lower expression of a few FUM genes in the Bt hybrids; and a weak association between FB1 production and the relative expression of some of the FUM genes were observed in the 30F35 YG hybrid.

  12. An ultrasensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay for fumonisin B1 detection in cereals based on gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Mingsha; Yu, Songcheng; Yu, Fei; Liu, Lie; He, Leiliang; Li, Yanqiang; Zhang, Hongquan; Qu, Lingbo; Harrington, Peter de B; Wu, Yongjun

    2018-07-01

    In the present study, a novel highly sensitive magnetic enzyme chemiluminescence immunoassay (MECLIA) was developed to detect fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) in cereal samples. The gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 @Au, GoldMag) were used as solid phase carrier to develop a competitive CLIA for detecting FB 1 , in which FB 1 in samples would compete with FB 1 -ovalbumin coated on the surface of Fe 3 O 4 @Au nanoparticles for binding with FB 1 antibodies. Successively, horseradish peroxidase labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG (HRP-IgG) was conjugated with FB 1 antibodies on the microplate. In substrate solution containing luminol and H 2 O 2 , HRP-IgG catalyzed luminol oxidation by H 2 O 2 , generating a high chemiluminescence signal. The FB 1 immune GoldMag particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and zeta potential analysis, etc. RESULTS: The concentrations and the reaction times of these immunoreagents were optimized to improve the performances of this method. The established method could detect as low as 0.027 ng mL -1 FB 1 from 0.05 ng mL -1 to 25 ng mL -1 , demonstrating little cross-reaction (less than 2.4%) with other structurally related compounds. The average intrassay relative SD (RSD) (n = 6) was 3.4% and the average interassay RSD (n = 6) was 5.4%. This method was successfully applied for the determination of FB 1 in corn and wheat and gave recoveries of between 98-110% and 91-105%, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that the MECLIA approach has potential application for high-throughput fumonisin screening in cereals. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. On Both Sides of the Atlantic: Re-Visioning Don Juan and Don Quixote in Modern Literature and Film

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Karen Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The study analyzes contemporary literature and film based on two of the most universal characters in Spanish literature, Don Juan and Don Quixote, in both Spain and Hispanic America. Although both characters have undergone re-visioning from work to work through the centuries, it is the aim of this work to present the most salient characteristics of both archetypes in modern times only. The focus of this study is on works by well-known writers from Hispanic America and contemporary writers in ...

  14. Natural occurrence of fumonisins and ochratoxin A in some herbs and spices commercialized in Poland analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Beszterda, Monika; Bocianowski, Jan; Goliński, Piotr

    2013-12-01

    Unsanitary conditions during harvesting, drying, packing and storage stages in production and processing of spices and herbs could introduce mycotoxin contamination. The occurrence of ochratoxin A and fumonisins in popular spices and herbs was studied, using liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry. Apart from mycotoxins, ergosterol as a factor indicating fungal development was also analysed. A total of 79 different samples commercialized in Poland were randomly purchased from popular markets were tested for mycotoxins. The frequency of samples with fumonisins was lower (31%) than ochratoxin A (49%). Free from mycotoxins were samples of bay leaf and white mustard. ERG content - in spice samples with high concentration level of mycotoxins - was also significantly higher than in samples with little to no mycotoxins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cytotoxicity and Hsp 70 induction in Hep G2 cells in response to zearalenone and cytoprotection by sub-lethal heat shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassen, Wafa; Golli, Emna El; Baudrimont, Isabelle; Mobio, A. Theophile; Ladjimi, M. Moncef; Creppy, E. Edmond; Bacha, Hassen

    2005-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin with several adverse effects in laboratory and domestic animals. The mechanism of ZEN toxicity that involves mainly binding to oestrogen receptors and inhibition of macromolecules synthesis is not fully understood. Using human hepatocytes Hep G2 cells as a model, the aim of this work was (i) to investigate the ability of ZEN to induce heat shock proteins Hsp 70 and (ii) to find out the mechanisms of ZEN cytotoxicity by examining cell proliferation and protein synthesis. Our study demonstrated that ZEN induces Hsp 70 expression in a time and dose-dependant manner; this induction occurs at non-cytotoxic concentrations, it could be therefore considered as a biomarker of toxicity. A cytoprotective effect of Hsp 70 was elicited when Hep G2 cells were exposed to Sub-Lethal heat shock prior to ZEN treatment and evidenced by a reduced ZEN cytolethality. This cytoprotection suggests that Hsp 70 may constitute an important cellular defence mechanism. Finally, our data show that ZEN is cytotoxic in Hep G2 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation and total protein synthesis and pointed out oxidative damage as possible pathway involved in ZEN toxicity; however, other investigations are needed to further confirm Zen induced oxidative stress

  16. Estimated exposure to zearalenone, ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1 through the consume of bakery products and pasta considering effects of food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Emilli Keller; Araujo, Letícia; Veras, Flávio Fonseca; Welke, Juliane Elisa

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate the processing effect on mycotoxins levels and the exposure to zearalenone (ZEA), ochratoxin (OTA) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) through the consumption of pasta and bakery products. The higher reduction percentage of mycotoxins was observed in cake production (95, 90 and 70% for ZEA, OTA and AFB1, respectively). Bread and biscuit showed similar reduction in mycotoxins levels (89 and 90% for ZEA; 80 and 85% for OTA; 36 and 40% for AFB1, respectively). The lower reduction in the levels of mycotoxins has been observed for pasta (75, 65 and 10% for ZEA, OTA and AFB1, respectively). The consumption of these products could represent 12.6% of the maximum tolerable daily intake of ZEA and 30.5% of the tolerable weekly intake of OTA. The margin of exposure value related to the exposure to AFB1 was 24.6. The exposure to ZEA and OTA through the consumption of bakery products and pasta would not represent risk for consumer health, (although conjugated forms were not determined). However, the exposure to AFB1 represents a risk (even without considering the AFB1-conjugated forms). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A smartphone colorimetric reader integrated with an ambient light sensor and a 3D printed attachment for on-site detection of zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Fu, Qiangqiang; Li, Dagang; Xie, Jun; Ke, Dongxu; Song, Qifang; Tang, Yong; Wang, Hong

    2017-11-01

    Smartphone biosensors could be cost-effective, portable instruments to be used for the readout of liquid colorimetric assays. However, current reported smartphone colorimetric readers have relied on photos of liquid assays captured using a camera, and then analyzed using software programs. This approach results in a relatively low accuracy and low generality. In this work, we reported a novel smartphone colorimetric reader that has been integrated with an ambient light sensor and a 3D printed attachment for the readout of liquid colorimetric assays. The portable and low-cost ($0.15) reader utilized a simplified electronic and light path design. Furthermore, our reported smartphone colorimetric reader can be compatible with different smartphones. As a proof of principle, the utility of this device was demonstrated using it in conjunction with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect zearalenone. Results were consistent with those obtained using a professional microplate reader. The developed smartphone colorimetric reader was capable of providing scalable, cost-effective, and accurate results for liquid colorimetric assays that related to clinical diagnoses, environment pollution, and food testing. Graphical abstract A novel smartphone colorimetric reader that has been integrated with an ambient light sensor and a 3D printed attachment for the readout of liquid colorimetric assays.

  18. Some fungi, zearalenone and other mycotoxins in chicken rations, stock feedstuffs, lucerne and pasture grasses in the communal farming area of Rhenosterkop in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Naicker

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins may be present in feeds without any visible signs of mould contamination. There is a need for rapid and accurate measurement of mycotoxins for purposes of continual monitoring and identification of high risk commodities. Samples from commercial chicken feed (maize kernels, cattle feed (lucerne, grass and hay and milk were analysed for the presence of certain mycotoxins and cultured for fungi. Results of fungal profiles showed that most samples were contaminated by moulds belonging to the genera, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Mucor, Phoma and Rhizopus. All the chicken feed samples tested contained mycotoxins either below the recommended safe levels for poultry or below the detection limits of the ELISA tests. However, samples of grass contained levels of zearalenone greater than the allowable concentration for dairy and beef cattle (250 ppm, which may be linked to the presence of Fusarium scirpi identified in the fungal profiles. The levels of AFM1 were below the detection limits of the ELISA tests, which may be attributed to the low levels of aflatoxins found in the feed (grass samples. The presence of the fungus in samples analysed is not evidence for the presence of mycotoxins.

  19. Some fungi, zearalenone and other mycotoxins in chicken rations, stock feedstuffs, lucerne and pasture grasses in the communal farming area of Rhenosterkop in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naicker, D; Marais, G J; van den Berg, H; Masango, M G

    2007-06-01

    Mycotoxins may be present in feeds without any visible signs of mould contamination. There is a need for rapid and accurate measurement of mycotoxins for purposes of continual monitoring and identification of high risk commodities. Samples from commercial chicken feed (maize kernels), cattle feed (lucerne, grass and hay) and milk were analysed for the presence of certain mycotoxins and cultured for fungi. Results of fungal profiles showed that most samples were contaminated by moulds belonging to the genera, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Mucor, Phoma and Rhizopus. All the chicken feed samples tested contained mycotoxins either below the recommended safe levels for poultry or below the detection limits of the ELISA tests. However, samples of grass contained levels of zearalenone greater than the allowable concentration for dairy and beef cattle (250 ppm), which may be linked to the presence of Fusarium scirpi identified in the fungal profiles. The levels of AFMI were below the detection limits of the ELISA tests, which may be attributed to the low levels of aflatoxins found in the feed (grass) samples. The presence of the fungus in samples analysed is not evidence for the presence of mycotoxins.

