Sample records for zealand southern alps

  1. Fault-gouge dating in the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Ring, Uwe; Uysal, I. Tonguc; Glodny, Johannes; Cox, Simon C.; Little, Tim; Thomson, Stuart N.; Stübner, Konstanze; Bozkaya, Ömer


    We report two 40Ar/39Ar illite ages from fault gouge directly above the current trace of the Alpine Fault in New Zealand at Gaunt Creek (1.36 ± 0.27 Ma) and Harold Creek (1.18 ± 0.47 Ma), and one 40Ar/39Ar illite age from fault gouge from the Two Thumbs Fault on the east side of the Southern Alps. Metamorphic muscovite clasts inherited into the Alpine Fault gouge yielded 40Ar/39Ar ages of 2.04 ± 0.3 Ma at Gaunt Creek and 11.46 ± 0.47 Ma at Harold Creek. We also report Rb-Sr muscovite-based multimineral ages of Alpine Schist mylonite adjacent to the dated fault gouge at Harold Creek (13.1 ± 4.3 Ma) and Gaunt Creek (8.9 ± 3.2 Ma). 40Ar/39Ar muscovite ages from the Gaunt Creek mylonite yielded plateau ages of 1.47 ± 0.08 Ma and 1.57 ± 0.15 Ma. Finally, we report zircon fission track (0.79 ± 0.11 and 0.81 ± 0.17 Ma) and zircon (U-Th)/He ages (0.35 ± 0.03 and 0.4 ± 0.06 Ma) from Harold Creek. We interpret the fault gouge ages to date growth of newly formed illite during gouge formation at temperatures of 300-350 °C towards the base of the seismogenic zone. Simple backcalculation using current uplift/exhumation and convergence rates, and dip angles of 45-60° at the Alpine Fault support that interpretation. We infer that the fault gouge ages record faulting and gouge formation as the rocks passed very rapidly through the brittle-ductile transition zone on their way to the surface. Rb-Sr and 40Ar/39Ar ages on muscovite from Alpine Schist mylonite date muscovite growth at 11 Ma together with a younger phase of cooling/shearing at 1.5-2 Ma. Our ages from the Alpine Schist indicate extremely rapid cooling exceeding 200 °C/Ma. The fault gouge age from the Two Thumbs Fault is significantly too old to have formed as part of the late Neogene/Quaternary Southern Alps evolution.

  2. Cooling and changing seasonality in the Southern Alps, New Zealand during the Antarctic Cold Reversal

    Vandergoes, M.J.; A. C. Dieffenbacher-Krall; Newnham, R.M.; Denton, G.H.; Blaauw, Maarten


    A comprehensively 14C AMS dated pollen and chironomid record from Boundary Stream Tarn provides the first chironomid-derived temperature reconstruction to quantify temperature change during Lateglacial times (17,500–10,000 cal yr BP) in the Southern Alps, New Zealand. The records indicate a ca 1000-year disruption to the Lateglacial warming trend and an overall cooling consistent with the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR). The main interval of chironomid-inferred summer temperature depression (2–...

  3. Developing an observational benchmark for climate-glacier interactions in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    Cullen, N. J.; Conway, J.; Anderson, B.; Mackintosh, A.; Sirguey, P. J.; Fitzsimons, S.; Lorrey, A. M.


    Understanding the response of mountain glaciers to climate variability is crucial for any prediction of sea level rise, the management of water resources, and assessing the risk of natural hazards triggered by glacier retreat. The Southern Alps are important to our understanding of climate change because their location in the southwest Pacific means that they are ideally placed to detect changes in Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation. Changes in the regional ocean-atmosphere system, notably the arrangement of the westerly jet stream, sea surface temperature and surface level pressure in the New Zealand region are important controls on glacier behavior. To continue to build our understanding of the linkages between climate-glacier interactions in the Southern Alps a glaciological and meteorological program on Brewster Glacier has been maintained through the collaborative effort of the University of Otago, Victoria University and NIWA. The program will move into its 10th year next year, making it the longest mass balance program ever conducted in the Southern Alps. It has provided a platform for a number of studies over this time, with the most recent effort being an intensive meteorological measurement campaign in the ablation area of the glacier. This effort has not been without its challenges but we now have the longest and arguably the highest quality meteorological data set ever obtained from a glacier surface in the Southern Alps (2+ years). In particular, the radiation and eddy correlation data obtained through this effort have enabled us to significantly reduce uncertainties associated with energy and mass balance modelling. By presenting these new observational and modelling results we hope to provide the broader cryospheric community with insights into what our current state of knowledge is and how this platform is spawning new projects linked to remote sensing and atmospheric chemistry.

  4. Orogen-scale anticline revealed in the Southern Alps of New Zealand by structural thermochronology

    Zhou, Renjie; Brandon, Mark


    A dense set of cooling ages from the Southern Alps reveals an orogen-scale anticline of cooling-age isosurfaces (isochrones) and provides an interesting example of structural thermochronology, where isochrones are used as structural markers. The isochrone concept is an integral aspect of the age-elevation method, but the latter implicitly assumes that all isochrones are horizontal. Our experience in New Zeland and elsewhere is that isochrones are commonly tilted after formation. We use a more general approach that solves for orientation of the isochrone surfaces, and also the slope of the age-elevation trend, where "elevation" is measured normal to the isochrone surfaces. In New Zealand, collision and convergence between the Pacific and Australian plates have resulted in the formation and continuing growth of the Southern Alps, a prototypical orogenic wedge. In the western side, the Southern Alps is bounded by the Alpine fault, along with deeply exhumed rocks from depths up to 25 km. There are 150 apatite and 200 zircon fission-track (AFT, ZFT) ages that cover the vast region of the South Island of New Zealand from Lake Summer to Lake Wanaka. The AFT ages range from Letters, 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2010.05.022). We use a least-squares method to solve for a best-fit sequence of dipping isochrone surfaces. The solution specifies the strike, dip and spacing of the parallel isochrones, the last of which indicates the velocity of the isochrones passing through the closure depth. We find that the calculation of the entire dataset failed to yield reasonable results, implying nonplanar structures at the regional scale. Using subsets of data, we observed three distinct zones of isochrones from E to W across the South Island. 1) The large area east of the Southern Alps in the central South Island contains ZFT isochrones that dip shallowly (young age and spacing, but dip 10-30 degrees to the west. Collectively, these observations indicate an anticlinal structure across the

  5. Peak metamorphic temperature and thermal history of the Southern Alps (New Zealand)

    Beyssac, O.; Cox, S. C.; Vry, J.; Herman, F.


    The Southern Alps orogen of New Zealand results from late Cenozoic convergence between the Indo-Australian and Pacific plates and is one of the most active mountain belts in the world. Metamorphic rocks carrying a polymetamorphic legacy, ranging from low-greenschist to high-grade amphibolites, are exhumed in the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault. On a regional scale, the metamorphic grade has previously been described in terms of metamorphic zones and mineral isograds; application of quantitative petrology being severely limited owing to unfavorable quartzofeldspathic lithologies. This study quantifies peak metamorphic temperatures (T) in a 300 × 20 km area, based on samples forming 13 transects along-strike from Haast in the south to Hokitika in the north, using thermometry based on Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material (RSCM). Peak metamorphic T decreases across each transect from ≥ 640 °C locally in the direct vicinity of the Alpine Fault to less than 330 °C at the drainage divide 15-20 km southeast of the fault. Thermal field gradients exhibit a degree of similarity from the southernmost to the northernmost transects, are greater in low-grade semischist than high-grade schist, are affected by folding or discontinuous juxtaposition of metamorphic zones, and contain limited information on crustal-scale geothermal gradients. Temperatures derived by RSCM thermometry are slightly (≤ 50 °C) higher than those derived by traditional quantitative petrology using garnet-biotite thermometry and THERMOCALC modeling. The age of RSCM T appears to be mostly pre-Cenozoic over most of the area except in central Southern Alps (Franz Josef-Fox area), where the amphibolite facies schists have T of likely Cenozoic age. The RSCM T data place some constraints on the mode of exhumation along the Alpine Fault and have implications for models of Southern Alps tectonics.

  6. Rapid soil production and weathering in the Southern Alps, New Zealand.

    Larsen, Isaac J; Almond, Peter C; Eger, Andre; Stone, John O; Montgomery, David R; Malcolm, Brendon


    Evaluating conflicting theories about the influence of mountains on carbon dioxide cycling and climate requires understanding weathering fluxes from tectonically uplifting landscapes. The lack of soil production and weathering rate measurements in Earth's most rapidly uplifting mountains has made it difficult to determine whether weathering rates increase or decline in response to rapid erosion. Beryllium-10 concentrations in soils from the western Southern Alps, New Zealand, demonstrate that soil is produced from bedrock more rapidly than previously recognized, at rates up to 2.5 millimeters per year. Weathering intensity data further indicate that soil chemical denudation rates increase proportionally with erosion rates. These high weathering rates support the view that mountains play a key role in global-scale chemical weathering and thus have potentially important implications for the global carbon cycle.

  7. Atmospheric CO2 Consumption in Uplifting Mountain Ranges: New Insight From the New Zealand Southern Alps

    Jacobson, A. D.; Blum, J. D.; Chamberlain, C. P.


    Rates of physical erosion and chemical weathering in uplifting mountain ranges are generally higher than the rates observed in tectonically stable regions. This observation has led to the hypothesis that orogenic events lead to global cooling over geologic time scales by accelerating the rate of atmospheric CO2 drawdown from silicate weathering. However, recent studies of rivers draining the rapidly uplifting Himalaya Mountains have demonstrated that much of the chemical weathering flux is dominated by carbonate dissolution, which does not influence long-term atmospheric CO2 levels. To examine if carbonate weathering dominates in other orogenic environments, we have undertaken investigations of rivers draining the New Zealand Southern Alps, which present a largely unexplored setting for systematically examining tectonic controls on the carbon cycle. In particular, we quantified rates of physical erosion and both silicate and carbonate weathering across a gradient of variable uplift rates but constant bedrock composition. We also compared the findings to global mean values as well as to data for major world rivers in other tectonic and climatic settings. Rapid uplift in the western Southern Alps elevates mechanical erosion rates by a factor of ~13 relative to those on the tectonically stable eastern side. Similarly, the average chemical weathering rate is ~5 times higher on the western compared to eastern side of the mountain range. However, because the proportion of stream-water Ca2+ and Mg2+ from the weathering of trace hydrothermal calcite increases as the rate of mechanical erosion increases, the long-term atmospheric CO2 consumption rate on the western side is only ~2 times higher than that on the eastern side and only ~1.5 times higher than the global mean value. These data demonstrate that tectonic uplift in the New Zealand Southern Alps accelerates physical erosion and chemical weathering rates but does not greatly enhance the rate of long-term atmospheric

  8. The last deglaciation in New Zealand ; revisiting the Misery moraines at Arthur's Pass in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    Fink, David; Rother, Henrik; Woodward, Craig; Shulmeister, James; Wilcken, Klaus


    Recent debate on mid-latitude New Zealand glaciation has focused on reconstructing paleo-climate conditions leading into the (global) Last Glacial Maximum and subsequent deglaciation dynamics during the last termination. Paleo-environmental evidence coupled with reliable glacial chronologies supporting a Southern Hemisphere glacial readvance commensurate with Younger Dryas timing ( 11.5-12.5 ka) showing similar cooling as observed in the Northern Hemisphere has also been hotly debated. Many New Zealand lake and pollen records suggest a minor cooling or hiatus in warming during the period from 14.5 - 12.0 ka which pre-dates YD onset and is more commonly associated with the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR) (14.7 - 13.0 ka). Achieving the required sub-millennial temporal differentiation using in-situ cosmogenic exposure dating comes with numerous difficulties. The Arthur's Pass Moraine complex, deposited by an alpine glacier advancing out of the Otira Gorge splaying east and westward over the divide of the Southern Alps in New Zealand ( 950 masl), exhibits a full post-LGM glacial chronology. The moraines consist of multiple cross-valley terminal, lobate and discontinuous latero-terminal moraines up to 3 kilometres down valley from the proximal Misery moraines at the outlet of Otira Gorge. Within the gorge towards the headwall only 1 km up-valley from the Misery sequence, no other moraines are evident. We have determined paired 10-Be and 26-Al exposure ages from 58 greywacke samples taken from all major moraines, including repeat sampling from the Misery moraines. The new exposure ages show that the Arthur's Pass moraine system spans a period of 19.5 ka to 12.0 ka (Putnam local NZ production rate) with mean recessional moraine ages in chrono-stratigraphic sequence. The overall timing of deglaciation after peak LGM conditions is similar to that observed at down-valley terminal positions of the larger outlet river systems of the Rakaia, Waimakariri and Rangitata Valleys

  9. Drainage capture and discharge variations driven by glaciation in the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Ann V. Rowan; Mitchell A. Plummer; Simon H. Brocklehurst; Merren A. Jones; David M. Schultz


    Sediment flux in proglacial fluvial settings is primarily controlled by discharge, which usually varies predictably over a glacial–interglacial cycle. However, glaciers can flow against the topographic gradient to cross drainage divides, reshaping fluvial drainage networks and dramatically altering discharge. In turn, these variations in discharge will be recorded by proglacial stratigraphy. Glacial-drainage capture often occurs in alpine environments where ice caps straddle range divides, and more subtly where shallow drainage divides cross valley floors. We investigate discharge variations resulting from glacial-drainage capture over the past 40 k.y. for the adjacent Ashburton, Rangitata, and Rakaia basins in the Southern Alps, New Zealand. Although glacial-drainage capture has previously been inferred in the range, our numerical glacier model provides the first quantitative demonstration that this process drives larger variations in discharge for a longer duration than those that occur due to climate change alone. During the Last Glacial Maximum, the effective drainage area of the Ashburton catchment increased to 160% of the interglacial value with drainage capture, driving an increase in discharge exceeding that resulting from glacier recession. Glacial-drainage capture is distinct from traditional (base level–driven) drainage capture and is often unrecognized in proglacial deposits, complicating interpretation of the sedimentary record of climate change.

  10. Reconstructing the pace and pattern of glacial erosion with detrital thermochronology, Southern Alps of New Zealand

    Lang, Karl; Ehlers, Todd; Ring, Uwe; Kamp, Peter; Glotzbach, Christoph; Stübner, Konstanze


    Erosion by the expansion of mountain glaciers can fundamentally reshape mountain topography to alter local climate dynamics, reorganize river drainages and force allopatric speciation events. Characteristic U-shaped glacial valleys and well-preserved glacial landforms across the eastern flanks of the Southern Alps of New Zealand attest to the dramatic impact of Quaternary glaciation on this dynamic landscape. However, the progressive influence of glacial erosion on the evolution of this landscape, and the redistribution of glacial sediment at its peripheries, remains difficult to constrain from morphological analyses alone. To reconstruct the pace and pattern of glacial erosion within the Southern Alps, we present a comprehensive detrital thermochronological dataset including apatite fission-track and (U-Th)/He analyses from samples of modern river sediment and sedimentary basin units preserved along the eastern flanks of the mountains. We interpret erosion patterns in five catchments east of the main drainage divide from detrital cooling age populations in samples of modern river sediment. Published bedrock analyses demonstrate that partial annealing and partial retention zones for the apatite fission-track and (U-Th)/He mineral systems, respectively, have been exhumed within each catchment area. Consequently, cooling ages predictably increase from fully reset ages (typically ages (up to 80 Ma) with eastward distance from the Alpine Fault and increasing elevation. We exploit this predictive relationship between cooling age, eastward distance and elevation to map the source of modern sediment across the eastern flanks of the range. Exhumation of these partial annealing and retention zones east of the main drainage divide is further manifest in the appearance of reset cooling ages within peripheral basin sediments. To reconstruct the pace of Southern Alps exhumation, we further analyze detrital mineral lag-times preserved in late Miocene-Pleistocene peripheral basin

  11. Late Quaternary glacier sensitivity to temperature and precipitation distribution in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    Ann V. Rowan; Simon H. Brocklehurst; David M. Schultz; Mitchell A. Plummer; Leif S. Anderson; Neil F. Glasser


    Glaciers respond to climate variations and leave geomorphic evidence that represents an important terrestrial paleoclimate record. However, the accuracy of paleoclimate reconstructions from glacial geology is limited by the challenge of representing mountain meteorology in numerical models. Precipitation is usually treated in a simple manner and yet represents difficult-to-characterize variables such as amount, distribution, and phase. Furthermore, precipitation distributions during a glacial probably differed from present-day interglacial patterns. We applied two models to investigate glacier sensitivity to temperature and precipitation in the eastern Southern Alps of New Zealand. A 2-D model was used to quantify variations in the length of the reconstructed glaciers resulting from plausible precipitation distributions compared to variations in length resulting from change in mean annual air temperature and precipitation amount. A 1-D model was used to quantify variations in length resulting from interannual climate variability. Assuming that present-day interglacial values represent precipitation distributions during the last glacial, a range of plausible present-day precipitation distributions resulted in uncertainty in the Last Glacial Maximum length of the Pukaki Glacier of 17.1?km (24%) and the Rakaia Glacier of 9.3?km (25%), corresponding to a 0.5°C difference in temperature. Smaller changes in glacier length resulted from a 50% decrease in precipitation amount from present-day values (-14% and -18%) and from a 50% increase in precipitation amount (5% and 9%). Our results demonstrate that precipitation distribution can produce considerable variation in simulated glacier extents and that reconstructions of paleoglaciers should include this uncertainty.

  12. Effects of large deep-seated landslides on hillslope morphology, western Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Korup, Oliver


    Morphometric analysis and air photo interpretation highlight geomorphic imprints of large landslides (i.e., affecting ≥1 km2) on hillslopes in the western Southern Alps (WSA), New Zealand. Large landslides attain kilometer-scale runout, affect >50% of total basin relief, and in 70% are slope clearing, and thus relief limiting. Landslide terrain shows lower mean local relief, relief variability, slope angles, steepness, and concavity than surrounding terrain. Measuring mean slope angle smoothes out local landslide morphology, masking any relationship between large landslides and possible threshold hillslopes. Large failures also occurred on low-gradient slopes, indicating persistent low-frequency/high-magnitude hillslope adjustment independent of fluvial bedrock incision. At the basin and hillslope scale, slope-area plots partly constrain the effects of landslides on geomorphic process regimes. Landslide imprints gradually blend with relief characteristics at orogen scale (102 km), while being sensitive to length scales of slope failure, topography, sampling, and digital elevation model resolution. This limits means of automated detection, and underlines the importance of local morphologic contrasts for detecting large landslides in the WSA. Landslide controls on low-order drainage include divide lowering and shifting, formation of headwater basins and hanging valleys, and stream piracy. Volumes typically mobilized, yet still stored in numerous deposits despite high denudation rates, are >107 m3, and theoretically equal to 102 years of basin-wide debris production from historic shallow landslides; lack of absolute ages precludes further estimates. Deposit size and mature forest cover indicate residence times of 101-104 years. On these timescales, large landslides require further attention in landscape evolution models of tectonically active orogens.

  13. Braided River Flow and Invasive Vegetation Dynamics in the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Caruso, Brian S.; Edmondson, Laura; Pithie, Callum


    In mountain braided rivers, extreme flow variability, floods and high flow pulses are fundamental elements of natural flow regimes and drivers of floodplain processes, understanding of which is essential for management and restoration. This study evaluated flow dynamics and invasive vegetation characteristics and changes in the Ahuriri River, a free-flowing braided, gravel-bed river in the Southern Alps of New Zealand's South Island. Sixty-seven flow metrics based on indicators of hydrologic alteration and environmental flow components (extreme low flows, low flows, high flow pulses, small floods and large floods) were analyzed using a 48-year flow record. Changes in the areal cover of floodplain and invasive vegetation classes and patch characteristics over 20 years (1991-2011) were quantified using five sets of aerial photographs, and the correlation between flow metrics and cover changes were evaluated. The river exhibits considerable hydrologic variability characteristic of mountain braided rivers, with large variation in floods and other flow regime metrics. The flow regime, including flood and high flow pulses, has variable effects on floodplain invasive vegetation, and creates dynamic patch mosaics that demonstrate the concepts of a shifting mosaic steady state and biogeomorphic succession. As much as 25 % of the vegetation cover was removed by the largest flood on record (570 m3/s, ~50-year return period), with preferential removal of lupin and less removal of willow. However, most of the vegetation regenerated and spread relatively quickly after floods. Some flow metrics analyzed were highly correlated with vegetation cover, and key metrics included the peak magnitude of the largest flood, flood frequency, and time since the last flood in the interval between photos. These metrics provided a simple multiple regression model of invasive vegetation cover in the aerial photos evaluated. Our analysis of relationships among flow regimes and invasive vegetation

  14. Rapid rates of soil production in the western Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Larsen, I. J.; Almond, P. C.; Eger, A.; Stone, J. O.; Malcolm, B.; Montgomery, D. R.


    Quantifying rates of soil production is necessary for determining the relative magnitude of the processes that drive the evolution of mountain topography and for assessing proposed links among tectonic uplift, erosion, weathering, and global biogeochemical cycles. However, little is known about the role soil production plays in the denudation of rapidly uplifting mountains. We addressed this problem by sampling soil and river sediment from five catchments in the rapidly uplifting and high rainfall portion of the western Southern Alps, New Zealand. Soils were sampled from ridgetops with subalpine forest and dense alpine shrubland vegetation. Results from 11 measurements of in situ-produced 10Be in soils from three catchments show that rock is rapidly converted to soil, with the highest measured rate approaching 2 mm yr-1. Soil production rates at two of the ridgetops decline exponentially as soil depth increases, consistent with previously proposed soil production functions. The third site exhibits an ambiguous soil production rate-depth relationship. The y-intercepts, or maximum predicted soil production rate where the soil depth is equal to zero, at the sites with well-defined soil production functions are 7-9 times greater than those in other tectonically-active mountains and 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than values from drier and more tectonically-quiescent landscapes, indicating that rock can be converted to soil at substantially higher rates than previously recognized. The maximum predicted soil production rate values are 1.5 to 2.5 times lower than watershed-scale denudation rates inferred from in situ 10Be concentrations in stream sediment, indicating that soil production rates approach, but do not reach catchment-averaged values, which also reflect denudation by bedrock landslides. Ongoing work on additional samples will lead to a refinement of the soil production functions and provide rates for two additional sites. In-progress measurement of zirconium

  15. The Little Ice Age climate of New Zealand reconstructed from Southern Alps cirque glaciers: a synoptic type approach

    Lorrey, Andrew; Fauchereau, Nicolas; Stanton, Craig; Chappell, Petra; Phipps, Steven; Mackintosh, Andrew; Renwick, James; Goodwin, Ian; Fowler, Anthony


    Little Ice Age (LIA) austral summer temperature anomalies were derived from palaeoequilibrium line altitudes at 22 cirque glacier sites across the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Modern analog seasons with temperature anomalies akin to the LIA reconstructions were selected, and then applied in a sampling of high-resolution gridded New Zealand climate data and global reanalysis data to generate LIA climate composites at local, regional and hemispheric scales. The composite anomaly patterns assist in improving our understanding of atmospheric circulation contributions to the LIA climate state, allow an interrogation of synoptic type frequency changes for the LIA relative to present, and provide a hemispheric context of the past conditions in New Zealand. An LIA summer temperature anomaly of -0.56 °C (±0.29 °C) for the Southern Alps based on palaeo-equilibrium lines compares well with local tree-ring reconstructions of austral summer temperature. Reconstructed geopotential height at 1,000 hPa (z1000) suggests enhanced southwesterly flow across New Zealand occurred during the LIA to generate the terrestrial temperature anomalies. The mean atmospheric circulation pattern for summer resulted from a crucial reduction of the `HSE'-blocking synoptic type (highs over and to the west of NZ; largely settled conditions) and increases in both the `T'- and `SW'-trough synoptic types (lows passing over NZ; enhanced southerly and southwesterly flow) relative to normal. Associated land-based temperature and precipitation anomalies suggest both colder- and wetter-than-normal conditions were a pervasive component of the base climate state across New Zealand during the LIA, as were colder-than-normal Tasman Sea surface temperatures. Proxy temperature and circulation evidence were used to corroborate the spatially heterogeneous Southern Hemisphere composite z1000 and sea surface temperature patterns generated in this study. A comparison of the composites to climate mode archetypes

  16. Coseismic landsliding estimates for an Alpine Fault earthquake and the consequences for erosion of the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Robinson, T. R.; Davies, T. R. H.; Wilson, T. M.; Orchiston, C.


    Landsliding resulting from large earthquakes in mountainous terrain presents a substantial hazard and plays an important role in the evolution of mountain ranges. However estimating the scale and effect of landsliding from an individual earthquake prior to its occurrence is difficult. This study presents first order estimates of the scale and effects of coseismic landsliding resulting from a plate boundary earthquake in the South Island of New Zealand. We model an Mw 8.0 earthquake on the Alpine Fault, which has produced large (M 7.8-8.2) earthquakes every 329 ± 68 years over the last 8 ka, with the last earthquake ~ 300 years ago. We suggest that such an earthquake could produce ~ 50,000 ± 20,000 landslides at average densities of 2-9 landslides km- 2 in the area of most intense landsliding. Between 50% and 90% are expected to occur in a 7000 km2 zone between the fault and the main divide of the Southern Alps. Total landslide volume is estimated to be 0.81 + 0.87/- 0.55 km3. In major northern and southern river catchments, total landslide volume is equivalent to up to a century of present-day aseismic denudation measured from suspended sediment yields. This suggests that earthquakes occurring at century-timescales are a major driver of erosion in these regions. In the central Southern Alps, coseismic denudation is equivalent to less than a decade of aseismic denudation, suggesting precipitation and uplift dominate denudation processes. Nevertheless, the estimated scale of coseismic landsliding is considered to be a substantial hazard throughout the entire Southern Alps and is likely to present a substantial issue for post-earthquake response and recovery.

  17. Warming and glacier recession in the Rakaia valley, Southern Alps of New Zealand, during Heinrich Stadial 1

    Aaron E. Putnam; Joerg M. Schaefe; George H .Denton; DavidJ. A. Barrell; Bjørn G. Andersen; Tobias N.B. Koffman; Ann V. Rowan; Robert C. Finkel; Dylan H. Rood; Roseanne Schwartz; Marcus J. Vandergoes; Mitchell A. Plummer; Simon H. Brocklehurst; Samuel E. Kelley; Kathryn L. Ladig


    The termination of the last ice age featured a major reconfiguration of Earth's climate and cryosphere, yet the underlying causes of these massive changes continue to be debated. Documenting the spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric temperature during deglaciation can help discriminate among potential drivers. Here, we present a 10Be surface-exposure chronology and glaciological reconstruction of ice recession following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the Rakaia valley, Southern Alps of New Zealand. Innermost LGM moraines at Big Ben have an age of 17,840 +/- 240 yrs, whereas ice-marginal moraines or ice-molded bedrock surfaces at distances up-valley from Big Ben of 12.5 km (Lake Coleridge), approximately 25 km (Castle Hill), approximately 28 km (Double Hill), approximately 43 km (Prospect Hill), and approximately 58 km (Reischek knob) have ages of 17,020 +/- 70 yrs, 17,100 +/- 110 yrs, 16,960 +/- 370 yrs, 16,250 +/- 340 yrs, and 15,660 +/- 160 yrs, respectively. These results indicate extensive recession of the Rakaia glacier, which we attribute primarily to the effects of climatic warming. In conjunction with geomorphological maps and a glaciological reconstruction for the Rakaia valley, we use our chronology to infer timing and magnitude of past atmospheric temperature changes. Compared to an overall temperature rise of approximately 4.65?degrees C between the end of the LGM and the start of the Holocene, the glacier recession between approximately 17,840 and approximately 15,660 yrs ago is attributable to a net temperature increase of approximately 4.0?degrees C (from -6.25 to -2.25?degrees C), accounting for approximately 86% of the overall warming. Approximately 3.75?degrees C (approximately 70%) of the warming occurred between approximately 17,840 and approximately 16,250 yrs ago, with a further 0.75?degrees C (approximately 16%) increase between approximately 16,250 and approximately 15,660 yrs ago. A sustained southward shift of the

  18. First approaches towards modelling glacial hazards in the Mount Cook region of New Zealand's Southern Alps

    S. K. Allen


    Full Text Available Flood and mass movements originating from glacial environments are particularly devastating in populated mountain regions of the world, but in the remote Mount Cook region of New Zealand's Southern Alps minimal attention has been given to these processes. Glacial environments are characterized by high mass turnover and combined with changing climatic conditions, potential problems and process interactions can evolve rapidly. Remote sensing based terrain mapping, geographic information systems and flow path modelling are integrated here to explore the extent of ice avalanche, debris flow and lake flood hazard potential in the Mount Cook region. Numerous proglacial lakes have formed during recent decades, but well vegetated, low gradient outlet areas suggest catastrophic dam failure and flooding is unlikely. However, potential impacts from incoming mass movements of ice, debris or rock could lead to dam overtopping, particularly where lakes are forming directly beneath steep slopes. Physically based numerical modeling with RAMMS was introduced for local scale analyses of rock avalanche events, and was shown to be a useful tool for establishing accurate flow path dynamics and estimating potential event magnitudes. Potential debris flows originating from steep moraine and talus slopes can reach road and built infrastructure when worst-case runout distances are considered, while potential effects from ice avalanches are limited to walking tracks and alpine huts located in close proximity to initiation zones of steep ice. Further local scale studies of these processes are required, leading towards a full hazard assessment, and changing glacial conditions over coming decades will necessitate ongoing monitoring and reassessment of initiation zones and potential impacts.

  19. Estimating permafrost distribution in the maritime Southern Alps, New Zealand, based on climatic conditions at rock glacier sites

    Katrin eSattler


    Full Text Available Alpine permafrost occurrence in maritime climates has received little attention, despite suggestions that permafrost may occur at lower elevations than in continental climates. To assess the spatial and altitudinal limits of permafrost in the maritime Southern Alps, we developed and tested a catchment-scale distributed permafrost estimate. We used logistic regression to identify the relationship between permafrost presence at 280 active and relict rock glacier sites and the independent variables a mean annual air temperature and b potential incoming solar radiation in snow free months. The statistical relationships were subsequently employed to calculate the spatially-distributed probability of permafrost occurrence, using a probability of ≥ 0.6 to delineate the potential permafrost extent. Our results suggest that topoclimatic conditions are favorable for permafrost occurrence in debris-mantled slopes above ~ 2000 m in the central Southern Alps and above ~ 2150 m in the more northern Kaikoura ranges. Considering the well-recognized latitudinal influence on global permafrost occurrences, these altitudinal limits are lower than the limits observed in other mountain regions. We argue that the Southern Alps’ lower distribution limits may exemplify an oceanic influence on global permafrost distribution. Reduced ice-loss due to moderate maritime summer temperature extremes may facilitate the existence of permafrost at lower altitudes than in continental regions at similar latitude. Empirical permafrost distribution models derived in continental climates may consequently be of limited applicability in maritime settings.

  20. Consideration of geomorphological uncertainties with terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND): combining Schmidt-hammer and 10Be dating, Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Winkler, Stefan


    As the importance of glaciers as key indicators of global change has increased during recent years, investigating Holocene glaciers chronologies has gained higher attention accordingly. One reason is the need for a better understanding of the climate - glacier relationship. Comparative studies play a major role in this field of research owing to the natural diversity of glacier behaviour. Detailed Holocene glacier chronologies are, furthermore, necessary to verify and eventually adjust glacier models indispensable for many attempts to predict future glacier changes. The Southern Alps of New Zealand are one of the few key study areas on the Southern Hemisphere where, in general, evidence is still sparse compared to its Northern counterpart. Improvement and reassessment of the Late Holocene glacier chronology in this region is, therefore, an important goal of current research. Recently, terrestrial (in situ) cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) surface exposure dating has been increasingly applied to Holocene moraines in New Zealand and elsewhere. In the context of numerical ("absolute") dating techniques, terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND) seems to have been established as an alternative to the previously dominating radiocarbon (14C) dating of organic material (plant remains, organic-rich soil layers etc.) buried beneath or within moraines. Precision and time resolution achieved by the newest laboratory standards and procedures (Schaefer et al. 2009) is truly a milestone and will promote future attempts of TCND in any comparable context. Maybe, TCND has the potential to at least partially replace radiocarbon (14C) dating in its dominating role for the "absolute" dating of Holocene glacial deposits. By contrast, field sampling for TCND often lacks appropriate consideration of geomorphological uncertainties. Whereas much effort is made with the high precision results achieved in the laboratory, the choice of boulders sampled on Holocene moraines is often purely made

  1. Continent-scale strike-slip on a low-angle fault beneath New Zealand's Southern Alps: Implications for crustal thickening in oblique collision zones

    Lamb, Simon; Smith, Euan; Stern, Tim; Warren-Smith, Emily


    New Zealand's Southern Alps lie adjacent to the continent-scale dextral strike-slip Alpine Fault, on the boundary between the Pacific and Australian plates. We show with a simple 2-D model of crustal balancing that the observed crustal root and erosion (expressed as equivalent crustal shortening) is up to twice that predicted by the orthogonal plate convergence since ˜11 Ma, and even since ˜23 Ma when the Alpine Fault formed. We consider two explanations for this, involving a strong component of motion along the length of the plate-boundary zone. Geophysical data indicate that the Alpine Fault has a listric geometry, flattening at mid crustal levels, and has accommodated sideways underthrusting of Australian plate crust beneath Pacific plate crust. The geometry of the crustal root, together with plate reconstructions, requires the underthrust crust to be the hyperextended part of an asymmetric rift system which formed over 500 km farther south during the Eocene—the narrow remnant part today forms the western margin of the Campbell Plateau. At ˜10 Ma, the hyperextended margin underwent shallow subduction in the Puysegur subduction zone, and then was dragged over 300 km along the length of the Southern Alps beneath a low-angle (plate boundary zone, providing a mechanism for clockwise rotation of the Hikurangi margin.

  2. Soil-stratigraphic techniques in the study of soil and landform evolution across the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Tonkin, P. J.; Basher, L. R.


    The Southern Alps lie along the convergent Pacific-Indian plate boundary. Geomorphically distinct eastern, axial and western regions reflect the east-west gradient in tectonic uplift (1 to 10 mm a -1) and precipitation (600 to 10,000 mm a -1). The eastern region is divided into front-ange and basin-and-range subregions. Soil-sequence studies on terraces established temporal contrasts in pedogenesis within and between eastern and western regions encompassing Entisols, Inceptisols and Spodosols. On Late Pleistocene and early Holocene terraces Dystrochrepts are persistent soils in the eastern region and Aquods in the western region. These soil sequences are used in the interpretation of relative soil age, stratigraphy and erosion history in hill and mountain drainage basins of the eastern and western regions. In the subhumid to humid eastern front-range subregion, simple soil forms occur as catenary sequences, and there is little evidence of erosion following the destruction of forests in the last millenium. Mollisols are dominant in the subhumid, and Dystrochrepts in humid areas, respectively. Soil-debris mantle regoliths date from the early Holocene and are still developing on slopes. The soil pattern on mountain slopes in the humid, eastern basin-and-range subregion is a complex array of simple, eroded, composite and compound soils. This pattern has resulted from erosion following forest destruction within the last millenium. The oldest surface or buried forest soils are Dystrochrepts dating from the Late Pleistocene to early Holocene. Wind erosion of these low-fertility soils contributes to the loessial sediments in which younger soils have formed. In the western region, soil patterns and soil stratigraphy indicate continous instability with a complex pattern of highly leached, shallow Orthents and bedrock outcrops on slopes. The soils are eroded from slopes within 2 ka. These contrasts in soil development and erosion periodicity in the eastern and western regions

  3. Holocene glacier chronology of the Southern Alps/New Zealand - a critical re-assessment based on geomorphological and glaciological principles

    Winkler, Stefan


    The Southern Alps of New Zealand is one of few suitable study sites for the investigation of Holocene glacier chronologies in the mid-latitudinal Southern Hemisphere. As a result, several studies have been carried out during the past decades applying diverse approaches and using different numerical dating methods (Radiocarbon dating, terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating - TCND) or combined methods like Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) or weathering-rind thickness. The availability of a regional 10Be production curve has improved the calibration of TCND-ages and modern calibration programmes allow re-calculation of old, non-calibrated radiocarbon ages. Despite this progress and an increasing number of studies, there still remains considerable discrepancy if these studies are analysed in detail. And although the Southern Alps of New Zealand are included in more recent global reviews, the corresponding paragraphs are somehow biased towards few selected chronologies and an ostensible 'supremacy' of age information obtained by TCND. Reason for this practise is most likely a comparably high number of individual boulders precisely dated, but moraine ridges on those glacier forelands investigated have been primarily clustered on basis of boulder ages rather than on their geomorphological, sedimentological, and lithological properties. Detailed geomorphological investigation has, however, revealed that disregarding the latter mentioned creates artefacts in form of wrongly introduced advances within existing glacier chronologies alongside uncertainties caused by not paying attention to the concept of 'Little Ice Age'-type events (neoglacial events) and diverse glacier response times. In an attempt to resolve or at least reduce existing uncertainties and contribute towards a future representative regional Holocene glacier chronology for the Southern Alps, the most prominent existing chronologies have be re-assessed. Although the raw data of some studies needed at

  4. Controls on fan depositional processes in the schist ranges of the Southern Alps, New Zealand, and implications for debris-flow hazard assessment

    de Scally, F. A.; Owens, I. F.; Louis, J.


    Sixteen morphometric and vegetation cover variables associated with 32 debris-flow and 28 fluvial fans and their basins in the schist ranges of the Southern Alps of New Zealand are examined. The results show statistically significant differences in the area, length, planimetric shape, relief ratio, Melton's ruggedness ( R), and forest and total vegetation cover between debris-flow and fluvial basins, and in the apex and toe elevations, area, and upper and average axial gradients between debris-flow and fluvial fans. All of these variables except the apex and toe elevations of the fans reflect differences between debris-flow and fluvial processes and environmental controls on them. Discriminant analysis indicates that the relief ratio and Melton's R of the basin and upper and average gradients of the fan axis are able to correctly classify debris-flow and fluvial fans, with almost equally good results obtained by employing only a pair of variables: either basin relief ratio and upper fan gradient or basin Melton's R and basin shape. The lower thresholds at debris-flow sites and upper thresholds at fluvial sites for the relief ratio and Melton's R of the basin and upper and average gradients of the fan are identified, and these as well as the mean values of these variables show significant differences from fans in nearby sedimentary ranges of the Southern Alps with important implications for the assessment of debris-flow hazard on fans. Fan gradient is found to be closely associated with basin size (area and length) at debris-flow sites, but with basin ruggedness (relief ratio) at fluvial sites. Both fan types show a weak association between their size and the size of the contributing basin.

  5. Electrical properties of schist and mylonite from the South Island, New Zealand: Exploring the source of the Southern Alps Anomalous Conductor

    Kluge, Katherine; Toy, Virginia; Ohneiser, Chrisitan; Lockner, David


    The Southern Alps Electrical Conductor (SAC), identified from magnetotelluric surveys of the South Island Geophysical Transect (SIGHT) in the South Island, New Zealand, has high electrical conductivity relative to surrounding lithology (0.1 to 1 S/m between 5 and 25 km depth). This phenomenon is spatially coincident with shear zones of the Alpine Fault transform boundary and a region of anomalously low seismic velocity. It has been suggested these geophysical anomalies indicate dynamically linked fluids or graphite networks at depth, but this is unconfirmed. The convergent component of deformation within the Southern Alps orogen exhumes the lower crust. Because of this, we have been able to examine the relationship between electric properties, porosities, and mineral arrangement of hanging wall rock samples across metamorphic and strain gradients approaching the Alpine Fault. These allow us to constrain the roc properties which yield the source of the Southern Alps Electrical Conductor. We measured the electrical properties of 7 hand samples at the USGS Rock Physics Lab in Menlo Park, California. Complex resistivity of samples under confining pressure was measured up to 200 MPa, with a saturating brine of 0.1 M KCl. Laboratory measurements were then converted to complex conductivity. Mylonite conductivities were also averaged at each confining pressure and extrapolated to Alpine Fault conditions at depth (using fluid conductivity, geothermal gradient and effective confining pressure) to find projected in situ values between 0 and 9.4 km depth. Porosity ranges from 1.2 to 5.4% for hanging wall metamorphic schists and 1.0 to 1.9% for Alpine Fault Zone mylonites. Schist porosity substantially decreases with increasing proximity to the Alpine Fault, but mylonite porosity exhibits no systematic trend. Conductivity at 5 MPa effective confining pressure and 20 Hz ranges from 9.70x10-5 to 2.23x10-3 S/m for schists and 1.48x10-3 to 4.33x10-3 S/m for mylonites. Schist

  6. Application of Finite Element Method of Numerical Modelling to Understand Toe Buckling Deformation in the Southern Alps of New Zealand.