  20. UHPLC-MS/MS determination of ochratoxin A and fumonisins in coffee using QuEChERS extraction combined with mixed-mode SPE purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Ngemela, Archard Ferdinand; Jensen, Lene Bai; de Medeiros, Lívia Soman; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2015-01-28

    A method was developed for simultaneous determination of the mycotoxins: ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins B2 (FB2), B4 (FB4), and B6 (FB6) in green, roasted, and instant coffee. Extraction was performed by QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) under acidic conditions followed by mixed-mode reversed phase-anion exchange solid phase extraction. OTA and FB2 were detected at levels down to 0.5 and 2 μg/kg by UHPLC-MS/MS and quantitated via isotope dilution using U-(13)C-labeled FB2 and OTA as internal standards. Mixing 20% isopropanol in the acetonitrile of the acidic UHPLC gradient system increased the signal intensity by 50% and decreased the ion-suppression with 50-75% in roasted coffee samples. About half of the roasted coffee samples (n = 57, from 9 countries) contained detectable levels of OTA, however, with only 5 samples above the EU regulatory limit of 5 μg/kg and the highest with 21 μg/kg. None of the 25 instant coffee samples contained OTA above the EU regulatory level of 10 μg/kg. Nonetheless, the toxin could be detected in 56% of the analyzed instant coffee samples. Fumonisins were not detected in any of the roasted or instant coffee samples (n = 82). However, in the green coffee samples (n = 18) almost half of the samples were positive with a maximum value of 164 μg/kg (sum of FB2, FB4, and FB6). This discrepancy between green coffee and processed coffees indicated that the fumonisins decompose during the roasting process, which was confirmed in roasting experiments. Here fumonisins could not be detected after roasting of the green, 164 μg/kg coffee, sample. Under the same conditions, OTA was reduced from 2.4 to 0.5 μg/kg.

  1. Fusarium proliferatum and fumonisin B1 co-occur with Fusarium species causing Fusarium Head Blight in durum wheat in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Amato, Barbara; Pfohl, Katharina; Tonti, Stefano; Nipoti, Paola; Dastjerdi, Raana; Pisi, Annamaria; Karlovsky, Petr; Prodi, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium Head Blight caused by phytopathogenic Fusarium spp. with Fusarium graminearum as main causal agent is a major disease of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). Mycotoxins in wheat are dominated by trichothecenes B. Fumonisins have only occasionally been reported from wheat; their occurrence was attributed to Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium verticillioides. We investigated kernels of durum wheat grown in Italy in 2008 - 2010 for colonization with Fusarium spp. and for the content o...

  2. Fallugia paradoxa (D. Don) Endl. ex Torr.: Apache-plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer

    2008-01-01

    The genus Fallugia contains a single species - Apache-plume, F. paradoxa (D. Don) Endl. ex Torr. - found throughout the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It occurs mostly on coarse soils on benches and especially along washes and canyons in both warm and cool desert shrub communities and up into the pinyon-juniper vegetation type. It is a sprawling, much-...

  3. IDEA: An Interdisciplinary Unit Comparing "Don Quixote" to "Hamlet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary J. G.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an idea for teaching language through content-based instruction in which a high school Spanish class studying a shortened abridged version of Cervantes'"Don Quixote" and an English class reading Shakespeare's "Hamlet," did a simple comparative analysis of the two texts. (Author/VWL)

  4. Why Don't All Professors Use Computers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, David Eli

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the adoption of computer technology at universities and examines reasons why some professors don't use computers. Topics discussed include computer applications, including artificial intelligence, social science research, statistical analysis, and cooperative research; appropriateness of the technology for the task; the Computer Aptitude…

  5. "Don Kihotõ" nazõvajut lutshshih / Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuch, Boris, 1946-

    2003-01-01

    Lõppenud festivali FIPRESCI auhinna sai türgi film "Kauge" ("Uzak") : režissöör Nuri Bilge Ceylan. Rahvusvaheline filmiklubide föderatsioon (FICC) andis oma auhinna Don Quijote Andrei Zvjagintsevi filmile "Tagasitulek" ("Vozvrashtshenije") ja eriauhinna hiinlase Chen Kaige filmile "Üheskoos" ("Han ni zai ylki")

  6. Experiments in rooting bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1987-01-01

    Presented here are results of rooting studies using hedges established from juvenile seedlings of "blue" and "green" foliaged bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) from Mendocino and Sonoma Counties, California. Rootability, averaged over all clones and all setting dates, was 88%. The average time for 50% of the...

  7. 77 FR 64973 - Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14367-001] Don W. Gilbert...: Original Minor License. b. Project No.: 14367-001. c. Date filed: May 30, 2012. d. Applicant: Don W...(a)-825(r). (2006). h. Applicant Contact: Don W. Gilbert and DeAnn G. Somonich, Don W. Gilbert Hydro...

  8. Aflatoxin B1 and total fumonisin contamination and their producing fungi in fresh and stored sorghum grain in East Hararghe, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Wondimeneh; Ayalew, Amare; Chala, Alemayehu; Dejene, Mashilla

    2016-12-01

    Natural contamination of sorghum grains by aflatoxin B 1 and total fumonisin and their producing toxigenic fungi has been studied. A total of 90 sorghum grain samples were collected from small-scale farmers' threshing floors and 5-6 months later from underground pits during 2013 harvest from three districts of East Hararghe, Ethiopia. Mycotoxin analysis was done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The limits of detection were in the range 0.01-0.03 μg kg -1 . The results revealed that all sorghum grain samples were contaminated with both Aspergillus and Fusarium species. Aflatoxin B 1 was detected at levels ranging from fumonisin levels varied between 907 and 2041 µg kg -1 grain across the samples. Lowest total fumonisin was recorded in freshly harvested sorghum grain samples. Sorghum is a main staple cereal in the studied districts and its consumption per day per person is high. Daily intake of low doses of mycotoxin-contaminated food stuff over a period of time could lead to chronic mycotoxicosis.

  9. UHPLC-MS/MS Determination of Ochratoxin A and Fumonisins in Coffee Using QuEChERS Extraction Combined with Mixed-Mode SPE Purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Ngemela, Archard Ferdinand; Jensen, Lene Bai

    2015-01-01

    A method was developed for simultaneous determination of the mycotoxins: ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins B2 (FB2), B4 (FB4), and B6 (FB6) in green, roasted, and instant coffee. Extraction was performed by QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) under acidic conditions followed....../kg and the highest with 21 μg/kg. None of the 25 instant coffee samples contained OTA above the EU regulatory level of 10 μg/kg. Nonetheless, the toxin could be detected in 56% of the analyzed instant coffee samples. Fumonisins were not detected in any of the roasted or instant coffee samples (n = 82). However......, in the green coffee samples (n = 18) almost half of the samples were positive with a maximum value of 164 μg/kg (sum of FB2, FB4, and FB6). This discrepancy between green coffee and processed coffees indicated that the fumonisins decompose during the roasting process, which was confirmed in roasting...

  10. Activated carbons as potentially useful non-nutritive additives to prevent the effect of fumonisin B1 on sodium bentonite activity against chronic aflatoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, María Del Pilar; Magnoli, Alejandra Paola; Bergesio, Maria Virginia; Tancredi, Nestor; Magnoli, Carina E; Chiacchiera, Stella Maris

    2016-06-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are mycotoxins that often co-occur in feedstuffs. The ingestion of AFB1 causes aflatoxicosis in humans and animals. Sodium bentonite (NaB), a cheap non-nutritive unselective sequestering agent incorporated in animal diets, can effectively prevent aflatoxicosis. Fumonisins are responsible for equine leukoencephalomalacia and porcine pulmonary oedema, and often have subclinical toxic effects in poultries. Fumonisin B1 and aflatoxin B1 are both strongly adsorbed in vitro on sodium bentonite. Co-adsorption studies, carried out with a weight ratio of FB1 to AFB1 that mimics the natural occurrence (200:1), showed that FB1 greatly decreases the in vitro ability of NaB to adsorb AFB1. The ability of two activated carbons to adsorb FB1 was also investigated. Both carbons showed high affinity for FB1. A complex behaviour of the FB1 adsorption isotherms with pH was observed. In vitro results suggest that under natural contamination levels of AFB1 and FB1, a mixture of activated carbon and sodium bentonite might be potentially useful for prevention of sub-acute aflatoxicosis.