    Ridl, Romy; Bell, David; Villeneuve, Marlene


    Toe buckling deformation is a temporal product of induced stresses concentrated at the base of a slope. Prolonged induced stresses may lead to yielding of an anisotropic rock mass, either through rheological creep deformation (flexural toe buckling) or brittle failure (hinge buckling). Progressive deformation can lead to the breakout at the buckled toe and ultimately result in deep seated displacements on a mountain range scale, referred to as deep seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD). DSGSD can have a considerable impact on civil infrastructure and should be well understood for hazard identification, to inform civil engineering design and for resource management purposes. Toe buckling deformation was identified beneath the basal sliding zone of three large (≥50 Mm3) landslides in the Cromwell Gorge, New Zealand. This area was subjected to extensive geotechnical investigations for the Clyde Hydropower Scheme. During these investigations seventeen major landslides were identified in the Cromwell Gorge and subsequently stabilised. The data from the landslide stabilisation project, including 26.7 km of boreholes and 9 km of tunnels, for the three landslides exhibiting toe buckling was made available for this study. This comprehensive database has enabled comparison and validation of numerical simulations carried out for the Cromwell Gorge. The application of numerical modelling has demonstrated that toe buckling within the Cromwell Gorge is a result of the combination of induced stresses acting on an anisotropic schistose rock mass. The induced stresses comprise: i) topographically-induced gravitational stresses parallel to the slope, associated with the evolution of the Cromwell Gorge from a relatively low relief surface to present day topography (1400 m deep valley), and ii) active far-field tectonic stresses associated with the obliquely convergent stress regime of the Australian-Pacific continent plate boundary. Finite Element Method (FEM) numerical

  7. Assessment of multispectral glacier mapping methods and derivation of glacier area changes, 1978–2002, in the central Southern Alps, New Zealand, from ASTER satellite data, field survey and existing inventory data

    Gjermundsen, EF


    Full Text Available can be made by the use of satellite remote sensing, capable of acquiring comprehensive, uniform and frequent global observations of glaciers and ice sheets. In New Zealand the first and only glacier inventory including the two main islands...? glaciers was made from aerial photographs recorded in 1978 (Chinn, unpublished). The mapping showed that the Southern Alps hosted 3144 glaciers exceeding 0.01 km2, totalling an area of 1158 km2 and an estimated ice volume of 53.3 km3 (Chinn, 2001...

  8. Potential improvement of Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) of moraines in the Southern Alps, New Zealand, by application of the new electronic Schmidt-hammer (SilverSchmidt)

    Winkler, Stefan; Corbett, David


    The Southern Alps of New Zealand are among the few key study sites for investigating Holocene glacier chronologies in the mid-latitudinal Southern Hemisphere. Their characteristic highly dynamic geomorphological process systems prove, however, to be a considerable challenge for all attempts to date and palaeoclimatologically interpret the existing Holocene moraines record. As a multi-proxy approach combining 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND) with Schmidt-hammer testing, the recently developed Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) has already shown its potential in this study area (cf. Winkler 2005, 2009, 2013). An electronic Schmidt-hammer (named SilverSchmidt) was introduced by the manufacturer of the original mechanical Schmidt-hammer (Proceq SA) a few years ago. It offers, in particular, facilities for much easier data processing and constitutes a major improvement and potential replacement for the mechanical Schmidt-hammer. However, its different approach to the measurement of surface hardness - based on Q-(velocity) values instead of R-(rebound) values - is a potential drawback. This difference effectively means that measurements from the two instruments are not easily interconvertible and, hence, that the instruments cannot be used interchangeably without previous comparative tests of both instruments under field conditions. Both instruments used in this comparative study were N-type models with identical impact energy of 2.207 Nm for the plunger. To compare both instruments and explore interconvertibility, parallel measurements were performed on a selected number of boulders (10 boulders per site with 5 impacts each, at least 2 sites per moraine) on moraines of homogeneous lithology but different established ages covering the entire Holocene and the Late Glacial. All moraines are located east of the Main Divide of the Southern Alps at Mueller Glacier, Tasman Glacier, and in the outer Tasman River Valley. All paired samples (n = 50) were

  9. Combination of in situ cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) and Schmidt-hammer dating for the investigation of Late-Holocene lateral moraines in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    Winkler, S.


    The investigation of Holocene glacier chronologies in high mountain regions is important for use of glaciers as indicators for climate change. Only detailed Holocene glacier chronologies offer the opportunity to improve our knowledge on the relationship between glaciers and climate factors, and to verify models of the future glacier development. The Southern Alps of New Zealand represent the southern hemispheric study area within the complex comparative current research project "MaMoGla" (Holocene and recent dynamics of maritime mountain glaciers). Among other goals, new methodological attempts to date the dominating lateral moraines in the Southern Alps in order to revise existing glaciers chronologies have been integrated in this project. The need for improvement of the existing Holocene glacier chronology of the Southern Alps/New Zealand is mainly caused by methodological uncertainties and the focus on Tasman Glaciers as unreliable key locality. Previously, radiocarbon (14C) dating of organic material (plant remains, organic-rich soil layers etc.) buried beneath or within the complex lateral moraines was the predominating ‘absolute' dating technique applied. In addition to older studies using the measurement of weathering rind thickness on boulders, the potential of the Schmidt-hammer as relative-age dating technique has clearly been demonstrated by the successful application on several lateral and latero-frontal moraine sequences in the Mt Cook/Aoraki National Park. The relatively homogenous and weathering/erosion-resistant bedrock yielded comparatively small standard errors and, thus, a relatively high time resolution of up to 200 - 300 years. Supported by statistical treatment of the raw field data, the Schmidt-hammer provided sufficient information to group the individual moraine ridges into moraine sequences and relate them to separate Little Ice Age-type events. However, the final ‘absolute' age dating of the moraine sequences remained open. As an

  10. Fallout Radionuclides as Tracers in Southern Alps Sediment Studies

    Carey, A. E.; Karanovic, Z.; Dibb, J. E.


    The primary geologic processes shaping the landscape are physical and chemical weathering and the transport of solids by erosion. As part of our studies on the coupling between physical erosion and chemical weathering, we have determined depositional and erosional processes in New Zealand's tectonically active, rapidly uplifting Southern Alps, specifically focusing on the Hokitika River watershed. The South Island watersheds we are studying are subject to extreme orographic precipitation (as high as 7-12 m annually) and high landslide frequency, but have modest topography due to the rapid erosion. In concert with our studies of chemical weathering and physical erosion, we have used the atmospherically-delivered radionuclides of 7Be, 137Cs and 210Pbexcess to determine the relative magnitude of particle residence time in the high elevation Cropp and Whitcombe subwatersheds and the rates of sedimentation. One- and two-box modeling with 7Be and 210Pbexcess was used to determine soil and sediment residence times. Residence time of fine suspended particles is short and particles can travel the length of the river during a single storm, probably due to the short duration, high-intensity rainfalls which produce rapidly moving, steep flood waves. The readily detected peak of 137Cs activity in Cropp terrace and Hokitika gorge soils yielded sedimentation rates of 0.06-0.12 cm yr-1. At the Cropp terrace, inventory models of 210Pbexcess yield soil accumulation rates significantly less than those determined using the 137Cs activity peak. We attribute the differences to overestimation of 210Pbexcess in surface soils and to contrasting fallout fluxes, geochemical behavior and radionuclide contents of sedimenting materials. Total inventories of 210Pbexcess in soils greatly exceed the expected direct atmospheric deposition, suggesting that lateral transport of this nuclide occurs within the watershed. At the Hokitika gorge, all nuclides studied yielded similar sedimentation rates




    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to better understand how certain sports tourism professionals have overcome the economic crisis, this paper focuses on how they have innovated on technical, managerial and marketing levels. Analyzing these strategies in the sector of “recreational white-water sports tourism” appears as a way to prospect.Design/methodology/approach: The offer of white-water sports tourism does not fall under tradition forms of organization known to work in the tourism sector. Since the end of the nineties its mode of development seems to have enabled this sector to avoid undergoing the economic crisis. The methodology, based on interviews withentrepreneurs in the sector of white-water sports tourism in the Southern Alps, addresses their managerial strategies and strategic modes of operation in the development of their businesses. The aim is to explore the managerial factors that have resulted in both economic and environmental sustainability. The concept of sustainable development is employed to understand how these entrepreneurial activities are embedded in the social, economic and natural environments of the Southern Alps valleys. Findings: The investigation shows that, rather than focusing on business strategy, professionals in this sector focus primarily on community relations. The supply of white-water sports tourism is presented in a lattice form which develops as a community. The modes of development of this sector, far from corresponding to standard business rationale, amount to a form of sustainable development which may explain the relative success of sport tourism in this period of crisis.

  12. Topographic evolution of a continental indenter: The eastern Southern Alps

    Robl, Jörg; Heberer, Bianca; Prasicek, Günther; Neubauer, Franz; Hergarten, Stefan


    The topographic evolution of the eastern Southern Alps (ESA) is controlled by the Late Oligocene - Early Miocene indentation of the Adriatic microplate into an overthickened orogenic wedge emplaced on top of the European plate. Rivers follow topographic gradients that evolve during continental collision and in turn incise into bedrock counteracting the formation of topography. In principle, erosional surface processes tend to establish a topographic steady state so that an interpretation of topographic metrics in terms of the latest tectonic history should be straightforward. However, a series of complications impede deciphering the topographic record of the ESA. The Pleistocene glaciations locally excavated alpine valleys and perturbed fluvial drainages. The Late Miocene desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea and the uplift of the northern Molasse Basin led to significant base level changes in the far field of the ESA and the Eastern Alps (EA), respectively. Among this multitude of mechanisms, the processes that dominate the current topographic evolution of the ESA and the ESA-EA drainage divide have not been identified and a number of questions regarding the interaction of crustal deformation, erosion and climate in shaping the present-day topography remain. We demonstrate the expected topographic effects of each mechanism in a 1-dimensional model and compare them with observed channel metrics. Modern uplift rates are largely consistent with long-term exhumation in the ESA and with variations in the normalized steepness index (ksn) indicating a stable uplift and erosion pattern since Miocene times. We find that ksn increases with uplift rate and declines from the indenter tip in the northwest to the foreland basin in the southeast. The number and magnitude of knickpoints and the distortion in longitudinal channel profiles similarly decrease towards the east. Most knickpoints probably evolved during Pleistocene glaciation cycles, but may represent the incrementally

  13. Hydrological Impact of Climate Change Scenarios for the Southern Alps

    Maran, S.; Barontini, S.; Grossi, G.; Ranzi, R.; Quaglia, G.


    Starting from results of Global Circulation Models, IPCC-based scenarios for the XXI century were selected and the expected time series for surface temperature and precipitation were extracted together with model results for the second half of the XX century for two regions of the southern Alps, in Italy. Both monthly and daily data were analysed. Monthly data were used to describe the variability of climatic data in terms of trend, and characteristic frequencies were singled out. Comparisons were made among results of different models and, for past data, experimental records collected in meteorological stations located in Northern Italy. The aim was to derive the expected trends in two watersheds where hydropower is well developed. From daily data, statistics on rainy events were derived and they were compared to experimental data, for model's verification. These results were used in a hydrological model in order to assess the expected changes of runoff regimes in the two watersheds. The model, of the semi-distributed and conceptual type, assumes the projected meteorological data as forcing for the XXI century. It also assumes that land use changes (snow and forest cover) will adapt to climate changes. In the area, in fact, an increase of the timberline altitude is already being observed, since the end of the Little Ice Age. Using detailed knowledge of characteristics of the hydropower plants and their past operation rules, and of irrigation uses downstream, the influence of climate change on hydropower production and water resources availability for irrigation and human use was extrapolated for the 21st century in these two representative basins.

  14. Shear in the tethys and the permian paleomagnetism in the Southern Alps, including new results

    Zijderveld, J.D.A.; Hazeu, G.J.A.; Nardin, M.; Voo, R. van der


    To verify paleomagnetic proof for megatectonic translation in the Tethys a large collection of samples from a key area, the Bolzano Quartz Porphyry Plateau in the Southern Alps, was examined. Their natural remanent magnetization was analyzed with thermal, and mainly alternating field demagnetization

  15. A first estimate of mountain permafrost distribution in the Mount Cook region of New Zealand’s southern alps

    Allen, S; Owens, I.; Huggel, C


    The heavily glaciated Mount Cook Region of New Zealand has experienced several recent large rock instabilities, but permafrost conditions related to these events remain unknown. This work presents the first systematic approach for investigating the distribution of mountain permafrost in New Zealand. At this level of the investigation, a firstorder estimate is based upon the adaptation of established topo-climatic relationships from the European Alps. In the southeast of the study region...




    Full Text Available Analysis of the internal characters, especially the cardinalia and brachidium, of the brachiopod Comelicania Frech from the Southern Alps, confirmed the attribution of this genus to the Superfam. Athyridoidea Davidson and provided a more complete taxonomic description of the Fam. Comelicaniidae Merla. This family includes two genera which differ in the morphology of their cardinalia, i.e. Gruntallina Waterhouse & Gupta, type-species Gruntallina triangularis (Grunt from the lower Dorashamian of Transcaucasia and Comelicania, type-species Comelicania megalotis (Stache from the uppermost Bellerophon Fm. of the Southern Alps. The study of a collection composed of more than a hundred specimens highlighted a broad variability of the morphological characters and a pattern of ontogenetic development which demonstrates that classification at the species level is possible only when using mature specimens. Taxonomic revision at the specific level reduced the eleven species of Comelicania from the Southern Alps, described by previous authors, to: C. megalotis (Stache and C. haueri (Stache. In addition a new species, C. merlai, which characterises the upper Comelicania beds, is proposed. 

  17. Climatological analysis of precipitation patterns over Mount Baldo (Southern Alps)

    Poletti, G.; Zardi, D.; de Franceschi, M.


    The mountain range of Mount Baldo is an elongated chain in the southern Prealps. Bounded on the western side by Lake Garda, and on the eastern side by the parallel-running deep furrow of the River Adige Valley, the whole Mount Baldo range stretches in the direction southwest-northeast for about 40 km, from the southern highlands of Caprino Veronese up to the elevated saddle joining the surroundings of Rovereto (in the Adige Valley) to the plain of Nago-Torbole (northern shore of Lake Garda). Mount Baldo displays for most of its length a sharp and uninterrupted crest ridge, mostly running over 2000 m MSL. Its surface covers a variety of altitudinal ranges, from 65 m MSL at the mountain feet, along the Lake Garda shores, to 2,218 m MSL at its highest peak (Cima Valdritta). Furthermore the particular layout of being the southernmost alpine headland, projecting as a balcony over the Po Plain, makes it exposed to the climatic influence of the larger Mediterranean basin. All of these factors concurred to develop a remarkable variety of local microclimates, geographical characters and ecosystems. In particular Mount Baldo is well known for its varied flora, whence it has been named, since 16th century, Hortus Europae (Europe Garden). Precipitation is one of the key factors characterising the peculiar local climates of Mount Baldo. Various precipitation features can be produced by a variety of processes, including both orographic uplift of moist air advected by synoptic systems, and evaporation and up-slope advection of moist air from Lake Garda or from the Po Plain. Furthermore these effects may variously develop, and even combine, under different meteorological scenarios. In the present contribution the preliminary results are shown from a research work aiming at retrieving, collecting in a homogeneous dataset and analysing data from 18 weather stations disseminated on Mount Baldo, in order to produce a climatological analysis of precipitation in the area. The whole

  18. Sediment Transport by Spring Avalanches in the Southern Swiss Alps

    Egloff, J. M.; Hunziker, M.; Moore, J. R.; Christen, M.


    Dense wet-snow avalanches breaking through to the base of the snow pack or overriding snow-free surfaces can entrain basal material and act as important agents of sediment transport in steep Alpine catchments. As part of an ongoing study, we investigated two debris fans in the Matter Valley of southern Switzerland during spring 2009 and 2010, with emphasis on quantifying avalanche sediment transport. Deposited debris ranged from soil parcels and plant material to cobbles and boulders greater than 1 m3. Large boulders were generally angular and fresh with clear signs of recent impacts. The seasonal sediment load transported by avalanches was estimated at one fan by sampling the debris content within a number of representative areas, and then extrapolating the cumulative volume. Results reveal a total transported sediment volume of ~150 m3 in 2009 and ~15 m3 in 2010, which likely reflects varying snowfall and avalanche frequency between years. When distributed over the deposition area on the fan, these results imply an average accumulated sediment thickness of 12 mm in 2009 and 3 mm in 2010. Calculated catchment-wide erosion rates are ~0.1 mm/yr for 2009 and ~0.01 mm/yr for 2010. Cross-sections through avalanche debris revealed that transported sediment generally resides on top of the snow surface. As the avalanches melt, entrained sediment is set down gently, often resulting in precariously balanced boulders and rows of blocks perched on the walls of the fan’s channels. In flat lying areas, snowmelt resulted in sparse sediment deposits with no clear structure or sorting. Observations show that the fan surface is usually protected from erosion by snow and older avalanche deposits, which provide a smooth gliding plane for new events. Within the bedrock gulley adjacent to the fan, and in the avalanche source region above, signs of abrasive wear were evident on exposed bedrock surfaces. These include rounded and scoured bedrock, fresh signs of boulder impacts, and

  19. Siderite deposits in northern Italy: Early Permian to Early Triassic hydrothermalism in the Southern Alps

    Martin, Silvana; Toffolo, Luca; Moroni, Marilena; Montorfano, Carlo; Secco, Luciano; Agnini, Claudia; Nimis, Paolo; Tumiati, Simone


    We present a minero-petrographic, geochemical and geochronological study of siderite orebodies from different localities of the Southern Alps (northern Italy). Siderite occurs as veins cutting the Variscan basement and the overlying Lower Permian volcano-sedimentary cover (Collio Fm.), and as both veins and conformable stratabound orebodies in the Upper Permian (Verrucano Lombardo and Bellerophon Fms.) and Lower Triassic (Servino and Werfen Fms.) sedimentary sequences of the Lombardian and the Venetian Alps. All types of deposits show similar major- and rare-earth (REE)-element patterns, suggesting a common iron-mineralizing event. The compositions of coexisting siderite, Fe-rich dolomite and calcite suggest formation from hydrothermal fluids at relatively high temperature conditions (≥ 250 °C). Geochemical modelling, supported by REE analyses and by literature and new δ13C and δ18O isotopic data, suggests that fluids responsible for the formation of siderite in the Variscan basement and in the overlying Lower Permian cover were derived from dominant fresh water, which leached Fe and C from volcanic rocks (mainly rhyolites/rhyodacites) and organic carbon-bearing continental sediments. On the basis of U-Th-Pb microchemical dating of uraninite associated with siderite in the Val Vedello and Novazza deposits (Lombardian Alps), the onset of hydrothermalism is constrained to 275 ± 13 Ma (Early-Mid Permian), i.e., it was virtually contemporaneous to the plutonism and the volcanic-sedimentary cycle reported in the same area (Orobic Basin). The youngest iron-mineralizing event is represented by siderite veins and conformable orebodies hosted in Lower Triassic shallow-marine carbonatic successions. In this case, the siderite-forming fluids contained a seawater component, interacted with the underlying Permian successions and eventually replaced the marine carbonates at temperatures of ≥ 250 °C. The absence of siderite in younger rocks suggests an Early Triassic

  20. Postcollisional cooling history of the Eastern and Southern Alps and its linkage to Adria indentation

    Heberer, Bianca; Reverman, Rebecca Lee; Fellin, Maria Giuditta; Neubauer, Franz; Dunkl, István; Zattin, Massimiliano; Seward, Diane; Genser, Johann; Brack, Peter


    Indentation of rigid blocks into rheologically weak orogens is generally associated with spatiotemporally variable vertical and lateral block extrusion. The European Eastern and Southern Alps are a prime example of microplate indentation, where most of the deformation was accommodated north of the crustal indenter within the Tauern Window. However, outside of this window only the broad late-stage exhumation pattern of the indented units as well as of the indenter itself is known. In this study we refine the exhumational pattern with new (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission-track thermochronology data on apatite from the Karawanken Mountains adjacent to the eastern Periadriatic fault and from the central-eastern Southern Alps. Apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages from the Karawanken Mountains range between 12 and 5 Ma and indicate an episode of fault-related exhumation leading to the formation of a positive flower structure and an associated peripheral foreland basin. In the Southern Alps, apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission-track data combined with previous data also indicate a pulse of mainly Late Miocene exhumation, which was maximized along thrust systems, with highly differential amounts of displacement along individual structures. Our data contribute to mounting evidence for widespread Late Miocene tectonic activity, which followed a phase of major exhumation during strain localization in the Tauern Window. We attribute this exhumational phase and more distributed deformation during Adriatic indentation to a major change in boundary conditions operating on the orogen, likely due to a shift from a decoupled to a coupled system, possibly enhanced by a shift in convergence direction.

  1. Cyclostratigraphic calibration of cretaceous magnetic polarity events (Cismon, Southern Alps, Italy)

    Mayer, H.


    In an introductory section the problems of constructing a geologic time scale and the role of magnetic reversals and Milankovitch cycles in geochronology are outlined. Results of a detailed cyclostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic study of the Valanginian/Hauterivian part of the pelagic limestone section at Cismon in the Southern Alps are presented and used in conjunction to estimate the duration of magnetic subchrons between CM10N and CM8. The new estimates are shorter than in most published time scales by a factor of two to three. More research along these lines may make a revision of the Early Cretaceous time scale necessary. ?? 1994 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  2. Relationship between rainfall and shallow landslides in the southern Apuan Alps (Italy

    R. Giannecchini


    Full Text Available The Apuan Alps region is one of the rainiest areas in Italy (more than 3000 mm/year, in which frequently heavy and concentrated rainfall occurs. This is particularly due to its geographical position and conformation: the Apuan chain is located along the northern Tuscan coast, close to the Ligurian Sea, and the main peaks reach almost 2000 m. In several cases, the storms that hit the area have triggered many shallow landslides (soil slip-debris flows, which exposed the population to serious risks (during the 19 June 1996 rainstorm about 1000 landslides were triggered and 14 people died. The assessment of the rainfall thresholds is very important in order to prepare efficient alarm systems in a region particularly dedicated to tourism and marble activities. With the aim of contributing to the landslide hazard evaluation of the southern Apuan Alps territory (upper Versilia area, a detailed analysis of the main pluviometric events was carried out. The data recorded at the main rain gauge of the area from 1975 to 2002 were analysed and compared with the occurrence of soil slips, in order to examine the relationship between soil slip initiation and rainfall. The most important rainstorms which triggered shallow landslides occurred in 1984, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998 and 2000. Many attempts were made to obtain a possible correlation between rainfall parameters and the occurrence of soil slip phenomena and to identify the local rainfall threshold for triggering shallow landslides. A threshold for soil slip activity in terms of mean intensity, duration and mean annual precipitation (MAP was defined for the study area. The thresholds obtained for the southern Apuan Alps were also compared with those proposed by other authors for several regions in the world. This emphasized the high value of the rain threshold for shallow landslide activity in the Apuan area. The high threshold is probably also linked to the high mean annual precipitation and to the high

  3. A New Zealand perspective on centennial-scale Southern Hemisphere westerly wind shifts during the last two millennia

    Hinojosa, Jessica L.; Moy, Christopher M.; Stirling, Claudine H.; Wilson, Gary S.; Eglinton, Timothy I.


    The strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds control regional climate and influence the global carbon cycle by physically regulating Southern Ocean CO2 exchange with the atmosphere. However, the mechanisms driving interannual to millennial variability of the westerlies remain poorly understood. Here, we present an 1800-yr record of westerly wind variability recorded in New Zealand fjord sediments. Located west of the Southern Alps, fjord basins receive large amounts of westerly-driven orographic precipitation (>6 m yr-1) and strong winds lead to vigorous fjord mixing. Because of these links, reconstructing precipitation and fjord circulation provides information on westerly wind behavior over southwest New Zealand. Applying a multiproxy approach, we find several intervals of inferred regional wind variability. The intervals of 1450-1400, 825-775, 575-550, and 50-0 cal yr BP were anomalously wet, while 325-300 and 250-225 cal yr BP were anomalously dry. These interpreted intervals appear to be in phase with regional paleoclimate records. Two centennial-scale wet intervals align with a multi-centennial warm interval identified in the Pages2k Australasian temperature reconstruction, while the drier intervals generally occur during cooler times. The wet/dry intervals presented here are matched by opposite wind and/or precipitation trends reconstructed from the windfield core in Chile and the southern windfield margin in Antarctica. Such spatial patterns support the notion of centennial-scale latitudinal wind shifts or contraction/expansion of the core. Consistent with observations, all sites show wind strengthening from ∼50 cal yr BP to present, indicating an overall intensification of winds that is observed in modern instrumental and reanalysis data sets.

  4. Two new pioneer communities of Sorbus aucuparia and Sorbus aria in the southern Julian Alps

    Dakskobler Igor


    Full Text Available In the southern Julian Alps we described two communities whose tree layer is dominated by species from the genus Sorbus and noted two successional stages in the overgrowing of abandoned agricultural land (pastures, hay meadows. In the secondary succession on former subalpine pastures above the alp Planina Razor und under the Breginjski Stol ridge, where potential natural vegetation consists of subalpine beech forest, dwarf pine has been overgrown with mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia whose stands are classified into the new association Rhododendro hirsuti-Sorbetum aucupariae. Whitebeam (Sorbus aria has established itself on steep former hay meadows in the belt of altimontane beech forests under Mts. Jalovnik and Krikov Vrh, on gullied slopes on mixed geological bedrock dominated by chert, and these stands are classified into the association Calamagrostio arundinaceae-Sorbetum ariae. While occupying only small areas these two pioneer stages, as the sites of some rare or protected species, are nevertheless important biotopes and play a vital role in protection against avalanches.




    Full Text Available APTICORE at the Cismon Valley (Belluno Basin, Southern Alps penetrated 131.8 m of limestones, marlstones and "black shales". The cored interval extends from the Upper Aptian down to the lower Upper Hauterivian (about 117-130 Ma and can be considered a "reference section" for low latitudes. The hole was continuously cored with essentially 100% recovery of excellent quality material and completely logged with state-of-the art logging tools. Freshly cored material and logs from the Cismon drill site provide the most informative records for documenting and understanding global changes in the paleoenvironment, biota, geochemistry, paleotemperature of Early Cretaceous oceans. The following is a "site report" containing descriptions of the geologic setting, field operations, basic lithology and age information, and the logging tools and techniques. 

  6. Geochemical changes at the Permian–Triassic transition in Southern Alps and adjacent area: a review

    Aymon Baud


    Full Text Available Compilation of the recent literature from the Southern Alps and adjacent area confirms the geochemical variations of unusual amplitudes during the Permian-Triassic boundary interval (PTBI. A great attention has been given to the negative δ13C anomaly within the Tesero Member close to the Permian-Triassic boundary. Very detailed geochemical works have been done on the scientific Gartnerkofel core (Gk-1 and on the Slovenian sections. Major minor and rare earth elements (REE data are reported and show a marked enrichment in alkaline metals and REE of some levels of the boundary interval. But recent studies show that the low Iridium anomalies and the Osmium and Helium isotopes anomalies lack the characteristics of a large extraterrestrial impact.




    Full Text Available The bivalve Daonella Mojsisovics, 1874 is very common in the Middle Triassic pelagic facies, whereas the record of this genus from shallow water limestones is rare. In the present paper a new species of Daonella, named D. pseudograbensis, is described from the Esino Limestone, a Ladinian (Middle Triassic carbonate platform in the central Southern Alps. The species is described from Brembana Valley, where the Esino Limestone is rather rich in bioclastic lenses yielding faunas with bivalves, cephalopods, gastropods, brachiopods, corals and calcareous algae. Daonella pseudograbensis n. sp. is based on very well preserved specimens, which are often articulated and closed, all coming from the same locality. The new species shows a narrow range of intraspecific and ontogenetic morphologic variations. It is easy distinguishable from the other species of the genus for the outline and ornamentation; it therefore differs from D. grabensis Kittl, 1912, the most similar species, for the longer anterior dorsal margin.Pdf

  8. On the age of sinistral shearing along the southern border of the Tauern Window (Eastern Alps).

    Kitzig, C.; Schneider, S.; Hammerschmidt, K.


    undeformed tonalites yield an age of 26.4±0.1 Ma and of 11.1±0.1 Ma, the strongly foliated tonalitic gneiss yields an age of 19.8±0.1 Ma, which is close to the age of the outcrop-scale shear zone of 18.0±0.1 Ma. It is difficult to interpret the 11 Ma age of one undeformed sample, because it is significantly younger than the ages obtained from zircon fission tracks from neighbouring areas. The older age of 26 Ma for the undeformed tonalite sample is interpreted as cooling age below the closure temperature of biotite, based on the following arguments: 1) This age is consistent with the inferred regional thermochronological distribution of cooling (Luth and Willingshofer, 2008); 2) The rock fabric is undeformed; 3) The age is older than the two deformed samples collected within a distance of a few hundreds of meters. The mineral assemblage of the deformed samples (green biotite and albite crystallisation) differs from the one of the undeformed rocks (red-brown biotite and K-feldspar clasts). Therefore, the albite-biotite isochrons of the deformed samples are inferred to date the deformation event. This age of deformation is consistent with the age determination of Glodny et al. (2008) from deformed marbles of the Schieferhülle, and with previous dating of sinistral shearing along the northern border of the western Tauern Window (Schneider et al., 2007), which yielded an average (n=5) age of 21.9±1.6 Ma. Therefore, sinistral deformation appears to have affected contemporaneously both the northern and the southern margins of the Zentral Gneiss in the western Tauern Window. References: Barnes, J. D., Selverstone, J. & Sharp, Z.D., 2004. Interactions between serpentinite devolatilization, metasomatism and strike-slip strain localization during deep-crustal shearing in the Eastern Alps. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 22, 283-300. Glodny, J., Ring, U. Kühn. A., 2008. Coeval high-pressure metamorphism, thrusting, strike slip, and extensional shearing in the Tauern Window

  9. Synopsis of Grimmia Hedw. in New Zealand, including Grimmia wilsonii sp. nov

    Greven, H.C.


    The New Zealand Grimmia Hedw. specimens from AK, AKU, BM, CHR, OTA and WELT have been revised and a bryological field trip to the New Zealand Southern Alps was made to study specimens in their natural habitats. As a result of the revision and the field trip, G. anodon, G. austrofunalis, G. orbicular

  10. Empirical atmospheric thresholds for debris flows and flash floods in the Southern French Alps

    T. Turkington


    Full Text Available Debris flows and flash floods are often preceded by intense, convective rainfall. The establishment of reliable rainfall thresholds is an important component for quantitative hazard and risk assessment, and for the development of an early warning system. Traditional empirical thresholds based on peak intensity, duration and antecedent rainfall can be difficult to verify due to the localized character of the rainfall and the absence of weather radar or sufficiently dense rain gauge networks in mountainous regions. However, convective rainfall can be strongly linked to regional atmospheric patterns and profiles. There is potential to employ this in empirical threshold analysis. This work develops a methodology to determine robust thresholds for flash floods and debris flows utilizing regional atmospheric conditions derived from ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis data, comparing the results with rain gauge derived thresholds. The method includes selecting the appropriate atmospheric indicators, categorizing the potential thresholds, determining and testing the thresholds. The method is tested in the Ubaye Valley in the southern French Alps, which is known to have localized convection triggered debris flows and flash floods. This paper shows that instability of the atmosphere and specific humidity at 850 hPa are the most important atmospheric indicators for debris flows and flash floods in the study area. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates that atmospheric reanalysis data is an important asset, and could replace rainfall measurements in empirical exceedence thresholds for debris flows and flash floods.

  11. Rainfall modulated deformation of a mountain front: example from the European Southern Alps

    Serpelloni, Enrico; Gualandi, Adriano; Pintori, Francesco; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Cavaliere, Adriano; Anderlini, Letizia; Elina Belardinelli, Maria; Todesco, Micol


    Changes in groundwater levels cause measurable deformation of the Earth's surface and may affect the stress state at seismogenic depths. We highlight a time-dependent deformation signal interesting a large portion of the European Southern Alps and Dinarides by applying a blind-source-separation algorithm to the position time-series of a hundreds of continuous GPS stations. This signal is characterized by spatially variable amplitudes and directions, implying a time-dependent horizontal deformation that is larger in areas of karst geology, with directions normal to the orientation of fractures detected from a digital elevation model analysis and about parallel to the direction of tectonic strains. The temporal evolution of this signal is correlated with cumulated rainfall values over periods >200 days. The deformation can be explained by pressure changes associated with variable water level within vertical fractures, and water level changes required to open or close these fractures are consistent with the fluctuations of precipitation and with the dynamics of mature karst systems




    Full Text Available Investigation of the ostracod fauna of the parastratotype of the Permian-Triassic boundary at Bulla in the Southern Alps produced 62 species belonging to 31 genera. They are all discussed and figured. This paper presents results of the first description of ostracods from this important site. One genus, Bairdiacratia n. gen., and 13 species are new: Glyptopleurina pasinii n. sp., Knoxiella ventrospinosa n. sp., Knightina bullaensis n. sp., Bairdia ortiseiensis n. sp., B. cheni n. sp., B. (Rectobairdia kershawi n. sp., Bairdiacratia qinglai n.gen. n. sp., B. tergilata n. gen. n. sp., Microcheilinella lata n. sp., Parabythocythere chongpani n. sp., Cavellina bellerophonella n. sp., C. alpina n. sp. and C. triassica n. sp. The palaeocecological analysis of each unit is produced. The unconformity-paraconformity U1 is clearly reflected in the ostracod assemblages and is marked by a drop in diversity and abundance of specimens. It was followed by a change in the ostracod faunal composition. The Bulla Member displays maximum ostracod diversity and abundance linked with the trangressive trend reported for this period. The unconformity-paraconformity U2, at the boundary between the Bellerophon and Werfen formations (Bulla and Lower Tesero members is the main extinction level for ostracods. The Lower Tesero, Lower Mazzin and Upper Tesero members have very poor faunas. The lower part of the Upper Mazzin Mb. is characterized by an uneven burst of diversity before the great period of taxonomic paucity observed during the late Griesbachian all over the world. 

  13. Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and early–middle Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy)


    Adding to the on-going debate regarding vegetation recolonisation (more particularly the timing) in Europe and climate change since the Lateglacial, this study investigates a long sediment core (LL081) from Lake Ledro (652ma.s.l., southern Alps, Italy). Environmental changes were reconstructed using multiproxy analysis (pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction, lake levels, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements) recorded climate and land-use changes durin...

  14. Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and Early-Mid Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy)


    Adding to the on-going debate regarding vegetation recolonisation in Europe and climate change since the Lateglacial, this study investigates a long sediment core (LL081) from Lake Ledro (652 m a.s.l., southern Alps, Italy). Environmental changes that where reconstructed using multiproxy analysis (pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction, lake-levels, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements) recorded climate and land-use changes during the Lateglacial and E...

  15. Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and early-middle Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy)


    Adding to the on-going debate regarding vegetation recolonisation (more particularly the timing) in Europe and climate change since the Lateglacial, this study investigates a long sediment core (LL081) from Lake Ledro (652 m a.s.l., southern Alps, Italy). Environmental changes were reconstructed using multiproxy analysis (pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction, lake levels, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements) recorded climate and la...

  16. Assessing the rock glacier kinematics on three different timescales: a case study from the southern Swiss Alps

    Scapozza, Cristian; Lambiel, Christophe; Bozzini, Claudio; Mari, Stefano; Conedera, Marco


    Surface temperature increases since the 1990s have often been associated with an increase in the speed of rock glaciers. Evidence of similar links on the centennial to millennial scale are, however, still lacking due to less focus to date on the medium- and long-term kinematics of these landforms. In order to assess (palaeo)climatic variations in rock glacier kinematics, we analysed the movements of the Stabbio di Largario rock glacier in the southern Swiss Alps using three different timescal...

  17. The potential of radar-based ensemble forecasts for flash-flood early warning in the southern Swiss Alps

    Liechti, K.; L. Panziera; U. Germann; Zappa, M.


    This study explores the limits of radar-based forecasting for hydrological runoff prediction. Two novel radar-based ensemble forecasting chains for flash-flood early warning are investigated in three catchments in the southern Swiss Alps and set in relation to deterministic discharge forecasts for the same catchments. The first radar-based ensemble forecasting chain is driven by NORA (Nowcasting of Orographic Rainfall by means of Analogues), an analogue-based heuristic nowca...

  18. Permian magmatism, Permian detachment faulting, and Alpine thrusting in the Orobic Anticline, southern Alps, Italy

    Pohl, Florian; Froitzheim, Niko; Geisler-Wierwille, Thorsten; Schlöder, Oliver


    Lombardo. It is therefore an Alpine structure. (4) Several south-directed Alpine thrusts duplicate the lithostratigraphy, including the detachment, and are related to the Orobic thrust further north. They also offset the Biandino Fault. U-Pb zircon ages measured with LA-ICP-MS (work in progress) will further clarify the temporal relations between the intrusions, volcanics, and the shear zones. Froitzheim, N., Derks, J.F., Walter, J.M. & Sciunnach, D. 2008. Evolution of an Early Permian extensional detachment fault from synintrusive, mylonitic flow to brittle faulting (Grassi Detachment Fault, Orobic Anticline, southern Alps, Italy) Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 298; 69-82. doi:10.1144/SP298.4 Thöni, M., Mottana, A., Delitala, M. C., De Capitani, L. & Liborio, G. 1992. The Val Biandino composite pluton: A late Hercynian intrusion into the South-Alpine metamorphic basement of the Alps (Italy). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Monatshefte, 12, 545-554. Sciunnach, D. 2001. Early Permian palaeofaults at the western boundary of the Collio Basin (Valsassina, Lombardy). Natura Bresciana. Annuario del Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali, Brescia, Monografia, 25, 37-43.

  19. Crustal structure, seismicity and seismotectonics of the Trentino region (Southern Alps, Italy)

    Viganò, Alfio; Scafidi, Davide; Martin, Silvana; Spallarossa, Daniele; Froner, Luca; Groaz, Oscar


    The Trentino region is located at the junction between the central and eastern Southern Alps (Italy), at the intersection between the Giudicarie, Schio-Vicenza and Valsugana fault systems. This area is characterized by relevant lithological and structural lateral heterogeneities, both at the crustal and lithospheric scales. A low-to-moderate seismicity is located in the upper crust, where faults are seismically active under a dominant compressive with variable strike-slip component regime. Here we study the crustal structure of this portion of the Southern Alps (Adria plate) from interpretation of local earthquake tomography images, in relation with distribution of relocated seismicity and regional tectonic patterns. Local earthquake tomography derives from a set of 476 selected earthquakes in the period 1994-2007, with local magnitudes comprised between 0.8 and 5.3. Hypocenter distribution, and number and quality of manually-repicked phases (6322 P and 5483 S) ensure optimal seismic ray coverage. Original recordings are principally from the Provincia Autonoma di Trento (PAT), that manages the Trentino seismic network since 1981, and from other networks (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - INOGS; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - INGV; others available via the European Integrated Data Archive). The code HYPOELLIPSE is used to perform initial earthquake relocations. The code VELEST is then used to calculate a new minimum 1-D velocity model, as input for tomography. The 3-D tomographic inversion (V P and V P-V S ratio) is obtained via the code SIMULPS, with the implementation of an accurate shooting ray-tracer. The crustal volume is discretized in order to have a regular grid with a homogenous horizontal spatial resolution of 7.5 km. The resolution in depth varies according to the obtained minimum 1-D velocity model. Reliability and accuracy of results are estimated by analyzing the Resolution Diagonal Elements of the




    Full Text Available Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy was investigated in uppermost Callovian-lower Berriasian sections from Southern Alps, previously detected through magnetostratigraphy, in order to achieve an integrated stratigraphic framework valid at low latitudes. Nannofossil investigations were carried out on smear slides and ultra-thin sections, revealing generally scarce to common abundances and poor-moderate preservation of nannofloras. An exhaustive taxonomic revision was performed to unambiguously separate forms which are transitional between two species and better delineate rapidly evolving groups. Four new species have been described: Zeugrhabdotus fluxus, Nannoconus puer, Nannoconus erbae, Hexalithus geometricus. Particular attention was paid to taxonomical aspects of primitive nannoconids, appearing and evolving across the early-late Tithonian transition and the Tithonian/Berriasian boundary intervals; the revision was also verified at DSDP Site 534A from Atlantic Ocean. Fourty-eight nannofossil bioevents were detected and the results help to increase potential stratigraphic resolution in this interval. Thirty-seven nannofossil bioevents in the upper Kimmeridgian-lower Berriasian interval have been directly correlated to magnetostratigraphy (CM22-CM17 revealing a systematically older stratigraphic occurrence of these taxa than previously reported. A revised and partly new Tethyan calcareous nannofossil zonation scheme is here proposed for the uppermost Callovian-lower Berriasian interval. It consists of seven bio-zones and eight subzones based on thirty-one bioevents, thirteen of them related to dissolution resistant taxa assuring highest reproducibility even in sections with high diagenetic overprint. The proposed biostratigraphic scheme gives higher resolution than previous zonations, especially for the Callovian-Kimmeridgian interval, where no biozonation was available for the Tethyan Realm. 