  11. Development and validation of a rapid multi-biomarker liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method to assess human exposure to mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Fruhmann, Philipp; Mikula, Hannes; Berthiller, Franz; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Hametner, Christian; Abia, Wilfred Angie; Adam, Gerhard; Fröhlich, Johannes; Krska, Rudolf

    2012-07-15

    Mycotoxins regularly occur in food worldwide and pose serious health risks to consumers. Since individuals can be exposed to a variety of these toxic secondary metabolites of fungi at the same time, there is a demand for proper analytical methods to assess human exposure by suitable biomarkers. This study reports on the development of a liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method for the quantitative measurement of 15 mycotoxins and key metabolites in human urine using polarity switching. Deoxynivalenol (DON), DON-3-O-glucuronide, DON-15-O-glucuronide (D15GlcA), de-epoxy DON, nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, zearalenone, zearalenone-14-O-glucuronide, α- and β-zearalenol, fumonisins B(1) and B(2) (FB(1), FB(2)), ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) were determined without the need for any cleanup using a rapid and simple dilute and shoot approach. Validation was performed in the range of 0.005-40 µg L(-1) depending on the analyte and expected urinary concentration levels. Apparent recoveries between 78 and 119% and interday precisions of 2-17% relative standard deviation (RSD) were achieved. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the analysis of urine samples obtained from Cameroon. In naturally contaminated urine samples up to six biomarkers of exposure (AFM(1), DON, D15GlcA, NIV, FB(1), and OTA) were detected simultaneously. We conclude that the developed LC/MS/MS method is well suited to quantify multiple mycotoxin biomarkers in human urine down to the sub-ppb range within 18 min and without any prior cleanup. The co-occurrence of several mycotoxins in the investigated samples clearly emphasizes the great potential and importance of this method to assess exposure of humans and animals to naturally occurring mycotoxins. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Transcriptomic profiling to identify genes involved in Fusarium mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone tolerance in the mycoparasitic fungus Clonostachys rosea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosawang, Chatchai; Karlsson, Magnus; Jensen, Dan Funck

    2014-01-01

    a number of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter transcripts were highly frequent in the ZEA-induced library. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis predicted that all transcripts with similarity to ABC transporters could be ascribed to only 2 ABC transporters genes, and phylogenetic analysis...... of the predicted ABC transporters suggested that they belong to group G (pleiotropic drug transporters) of the fungal ABC transporter gene family. This is the first report suggesting involvement of ABC transporters in ZEA tolerance. Expression patterns of a selected set of DON- and ZEA-induced genes were validated...... and ZEA in the mycoparasitic fungus C. rosea. Whilst metabolic readjustment is potentially the key to withstanding DON, the fungus produces ZHD101 to detoxify ZEA and ABC transporters to transport ZEA or its degradation products out from the fungal cell....

  13. Comparison of the amount of bioaccessible fumonisin B1 and B2 in maize and rice inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides (MRC 826) and determined by in vitro digestion-preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó-Fodor, J; Bors, I; Szabó, A; Kovács, M

    2016-08-01

    In this study the occurrence of hidden fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) was analysed, on two cereal substrates (maize and rice), inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides (MRC 826), in order to determine the ratio of hidden FB1 and FB2. Two parallel methods were applied: an in vitro human digestion sample pre-treatment and the routine extraction procedure, in both cases with subsequent LC-MS analysis. It was found that all samples showed higher concentration of total fumonisin B1 after digestion, as compared to that of free fumonisin analysed only after extraction. The percentage of the hidden form by maize was 18.8 % (±2.4) for FB1 and 36.8 % (±3.8) for FB2, while for rice it was 32.3 % (±11.3) and 58.0 (±6.8), respectively, expressed as the proportion to total fumonisin B1, for the total dataset. Significant differences were found in the FB1 and FB2 concentration measured after the different digestion phases (saliva, gastric and duodenal) in case of both matrixes. The results are useful for human risk assessment, since both humans and animals may be exposed to markedly higher toxin load, as determined merely by conventional analytical methods.

  14. Development and Validation of a UPLC-MS/MS and UPLC-HR-MS Method for the Determination of Fumonisin B1 and Its Hydrolysed Metabolites and Fumonisin B2 in Broiler Chicken Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegrid De Baere

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and specific method for the quantitative determination of Fumonisin B1 (FB1, its partially hydrolysed metabolites pHFB1a+b and hydrolysed metabolite HFB1, and Fumonisin B2 (FB2 in broiler chicken plasma using ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS was developed. The sample preparation was rapid, straightforward and consisted of a deproteinization and phospholipid removal step using an Oasis® OstroTM 96-well plate. Chromatography was performed on an Acquity HSS-T3 column, using 0.3% formic acid and 10 mM ammonium formate in water, and acetonitrile as mobile phases. The MS/MS instrument was operated in the positive electrospray ionization mode and the two multiple reaction monitoring transitions were monitored for each component for quantification and identification, respectively. The method was validated in-house: matrix-matched calibration graphs were prepared and good linearity (r ≥ 0.99 was achieved over the concentration ranges tested (1–500 ng/mL for FB1 and FB2; 0.86–860 ng/mL for pHFB1a; 0.72–1430 ng/mL for pHFB1b and 2.5–2500 ng/mL for HFB1. Limits of quantification (LOQ and detection (LOD in plasma ranged between 0.72 to 2.5 ng/mL and 0.03 to 0.17 ng/mL, respectively. The results for the within-day and between-day precision and accuracy fell within the specified ranges. Moreover, the method was transferred to an UPLC high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS instrument in order to determine potential metabolites of HFB1, such as N-acyl-HFB1s and phase II metabolites. The method has been successfully applied to investigate the toxicokinetics and biotransformation of HFB1 in broiler chickens.

  15. Effect of Environmental Factors on Fusarium Species and Associated Mycotoxins in Maize Grain Grown in Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Czembor

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important crops and Poland is the fifth largest producing country in Europe. Diseases caused by Fusarium spp. can affect the yield and grain quality of maize because of contamination with numerous mycotoxins produced by these fungi. The present study was performed to identify the prevailing Fusarium species and the environmental factors affecting their frequencies and the contamination of grain with the main mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON, zearalenone (ZON and fumonisin B1 (FB1. Thirty kernel samples were collected in three locations in 2011 and in seven locations in 2012 from three hybrids. On average, 25.24% kernels were colonized by Fusarium spp. (424 strains were isolated. Fusarium verticillioides and F. temperatum were the most prevalent species, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum and F. graminearum were in minor abundance. In total, 272 isolates of F. verticillioides and 81 isolates of F. temperatum were identified. Fusarium temperatum frequency ranged from 1.70% to 28.57% and differences between locations were significant. Fumonisin B1 was found in all tested samples. DON was found in 66.67% and ZON in 43.33% of samples. Rainfall amount positively affected F. temperatum and F. subglutinans frequency in opposite to mean temperatures in July. On the other hand, relationships between frequency of these species and historical data from 1950-2000 for annual temperature range were negative in contrast to the coldest quarter temperatures.

  16. Effect of Environmental Factors on Fusarium Species and Associated Mycotoxins in Maize Grain Grown in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czembor, Elżbieta; Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Maize is one of the most important crops and Poland is the fifth largest producing country in Europe. Diseases caused by Fusarium spp. can affect the yield and grain quality of maize because of contamination with numerous mycotoxins produced by these fungi. The present study was performed to identify the prevailing Fusarium species and the environmental factors affecting their frequencies and the contamination of grain with the main mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). Thirty kernel samples were collected in three locations in 2011 and in seven locations in 2012 from three hybrids. On average, 25.24% kernels were colonized by Fusarium spp. (424 strains were isolated). Fusarium verticillioides and F. temperatum were the most prevalent species, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum and F. graminearum were in minor abundance. In total, 272 isolates of F. verticillioides and 81 isolates of F. temperatum were identified. Fusarium temperatum frequency ranged from 1.70% to 28.57% and differences between locations were significant. Fumonisin B1 was found in all tested samples. DON was found in 66.67% and ZON in 43.33% of samples. Rainfall amount positively affected F. temperatum and F. subglutinans frequency in opposite to mean temperatures in July. On the other hand, relationships between frequency of these species and historical data from 1950–2000 for annual temperature range were negative in contrast to the coldest quarter temperatures. PMID:26225823

  17. CDC Vital Signs–Blood Pressure Medicines Don’t Work If People Don’t Take Them

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-13

    Blood pressure medicines don’t work if people don’t take them. Learn how health care systems can work with patients to make taking medicines easier.  Created: 9/13/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/13/2016.

  18. Blood Pressure Medicines Don’t Work If People Don’t Take Them PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the September 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Blood pressure medicines don’t work if people don’t take them. Learn how health care systems can work with patients to make taking medicines easier.