  1. Late Quaternary glaciation of the Upper Soca River Region (Southern Julian Alps, NW Slovenia)

    Bavec, Milos; Tulaczyk, Slawek M.; Mahan, Shannon; Stock, Gregory M.


    Extent of Late Quaternary glaciers in the Upper Soc??a River Region (Southern Julian Alps, SE Europe) has been analyzed using a combination of geological mapping, glaciological modeling, and sediment dating (radiocarbon, U/Th series and Infrared Stimulated Luminescence-IRSL). Field investigations focused mainly on relatively well preserved Quaternary sequences in the Bovec Basin, an intramontane basin located SW of the Mediterranean/Black Sea divide and surrounded by mountain peaks reaching from approximately 2100 up to 2587 m a.s.l. Within the Basin we recognized two Late Quaternary sedimentary assemblages, which consist of the same facies association of diamictons, laminated lacustrine deposits and sorted fluvial sediments. Radiocarbon dating of the upper part of the lake sediments sequence (between 12790??85 and 5885??60 14C years b.p.) indicates that the younger sedimentary assemblage was deposited during the last glacial maximum and through early Holocene (Marine Isotope Stage 21, MIS 2-1). Sediment ages obtained for the older assemblage with U/Th and IRSL techniques (between 154.74??22.88 and 129.93??7.90 ka b.p. for selected samples) have large errors but both methods yield results consistent with deposition during the penultimate glacial-interglacial transition (MIS 6-5). Based on analyses of field data combined with glaciological modeling, we argue that both sediment complexes formed due to high sediment productivity spurred by paraglacial conditions with glaciers present in the uplands around the Bovec Basin but not extending down to the basin floor. Our study shows that the extent and intensity of direct glacial sedimentation by Late Quaternary glaciers in the region was previously significantly overestimated. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Low-grade metamorphism in the eastern Southern Alps: Distribution, conditions, timing and implications for the tectonics of the Alps and NW Dinarides

    Neubauer, Franz; Heberer, Bianca; Genser, Johann; Friedl, Getrude


    Based on 40Ar/39Ar dating of newly-grown syntectonic metamorphic white mica (sericite), we recognize for the first time the timing of Alpine low-grade metamorphism in the eastern part of the Southalpine unit: (1) A Silurian phyllite of Seeberg inlier located to the south of the Periadriatic fault yields a plateau age at c. 75 Ma suggesting a Late Cretaceous age of previously recognized low-grade (Rantitsch & Rainer, 2003) metamorphism. (2) Within the Tolmin nappe, four sericite plateau ages of mainly Middle Triassic volcanics are at c. 51 Ma (Early Eocene). The Late Cretaceous age in the Seeberg inlier is considered to record ductile deformation during formation of a retro-wedge related to the Eo-Alpine orogeny in the Austroalpine units in the Eastern Alps exposed north of the future Periadriatic fault. The Eocene age at the boundary of very low-grade to low-grade metamorphism in the Tolmin nappe (Rainer et al., 2009) relates to the emplacement of the Southalpine nappe complex onto the Dinarides and is contemporaneous with the initial ductile deformation in the Dinarides during Adria-directed shortening and formation of a siliciclastic flysch belt in front of the SW-directed growing fold-thrust belt (Placer, 2008). Similar rare Late Cretaceous and dominant Eocene ages within post-Variscan units are virtually more widespread in the Southalpine unit and Dinarides as considered before. These regions include the Collio basin (Feijth, 2002) and the Eder unit (Läufer et al., 1996) in the western and central Southern Alps, in the internal NW Dinarides (Borojević Šoštarić et al., 2012) and the Mid Bosnian Schist Mountains (Pamić et al., 2004) and Lim Paleozoic unit in the central Dinarides (Ilic et al., submitted). Consequently, the Southalpine unit and Dinarides were affected by two stages of metamorphism, Late Cretaceous (ca. 80 to 75 Ma) and Eocene (ca. 51 - 40 Ma), both stages are related to back-thrusting. The ages of metamorphism are different from those in the

  3. Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and Early-Mid Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy

    S. Joannin


    Full Text Available Adding to the on-going debate regarding vegetation recolonisation in Europe and climate change since the Lateglacial, this study investigates a long sediment core (LL081 from Lake Ledro (652 m a.s.l., southern Alps, Italy. Environmental changes that where reconstructed using multiproxy analysis (pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction, lake-levels, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray fluorescence (XRF measurements recorded climate and land-use changes during the Lateglacial and Early-Mid Holocene. The well-dated and high-resolution pollen record of Lake Ledro is compared with vegetation records from the southern and northern Alps to trace the history of distribution tree species. An altitude-dependent progressive time-delay of the first continuous occurrence of Abies (fir and of the Larix (larch development has been observed since the Lateglacial in the southern Alps. This pattern suggests that the mid-altitude Lake Ledro area was not a refuge and that trees originated from lowlands or hilly areas (e.g. Euganean Hills in northern Italy. Preboreal oscillations (ca. 11 000 cal. BP, Boreal oscillations (ca. 10 200, 9300 cal. BP and n.e. 8.2 kyr cold event suggest a centennial-scale short-lasting climate forcing in the studied area. Picea (spruce expansion occurred preferentially around 10 200 cal. BP and 8200 cal. BP in the south-eastern Alps and, therefore, reflects the long-lasting cumulative effects of successive boreal and 8.2 kyr cold events. The extension of Abies is contemporaneous with the 8.2 kyr event, but its development in the southern Alps benefits from the wettest interval 8200–7300 cal. BP evidenced in high lake-levels, flood activity and pollen-based climate reconstructions. Since ca. 7500 cal. BP, low signal of pollen-based anthropogenic activities suggest a weak human impact. The period between ca. 5700 and ca. 4100 cal. BP is considered as a transition period to colder and wetter conditions

  4. Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and early–middle Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy

    S. Joannin


    Full Text Available Adding to the on-going debate regarding vegetation recolonisation (more particularly the timing in Europe and climate change since the Lateglacial, this study investigates a long sediment core (LL081 from Lake Ledro (652 m a.s.l., southern Alps, Italy. Environmental changes were reconstructed using multiproxy analysis (pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction, lake levels, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray fluorescence (XRF measurements recorded climate and land-use changes during the Lateglacial and early–middle Holocene. The well-dated and high-resolution pollen record of Lake Ledro is compared with vegetation records from the southern and northern Alps to trace the history of tree species distribution. An altitude-dependent progressive time delay of the first continuous occurrence of Abies (fir and of the Larix (larch development has been observed since the Lateglacial in the southern Alps. This pattern suggests that the mid-altitude Lake Ledro area was not a refuge and that trees originated from lowlands or hilly areas (e.g. Euganean Hills in northern Italy. Preboreal oscillations (ca. 11 000 cal BP, Boreal oscillations (ca. 10 200, 9300 cal BP and the 8.2 kyr cold event suggest a centennial-scale climate forcing in the studied area. Picea (spruce expansion occurred preferentially around 10 200 and 8200 cal BP in the south-eastern Alps, and therefore reflects the long-lasting cumulative effects of successive boreal and the 8.2 kyr cold event. The extension of Abies is contemporaneous with the 8.2 kyr event, but its development in the southern Alps benefits from the wettest interval 8200–7300 cal BP evidenced in high lake levels, flood activity and pollen-based climate reconstructions. Since ca. 7500 cal BP, a weak signal of pollen-based anthropogenic activities suggest weak human impact. The period between ca. 5700 and ca. 4100 cal BP is considered as a transition period to colder and wetter conditions (particularly during

  5. Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and early-middle Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy)

    Joannin, S.; Vannière, B.; Galop, D.; Peyron, O.; Haas, J. N.; Gilli, A.; Chapron, E.; Wirth, S. B.; Anselmetti, F.; Desmet, M.; Magny, M.


    Adding to the on-going debate regarding vegetation recolonisation (more particularly the timing) in Europe and climate change since the Lateglacial, this study investigates a long sediment core (LL081) from Lake Ledro (652 m a.s.l., southern Alps, Italy). Environmental changes were reconstructed using multiproxy analysis (pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction, lake levels, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements) recorded climate and land-use changes during the Lateglacial and early-middle Holocene. The well-dated and high-resolution pollen record of Lake Ledro is compared with vegetation records from the southern and northern Alps to trace the history of tree species distribution. An altitude-dependent progressive time delay of the first continuous occurrence of Abies (fir) and of the Larix (larch) development has been observed since the Lateglacial in the southern Alps. This pattern suggests that the mid-altitude Lake Ledro area was not a refuge and that trees originated from lowlands or hilly areas (e.g. Euganean Hills) in northern Italy. Preboreal oscillations (ca. 11 000 cal BP), Boreal oscillations (ca. 10 200, 9300 cal BP) and the 8.2 kyr cold event suggest a centennial-scale climate forcing in the studied area. Picea (spruce) expansion occurred preferentially around 10 200 and 8200 cal BP in the south-eastern Alps, and therefore reflects the long-lasting cumulative effects of successive boreal and the 8.2 kyr cold event. The extension of Abies is contemporaneous with the 8.2 kyr event, but its development in the southern Alps benefits from the wettest interval 8200-7300 cal BP evidenced in high lake levels, flood activity and pollen-based climate reconstructions. Since ca. 7500 cal BP, a weak signal of pollen-based anthropogenic activities suggest weak human impact. The period between ca. 5700 and ca. 4100 cal BP is considered as a transition period to colder and wetter conditions (particularly during summers) that

  6. Climate and vegetation changes during the Lateglacial and Early-Mid Holocene at Lake Ledro (southern Alps, Italy)

    Joannin, S.; Vannière, B.; Galop, D.; Peyron, O.; Haas, J.-N.; Gilli, A.; Chapron, E.; Wirth, S. B.; Anselmetti, F.; Desmet, M.; Magny, M.


    Adding to the on-going debate regarding vegetation recolonisation in Europe and climate change since the Lateglacial, this study investigates a long sediment core (LL081) from Lake Ledro (652 m a.s.l., southern Alps, Italy). Environmental changes that where reconstructed using multiproxy analysis (pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction, lake-levels, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements) recorded climate and land-use changes during the Lateglacial and Early-Mid Holocene. The well-dated and high-resolution pollen record of Lake Ledro is compared with vegetation records from the southern and northern Alps to trace the history of distribution tree species. An altitude-dependent progressive time-delay of the first continuous occurrence of Abies (fir) and of the Larix (larch) development has been observed since the Lateglacial in the southern Alps. This pattern suggests that the mid-altitude Lake Ledro area was not a refuge and that trees originated from lowlands or hilly areas (e.g. Euganean Hills) in northern Italy. Preboreal oscillations (ca. 11 000 cal. BP), Boreal oscillations (ca. 10 200, 9300 cal. BP) and n.e. 8.2 kyr cold event suggest a centennial-scale short-lasting climate forcing in the studied area. Picea (spruce) expansion occurred preferentially around 10 200 cal. BP and 8200 cal. BP in the south-eastern Alps and, therefore, reflects the long-lasting cumulative effects of successive boreal and 8.2 kyr cold events. The extension of Abies is contemporaneous with the 8.2 kyr event, but its development in the southern Alps benefits from the wettest interval 8200-7300 cal. BP evidenced in high lake-levels, flood activity and pollen-based climate reconstructions. Since ca. 7500 cal. BP, low signal of pollen-based anthropogenic activities suggest a weak human impact. The period between ca. 5700 and ca. 4100 cal. BP is considered as a transition period to colder and wetter conditions (particularly during summers) that

  7. Late-stage cooling history of the Eastern and Southern Alps and its linkage to Adria indentation

    Heberer, Bianca; Reverman, Rebecca; Fellin, Maria; Neubauer, Franz; Dunkl, István; Zattin, Massimiliano; Seward, Diane; Brack, Peter; Genser, Johann


    Late-orogenic indentation by rigid lithospheric plates and microplates into softer orogenic wedges leads to post-collisional shortening, lithospheric thickening and vertical and lateral extrusion. The European Eastern and Southern Alps represent a prime example of indenter tectonics. Their Late Neogene geodynamic framework is influenced primarily by the ca. NW-ward motion and counterclockwise rotation of the Adriatic microplate with respect to Europe, which resulted in an oblique, dextral transpressional setting. In this study we refine the late-stage exhumation pattern related to indentation of the eastern Adriatic indenter, i.e. the still northward pushing triangular northeastern part of the Southalpine block that indented the Eastern Alps. New apatite (U-Th)/He and apatite fission track thermochronometry data come from (1) the Karawanken Mountains adjacent to the eastern Periadriatic fault along the northeastern edge of the indenter and from (2) the central-eastern Southern Alps from within the indenter and from its western edge. We find apatite (U-Th)/He ages from the Karawanken Mountains ranging between 11 and 6 Ma, which indicate an episode of fault-related exhumation leading to the formation of a positive flower structure and an associated peripheral foreland basin as well as lateral activity along the Periadriatic fault system. Apatite (U/Th)/He and fission-track data combined with previous data from the Southern Alps indicate that exhumation largely occurred during the Late Miocene, too, and was maximized along thrust systems, with highly differential amounts of vertical displacement along individual structures. Our new data contribute to mounting evidence for widespread Late Miocene tectonic activity in the Eastern and Southern Alps. They demonstrate a shift from deformation and exhumation concentrated within the Tauern Window at the beginning of the indentation process, to less pronounced, but more widespread exhumation along the edges as well as the

  8. Is cool egg incubation temperature a limiting factor for the translocation of tuatara to southern New Zealand?

    Anne A. Besson; Nicola J. Nelson; Cathy M. Nottingham; Alison Cree


    ... (Te Korowai o Mihiwaka), a coastal site in southern New Zealand. The proposed site is within the former latitudinal range of the genus, but lies outside the current distribution of tuatara, where the climate is warmer...

  9. Hydraulic structure of a fault zone at seismogenic depths (Gole Larghe Fault Zone, Italian Southern Alps)

    Bistacchi, Andrea; Mittempergher, Silvia; Di Toro, Giulio; Smith, Steve; Garofalo, Paolo; Vho, Alice


    The Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ, Italian Southern Alps) was exhumed from c. 8 km depth, where it was characterized by seismic activity (pseudotachylytes), but also by hydrous fluid flow (alteration halos and precipitation of hydrothermal minerals in veins and cataclasites). Thanks to glacier-polished outcrops exposing the fault zone over a continuous area > 1 km2, the fault zone architecture has been quantitatively described with an unprecedented detail (Bistacchi 2011, PAGEOPH; Smith 2013, JSG; Mittempergher 2016, this meeting), providing a rich dataset to generate 3D Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) models and simulate the fault zone hydraulic properties. Based on field and microstructural evidence, we infer that the opening and closing of fractures resulted in a toggle-switch mechanism for fluid flow during the seismic cycle: higher permeability was obtained in the syn- to early post-seismic period, when the largest number of fractures was (re)opened by off-fault deformation, then permeability dropped due to hydrothermal mineral precipitation and fracture sealing. Since the fracture network that we observe now in the field is the result of the cumulative deformation history of the fault zone, which probably includes thousands of earthquakes, a fundamental parameter that cannot be directly evaluated in the field is the fraction of fractures-faults that were open immediately after a single earthquake. Postseismic permeability has been evaluated in a few cases in the world thanks to seismological evidences of fluid migration along active fault systems. Therefore, we were able to develop a parametric hydraulic model of the GLFZ and calibrate it, varying the fraction of faults/fractures that were open in the postseismic period, to obtain on one side realistic fluid flow and permeability values, and on the other side a flow pattern consistent with the observed alteration/mineralization pattern. The fraction of open fractures is very close to the percolation threshold

  10. A new species in the Simulium vernum group from the Alps of southern Germany: Simulium arminii (Diptera: Simuliidae).

    Seitz, Gunther; Adler, Peter H


    Simulium arminii new species is described from the Alps of southern Germany. It is characterized by a broad trapezoidal ventral plate in the male, long slender arms of the genital fork in the female, a weakly developed or absent anterodorsal projection on the thinly woven cocoon, and a long median hypostomal tooth in the larva. The species is chromosomally similar to Simulium beltukovae (Rubtsov) but differs most conspicuously by the absence of a chromocenter. It is known from two small, springfed streams above the timber line, in association with Prosimulium latimucro (Enderlein) and Simulium bavaricum Seitz and Adler.

  11. Norian-Rhaetian sedimentary evolution of the Slovenian Basin (eastern Southern Alps)

    Gale, L.; Šmuc, A.; Kolar-Jurkovšek, T.; Skaberne, D.; Celarc, B.; Čar, J.; Rožič, B.


    The Slovenian Basin represents a Mesozoic deep water sedimentary environment, during the Triassic situated on the southern passive continental margin of the Neotethys (Meliata) Ocean (cf. Schmid et al., 2008). The Norian-Rhaetian sedimentary evolution of the Slovenian Basin is reconstructed on the basis of five sections located in different parts of the Tolmin Nappe (Eastern Southern Alps, western Slovenia). The correlation of sections is based on conodont data and facies analysis. The Norian-Rhaetian interval is in the basin represented by the "Bača dolomite" (bedded dolostone with chert) and the Slatnik Formation (hemipelagic and allodapic limestones), while the bordering reef-rimmed carbonate platforms in inner areas record peritidal deposition (Main Dolomite, Dachstein Limestone). The transition from claystone and marly limestone dominated "Amphiclina beds" to the bedded "Bača dolomite" took place at the Carnian-Norian boundary. The change in facies can be attributed to the eustatic rise of sea-level and the subsequent retreat of terrigenous input. Intensive basin-wide slumping took place during the Early Norian and marks a short period of tectonic activity. Slump breccias are followed by bedded dolostones. An increase in terrigenous input in pyrite-enriched thin-bedded dolostones indicates a relative sea-level fall (cf. Haas, 2002) at the Early-Middle Norian boundary. The Middle-Late Norian sedimentation is dominated by bedded dolostones. The microfacies analysis of scarce non-dolomitized horizons indicates hemipelagic deposition and sedimentation from distal turbidites, with material derived from adjacent platform. An interval of slump breccias suggests that another tectonic pulse took place during the Middle Norian. The Late Norian in the northern part of the Tolmin Nappe already belongs to the Slatnik Formation, which spans the rest of the Triassic, while in other parts of the Basin the "Bača dolomite" continues up to the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. The




    Full Text Available A "mid-Carnian" transgressive succession, developed between the Breno carbonate platform and the semiarid coastal carbonates-sabkhas facies of the S. Giovanni Bianco Fm., is recorded in the northern Bergamasc Alps. This episode is characterized by the presence of two stratigraphic markers:  a Dark grey shales and siltstones ("Black Pelites", considered previously as the northern closure of the Gorno-Lower S. Giovanni Bianco Fms., but re-interpreted as the western pinch-out of the Lozio Shale depositional system. The Early Carnian Lozio Shale was deposited first in the Valle di Scalve-Lozio trough and later covered the carbonate platform (Breno Fm..b Fossiliferous, open subtidal limestones, marls and burrowed marly limestones ("Bioclastic Horizon" of the northern Bergamasc Alps. The spreading of shales and siltstones represents the first transgressive stage of the last Carnian sequence in Lombardy, after the "mid- Carnian" (Julian substage regional carbonate platform crisis (top of the Valcamonica Breno Fm.. The "Bioclastic Horizon" records the mfs represented by normal, open marine facies, identified and correlated throughout the Bergamasc Alps. Different petrographic and chemical characters between the Lozio Shale - "Black Pelites" and the Gorno-San Giovanni Bianco Fms. suggest different source areas: the former units are characterized by clasts derived from a metamorphic-intrusive area (placed northward and westward, whereas the latter units are characterized by prevailing volcaniclastic material. A climatic change (from arid to relatively humid conditions may be invoked to explain the crisis of the "mid-Carnian" carbonate platforms in the western Southern Alps and the regional spreading of fine-grained terrigenous material. 

  13. Magnetostratigraphic dating of an intensification of glacial activity in the southern Italian Alps during Marine Isotope Stage 22

    Muttoni, Giovanni; Ravazzi, Cesare; Breda, Marzia; Pini, Roberta; Laj, Carlo; Kissel, Catherine; Mazaud, Alain; Garzanti, Eduardo


    We applied magnetostratigraphy and mammal biostratigraphy to date climate-sensitive pollen cycles and lithostratigraphic units of the Pliocene-Pleistocene Leffe sedimentary succession from the Southern Alps, Italy. The Leffe section was correlated to additional sections (Casnigo, Fornaci di Ranica, and Pianengo) to construct a stratigraphic network along a common fluviatile system (the Serio River) sourced in the Southern Alps and flowing southward into the Po River Basin. We obtained a coherent scenario of climate variability for the last ˜ 2 Myr. At Leffe, lacustrine deposition commenced during the Olduvai Normal Subchron (1.94-1.78 Ma) and lasted up to a chronologic level compatible with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 22 (0.87 Ma). Pollen analysis revealed that climate varied cyclically from warm-temperate to cool during this time interval, but never as cold as during glacial intervals. At around MIS 22, climate cooled globally. Gravels, attributed to high-energy braided river systems fed locally by alluvial fans, prograded from the Serio River catchment area over the Leffe Basin and toward the Po Plain in response to a generalized event of vegetation withdrawal and enhanced physical erosion. At this time, Alpine valley glaciers reached their first maximum southward expansion with glacier fronts located at only ˜ 5 km upstream from Leffe.

  14. Seismic tomography and azimuthal anisotropy for the Southern and Eastern Alps from ambient noise cross-correlations

    Qorbani, Ehsan; Zigone, Dimitri; Kolinsky, Petr; Fuchs, Florian; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray-EASI Working Group


    The eastern part of the Alpine chain is considered as an area of complex tectonics and lithospheric structure. Having a relatively dense network of stations in this region provides an opportunity to study the crustal and lithospheric velocity structure using ambient-noise correlations methods. We used continuous data recorded during 2014 at 50 permanent stations located in Austria, Germany, northern Italy, and Slovenia, along with data from 8 temporary stations of the Eastern Alpine Seismic Investigation (EASI) profile. Cross correlation of ambient noise are performed in order to estimate the Green's functions of surface waves propagating between station pairs. Dispersion curves of Rayleigh and Love waves are constructed between 2 and 30 seconds and are then inverted to obtain group velocity maps at different frequency (depth) levels. We present here a new crustal-lithospheric velocity model for the Southern and Eastern Alps, which reveals clear spatial velocity variation and contrasts, associated with major faults, deformed and damaged zones. In this study, we also assess the azimuthal anisotropy from the group velocity measurements. The new finding together with the previous results from SKS splitting and receiver function provides 3D images of anisotropy at scales ranging from crust to upper mantle. This allows us to discuss the strain field and deformation pattern within both shallow and lithospheric-asthenospheric depth, in relation with the most prominent tectonic processes in the region, such as eastward extrusion of the ALCAPA block (Eastern Alps, Western Carpathian, and Pannonian Basin).

  15. Supraglacial dust and debris: geochemical compositions from glaciers in Svalbard, southern Norway, Nepal and New Zealand

    K. A. Casey


    Full Text Available Alpine glacier samples were collected in four contrasting regions to measure supraglacial dust and debris geochemical composition and quantify regional variability. A total of 70 surface glacier ice, snow and debris samples were collected in Svalbard, southern Norway, Nepal and New Zealand. Trace elemental abundances in snow and ice samples were measured via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Supraglacial debris mineral, bulk oxide and trace element composition were determined via X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF. A total of 45 major, trace and rare earth elements and 10 oxide compound abundances are reported. Elemental abundances revealed sea salt aerosol and metal enrichment in Svalbard, low levels of crustal dust and marine influences to southern Norway, high crustal dust and anthropogenic enrichment in the Khumbu Himalayas, and sulfur and metals attributed to quiescent degassing and volcanic activity in northern New Zealand. Rare earth element and Al/Ti elemental ratios demonstrated distinct provenance of particulates in each study region. Ca/S elemental ratio data showed seasonal denudation in Svalbard and southern Norway. Ablation season atmospheric particulate transport trajectories were mapped in each of the study regions and suggest provenance pathways. The in situ data presented provides first-order glacier surface geochemical variability as measured in the four diverse alpine glacier regions. The surface glacier geochemical data set is available from the PANGAEA database at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.773951. This geochemical surface glacier data is relevant to glaciologic ablation rate understanding as well as satellite atmospheric and land-surface mapping techniques currently in development.

  16. The expansion of hazel ( Corylus avellana L.) in the southern Alps: a key for understanding its early Holocene history in Europe?

    Finsinger, Walter; Tinner, Willy; van der Knaap, W. O.; Ammann, Brigitta


    In Northwestern and Central Europe the Holocene expansion of Corylus occurred before or at the same time as that of other thermophilous trees (e.g. Quercus). This sequence of expansion has been explained by migrational lag, competition, climatic changes, human assistance, or disturbance by fire. In the southern Alps, however, hazel expanded around 10,500 cal yr BP, more than two millennia after oak had become important. This delayed expansion is in contrast with the rapid expansion often assumed for hazel in central Northern Europe. We use two well-dated pollen and charcoal records from the southern forelands of the Alps: Lago Piccolo di Avigliana and Lago di Origlio. We conclude that distance of refugia, speed of seed dispersal, and competition cannot sufficiently explain the absence of the hazel expansion prior to the establishment of mixed oak forests in the southern Alps. Instead our records indicate that higher moisture availability and low temperatures inhibited hazel and favoured the establishment of pine and mixed oak forests during the Allerød. The expansion of hazel ˜11,000-10,500 cal yr BP was favoured by a combination of high seasonality, summer drought and frequent fires, which helped hazel to out-compete oak in the south as well as north of the Alps.

  17. Mesozoic (Lower Jurassic) red stromatactis limestones from the Southern Alps (Arzo, Switzerland): calcite mineral authigenesis and syneresis-type deformation

    Neuweiler, Fritz; Bernoulli, Daniel


    The Broccatello lithological unit (Lower Jurassic, Hettangian to lower parts of Upper Sinemurian) near the village of Arzo (southern Alps, southern Switzerland) is a mound-shaped carbonate deposit that contains patches of red stromatactis limestone. Within the largely bioclastic Broccatello unit, the stromatactis limestone is distinguished by its early-diagenetic cavity system, a relatively fine-grained texture, and an in-situ assemblage of calcified siliceous sponges (various demosponges and hexactinellids). A complex shallow subsurface diagenetic pathway can be reconstructed from sediment petrography in combination with comparative geochemical analysis (carbon and oxygen isotopes; trace and rare earth elements, REE + Y). This pathway includes organic matter transformation, aragonite and skeletal opal dissolution, patchy calcification and lithification, sediment shrinkage, sagging and collapse, partial REE remobilization, and multiple sediment infiltration. These processes occurred under normal-marine, essentially oxic conditions and were independent from local, recurring syn-sedimentary faulting. It is concluded that the stromatactis results from a combination of calcite mineral authigenesis and syneresis-type deformation. The natural stromatactis phenomenon may thus be best explained by maturation processes of particulate polymer gels expected to form in fine-grained carbonate sediments in the shallow subsurface. Conditions favorable for the evolution of stromatactis appear to be particularly frequent during drowning of tropical or subtropical carbonate platforms.

  18. Plant-wax D/H ratios in the southern European Alps record multiple aspects of climate variability

    Wirth, Stefanie B.; Sessions, Alex L.


    We present a Younger Dryas-Holocene record of the hydrogen isotopic composition of sedimentary plant waxes (δDwax) from the southern European Alps (Lake Ghirla, N-Italy) to investigate its sensitivity to climatic forcing variations in this mid-latitude region (45°N). A modern altitudinal transect of δD values of river water and leaf waxes in the Lake Ghirla catchment is used to test present-day climate sensitivity of δDwax. While we find that altitudinal effects on δDwax are minor at our study site, temperature, precipitation amount, and evapotranspiration all appear to influence δDwax to varying extents. In the lake-sediment record, δDwax values vary between -134 and -180‰ over the past 13 kyr. The long-term Holocene pattern of δDwax parallels the trend of decreasing temperature and is thus likely forced by the decline of northern hemisphere summer insolation. Shorter-term fluctuations, in contrast, may reflect both temperature and moisture-source changes. During the cool Younger Dryas and Little Ice Age (LIA) periods we observe unexpectedly high δDwax values relative to those before and after. We suggest that a change towards a more D-enriched moisture source is required during these intervals. In fact, a shift from northern N-Atlantic to southern N-Atlantic/western Mediterranean Sea sources would be consistent with a southward migration of the Westerlies with climate cooling. Prominent δDwax fluctuations in the early and middle Holocene are negative and potentially associated with temperature declines. In the late Holocene (changes on δDwax variation. In addition to isotopic fractionations of the hydrological cycle, changes in vegetation composition, in the length of the growing season, and in snowfall amount provide additional potential sources of variability, although we cannot yet quantitatively assess these in the paleo-record. We conclude that while our δDwax record from the Alps does contain climatic information, it is a complicated record

  19. Fire severity, residuals and soil legacies affect regeneration of Scots pine in the Southern Alps.

    Vacchiano, Giorgio; Stanchi, Silvia; Marinari, Giulia; Ascoli, Davide; Zanini, Ermanno; Motta, Renzo


    Regeneration of non fire-adapted conifers following crown fires on the European Alps is often delayed or unsuccessful. Fire may limit establishment by eliminating seed trees, altering soil properties, or modifying microsite and soil conditions via disturbance legacies. However, the effect of soil legacies on post-fire establishment has rarely been discussed. We analyzed the abundance of Scots pine regeneration in a 257 ha wildfire in an inner-alpine forest. Our aims were (1) to model fire intensity at the soil surface and topsoil heating along a gradient of increasing fire severities; (2) to assess the differences in soil properties along the fire severity gradient; (3) to model the effect of disturbance and soil legacies on the density of pine seedlings. We reconstructed fire behavior and soil heating with the First Order Fire Effects Model (FOFEM), tested the effect of fire severity on soils by nonparametric distributional tests, and modeled seedling density as a function of site, disturbance and soil legacies by fitting a GLM following a variable selection procedure. Topsoil heating differed markedly between the moderate and high severity fires, reaching temperatures high enough to strongly and permanently alter soil properties only in the latter. High fire severity resulted in decreased soil consistency and wet aggregate stability. Burned soils had lower organic matter and cations than those unburned. Pine seedlings favored low-fertility, eroded, and chemically poor sites. Establishment was facilitated by the presence of coarse woody debris, but hampered by increasing distance from the seed source. These results suggest that in dry, inner-alpine valleys, fire residuals and soil legacies interact in determining the success of Scots pine re-establishment. High severity fire can promote favorable soil conditions, but distance from the seed source and high evaporation rates of bare soils must be mitigated in order to ensure a successful restoration.

  20. Glacial erosion dynamics in a small mountainous watershed (Southern French Alps): A source-to-sink approach

    Bonneau, Lucile; Toucanne, Samuel; Bayon, Germain; Jorry, Stéphan J.; Emmanuel, Laurent; Silva Jacinto, Ricardo


    In this study we used major element composition, neodymium isotopes ratios (εNd) and concentration of REE to track and quantify the sediment routing in the Var sedimentary system from source (Southern French Alps) to sink (Ligurian Sea) over the last 50 ka. Our data reveal that changes in sediment sources over that period, associated with concomitant changes in the hyperpycnal (i.e. flood-generated turbidity currents) activity in the Var submarine canyon, were mainly driven by paleoenvironmental conditions in the upper basin and in particular by the presence of glaciers during the last glacial period. Based on this evidence, we determined when and how glacier-derived sediments were produced, then excavated and transferred to the ocean, allowing us to ultimately tune offshore sedimentary records to onshore denudation rates. In contrast to large glaciated systems, we found that sediment export from the Var River to the Mediterranean Sea directly responded to climate-induced perturbations within the basin. Finally, we estimated that sediment fluxes in the Var routing system were 2.5 times higher during the Last Glacial Maximum than today, thus confirming that glacier denudation rates exceed fluvial rates and that such a pattern also governs the interglacial-glacial sediment flux cycle in other small mountainous basins.

  1. Geodetic measurement of tectonic deformation in the southern Alps and Provence, France, 1947-1994

    Ferhat, Gilbert; Feigl, Kurt L.; Ritz, Jean-François; Souriau, Annie


    Active deformation at the boundary between the Eurasia and Africa plates varies in style. The belt between the Alpine mountain range and the Mediterranean Sea, for example, differs markedly in its western and eastern parts. In the western part, around southeast France, the mountains are higher, but the seismicity lower, than in the eastern part, around northern Italy and Greece. Yet the inter-plate convergence rate of 6 mm/yr varies by less than 15% between these two areas. To better understand the behaviour of this complex plate boundary, we use geodesy to map the spatial distribution of the deformation. In this paper, we focus on southeast France, a tectonic crossroads between three different domains (Alps, Ligurian Sea, and Massif Central) which exhibits a moderate level of seismicity. Here, the geodetic measurements imply low rates of horizontal deformation. By combining historical triangulation measurements mostly from 1947 to 1983 with Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys in 1993 and 1994, we estimate the rate of angular shear in triangular subnetworks covering the study area. The estimated strain rates in thirteen of nineteen triangles are smaller than their (1 standard deviation) uncertainties of about 0.1 microradian/yr. This value bounds the rate of deformation for a 100-km wide zone in Provence, between Marseilles to the south and the Ventoux massif to the north. The geodetic estimates place an upper bound of 1 to 2 mm/yr on the slip rates of two seismically active structures, the Durance fault and the Nı̂mes fault, assuming a fault zone ˜20 km wide in each case. We also find strain rates as high as 0.20±0.07 microradian/yr in three subnetworks near the epicentre of the magnitude 5.3 Haute-Ubaye earthquake in 1959, in a region which includes the higher summits. This may be interpreted either as pure shear with compression oriented NE-SW across this region or right-lateral simple shear along NNW-SSE-trending faults. Given that this earthquake is

  2. Temporal and spatial patterns in the chemistry of wet deposition in Southern Alps

    Rogora, M.; Colombo, L.; Marchetto, A.; Mosello, R.; Steingruber, S.


    In the last decades, in Europe a large effort was carried out to reduce sulphur and nitrogen emission in the atmosphere, in order to improve air quality and reduce the acidity of atmospheric deposition and the amount of nitrogen compounds it carries to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This resulted in a sharp decrease in the deposition of sulphate and acidity, while until recently a decrease of the atmospheric load of nitrogen compounds was not evident. In this paper, we focus on the subalpine and alpine areas in North-Western Italy and Southern Switzerland (Canton Ticino), receiving high deposition of atmospheric pollutants transported from emission sources in the Po Valley, one of the most urbanised and industrialised areas of Europe. Long-term studies, covering a 30-year period (1984-2014), were carried out on the chemistry of atmospheric deposition in this area and its effects on surface water bodies through a cooperation between Swiss and Italian research institutions. A total of 14 atmospheric deposition wet-only sampling sites operate in this area, covering a wide latitudinal and altitudinal range (about 200-1900 m a.s.l.). A spatial gradient in the deposition of sulphate and nitrogen compounds was evident both in the 1990s and in recent times (2008-2012), with highest values in the south-eastern part of the area, close to the major emission sources. Deposition also varied depending on local topography. The analysis of long-term trends revealed a large proportion of significant decreasing trends in the concentration of both sulphate and nitrogen compounds. Deposition changes were less evident, due to the high interannual variability in the data, caused by the highly variable precipitation amount, ranging from 1200-1300 mm in dry years to 3000 mm in wet years. Sulphate concentrations and deposition decreased steadily since the 1980s, while ammonium and nitrate showed a widespread decrease only in the most recent period (after 2006). However, nitrogen wet

  3. Fluid inclusion chemistry of adularia-sericite epithermal Au-Ag deposits of the southern Hauraki Goldfield, New Zealand

    Simpson, Mark P.; Strmic Palinkas, Sabina; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Bodnar, Robert J.


    Microthermometry, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and Raman spectroscopy have been used to determine the temperature, apparent salinity, and composition of individual fluid inclusions in adularia-sericite Au-Ag epithermal veins from the Karangahake, Martha, Favona, and Waitekauri deposits, southern Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Quartz veins contain colloform to crustiform bands that alternate with coarse-grained quartz and amethyst. The ore mineralization occurs only in colloform to crustiform bands.

  4. The potential of radar-based ensemble forecasts for flash-flood early warning in the southern Swiss Alps

    K. Liechti


    Full Text Available This study explores the limits of radar-based forecasting for hydrological runoff prediction. Two novel radar-based ensemble forecasting chains for flash-flood early warning are investigated in three catchments in the southern Swiss Alps and set in relation to deterministic discharge forecasts for the same catchments. The first radar-based ensemble forecasting chain is driven by NORA (Nowcasting of Orographic Rainfall by means of Analogues, an analogue-based heuristic nowcasting system to predict orographic rainfall for the following eight hours. The second ensemble forecasting system evaluated is REAL-C2, where the numerical weather prediction COSMO-2 is initialised with 25 different initial conditions derived from a four-day nowcast with the radar ensemble REAL. Additionally, three deterministic forecasting chains were analysed. The performance of these five flash-flood forecasting systems was analysed for 1389 h between June 2007 and December 2010 for which NORA forecasts were issued, due to the presence of orographic forcing. A clear preference was found for the ensemble approach. Discharge forecasts perform better when forced by NORA and REAL-C2 rather then by deterministic weather radar data. Moreover, it was observed that using an ensemble of initial conditions at the forecast initialisation, as in REAL-C2, significantly improved the forecast skill. These forecasts also perform better then forecasts forced by ensemble rainfall forecasts (NORA initialised form a single initial condition of the hydrological model. Thus the best results were obtained with the REAL-C2 forecasting chain. However, for regions where REAL cannot be produced, NORA might be an option for forecasting events triggered by orographic precipitation.

  5. Geometric Reconstruction of Bedrock and Overlying Recent Deposits In An Intra-mountain Basin: The Clusone Basin (southern Alps, Italy)

    Caielli, G.; Berra, F.

    Regione Lombardia (Direzione Generale Territorio e Urbanistica) and the National Research Council (CNR-IDPA Milano) acquired seismic reflection profiles in the Clu- sone basin (Middle Val Seriana, Southern Alps). In the study area, the bedrock is rep- resented by late Triassic carbonate units (Formazione di Castro, Dolomia Principale and coeval basinal facies, bordered northward by an important alpine fault) covered by a large amount of recent deposits that covers an area of more than 10 km2, with a maximum thickness of more than two hundreds meters, as documented by available well data. The aim of the seismic prospecting was to identify the sediments layering and the rock basement depth. The acquisition parameters were as follows: group in- terval 10 m; shot interval 5 m; geophone frequency 14 Hz; sample rate 1 ms; record length 2 s, energy source hydrapulse. The cable, with 120 channels, remained dur- ing all the experiment allowing reflection/refraction events acquisition. The data were processed by a standard procedure using PROMAX and SUNT5 processing codes. The statics were calculated starting from the refracted first arrivals using a two layer inversion based on least square optimisation. Standard seismic reflection processing was applied to obtain reflection images and it was integrated with seismic refraction data inversion. Seismic profiles allow to reconstruct both the main reflectors in the recent deposits and the geometry of the bedrock. The first results document a complex history in the drainage patterns of the Clusone basin, allowing to identify, in an intra- mountain basin, drainage directions that in some cases are different from the ones that can be observed today. The integration of well data and seismic profiles in this study of an intra-mountain basin allows on one side the identification of the bedrock geome- tries and, on the other, gives constrains for the reconstruction of the geomorphologic evolution of a sector of a mountain chain.

  6. Multi-scale characterization of the seismogenic Gole Larghe Fault Zone (Southern Alps, Italy): methodology and results

    Bistacchi, A.; Smith, S. A.; Di Toro, G.; Jones, R.; Griffith, W. A.; Mittempergher, S.; Mitchell, T. M.; Spagnuolo, E.; Rempe, M.; Nielsen, S.; Niemeijer, A.


    The Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ) in the Italian Southern Alps is characterized by the occurrence of cataclasites and pseudotachylytes (solidified frictional melts) formed along pre-existing magmatic cooling joints over a fault zone width of ca. 500 m, under ambient conditions of 9-11 km depth and 250-300°C (the "base" of the seismogenic zone in the crust). The fault zone is seamlessly exposed in glacier-polished outcrops both parallel and perpendicular to fault strike. We have studied in a very detailed way these outcrops, which are considered as a world-class natural laboratory for seismic faulting, combining two complementary strategies: (1) areal imaging/mapping and (2) linear transects. A considerable attention has been paid in order to make the results of these different strategies always coherent and consistent, thanks to a 3D spatial database where the entire dataset is stored. Areal imaging and mapping of structures like individual fault traces was performed over almost five orders of magnitude (from km to mm scale) using high-resolution orthophotos, aerial and terrestrial laser-scanning, photogrammetry and 3D mosaics of high-resolution rectified digital photographs. LIDAR scans and imagery were georeferenced in 3D using a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS), allowing centimetric precision. The analysis of these data has been performed in 3D with Gocad® and custom Matlab® toolboxes. DGPS has been also used to collect linear transects across the fault zone, along which conventional structural measurements have been carried out. The particularity of these transects is that they allow an unprecedented > 100% coverage of the fault zone. In other words, each individual structure (visible with naked eyes), occurring along a continuous transect across the fault zone, has been measured, geolocated, and recorded in the database. In addition, 44 samples collected along the linear transect have been characterized for petrophysical parameters and much

  7. Semi-automatic mapping of fault rocks on a Digital Outcrop Model, Gole Larghe Fault Zone (Southern Alps, Italy)

    Vho, Alice; Bistacchi, Andrea


    A quantitative analysis of fault-rock distribution is of paramount importance for studies of fault zone architecture, fault and earthquake mechanics, and fluid circulation along faults at depth. Here we present a semi-automatic workflow for fault-rock mapping on a Digital Outcrop Model (DOM). This workflow has been developed on a real case of study: the strike-slip Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ). It consists of a fault zone exhumed from ca. 10 km depth, hosted in granitoid rocks of Adamello batholith (Italian Southern Alps). Individual seismogenic slip surfaces generally show green cataclasites (cemented by the precipitation of epidote and K-feldspar from hydrothermal fluids) and more or less well preserved pseudotachylytes (black when well preserved, greenish to white when altered). First of all, a digital model for the outcrop is reconstructed with photogrammetric techniques, using a large number of high resolution digital photographs, processed with VisualSFM software. By using high resolution photographs the DOM can have a much higher resolution than with LIDAR surveys, up to 0.2 mm/pixel. Then, image processing is performed to map the fault-rock distribution with the ImageJ-Fiji package. Green cataclasites and epidote/K-feldspar veins can be quite easily separated from the host rock (tonalite) using spectral analysis. Particularly, band ratio and principal component analysis have been tested successfully. The mapping of black pseudotachylyte veins is more tricky because the differences between the pseudotachylyte and biotite spectral signature are not appreciable. For this reason we have tested different morphological processing tools aimed at identifying (and subtracting) the tiny biotite grains. We propose a solution based on binary images involving a combination of size and circularity thresholds. Comparing the results with manually segmented images, we noticed that major problems occur only when pseudotachylyte veins are very thin and discontinuous. After

  8. On the diurnal cycle of deep moist convection in the southern side of the Alps analysed through cloud-to-ground lightning activity

    Gladich, I.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Stel, F.


    In this work, eight years of cloud-to-ground lightning data are used as a proxy observable to describe the hourly frequency of deep moist convection occurrence over an area characterized by complex geography in the southern side of the Alps (Friuli Venezia Giulia). The study area is divided in eight sub-zones, defined according to the climatic differences of the southern side of the Alps, in particular those related to the precipitation regime. In the eight sub-zones, the hourly frequency of cloud-to-ground lightning shows two different behaviours: bimodal and single-mode. Single-mode hourly frequencies, in turn, can be divided into two more classes: afternoon maximum and evening maximum. A conceptual model for the explanation of the observed features is proposed. This conceptual model takes into account the atmospheric instability, which has a maximum during afternoon, and the convection forcing represented by the switch in the breezes regime, which is stronger in the late morning and evening. The proposed conceptual model is coherent with the complementary meteorological parameters taken into account (hourly rain, temperature and wind distribution and speed) and it is capable to describe, at least qualitatively, the observed behaviours in cloud-to-ground lightning hourly distribution.

  9. Sediment Budget Analysis and Hazard Assessment in the Peynin, a Small Alpine Catchment (Upper Guil River, Southern Alps, France)

    Carlier, Benoit; Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Fort, Monique; Bouccara, Fanny; Sourdot, Grégoire; Tassel, Adrien; Lissak, Candide; Betard, François; Cossart, Etienne; Madelin, Malika; Viel, Vincent; Charnay, Bérengère; Bletterie, Xavier


    The upper Guil catchment (Southern Alps) is prone to hydro-geomorphic hazards. Major hazards are related to catastrophic floods, with an amplification of their impacts due to strong hillslope-channel connectivity as observed in 1957 and 2000. In both cases, the rainfall intensity, aggravated by the pre-existing saturated soils, explained the instantaneous response of the fluvial system, such as destabilisation of slopes, high sediment discharge, and subsequent damages to exposed structures and settlements present in the floodplain and at confluence sites. The Peynin junction with the Guil River is one of these sites, where significant land-use change during the last decades in relation to the development of handicraft and tourism economy has increased debris flow threat to population. Here, we adopt a sediment budget analysis aimed at better understanding the functioning of this small subcatchment. This latter offers a combination of factors that favour torrential and gravitational activity. It receives abundant and intense rainfall during "Lombarde" events (moist air mass from Mediterranean Sea). Its elongated shape and small surface area (15 km²) together with asymmetric slopes (counter dip slope on the left bank) accelerate runoff on a short response time. In addition highly tectonised shaly schists supply a large volume of debris (mostly platy clasts and fine, micaceous sediment). The objectives of this study, carried out in the frame of SAMCO (ANR) project, are threefold: Identify the different sediment storages; Characterise the processes that put sediment into motion; Quantify volumes of sediment storages. We produced a geomorphic map using topographic surveys and aerial photos in order to locate the different sediment storage types and associated processes. This analysis was made with respect to geomorphic coupling and sediment flux activity. In terms of surface area, the dominant landforms in the valley were found to be mass wasting, talus slopes and

  10. Semi-automatic mapping of fault rocks on a Digital Outcrop Model, Gole Larghe Fault Zone (Southern Alps, Italy)

    Mittempergher, Silvia; Vho, Alice; Bistacchi, Andrea


    A quantitative analysis of fault-rock distribution in outcrops of exhumed fault zones is of fundamental importance for studies of fault zone architecture, fault and earthquake mechanics, and fluid circulation. We present a semi-automatic workflow for fault-rock mapping on a Digital Outcrop Model (DOM), developed on the Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ), a well exposed strike-slip fault in the Adamello batholith (Italian Southern Alps). The GLFZ has been exhumed from ca. 8-10 km depth, and consists of hundreds of individual seismogenic slip surfaces lined by green cataclasites (crushed wall rocks cemented by the hydrothermal epidote and K-feldspar) and black pseudotachylytes (solidified frictional melts, considered as a marker for seismic slip). A digital model of selected outcrop exposures was reconstructed with photogrammetric techniques, using a large number of high resolution digital photographs processed with VisualSFM software. The resulting DOM has a resolution up to 0.2 mm/pixel. Most of the outcrop was imaged using images each one covering a 1 x 1 m2 area, while selected structural features, such as sidewall ripouts or stepovers, were covered with higher-resolution images covering 30 x 40 cm2 areas.Image processing algorithms were preliminarily tested using the ImageJ-Fiji package, then a workflow in Matlab was developed to process a large collection of images sequentially. Particularly in detailed 30 x 40 cm images, cataclasites and hydrothermal veins were successfully identified using spectral analysis in RGB and HSV color spaces. This allows mapping the network of cataclasites and veins which provided the pathway for hydrothermal fluid circulation, and also the volume of mineralization, since we are able to measure the thickness of cataclasites and veins on the outcrop surface. The spectral signature of pseudotachylyte veins is indistinguishable from that of biotite grains in the wall rock (tonalite), so we tested morphological analysis tools to discriminate

  11. Landslide Hazard Assessment and Mapping in the Guil Catchment (Queyras, Southern French Alps): From Landslide Inventory to Susceptibility Modelling

    Roulleau, Louise; Bétard, François; Carlier, Benoît; Lissak, Candide; Fort, Monique


    Landslides are common natural hazards in the Southern French Alps, where they may affect human lives and cause severe damages to infrastructures. As a part of the SAMCO research project dedicated to risk evaluation in mountain areas, this study focuses on the Guil river catchment (317 km2), Queyras, to assess landslide hazard poorly studied until now. In that area, landslides are mainly occasional, low amplitude phenomena, with limited direct impacts when compared to other hazards such as floods or snow avalanches. However, when interacting with floods during extreme rainfall events, landslides may have indirect consequences of greater importance because of strong hillslope-channel connectivity along the Guil River and its tributaries (i.e. positive feedbacks). This specific morphodynamic functioning reinforces the need to have a better understanding of landslide hazards and their spatial distribution at the catchment scale to prevent local population from disasters with multi-hazard origin. The aim of this study is to produce a landslide susceptibility mapping at 1:50 000 scale as a first step towards global estimation of landslide hazard and risk. The three main methodologies used for assessing landslide susceptibility are qualitative (i.e. expert opinion), deterministic (i.e. physics-based models) and statistical methods (i.e. probabilistic models). Due to the rapid development of geographical information systems (GIS) during the last two decades, statistical methods are today widely used because they offer a greater objectivity and reproducibility at large scales. Among them, multivariate analyses are considered as the most robust techniques, especially the logistic regression method commonly used in landslide susceptibility mapping. However, this method like others is strongly dependent on the accuracy of the input data to avoid significant errors in the final results. In particular, a complete and accurate landslide inventory is required before the modelling

  12. Parameterization of a numerical 2-D debris flow model with entrainment: a case study of the Faucon catchment, Southern French Alps

    H. Y. Hussin


    Full Text Available The occurrence of debris flows has been recorded for more than a century in the European Alps, accounting for the risk to settlements and other human infrastructure that have led to death, building damage and traffic disruptions. One of the difficulties in the quantitative hazard assessment of debris flows is estimating the run-out behavior, which includes the run-out distance and the related hazard intensities like the height and velocity of a debris flow. In addition, as observed in the French Alps, the process of entrainment of material during the run-out can be 10–50 times in volume with respect to the initially mobilized mass triggered at the source area. The entrainment process is evidently an important factor that can further determine the magnitude and intensity of debris flows. Research on numerical modeling of debris flow entrainment is still ongoing and involves some difficulties. This is partly due to our lack of knowledge of the actual process of the uptake and incorporation of material and due the effect of entrainment on the final behavior of a debris flow. Therefore, it is important to model the effects of this key erosional process on the formation of run-outs and related intensities. In this study we analyzed a debris flow with high entrainment rates that occurred in 2003 at the Faucon catchment in the Barcelonnette Basin (Southern French Alps. The historic event was back-analyzed using the Voellmy rheology and an entrainment model imbedded in the RAMMS 2-D numerical modeling software. A sensitivity analysis of the rheological and entrainment parameters was carried out and the effects of modeling with entrainment on the debris flow run-out, height and velocity were assessed.

  13. Relict or colonizer? Extinction and range expansion of penguins in southern New Zealand

    Boessenkool, Sanne; Austin, Jeremy J.; Worthy, Trevor H.; Scofield, Paul; Cooper, Alan; Seddon, Philip J.; Waters, Jonathan M.


    Recent human expansion into the Pacific initiated a dramatic avian extinction crisis, and surviving taxa are typically interpreted as declining remnants of previously abundant populations. As a case in point, New Zealand's endangered yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) is widely considered to have been more abundant and widespread in the past. By contrast, our genetic and morphological analyses of prehistoric, historic and modern penguin samples reveal that this species expanded its range to the New Zealand mainland only in the last few hundred years. This range expansion was apparently facilitated by the extinction of M. antipodes' previously unrecognized sister species following Polynesian settlement in New Zealand. Based on combined genetic and morphological data, we describe this new penguin species, the first known to have suffered human-mediated extinction. The range expansion of M. antipodes so soon after the extinction of its sister species supports a historic paradigmatic shift in New Zealand Polynesian culture. Additionally, such a dynamic biological response to human predation reveals a surprising and less recognized potential for species to have benefited from the extinction of their ecologically similar sister taxa and highlights the complexity of large-scale extinction events. PMID:19019791

  14. Relict or colonizer? Extinction and range expansion of penguins in southern New Zealand.

    Boessenkool, Sanne; Austin, Jeremy J; Worthy, Trevor H; Scofield, Paul; Cooper, Alan; Seddon, Philip J; Waters, Jonathan M


    Recent human expansion into the Pacific initiated a dramatic avian extinction crisis, and surviving taxa are typically interpreted as declining remnants of previously abundant populations. As a case in point, New Zealand's endangered yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) is widely considered to have been more abundant and widespread in the past. By contrast, our genetic and morphological analyses of prehistoric, historic and modern penguin samples reveal that this species expanded its range to the New Zealand mainland only in the last few hundred years. This range expansion was apparently facilitated by the extinction of M. antipodes' previously unrecognized sister species following Polynesian settlement in New Zealand. Based on combined genetic and morphological data, we describe this new penguin species, the first known to have suffered human-mediated extinction. The range expansion of M. antipodes so soon after the extinction of its sister species supports a historic paradigmatic shift in New Zealand Polynesian culture. Additionally, such a dynamic biological response to human predation reveals a surprising and less recognized potential for species to have benefited from the extinction of their ecologically similar sister taxa and highlights the complexity of large-scale extinction events.

  15. Relict or colonizer? Extinction and range expansion of penguins in southern New Zealand

    Boessenkool, Sanne; Austin, Jeremy J.; Worthy, Trevor H.; Scofield, Paul; Cooper, Alan; Seddon, Philip J.; Waters, Jonathan M.


    Recent human expansion into the Pacific initiated a dramatic avian extinction crisis, and surviving taxa are typically interpreted as declining remnants of previously abundant populations. As a case in point, New Zealand's endangered yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) is widely considered to have been more abundant and widespread in the past. By contrast, our genetic and morphological analyses of prehistoric, historic and modern penguin samples reveal that this species expanded its ra...

  16. Reconstructing atmospheric circulation over southern New Zealand: Establishment of modern westerly airflow 5500 years ago and implications for Southern Hemisphere Holocene climate change

    Turney, C. S. M.; Wilmshurst, J. M.; Jones, R. T.; Wood, J. R.; Palmer, J. G.; Hogg, A. G.; Fenwick, P.; Crowley, S. F.; Privat, K.; Thomas, Z.


    Late-twentieth century changes in the intensity and migration of Southern Hemisphere westerly winds have been implicated in spatially complex variability in atmospheric and ocean circulation, and ice-sheet dynamics, across the mid- to high-latitudes. A major uncertainty, however, is whether present day hemispheric-wide symmetrical airflow is representative of past behaviour. Here we report a multi-proxy study from Stewart Island and southern Fiordland, New Zealand (46-47°S) reconstructing Holocene changes at the northern limit of westerly airflow. Increased minerogenic input and a pronounced shift in cool-loving vegetation around 5500 years ago is consistent with the establishment of westerly airflow at this latitude in the southwest Pacific. In marked contrast, stronger winds are reported further south over the subantarctic Auckland (50°S) and Campbell (52°S) Islands from 8000 years ago. Intriguingly, reconstructions from the east Pacific suggest a weakening of core westerly airflow after 8500 years ago, but an expansion along the northern limits sometime after 5500 years ago. Our results suggest similar atmospheric circulation changes have been experienced in the Pacific since 5500 years ago, but indicate an expanded network of sites is needed to comprehensively test the driver(s) and impact(s) of Holocene mid-latitude westerly winds across the Southern Hemisphere.

  17. Orbital control on carbon cycle alterations and hyperthermal events in a cooling world: the late Early to Mid Eocene record at Possagno (southern Alps, Italy)

    Galeotti, Simone; Sprovieri, Mario; Moretti, Matteo; Rio, Domenico; Fornaciari, Eliana; Giusberti, Luca; Agnini, Claudia; Backman, Jan; Lanci, Luca; Luciani, Valeria


    The late Early Eocene to Middle Eocene ~50-45 Million years ago (Ma) time interval in the middle bathyal, pelagic/hemipelagic succession of the Western Tethys Possagno section (southern Alps, Veneto), contains several episodes of negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) and concomitant dissolution of carbonates. These episodes are superimposed on a long term global climate cooling that started at about 51 Ma following the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Spectral analysis indicates that CIEs and dissolution events are paced by orbital forcing, confirming the global significance of previous finding on the same interval from Western and Southern Atlantic and Equatorial Pacific sites. The frequency and magnitude of CIEs through time is controlled by long-term modulations of orbital parameters, including long eccentricity (400 kyr) and a 1.2 million year modulation. Highest frequency of events - at the orbital scale - is observed across the EECO, which provides an observational basis to validate theoretical models predicting a threshold effect resulting from orbital forcing superimposed on gradually changing mean global boundary conditions. The observation of the 1.2 million year beat (long-term modulation of obliquity) together with previously published observation of enhanced obliquity (41 kyr) forcing across major CIEs and dissolution intervals indicates that high latitude feedbacks to orbital forcing played a fundamental role in the emplacement of the hyperthermals. The observed orbital forcing signature closely match that of early Eocene hyperthermals, suggesting similar driving processes.

  18. The timing and sources of intraplate magmatism related to continental breakup in southern New Zealand

    van der Meer, Quinten

    The long history of New Zealand as Gondwana’s eastern active margin ended at ~110 Ma when extensional tectonics initiated. In New Zealand’s inboard Western Province this is expressed in the formation of metamorphic core complexes and the syn-tectonic intrusion of the latest large scale subduction...... related I- to I/S-type plutons of the Rahu suite up to 105 Ma. Isolated plutonism continued on a smaller scale after 105 Ma. O and Hf isotopes in zircon from later felsic plutons indicate waning subduction related magmatism up to 101 Ma. This is followed by the regional dominance of intraplate signatures...

  19. The timing and sources of intraplate magmatism related to continental breakup in southern New Zealand

    van der Meer, Quinten

    The long history of New Zealand as Gondwana’s eastern active margin ended at ~110 Ma when extensional tectonics initiated. In New Zealand’s inboard Western Province this is expressed in the formation of metamorphic core complexes and the syn-tectonic intrusion of the latest large scale subduction...... elements. A subset of the most primitive samples with SiO2 apatite ±phlogopite ±rutile ±clinopyroxene) and depleted peridotite. These observations are in accordance with decompressional melting...

  20. The topography of a continental indenter: The interplay between crustal deformation, erosion, and base level changes in the eastern Southern Alps

    Heberer, B.; Prasicek, G.; Neubauer, F.; Hergarten, S.


    Abstract The topography of the eastern Southern Alps (ESA) reflects indenter tectonics causing crustal shortening, surface uplift, and erosional response. Fluvial drainages were perturbed by Pleistocene glaciations that locally excavated alpine valleys. The Late Miocene desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea and the uplift of the northern Molasse Basin led to significant base level changes in the far field of the ESA and the Eastern Alps (EA), respectively. Among this multitude of mechanisms, the processes that dominate the current topographic evolution of the ESA and the ESA‐EA drainage divide have not been identified. We demonstrate the expected topographic effects of each mechanism in a one‐dimensional model and compare them with observed channel metrics. We find that the normalized steepness index increases with uplift rate and declines from the indenter tip in the northwest to the foreland basin in the southeast. The number and amplitude of knickpoints and the distortion in longitudinal channel profiles similarly decrease toward the east. Changes in slope of χ‐transformed channel profiles coincide spatially with the Valsugana‐Fella fault linking crustal stacking and uplift induced by indenter tectonics with topographic evolution. Gradients in χ across the ESA‐EA drainage divide imply an ongoing, north directed shift of the Danube‐ESA watershed that is most likely driven by a base level rise in the northern Molasse basin. We conclude that the regional uplift pattern controls the geometry of ESA‐EA channels, while base level changes in the far field control the overall architecture of the orogen by drainage divide migration.




    Full Text Available The ammonoid fauna of the Prati di Stuores/Stuores Wiesen section (Dolomites, north-eastern Italy was studied in detail. This section was proposed as stratotype for the Carnian GSSP, with the first appearance of Daxatina cf. canadensis as primary marker, based on preliminary data. The validity of this proposal is confirmed by the present study, which integrates collections from the Prati di Stuores/Stuores Wiesen section and from others, particularly Bec de Roces (Passo Campolongo and Antersass (Badia Valley. Ammonoids collected in these localities belong to three biostratigraphic units: regoledanus, canadensis and aon subzones. These subzones constitute, in the Southern Alps, the Ladinian/Carnian boundary interval. Regoledanus Subzone: the north American species Zestoceras enode is most probably documented in this biostratigraphic interval. Canadensis Subzone: the base is marked by the first appearance of Daxatina canadensis, and at least, another north American species, Daxatina laubei, seems to be present. Two species of Zestoceras were found: Z. barwicki e Z. lorigae sp.n. Two species of Trachyceras, distinct from T. aon, are represented in the canadensis Subzone: T. muensteri and T. bipunctatum. These species predate the first appearance of Trachyceras, justifying the canadensis Subzone to be included in the Carnian also on the basis of nomenclatural stability. Other significant taxa of this subzone are Rossiceras? armatum and Sirenotrachyceras thusneldae. Aon Subzone: the ammonoid fauna of this subzone is extensively treated in existing literature and thus not further discussed. Taxonomical notes and stratigraphic consequences: the new subfamily Anolcitinae (family Trachyceratidae is erected. At present, Frankites regoledanus, F. apertus and F. sp. A have been recognized in the Southern Alps. The lectotype of Ammonites (Trachyceras ? Regoledanus was defined. The latter species is exclusive of the regoledanus Subzone, whereas the

  2. The initial superposition of oceanic and continental units in the southern Western Alps: constraints on geometrical restoration and kinematics of the continental subduction wedge

    Dumont, Thierry; Schwartz, Stéphane; Matthews, Steve; Malusa, Marco; Jouvent, Marine


    older in the oceanic rocks (Malusà et al. 2015). Finally, further SE, the Voltri massif shows a huge volume of serpentinized mantle which locally overlies continental basement (strongly metamorphosed), and is interpreted as an exhumed remnant of the subduction channel (Federico et al., 2007). In all these localities the transport directions during initial pulses of stacking were consistently oriented generally towards the NW to N, taking into account the subsequent Oligocene and younger collision-related deformation (complex folds, thrusts, backfolds and backthrusts, and block-rotations). It is thus possible to attempt reconstructing an early stage continental subduction wedge involving these different elements from the subduction channel to the most frontal part of the accretionary complex. However, this early Alpine orogen which was active throughout the Eocene is interpreted to have propagated generally towards the NW to N, prior to subsequent pulses of more westerly directed deformation from the Oligocene onwards within the southern part of the Western Alps arc. It is therefore essential to continually improve high-resolution 3D geophysical imaging to facilitate a better understanding of the complex western termination of the Alpine orogen. References: Dumont T., Schwartz S., Guillot S., Simon-Labric S., Tricart P. & Jourdan S. (2012), Structural and sedimentary record of the Oligocene revolution in the Western Alpine arc. Jour. Geodynamics, doi:10.1016/j.jog.2011.11.006 Federico L., Crispini L., Scambelluri M. & Capponi G. (2007), Ophiolite mélange zone records exhumation in a fossil subduction channel. Geology, 35, p. 499-502 Malusà M.G., Faccenna C., Baldwin S.L., Fitzgerald P.G., Rossetti F., Balestrieri M.L., Danišík M., Ellero A., Ottria G. & Piromallo C. (2015), Contrasting styles of (U)HP rock exhumation along the Cenozoic Adria-Europe plate boundary (Western Alps, Calabria, Corsica). Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. ,16, p. 1786-1824 Tricart P. & Schwartz S


    About 60 to70% of Rubus species are polyploids. Ploidy in this genus ranges from diploid through tetradecaploid , with aneuploids. The gametic chromosome number is x = 7. Taxa in Rubus Subgenera Micranthobatus and Comaropsis are endemic to the Southern Hemisphere in trans-Pacific Ocean environments ...

  4. New data on the FWF project P20018-N10: The Puez key-section in the Dolomites (Southern Alps; N-Italy)

    Lukeneder, A.; Mayrhofer, S.


    Early Cretaceous ammonoids (n = 424) were collected at the Puez locality in the Dolomites of Southern Tyrol (Lukeneder and Aspmair 2006). The cephalopod fauna from the marly limestones to marls here indicates Late Valanginian to Early Aptian age. The underlying Biancone Formation (Maiolica Formation) is Early Valanginian. The deposition of the marly limestones and marls in this interval occurred during unstable conditions. Ammonoids. The ammonoid fauna comprises 27 different genera, each apparently represented by 1-2 species. The complete occurrence at the Puez section is dominated by the Phylloceratina (30%) and the Ammonitina (34%). Phyllopachyceras (17%) and Phylloceras (13%) from the Phylloceratina are the most frequent components, followed by Lytoceras (12%) from the Lytoceratina, and Barremites (10%) and Melchiorites (8%) from the Ammonitina. Phylloceatidae and Desmoceratidae are dominating the cephalopod-fauna. Some ammonoid zones defined by Hoedemaeker et al. (2003) can be recognized. The following index fossils were examined within the collections of the NHMW (Austria) and the NMB (Italy): for the latest Valanginian Criosarasinella furcillata (C. furcillate Zone and Subzone), for the middle Early Hauterivian Olcostephanus (Jeannoticeras) jeannoti (O.(J.) jeannoti Subzone), and Heinzia sayni for the lowermost Upper Barremian (H. sayni Subzone; Reboulet and Hoedemaeker (reporters) et al., submitted). The ammonoid fauna contains only descendants of the Mediterranean Province (Tethyan Realm). Most affinities of the cephalopod fauna are observed with faunas from the adjacent areas of Italy (Lessini Mountains, Belluno, southern Trento Plateau), the Northern Calcareous Alps and the Bakony, Geresce and Mecsek Mountains of Hungary. This is explained by the neighbouring position of the latter areas during the Early Cretaceous on the Apulian/Adria block and the Alpine-Carpathian microplate. The frequency of the ammonoids and the richness of the fauna make this

  5. Carbon isotope signatures of latest Permian marine successions of the Southern Alps suggest a continental runoff pulse enriched in land plant material

    S. H. Kraus


    Full Text Available The latest Permian mass extinction, the most severe Phanerozoic biotic crisis, is marked by dramatic changes in palaeoenvironments. These changes significantly disrupted the global carbon cycle, reflected by a prominent and well known negative carbon isotope excursion recorded in marine and continental sediments. Carbon isotope trends of bulk carbonate and bulk organic matter in marine deposits of the European Southern Alps near the low-latitude marine event horizon deviate from each other. A positive excursion of several permil in δ13Corg starts earlier and is much more pronounced than the short-term positive 13Ccarb excursion; both excursions interrupt the general negative trend. Throughout the entire period investigated, 13Corg values become lighter with increasing distance from the palaeocoastline. Changing 13Corg values may be due to the influx of comparatively isotopically heavy land plant material. The stronger influence of land plant material on the 13Corg during the positive isotope excursion indicates a temporarily enhanced continental runoff that may either reflect increased precipitation, possibly triggered by aerosols originating from Siberian Trap volcanism, or indicate higher erosion rate in the face of reduced land vegetation cover. doi:10.1002/mmng.201300004

  6. Effects of wood chip amendments on the revegetation performance of plant species on eroded marly terrains in a Mediterranean mountainous climate (Southern Alps, France)

    Breton, Vincent; Crosaz, Yves; Rey, Freddy


    The establishment of plant species can limit soil erosion dynamics in degraded lands. In marly areas in the Southern French Alps, both harsh water erosion and drought conditions in summer due to the Mediterranean mountainous climate prevent the natural implementation and regeneration of vegetation. Soil fertility improvement is sometimes necessary. With the purpose of revegetating such areas, we aimed to evaluate the effects of wood chip amendments on the revegetation performance of different native or sub-spontaneous plant species. We conducted two experiments on steep slopes over three growing seasons (2012-2014). The first consisted of planting seedlings (10 species), and the second consisted of seeding (nine species including six used in the first experiment). First we noted that wood chips were able to remain in place even in steep slope conditions. The planting of seedlings showed both an impact of wood chip amendment and differences between species. A positive effect of wood chips was shown with overall improvement of plant survival (increasing by 11 % on average, by up to 50 % for some species). In the seeding experiment, no plants survived after three growing seasons. However, intermediate results for the first and second years showed a positive effect of wood chips on seedling emergence: seeds of four species only sprouted on wood chips, and for the five other species the average emergence rate increased by 50 %.

  7. A 10,300-year-old permafrost core from the active rock glacier Lazaun, southern Ötztal Alps (South Tyrol, northern Italy)

    Krainer, Karl; Bressan, David; Dietre, Benjamin; Haas, Jean Nicolas; Hajdas, Irka; Lang, Kathrin; Mair, Volkmar; Nickus, Ulrike; Reidl, Daniel; Thies, Hansjörg; Tonidandel, David


    Two cores were drilled on rock glacier Lazaun in the southern Ötztal Alps (N Italy). The average ice content of core Lazaun I is 43 vol.% and of core Lazaun II is 22 vol.%. Radiocarbon dating of plant macrofossil remains of core Lazaun I yielded ages ranging from 8960 cal yr BP at a depth of ca. 23.5 m to 2240 cal yr BP at a depth of 2.8 m, indicating that the ice near the base is approximately 10,300 yr old. The rock glacier was intact since that time and the ice persisted even during warm periods of the Holocene. An ice-free debris layer between 16.8 and 14.7 m separates the rock glacier into two frozen bodies. Inclinometer measurements indicate that both frozen bodies are active and that deformation occurs within a shear horizon at a depth of 20-25 m at the base of the lower frozen body and to a minor extent at a depth of approximately 14 m at the base of the upper frozen body. The ice-free debris layer in the middle of the Lazaun rock glacier indicates a more than five centennial long drought period, which dates to about 4300-3740 cal yr BP.

  8. Far-Field Deformation Resulting from Rheologic Differences Interacting with Tectonic Stresses: An Example from the Pacific/Australian Plate Boundary in Southern New Zealand

    Phaedra Upton


    Full Text Available The Miocene in Southern New Zealand was dominated by strike-slip tectonics. Stratigraphic evidence from this time attests to two zones of subsidence in the south: (a a middle Cenozoic pull-apart basin and (b a regionally extensive subsiding lake complex, which developed east and distal to the developing plate boundary structure. The lake overlay a block of crust with a significantly weak mid-crustal section and we pose the question: can rheological transitions at an angle to a plate boundary produce distal subsidence and/or uplift? We use stratigraphic, structural and geophysical observations from Southern New Zealand to constrain three-dimensional numerical models for a variety of boundary conditions and rheological scenarios. We show that coincident subsidence and uplift can result from purely strike-slip boundary conditions interacting with a transition from strong to weak to strong mid-crustal rheology. The resulting pattern of vertical displacement is a function of the symmetry or asymmetry of the boundary conditions and the extent and orientation of the rheological transitions. For the Southern New Zealand case study, subsidence rates of ~0.1 mm/yr are predicted for a relative plate motion of 25 mm/yr, leading to ~500 m of subsidence over a 5 Ma time period, comparable to the thickness of preserved lacustrine sediments.

  9. An integrated approach to historical population assessment of the great whales: case of the New Zealand southern right whale.

    Jackson, Jennifer A; Carroll, Emma L; Smith, Tim D; Zerbini, Alexandre N; Patenaude, Nathalie J; Baker, C Scott


    Accurate estimation of historical abundance provides an essential baseline for judging the recovery of the great whales. This is particularly challenging for whales hunted prior to twentieth century modern whaling, as population-level catch records are often incomplete. Assessments of whale recovery using pre-modern exploitation indices are therefore rare, despite the intensive, global nature of nineteenth century whaling. Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were particularly exploited: slow swimmers with strong fidelity to sheltered calving bays, the species made predictable and easy targets. Here, we present the first integrated population-level assessment of the whaling impact and pre-exploitation abundance of a right whale, the New Zealand southern right whale (E. australis). In this assessment, we use a Bayesian population dynamics model integrating multiple data sources: nineteenth century catches, genetic constraints on bottleneck size and individual sightings histories informing abundance and trend. Different catch allocation scenarios are explored to account for uncertainty in the population's offshore distribution. From a pre-exploitation abundance of 28 800-47 100 whales, nineteenth century hunting reduced the population to approximately 30-40 mature females between 1914 and 1926. Today, it stands at less than 12% of pre-exploitation abundance. Despite the challenges of reconstructing historical catches and population boundaries, conservation efforts of historically exploited species benefit from targets for ecological restoration.

  10. Assessing hyporheic zone dynamics in two alluvial flood plains of the Southern Alps using water temperature and tracers

    E. Hoehn


    Full Text Available Water temperature can be used as a tracer for the interaction between river water and groundwater, interpreting time shifts in temperature signals as retarded travel times. The water temperature fluctuates on different time scales, the most pronounced of which are the seasonal and diurnal ones. While seasonal fluctuations can be found in any type of shallow groundwater, high-frequency components are more typical for freshly infiltrated river water, or hyporheic groundwater, and are thus better suited for evaluating the travel time of the youngest groundwater component in alluvial aquifer systems. We present temperature time series collected at two sites in the alpine floodplain aquifers of the river Brenno in Southern Switzerland. At the first site, we determine apparent travel times of temperature for both the seasonal and high-frequency components of the temperature signals in several wells. The seasonal signal appears to travel more slowly, indicating a mixture of older and younger groundwater components, which is confirmed by sulphate measurements. The travel times of the high-frequency component qualitatively agree with the groundwater age derived from radon concentrations, which exclusively reflects young water components. Directly after minor floods, the amplitude of temperature fluctuations in an observation well nearby the river is the highest. Within a week, the riverbed is being clogged, leading to stronger attenuation of the temperature fluctuations in the observation well. At the second site, very fast infiltration to depths of 1.9m under the riverbed could be inferred from the time shift of the diurnal temperature signal.

  11. Hot Alps (Invited)

    Speranza, F.; Minelli, L.; Pignatelli, A.; Gilardi, M.


    Although it is frequently assumed that crust of Alpine orogens is hot due to the occurrence of thick and young (hence radiogenic) crust, evidence on the thermal ranking of orogens is contradictory. Heat flow measurements from shallow wells (depth ≤ 1 km) in the Alps yield a relatively cold thermal regime of 50-80 mW/m2, but data are likely biased by meteoric cold-water circulation. Here we report on the spectral analysis of the aeromagnetic residuals of northern Italy to derive the Curie point depth (CPD), assumed to represent the 600°C isotherm depth. Airborne magnetics were acquired on whole Italy during the 1970s by the national oil company AGIP (now Eni). Data were gathered by several surveys carried out at 1000-13,300 feet (300-4000 m) altitude, with flight line spacing of 2-10 km. Surveys of the Alps and Po Plain (northern Italy) were obtained both with a line spacing of 5 km (and 5 km tie lines), at an altitude of 4000-5000 and 13,300 feet, respectively. To evaluate CPDs we used the centroid method (routinely adopted in recent CPD studies on East Asia and central-southern Europe) on 72 square windows of 100-110 km edge, with a 50% degree of superposition. CPDs vary between 16 and 38 km (22 km on average) in the Po Plain, located south of the Alps and representing the Adriatic-African foreland area. Conversely, the Alps yield very shallow CPDs, ranging between 6 and 15 km (10 km on average). CPDs fall systematically above local Moho depths, implying that magnetic source bottoms documented in this study do not represent a lithological boundary over non-magnetic peridotitic mantle, but can be safely associated with CPDs and the 600°C isotherm. CPDs from the Po Plain are in rough agreement with reported heat flow values of 25-60 mW/m2, and imply and average thermal conductivity (k) of the Po Plain crust of 1.5 W/m°K, at the lower bound of k values measured and inferred for the crust. Conversely, the average 10 km CPD documented in the Alps translates into

  12. Origin and significance of the Permian high-K calc-alkaline magmatism in the central-eastern Southern Alps, Italy

    Rottura, A.; Bargossi, G. M.; Caggianelli, A.; Del Moro, A.; Visonà, D.; Tranne, C. A.


    The Atesina Volcanic District, the Monte Luco volcanics, and the Cima d'Asta, Bressanone-Chiusa, Ivigna, Monte Croce and Monte Sabion intrusions, in the central-eastern Southern Alps, form a wide calc-alkaline association of Permian age (ca. 280-260 Ma). The magmatism originated during a period of post-orogenic extensional/transtensional faulting which controlled the magma ascent and emplacement. The magmatic products are represented by a continuum spectrum of rock types ranging from basaltic andesites to rhyolites, and from gabbros to monzogranites, with preponderance of the acidic terms. They constitute a metaluminous to weakly peraluminous series showing mineralogical, petrographic and chemical characteristics distinctive of the high-K calc-alkaline suites. In the MORB-normalized trace element diagrams, the most primitive volcanic and plutonic rocks (basaltic andesites and gabbros with Mg No.=66 to 70; Ni=25 to 83 ppm; Cr=248 to 679 ppm) show LILE and LREE enriched patterns with troughs at Nb-Ta and Ti, a distinctive feature of subduction-related magmas. Field, petrographic, geochemical and isotopic evidence (initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios from 0.7057 to 0.7114; ɛNd values from -2.7 to -7.4; ∂ 18O values between 7.6 and 9.5‰) support a hybrid nature for both volcanic and plutonic rocks, originating through complex interactions between mantle-derived magmas and crustal materials. Only the scanty andalusite-cordierite and orthopyroxene-cordierite bearing peraluminous granites in the Cima d'Asta and Bressanone-Chiusa intrusive complexes can be interpreted as purely crustal melts (initial 87Sr/ 86Sr=0.7143-0.7167; initial ɛNd values between -7.9 and -9.6, close to average composition of the granulitic metasedimentary crust from the Ivrea Zone in the western Southern Alps). Although the Permian magmatism shows geochemical characteristics similar to those of arc-related suites, palaeogeographic restorations, and geological and tectonic evidence, seem not to support




    Full Text Available Four vertebral centra from the well known fossil-bearing Prezzo Limestone (Upper Anisian, Middle Triassic at the newly discovered locality Piazza Brembana (Bergamo are described. The four bones were found exposed on the bed surface in an articulated position. Despite the incompleteness of three centra due to erosion, their otherwise fairly good preservation facilitated their study and attribution to a shastasaurid ichthyosaur. Even though the classification of isolated vertebral centra at the genus level is controversial, the presence of diapophyses truncated by the cranial margin of the centra is still considered to be diagnostic for Cymbospondylus. The new discovery comes from an ammonoid-bearing facies, which is not unusual for ichthyosaurs, and the bio-chronostratigraphic position of the Piazza Brembana bones is accurately defined by ammonoids from the lowest part of the Trinodosus Zone (Illyrian, Middle Triassic. Records of Cymbospondylus in the Southern Alps, Germanic Basin, western United States and Spitsbergen are summarized and all previous occurrences of the genus are bio-chronostratigraphically correlated by utilizing the abundant ammonoid literature. The single occurrence of Phantomosaurus neubigii is also considered, since this species is regarded in the literature as the sister taxon of Cymbospondylu. Material referred to Cymbospondylus extends from a single occurrence in the Olenekian (late Early Triassic to the Longobardian (Late Ladinian, and its stratigraphic distribution is strictly controlled by the development of basins. Within these basins the distribution of specimens appears to include relatively protected and shallow waters. Such a distribution is consistent with the mode of life of this group of ichthyosaurs as suggested by morphofunctional analysis. Cymbospondylus, like most Triassic Ichthyosaurs, probably was an undulatory swimmer, more maneuverable but slower than their Jurassic successors. 