  19. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO2 Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaitsi, Elsa; Magan, Naresh

    2018-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (aw; 0.95–0.90) and temperature (10–25 °C) in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a) respiration rate; (b) dry matter losses (DML); (c) ZEN production and (d) relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO2 production. There was an increase in temporal CO2 production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 aw treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO2 in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 aw/20–25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 aw. The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95–0.93 aw and 20 °C/0.95 aw. ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca. 1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins. PMID:29462982

  20. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO₂ Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cela, Esther; Kiaitsi, Elsa; Sulyok, Michael; Medina, Angel; Magan, Naresh

    2018-02-17

    Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (a w ; 0.95-0.90) and temperature (10-25 °C) in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a) respiration rate; (b) dry matter losses (DML); (c) ZEN production and (d) relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO₂ production. There was an increase in temporal CO₂ production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 a w treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO₂ in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 a w /20-25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 a w . The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95-0.93 a w and 20 °C/0.95 a w . ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca 1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins.

  1. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO2 Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Garcia-Cela

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEN contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (aw; 0.95–0.90 and temperature (10–25 °C in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a respiration rate; (b dry matter losses (DML; (c ZEN production and (d relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO2 production. There was an increase in temporal CO2 production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 aw treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO2 in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 aw/20–25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 aw. The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95–0.93 aw and 20 °C/0.95 aw. ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca. <1.0% DML, there was a low risk of ZEN contamination exceeding EU legislative limits, while at >1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins.

  2. The effect of in vivo exposure to zearalenone on cytokine secretion by Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes in porcine Peyer's patches after in vitro stimulation with LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obremski, K

    2014-01-01

    Most research studies investigating the estrogenic effects of zearalenone (ZEN) focus on the mycotoxin's effect on the reproductive system. Since estrogen receptors are present on various types of immunocompetent cells, ZEN can also modify diverse immune functions. This study analyzed immunocompetent cells isolated from Peyer's patches in the ileum of pigs administered ZEN in the estimated daily dose of 8 μg kg(-1) BW (equivalent of 100 μg kg(-1) feed per day(-1)). The objective of the study was to determine whether long-term exposure to low ZEN doses below the NOEL threshold leads to changes in the percentages of lymphocyte subpopulations and cytokine secretion by Th1 (IL-2, IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10) lymphocytes in Peyer's patches of the ileum after in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Immunocompetent cells isolated from Payer's patches on experimental days 0, 14, 28 and 42 were cultured in vitro and stimulated with LPS. The presence of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 in culture media was determined by the ELISA method. The results of the study indicate that ZEN inhibits IL-2 and IFN-γ secretion and stimulates IL-4 and IL-10 produc- tion by Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes by shifting the Th1/Th2 balance towards the humoral immune response. The above can promote allergic responses, as demonstrated by the increase in the size of B1 cell populations producing more autoantibodies. ZEN can also lower resistance to viruses and tumors by inhibiting the proliferation of NK cells and IFN-γ secretion.

  3. SIRT1 protects cardiac cells against apoptosis induced by zearalenone or its metabolites α- and β-zearalenol through an autophagy-dependent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Salem, Intidhar; Boussabbeh, Manel; Da Silva, Julie Pires; Guilbert, Arnaud; Bacha, Hassen; Abid-Essefi, Salwa; Lemaire, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium in cereals and agricultural products. The major ZEN metabolites are α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZOL). In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of the toxicity induced by ZEN, α-ZOL and β-ZOL in cardiac cells (H9c2). We show that treatment with ZEN or its metabolites induces the activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis as characterized by an increase in ROS generation, a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and an activation of caspases. Besides, we demonstrate that these mycotoxins promote the activation of autophagy before the onset of apoptosis. Indeed, we observed that a short-time (6 h) treatment with ZEN, α-ZOL or β-ZOL, increased the level of Beclin-1 and LC3-II and induced the accumulation of the CytoID® autophagy detection probe. Moreover, the inhibition of autophagy by Chloroquine significantly increased cell death induced by ZEN, α-ZOL or β-ZOL, suggesting that the activation of autophagy serves as a cardioprotective mechanism against these mycotoxins. In addition, we found that the inhibition (EX527) or the knockdown of SIRT1 (siRNA) significantly increased apoptosis induced by ZEN or its derivatives, whereas SIRT1 activation with RSV greatly prevents the cytotoxic effects of these mycotoxins. By contrast, when autophagy was inhibited by CQ, the activation of SIRT1 by RSV had no protection against the cardiotoxicity of ZEN or its metabolites, suggesting that SIRT1 protects cardiac cells by an autophagy-dependent pathway. - Highlights: • ZEN, α- and β-ZOL induce the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in cardiac cells. • Inhibition of autophagy enhanced ZEN-, α-ZOL- and β-ZOL-induced apoptosis. • SIRT1 activates autophagy to protect cells from ZEN, α- and β-ZOL-induced toxicity.

  4. Analysis of zearalenone and α-zearalenol in 100 foods and medicinal plants determined by HPLC-FLD and positive confirmation by LC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei-Jun; Shen, Hong-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Li; Qiu, Feng; Ou-yang, Zhen; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2013-05-01

    Mycotoxins, which may contaminate many foods and medicinal plants, are poisonous to humans. A high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method was successfully developed for analysing the contamination levels of zearalenone (ZON) and its metabolite α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) in 100 widely consumed foods and medicinal plants in China. Samples were extracted with methanol-water (80:20, v/v), and cleaned up by using an immunoaffinity column. The limits of detection of this developed method for ZON and α-ZOL were 4 µg kg(-1) and 2.5 µg kg(-1) , respectively. Recoveries for the samples spiked with three levels (30, 60 and 300 µg kg(-1) for ZON and α-ZOL) ranged from 85.8% to 96.1% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.6-7.1% for ZON, and from 89.9% to 98.7% with RSD of 1.9-9.2% for α-ZOL. Twelve (12%) of these tested samples were contaminated with ZON at levels ranging from 5.3 to 295.8 µg kg(-1). The most contaminated samples were Semen coicis, four of them in a concentration level exceeding 60 µg kg(-1) 'maximum level' (range 68.9-119.6 µg kg(-1)). Positive samples were further confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results suggest that it is necessary to control ZON contamination in medicinal plants, especially Semen coicis. This is a successful study on the analysis of ZON and α-ZOL in medicinal plants in China by HPLC-FLD. Immunoaffinity clean-up and HPLC-FLD proved to have broad applicability in the field of simultaneously detecting ZON and α-ZOL in foods and medicinal plants and other complicated matrices. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Simultaneous detection of airborne aflatoxin, ochratoxin and zearalenone in a poultry house by immunoaffinity clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaling; Chai, Tongjie; Lu, Guozhong; Quan, Chunsan; Duan, Huiyong; Yao, Meiling; Zucker, Bert-Andree; Schlenker, Gerd

    2008-06-01

    An AOZ method, based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was optimized on HPLC condition such as mobile phase and wavelength to simultaneously quantify six kinds of mycotoxins [four aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEA)]. Conditions for immunoaffinity clean-up, HPLC and photo-derivatization were optimized in this study and successfully applied in assessment of airborne mycotoxins from a poultry house in Dalian, China. Fifty-two air samples were collected with AGI-30 air samplers using pure water as collection media. Twenty air samples (20/52, 38.46%) were positive for four toxins. Among the positive samples, airborne mycotoxin concentrations (mean+/-S.D.) for AFG(2), AFB(1), and ZEA were 0.189+/-0.024 (n=9), 0.080+/-0.003 (n=11) and 2.363+/-0.030 (n=5)ng/m(3) air, while the concentration for OTA was 8.530 (n=1)ng/m(3). No positive sample was found for either AFG(1) or AFB(2). A chicken may inhale 0.019-0.057 ng AFG(2), 0.013-0.019 ng AFB(1), 0.436-0.513 ng ZEA, and 1.706 ng OTA, respectively, in a day. A poultry worker may inhale 0.504-1.512 ng AFB(1), 0.752-2.28 ng AFG(2), 68.240 ng OTA, and 17.432-20.512 ng ZEA in a working day. This is the first report on airborne mycotoxins in poultry house. These data may have importance in animal and public health implications.

  6. Mycotoxin zearalenone induces AIF- and ROS-mediated cell death through p53- and MAPK-dependent signaling pathways in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji-Yeon; Zheng, Zhong-Hua; Son, Young-Ok; Shi, Xianglin; Jang, Young-Oh; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2011-12-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is commonly found in many food commodities and is known to cause reproductive disorders and genotoxic effects. However, the mode of ZEN-induced cell death of macrophages and the mechanisms by which ZEN causes cytotoxicity remain unclear. The present study shows that ZEN treatment reduces viability of RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. ZEN causes predominantly necrotic and late apoptotic cell death. ZEN treatment also results in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial changes in Bcl-2 and Bax proteins, and cytoplasmic release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Pre-treatment of the cells with either z-VAD-fmk or z-IETD-fmk does not attenuate ZEN-mediated cell death, whereas catalase suppresses the ZEN-induced decrease in viability in RAW264.7 cells. Treating the cells with c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), or p53 inhibitor prevented ZEN-mediated changes, such as MMP loss, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase, and cell death. JNK or p38 MAPK inhibitor inhibited mitochondrial alterations of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins with attendant decreases in cellular ROS levels. Knockdown of AIF via siRNA transfection also diminished ZEN-induced cell death. Further, adenosine triphosphate was markedly depleted in the ZEN-exposed cells. Collectively, these results suggest that ZEN induces cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 cells via AIF- and ROS-mediated signaling, in which the activations of p53 and JNK/p38 play a key role. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. To the Spanish Young People: Don Quixote Dreyfussard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Ramírez Martín

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1898, Spanish press take up part of its pages with a relevant international issue: the Dreyfus affair. The case was widely covered by Spanish newspapers, in special by Don Quijote, a Madrilenian satiric press, whose Director promoted a campaign in favour of Zola collecting signatures in order to the French litterateur was aware that Spain was close to him. This initiative is completed with a call to Spanish young people who is illustrated with a quixotic caricature. Cervantine character personifies the idea of justice getting to transmit during the Spanish crisis at the end of the nineteenth century the image of the nobleman forged by Spanish stereotypical, like a crusader fighting for a noble cause, thus turning Don Quixote into another dreyfussard.