  14. Local-scale topoclimate effects on treeline elevations: a country-wide investigation of New Zealand's southern beech treelines.

    Case, Bradley S; Buckley, Hannah L


    Although treeline elevations are limited globally by growing season temperature, at regional scales treelines frequently deviate below their climatic limit. The cause of these deviations relate to a host of climatic, disturbance, and geomorphic factors that operate at multiple scales. The ability to disentangle the relative effects of these factors is currently hampered by the lack of reliable topoclimatic data, which describe how regional climatic characteristics are modified by topographic effects in mountain areas. In this study we present an analysis of the combined effects of local- and regional-scale factors on southern beech treeline elevation variability at 28 study areas across New Zealand. We apply a mesoscale atmospheric model to generate local-scale (200 m) meteorological data at these treelines and, from these data, we derive a set of topoclimatic indices that reflect possible detrimental and ameliorative influences on tree physiological functioning. Principal components analysis of meteorological data revealed geographic structure in how study areas were situated in multivariate space along gradients of topoclimate. Random forest and conditional inference tree modelling enabled us to tease apart the relative effects of 17 explanatory factors on local-scale treeline elevation variability. Overall, modelling explained about 50% of the variation in treeline elevation variability across the 28 study areas, with local landform and topoclimatic effects generally outweighing those from regional-scale factors across the 28 study areas. Further, the nature of the relationships between treeline elevation variability and the explanatory variables were complex, frequently non-linear, and consistent with the treeline literature. To our knowledge, this is the first study where model-generated meteorological data, and derived topoclimatic indices, have been developed and applied to explain treeline variation. Our results demonstrate the potential of such an approach

  15. SAHKE geophysical transect reveals crustal and subduction zone structure at the southern Hikurangi margin, New Zealand

    Henrys, S.; Wech, A.; Sutherland, R.; Stern, T.; Savage, M.; Sato, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Iwasaki, T.; Okaya, D.; Seward, A.; Tozer, B.; Townend, J.; Kurashimo, E.; Iidaka, T.; Ishiyama, T.


    The Seismic Array Hikurangi Experiment (SAHKE) investigated the structure of the forearc and subduction plate boundary beneath the southern North Island along a 350 km transect. Tomographic inversion of first-arrival travel times was used to derive a well-resolved 15-20 km deep P wave image of the crust. The refracted phases and migrated reflection events image subducting slab geometry and crustal structure. In the west, Australian Plate Moho depth decreases westward across the Taranaki Fault system from 35 to ˜28-30 km. In the east, subducted Pacific Plate oceanic crust is recognized to have a positive velocity gradient, but becomes less distinct beneath the Tararua Ranges, where the interface increases in dip at about 15 km depth from 15°. This bend in the subducted plate is associated with vertical clusters in seismicity, splay fault branching, and low-velocity high-attenuation material that we interpret to be an underplated subduction sedimentary channel. We infer that a step down in the decollément transfers slip on the plate interface at the top of a subduction channel to the oceanic crust and drives local uplift of the Tararua Ranges. Reflections from the Wairarapa Fault show that it is listric and soles into the top of underplated sediments, which in turn abut the Moho of the overriding plate at ˜32 km depth, near the downdip end of the strongly locked zone. The change in dip of the Hikurangi subduction interface is spatially correlated with the transition from geodetically determined locked to unlocked areas of the plate interface.

  16. Sédimentation et tectonique dans le bassin marin Eocène supérieur-Oligocène des Alpes du Sud Sedimentation and Tectonics in the Upper Eocene-Oligocene Marine Basin in the Southern Alps

    Riche P.


    'exprime nettement moins que précédemment. Le toit des grès est marqué par une surface de discontinuité fortement érosive correspondant à des canyons sous-marins de direction NE-SO. Cette surface peut être mise en relation avec l'écoulement des olistostromes qui termine le remplissage du bassin. La mise en place de ces olistostromes et des olistolithes qui les accompagnent n'est pas paléontologiquement datée : elle débute avec la fin de la sédimentation gréseuse. L'ensemble est encore affecté par une distension E-O ce qui tend à montrer que cette mise en place est antérieure à la phase de serrage miocène. La confrontation entre les observations de terrain, les expériences de sédimentation en canal et l'interprétation sismique de bassins offshore argumente les interprétations proposées. This paper is based on local field surveys performed recently by Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP and Ecole Nationale Supérieure du Pétrole et des Moteurs (ENSPM in the western part of the southern Alps nummulitic basin, to help interpret seismic data. It underlines the role of extensional tectonics during sedimentation. It questions the geodynamic interpretation of the basin as a foredeep basin in the Alpine orogenic belt. On a Mesozoic basement folded by the Pyreneo-Provençale orogeny, as early as the Lutetian the nummulitic transgression flooded the eastern area, which was subsequently obscured by the Pennine main fault during Mio-Pliocene times. It spread westward during the Upper Eocene. In the meantime, an E-W extension, shown clearly along the Var River faults and along the edge of the Pelvoux range, fragmented the fringes of the basin with blocks tilted during sedimentation. The result is fast changes of facies within the basal carbonates, which pass from platform types to slope types and to thin gravitational sediments farther into the basin. The overlying marls correspond to slope facies wrapping the inherited topography. The Gres d'Annot s. l

  17. Pre-metamorphic melt infiltration in metasediments: geochemical, isotopic (Sr, Nd, and Pb), and field evidence from Serie dei Laghi (Southern Alps, Italy)

    Pinarelli, L.; Bergomi, M. A.; Boriani, A.; Giobbi, E.


    Gradual transitions from K-feldspar free gneisses to K-feldspar bearing augengneisses are sometimes observed in metamorphic terranes. They have been explained with metasomatic porphyroblastic growth connected with regional metamorphism, or with pre-metamorphic presence of magmatic megacrysts. A transition of this kind can be observed in the Serie dei Laghi (Southern Alps, Italy), where coarse-grained meta-arenites ( Cenerigneiss) grade into Ceneri augengneisses with large K-feldspar porphyroclasts, and banded amphibolites of the “Strona Ceneri Border Zone” grade into Hbl augengneisses rich in K-feldspar. The Ceneri augengneisses are chemically indistinguishable from the Cenerigneiss, but have higher 87Sr/86Sr (0.7256 0.7258 vs. 0.7215 0.7233), similar to those of the Ordovician granites that were intruded, before the regional metamorphism, into the protoliths of both Cenerigneiss and amphibolites. The Cenerigneiss contains two types of zircons: (1) highly luminescent, rounded grains or fragments, yielding U Pb SHRIMP ages from 0.43 to 1.0 Ga; (2) euhedral grains with oscillatory zoning (magmatic), with U Pb SHRIMP concordant ages of 466 ± 13 Ma. This age coincides with the Rb Sr whole rock emplacement age of the Ordovician granitoids (466 ± 5 Ma). The Hbl augengneisses form three groups with distinct geochemical patterns, whose distributions on inter-element diagrams trend towards the Ordovician metagranites and meta-aplites. In addition, the Hbl augengneisses have higher 87Sr/86Sr (0.7132 0.7147 vs. 0.7031 0.7046) and lower 143Nd/144Nd (0.51214 0.51219 vs. 0.51273 0.51297) than the amphibolites, suggesting the addition of an isotopically evolved component. The observed chemical and isotope patterns, as well as the vicinity of the augen gneisses to the Ordovician intrusions, lead us to conclude that the Ceneri augengneisses and Hbl augengneisses are the result of infiltration of residual hydrous magmas into the protolith of both the Cenerigneiss and the

  18. Inferring LGM sedimentary and climatic changes in the southern Eastern Alps foreland through the analysis of a 14C ages database (Brenta megafan, Italy)

    Rossato, Sandro; Mozzi, Paolo


    The analysis of a database of radiocarbon ages is proposed as a tool for investigating major glaciofluvial systems of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the Alpine foreland, and their relations with glacier dynamics and climatic fluctuations. Our research concerns the Brenta megafan (NE Italy), where 110 radiocarbon dates integrate a robust regional stratigraphic and palaeoclimatic framework. Age-depth models allowed us to calculate sedimentation rates, while the time distribution of peat layers, which recurrently formed in this region during the LGM, were estimated through meta-analysis. The reliability of statistical results was carefully evaluated using Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Sedimentation rates in the Brenta megafan markedly fluctuated during LGM: ≈1.8 m/ka between 40 and 26.7 ka cal BP; ≈3 m/ka between 26.7 and 23.8 ka cal BP and ≈1.4 m/ka from 23.8 to 17.5 ka cal BP, when the distributary system deactivated due to fan-head trenching. This is evidence that sediment input and routing in the glaciofluvial distributary system was particularly efficient during the central part of LGM, when glaciers were stable at their outermost position. Meta-analysis indicates an increase in peat formation in correspondence with global (Heinrich Event 3 and/or the Greenland Interstadial 5.1 and 4 for the 30.5, 29.6 and 28.8 ka cal BP peaks) and regional (23.5 ka cal BP) wet events. Other peaks at 22.2, 21.8, 20.2 and 19 ka cal BP correlate with fluctuations of south-eastern Alpine glaciers. Significant peat formation continued until ≈18 ka cal BP, when the last peak occurred. A marked decrease in peat formation is recorded concomitantly with the onset of Heinrich Event 2 (i.e. the 26 ka cal BP trough). The good correspondence of sedimentary events in the Brenta glaciofluvial system with the dynamics of glaciers and glaciofluvial and lacustrine systems in the southern Eastern Alps suggests a common climatic forcing on the whole region during the LGM. Peat layer

  19. Physical, social and institutional vulnerability assessment in small Alpine communities. Results of the SAMCO-ANR project in the Upper Guil Valley (French Southern Alps)

    Carlier, Benoit; Dujarric, Constance; Frison-Bruno, Nikita; Puissant, Anne; Lissak, Candide; Madelin, Malika; Viel, Vincent; Bétard, François; Fort, Monique; Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles


    The Upper Guil catchment is particularly prone to hydromorphological hazards such as torrential floods, debris flows, landslides or avalanches. Following the catastrophic events of the last 60 years (1957, 1978, 2000, and 2008), some measures were taken to reduce exposure to risks (engineering works, standards of construction, rescue training…). Nevertheless, the development of urban settlement in endangered areas and the obsolescence of the existing protective measures revealed the necessity to reassess the vulnerability of the different stakes exposed to hazards and to take into account of these various component parts of the vulnerability (not only physical but also social, etc.). In addition, catastrophic events should be more frequent in the French Southern Alps, according to the last GIEC report. In the frame of the SAMCO project designed for mountain risk assessment in a context of global change, we developed a systemic approach to assess three specific components of vulnerability - physical, social and institutional - for the six municipalities of the Upper Guil catchment (Ristolas, Abriès, Aiguilles, Château-Ville-Vieille, Molines-en-Queyras and St-Véran). Physical vulnerability, which represents total potential consequences of hazards on stakes, was estimated and mapped using a GIS model based on an empirical semi-quantitative indicator, the Potential Damage Index (PDI). This index allowed us to quantify and describe both direct (physical injury, structural and functional damage on buildings, network and land cover) and indirect consequences (socio-economic impacts) induced by hazards, by combining weighted parameters (age, state, material, function, etc.) reflecting the exposure of elements at risk. At least 1890 buildings, 367 km² of land cover and 902 km of linear infrastructure were considered. To assess social and institutional vulnerability our approach was based on questionnaires (5% of the total population investigated), interviews and


    Nicholas Twohill


    Full Text Available This research article traces the little-known relationship between New Zealand and the Southern Cone countries of South America that existed between 1820 and the First World War. While New Zealanders were found throughout Latin America in many occupations, undoubtedly because of the established British presence in the region, the links with the Southern Cone were particularly extensive. The basis of the relationship, which promised then to be on-going, was the movement of ships, goods, people, animals, plants, know-how, technology and capital across the Pacific, rather than any inter-state relationship.Este trabajo de investigación se refiere a las poco conocidas relaciones existentes entre Nueva Zelanda y los países del Cono Sur americano entre 1820 y la Primera Guerra Mundial. Aunque encontramos muchos neozelandeses trabajando en las más diversas ocupaciones en toda América Latina, lo que sin duda fue posible gracias a la presencia británica ya establecida, los lazos que se dieron en el Cono Sur fueron intensos. La base de la relación, que en ese entonces parecía ser permanente, fue el movimiento tanto de barcos, mercaderías, personas, animales, plantas, know-how, y tecnología, como de capitales que cruzaban el Pacífico de un lado al otro, más que relaciones entre países propiamente tales.

  1. Abrupt plant physiological changes in southern New Zealand at the termination of the Mi-1 event reflect shifts in hydroclimate and pCO2

    Reichgelt, Tammo; D'Andrea, William J.; Fox, Bethany R. S.


    A rise in atmospheric CO2 is believed to be necessary for the termination of large-scale glaciations. Although the Antarctic Ice Sheet is estimated to have melted from ∼125% to ∼50% its modern size, there is thus far no evidence for an increase in atmospheric CO2 associated with the Mi-1 glacial termination in the earliest Miocene. Here, we present evidence from a high-resolution terrestrial record of leaf physiological change in southern New Zealand for an abrupt increase in atmospheric CO2 coincident with the termination of the Mi-1 glaciation and lasting approximately 20 kyr. Quantitative pCO2 estimates, made using a leaf gas exchange model, suggest that atmospheric CO2 levels may have doubled during this period, from 516 ± 111ppm to 1144 ± 410ppm, and subsequently returned back to 425 ± 53ppm. The 20-kyr interval with high pCO2 estimates is also associated with a period of increased moisture supply to southern New Zealand, inferred from carbon and hydrogen isotopes of terrestrial leaf waxes. The results provide the first high-resolution record of terrestrial environmental change at the Oligocene/Miocene boundary, document a ∼20 kyr interval of elevated pCO2 and increased local moisture availability, and provide insight into ecosystem response to a major orbitally driven climatic transition.

  2. Parameterization of a numerical 2-D debris flow model with entrainment: a case study of the Faucon catchment, Southern French Alps

    Hussin, H.Y.; Luna, B. Quan; Westen, C.J. van; Christen, M.; Malet, J.P.; Asch, Th.W.J. van


    The occurrence of debris flows has been recorded for more than a century in the European Alps, accounting for the risk to settlements and other human infrastructure that have led to death, building damage and traffic disruptions. One of the difficulties in the quantitative hazard assessment of debri

  3. Rainfall erosivity in New Zealand

    Klik, Andreas; Haas, Kathrin; Dvorackova, Anna; Fuller, Ian


    the mean annual rainfall amounts to 2027 mm and therefore is higher than on the North Island. A high east-to-west gradient can be seen with the lowest rainfall along the east coast and in Inland and the highest values in the Souther Alps. The temporal variation throughout the year is very low. In each season between 24 (winter) and 26% (summer) of precipitation is observed. Like the precipitation P the range of rainfall erosivity R varies greatly and is higher on the South Island than on the North Island. The results show that precipitation between 720 (Napier) and 2730 mm.a-1 (Mt. Ruapehu) delivered R-factors between 477 and 3592 For 14 stations a good regression between rainfall and R was obtained. On the South Island corresponding mean annual rainfall between of 429 and 4300 mm produces erosivities between 252 and 10850 Again lowest R-factors occur in Inland South Island around Alexandra which is also the driest region of New Zealand. Highest values are found in the Southern Alps and the West Coast between Arthur's Pass and Fjordland. Based on the erosivity calculations the nine climatic regions can be aggregated into four erosivity regions.

  4. All‐sky radiation over a glacier surface in the Southern Alps of New Zealand: characterizing cloud effects on incoming shortwave, longwave and net radiation

    Conway, J. P; Cullen, N. J; Spronken‐Smith, R. A; Fitzsimons, S. J


    Clouds are important features of many high‐altitude and glaciated areas, yet detecting their presence and specifying their effects on incoming shortwave ( SW ↓), longwave ( LW ↓) and net all‐wave radiation ( Rnet...

  5. State and evolution of the Bérard rock glacier (Southern French Alps) after its collapse in 2006: insights from geophysical, geodetic and thermal datasets

    Krysiecki, Jean-Michel; Le Roux, Olivier; Bodin, Xavier; Schoeneich, Philippe


    In the French Alps, the summer 2006 has been marked by the sudden collapse of the Bérard rockglacier, a rare event, exceptional by the quasi complete destabilization of the landform. This case raises questions on the evolution of mountain permafrost under warming conditions, especially those ice-rich debris accumulations located close to the altitudinal and/or latitudinal limits of permafrost and that may be experiencing morphogenetic crisis. The Bérard site (2500-2900 m asl; 44°26' N. - 6°40' E.) is located in the Parpaillon range, near the Southern limits of the Alpine permafrost and under Mediterranean climatic conditions. The objectives of our study are to analyse the present state of the Bérard rock glacier (collapsed and non-collapsed mass) and its evolution after the major movements of summer 2006 that mobilized 1.5 millions m3 of material. In this purpose, electrical resistivity and seismic refraction tomographies were repeated along two profiles in summers 2007 and 2009, GPS survey of 40 points was initiated in summer 2007 and a thermal monitoring, composed of 6 miniature temperature dataloggers and an automatic weather station was installed on the site on summer 2007. First, the combination of the thermal and geodetic data allows us to distinguish three areas: 1) the unstable but non-collapsed upper part of the rock glacier, characterized by creeping signs and which displays surface velocity between 0.1 and 0.6 m/yr and WEqT (Winter Equilibrium Temperature) values > - 2°C in 2008 and 2009; 2) the highly unstable but non-collapsed median part, characterized by destabilization signs like wide fractures and which displays surface velocity up to 8 m/yr (no ground temperature available); 3) the collapsed mass, characterized by strong morphological changes (rapid downwasting of ice/debris packets) just after the deposition but no visible signs of evolution since 2007 and which displays surface velocity below 0.1 m/yr and WEqT around 0°C. The electrical

  6. On the nature of the transition between the mantle and crustal units in the Finero Complex (Ivrea-Verbano Zone, Southern Alps

    Zanetti, Alberto; Langone, Antonio; Tommasi, Andréa; Vauchez, Alain; Padrón-Navarta, Josè Alberto; Giovanardi, Tommaso; Mazzucchelli, Maurizio


    A well-exposed contact between mantle and crustal rocks is present in the Finero Complex (northern Ivrea-Verbano Zone; Southern Alps). The core of the Complex is composed by the Finero Phlogopite Peridotite mantle unit (FPP), which is wrapped out by an intercalation of mafic-ultramafic rocks interpreted as intrusive crustal bodies. The first crustal unit, placed in contact with the FPP, is the Layered Internal Zone (LIZ), which is overlaid by the Amphibole Peridotite and the External Gabbro units. With the aim of characterising the nature of such transition, a detailed investigation has been done on the outcrop at the confluence between Rio Cannobino and Rio Creves. In the transition area, no apparent melt injection (i.e. veins or dykes) from the LIZ is observed into the FPP. A few meters far from the contact, the mantle rocks are similar to those forming the typical FPP sequence. They are coarse-granular phlogopite-amphibole-bearing harzburgite showing a foliation parallel to the contact. The amphibole chemistry is characterised by large Mg# and Cr, Th and U contents, large and linearly-fractionated LREE/PM values, and low Nb, Ta and HREE. Towards the LIZ, the olivine grain-size decreases and the peridotite becomes richer in orthopyroxene, phlogopite and amphibole. At the contact with the LIZ, the harzburgite is replaced by a layer, up to 1-m-thick, of weakly-deformed coarse-granular amphibole-biotite-bearing orthopyroxenite. Besides, approaching the contact, the minerals have larger Fe and Al, and lower Cr. Amphiboles are still enriched in Th, U, and LREE, and depleted in HREE, but with greater absolute values than in the harzburgite farther from the contact. The LIZ starts with dm-thick hornblendites, followed by amphibole gabbro layers containing garnet and clinopyroxene. Both hornblendites and gabbros preserve magmatic textures, with modest deformation and subsolidus recrystallisation. Hornblendites are made by titanian pargasites, definitely richer in Fe, Al

  7. Multidisciplinary distinction of mass-movement and flood-induced deposits in lacustrine environments: implications for Holocene palaeohydrology and natural hazards (Lake Ledro, Southern Alps, Italy

    A. Simonneau


    Full Text Available High-resolution seismic profiles and sediment cores from Lake Ledro combined with soil and river-bed samples from the lake's catchment area are used to assess the recurrence of natural hazards (earthquakes and flood events in the southern Italian Alps during the Holocene. Two well-developed deltas and a flat central basin are identified on seismic profiles in Lake Ledro. Lake sediments are finely laminated in the basin since 9000 cal. yr BP and frequently interrupted by two types of sedimentary events: light-coloured massive layers and dark-coloured graded beds. Optical analysis (quantitative organic petrography of the organic matter occurring in soils, river beds and lacustrine samples together with lake-sediment bulk density and grain-size analysis illustrate that light-coloured layers consist of a mixture of lacustrine sediments and mainly contain algal particles similar to the ones observed in background sediments. Light-coloured layers thicker than 1.5 cm in the main basin of Lake Ledro are dense and synchronous to numerous coeval mass-wasting deposits remoulding the slopes of the basin. They are interpreted as subaquatic mass movements triggered by historical and pre-historical regional earthquakes dated to 2005 AD, 1891 AD, 1045 AD and 1260, 2545, 2595, 3350, 3815, 4740, 7190, 9185 and 11495 cal. yr BP. Dark-coloured sedimentary event are dense and develop high-amplitude reflections in front of the deltas and in the deep central basin. These beds are mainly made of terrestrial organic matter (soils and ligno-cellulosic debris and are interpreted as resulting from intense hyperpycnal flood events. Mapping and quantifying the amount of soil material accumulated in the Holocene hyperpycnal flood deposits of the sequence and applying the De Ploey erosion model allow estimating that the equivalent soil thickness eroded over the catchment area reached up to 4 mm during the largest Holocene flood events. Such significant soil erosion is

  8. First Direct Evidence for Natal Wintering Ground Fidelity and Estimate of Juvenile Survival in the New Zealand Southern Right Whale Eubalaena australis.

    Carroll, E L; Fewster, R M; Childerhouse, S J; Patenaude, N J; Boren, L; Baker, C S


    Juvenile survival and recruitment can be more sensitive to environmental, ecological and anthropogenic factors than adult survival, influencing population-level processes like recruitment and growth rate in long-lived, iteroparous species such as southern right whales. Conventionally, Southern right whales are individually identified using callosity patterns, which do not stabilise until 6-12 months, by which time the whale has left its natal wintering grounds. Here we use DNA profiling of skin biopsy samples to identify individual Southern right whales from year of birth and document their return to the species' primary wintering ground in New Zealand waters, the Subantarctic Auckland Islands. We find evidence of natal fidelity to the New Zealand wintering ground by the recapture of 15 of 57 whales, first sampled in year of birth and available for subsequent recapture, during winter surveys to the Auckland Islands in 1995-1998 and 2006-2009. Four individuals were recaptured at the ages of 9 to 11, including two females first sampled as calves in 1998 and subsequently resampled as cows with calves in 2007. Using these capture-recapture records of known-age individuals, we estimate changes in survival with age using Cormack-Jolly-Seber models. Survival is modelled using discrete age classes and as a continuous function of age. Using a bootstrap method to account for uncertainty in model selection and fitting, we provide the first direct estimate of juvenile survival for this population. Our analyses indicate a high annual apparent survival for juveniles at between 0.87 (standard error (SE) 0.17, to age 1) and 0.95 (SE 0.05: ages 2-8). Individual identification by DNA profiling is an effective method for long-term demographic and genetic monitoring, particularly in animals that change identifiable features as they develop or experience tag loss over time.

  9. ALP - blood test

    ... this page: // ALP - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a protein found in all body tissues. ...

  10. Continuous deformation versus faulting through the continental lithosphere of new zealand

    Molnar; Anderson; Audoine; Eberhart-Phillips; Gledhill; Klosko; McEvilly; Okaya; Savage; Stern; Wu


    Seismic anisotropy and P-wave delays in New Zealand imply widespread deformation in the underlying mantle, not slip on a narrow fault zone, which is characteristic of plate boundaries in oceanic regions. Large magnitudes of shear-wave splitting and orientations of fast polarization parallel to the Alpine fault show that pervasive simple shear of the mantle lithosphere has accommodated the cumulative strike-slip plate motion. Variations in P-wave residuals across the Southern Alps rule out underthrusting of one slab of mantle lithosphere beneath another but permit continuous deformation of lithosphere shortened by about 100 kilometers since 6 to 7 million years ago.

  11. The challenges of long-term ecological research in springs in the northern and southern Alps: indicator groups, habitat diversity, and medium-term change



    Full Text Available After extensive exploratory investigations into crenic habitats at the beginning of the 1990s, a number of springs were selected and long-term ecological research programmes independently initiated in the Berchtesgaden National Park (north-eastern Alps, Bavaria and the Adamello-Brenta Nature Park (south-eastern Alps, Trentino. Following more than a decade of standardized work, this paper presents a selection of results from both sides of the Alps, with a focus on zoobenthos in Bavaria and on pro- and eukaryotic algae in Trentino. In order to test the assumption that permanent springs are particularly suitable habitats for long-term ecological research, the following topics are addressed: (1 taxonomic diversity and relationships between diversity and spring typology; (2 transverse gradients in crenic habitats, hygrophilous terrestrial invertebrates and xerotolerant algae; (3 possibilities of documenting changes in species composition over decadal time scales ("medium-term" based on emergence traps, benthos, and benthic algae. The data obtained show that: (1 crenic habitats support particularly high biological diversity (but a thorough documentation of insect diversity is impossible without emergence studies; (2 helocrenes are the most species-rich habitats, for both invertebrates and diatoms; (3 dynamic (unstable and occasionally-impacted springs show identifiable signs of medium-term change, whilst particularly complex and stable crenic habitats seem to be controlled by internal processes. Our results suggest that: (1 the meiofauna is likely to react directly to environmental change, while emergers and the hygrophilous terrestrial fauna are indirectly affected, and (2 diatoms react both to direct effects of environmental change, e.g. discharge and hydrochemistry, and to indirect effects on the surroundings of the spring. Based on our results, long-term research strategies are discussed. For long-term studies, we propose a focus on meiofauna and

  12. Crustal structure of the Eastern Alps and their foreland

    Grad, M.; Brückl, E.; Majdanski, M.


    plate, Adriatic microplate and the recently identified Pannonian fragment. The seismic data along the presented profile originate from two large experiments: CELEBRATION 2000 and ALP 2002. The wavefield observed in the Eastern Alps is more complex than in the Bohemian Massif. Strong first arrivals (Pg......The subject of this paper concerns the seismic modelling of the crustal structure in the transition zone from the Bohemian Massif, across the Molasse basin and the Eastern Alps to the Southern Alps, mainly on the territory of Austria. The CEL10/Alp04 profile crosses the triple point of the European......) are distinct up to 60-90 km offset and are characterized by large variations in apparent velocity and amplitude. The contact between the Molasse basin and the Eastern Alps represents a barrier for seismic waves. Mid-crustal reflections (Pc) are usually recorded at short distance intervals (20-50 km...

  13. The seroprevalence of avipoxvirus and its association with avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) infection in introduced passerine birds in the southern regions of the North Island of New Zealand.

    Ha, H J; Banda, M; Alley, M R; Howe, L; Gartrell, B D


    Blood samples were collected from 65 free-ranging birds from six species in the southern North Island of New Zealand. Sera from the birds were tested for the presence of avipoxvirus (APV) antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and blood cells from 55 birds were also tested for Plasmodium spp. by PCR. Forty-five birds (69.2%) tested seropositive to APV. Song thrushes (Turdus philomelos) presented the highest seroprevalence at 100% (4/4), followed by Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula) (96.86%, 31/32), chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) (54.55%, 6/11), starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) (25%, 3/12), greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) (25%, 1/4), and European goldfinches (Carduelis carduelis) (0%, 0/2). Plasmodium spp. DNA was detected in 15/55 birds (27.3%), including 11 Eurasian blackbirds, one song thrush, and three starlings. Eight Eurasian blackbird isolates (73%) grouped within the subgenus Novyella. Two Eurasian blackbird isolates and the song thrush isolate clustered within a different group with previously reported lineages LINN1 and AFTRU5. In addition, all three starling isolates clustered within the well-characterized lineage Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum GRW06. All Plasmodium-positive Eurasian blackbirds and the song thrush were seropositive to APV, whereas only 67% of Plasmodium-positive starlings showed evidence of previous exposure to APV. A significant relationship between birds seropositive to APV and birds infected by Plasmodium spp. was observed (chi2 = 5.69, df = 1, P = 0.0086). To the authors' knowledge this is the first report describing the seroprevalence of APV and its association with Plasmodium spp. infection in introduced bird species in New Zealand.

  14. Frequency and genetic spectrum of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) in southern New Zealand.

    Wheeler, Benjamin J; Patterson, Nicola; Love, Donald R; Prosser, Debbie; Tomlinson, Paul; Taylor, Barry J; Manning, Patrick


    Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) is a monogenic form of diabetes, consisting of a heterogeneous group of autosomal dominant inherited disorders. Typical onset is in individuals prior to twenty five years, and presentation can mimic type 1 or 2 diabetes. Molecular genetic testing can allow precise identification of the different MODY sub-types. Making a specific diagnosis of MODY can have important implications for the guidance of appropriate treatment, prognosis and genetic counselling.We present the cases of three children and their families diagnosed with MODY over the past two years. These families highlight the features of three of the more common MODY subtypes, including two with novel mutations, one of which segregates in a kindred that is strongly affected by both MODY and classic autoimmune mediated diabetes. To date, we have identified a prevalence of MODY in the paediatric diabetes population of the lower South Island, New Zealand, of approximately 2.5%. This prevalence, along with increasing access to molecular genetic testing, highlights the importance of consideration of MODY in atypical diabetes presentations in the paediatric/adolescent population.

  15. The chemical and biological response of two remote mountain lakes in the Southern Central Alps (Italy to twenty years of changing physical and chemical climate

    Andrea LAMI


    Full Text Available Two small high mountain lakes in the Alps were monitored in 1984-2003 to follow their response to changes in human impact, such as deposition of atmospheric pollutants, fish stocking and climate change. The results were compared to occasional samplings performed in the 1940s, and to the remains found in sediment cores. When monitoring started, the most acid-sensitive of them, Lake Paione Superiore, was acidified, with evident effects in its flora and fauna: benthic diatoms assemblage was shifted towards acidophilous species, and zooplankton lost the dominant species, Arctodiaptomus alpinus. Palaeolimnological studies outlined that lake acidification paralleled the increasing input of long-range transported industrial pollutants, traced by spherical carbonaceous particles. On the contrary, the biota of Lake Paione Inferiore appeared to be mainly affected by fish stocking. In the last twenty years, decrease in acid load from the atmosphere led to an improvement in lake water quality, with an increase in both pH and alkalinity. First signs of biological recovery were identified, such as change in diatom flora and appearance of sensitive species among benthic insects. However, climate change and episodic deposition of Saharan dust were important driving factors controlling lake water chemistry. Further monitoring to assess the effects of climate change and of the increasing load of nitrogen and other pollutants is recommended.

  16. How a geology map of the Upper Santa Maria Valley in the Southern Swiss Alps played a critical role in solving a hydrogeologic enigma

    Otz, M. H.; Otz, I.


    Several regional-scale, fluorescent dye-tracing tests recently showed counter-intuitive, tectonically influenced, preferential ground water flow from the Piora Region via the Santa Maria Valley to the di Campo Valley. Losing rivers of the Piora Valley recharge the Triassic Piora Aquifer at an average rate of 20,000 m3/d and hydrologic budgets suggest that half of the Upper Santa Maria discharge originates from the Piora Region. The geologic map of the Upper Santa Maria Valley presented a partial solution to the hydrogeologic puzzle of the Piora Aquifer, thus facilitating construction of the AlpTransit railway tunnel (the longest on Earth). The autochthonous Lucomagno Triassic of the Gotthard Massif (cargneules), the allochthonous Frodalera-Peiden Triassic (sugar dolomites, para-gneises, quartzites, green phyllites), the Stgir Series of the Lower Jurassic (sandy limestones and quartzites), the Inferno Series of the Middle Jurassic (coarse sandstones, limestones, shales), the Coroi Series of the Upper Jurassic (black shales), the crystalline Gotthard Massif (ortho-gneises), and the northern Penninic Nappe (para- and ortho-gneises, quartzites) are the main lithologies found in the outcrops of the Upper Santa Maria Valley. The highly weathered Triassic series found in the Piora and Upper Santa Maria Valley posed a potential hydrogeologic obstacle that was overcome by tunnel drillers in early 2010, for expected tunnel service by 2012.

  17. Vegetation and climate in Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes since 210 ka: new insights from marine and terrestrial pollen records from New Zealand

    Ryan, M. T.; Dunbar, G. B.; Vandergoes, M. J.; Neil, H. L.; Hannah, M. J.; Newnham, R. M.; Bostock, H.; Alloway, B. V.


    Paleo-vegetation records developed from marine sedimentary sequences offer considerable potential for examining changes in terrestrial climate beyond the range of 14C dating because they can be independently dated by δ18O stratigraphy. Here we present the first pollen record of vegetation from a marine core site in the Tasman Sea, TAN0513-14 (42°18'S, 169°53'E), ˜110 km west of New Zealand's South Island. An independent chronology provided by correlating the Globigerina bulloides δ18O record at TAN0513-14 to a global isotope stack shows that the record extends back to 210 ka. Glacial to interglacial changes in palynomorph content are characterised by shrub and podocarp-broadleaf forest taxa respectively and are correlated with similar changes in the ca 150 kyr-long terrestrial pollen record from Okarito Pakihi (bog), 110 km to the south southeast. Both records are placed on the same timescale by matching variations in Dacrydium cupressinum and Fuscospora between sites, with a unique tie point provided by the ca 25.4 ka Kawakawa Tephra. Our Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude vegetation records show forest extent is greatest during periods of low ice volume, high mean annual sea surface temperature (MASST) and anti-phased with local insolation intensity. However, there are several features not attributable to changes in mean annual temperature. First, a fundamental change in forest composition occurred at Termination II (TII), with a loss of southern beech (Nothofagus) from the study area. Second, the amplitude of MASST change through MIS 5 is not reflected in corresponding changes in forest extent, suggesting other feature(s) of regional climate (seasonality, frostiness, ice cover) exert important controls over vegetation patterns at these latitudes.

  18. Changes in El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) conditions during the Greenland Stadial 1 (GS-1) chronozone revealed by New Zealand tree-rings

    Palmer, Jonathan G.; Turney, Chris S. M.; Cook, Edward R.; Fenwick, Pavla; Thomas, Zoë; Helle, Gerhard; Jones, Richard; Clement, Amy; Hogg, Alan; Southon, John; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Staff, Richard; Muscheler, Raimund; Corrège, Thierry; Hua, Quan


    The warming trend at the end of the last glacial was disrupted by rapid cooling clearly identified in Greenland (Greenland Stadial 1 or GS-1) and Europe (Younger Dryas Stadial or YD). This reversal to glacial-like conditions is one of the best known examples of abrupt change but the exact timing and global spatial extent remain uncertain. Whilst the wider Atlantic region has a network of high-resolution proxy records spanning GS-1, the Pacific Ocean suffers from a scarcity of sub-decadally resolved sequences. Here we report the results from an investigation into a tree-ring chronology from northern New Zealand aimed at addressing the paucity of data. The conifer tree species kauri (Agathis australis) is known from contemporary studies to be sensitive to regional climate changes. An analysis of a 'historic' 452-year kauri chronology confirms a tropical-Pacific teleconnection via the El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We then focus our study on a 1010-year sub-fossil kauri chronology that has been precisely dated by comprehensive radiocarbon dating and contains a striking ring-width downturn between ∼12,500 and 12,380 cal BP within GS-1. Wavelet analysis shows a marked increase in ENSO-like periodicities occurring after the downturn event. Comparison to low- and mid-latitude Pacific records suggests a coherency with ENSO and Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation change during this period. The driver(s) for this climate event remain unclear but may be related to solar changes that subsequently led to establishment and/or increased expression of ENSO across the mid-latitudes of the Pacific, seemingly independent of the Atlantic and polar regions.

  19. The taphonomy of a remarkable leaf bed assemblage from the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene Gore Lignite Measures, southern New Zealand

    Ferguson, David K.; Zetter, Reinhard; Vavra, Norbert [Department of Paleontology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Lee, Daphne E. [Department of Geology, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Bannister, Jennifer M. [Department of Botany, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Jordan, Gregory J. [School of Plant Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 55, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Mildenhall, Dallas C. [GNS Science, PO Box 30-368, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)


    A diverse assemblage of fossil leaves showing cellular detail is reported from the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene Gore Lignite Measures, southern New Zealand. The leaf-remains include at least five conifers, such as the genera Agathis, Dacrycarpus, Phyllocladus and Dacrydium, as well as a number of angiosperms including Gymnostoma, Nothofagus Subgenus Brassospora, Phormium, Proteaceae, Sapindaceae and Ericaceae. A parallel palynological study has identified a number of the same elements. The leaf layers represent litter horizons laid down in pools on the surface of a subtropical ombrotrophic forest mire that formed on an extensive low-lying coastal plain. Highly acidic water ponded in tree-fall depressions prevented microbial decay of the foliage. Taxa represented by both leaves and pollen are considered to have been components of the autochthonous swamp forest. Some other pollen grains are thought to represent local elements, based on the pollination biology of their nearest living relatives. Other taxa whose extant representatives are wind-pollinated may have grown further away. (author)

  20. Thermal evolution of the Sisters shear zone, southern New Zealand; Formation of the Great South Basin and onset of Pacific-Antarctic spreading

    Kula, Joseph; Tulloch, Andy J.; Spell, Terry L.; Wells, Michael L.; Zanetti, Kathleen A.


    The separation of Zealandia from West Antarctica was the final stage in the Cretaceous breakup of the Gondwana Pacific margin. Continental extension resulting in formation of the Great South Basin and thinning of the Campbell Plateau leading to development of the Pacific-Antarctic spreading ridge was partially accommodated along the Sisters shear zone. This east-northeast striking brittle-ductile structure exposed along the southeast coast of Stewart Island, New Zealand, is a greenschist facies extensional shear zone that separates a hanging wall of chloritic, brecciated granites, and undeformed conglomerate from a footwall of mylonitic Carboniferous and Early Cretaceous granites. This complex structure exhibits bivergent kinematics and can be subdivided into a northern and southern segment. The 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology indicates that cooling of the shear zone footwall began at ˜94 Ma with accelerated cooling over the interval ˜89-82 Ma. Structural and thermochronological data indicate a spatial and temporal link between the Sisters shear zone, initial sedimentation within the offshore Great South Basin, extension of the Campbell Plateau, and initiation of the Pacific-Antarctic spreading ridge.

  1. Role of Variscan tectonics inheritance in the Jurassic rifting of the passive margin of Adria: insights from the Canavese Zone (Western Southern Alps, Italy)

    De Caroli, Sara; Succo, Andrea; Centelli, Arianna; Barbero, Edoardo; Borghi, Alessandro; Balestro, Gianni; Festa, Andrea


    The formation of rifted continental margins by extension of continental lithosphere leading to seafloor spreading is a complex component of the plate tectonic cycle. Geological mapping, supported by multidisciplinary analyses of rifted continental margins may thus provide significant information to better understand and model the related processes, and explain the geometry of those margins as observed by means of seismic imaging. We present here our new findings on the Canavese Zone (Italian Western Alps), which is inferred to represent the remnant of the Jurassic syn-rift stretching, thinning and dismemberment of the distal passive margin of Adria, occurred during the opening of the Northern Alpine Tethys. Through multiscale and multidisciplinary, field- and laboratory-based structural, stratigraphic and petrographic studies (from geological map scale to mesoscale and microscope scale), we document that the tectonic dismemberment of the rifted continental margin of Adria did not simply result from the syn-rift Jurassic extension, but was strongly favored by the inheritance of older (Variscan and post-Variscan) tectonic stages, which controlled earlier lithospheric weakness. Our findings show the existence of two different tectonic units of the pre-Variscan basement, which were deformed, juxtaposed and exhumed already during the Variscan orogeny as constraint by (i) intrusion of early Permian granitoids, (ii) emplacement of volcanic rocks and (iii) unconformable overlie of Permian deposits on those metamorphic units. The syn-extensional (syn-rift) Jurassic faults, which affect the Mesozoic sedimentary succession, show only limited vertical displacement that was ineffective in producing and justifying the crustal thinning observed in pre-Variscan basement units. Finally, Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene and Late Cenozoic strike-slip faulting (i.e. Alpine and Insubric tectonic stages) reactivated previously formed faults, leading to the formation of a complex tectonic

  2. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    ... Paget's disease or other bone conditions, such as vitamin D deficiency. If ALP results are increased but ... be seen temporarily after blood transfusions or heart bypass surgery. A deficiency in zinc may cause decreased ...

  3. Trans-Alps neutrinos


    "A beam of neutrinos manufactured at CERN shot through the Alps for the first time on 18 August. The beam will feed two neutrino oscillation experiments 730km away at the Gran Sasso National Laobratory near Rome, Italy." (1 page)

  4. Resprout and Survival of Willow ( Salix) Cuttings on Bioengineering Structures in Actively Eroding Gullies in Marls in a Mountainous Mediterranean Climate: A Large-Scale Experiment in the Francon Catchment (Southern Alps, France)

    Rey, F.; Labonne, S.


    Improving the understanding of the role of vegetation and bioengineering structures on erosion and sedimentation control, especially in torrent-prone catchments in a mountainous Mediterranean climate, has become a key issue today for the scientific community working in ecological engineering and restoration ecology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of willow ( Salix) cuttings in resprouting and survival on bioengineering structures in actively eroding gullies in marls and to identify the factors influencing this performance. Measurements were taken from 2008 to 2011 on 336 bioengineering structures, namely brush layers on wooden sills (BL) and brush layers with brush mats on wooden sills (BLM), using 8890 cuttings of Salix purpurea and Salix incana. These structures were built in 18 gullies of the Francon Catchment in marls (73 ha) in the Southern French Alps. After four growing seasons, the results revealed a total cutting survival rate of 45 %. They also demonstrated that in BLM, brush mats provided better survival (56 %) than brush layers (37 %). In BL, brush layers alone showed 51 % cutting survival. Cutting resprout and survival were observed for all structure aspects. They were positively related to increasing gully size and vegetation cover on gully sides. The results of this large-scale experiment clarified previous data obtained on a limited sample of bioengineering structures, providing further detail and showing that it is possible to use such structures made of willow cuttings to revegetate actively eroding gullies in marls within a mountainous Mediterranean climate.

  5. Contrasting medial moraine development at adjacent temperate, maritime glaciers: Fox and Franz Josef Glaciers, South Westland, New Zealand

    Brook, Martin; Hagg, Wilfried; Winkler, Stefan


    Medial moraines form important pathways for sediment transportation in valley glaciers. Despite the existence of well-defined medial moraines on several glaciers in the New Zealand Southern Alps, medial moraines there have hitherto escaped attention. The evolving morphology and debris content of medial moraines on Franz Josef Glacier and Fox Glacier on the western flank of the Southern Alps is the focus of this study. These temperate maritime glaciers exhibit accumulation zones of multiple basins that feed narrow tongues flowing down steep valleys and terminate 400 m above sea level. The medial moraines at both glaciers become very prominent in the lower ablation zones, where the medial moraines widen, and develop steeper flanks coeval with an increase in relative relief. Medial moraine growth appears somewhat self-limiting in that relief and slope angle increase eventually lead to transport of debris away from the medial moraine by mass-movement-related processes. Despite similarities in overall morphologies, a key contrast in medial moraine formation exists between the two glaciers. At Fox Glacier, the medial moraine consists of angular rockfall-derived debris, folded to varying degrees along flow-parallel axes throughout the tongue. The debris originates above the ELA, coalesces at flow-unit boundaries, and takes a medium/high level transport pathway before subsequently emerging at point-sources aligned with gently dipping fold hinges near the snout. In contrast at Franz Josef Glacier, the medial moraine emerges farther down-glacier immediately below a prominent rock knob. Clasts show a mix of angular to rounded shapes representing high level transport and subglacially transported materials, the latter facies possibly also elevated by supraglacial routing of subglacial meltwater. Our observations confirm that a variety of different debris sources, transport pathways, and structural glaciological processes can interact to form medial moraines within New Zealand

  6. Effect of strain-weakening on Oligocene-Miocene self-organization of the Australian-Pacific plate boundary fault in southern New Zealand: Insights from numerical modelling

    Feng, Xiaojun; Jessell, Mark Walter; Amponsah, Prince Ofori; Martin, Roland; Ganne, Jérôme; Liu, Daqing; Batt, Geoffrey E.


    Tectonic inheritance acquired from past geological events can control the formation of new plate boundaries. The aim of this paper is to explore the role of inherited NE and NW trending fabrics and their rheological influence on the propagation of Oligocene-Miocene strike-slip faulting that matured to become the Australian-Pacific plate boundary fault in southern New Zealand. Strain weakening plays a significant role in controlling the formation, growth and evolution of strain localization. In this study, three-dimensional thermo-mechanical models have been used to explore the effect of strain weakening on the Oligocene-Miocene self-organization of strain localization. Strain weakening is simulated through decreasing either the coefficient of friction of upper crust, its cohesion, or the rheological viscosity contrast between the inherited structures and their surrounding wall rocks. Viscosity contrast is obtained by varying the viscosity of inherited structures. Softening coefficient (α) is a measure of strain weakening. Our experiments robustly demonstrate that a primary boundary shear zone becomes mature quicker when softening coefficients are increased. Deformation is focused along narrow high-strain shear zones in the centre of the model when the softening coefficients are high, whereas the strain is more diffuse with many shear zones spread over the model and possibly some high-strain shear zones focused near one border at lower softening coefficients. Varying the viscosity contrast has less effect on the distribution of maximum finite strain. Under simple-shear boundary conditions, NW trending inherited structures make a major contribution to forming early zones of highly focused strain, up to a shear strain of about γ = 3.7. During this process, most NE-trending structures move and rotate passively, accommodate less strain, or even be abandoned through time.

  7. Quantification of glacial erosion in the Alps using OSL-thermochronology

    Herman, F.; Champagnac, J.-D.; Rhodes, E. J.; Jaiswal, M.; Chen, Y.-G.; Schwenninger, J.-L.


    . Cederbom, C.E, et al., Climate induced rebound and exhumation of the European Alps. Geology 32, 709-712 (2000). Champagnac, J.-D., et al., Quaternary erosion-induced isostatic rebound in the western Alps. Geology 35, 195-198 (2007). Haüselmann P., et al.,et al. Abrupt glacial valley incision at 0.8 Ma dated from cave deposits in Switzerland. Geology 35, 33-42 (2007). Herman F. and Braun J. Evolution of the glacial landscape of the Southern Alps of New Zealand: Insights from a glacial erosion model, J. Geophys. Res., 113, F02009, doi:10.1029/2007JF000807 (2008). Herman F., Rhodes E.J. and Braun J. A new thermochronometer reveals steady state relief and exhumation in a small active orogen during the last glacial cycle, submitted. Kuhlemann J., et al., Quantifying tectonic versus erosive denudation by the sediment budget: the Miocene core complexes of the Alps, Tectonophysics 330, 1-23 (2000). Muttoni G., et al., Onset of major Pleistocene glaciations in the Alps. Geology 31, 989-992 (2003). Scardia, G., et al., Subsurface magnetostratigraphy of Pleistocene sediments from the Po Plain (Italy): Constraints on rates of sedimentation and rock uplift. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 118(11-12), 1299-1312 (2006). Vernon, A.J., et al., Increase in late Neogene denudation of the European Alps confirmed by analysis of a fission-track thermochronology database. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 270 (3-4), pp. 316-329 (2008).


    Champagnac, J.; Herman, F.; Rhodes, E. J.; Fellin, M.; Jaiswal, M.; Schwenninger, J.; Reverman, R. L.


    üselmann P., et al.,et al. Abrupt glacial valley incision at 0.8 Ma dated from cave deposits in Switzerland. Geology 35, 33-42 (2007). Herman F. and Braun J. Evolution of the glacial landscape of the Southern Alps of New Zealand: Insights from a glacial erosion model, J. Geophys. Res., 113, F02009, doi:10.1029/2007JF000807 (2008). Herman F., Rhodes E.J. and Braun J. A new thermochronometer reveals steady state relief and exhumation in a small active orogen during the last glacial cycle, submitted. Kuhlemann J., et al., Quantifying tectonic versus erosive denudation by the sediment budget: the Miocene core complexes of the Alps, Tectonophysics 330, 1-23 (2000). Muttoni G., et al., Onset of major Pleistocene glaciations in the Alps. Geology 31, 989-992 (2003). Vernon, A.J., et al., Increase in late Neogene denudation of the European Alps confirmed by analysis of a fission-track thermochronology database. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 270 (3-4), pp. 316-329 (2008).

  9. The timing and cause of glacial advances in the southern mid-latitudes during the last glacial cycle based on a synthesis of exposure ages from Patagonia and New Zealand

    Darvill, Christopher M.; Bentley, Michael J.; Stokes, Chris R.; Shulmeister, James


    Glacier advances in the southern mid-latitudes during the last glacial cycle (ca. 110-10 ka) were controlled by changes in temperature and precipitation linked to several important ocean-climate systems. As such, the timing of glacial advance and retreat can yield important insights into the mechanisms of Southern Hemisphere climate change. This is particularly important given that several recent studies have demonstrated significant glacial advances prior to the global Last Glacial Maximum (gLGM) in Patagonia and New Zealand, the cause of which are uncertain. The recent increase in chronological studies in these regions offers the opportunity to compare regional trends in glacial activity. Here, we compile the first consistent 10Be exposure-dating chronologies for Patagonia and New Zealand to highlight the broad pattern of mid-latitude glacial activity over the last glacial cycle. Our results show that advances or still stands culminated at 26-27 ka, 18-19 ka and 13-14 ka in both Patagonia and New Zealand and were broadly synchronous, but with an offset between regions of up to 900 years that cannot be explained by age calculation or physically plausible erosion differences. Furthermore, there is evidence in both regions for glacial advances culminating from at least 45 ka, during the latter half of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3. Glacial activity prior to the gLGM differed from the large Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, likely due to favourable Southern Hemisphere conditions during late MIS 3: summer insolation reached a minimum, seasonality was reduced, winter duration was increasing, and sea ice had expanded significantly, inducing stratification of the ocean and triggering northward migration of oceanic fronts and the Southern Westerly Winds. Glacial advances in Patagonia and New Zealand during the gLGM were probably primed by underlying orbital parameters. However, the precise timing is likely to have been intrinsically linked to migration of the coupled ocean

  10. The role of Variscan to pre-Jurassic active extension in controlling the architecture of the rifted passive margin of Adria: the example of the Canavese Zone (Western Southern Alps, Italy)

    Succo, Andrea; De Caroli, Sara; Centelli, Arianna; Barbero, Edoardo; Balestro, Gianni; Festa, Andrea


    The Canavese Zone, in the Italian Western Southern Alps, represents the remnant of the Jurassic syn-rift stretching, thinning and dismemberment of the distal passive margin of Adria during the opening of the Penninic Ocean (i.e., Northern Alpine Tethys). Our findings, based on detailed geological mapping, structural analysis and stratigraphic and petrographic observations, document however that the inferred hyper-extensional dismemberment of this distal part of the passive margin of Adria, up to seafloor spreading, was favored by the inherited Variscan geometry and crustal architecture of the rifted margin, and by the subsequent Alpine-related strike-slip deformation. The new field data document, in fact, that the limited vertical displacement of syn-extensional (syn-rift) Jurassic faults was ineffective in producing and justifying the crustal thinning observed in the Canavese Zone. The deformation and thinning of the continental basement of Adria are constrained to the late Variscan time by the unconformable overlying of Late Permian deposits. Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene and Late Cenozoic strike-slip faulting (i.e., Alpine and Insubric tectonic stages) reactivated previously formed faults, leading to the formation of a complex tectonic jigsaw which only partially coincides with the direct product of the Jurassic syn-rift dismemberment of the distal part of the passive margin of Adria. Our new findings document that this dismemberment of the rifted continental margin of Adria did not simply result from the syn-rift Jurassic extension, but was strongly favored by the inheritance of older (Variscan and post-Variscan) tectonic stages, which controlled earlier lithospheric weakness. The formation of rifted continental margins by extension of continental lithosphere leading to seafloor spreading is a complex and still poorly understood component of the plate tectonic cycle. Geological mapping of rifted continental margins may thus provide significant information to

  11. Offshore Rayleigh Group Velocity Observations of the South Island, New Zealand, from Ambient Noise Data

    Yeck, William L.


    We present azimuthally anisotropic Rayleigh group velocity models from 8 - 35 s both offshore and onshore of the South Island of New Zealand. We use MOANA (Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa) broadband ocean seismic data in combination with on land data from the New Zealand National Seismography Network (NZNSN) to investigate the seismic structure of the flanks of the Australian-Pacific plate boundary. At 8 s, we observe low offshore group velocities best explained by the influence of the water layer and thick water-laden sediments. At long periods (20-30 s), group velocities are lower on the South Island relative to its offshore flanks, due to thickened crust beneath the island, with the lowest velocities primarily beneath the Southern Alps. Group velocity azimuthal anisotropy fast directions near the Alpine Fault align with the direction of relative plate motion between the Australian and Pacific plates. In the southern portion of the island, fast directions rotate anticlockwise, likely in response to a decrease in dextral shearing away from the plate boundary. Azimuthal anisotropy fast directions align with absolute plate motion offshore on the Pacific plate. Based on the depth sensitivity of our observations, we suggest diffuse deformation occurs throughout the crust. Our observations match trends in previous Pn anisotropy and SKS shear wave splitting observations, and therefore suggest a consistent pattern of distributed deformation throughout the lithosphere.

  12. The Crotonia fauna of New Zealand revisited (Acari: Oribatida): taxonomy, phylogeny, ecological distribution and biogeography.

    Colloff, Matthew J


    New Zealand contains 13 of the 69 species of Crotonia described globally and is the only place where all three genera of the Crotoniinae-Crotonia, Austronothrus and Holonothrus-have been recorded. Due to the pioneering work of Hammer (1966) and Luxton (1982) it also has the highest number of distribution records of Crotonia spp. anywhere. In the present study I build upon previous work to re-examine the Crotonia fauna of New Zealand in the light of recent taxonomic and biogeographical research. A new species is described, C. ramsayi sp. nov., a member of the Unguifera species group, and supplementary descriptions are provided for C. brachyrostrum (Hammer 1966), C. caudalis (Hammer, 1966), C. cophinaria (Michael, 1908), and C. unguifera (Michael 1908), as well as a key to species. Crotonia spp. from New Zealand occur predominantly in localities with relatively low mean annual temperature and high water balance, reflecting a requirement for cool, moist conditions. In New Zealand Crotonia spp. occur in an extremely wide variety of vegetation communities compared with other regions in its range (Australia, Africa and South America), and this is indicative that water balance requirements are met, regardless of vegetation type. Some elements of the New Zealand Crotonia fauna, notably the Cophinaria species group, are common to Australia, Africa and South America, indicating a shared evolutionary history pre-dating the separation of Africa from Gondwana 110 mya. The high proportion of species that occur west of the Alpine Fault is consistent with a relictual distribution of Gondwanan elements on the Australian Plate. However, it is unclear whether uplift of the Southern Alps formed a barrier to dispersal. A high representation of the morphologically closely-related Obtecta, Flagellata and Unguifera groups, shared only with South America (and, for Unguifera, with Oceania) represents a dramatically different faunal composition compared with other former Gondwanan landmasses

  13. First attempt to study rock glaciers in New Zealand using the Schmidt-hammer - framework and preliminary results

    Winkler, Stefan; Lambiel, Christophe; Sattler, Katrin; Büche, Thomas; Springer, Johanna


    Although not uncommon within the dryer eastern parts of the Southern Alps, New Zealand, comparatively few previous studies have previously focused on rock glacier dynamics and spatial distribution. Neither investigations of their chronological constraints nor any studies on actual rock glacier velocities have yet been carried out. Rock glaciers and periglacial processes still largely constitute a largely unexplored albeit potentially valuable field of research in the Southern Alps. The high-altitude valley head of Irishman Stream in the Ben Ohau Range between Lakes Ohau and Pukaki, roughly 30 km southeast of the Main Divide, contains a few morphologically intact rock glaciers and some appear to be active features (Sattler et al. 2016). Previous work focusing on the Late-glacial and early Holocene moraines in the valley head below the rock glaciers (Kaplan et al. 2010) provided 10Be-ages that could be utilised as fixed points for SHD (Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating). Apart from detailed Schmidt-hammer sampling on the Late-glacial and early Holocene moraines, two altitudinal transects from the toe to their apex have been measured in detail on selected rock glaciers. On each of the multiple ridges of the rock glacier surface three sites of 50 boulders have been sampled with one impact each by the hammer (an N-type electronic SilverSchmidt by Proceq). Apart from getting some age constraints of these periglacial features in comparison to the well-dated moraines, the Schmidt-hammer measurements also had the aim to provide some insight into their genetic development resulting in a quite complex morphology of the rock glaciers and partial interaction with some of the moraines. Both altitudinal transects reveal a clear and continuous trend of increasing means (i.e. less weathered/younger exposure ages) towards their apex. The values for the individual ridges show, however, a transitional character with adjacent ridges albeit the abovementioned trend not statistically

  14. Ecosystems response and restitution time across the K/Pg boundary transition at high-latitudes, Southern Hemisphere, New Zealand - a palynological approach

    Willumsen, Pi; Vajda, Vivi


    Several major groups of biota/fauna disappeared globally across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (K/Pg boundary) and several other important groups suffered considerable, but not complete, species-level extinction. For marine phytoplankton - a major driver of ocean productivity - darkness and suppression of photosynthesis, in the aftermath of the asteroid impact, was likely a major killing mechanism. Thus, in the marine realm there is a separation in extinction rate between strongly affected groups with calcareous shells and groups that had organic cysts or siliceous tests. Detailed regional records of the long-term post-K/Pg boundary therefore still need to be undertaken to enhance the understanding of how each of the major microfossil groups recovered to elucidate recovery in different ecosystem types following this unique event. Throughout the New Zealand region, widespread deposition of siliceous sediments occurred during the Late Cretaceous to early Paleocene indicating the existence of a south Pacific upwelling regime (Hollis 1993, 1995; Strong et al. 1995). Silica concentration in the oceans increased after the K/Pg event and remained high for 1-2 millions years during the early Paleogene, reflecting high bio-siliceous productivity in the aftermath of the K/Pg boundary event (Hollis et al. 1995, 2003). The geological archives of New Zealand includes outcrops from several basins which provide a unique possibility for examining ecosystem response and restitution time from latest Cretaceous to early Paleogene in a suite of depositional environments spanning from terrestrial to bathyal (Willumsen 2000, Vajda et al. 2001, Vajda and Raine 2003). High-resolution palynological comparative studies of organic-walled microfossils such as dinoflagellate assemblages (dinocysts), spores and pollen are currently carried out on New Zealand sediments. The recovery period in the marine realm is much extended compared with the much shorter recovery time reflected by the

  15. Tradeoffs between soil, water, and carbon -- a national scale analysis from New Zealand.

    Dymond, John R; Ausseil, Anne-Gaelle E; Ekanayake, Jagath C; Kirschbaum, Miko U F


    The tradeoffs between the regulation of soil erosion, provision of fresh water, and climate regulation associated with new Pinus radiata forests in New Zealand are explored using national models. These three ecosystem services for which there is strong demand are monetised as commodities (avoided soil erosion is NZ $1 per tonne; water is NZ $1 per cubic metre; and sequestered carbon is assumed to be NZ $73 per tonne). This permits their summation on a spatial basis to produce a national map of the net benefit of these ecosystem services. Net benefit is spatially variable depending primarily on the relative mix of forest growth rates and demand for irrigation water. New P. radiata forests (once mature) generally reduce mass-movement erosion by an order of magnitude. This provides significant benefits for erosion control where there are high natural rates of erosion. Benefits are especially large in catchments where high sedimentation is increasing flood risk and degrading aquatic ecosystems. The generally high growth rates of P. radiata in New Zealand (8.5 tonnesCha(-1)yr(-1) on average for existing forest) add significant environmental benefits of carbon sinks to climate regulation. However, the reduction of water yield associated with new forests (between 30% and 50%) can neutralise these benefits in catchments where there is demand for irrigation water, such as the eastern foothills of the Southern Alps and the tussock grasslands in the South Island.

  16. ALPS: Advanced Learning Packages, 1978-1979.

    San Juan Unified School District, Carmichael, CA.

    The document describes the ALPS (Advanced Learning Packages) program for teaching gifted students. Introductory materials provide information on teacher requirements, school requirements, ALPS teacher orientation responsibilities, orientation week, field trip procedures, gifted money available, ALPS costs, ALPS evaluations, the Structure of…

  17. Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS).

    Carlisle, Robert

    The Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS) aims to reach eight and a half million adults between ages 25 and 44 and teach them reading and math skills they can use at home and on the job. ALPS proposes to reach those who have never finished high school but do have at least a sixth-grade reading level. They could use their new skills to prepare for…

  18. Reconstruction of paleo-particulate organic carbon fluxes for the Campbell Plateau region of southern New Zealand using the zinc content of sponge spicules

    Ellwood, Michael J.; Kelly, Michelle; Neil, Helen; Nodder, Scott D.


    The zinc concentration of siliceous sponge spicules was determined from spicules recovered from four sediment cores spanning the last 160 kyr, from the Campbell Plateau region southeast of New Zealand. Zinc/Si results showed little difference between Holocene and glacial aged spicules. An increase in Zn/Si was observed for core Y14, where Zn/Si peaked at about 0.6 μmol/mol during marine isotope stages 5a-5b. To better understand the role carbon export has on sponge Zn/Si, we explored the strong relationship observed between surficial sediment particulate organic carbon (POC) and the Zn/Si of sponge silica and related this to sediment trap POC flux estimates. Conversion of the Zn/Si records to benthic POC fluxes suggests that there has been little change in the amount of POC reaching Campbell Plateau sediments over the past 30 kyr. These results suggest that surface productivity over the Campbell Plateau has remained relatively low over the past 160 kyr and suggests that glacial productivity was not significantly higher than the present day. Finally, this work reveals that living marine sponges appear to act as the biological equivalents of moored sediment traps, recording the flux of POC to the seafloor by archiving zinc associated with sinking POC in the growing silica skeleton.

  19. Regional Ambient Noise Tomography in the Eastern Alps of Europe

    Behm, Michael; Nakata, Nori; Bokelmann, Götz


    We present results from ambient noise tomography applied to temporary seismological stations in the easternmost part of the Alps and their transition to the adjacent tectonic provinces (Vienna Basin, Bohemian Massif, Southern Alps, Dinarides). By turning each station into a virtual source, we recover surface waves in the frequency range between 0.1 and 0.6 Hz, which are sensitive to depths of approximately 2-15 km. The utilization of horizontal components allows for the analysis of both Rayleigh and Love waves with comparable signal-to-noise ratio. Measured group wave dispersion curves between stations are mapped to local cells by means of a simultaneous inverse reconstruction technique. The spatial reconstruction for Love-wave velocities fails in the central part of the investigated area, and we speculate that a heterogeneous noise source distribution is the cause for the failure. Otherwise, the obtained group velocity maps correlate well with surface geology. Inversion of Rayleigh-wave velocities for shear-wave velocities along a vertical N-S section stretching from the Bohemian Massif through the Central Alps to the Southern Alps and Dinarides reveals a mid-crustal low-velocity anomaly at the contact between the Bohemian Massif and the Alps, which shows a spatial correlation with the P-wave velocity structure and the low-frequency component of the magnetic anomaly map. Our study is validated by the analysis of resolution and accuracy, and we further compare the result to shear-wave velocity models estimated from other active and passive experiments in the area.

  20. Production benefits from pre- and post-lambing anthelmintic treatment of ewes on commercial farms in the southern North Island of New Zealand.

    Miller, C M; Ganesh, S; Garland, C B; Leathwick, D M


    To measure the magnitude and variability in production responses to anthelmintic treatments administered to adult ewes around lambing. Ewes carrying twin lambs, from sheep and beef farms (eight in Year 1 and six in Year 2) in the Wairarapa region of New Zealand, were enrolled in 14 trials (part of an experiment carried out on one farm in one year). Experiment 1 compared ewes treated 2-4 weeks pre-lambing with a controlled release capsule (CRC) containing abamectin, albendazole, Se and Co, to ewes injected pre-lambing with a long-acting Se plus vitamin B12 product, and to untreated ewes. Experiment 2 included these treatments, plus a CRC administered at pregnancy scanning. Experiment 3 included the same treatments as Experiment 1, plus administration of a CRC containing albendazole, Se and Co, injectable moxidectin or oral derquantel plus abamectin, all administered pre-lambing, or oral derquantel plus abamectin administered 4-6 weeks after lambing. Variables compared were ewe liveweight at weaning and pre-mating, lamb liveweight at weaning, total weight of lamb weaned per ewe and ewe dag score at weaning. Ewes treated with a CRC pre-lambing were heavier than untreated ewes (mean 3.2 kg) at weaning in 12/14 trials, and pre-mating (mean 2.8 kg) in 9/14 trials (p0.65). Treatment of ewes with a CRC at pregnancy scanning was neither better nor worse than a pre-lambing treatment (p=0.065). There was no difference in the response from treatment with either of the two CRC or moxidectin. Treatment with short-acting oral anthelmintics resulted in no consistent benefit. Anthelmintic treatments administered to ewes around lambing resulted in variable responses between farms and years, which in some trials were negative for some variables, and some of the variability was due to the mineral component of the CRC. The widespread perception amongst farmers and veterinarians that anthelmintic treatment of ewes around lambing will always result in positive benefits is not supported.

  1. The enigma of the Australian Alps, young landscapes and missing cryogenic features.

    Slee, Adrian; Shulmeister, James; Clark, Doug


    Widespread evidence for pre last glacial cycle glaciation of late Quaternary ages has been documented from mid-latitude southern hemisphere mountain environments in New Zealand, southern South America and the Tasmanian Highlands. On mainland Australia however cirque and small valley glaciation in the Australian Alps is limited to OIS 4-3 and the last glacial maximum (OIS 2) (Barrows et al. 2001). This contrasts with the other southern hemisphere glacial records that indicate significantly more extensive glaciations preceding the last glacial cycle. In both the Southern Andes and Tasmania the maximum glaciations occurred prior to 783 kya (Glasser et al. 2008, Colhoun et al. 2010) while in tectonically active New Zealand it is at least clear that the scale of glaciation has been diminishing over the last 3 glacial cycles (Shulmeister et al. 2010). In all these locations early workers argued for extensive ice coverage, but subsequent investigations limited the extent and number of glacial advances before more recent work has locally re-extended the glacial limits and greatly increased the number of glacial advances. Similarly, in the highlands of SE Australia the possibility of more pervasive ice coverage was initially entertained; but since the 1960s and especially the 1980s the general consensus is that the lack of glacial evidence is a result of cold dry conditions prevailing for much of the Quaternary on the Australian Alps (Reeves et al. 2013) Recent work by the authors on the extent of relict periglacial block deposits in Australia have identified these block deposits as far north as 29°30'S on the Great Dividing Range, confirming strong freeze-thaw conditions well into the sub-tropics at moderate (900-1200 m) elevations. Curiously, however, the same mapping work has also highlighted the limited development of block deposits and other freeze-thaw landforms, such as tors, in the highest regions of the Australian Alps, in areas beyond the known limits of

  2. Three-dimensional lithospheric deformation and gravity anomalies associated with oblique continental collision in South Island, New Zealand

    Scherwath, Martin; Stern, Tim; Davey, Fred; Davies, Rob


    Isostatic considerations exhibit differences between the northern, central and southern parts of the Pacific-Australian plate collision in South Island, New Zealand. In the northern part mean elevations are moderate and the gravity low is small; the central part contains the highest elevations, and gravity and elevations correspond to each other relatively well; and in the southern part the gravity low is strongest whereas the mean elevations are moderate again. These differences indicate changes in the character of the isostatic compensation and are explained by increased thickening and widening of the crustal root from north to south, and also by the long wavelength gravity response to a mantle density anomaly that increases towards the south. A simple 3-D gravity model is derived that includes the detailed crustal structures from the South Island GeopHysical Transect (SIGHT) experiment as well as a high-density anomaly in the mantle inferred from teleseismic data. The model indicates that cold and, therefore, dense upper mantle material penetrates the asthenosphere to a greater extent in the south, similar to the behaviour of an apparently highly ductile lower crust. As plate reconstruction suggests more lithospheric shortening in the north, our model corresponds to lithospheric material escaping laterally to the south, almost perpendicular to the compression caused by lithospheric shortening of the mantle. Therefore, in addition to the prevailing mantle shear in New Zealand, there may also be a component of extrusional mantle creep beneath the Southern Alps orogen, which could have caused some of the observed large seismic anisotropy in this region. We may have also found evidence for submerged Eocene-Miocene oceanic lithosphere beneath the southeastern part of South Island that has been unaccounted for after plate reconstruction.

  3. OSL dating of Glacial Sediments from New Zealand and Olympic Mountains: Using Stratigraphy to our Advantage

    Rittenour, T. M.; Thackray, G. D.; Shulmeister, J.


    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating provides an age estimate for the last time sediment was exposed to light. In glacial environments solar resetting of the luminescence signal prior to deposition is not assured and can lead to significant age overestimates. Sediments derived from glacial settings also commonly have other deleterious properties such as weak quartz luminescence signals, feldspar contamination and high levels of electron thermal transfer. Despite these potential problems, OSL commonly provides the only means to date glacial deposits due to limited material for radiocarbon and/or surface exposure dating, discrepancies between the age of a landform and the targeted underlying sediment, or deposit age beyond the range for radiocarbon. As part of a larger project to reconstruct MIS 3/4 glacial chronologies, OSL samples were collected from the Rangitata and Clutha River basins along the eastern Southern Alps, New Zealand and from the Hoh and Queets River basins, western Olympic Mountains, Washington USA. Samples for quartz OSL dating were collected from carefully selected shallow-water and well-sorted facies of glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine sediments to select sediments most likely to have been exposed to light prior to deposition. OSL dating is preferred over other dating methods in the study areas because evidence for multiple pre-LGM glaciations is commonly preserved as buried and over-run packages of diamicton, outwash and lacustrine sediment, excluding application of surface-exposure techniques. Further, where the sediments are in fact associated with surficial landforms, detailed description of the underlying stratigraphy permits interpretation of the glacial processes at work and thus provides a more thorough understanding of the relevance of the ages to the advance. Results indicate that while some samples contain evidence for partial bleaching, most show symmetric equivalent dose distributions, and ages are in stratigraphic order

  4. Any Light Particle Search (ALPS)

    Spector, Aaron; Any Light Particle Search (ALPS) Collaboration


    High power laser fields enabled by technologies developed for ground-based gravitational-wave observatories open up new opportunities for fundamental physics studies. One of these options is the search for axions and axion-like particles in a pure laboratory experiment. The axion is a solution to the strong CP-problem and a potential dark matter candidate. The axion has also been proposed as an additional channel to cool stars as well as a potential explanation for the TeV transparency problem. The German-US ALPS collaboration is setting up a light-shining-through-walls (LSW) experiment at DESY. LSW experiments are based on the simple idea that a high power laser field traversing a static magnetic field will transform partly into a relativistic axion field. This axion field will travel through an opaque wall into a second static magnetic field region where it turns partly back into an electromagnetic wave field with the same frequency as the laser. The ALPS collaboration is working towards a large scale LSW experiment at DESY in Hamburg, Germany. I will report on the status of the ALPS experiment. This work is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, PRISMA, the Helmholtz Association, the National Science Foundation and the Heising-Simons Foundation.

  5. Effects of tectonism on glacial and paraglacial processes- a New Zealand case study

    Shulmeister, J.


    The mountains of South Island, New Zealand, are the product of plate interactions between the Indo-Australian and Pacific Plates. The Southern Alps of New Zealand are aligned along the oblique strike-slip Alpine Fault and connect the opposite facing subduction zones of the Puysegur Trough to the South and the Hikurangi Margin to the North. These mountains are characterised by rapid uplift and equally rapid erosion due to a combination of plentiful orographic precipitation and highly fractured bedrock. Consequently, landslides are the dominant erosional process in these landscapes, rather than soil diffusion. The combination of high erosion and high precipitation rates provide exceptional sediment supply to New Zealand mountain glacier valleys mostly in the form of mass movement deposits provided from the valley slopes. Unlike most glaciated mountainous regions, a significant percentage of the precipitation falls as rain and even in winter there is substantial water flow in the lower reaches of the modern glaciers. Similar conditions would have prevailed during full glacial times. The exceptional sediment supply generated by the rapid uplift and erosion modifies the bahaviour of the glaciers as follows; 1. New Zealand glaciers advance behind substantial ice contact fans. These fans are built by rivers that emerge from the front of the glacier. Despite substantial sediment supply from screes and shallow landslides, most material rapidly reaches the glacier base and is transported and reworked in sub-glacial drainages. The ice contact fans and their distal braid plains are the main product of glacial sedimentation. Terminal moraines are a very minor component of the system as they have low preservation potential on ice margins dominated by year round fluvial reworking. Lateral moraines are usually largely stratified. These moraines are much more substantial than terminal moraines because they aggrade as the glacier advances and are abandoned when the glacier begins to

  6. ALPES: an advanced logic programming environment

    Cristina Ruggieri


    Full Text Available This paper introduces a software programming environment for an extended Prolog language, called ALPES. The purpose of ALPES is to enable a logic programming paradigm to become a software engineering tool to design, develop and prototype traditional software systems, as well as artificial intelligence applications. The key structuring concepts for programs, as well as for the system architecture as a whole are those of contexts, processes and communication. The software design and development methodologies induced by the use of the Alpes-Prolog language have been incrementally used to develop the environment itself. This research was conducted under the Esprit projects P973 (ALPES.

  7. 13 CFR 120.840 - Accredited Lenders Program (ALP).


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accredited Lenders Program (ALP... Development Company Loan Program (504) Accredited Lenders Program (alp) § 120.840 Accredited Lenders Program (ALP). (a) General. Under the ALP program, SBA designates qualified CDCs as ALP CDCs, gives...

  8. Status of the ALPS experiment

    Ehret, Klaus


    The ALPS experiment at DESY searches for light particles which are coupling very weakly to photons. Primary physics goal is the search for axion like particles in a photon regeneration experiment. Central part of the experimental setup is a five Tesla strong superconducting HERA dipole magnet. During two operation periods in the years 2007 and 2008 we have collected first data and explored the sensitivity of the setup. A Fabry Perot laser cavity is being set up in order to increase the sensitivity by more than one order of magnitude. (orig.)

  9. New Zealand's medical manslaughter.

    Collins, D B


    Doctors in New Zealand may be prosecuted for manslaughter if patients die as a consequence of the doctor's failure to exercise reasonable knowledge, skill and care. The requirement to use reasonable knowledge, skill and care has been held to be breached in New Zealand if a doctor is merely careless. No distinction is made between 'criminal negligence' and the negligence standard applicable in civil law. This article examines New Zealand's law relating to medical manslaughter with particular reference to the case of R v Yogasakaran [1990] 1 NZLR 399 which was the subject of a petition to the Privy Council on 30 January 1991.

  10. Updated Understanding of Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS).

    Li, Pu; Huang, Ping; Yang, Ye; Hao, Mu; Peng, Hongwei; Li, Fei


    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), a disorder characterized by immune dysregulation due to disrupted lymphocyte homeostasis, is mainly resulted from the mutations in FAS-mediated apoptotic pathway. In addition, other mutations of the genes such as Fas-ligand (FASLG), Caspase 10 (CASP10) and Caspase 8 (CASP8), NRAS and KRAS have also been observed in a small number of patients with ALPS or ALPS-related disorders. However, approximately 20-30% of patients with ALPS have unidentified defect. Its clinical manifestations observed in multiple family members include unexplained lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmune cytopenias such as thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and anemia due to excessive production of antibodies by lymphocytes, elevated number of double-negative T (DNT) cells, and increased risk of lymphoma. As a very rare disease, ALPS was first characterized in the early 1990s. More than 300 families with hereditary ALPS have been reported till now; nearly 500 patients from these families have been studied and followed worldwide over the last 20 years. ALPS has historically considered as a primary immune defect presenting in early childhood, however, recent studies have shown that it may be more common than previous thought because adult onset presentation is increasingly becoming recognized and more adult ALPS patients are diagnosed. The new genetic and biological insights have improved the understanding of ALPS and a number of targeted therapeutic strategies such as mycophenolate mofetil, sirolimus, and pentostatin have been successfully applied in ALPS patients with promising treatment efficacy. This article comprehensively reviews the clinical and laboratory manifestations, new research advances in the molecular pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatments of this disorder.

  11. Post-magmatic solid solutions of CaCeAl2(Fe3+ 2/3□1/3)[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH), allanite-(Ce) and REE-bearing epidote in miarolitic pegmatites of Permian Baveno granite (Verbania, central-southern alps, Italy)

    Guastoni, Alessandro; Nestola, Fabrizio; Schiazza, Mariangela


    CaCeAl2(Fe3+ 2/3□1/3)[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH), allanite-(Ce) and rare earth element (REE)-bearing epidote occur as globular aggregates and platy prismatic crystals in miarolitic cavities in a niobium, yttrium, fluorine (NYF) granitic pegmatite at Baveno, Verbania, Southern Alps, Italy. These samples were investigated by means of an electron probe micro-analyser (EPMA) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Our EPMA results show that the globular aggregates have the highest REE content in the core portion and decreases to REE-bearing epidote towards the rim whereas the prismatic crystals are characterized by marked oscillatory zoning that have the highest REE contents at the rim of the crystal. The unit-cell parameters of "allanites" have an intermediate unit-cell between CaCeAl2(Fe3+ 2/3□1/3)[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH), allanite-(Ce) and REE-free epidote, because reflect the strong chemical heterogeneity of the samples which form complete solid solutions. Hydrothermal fluids control the activity and precipitation of incompatible elements like high field strength elements (HFSE), Sc and REE by hydrous F-rich fluids below the critical temperature which allow to deposit accessory minerals in the cavities with decreasing temperature. The source of REE and Y are the sheet and REE-silicates like siderophyllite-annite, and gadolinite-(Y) which underwent partial to complete decomposition by the activity of aggressive F-rich hydrothermal fluids.

  12. New Zealand Split



    The Kiwis worry about Chinese investment The news China Investment Corp.wanted to invest NZ$6 billion($4.8b illion)in New Zealand sent the country’s stock market spiraling into its best day in three years in late May.This fol-lowed an ongoing internal wrangle in New Zealand over whether Shanghai Pengxin Group should be allowed to buy into the defunct Crafar faming empire.