  8. Don Quixote an Celia: the desire to live other lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Fraga Fernández-Cuevas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the parallelisms between Don Quixote and Elena Fortun’s novels Celia. First, it enumerates the various activities that prove the author’s interest in Cervantes and his work, as well as the possible intervention of her mentor, Maria Martinez Sierra, in the genesis of the child’s character. Both novels, of dialogical nature, share an episodic structure articulated by a weak storyline. Its protagonists are animated by the desire to live the lives of the characters of their favorite readings. They confuse fantasy and reality causing situations whose results are almost always adverse. If Don Quixote dies back to the reason, so will Celia, the girl, with her entry into adulthood by resigning her fantasies, which will be taken up by new generations of children.

  9. Don Carlos: Variations of Tragic from Schiller to Verdi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Vittorini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1867 Giuseppe Verdi makes a grand opéra out of the dramatic poem Don Carlos, Infant von Spanien (1787 by Friedrich von Schiller. The workshop of Don Carlos lasts twenty years, from 1866 to 1886, when Verdi (reopens and closes several other workshops (Simon Boccanegra, La forza del destino, Aida, Requiem, Otello, creating a porous work in progress, whose analysis keeps giving us surprises. The libretto by Joseph Méry et Camille Du Locle, under the supervision of the composer, is a palimpsest where, under the official text referable to the common historical nucleus and its best known literary versions, some hidden or deleted heterogeneous texts appear, in a supranational, multilinguistic, intercultural and intertextual dimension, not always stirring along the road of a locatable derivation, of a voluntary imitation, but sometimes taking the shape of an unpredictable dissemination.

  10. Don Quijote in Nineteenth-Century English Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Garrido Ardila

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article brings to light a group of Cervantine English literary works hitherto unknown to present-day Cervantes studies: seven theatrical adaptations of Don Quixote (two anonymous ones in addition to those by Charles Dibdin, Joseph Moser, G. A. Macfarren, C. A. Maltby and P. Milton, a comedy with a Quixotic title (by George Dance, and five Quixotic fictions (two anonymous, in addition to those by Lily Spender, Maurice Hewlett and A. T. Quiller-Couch. Three of these plays, had been noted by Leopoldo Rius in 1899 (Moser, Macfarren, Maltby; the other four are presented for the first time here. In order to chart a fuller and more complete history of Don Quixote on the English stage, this article provides relevant information on those seven plays. An examination of these works reinforces the previous theses that underscore the essentially comical nature of Quixotic plays in nineteenth-century England, a fact of relevance in the study of the English reception of Don Quixote in the course of that century.

  11. Mineral characterisation of Don Pao rare earth deposit in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XuanBen, T.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The Don Pao Rare Earth Deposit was discovered in 1959 in Phon Tho district, about 450km North-West of Hanoi capital. Geological work was conducted between 1959-95, resulting in 60 ore bodies of various sizes being identified. The ore bodies are irregularly shaped nests, lenses and veins hosted in the shear zone, at the margin of a Paeleogene aged syenite massif. The mineral composition of Don Pao Deposit is very complex, consisting of more than 50 minerals. Among them, basnaesite, parisite, fluorite and barite are the main constituent minerals of the ore. All the minerals were identified by the modern methods of mineralogical studies. Based on the constituent mineral ratios, four ore types have been distinguished in the deposit: 1. Rare earth ore containing over 5 percent of RE 2 O 3 . 2. Rare Earth-Barite ore containing 0.5 to 30 percent of RE 2 O 3 . 3. Rare Earth-Barite-Fluorite ore containing 1 to 5 percent of RE 2 O 3 . 4. Rare Earth bearing Fluorite ore containing 1 to 5 percent of RE 2 O 3 . According to the benefication test, the ores in Don Pao can be enriched to a concentrate of 60 percent of RE 2 O 3 with a recover of 75 percent

  12. A preliminary survey of mycological and fumonisin and aflatoxin contamination of African traditional herbal medicines sold in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerere, D R; Stockenström, S; Thembo, K M; Rheeder, J P; Shephard, G S; Vismer, H F

    2008-11-01

    Traditional medicine is an important aspect of healthcare delivery in South Africa and is used by at least 70% of the country's population. The trade in medicinal plants is a multi-million rand business which is a major driver for rural economies. However, the conditions in which these plant products are transported and stored make them prone to fungal contamination which results in economic losses to the traders and pose potential health hazards to consumers. Of major concern is the possible presence of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins. This study assessed fungal and mycotoxin contamination of African herbal products sold in Cape Town and Tshwane (formerly Pretoria) in South Africa. Of the 16 samples analyzed, 15 were contaminated with at least one of these three fungal genera: Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium. Fumonisin B(1) was present in 13 of the samples in quantities ranging from 14 to 139 microg/kg (detection limit 5 microg/kg). None of the samples was contaminated with aflatoxigenic fungi or aflatoxin (detection limit 0.5 microg/kg). This is the first study to report on mycological and mycotoxin contamination of commercial traditional African medicines in South Africa. There is a need to expand the study to other urban centers to gain enough insight into this problem and then to intervene with measures that can protect the public from potential harm.

  13. Fusarium species identification and fumonisin production in maize kernels from Shandong Province, China, from 2012 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Congcong; Liu, Yanxing; Jiang, Yan; Li, Renjie; Pang, Minhao; Liu, Yingchao; Dong, Jingao

    2016-09-01

    A total of 225 maize kernel samples were collected from Shandong Province in China from 2012 to 2014 and analysed for contamination with Fusarium spp. and fumonisins (FBs) using molecular methods and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The results showed that the average incidences of Fusarium spp. in 2012, 2013 and 2014 were 23.3%, 37.1% and 36.5%, respectively, Fusarium verticillioides being the predominant species. In 2012, the average contamination level of FBs was 3071 ng g(-1), which was higher than that in 2014 (2913 ng g(-1)) and 2013 (2072 ng g(-1)). Of all samples, 13% and 19% had FB contamination levels higher than 2000 and 4000 ng g(-1), which are the maximum limits as set by the Food and Drug Administration of the United States and the European Commission, respectively. Therefore, efforts should be taken to minimise the potential risk of FBs to the health of humans and animals.

  14. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Service Members: Life After Don't Ask, Don't Tell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Castro, Carl Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual service members can serve openly in the military with the repeal of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy. The fate of transgender service members remains uncertain as the policy preventing them from serving in the military remains under review. The health care needs of these populations remain for the most part unknown, with total acceptance and integration in the military yet to be achieved. In this paper, we review the literature on the health care needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) service members, relying heavily on what is known about LGBT civilian and veteran populations. Significant research gaps about the health care needs of LGBT service members are identified, along with recommendations for closing those gaps. In addition, recommendations for improving LGBT acceptance and integration within the military are provided.

  15. The myth of the warrior: martial masculinity and the end of Don't Ask, Don't Tell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsep, L Michael

    2013-01-01

    The image of the male warrior still dominates military culture, to the exclusion of women and homosexuals. Complicating the picture is a technological revolution that promises to widen the current gap between the myth and reality of the modern warrior even further. Nonetheless, despite long arguing that homosexuals were a direct threat to military culture and effectiveness, the Pentagon has largely treated the end of Don't Ask, Don't Tell as a policy matter. The difficulties still experienced by women in the armed services 40 years after they were first incorporated in significant numbers indicates that this response will be insufficient to address the deeper cultural issues. Gender issues implicate deeply held beliefs and values that persist even in the face of years of official admonishment and denial. Unless the military begins to transparently bridge the gap between the myth and reality of the modern warrior, military service without discrimination based on sexual orientation will remain an unachieved goal.

  16. Don Quixote Pond: A Small Scale Model of Weathering and Salt Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, P.; Bishop, J. L.; Patel, S. N.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of Don Quixote Pond in the North Fork of Wright Valley, Antarctica, is a model for unique terrestrial calcium, chlorine, and sulfate weathering, accumulation, and distribution processes. The formation of Don Quixote Pond by simple shallow and deep groundwater contrasts more complex models for Don Juan Pond in the South Fork of Wright Valley. Our study intends to understand the formation of Don Quixote Pond as unique terrestrial processes and as a model for Ca, C1, and S weathering and distribution on Mars.

  17. Occurrence of Ochratoxins, Fumonisin B2 , Aflatoxins (B1 and B2 ), and Other Secondary Fungal Metabolites in Dried Date Palm Fruits from Egypt: A Mini-Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Mohamed F; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the natural co-occurrence of 295 fungal and bacterial metabolites in 28 samples of dried date palm fruits collected from different shops distributed in Assiut Governorate, Upper Egypt in 2016. Extraction and quantification of the target analytes were done using the "dilute and shoot" approach followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. In total, 30 toxic fungal metabolites were detected. Among these metabolites, 4 types of ochratoxins including ochratoxin type A and B were quantified in 3 samples (11%) with a contamination range from 1.48 to 6070 μg/kg for ochratoxin A and from 0.28 to 692 μg/kg for ochratoxin B. In addition, fumonisin B 2 was observed in 2 (7%) samples with contamination levels ranging from 4.99 to 16.2 μg/kg. The simultaneous detection of fumonisin B 2 in the same contaminated samples with ochratoxins indicates the fungal attack by Aspergillus niger species during storage. Only 1 sample was contaminated with aflatoxin B 1 (14.4 μg/kg) and B 2 (2.44 μg/kg). The highest maximum concentration (90400 μg/kg) was for kojic acid that contaminated 43% of the samples. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the natural co-occurrence of fumonisin B 2 and ochratoxin A and B in addition to a wide range of other fungal metabolites in date palm fruits. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by different fungi. These metabolites pose a potential risk on human health since they contaminate many food commodities. Among these, date palm fruits which are an integral part of diet in several countries. Therefore, detection of mycotoxins is a prerequisite to insure the safety of food. Here, different types of mycotoxins have been detected in levels that may have health hazard. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Don Quichotte, un don quichotte ? Déprogrammation d’un stéréotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cuenca-Godbert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En réaction à la publication de la suite apocryphe de Don Quichotte de la Manche, Cervantès utilise dans sa seconde partie les ressorts narratifs de la stéréotypie littéraire pour montrer à quel point son personnage diffère de ce qu'en a fait Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda, continuateur peu respectueux de sa personne et de son personnage. Le refus de voir en don Quichotte un simple stéréotype du chevalier errant chimérique est particulièrement manifeste dans la série d'aventures se déroulant au château des ducs, où don Quichotte, par sa renommée littéraire littéralement reconnue, est traité en chevalier par des personnages manipulateurs de situations, qui visent à produire chez lui des réactions programmées pour s’en amuser. Il apparaît alors que le simple agrégat d'ingrédients propres au stéréotype littéraire chevaleresque finit par ne pas produire l'issue escomptée.En la Segunda parte del Quijote, Cervantes reacciona ante la publicación de la de Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda, continuador poco respetuoso con la persona del autor primigenio y su personaje. Recurriendo a los procedimientos narrativos de la estereotipia literaria deja bien claro qué diferente resulta ser el personaje original respecto al del continuador. La negativa de ver a don Quijote como un mero estereotipo del caballero andante loco se pone particularmente de manifiesto en la serie de aventuras que transcurren en el palacio de los duques. Allí, los personajes reconocen literalmente la fama literaria de don Quijote. Generan, desde situaciones ficticias, tipos de tratamiento que se dispensarían a un verdadero caballero andante. Como resultado, se desencadena una serie de reacciones programadas con las que pretenden divertirse. Sin embargo, queda claro que la mera acumulación de ingredientes propios del estereotipo literario caballeresco no produce el resultado esperado.

  19. Enhancement of solubility in Escherichia coli and purification of an aminotransferase from Sphingopyxis sp. MTA144 for deamination of hydrolyzed fumonisin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartinger Doris

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fumonisin B1 is a cancerogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and other fungi. Sphingopyxis sp. MTA144 can degrade fumonisin B1, and a key enzyme in the catabolic pathway is an aminotransferase which removes the C2-amino group from hydrolyzed fumonisin B1. In order to study this aminotransferase with respect to a possible future application in enzymatic fumonisin detoxification, we attempted expression of the corresponding fumI gene in E. coli and purification of the enzyme. Since the aminotransferase initially accumulated in inclusion bodies, we compared the effects of induction level, host strain, expression temperature, solubility enhancers and a fusion partner on enzyme solubility and activity. Results When expressed from a T7 promoter at 30°C, the aminotransferase accumulated invariably in inclusion bodies in DE3 lysogens of the E. coli strains BL21, HMS174, Rosetta 2, Origami 2, or Rosetta-gami. Omission of the isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG used for induction caused a reduction of expression level, but no enhancement of solubility. Likewise, protein production but not solubility correlated with the IPTG concentration in E. coli Tuner(DE3. Addition of the solubility enhancers betaine and sorbitol or the co-enzyme pyridoxal phosphate showed no effect. Maltose-binding protein, used as an N-terminal fusion partner, promoted solubility at 30°C or less, but not at 37°C. Low enzyme activity and subsequent aggregation in the course of purification and cleavage indicated that the soluble fusion protein contained incorrectly folded aminotransferase. Expression in E. coli ArcticExpress(DE3, which co-expresses two cold-adapted chaperonins, at 11°C finally resulted in production of appreciable amounts of active enzyme. Since His tag-mediated affinity purification from this strain was hindered by co-elution of chaperonin, two steps of chromatography with optimized imidazole concentration in the

  20. A Method for Simultaneous Determination of 20 Fusarium Toxins in Cereals by High-Resolution Liquid Chromatography-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry with a Pentafluorophenyl Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Masayoshi; Mochizuki, Naoki; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Harayama, Koichi; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2015-01-01

    A high-resolution liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-Orbitrap MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 20 Fusarium toxins (nivalenol, fusarenon-X, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol, HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, neosolaniol, diacetoxyscirpenol, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, fumonisin B3, fumonisin A1, fumonisin A2, fumonisin A3, zearalenone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, α-zearalanol, and β-zearalanol) in cereals. The separation of 20 Fusarium toxins with good peak shapes was achieved using a pentafluorophenyl column, and Orbitrap MS was able to detect accurately from cereal matrix components within ±0.77 ppm. The samples were prepared using a QuEChERS kit for extraction and a multifunctional cartridge for purification. The linearity, repeatability, and recovery of the method were >0.9964, 0.8%–14.7%, and 71%–106%, respectively. Using this method, an analysis of 34 commercially available cereals detected the presence of deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, fumonisin B3, fumonisn A1, fumonisin A2, fumonisin A3, and zearalenone in corn samples with high concentration and frequency. Trichothecenes was detected from wheat samples with high frequency; in particular, the concentration of deoxynivalenol was high. Conversely, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, α-zearalanol, and β-zearalanol were not detected in any of the samples. PMID:26008230

  1. A Novel Source of DOC and DON to Watershed Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitkenhead-Peterson, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    A source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) to soils and groundwater is that emanating from decomposing mammals. Although there is an increase in human donor facilities (body farms) in the USA and in mass mortality events (MME) worldwide, this injection of DOC and DON into watershed soils has received little attention. Studies at two human donor facilities in Texas, USA have revealed that the purge fluid associated with decomposition is extremely high in DOC and DON and migrates down the soil profile. Two studies were carried out 1) The southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility on an Alfisol with a saturated hydraulic conductivity of 331 mm hr-1 and 83% sand and 2) the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) on Mollisols with a saturated hydraulic conductivity of 3.6-9.7 mm hr-1 and 28-33% sand. The numbers of days since donors were laid in the environment ranged from 219-680 d at STAFS and 306-960 d at FACTS. Purge can occur between 5 and 30 d dependent on the time of year the body is placed and the resultant phenomenon is termed cadaver decomposition island (CDI). Soil cores were taken at 5 cm increments to a depth of 30 cm in the sandy soil and 15 cm in the clayey/rocky soil. In the sandy soils, DOC concentrations were significantly higher in all the CDI soils when compared to control soils at depths of 15, 20, 25 and 30 cm and ranged from 121.7 µg g-1 (30 cm) to 167.6 µg g-1 (15 cm) in control soils and 461.9 µg g-1 (30 cm) to 660.4 µg g-1 (15 cm) in CDI soils, representing a three- to four-fold increase in DOC relative to control soils. DON in all CDI soils was not significantly higher than control soils until 30 cm depth and ranged from 9.9-32.3 µg g-1 in CDI soils and 121.7 µg g-1 in control soil, representing a two- to seven-fold increase in DON relative to control soils. DOC concentrations in control soils at the FARF site at 15 cm ranged 215-365 µg g-1 while in the CDI soils DOC was higher (range: 270

  2. Adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome: do's and don'ts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduraru, D N; Nica, A; Carsote, M; Valea, A