  13. Late Cenozoic exhumation of New Zealand: inversion from bedrock thermochronological ages

    Jiao, Ruohong; Herman, Frédéric; Seward, Diane


    In the SW Pacific, the present subaerial land area of New Zealand straddles the boundary between the Australian and Pacific Plates. This margin has been converging since the mid-Eocene-late Oligocene, leading to a period of widespread crustal deformation and exhumation. During the past decades, the exhumation of the New Zealand basement has been the basis of many thermochronological studies, resulting in a large number of data from the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic bedrocks. We compiled the cooling ages from multiple thermochronological systems (i.e. apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He, apatite and zircon fission-track, K-feldspar, muscovite, biotite and hornblende 40Ar/39Ar or K-Ar) that yielded cooling events younger than 25 Ma, and formally inverted this data set to estimate the large-scale temporal and spatial variations in the exhumation rates of New Zealand during the late Cenozoic. The exhumation results show good agreement with the predicted off-shore sedimentation rates, while the thermal model used in the inversion is in part constrained by the present-day observed surface heat flow. The modelling results indicate crustal exhumation from the earliest Miocene (just prior to 20 Ma). But from ~10 Ma, a moderate acceleration of exhumation is observed at most sites, coincident with an important change in the orientation of the Pacific motion relative to the Australian Plate. Since the Quaternary, rapid exhumation has occurred in the Southern Alps along the west coast of South Island, with the highest rates in the central part of range. In this region, our estimates of the million-year-scale exhumation rates are in general coincidence with those previously estimated over shorter (i.e. 0.1 Ma and 10 ka) time scales, as well as with the contemporary rock uplift rates derived from GPS data, confirming exhumational steady-state in the orogeny. In contrast in eastern North Island, the predicted Quaternary exhumation rates are much lower than the recent rock uplift rates measured

  14. Seismicity of Eastern Alps and North western Dinaric Alps

    Ertuncay, Deniz; Vicic, Blaž; Costa, Giovanni


    Our study region is placed on Adriatic Plate and the boundaries are Dinaric Orogenic Belt, Carnic, Tolmezzo and Julian Alps. The area has normal, reverse and strike slip faults which can generate big earthquakes such as 1976 Mw 6.5 Friuli Earthquake, 1998 and 2004 Bovec-Krn Earthquakes. The area is located between Austria, Slovenia and Italy. Our group, SEISRAM, has dense seismic station on the Italian part of the region and has access to get data from other countries on the region. We are monitoring the region with a good coverage by collaborating with other institutes on the Ce3RN project which we are also part of. We can detect lower than 0.5 Magnitude earthquakes. We use our database and other seismological centers to investigate the seismicity of the region between 1960 and 2016. Gutenberg - Richter magnitude frequency relationship is applied in order to get a knowledge about the seismicity of Friuli region. By using the database 'a' and 'b' values of the region are found. Same procedure is done for each fault line, separately. Magnitude of completeness for each fault are calculated. Calculation of earthquake probabilities for fixed periodic times for possible from magnitude 3 to magnitude 6 earthquakes. All calculations are done by using Matlab based ZMAP program.

  15. The fluid budget of a continental plate boundary fault: Quantification from the Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    Menzies, Catriona D.; Teagle, Damon A. H.; Niedermann, Samuel; Cox, Simon C.; Craw, Dave; Zimmer, Martin; Cooper, Matthew J.; Erzinger, Jörg


    Fluids play a key role in modifying the chemical and physical properties of fault zones, which may prime them for repeated rupture by the generation of high pore fluid pressures and precipitation of commonly weak, secondary minerals. Fluid flow paths, sources and fluxes, and the permeability evolution of fault zones throughout their seismic cycles remain poorly constrained, despite their importance to understanding fault zone behaviour. Here we use geochemical tracers of fluid-rock exchange to determine budgets for meteoric, metamorphic and mantle fluids on a major compressional tectonic plate boundary. The Alpine Fault marks the transpressional Pacific-Australian plate boundary through South Island, New Zealand and appears to fail in regular (329 ± 68 yrs) large earthquakes (Mw ∼ 8) with the most recent event in 1717 AD. Significant convergent motion has formed the Southern Alps and elevated geothermal gradients in the hangingwall, which drive crustal fluid flow. Along the Alpine Fault the Alpine Schist of the Pacific Plate is thrust over radiogenic metasedimentary rocks on the Australian plate. The absence of highly radiogenic (87Sr/86Sr > 0.7200) strontium isotope ratios of hangingwall hot springs and hydrothermal minerals formed at a range of depths in the Alpine Fault damage zone indicates that the fluid flow is restricted to the hangingwall by a cross-fault fluid flow barrier throughout the seismogenic crust. Helium isotope ratios measured in hot springs near to the Alpine Fault (0.15-0.81 RA) indicate the fault is a crustal-scale feature that acts as a conduit for fluids from the mantle. Rock-exchanged oxygen, but meteoric water-like hydrogen isotope signatures of hydrothermal veins indicate that partially rock-exchanged meteoric fluids dominate down to the top of the brittle to ductile transition zone at ∼6 km. Geochemical tracer transport modelling suggests only ∼0.02 to 0.05% of total rainfall west of the Main Divide penetrates to depth, yet this

  16. 78 FR 29787 - ALPS ETF Trust, et al.;


    ... COMMISSION ALPS ETF Trust, et al.; Notice of Application May 14, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... sections 12(d)(1)(A) and (B) of the Act. APPLICANTS: ALPS ETF Trust (``Trust''), ALPS Advisors, Inc. (``Adviser''), and ALPS Distributors, Inc. (the ``Distributor''). SUMMARY: Summary of Application:...

  17. Hydrological and meteorological aspects of floods in the Alps: an overview

    Baldassare Bacchi


    Full Text Available This introductory paper presents and summarises recent research on meteorological and hydrological aspects of floods in the Alps. The research activities were part of the international research project RAPHAEL (Runoff and Atmospheric Processes for flood HAzard forEcasting and controL together with experiments within the Special Observing Period-SOP conducted in autumn 1999 for the Mesoscale Alpine Programme —MAP. The investigations were based on both field experiments and numerical simulations, using meteorological and hydrological models, of ten major floods that occurred in the past decade in the European Alps. The two basins investigated were the Ticino (6599 km2 at the Lago Maggiore outlet on the southern side of the Alps and the Ammer catchment (709 km2 in the Bavarian Alps. These catchments and their sub-catchments cover an appropriate range of spatial scales with which to investigate and test in an operational context the potential of both mesoscale meteorological and distributed hydrological models for flood forecasting. From the data analyses and model simulations described in this Special Issue, the major sources of uncertainties for flood forecasts in mid-size mountain basins are outlined and the accuracy flood forecasts is assessed. Keywords: floods, mountain hydrology, meteorological models, Alps

  18. Late-orogenic vertical movements within the arc of the SW Alps and Ligurian Alps

    Bertotti, G.; Mosca, P.


    Mainly on the basis of seismic data, we reconstruct magnitude and timing of Miocene to Present vertical movements in the region of the Savigliano basin, an up to 4 km thick succession of Neogene to Quaternary sediments accumulated inside the Alpine arc at the western termination of the Po Plain. We focus, in particular, on the margins of the basin which are the link between the mountain range and the subsiding basin. Seismic data from these regions allow for the definition of upward and downward vertical movements (uplift-exhumation and subsidence) with a spatial and temporal resolution which cannot be attained by other methods. The eastern, southern and western margins of the Savigliano basin display very different geometries of the sedimentary bodies and, therefore, document different vertical movements during Miocene to Present times. The eastern part of the Savigliano basin, and the regions to the E, experienced subsidence followed by exhumation. The southern margin of the basin, in the Cuneo area, was much more stable with Miocene to present formations all pinching-out close to the present day outcropping position of the basement-sedimentary cover contact. In the W, seismic sections record a stage of tilting until the Burdigalian, followed by generalized subsidence which affected also the adjacent regions of the SW Alps. The overall pattern of vertical movements is essentially controlled by the NW-ward migration of a syncline-anticline couple with the synclinal axis presently located in the center of the Savigliano basin. The width of the folds is in the order of 30-60 km (1/2 wavelength). In map view, the trace of the fold axes changes from N-S in the Savigliano basin to E-W in the Alessandria basin.

  19. Review Article: Potential geomorphic consequences of a future great (Mw = 8.0+ Alpine Fault earthquake, South Island, New Zealand

    T. R. Robinson


    Full Text Available The Alpine Fault in New Zealand's South Island has not sustained a large magnitude earthquake since ca. AD 1717. The time since this rupture is close to the average inferred recurrence interval of the fault (~300 yr. The Alpine Fault is therefore expected to generate a large magnitude earthquake in the near future. Previous ruptures of this fault are inferred to have generated Mw = 8.0 or greater earthquakes and to have resulted in, amongst other geomorphic hazards, large-scale landslides and landslide dams throughout the Southern Alps. There is currently 85% probability that the Alpine Fault will cause a Mw = 8.0+ earthquake within the next 100 yr. While the seismic hazard is fairly well understood, that of the consequential geomorphic activity is less well studied, and these consequences are explored herein. They are expected to include landsliding, landslide damming, dam-break flooding, debris flows, river aggradation, liquefaction, and landslide-generated lake/fiord tsunami. Using evidence from previous events within New Zealand as well as analogous international examples, we develop first-order estimates of the likely magnitude and possible locations of the geomorphic effects associated with earthquakes. Landsliding is expected to affect an area > 30 000 km2 and involve > 1billion m3 of material. Some tens of landslide dams are expected to occur in narrow, steep-sided gorges in the affected region. Debris flows will be generated in the first long-duration rainfall after the earthquake and will continue to occur for several years as rainfall (remobilises landslide material. In total more than 1000 debris flows are likely to be generated at some time after the earthquake. Aggradation of up to 3 m will cover an area > 125 km2 and is likely to occur on many West Coast alluvial fans and floodplains. The impact of these effects will be felt across the entire South Island and is likely to continue for several decades.

  20. Allanite behaviour during incipient melting in the southern Central Alps

    Gregory, C.J.; Rubatto, D.; Hermann, J.


    (see Electronic supplement), in order to evaluate the affect of potential isotopic discordance and/or unquantified spectral interferences on the 204 peak during ion probe analysis (cf. Stern and Berman, 2000). The estimates of initial Pb based on 204Pb are generally comparable to the model......). The cores and overgrowths from meta-granite samples fall within or slightly below the end-member chemical classification for allanite (REE + Th ¿ 0.5 cations per formula unit). In contrast, overgrowths from meta-tonalite samples are classified as REE-epidote (REE + Th

  1. An exercise in glacier length modeling: Interannual climatic variability alone cannot explain Holocene glacier fluctuations in New Zealand

    Doughty, Alice M.; Mackintosh, Andrew N.; Anderson, Brian M.; Dadic, Ruzica; Putnam, Aaron E.; Barrell, David J. A.; Denton, George H.; Chinn, Trevor J. H.; Schaefer, Joerg M.


    Recent model studies suggest that interannual climatic variability could be confounding the interpretation of glacier fluctuations as climate signals. Paleoclimate interpretations of moraine positions and associated cosmogenic exposure ages may have large uncertainties if the glacier in question was sensitive to interannual variability. Here we address the potential for interannual temperature and precipitation variability to cause large shifts in glacier length during the Holocene. Using a coupled ice-flow and mass-balance model, we simulate the response of Cameron Glacier, a small mountain glacier in New Zealand's Southern Alps, to two types of climate forcing: equilibrium climate and variable climate. Our equilibrium results suggest a net warming trend from the Early Holocene (10.69 ± 0.41 ka; 2.7 °C cooler than present) to the Late Holocene (CE 1864; 1.3 °C cooler than present). Interannual climatic variability cannot account for the Holocene glacier fluctuations in this valley. Future studies should consider local environmental characteristics, such as a glacier's climatic setting and topography, to determine the magnitude of glacier length changes caused by interannual variability.

  2. 3D high resolution tracking of ice flow using mutli-temporal stereo satellite imagery, Franz Josef Glacier, New Zealand

    Leprince, S.; Lin, J.; Ayoub, F.; Herman, F.; Avouac, J.


    We present the latest capabilities added to the Co-Registration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation (COSI-Corr) software, which aim at analyzing time-series of stereoscopic imagery to document 3D variations of the ground surface. We review the processing chain and present the new and improved modules for satellite pushbroom imagery, in particular the N-image bundle block adjustment to jointly optimize the viewing geometry of multiple acquisitions, the improved multi-scale image matching based on Semi-Global Matching (SGM) to extract high resolution topography, and the triangulation of multi-temporal disparity maps to derive 3D ground motion. In particular, processes are optimized to run on a cluster computing environment. This new suite of algorithms is applied to the study of Worldview stereo imagery above the Franz Josef, Fox, and Tasman Glaciers, New Zealand, acquired on 01/30/2013, 02/09/2013, and 02/28/2013. We derive high resolution (1m post-spacing) maps of ice flow in three dimensions, where ice velocities of up to 4 m/day are recorded. Images were collected in early summer during a dry and sunny period, which followed two weeks of unsettled weather with several heavy rainfall events across the Southern Alps. The 3D tracking of ice flow highlights the surface response of the glaciers to changes in effective pressure at the ice-bedrock interface due to heavy rainfall, at an unprecedented spatial resolution.

  3. Vocal repertoire of the New Zealand kea parrot Nestor notabilis

    Raoul SCHWING; Stuart PARSONS; Ximena J.NELSON


    The unique alpine-living kea parrot Nestor notabilis has been the focus of numerous cognitive studies,but its communication system has so far been largely neglected.We examined 2,884 calls recorded in New Zealand's Southern Alps.Based on audio and visual spectrographic differences,these calls were categorised into seven distinct call types:the non-oscillating ‘screech' contact call and ‘mew'; and the oscillating ‘trill',‘chatter',‘warble' and ‘whistle'; and a hybrid ‘screech-trill'.Most of these calls contained aspects that were individually unique,in addition to potentially encoding for an individual's sex and age.Additionally,for each recording,the sender's previous and next calls were noted,as well as any response given by conspecifics.We found that the previous and next calls made by the sender were most often of the same type,and that the next most likely preceding and/or following call type was the screech call,a contact call which sounds like the 'kee-ah' from which the bird's name derives.As a social bird capable of covering large distances over visually obstructive terrain,long distance contact calls may be of considerable importance for social cohesion.Contact calls allow kea to locate conspecifics and congregate in temporary groups for social activities.The most likely response to any given call was a screech,usually followed by the same type of call as the initial call made by the sender,although responses differed depending on the age of the caller.The exception was the warble,the kea's play call,to which the most likely response was another warble.Being the most common call type,as well as the default response to another call,it appears that the ‘contagious' screech contact call plays a central role in kea vocal communication and social cohesion.

  4. The Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) 2000-01: Student Participation and Effectiveness. ALP Report.

    Baenen, Nancy; Yaman, Kimberly; Lindblad, Mark

    The Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) is the major initiative that the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), North Carolina, is using to help all students reach grade level performance in reading and mathematics. This report focuses on student participation rates and the impact of the ALP program. Data are from a variety of sources. In the…

  5. Younger Dryas equilibrium line altitudes and precipitation patterns in the Alps

    Kerschner, Hanns; Moran, Andrew; Ivy-Ochs, Susan


    Moraine systems of the "Egesen Stadial" are widespread and easily identifiable features in the Alps. Absolute dating with terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclides shows that the maximum extent was reached during the early Younger Dryas (YD), probably as a reaction to the intense climatic downturn subsequent to Lateglacial Interstadial. In recent years, several new studies and the availability of high-quality laser-scan hillshades and orthophotos allowed a significant extension of the database of YD glaciers as "palaeoprecipitation gauges" to large hitherto unmapped regions in the Austrian and Swiss Alps. The equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of the glaciers and its lowering relative to the Little Ice Age ELA (dELA) shows a distinct and systematic spatial pattern. Along the northern slope of the Alps, dELAs are usually large (around 400 m and perhaps even more), while dELAs range around 200 m in the well sheltered areas of the central Alps, e.g. in the Engadine and in western Tyrol. Both stochastic glacier-climate models (e.g. Ohmura et al. 1992) and the heat- and mass balance equation (Kuhn 1981) allow the reconstruction of precipitation change under the assumption of a spatially constant summer temperature depression, which in turn can be estimated from biological proxies. This allows to draw the spatial pattern of precipitation change with considerable detail. Precipitation change is clearly controlled by the local relief like high mountain chains, deeply incised and long valleys and mountain passes. Generally the contrast between the northern fringe of the Alps and the interior was more pronounced than today. Climate in the Northern and and Northwestern Alps was rather wet with precipitation totals eventually exceeding modern annual sums. The central Alps received 20 - 30% less precipitation than today, mainly due to reduced winter precipitation. In the southern Alps, still scarce spatial information points to precipitation sums which were approximately similar to

  6. New Zealand Revisited


    <正>New Zealand, composed of two big islands at the southernmost of the Pacific Ocean, is a beautiful country with an area of 270,000 square kilometres and a population of less than 4 million. Having a vast territory, a sparse population,

  7. Revealing Hidden Deformation Sources in New Zealand: a Novel Inversion of GPS Data for Non-Prescriptive Physics-Based Surface Forces and High-Precision Strain Rates

    Dimitrova, L. L.; Haines, A. J.; Wallace, L. M.; Williams, C. A.


    Monitoring strain accumulation in active deformation zones is vital for studying and preparing for earthquake hazards. New Zealand straddles the complicated boundary between the obliquely converging Australian and Pacific plates. The motion is accommodated largely along the Alpine Fault in the south, through the Marlborough fault system and onto the Hikurangi trench in the north. In addition, a significant component of the motion is distributed on smaller, poorly characterized faults. Dimitrova et al. (2012) showed that the vertical derivatives of horizontal stress (VDoHS) rates are a substantially higher resolution expression of subsurface sources of ongoing deformation than the GPS velocities or GPS derived strain rates. We expand this method to solve the horizontal force balance equations for the VDoHS in 2-D to obtain the highest possible resolution picture of the surface deformation pattern in New Zealand. We invert GPS data from campaign GPS observations spanning from 1995 to 2012 for the VDoHS that best fit the GPS velocities, without prescribing sources or zones of deformation, while fully accounting for the physics of the problem. Using the VDoHS rates we identify (1) areas of deformation due to well-known active faults, (2) areas of poorly characterized deformation, e.g. deformation along faults without slip rate information mapped from palaeo-seismicity, (3) areas of previously unknown deformation, potentially on hidden faults, and (4) areas undergoing post-seismic deformation. The VDoHS are integrated to produce the highest resolution to-date maps of strain rates. We identify an area of extensional areal strain between the Alpine fault and the Main Divide of the central Southern Alps indicating possible gravitational collapse of the Southern Alps. Relationships between the VDoHS and strain rates allow us to calculate the variation in fault slip rate and locking depth for the identified faults, and we show selected results for the Alpine Fault and the

  8. Clinical refinement of the automatic lung parameter estimator (ALPE).

    Thomsen, Lars P; Karbing, Dan S; Smith, Bram W; Murley, David; Weinreich, Ulla M; Kjærgaard, Søren; Toft, Egon; Thorgaard, Per; Andreassen, Steen; Rees, Stephen E


    The automatic lung parameter estimator (ALPE) method was developed in 2002 for bedside estimation of pulmonary gas exchange using step changes in inspired oxygen fraction (FIO₂). Since then a number of studies have been conducted indicating the potential for clinical application and necessitating systems evolution to match clinical application. This paper describes and evaluates the evolution of the ALPE method from a research implementation (ALPE1) to two commercial implementations (ALPE2 and ALPE3). A need for dedicated implementations of the ALPE method was identified: one for spontaneously breathing (non-mechanically ventilated) patients (ALPE2) and one for mechanically ventilated patients (ALPE3). For these two implementations, design issues relating to usability and automation are described including the mixing of gasses to achieve FIO₂ levels, and the automatic selection of FIO₂. For ALPE2, these improvements are evaluated against patients studied using the system. The major result is the evolution of the ALPE method into two dedicated implementations, namely ALPE2 and ALPE3. For ALPE2, the usability and automation of FIO₂ selection has been evaluated in spontaneously breathing patients showing that variability of gas delivery is 0.3 % (standard deviation) in 1,332 breaths from 20 patients. Also for ALPE2, the automated FIO2 selection method was successfully applied in 287 patient cases, taking 7.2 ± 2.4 min and was shown to be safe with only one patient having SpO₂ < 86 % when the clinician disabled the alarms. The ALPE method has evolved into two practical, usable systems targeted at clinical application, namely ALPE2 for spontaneously breathing patients and ALPE3 for mechanically ventilated patients. These systems may promote the exploration of the use of more detailed descriptions of pulmonary gas exchange in clinical practice.

  9. Updated Core Libraries of the ALPS Project

    Gaenko, A; Carcassi, G; Chen, T; Chen, X; Dong, Q; Gamper, L; Gukelberger, J; Igarashi, R; Iskakov, S; Könz, M; LeBlanc, J P F; Levy, R; Ma, P N; Paki, J E; Shinaoka, H; Todo, S; Troyer, M; Gull, E


    The open source ALPS (Algorithms and Libraries for Physics Simulations) project provides a collection of physics libraries and applications, with a focus on simulations of lattice models and strongly correlated systems. The libraries provide a convenient set of well-documented and reusable components for developing condensed matter physics simulation code, and the applications strive to make commonly used and proven computational algorithms available to a non-expert community. In this paper we present an updated and refactored version of the core ALPS libraries geared at the computational physics software development community, rewritten with focus on documentation, ease of installation, and software maintainability.

  10. ALPS II technical overview and status report

    Spector, Aaron


    The Any Light Particle Search II (ALPS II) is an experiment that utilizes the concept of resonant enhancement to improve on the sensitivity of traditional light shining through a wall style experiments. These experiments attempt to detect photons passing through an opaque wall by converting to relativistic weakly interacting sub-eV particles and then reconverting back to photons. ALPS II at DESY in Hamburg, Germany will use dually resonant optical cavities before and after the wall to increase the probability of this interaction occurring. This paper gives a technical overview and status report of the experiment.

  11. A magnetotelluric feasibility study of the Alps

    Ritter, O.; Weckmann, U.


    The Alps are a famous and extensive mountain range system in central Europe. The mountains were formed as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided and they have been a prime target for geological and geophysical investigations since the beginning of modern geosciences. Consequently, the Alps have been investigated with active and passive seismological methods and extensive sets of potential field data exist. Hardly anything is known, however, about the deep electrical conductivity structure, as it has been notoriously difficult to acquire magnetotelluric (MT) data in the Alps. The Alps are densely populated and a lot of infrastructure for tourism has been built over the years. MT measurements, which rely on natural variations of the electromagnetic background fields, are severely hampered by this man-made noise. Here, we report on a feasibility study to acquire MT data in the Alps, where all stations are deployed outside the valleys, on high mountain ranges and alpine pastures. Overall we recorded MT data at 7 stations, along an approximately north-south profile centred on Mayrhofen in the Austrian Alps. The average station spacing was 5 kilometers. The data were processed using robust remote-reference processing and the results clearly show that MT measurements are feasible. We used Mare2DEM for 2D inversion to include a somewhat realistic topography. The 2D section indicates moderate resistivity for the top 2 - 5 km, consistent with the regional geology, which suggests (meta-) sedimentary sequences. From depths of 5 km and below resistivities exceed 5,000 Ohmm. This means we can sense very deep with MT but also, that we should be cautious with an interpretation of this short profile. The data also clearly indicate 3D effects. We therefore propose to deploy an array of stations covering the entire Alps in USArray style, e.g. with a station spacing of approximately 50 km, to derive a 3D model of the deep electrical resistivity structure of the Alps. Such a

  12. Paleogeographic significance of Upper Triassic basinal succession of the Tamar Valley, northern Julian Alps (Slovenia

    Gale Luka


    Full Text Available The Julian Alps (western Slovenia structurally belong to the eastern Southern Alps. The Upper Triassic succession mostly consists of shallow water platform carbonates of the Dolomia Principale-Dachstein Limestone system and a deep water succession of the Slovenian Basin outcropping in the southern foothills of the Julian Alps. In addition to the Slovenian Basin, a few other intraplatform basins were present, but they remain poorly researched and virtually ignored in the existing paleogeographic reconstructions of the eastern Southern Alps. Herein, we describe a deepening-upward succession from the Tamar Valley (north-western Slovenia, belonging to the Upper Triassic Tarvisio Basin. The lower, Julian-Tuvalian part of the section comprises peritidal to shallow subtidal carbonates (Conzen Dolomite and Portella Dolomite, and an intermediate carbonate-siliciclastic unit, reflecting increased terrigenous input and storm-influenced deposition (Julian-lowermost Tuvalian shallow-water marlstone and marly limestone of the Tor Formation. Above the drowning unconformity at the top of the Portella Dolomite, Tuvalian well-bedded dolomite with claystone intercalations follows (Carnitza Formation. The latter gradually passes into the uppermost Tuvalian–lowermost Rhaetian bedded dolomite with chert and slump breccias, deposited on a slope and/or at the toe-of-slope (Bača Dolomite. Finally, basinal thin-bedded bituminous limestone and marlstone of Rhaetian age follow (Frauenkogel Formation. The upper part of the Frauenkogel Formation contains meter-scale platform-derived limestone blocks, which are signs of platform progradation. The Tarvisio Basin may have extended as far as the present Santo Stefano di Cadore area, representing a notable paleogeographic unit at the western Neotethys margin.

  13. First LiDAR images of the Alpine Fault, central South Island, New Zealand

    Langridge, R. M.; Toy, V. G.; Barth, N.; de Pascale, G. P.; Sutherland, R.; Farrier, T.


    In central South Island, New Zealand, the dextral-reverse Alpine fault forms the principal component of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary. The fault typically accommodates slip rates of the order of ~27-29 mm/yr (dextral) and up to 6-11 mm/yr (reverse), mostly uplifting Pacific plate rocks that form the Southern Alps. However, the associated high relief, rapid uplift and erosion and high rainfall and accompanying dense temperate rainforest along the western side of the island has typically hampered geological efforts to better understand the neotectonics of the Alpine fault. LiDAR data have been acquired over a 34 km stretch of the fault between Whataroa in the northeast and Franz Josef in the southwest to test the viability of this technique under dense vegetation and in steep, dissected terrain. LiDAR has been collected from a fixed wing base (1300m above ground level) at a frequency of 70k Hz, with 33.5 Hz scan frequency and a 39° field of view. We employed a strategy of flying a dense pattern of 6 flight lines across a swath width of 1.3 km. This creates areas of both single and double overlap coverage that have allowed for accurate landscape models to be created. Results show that this strategy has provided an optimum level of forest penetration and ground returns. Initial results show remarkable level of detail in DEM’s of the landscape along the Alpine fault. Examples of results presented here include: Franz Josef, where the fault traverses the township; and Gaunt Creek, where a Deep Fault Drilling Project will be sited in early 2011.

  14. IODP Expedition 317: Exploring the Record of Sea-Level Change off New Zealand

    Peter Blum


    Full Text Available Expedition 317 investigated the record of global sea-level change (eustasy within continental margin sedimentary sequences and how eustasy interacts with local forcing to produce preserved sedimentary architectures. The Canterbury Basin, on the eastern margin of the South Island of New Zealand, was selected to study these complex interactions because of high rates of Neogene sediment supply fromthe uplifting Southern Alps. This sediment input results in a high-frequency (~0.1–0.5 My periods record of depositional cyclicity that is modulated by the presence of strong ocean currents. The expedition recovered sediments as old as Eocene but focused on the sequence stratigraphy of the late Miocene to Recent, when global sea-level change was dominated by glacioeustasy. A transect of three sites was drilled on the continental shelf (Sites U1353, U1354, and U1351, plus one on the continental slope (Site U1352. The transectsamples the shallow-water environment most directly affected by relative sea-level change. Lithologic boundaries, provisionally correlative with seismic sequence boundaries, have been identified in cores from each site. Continental slope Site U1352 provides a record of ocean circulation and fronts during the last ~35 My. The early Oligocene (~30 MaMarshall Paraconformity was the deepest target ofExpedition 317 and is hypothesized to represent intensified current erosion or non-deposition associated with the initiation of thermohaline circulation in the region. Expedition 317 involved operational challenges for JOIDES Resolution, including shallow-water, continental-shelf drilling and deep penetrations. Despitethese challenges, Expedition 317 set a number of records for scientific ocean drilling penetration and water-depth.

  15. A Holocene temperature reconstruction from northern New Zealand: a test of North Atlantic Holocene climate patterns as a global template

    van den Bos, Valerie; Rees, Andrew; Newnham, Rewi; Augustinus, Paul


    : Alloway, B.V., Lowe, D.J., Barrell, D.J.A., Newnham, R.M., Almond, P.C., Augustinus, P.C., Bertler, N.A.N., Carter, L., Litchfield, N.J., McGlone, M.S., Shulmeister, J., Vandergoes, M.J., Williams, P.W., and NZ-INTIMATE members. 2007. Towards a climate event stratigraphy for New Zealand over the past 30 000 years (NZ-INTIMATE project). Journal of Quaternary Science, 22, 9-35. Dieffenbacher-Krall, A.C., Vandergoes, M.J., Denton, G.H. 2007. An inference model for mean summer air temperatures in the Southern Alps, New Zealand, using subfossil chironomids. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26, 2587-2504. Walker, M.J.C., Berkelhammer, M., Björck, S., Cwynar, L.C., Fisher, D.A., Long, A.J., Lowe, D.J., Newnham, R.M., Rasmussen, S.O., Weiss, H. 2012. Formal subdivision of the Holocene Series/Epoch: a discussion paper by a working group of INTIMATE (Integration of ice-core, marine and terrestrial records) and the Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (International Commission on Stratigraphy). Journal of Quaternary Science, 27, 649-659.

  16. Urbanization and depopulation in the Alps.

    Batzing, W; Perlik, M; Dekleva, M


    Demographic developments in the European Alpine region are analyzed over the period 1870-1990. The region is defined as including parts of Germany, France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria, Switzerland, and Slovenia. "Studies of growth, stagnation, decline, commune size, and altitude in almost 6,000 communes are presented on three colored maps.... It is apparent that two highly divergent processes are at work and, accordingly, statistical mean values reveal little of importance. Approximately one-half of Alpine Europe is undergoing general economic and demographic growth and has experienced significant increase in population since the end of the agricultural era. This development has taken place primarily in low-lying valleys and basins and in areas bordering the Alps that have good access to transport routes. Tourism is not as widespread as generally assumed and is usually characterized by a punctate pattern. Only in the western part of the Eastern Alps does tourism account for widespread population growth at higher altitudes; elsewhere the Alps have not been affected by modern development and the economy and population are declining, with some areas in danger of becoming completely abandoned. The results challenge the earlier concept of the Alps as a rural region, once populated by peasants, where tourism now plays a major role." (EXCERPT)

  17. European dimension of teaching about Alps

    Tatjana Resnik Planinc


    Full Text Available The article represents the basic elements of "Municipality network - connection in the Alps". It was a pilot project in 1997. Kranjska Gora was also included in the project according to the sustainable development and Alpine landscape protection guidelines. The results were some concrete projects.

  18. How to transfer knowledge across the Alps?

    Wolfgang Pfefferkorn


    Full Text Available CIPRA’s Future in the Alps Project aims at showcasing examples of successful implementation and successful projects in the Alps, and making available to others the extensive pool of experience and practical knowledge that lies in these projects. But how to transfer knowledge in an area of some 14 million inhabitants with several linguistic and cultural regions in which thousands of projects are carried out each year, that all kinds of players who work and life in completely different contexts are able to learn and benefit from one another? How do you go about something like that?Le projet « Avenir dans les Alpes » de la CIPRA (Commission Internationale pour la Protection des Alpes a pour objectif de présenter des exemples de réalisations et de projets réussis dans les Alpes, et de mettre à disposition du public l’ensemble de l’expérience et des connaissances pratiques acquises dans le cadre de ces projets. Cependant, comment transférer les savoirs dans une zone comptant quelque 14 millions d’habitants, composée de plusieurs régions linguistiques et culturelles dans lesquelles des milliers de projets sont menés à bien chaque année, et dont tous les acteurs, qui travaillent et vivent dans des contextes complètement différents, sont capables d’apprendre et de tirer profit les uns des autres ? Comment aborder ce genre de cas ?

  19. Description of the larva of Protanypus sp. A (Diptera, Chironomidae from the Italian Alps

    Bruno Rossaro


    Full Text Available We describe the larva of Protanypus sp. A from the Italian Alps. All the larval characteristics fit the diagnosis of the genus, but it is impossible to assign the specimens examined to one of the known species. The low number of labral scales (12-14 and the serrated median lamellae of the medioventral appendix of the prementum exclude the identity of the species with P. morio or with the East Palaearctic P. pseudomorio. The antennal ratio (2.3 excludes the identity with P. caudatus or P. forcipatus, which are the other two Protanypus species known from the Alpine region. In Sæther’s key (1975 the larva fits with the Nearctic P. ramosus, but identification of the species needs to be supported by pupal and adult material. In the Southern Alps, the genus is restricted to cold lakes at high altitude and is confirmed as an indicator of oligotrophic lakes.




    Full Text Available Thermal patterns of an area which underwent a polyphase deformation history such as the Carnic Alps were analyzed using the Colour Alteration Index (CAI of conodonts in order to constrain some aspects of the metamorphic history of this part of the Southern Alps. Hercynian and alpine tectonothermal events were distinguished using CAI analysis.  The Hercynian event developed temperatures up to low metamorphic conditions. Alpine tectonogenesis did not produce thermal levels in excess of the diagenetic zone. Moreover, CAI patterns allow recognition and evaluation of a hydrothermal metamorphic overprint of Permo-Triassic or Oligocene age that was superimposed on the pre-existing regional metamorphic zonation.   

  1. Sensitivity of the French Alps snow cover to the variation of climatic variables

    E. Martin

    Full Text Available In order to study the sensitivity of snow cover to changes in meteorological variables at a regional scale, a numerical snow model and an analysis system of the meteorological conditions adapted to relief were used. This approach has been successfully tested by comparing simulated and measured snow depth at 37 sites in the French Alps during a ten year data period. Then, the sensitivity of the snow cover to a variation in climatic conditions was tested by two different methods, which led to very similar results. To assess the impact of a particular "doubled CO2" scenario, coherent perturbations were introduced in the input data of the snow model. It was found that although the impact would be very pronounced, it would also be extremely differentiated, dependent on the internal state of the snow cover. The most sensitive areas are the elevations below 2400 m, especially in the southern part of the French Alps.

  2. Physical modelling of baroclinic development in the lee of the Alps

    E. Ferrero


    Full Text Available When baroclinic development is triggered by an obstacle, like an extended mountain range, the so-called lee, or secondary cyclogenesis can develop. The presence of the obstacle exerts a blocking effect on the lower layers of the impinging airflow, forcing them to go round its borders and reach the lee region with a delay. Blocking and delay are both responsible for the initial pressure decrease downwind of the mountain and for the subsequent proper downstream baroclinic development. According to this rather simple scheme, a cyclogenesis episode in the lee of the Alps was simulated in a hydraulic turntable. The results of these experiments showed a good agreement, both from a qualitative and quantitative point of view, with the analysis of an episode of lee cyclogenesis coupled to a cold outbreak in the Mediterranean, which actually occured in Southern Europe downstream of the Alps.

  3. CPAFFC Delegation Visits New Zealand

    Xu; Fenghua


    In early December 2015,a CPAFFC delegation,with representatives from six departments,visited New Zealand at the host’s invitation.Members conducted work exchanges with the New Zealand-China Maori Friendship Trust and held talks with the

  4. Management Development in New Zealand

    Ruth, Damian


    Purpose: To give an overview of prevalent views on and practices in management development in New Zealand. Design/methodology/approach: Employs a questionnaire, mainly Likert-scale, to interview human resource managers and line managers in 86 companies in New Zealand. The research model and instrumentation is based on existing research on…

  5. The New Zealand Geological Timescale

    Felix M. Gradstein


    @@ The editor and coordinator of this new 284 pages study on the New Zealand Geological Timescale, Roger A. Cooper, and his team of 22 New Zealand and foreign experts are to be complimented for their achievement in creating this comprehensive regional time scale monograph.

  6. Glacier retreat in New Zealand during the Younger Dryas stadial.

    Kaplan, Michael R; Schaefer, Joerg M; Denton, George H; Barrell, David J A; Chinn, Trevor J H; Putnam, Aaron E; Andersen, Bjørn G; Finkel, Robert C; Schwartz, Roseanne; Doughty, Alice M


    Millennial-scale cold reversals in the high latitudes of both hemispheres interrupted the last transition from full glacial to interglacial climate conditions. The presence of the Younger Dryas stadial (approximately 12.9 to approximately 11.7 kyr ago) is established throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere, but the global timing, nature and extent of the event are not well established. Evidence in mid to low latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, in particular, has remained perplexing. The debate has in part focused on the behaviour of mountain glaciers in New Zealand, where previous research has found equivocal evidence for the precise timing of increased or reduced ice extent. The interhemispheric behaviour of the climate system during the Younger Dryas thus remains an open question, fundamentally limiting our ability to formulate realistic models of global climate dynamics for this time period. Here we show that New Zealand's glaciers retreated after approximately 13 kyr bp, at the onset of the Younger Dryas, and in general over the subsequent approximately 1.5-kyr period. Our evidence is based on detailed landform mapping, a high-precision (10)Be chronology and reconstruction of former ice extents and snow lines from well-preserved cirque moraines. Our late-glacial glacier chronology matches climatic trends in Antarctica, Southern Ocean behaviour and variations in atmospheric CO(2). The evidence points to a distinct warming of the southern mid-latitude atmosphere during the Younger Dryas and a close coupling between New Zealand's cryosphere and southern high-latitude climate. These findings support the hypothesis that extensive winter sea ice and curtailed meridional ocean overturning in the North Atlantic led to a strong interhemispheric thermal gradient during late-glacial times, in turn leading to increased upwelling and CO(2) release from the Southern Ocean, thereby triggering Southern Hemisphere warming during the northern Younger Dryas.


    Hotz, Preston E.; Thurber, Horace K.


    The Salmon-Trinity Alps Wilderness in the Klamath Mountains province occupies an area of about 648 sq mi in parts of Trinity, Siskiyou, and Humboldt Counties, northwestern California. As a result of field studies it was determined that the Salmon-Trinity Alps Wilderness has an area with substantiated potential for gold resources in known lode deposits. Small amounts of quicksilver have been produced from one mine but there is little promise for the discovery of additional mercury resources. Geochemical sampling showed that anomalously high amounts of several other metals occur in a few places, but there is little promise for the discovery of energy or mineral resources other than mercury and gold.

  8. Rock glaciers and protalus ramparts in the south-eastern Alps

    Colucci, Renato R.; Boccali, Chiara; Žebre, Manja; Guglielmin, Mauro


    Rock glaciers and protalus ramparts are characteristic landforms of the periglacial domain often used as markers of the permafrost occurrence in mountain terrains. Therefore, relict rock glaciers can be used for paleoclimate reconstructions. We present here the first rock glacier inventory of south-eastern Alps (including the northeasternmost region of Italy and Slovenia) obtained through the use of high resolution orthophotos and high resolution digital terrain model interpolated from airborne laser scanning (LiDAR). We mapped 53 rock glaciers covering a total area of 3.45 km2. The majority of rock glaciers are classified as relict and distributed between 1,708 and 1,846 m a.s.l. with slope range between 19° and 27°. Their altitudinal range is the lowest for the southern Alps and comparable with what has been found for relict rock glaciers in the Northern Alps of Austria (1,798 m) and in the Austrian Niedere Tauern Range (1,823-1,850 m). Besides rock glaciers we also observed 66 protalus (pronival) ramparts covering 0.48 km2. They are predominantly located in the Carnic Alps, Julian Alps and Karavanke (80% of the total); the majority is distributed between 1,697 m and 2,007 m a.s.l. Protalus (pronival) ramparts situated in the Carnic Alps and Prealps (47% of the total) generally follow the same geographical distribution of rock glaciers, whereas more than half of the inventoried protalus (pronival) ramparts are located in the more maritime area of the Alps where there is the higher precipitation. The analysis also highlighted 9 pronival ramparts located in front of permanent snow/firn bodies and small glacierets. These ridges produce a damming effect for avalanches which enhance accumulation of winter snow, a significant impact to the local mass balance. Using paleoclimate reconstruction based on the existing 1981-2010 climatology of the area, we infer that the rock glaciers possibly formed during one of the dry and cold periods of the late Pleistocene (12.8±0

  9. ALPASS: Teleseismic Tomography of the Eastern Alps

    Brueckl, E.; Mitterbauer, U.; Lippitsch, R.; Behm, M.; ALPASS Working Group


    The Eastern Alps were formed by the north-south directed collision of the Adriatic (African) and European plates and a subsequent tectonic escape of crustal fragments to the unconstrained margin in the east, represented by the Pannonian Basin. Recent controlled source seismic experiments (TRANSALP, CELEBRATION 2000, and ALP 2002) revealed significant internal structures of the crust and the Moho topography. However, deeper plate tectonic structures (e.g. subducting slab) are still under debate. ALPASS is a passive seismic monitoring project aiming to reveal lower lithosphere and upper mantle beneath the wider Eastern Alpine region, and to contribute to a better understanding of the geodynamic processes at work. By cooperation of Austria, Croatia, Finland, Hungary, Poland, and USA 57 temporary seismic recording stations were deployed from May 2005 until May 2006. The layout was designed to extend the efforts of earlier experiments (e.g. TRANSALP) and to support two other passive seismic experiments (BOHEMA, Carpathian Basin Project), which are overlapping in the investigation area. Additionally, data from permanent networks was collected to improve coverage of the investigation area. 144 events (50% with M > 5.6) from epicentre distances between 30° and 100° were selected for teleseismic inversion. Travel time picking of P-wave arrivals has been done by a semi-automatic correlation technique. Crustal corrections benefit from the high resolution velocity model of the crust and the new Moho map derived from CELEBRATION 2000 and ALP 2002 data. First results of teleseismic inversion will be presented and discussed with respect to crustal structures revealed by the controlled source experiments, tomographic models generated during earlier studies, and their consequences for the conception of plate tectonics in the Eastern Alps.