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To present specific aspects of adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome (CS) by introducing well established aspects ("do's") and less known aspects ("don'ts"). Material and Method. This is a narrative review. Results. The "do's" for laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) are the following: it represents the "gold standard" for secretor and non-secretor adrenal tumors and the first line therapy for CS with an improvement of cardio-metabolic co-morbidities; the success rate depending on the adequate patients' selection and the surgeon's skills. The "don'ts" are large (>6-8 centimeters), locally invasive, malignant tumors requiring open adrenalectomy (OA). Robotic adrenalectomy is a new alternative for LA, with similar safety and conversion rate and lower pain drugs use. The "don'ts" are the following: lack of randomized controlled studies including oncologic outcome, different availability at surgical centers. Related to the sub-types of CS, the "do's" are the following: adrenal adenomas which are cured by LA, while adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) requires adrenalectomy as first line therapy and adjuvant mitotane therapy; synchronous bilateral adrenalectomy (SBA) is useful for Cushing's disease (only cases refractory to pituitary targeted therapy), for ectopic Cushing's syndrome (cases with unknown or inoperable primary site), and for bilateral cortisol producing adenomas. The less established aspects are the following: criteria of skilled surgeon to approach ACC; the timing of surgery in subclinical CS; the need for adrenal vein catheterization (which is not available in many centers) to avoid unnecessary SBA. Conclusion. Adrenalectomy for CS is a dynamic domain; LA overstepped the former OA area. The future will improve the knowledge related to RA while the cutting edge is represented by a specific frame of intervention in SCS, children and pregnant women. Abbreviations: ACC = adrenocortical carcinoma, ACTH = Adrenocorticotropic Hormone, CD = Cushing's disease, CS

  3. Don't pay taxes, save your money!

    OpenAIRE

    Bradáč, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Bachelor thesis "Don't Pay Taxes, Save Your Money!" focuses on the impact of the existence of tax havens on private and public sector. On the theoretical level, it shows the attractivity of tax havens for sufficiently large firms that can afford to pay costs of tax planning and profit manipulations. On the empirical level, it shows that tax havens are really the most successful jurisdictions in attracting foreign investors. In the end, two models of tax competition are introduced in order to ...

  4. Digitaalisen markkinointiviestinnän suunnittelu Facebookissa: Ravintola Don Corleone

    OpenAIRE

    Dondych, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli kehittää viestintäsuunnitelma ravintolalle Don Corleone digi-taalisesta markkinointiviestinnästä Facebookissa. Työn tarkoituksena oli tehostaa ravintolan mark-kinointiviestintää Facebookissa, mikä johtaisi asiakkaiden lisääntymiseen ja sitä kautta liiketoimin-nan kasvuun. Sosiaalisen median palveluista viestintäkanavaksi valittiin Facebook toimeksiantajan toiveesta sekä Facebookin suuren suosion ja soveltuvuuden vuoksi. Facebookissa on valmiiksi pal-jon eri...

  5. Aspectos literarios de la obra de don Joan de Castellanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Germán Romero

    1966-09-01

    Full Text Available Capítulo XIV Voces castizas que no figuran en el diccionario de la academia (I Con el título de Dos mil quinientas voces castizas y bien autorizadas que piden lugar en nuestro léxico, publicó don Francisco Rodríguez Marín un interesante libro en Madrid, 1922. El erudito comentador del Quijote estudió cuidadosamente los autores españoles de los siglos XV, XVI y XVII.

  6. Signs of revision in Don Quixote, Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Pontón

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides new evidences in favour of the hypothesis that Cervantes, after finishing Don Quixote, Part II, partially revised the original, introducing some significant changes and additions, mainly in the last chapters. The analysis of some narrative inconsistencies, that cannot be interpreted as mere mistakes but as significant textual traces, reveals a process of re-elaboration –a process that affects at least four sections of the novel. Most of the evidence gathered here suggests that this revision is closely linked to Avellaneda’s continuation, in the sense that Cervantes tried to challenge the apocriphal Quixote making last-time interventions in his own text.

  7. Don Favareau and the Road to Biosemiotic Transdisciplinarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Don Favareau has been a dynamic contributor to the development of biosemiotics its organization, not only with his seminal book: Essential Readings in Biosemiotic: Anthology and Commentary from 2010, where he edited all his colleagues’ writings creating the history of biosemiotics. He has assumed...... the role of the modest and benevolent interdisciplinary integrator through his pervasive kindness and openness to all serious initiatives. Always he is considering where a specific contribution could fit in to the overall development of biosemiotics and pondering how a change in the foundation of science...

  8. Don, Betty and Jackie Kennedy: On Mad Men and Periodisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Black

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Why is it that we watch Mad Men and think it represents a period? Flashes of patterned wallpaper, whiskey neat, babies born that are never mentioned, contact lining for kitchen drawers, Ayn Rand, polaroids, skinny ties, Hilton hotels, Walter Cronkite, and a time when Don Draper can ask ‘What do women want?’ and dry old Roger Sterling can reply ‘Who Cares?’ This essay explores the embrace of period detail in Mad Men finding it to be both loving and fetishistic, and belonging, like all period film, to the politics of the present.

  9. Toxin distribution and sphingoid base imbalances in Fusarium verticillioides-infected and fumonisin B1-watered maize seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Silvina L; Mary, Verónica S; Otaiza, Santiago N; Wunderlin, Daniel A; Rubinstein, Héctor R; Theumer, Martín G

    2016-05-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is a major maize pathogen and there are susceptible and resistant cultivars to this fungal infection. Recent studies suggest that its main mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) may be involved in phytopathogenicity, but the underlying mechanisms are mostly still unknown. This work was aimed at assessing whether FB1 disseminates inside the plants, as well as identifying possible correlations between the maize resistant/susceptible phenotype and the unbalances of the FB1-structurally-related sphingoid base sphinganine (Sa) and phytosphingosine (Pso) due to toxin accumulation. Resistant (RH) and susceptible hybrid (SH) maize seedlings grown from seeds inoculated with a FB1-producer F. verticillioides and from uninoculated ones irrigated with FB1 (20 ppm), were harvested at 7, 14 and 21 days after planting (dap), and the FB1, Sa and Pso levels were quantified in roots and aerial parts. The toxin was detected in roots and aerial parts for inoculated and FB1-irrigated plants of both hybrids. However, FB1 levels were overall higher in SH seedlings regardless of the treatment (infection or watering). Sa levels increased substantially in RH lines, peaking at 54-fold in infected roots at 14 dap. In contrast, the main change observed in SH seedlings was an increase of Pso in infected roots at 7 dap. Here, it was found that FB1 disseminates inside seedlings in the absence of FB1-producer fungal infections, perhaps indicating this might condition the fungus-plant interaction before the first contact. Furthermore, the results strongly suggest the existence of at least two ceramide synthase isoforms in maize with different substrate specificities, whose differential expression after FB1 exposure could be closely related to the susceptibility/resistance to F. verticillioides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fumonisin B{sub 1} hepatotoxicity in mice is attenuated by depletion of Kupffer cells by gadolinium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Quanren [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7389 (United States); Kim, Jiyoung [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7389 (United States); Sharma, Raghubir P [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7389 (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Fumonisin B{sub 1} (FB{sub 1}) is a toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides found on corn worldwide. The biological effects of FB{sub 1} are attributed to sphingolipid metabolism disruption as a result of ceramide synthase inhibition. Tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}) is an important modulator of FB{sub 1} hepatotoxicity. Kupffer cells are major source of cytokine production in liver. In the present study we investigated the effects of Kupffer cell depletion by gadolinium on FB{sub 1} hepatotoxicity in female BALB/c mice. Mice were given saline or 50 mg/kg of gadolinium chloride once via the tail vein; 16 h later they were treated with subcutaneous injections of vehicle or 2.25 mg/kg/day FB{sub 1} in saline for three successive days. Gadolinium significantly attenuated FB{sub 1}-induced increases in the activities of circulating alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and reduced the FB{sub 1}-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and free sphinganine accumulation in liver. Both gadolinium and FB{sub 1} treatments individually increased the expression of selected cell signal factors; e.g., TNF{alpha}, TNF receptor 1, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, lymphotoxin {beta}, interferon {gamma}, and transforming growth factor {beta}1; gadolinium chloride did not alter FB{sub 1}-induced expression of the above genes. Results indicated that Kupffer cells play a role in FB{sub 1} hepatotoxicity. Decreased FB{sub 1}-induced sphinganine accumulation and increased protective TNF{alpha} signaling by gadolinium chloride may in part account for its ameliorating effect on FB{sub 1} liver damage.

  11. Disruption of sphingolipid biosynthesis in hepatocyte nodules: selective proliferative stimulus induced by fumonisin B{sub 1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westhuizen, Liana van der; Gelderblom, Wentzel C.A.; Shephard, Gordon S; Swanevelder, Sonja

    2004-07-15

    In order to investigate the role of sphingolipid disruption in the cancer promoting potential of fumonisin B{sub 1} (FB{sub 1}) in the development of hepatocyte nodules, male Fischer 344 rats were subjected to cancer initiation (FB{sub 1} containing diet or diethylnitrosamine (DEN) by i.p. injection) and promotion (2-acetylaminofluorene with partial hepatectomy, 2-AAF/PH) treatments followed by a secondary FB{sub 1} dietary regimen. Sphinganine (Sa) and sphingosine (So) levels were measured by high performance liquid chromatography in control, surrounding and nodular liver tissues of the rats. The disruption of sphingolipid biosynthesis by the secondary FB{sub 1} treatment in the control rats was significantly (P<0.05) enhanced by the 2-AAF/PH cancer promotion treatment. The nodular and surrounding Sa levels returned to baseline following FB{sub 1} initiation and 2-AAF/PH promotion. When comparing the groups subjected to the secondary FB{sub 1} treatment, the initiation effected by FB{sub 1} was less (P<0.01) sensitive to the accumulation of Sa in the nodular and surrounding tissues than DEN initiation and the 2-AAF/PH control treatment. In contrast, the So level of FB{sub 1} initiation was marginally increased in the nodules compared to the surrounding liver after 2-AAF/PH promotion and significantly (P<0.05) higher with the secondary FB{sub 1} treatment. Although, the FB{sub 1}-induced hepatocyte nodules were not resistant to the disruption of sphingolipid biosynthesis, the nodular So levels were increased and might provide a selective growth stimulus possibly induced by bio-active sphingoid intermediates such as sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)

  12. Effect of insertion of Bt gene in corn and different fumonisin content on growth performance of weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Rossi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effect of Bt corn and isogenic corn on the growth of weaned piglets. One hundred twenty-eight weaned piglets weighing 8.8 ±1.27 kg live weight were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 32 animals each (16 castrated males and 16 females. Bt corn (line MON810 and isogenic corn were produced at two farms located in the Lodi and Venezia provinces (northern Italy. Bt corn had the same chemical composition as the isogenic corn but a lower content of fumonisin B1 (FB1. The experimental period (35 days was divided into two phases: 0-14 d and 15-35 d. There was no significant difference in average daily gain (ADG among groups during the first feeding phase. Compared to animals fed isogenic corn, the piglets fed Bt maize gained more weight during the second feeding phase (Bt: 464.1 g/d, isogenic: 429.1 g/d; P < 0.05. Also, the ADG over the entire trial was higher in piglets fed Bt corn versus piglets fed isogenic corn (Bt: 396.4 g/d, isogenic: 374.1 g/d; P < 0.05. The ADG of the whole period decreased linearly (P<0.05 with respect to FB1 content of diet. Final weight was higher in piglets fed the diet containing Bt corn (Bt: 22.68 kg, isogenic: 21.83 kg; P < 0.05. No differences in feed intake and in the feed:gain ratio were observed, however a linear response between FB1 and feed:gain ratio in first 14 days of the experiment was detected.

  13. Toxicokinetics and toxicological effects of single oral dose of fumonisin B1 containing Fusarium verticillioides culture material in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilkin, P; Direito, G; Simas, M M S; Mallmann, C A; Corrêa, B

    2010-05-14

    Toxicokinetics and the toxicological effects of culture material containing fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) were studied in male weaned piglets by clinical, pathological, biochemical and sphingolipid analyses. The animals received a single oral dose of 5 mg FB(1)/kg of body weight, obtained from Fusarium verticillioides culture material. FB(1) was detected by HPLC in plasma collected at 1-h intervals up to 6h and at 12-h intervals up to 96 h. FB(1) eliminated in feces and urine was quantified over a 96-h period and in liver samples collected 96 h post-intoxication. Blood samples were obtained at the beginning and end of the experiment to determine serum enzyme activity, total bilirubin, cholesterol, sphinganine (Sa), sphingosine (So) and the Sa/So ratio. FB(1) was detected in plasma between 30 min and 36 h after administration. The highest concentration of FB(1) was observed after 2 h, with a mean concentration of 282 microg/ml. Only 0.93% of the total FB(1) was detected in urine between 75 min and 41 h after administration, the highest mean concentration (561 microg/ml) was observed during the interval after 8 at 24 h. Approximately 76.5% of FB(1) was detected in feces eliminated between 8 and 84 h after administration, with the highest levels observed between 8 and 24 h. Considering the biochemical parameters, a significant increase only occurred in cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. In plasma and urine, the highest Sa and Sa/So ratios were obtained at 12 and 48 h, respectively. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Generation of 1898 and Cervantes : The invention of Don Quixote as a national symbol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, H.J.; Achiri, N.; Baraibar, A.; Schmelzer, F.K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Don Quixote became a Spanish national symbol thanks to the authors the Generation of 1898, such as Miguel de Unamuno, Azorín and Francisco Navarra Ledesma, who published their new interpretations during the 1905 commemoration of the publication of Cervantes', The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of

  15. Le Don De Corps En Cote D\\'ivoire | Broalet | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction Le don de corps qui permet de se procurer le matériel anatomique de dissection que constitue le cadavre humain n\\'existe pas en Afrique noire et notamment en Cote d\\' Ivoire. Objectif Recueillir des informations sur le don de corps à Abidjan. Méthode Les auteurs rapportent les informations recueillies au cours ...

  16. Blood Pressure Medicines Don’t Work If People Don’t Take Them PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-13

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the September 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Blood pressure medicines don’t work if people don’t take them. Learn how health care systems can work with patients to make taking medicines easier.  Created: 9/13/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/13/2016.

  17. 77 FR 37031 - Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14367-001] Don W. Gilbert... No.: 14367-001. c. Date filed: May 30, 2012. d. Applicant: Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC. e. Name... Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978, 16 U.S.C. 2705, 2708.] h. Applicant Contact: Don W. Gilbert and...

  18. Integrating toxin gene expression, growth and fumonisin B1 and B2 production by a strain of Fusarium verticillioides under different environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Angel; Schmidt-Heydt, Markus; Cárdenas-Chávez, Diana L.; Parra, Roberto; Geisen, Rolf; Magan, Naresh

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to integrate data on the effect of water activity (aw; 0.995–0.93) and temperature (20–35°C) on activation of the biosynthetic FUM genes, growth and the mycotoxins fumonisin (FB1, FB2) by Fusarium verticillioides in vitro. The relative expression of nine biosynthetic cluster genes (FUM1, FUM7, FUM10, FUM11, FUM12, FUM13, FUM14, FUM16 and FUM19) in relation to the environmental factors was determined using a microarray analysis. The expression was related to growth and phenotypic FB1 and FB2 production. These data were used to develop a mixed-growth-associated product formation model and link this to a linear combination of the expression data for the nine genes. The model was then validated by examining datasets outside the model fitting conditions used (35°C). The relationship between the key gene (FUM1) and other genes in the cluster (FUM11, FUM13, FUM9, FUM14) were examined in relation to aw, temperature, FB1 and FB2 production by developing ternary diagrams of relative expression. This model is important in developing an integrated systems approach to develop prevention strategies to control fumonisin biosynthesis in staple food commodities and could also be used to predict the potential impact that climate change factors may have on toxin production. PMID:23697716

  19. Quantitation of fumonisin B1 and B2 in feed using FMOC pre-column derivatization with HPLC and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lori L; Francis, Kyle A; Johnson, Joseph T; Gaskill, Cynthia L

    2017-11-01

    Pre-column derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) was determined to be effective for quantitation of fumonisins B 1 and B 2 in feed. Liquid-solid extraction, clean-up using immunoaffinity solid phase extraction chromatography, and FMOC-derivatization preceded analysis by reverse phase HPLC with fluorescence. Instrument response was unchanged in the presence of matrix, indicating no need to use matrix-matched calibrants. Furthermore, high method recoveries indicated calibrants do not need to undergo clean-up to account for analyte loss. Established method features include linear instrument response from 0.04-2.5µg/mL and stable derivatized calibrants over 7days. Fortified cornmeal method recoveries from 0.1-30.0μg/g were determined for FB 1 (75.1%-109%) and FB 2 (96.0%-115.2%). Inter-assay precision ranged from 1.0%-16.7%. Method accuracy was further confirmed using certified reference material. Inter-laboratory comparison with naturally-contaminated field corn demonstrated equivalent results with conventional derivatization. These results indicate FMOC derivatization is a suitable alternative for fumonisins B 1 and B 2 quantitation in corn-based feeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fumonisin and T-2 toxin production of Fusarium spp. isolated from complete feed and individual agricultural commodities used in shrimp farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anukul, Nampeung; Maneeboon, Thanapoom; Roopkham, Chanram; Chuaysrinule, Chananya; Mahakarnchanakul, Warapa

    2014-02-01

    Fusarium spp. are plant pathogens producing fumonisins and trichothecenes that both affect human and animal health. In the present study, 40 fungal strains were isolated and species identified from 35 shrimp feed samples and from 61 agricultural raw materials. F. verticillioides was the predominant species (85 %) mostly found in corn and soybean meal, while no Fusarium contamination was detected in shrimp feed. Levels of 10 % of F. oxysporum were isolated from peanut and 5 % of F. equiseti contamination in corn and peanut. To determine the ability of toxin production, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction, and ultra-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were performed. All but four of the fumonisin-producing strains contained the FUM1 gene. No Fusarium synthesized T-2 toxin nor contained the Tri5 gene. This survey brings more data on mycotoxin contamination in the food chain of animal feed production, and leads to the awareness of the use of contaminated raw materials in shrimp farming.