  10. Use of High Resolution LiDAR imagery for landslide identification and hazard assessment, State Highway 6, Haast Pass, New Zealand

    Walsh, Andrew; Zimmer, Valerie; Bell, David


    This study has assessed landslide hazards associated with steep and densely vegetated bedrock slopes adjacent to State Highway 6 through the Southern Alps of New Zealand. The Haast Pass serves as one of only three routes across the Southern Alps, and is a lifeline to the southern West Coast of the South Island with a 1,000km detour required through the nearest alternative pass. Over the last 50 years the highway has been subjected to numerous landslide events that have resulted in lengthy road closures, and the death of two tourists in September 2013. To date no study has been undertaken to identify and evaluate the landslide hazards for the entire Haast Pass, with previous work focusing on post-failure monitoring or investigation of individual landslides. This study identified the distribution and extent of regolith deposits on the schist slopes, and the location and sizes of dormant and active landslides potentially impacting the highway. Until the advent of LiDAR technology it had not been possible to achieve such an evaluation because dense vegetation and very steep topography prevented traditional methods of investigation (mapping; trenching; drilling; geophysics) from being used over a large part of the area. LiDAR technology has provided the tools with which to evaluate large areas of the slopes above the highway quickly and with great accuracy. A very high resolution LiDAR survey was undertaken with a flight line overlap of 70%, resulting in six points per square metre in the raw point cloud and a post-processing point spacing of half a metre. The point cloud was transformed into a digital terrain model, and the surface interpreted using texture and morphology to identify slope materials and landslides. Analysis of the LiDAR DTM revealed that the slopes above the highway consist of variable thicknesses of regolith sourced from landsliding events, as well as large areas of bare bedrock that have not been subjected to landslides and that pose minimal hazard

  11. Holocene Glacier Fluctuations In The Swiss Alps

    Holzhauser, H.

    The reconstruction of preindustrial glacier fluctuations in the Swiss Alps reveals the natural range of Holocene climate variability against which the present-day climatic situation can be judged. The results of very recent research on the Great Aletsch and Gorner Glaciers (Valaisian Alps), the Lower Grindelwald Glacier (Bernese Alps) shed light on the glacier fluctuations during the last 3200 years. These glaciers have, at max- imum extensions, penetrated below the timberline and have even reached inhabited areas resulting in sometimes massive destruction. Losses of buildings, woods and pas- tures are the conditions governing the methods used for the reconstruction of glacier length fluctuation through time. The main methods are: historical - the interpretation of pictorial and written historical records, glazio-archaeology - the search for anthro- pogenic traces that are directly related to changes in glacier size/length and scientific - the radiocarbon dating of fossil soils (palaeosols) and wood found in glacier fore- fields. Numerous samples of palaeosols and fossil wood (tree trunks, roots and macro- remains) found in the glacier forefield were radiocarbon dated. Owing to the good condition of several fossil tree trunks, dendrochronological analyses were also con- ducted. The dendrochronological analysis of fossil trees has supplied much reliable evidence of glacier fluctuations through its proven exactness (a single year resolution) which is impossible to obtain with the radiocarbon method alone.

  12. 2011 Christchurch, New Zealand Images

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The South Island, New Zealand earthquake occurred as part of the aftershock sequence of the M 7.0 September 3, 2010 Darfield, NZ earthquake. It involved...

  13. Seismic signature of the Alpine indentation, evidence from the Eastern Alps

    Bianchi, I.; Bokelmann, G.


    The type of collision between the European and the Adriatic plates in the easternmost Alps is one of the most interesting questions regarding the Alpine evolution. Tectonic processes such as compression, escape and uplift are interconnected and shape this area. We can understand these ongoing processes better, if we look for signs of the deformation within the Earth's deep crust of the region. By collecting records from permanent and temporary seismic networks, we assemble a receiver function dataset, and analyze it with the aim of giving new insights on the structure of the lower crust and of the shallow portion of the upper mantle, which are inaccessible to direct observation. Imaging is accomplished by performing common conversion depth stacks along three profiles that crosscut the Eastern Alpine orogen, and allow isolating features consistently persistent in the area. The study shows a moderately flat Moho underlying a seismically anisotropic middle-lower crust from the Southern Alps to the Austroalpine nappes. The spatial progression of anisotropic axes reflects the orientation of the relative motion and of the stress field detected at the surface. These observations suggest that distributed deformation is due to the effect of the Alpine indentation. In the shallow upper mantle right below the Moho interface, a further anisotropic layer is recognized, extended from the Bohemian Massif to the Northern Calcareous Alps.

  14. Tectonically driven fluid flow and gold mineralisation in active collisional orogenic belts: comparison between New Zealand and western Himalaya

    Craw, D.; Koons, P. O.; Horton, T.; Chamberlain, C. P.


    Hydrothermal activity and mesothermal-styled gold mineralisation occurs near the main topographic divide of most active or young collisional mountain belts. The Southern Alps of New Zealand is used in this study as a model for the mineralising processes. The collisional tectonics results in a two-sided wedge-shaped orogen into which rock is transported horizontally. Upper crustal rocks pass through the orogen and leave the orogen by erosion, whereas lower crustal rocks are deformed into the mountain roots. High relief drives meteoric water flow to near the brittle-ductile transition. Lower to upper greenschist facies metamorphic reactions, driven by deformation at the crustal decollement and in the root, release water-rich fluids that rise through the orogen. Intimate chemical interaction between fluid and rock results in dissolution and later precipitation of gold, arsenic and sulphur. Fluid flow and mineralisation in the topographic divide region is facilitated by a network of steeply dipping faults and associated rock damage zones where oblique strike-slip faults intersect the thrust faults that strike subparallel to the main mountain range. The Nanga Parbat massif of the western Himalaya is an example of an active collisional zone which hosts hydrothermal activity but no gold mineralisation. The lack of gold mineralisation is due to the following factors: CO 2-dominated rising metamorphic fluid in dehydrated amphibolite-granulite facies metamorphic rocks does not dissolve gold and arsenic; hot (up to 400 °C) meteoric water confined to fractures in the gneiss limits dissolution of gold and arsenic; low density of hot water/dry steam, and low reduced sulphur content of fluid, restrict solubility of gold and arsenic; absence of fracture networks in the core of the massif and the small volumes of circulating fluid limit metal concentration; and lack of reactive rock compositions limits chemically mediated metal deposition.

  15. A cosmogenic 3He chronology of late Quaternary glacier fluctuations in North Island, New Zealand (39°S)

    Eaves, Shaun R.; N. Mackintosh, Andrew; Winckler, Gisela; Schaefer, Joerg M.; Alloway, Brent V.; Townsend, Dougal B.


    Mountain glaciers advance and retreat primarily in response to changes in climate. Establishing the timing and magnitude of mountain glacier fluctuations from geological records can thus help to identify the drivers and mechanisms of past climate change. In this study, we use cosmogenic 3He surface exposure dating and tephrochronology to constrain the timing of past glaciation on Tongariro massif in central North Island, New Zealand (39°S). Exposure ages from moraine boulders show that valley glaciation persisted between c. 30-18 ka, which coincides with the global Last Glacial Maximum. Reinterpretation of moraine tephrostratigraphy, using major element geochemistry analysis, shows that ice retreat and climatic amelioration at the last glacial termination was well underway prior to 14 ka. The equilibrium line altitude in central North Island, during the Last Glacial Maximum, was c. 1400-1550 m above sea level, which is c. 930-1080 m lower than present. Considering the uncertainties in the glacial reconstruction and temperature lapse rates, we estimate that this equilibrium line altitude lowering equates to a temperature depression of 5.6 ± 1.1 °C, relative to present. Our mapping and surface exposure dating also show evidence for an earlier period of glaciation, of similar magnitude to the Last Glacial Maximum, which culminated prior to 57 ka, probably during Marine Isotope Stage 4. Good agreement between the timing and magnitude of glacier fluctuations in central North Island and the Southern Alps indicate a response to a common climatic forcing during the last glacial cycle.

  16. Statistical downscaling of regional climate scenarios for the French Alps : Impacts on snow cover

    Rousselot, M.; Durand, Y.; Giraud, G.; Mérindol, L.; Déqué, M.; Sanchez, E.; Pagé, C.; Hasan, A.


    Mountain areas are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Owing to the complexity of mountain terrain, climate research at scales relevant for impacts studies and decisive for stakeholders is challenging. A possible way to bridge the gap between these fine scales and those of the general circulation models (GCMs) consists of combining high-resolution simulations of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) to statistical downscaling methods. The present work is based on such an approach. It aims at investigating the impacts of climate change on snow cover in the French Alps for the periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 under several IPCC hypotheses. An analogue method based on high resolution atmospheric fields from various RCMs and climate reanalyses is used to simulate local climate scenarios. These scenarios, which provide meteorological parameters relevant for snowpack evolution, subsequently feed the CROCUS snow model. In these simulations, various sources of uncertainties are thus considered (several greenhouse gases emission scenarios and RCMs). Results are obtained for different regions of the French Alps at various altitudes. For all scenarios, temperature increase is relatively uniform over the Alps. This regional warming is larger than that generally modeled at the global scale (IPCC, 2007), and particularly strong in summer. Annual precipitation amounts seem to decrease, mainly as a result of decreasing precipitation trends in summer and fall. As a result of these climatic evolutions, there is a general decrease of the mean winter snow depth and seasonal snow duration for all massifs. Winter snow depths are particularly reduced in the Northern Alps. However, the impact on seasonal snow duration is more significant in the Southern and Extreme Southern Alps, since these regions are already characterized by small winter snow depths at low elevations. Reference : IPCC (2007a). Climate change 2007 : The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the

  17. 3-D GPS velocity field and its implications on the present-day post-orogenic deformation of the Western Alps and Pyrenees

    Ninh Nguyen, Hai; Vernant, Philippe; Mazzotti, Stephane; Khazaradze, Giorgi; Asensio, Eva


    We present a new 3-D GPS velocity solution for 182 sites for the region encompassing the Western Alps, Pyrenees, and southern France. The velocity field is based on a Precise Point Positioning (PPP) solution, to which we apply a common-mode filter, defined by the 26 longest time series, in order to correct for network-wide biases (reference frame, unmodeled large-scale processes, etc.). We show that processing parameters, such as troposphere delay modeling, can lead to systematic velocity variations of 0.1-0.5 mm yr-1 affecting both accuracy and precision, especially for short (< 5 years) time series. A velocity convergence analysis shows that minimum time-series lengths of ˜ 3 and ˜ 5.5 years are required to reach a velocity stability of 0.5 mm yr-1 in the horizontal and vertical components, respectively. On average, horizontal residual velocities show a stability of ˜ 0.2 mm yr-1 in the Western Alps, Pyrenees, and southern France. The only significant horizontal strain rate signal is in the western Pyrenees with up to 4 × 10-9 yr-1 NNE-SSW extension, whereas no significant strain rates are detected in the Western Alps (< 1 × 10-9 yr-1). In contrast, we identify significant uplift rates up to 2 mm yr-1 in the Western Alps but not in the Pyrenees (0.1 ± 0.2 mm yr-1). A correlation between site elevations and fast uplift rates in the northern part of the Western Alps, in the region of the Würmian ice cap, suggests that part of this uplift is induced by postglacial rebound. The very slow uplift rates in the southern Western Alps and in the Pyrenees could be accounted for by erosion-induced rebound.

  18. Steady-State ALPS for Real-Valued Problems

    Hornby, Gregory S.


    The two objectives of this paper are to describe a steady-state version of the Age-Layered Population Structure (ALPS) Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) and to compare it against other GAs on real-valued problems. Motivation for this work comes from our previous success in demonstrating that a generational version of ALPS greatly improves search performance on a Genetic Programming problem. In making steady-state ALPS some modifications were made to the method for calculating age and the method for moving individuals up layers. To demonstrate that ALPS works well on real-valued problems we compare it against CMA-ES and Differential Evolution (DE) on five challenging, real-valued functions and on one real-world problem. While CMA-ES and DE outperform ALPS on the two unimodal test functions, ALPS is much better on the three multimodal test problems and on the real-world problem. Further examination shows that, unlike the other GAs, ALPS maintains a genotypically diverse population throughout the entire search process. These findings strongly suggest that the ALPS paradigm is better able to avoid premature convergence then the other GAs.

  19. Structure of Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) Efforts, 2000-01.

    Baenen, Nancy; Yaman, Kimberly

    This report focuses on the structure of instructional assistance available through the Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) to students who show low achievement in the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), North Carolina. Context information is also provided on other programs available to these students. Reports on ALP student participation,…

  20. Lynx distribution in the French Alps (1995-1999

    Philippe Stahl


    Full Text Available Abstract From 1995 to 1999, 69 data were recorded on lynx presence in the French Alps, in an area of 3,636 km². Lynx presence was recorded in the major forested regions of the pré-Alpes (Chablais, Glière/Aravis, Bauges, Chartreuse, Vercors, Diois/Beauchène, in the Chamonix and Maurienne valleys and the Briançon region, but no large continuous area of presence was shown. Lynx have probably been permanently present in certain locations during the past years, but the presence of a large lynx population in the Alps is improbable in the northern French Alps. In the future, we recommend that habitat suitability for lynx in the northern French-Alps should be assessed, together with possibilities of connection between alpine regions and possible bias in the monitoring system.

  1. Cultures et politiques dans les Alpes contemporaines

    Bernard Debarbieux


    Full Text Available Plus que jamais, l’espace alpin est marqué par le déploiement de flux toujours plus variés, toujours plus puissants, et symétriquement par la multiplication d’initiatives destinées à conforter ou à régénérer l’idée de localité. Quelles spatialités et quelles territorialités travaillent les populations alpines aujourd’hui ? Quelles sont les figures contemporaines de la circulation et des flux, et les figures complémentaires de l’ancrage et de la refondation territoriale ? Voici les questions que cet essai se propose de développer. Ce texte reprend le contenu d’une conférence donnée dans le cadre de la célébration du centenaire de l’Institut de Géographie Alpine. Cette conférence, comme les autres données à cette occasion, avait adopté une forme libre dressant un bilan et des perspectives de la situation alpine. La trace écrite adoptée ici prend alors logiquement la forme d’un essai.More than ever before, the Alps are affected by increasingly varied and powerful flows and equally by the multiplication of initiatives designed to strengthen or regenerate the idea of “locality” (place. What spatialities and what territorialities activate the populations of the Alps today? What are the contemporary figures relating to circulation and flows and the complementary figures concerning spatial “anchoring” or fixity and new territorial foundations? These are the questions that this essay, proposes to develop. This text takes another look at the subject of a lecture given as part of celebrations to mark the centenary of the Institut de Géographie Alpine. This lecture, like the others given on this occasion, adopted a free format, presenting a report on the current situation in the Alps and prospects for the future. The written format adopted here logically takes the form of an essay. Readers looking for detailed illustrations and references are referred to three scientific articles published by the same

  2. in New Zealand?

    Rhiannon Braund


    Full Text Available Background: Childhood poisoning is a significant international health concern. Very little is known about trends in exposures within schools and preschools. The objectives of this study were to investigate the data recorded by the New Zealand National Poisons Centre (NPC on these types of exposures over a 21 year period (1989 to 2009 and to determine trends and propose strategies to reduce the exposures. Methods: Call information regarding human poison exposure at preschools and schools from Jan1st 1989 to Dec 31st 2009 were extracted from the dataset held by the NPC. The number of calls received by the NPC relating to the exposures was plotted against year as totals and then categorized according to gender. The number of calls related to each substance type for each year, and the number of calls related to each age group for each year were quantified. Results: There were 3632 calls over this period. In every year studied, there were more calls relating to males than females. Household items were responsible for 31% of exposures, followed by plants (20%, industrial items (14% and therapeutic agents (14%. Almost one quarter of all exposures occurred in the 13 year old age group. Further investigation of this group, showed that the causes of exposures included “splash” incidents (27%, “pengestion” (pen breaking in mouth and releasing contents (16%, “exploratory” (5% and “prank” (4%. Conclusion: Identification of these areas allows recommendations to be made including feedback to teachers about exposure risks, storage and access of science, cleaning and art supplies.    

  3. Suicide in New Zealand

    Said Shahtahmasebi


    Full Text Available This paper explores and questions some of the notions associated with suicide including mental illness. On average, about two-thirds of suicide cases do not come into contact with mental health services, therefore, we have no objective assessment of their mental status or their life events. One method of improving our objective understanding of suicide would be to use data mining techniques in order to build life event histories on all deaths due to suicide. Although such an exercise would require major funding, partial case histories became publicly available from a coroner's inquest on cases of suicide during a period of three months in Christchurch, New Zealand. The case histories were accompanied by a newspaper article reporting comments from some of the families involved. A straightforward contextual analysis of this information suggests that (i only five cases had contact with mental health services, in two of the cases this was due to a previous suicide attempt and in the other three it was due to drug and alcohol dependency; (ii mental illness as the cause of suicide is fixed in the public mindset, (iii this in turn makes psychological autopsy type studies that seek information from families and friends questionable; (iv proportionally more females attempt, but more men tend to complete suicide; and (v not only is the mental health-suicide relationship tenuous, but suicide also appears to be a process outcome. It is hoped that this will stimulate debate and the collaboration of international experts regardless of their school of thought.

  4. Investigations on socio economic indicators of French Alps ski industry from an explicit spatial modelling of managed snow on ski slopes

    Spandre, Pierre; François, Hugues; Morin, Samuel; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle; Lafaysse, Matthieu


    Investigations of the capacity of ski resorts to anticipate, cope with and recover from the impact of natural snow scarcity through snow management (grooming, snowmaking) have been realized in most of the major regions in terms of international ski offer although not in the French Alps hitherto. The present work therefore introduces an innovative approach for the investigation of socio economic implications of changes in snow conditions for the French Alps ski resorts based on a panel of 129 resorts representing 96% of the total French Alps ski lifts infrastructures. We integrated detailed spatial representations of ski resorts (including priority areas for snowmaking equipment) along with physically based snowpack modelling (including the physical impact of grooming and snowmaking). The viability of ski resorts was further adressed thanks to a commonly used rule based on the snow season duration at the village and ski lifts average elevations along with the development of original viability indicators of snow conditions in the French Alps ski resorts based on the specific periods for the economic success of winter sports: Christmas and February school holidays. Such indicators were correlated to the number of ski lifts tickets sales over the 2001 - 2014 period and proved to be relevant to investigate and predict the evolutions of ski lifts tickets sales under the current ski market conditions in the French Alps. Our results outlined the contrast of snow conditions between French Alps ski resorts, even when accounting for snow management, particularly regarding the geographical location of resorts (Southern versus Northern Alps), the size and related elevation range of ski resorts. Our physically based approach also allowed to compute the water and energy requirements for the production of Machine Made snow since the start of the development of snowguns in the French Alps. Our computations proved to be strongly correlated to the observed amounts of water from the

  5. Galaxy Clusters as Tele-ALP-scopes

    CERN. Geneva


    Axion-like particles have good theoretical motivation and are characterized by conversion to photons in astrophysical magnetic fields. Galaxy clusters are the most efficient convertors of axion-like particles to photons in the universe. I discuss the physics and phenomenology of ALPs, and describe their astrophysical implications, with particular reference to the recently observed 3.5 keV X-ray line that is a candidate for a dark matter decay line. I discuss interpretations of this line in terms of dark matter decaying to an axion-like particle, that then converts to a photon in cluster magnetic fields, and describe the compatibility of this scenario with data and the different phenomenology for cool-core and non-cool-core clusters.

  6. Autochthonous Linguistic Minorities in the Italian Alps:

    Ernst Steinicke


    Full Text Available More than any other area in Western Europe, the Alps, especially the Italian Alps, are home to great ethno-cultural diversity: there, no less than seven autochthonous linguistic minorities coexist side by side with the respective official majority. Now being considered an important cultural heritage by the state as well as by the regions, new legislation offers protection to all ‘linguistic-historic minorities’ in Italy. Our study shows, however, that it is quite difficult to maintain such groups, since it is largely unknown where exactly the minority areas are situated. Based on that, local actor groups in various communities take advantage of this lack of knowledge and declare themselves minority territories although they show no linguistic varieties. An important objective of this project is therefore to present a cartographic representation of this linguistic diversity. Subsequently, the contribution discusses case studies of distinct ethno-linguistic self-awareness. Even though with Law No. 482 a first important step was taken to preserve the linguistic minorities, their progressive decline by territorial and numerical criteria cannot be denied. Today, besides unfavorable bio-demographic factors and “diffuse ethnicity,” other causes are current demographic processes. In this framework the amenity migrants, those new immigrants who have discovered the mountains as a new, desirable settlement space, play a decisive role by reinforcing the assimilation process.Les Alpes, plus précisément les Alpes italiennes, plus que toute autre région d'Europe Occidentale, sont un lieu de grande diversité ethnoculturelle : pas moins de sept minorités linguistiques autochtones y coexistent, côte à côte avec la majorité officielle correspondante. Maintenant considérées comme un héritage culturel important par les états ainsi que par les régions, une nouvelle législation offre une protection à toutes les « minorités linguistiques

  7. Shrub encroachment in pastures in the Alps

    Olivier Camacho


    Full Text Available Landscape closing due to the decline in agricultural activity is considered to be a major problem in the Alps. Abondance Valley provides a good example of this phenomenon and is also representative of a paradox commonly found in the Northern French Alps: the mountainsides and alpine pastures are still used, whereas they are becoming increasingly afforested. Environmental conditions play a major role in the localisation of agricultural land uses, but they are not sufficient to explain why pastures still in use are being invaded by shrub. Even if cutting makes it possible to effectively control the encroachment by woody species, this is not true for uncut pastures where grazing is not able to keep up with grass production. This situation is repeated every year and is the likely cause of the colonisation by woody species. To ensure their forage system and to simplify their work, farmers tend to establish grazing units that are oversized in relation to the needs of their animals. They implement compensatory practices that consist of mechanical maintenance as a complement to grazing to limit the dynamics of woody species. These labour-intensive practices are not used on all of the pastures. The analysis of farmers’ practices by agronomists is therefore a useful complement to studies of physical and socio-economic environments, at the level of the grazed field as well as at that of the valley as a whole.La dégradation des paysages par suite du recul de l’activité agricole est considérée comme un enjeu majeur dans les Alpes. La vallée d’Abondance illustre bien ce phénomène de fermeture de l’espace mais elle est en outre représentative d’un paradoxe assez répandu dans les Alpes du nord françaises : les versants et les alpages sont encore exploités et pourtant ils se boisent progressivement. Les conditions de milieux jouent un rôle majeur sur la localisation des usages agricoles de l'espace, mais elles ne peuvent pas suffire pour

  8. HP metamorphic belt of the western Alps



    The understanding of the subduction-related processes benefited by the studies of the high-pressure (HP) meta-morphic rocks from the western Alps. The most stimu-lating information was obtained from the inner part of the western Alpine belt, where most tectonic units show an early Alpine eclogite-facies recrystallisation. This is especially true for the Austroalpine Sesia Zone and the Penninic Dora-Maira massif. From the Sesia zone,which consists of a wide spectrum of continental crust lithologies recrystallised to quartz-eclogite-facies min-eral assemblages, the first finding of a jadeite-bearingmeta-granitoid has been described, supporting evidencethat even continental crust may subduct into the mantle.From the Dora-Maira massif the first occurrence of regional metamorphic coesite has been reported, open-ing the new fertile field of the ultrahigh-pressure meta-morphism (UHPM), which is now becoming the rule in the collisional orogenic belts.

  9. Modelled glacier equilibrium line altitudes during the mid-Holocene in the southern mid-latitudes

    Bravo, C.; Rojas, M.; Anderson, B. M.; Mackintosh, A. N.; Sagredo, E.; Moreno, P. I.


    Glacier behaviour during the mid-Holocene (MH, 6000 years BP) in the Southern Hemisphere provides observational data to constrain our understanding of the origin and propagation of palaeoclimate signals. In this study we examine the climatic forcing of glacier response in the MH by evaluating modelled glacier equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) and climatic conditions during the MH compared with pre-industrial time (PI, year 1750). We focus on the middle latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, specifically Patagonia and the South Island of New Zealand. Climate conditions for the MH were obtained from PMIP2 model simulations, which in turn were used to force a simple glacier mass balance model to simulate changes in ELA. In Patagonia, the models simulate colder conditions during the MH in austral summer (-0.2 °C), autumn (-0.5 °C), and winter (-0.4), and warmer temperatures (0.2 °C) during spring. In the Southern Alps the models show colder MH conditions in autumn (-0.7 °C) and winter (-0.4 °C), warmer conditions in spring (0.3 °C), and no significant change in summer temperature. Precipitation does not show significant changes but exhibits a seasonal shift, with less precipitation from April to September and more precipitation from October to April during the MH in both regions. The mass balance model simulates a climatic ELA that is 15-33 m lower during the MH compared with PI conditions. We suggest that the main causes of this difference are driven mainly by colder temperatures associated with the MH simulation. Differences in temperature have a dual effect on glacier mass balance: (i) less energy is available for ablation during summer and early autumn and (ii) lower temperatures cause more precipitation to fall as snow rather than rain in late autumn and winter, resulting in more accumulation and higher surface albedo. For these reasons, we postulate that the modelled ELA changes, although small, may help to explain larger glacier extents observed by 6000

  10. Rapamycin improves lymphoproliferative disease in murine autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS).

    Teachey, David T; Obzut, Dana A; Axsom, Kelly; Choi, John K; Goldsmith, Kelly C; Hall, Junior; Hulitt, Jessica; Manno, Catherine S; Maris, John M; Rhodin, Nicholas; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Brown, Valerie I; Grupp, Stephan A


    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of abnormal lymphocyte survival caused by defective Fas-mediated apoptosis, leading to lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and an increased number of double-negative T cells (DNTs). Treatment options for patients with ALPS are limited. Rapamycin has been shown to induce apoptosis in normal and malignant lymphocytes. Since ALPS is caused by defective lymphocyte apoptosis, we hypothesized that rapamycin would be effective in treating ALPS. We tested this hypothesis using rapamycin in murine models of ALPS. We followed treatment response with serial assessment of DNTs by flow cytometry in blood and lymphoid tissue, by serial monitoring of lymph node and spleen size with ultrasonography, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies. Three-dimensional ultrasound measurements in the mice correlated to actual tissue measurements at death (r = .9648). We found a dramatic and statistically significant decrease in DNTs, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and autoantibodies after only 4 weeks when comparing rapamycin-treated mice with controls. Rapamycin induced apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. We compared rapamycin to mycophenolate mofetil, a second-line agent used to treat ALPS, and found rapamycin's control of lymphoproliferation was superior. We conclude that rapamycin is an effective treatment for murine ALPS and should be explored as treatment for affected humans.

  11. Eclogitic metatrondhjemites from metaophiolites of the Western Alps

    Martin, Silvana; Tartarotti, Paola; Meyzen, Chrstine; Benciolini, Luca; Toffolo, Luca


    Eclogitic metatrondhjemites from metaophiolites of the Western Alps Martin S.**, Tartarotti P.*, Meyzen C. **, Benciolini L.***, Toffolo L. ** *Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Milano ** Dipartimento di Geoscienze, Università di Padova *** Dipartimento di Chimica, Fisica e Ambiente, Università di Udine In the Urtier valley (southern Aosta Valley, Italy), the Piemonte metaophiolites mainly consist of serpentinized peridotites including pods and boudinaged layers of Fe-metagabbro and trondhjemite transposed in the main eclogitic foliation. The contact between serpentinized peridotites and Fe-metagabbro/trondhjemite is locally lined by chloriteschist and rodingite. The high pressure parageneses in the Fe-metagabbro are omphacite-garnet-rutile-glaucophane-phengite, and in the metatrondhjemite plagioclase-quartz-phengite-clinozoisite-epidote-garnet, respectively. Bulk-rock major and trace elements in addition to O isotope analyses were performed in both rock types. Fe-metagabbros are characterized by MgO wt% ranging between 6.11 and 9.63%, ∑REE= 20-101 ppm, (La/Yb)N = 0.22-0.91; trondhjemites have SiO2 43%, Al2O3 ranging between 21 and 24%, CaO ranging between 17 and 20%, ∑REE = 172 - 272 ppm, (La/Yb)N ranging between 7.78 and 13.70. The δ18O is 5.9 ‰ in a Fe-metagabbro sample and 7.4 ‰ in a trondhjemite sample, suggesting that these rocks have been affected by a weak oceanic low temperature alteration. The high CaO content may indicate a metasomatic process which could have occurred during the oceanic stage or at high pressure conditions.

  12. Impact of nanoparticles and colloids on glacial meltwater: A comparative study of rare earth elements in glacial meltwater rivers and terminal lakes in Iceland and New Zealand

    Tepe, Nathalie; Bau, Michael


    Global warming accelerates the retreat of glaciers in both polar and temperate climatic regions and enhances the input of glacial meltwater and its load of particulates, colloids and nanoparticles into the ocean. In addition to the worldwide trend imposed by global warming, enhanced glacial melting in Iceland is occasionally caused by high geothermal heat flux and/or sub-glacial eruptions related to volcanic activity. This might even cause catastrophic melting events. We here report results of geochemical studies of meltwater rivers from southern Iceland sampled between 2010 and 2013 and of glacial terminal lakes and one meltwater river from the Southern Alps in New Zealand's South Island from 2013. In addition to the dissolved concentrations of Rare Earths and Yttrium (REY) in 200 nm-filtered waters, we also studied the respective filter residues (particles >200 nm). The REY are highly particle-reactive and show low solubilties, and therefore only a small fraction of the total REY concentration determined in 200 nm-filtered freshwaters is truly dissolved, whereas the majority is associated with colloids and nanoparticles. Nevertheless, in 200 nm-filtered water samples the REY are often below the lower limit of quantification even by sensitive analytical techniques such as ICPMS. The chemical composition of glacial meltwater rivers in Iceland is affected by volcanic eruptions due to the input of (colloid- and nano-) particles from volcanic ashes, whereas the chemical composition of glacial terminal lakes and meltwater rivers in New Zealand is affected by particles derived by erosion of rocks in the respective catchment. In marked contrast to Iceland, single events do play a minor role in New Zealand. In Iceland, all studied meltwater rivers display the same shale-normalized REY patterns with pronounced depletion of light and heavy REY relative to the middle REY (LaSN/GdSN: 0.41-0.45; GdSN/YbSN: 1.70-2.44). They show positive Eu anomalies, but no La, Ce or Y

  13. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS) in a Boy with Massive Lymphadenopathy.

    Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Khalesi, Maryam; Farid, Reza; Badiee, Zahra; Rastin, Maryam; Ahanchian, Hamid


    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is an uncommon nonmalignant lymphoproliferative disease which is characterized by chronic, persistent or recurrent lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, immune cytopenia , hypergammaglobinemia and increased risk of lymphoma. We report a 2-year old boy with hepatosplenomegaly as first presentation. Petechial and purpuric rashes with massive cervical lymphadenopathies developed 10 months later.In laboratory tests anemia, thrombocytopenia and hypergammaglobinemia were observed. According to flocytometry increased double negative T cells and by apoptosis assay decrease apoptosis of lymphocytes accompanied clinical manifestations, thus diagnosis of ALPS was established. In conclusion; in all patients with massive lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegay; especially with cytopenia; ALPS should be considered.

  14. New Zealand's first general anaesthetic.

    Newson, A J


    The administration of New Zealand's first general anaesthetic took place at the Colonial Gaol, Wellington, on the morning of Monday, September 27th, 1847. The agent used was sulphuric ether which was administered by Mr. Marriot, the manufacturer of the Herapath-type inhaler used on this occasion. The operation, a dental extraction, was performed by the Colonial Surgeon, Dr. J. P. Fitzgerald.

  15. Paleotopography of the Miocene European Central Alps

    Campani, M.; Mulch, A.; Kempf, O.; Schlunegger, F.; Mancktelow, N.


    Reconstructing the surface elevation, surface uplift, and relief evolution histories is fundamental to understanding the growth of mountain ranges, to explore their topographic limits, and relate these to geodynamic and Earth surface processes. Recent geologic and geodynamic models for the Central European Alps propose that the bulk of topography was built through the Pliocene, mainly based on the observation of a strong increase in sedimentation and erosion rates during the last 5-6 Ma, suggesting that the Alps never attained elevations as high as today. Here, we aim to quantify the Miocene (20-14 Ma) paleoelevation of the Central Alps through stable isotope paleoaltimetry. The novelty of the approach presented here, which renders it rather insensitive to past climate change, is to analyze stable isotope proxies of identical age, both from high internal parts of the Alpine orogen and from the adjacent foreland basin that was at or near sea level. We first exploit the hydrogen isotopic ratio in phyllosilicates (mica and chlorite) that interacted with meteoric water during activity of the Simplon detachment, a major normal fault that developed during orogen-parallel extension in high elevation regions. We then contrast the resulting meteoric water compositions with those recorded in carbonate-bearing paleosols of the North-Alpine foreland basin to provide an estimate of relative elevation differences. In the North-Alpine foreland basin, we present oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of pedogenic mudstones and carbonate concretions. These terrestrial paleosols, dated with ca. 100 ka precision, serve as our point of reference for stable isotope paleoaltimetry, since they formed at or near sea level. Here, δ18O and δ13C values vary between +19 to +25% (SMOW) and -7 to +1% respectively and show close correspondence to global climate change during the mid-Miocene climatic optimum. In the Simplon fault zone, detachment-related muscovite (-126%) and chlorite (-135

  16. Avian malaria in New Zealand.

    Schoener, E R; Banda, M; Howe, L; Castro, I C; Alley, M R


    Avian malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium have the ability to cause morbidity and mortality in naïve hosts, and their impact on the native biodiversity is potentially serious. Over the last decade, avian malaria has aroused increasing interest as an emerging disease in New Zealand with some endemic avian species, such as the endangered mohua (Mohua ochrocephala), thought to be particularly susceptible. To date, avian malaria parasites have been found in 35 different bird species in New Zealand and have been diagnosed as causing death in threatened species such as dotterel (Charadrius obscurus), South Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus carunculatus), mohua, hihi (Notiomystis cincta) and two species of kiwi (Apteryx spp.). Introduced blackbirds (Turdus merula) have been found to be carriers of at least three strains of Plasmodium spp. and because they are very commonly infected, they are likely sources of infection for many of New Zealand's endemic birds. The spread and abundance of introduced and endemic mosquitoes as the result of climate change is also likely to be an important factor in the high prevalence of infection in some regions and at certain times of the year. Although still limited, there is a growing understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of Plasmodium spp. in New Zealand. Molecular biology has played an important part in this process and has markedly improved our understanding of the taxonomy of the genus Plasmodium. This review presents our current state of knowledge, discusses the possible infection and disease outcomes, the implications for host behaviour and reproduction, methods of diagnosis of infection, and the possible vectors for transmission of the disease in New Zealand.

  17. Climate windows for Polynesian voyaging to New Zealand and Easter Island.

    Goodwin, Ian D; Browning, Stuart A; Anderson, Atholl J


    Debate about initial human migration across the immense area of East Polynesia has focused upon seafaring technology, both of navigation and canoe capabilities, while temporal variation in sailing conditions, notably through climate change, has received less attention. One model of Polynesian voyaging observes that as tradewind easterlies are currently dominant in the central Pacific, prehistoric colonization canoes voyaging eastward to and through central East Polynesia (CEP: Society, Tuamotu, Marquesas, Gambier, Southern Cook, and Austral Islands) and to Easter Island probably had a windward capacity. Similar arguments have been applied to voyaging from CEP to New Zealand against prevailing westerlies. An alternative view is that migration required reliable off-wind sailing routes. We investigate the marine climate and potential voyaging routes during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), A.D. 800-1300, when the initial colonization of CEP and New Zealand occurred. Paleoclimate data assimilation is used to reconstruct Pacific sea level pressure and wind field patterns at bidecadal resolution during the MCA. We argue here that changing wind field patterns associated with the MCA provided conditions in which voyaging to and from the most isolated East Polynesian islands, New Zealand, and Easter Island was readily possible by off-wind sailing. The intensification and poleward expansion of the Pacific subtropical anticyclone culminating in A.D. 1140-1260 opened an anomalous climate window for off-wind sailing routes to New Zealand from the Southern Austral Islands, the Southern Cook Islands, and Tonga/Fiji Islands.

  18. Kinematics, seismotectonics and seismic potential of the eastern sector of the European Alps from GPS and seismic deformation data

    Serpelloni, E.; Vannucci, G.; Anderlini, L.; Bennett, R. A.


    We present a first synoptic view of the seismotectonics and kinematics of the eastern sector of the European Alps using geodetic and seismological data. The study area marks the boundary between the Adriatic and the Eurasian plates, through a wide zone of deformation including a variety of tectonic styles within a complex network of crustal and lithospheric faults. A new dense GPS velocity field, new focal mechanisms and seismic catalogues, with uniformly re-calibrated magnitudes (from 1005), are used to estimate geodetic and seismic deformation rates and to develop interseismic kinematic and fault locking models. Kinematic indicators from seismological and geodetic data are remarkably consistent at different spatial scales. In addition to large-scale surface motion, GPS velocities highlight more localized deformation features revealing a complex configuration of interacting tectonic blocks, for which new constraints are provided in this work accounting for elastic strain build up at faults bonding rotating blocks. The geodetic and seismological data highlight two belts of higher deformation rates running WSW-ENE along the Eastern Southern Alps (ESA) in Italy and E-W in Slovenia, where deformation is more distributed. The highest geodetic strain-rates are observed in the Montello-Cansiglio segment of the ESA thrust front, for which the higher density of the GPS network provides indications of limited interseismic locking. Most of the dextral shear between the Eastern Southern Alps and the Eastern Alps blocks is accommodated along the Fella-Sava fault rather than the Periadriatic fault. In northern Croatia and Slovenia geodetic and seismological data allow constraining the kinematics of the active structures bounding the triangular-shaped region encompassing the Sava folds, which plays a major role in accommodating the transition from Adria- to Pannonian-like motion trends. The analysis of the seismic and geodetic moment rates provides new insights into the seismic

  19. Surveillance for arboviral zoonoses in New Zealand birds

    Daniel Tompkins


    Full Text Available Introduction: Given the significant burden that emerging infectious diseases place on global economies and public health, the monitoring and mitigation of, and early response to, potential infectious diseases are of the highest priority. The objective of this study was to survey for known and other potential arboviral zoonoses in multiple bird species at four locations in New Zealand. Methods: Common bird species were targeted for blood sampling during two southern hemisphere summers. Sera from each period (n = 185 and n = 693 were screened in an epitope blocking enzyme immunoassay for flavivirus antibody detection. In the first season, testing for antibodies to specific alphaviruses was conducted on samples with sufficient sera (n = 22. In the second season, blood clots (n = 544 were screened for viral presence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for alphaviral and flaviviral RNA, and virus isolation (n = 146 was conducted. Results: Flavivirus antibodies were detected in 13 species, and one Australasian gannet (Morus serrator from one site was positive for antibodies to Ross River virus. PCR tests and virus isolation were all negative. Discussion: Evidence for flavivirus exposure in seabirds at Kaikoura Peninsula and Cape Kidnappers suggests that viruses isolated from seabirds and associated ticks in New Zealand in the late 1970s are still present. Evidence for flavivirus exposure in passerines at Kaikoura Peninsula, Cape Kidnappers and Mokoia Island is novel. The Ross River virus finding is also new and supports the hypothesis that migratory seabirds are an import pathway for such agents into New Zealand.

  20. Western Italian Alps Monthly Snowfall and Snow Cover Duration

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of snow observations for 18 stations in the western Italian Alps. Two types of data are included: monthly snowfall amounts and monthly snow...

  1. The lynx in the Italian South-Eastern Alps

    Paolo Molinari


    Full Text Available Abstract From 1986 to May 1995 I collected records of signs of lynx presence in the region of Friuli Venezia Giulia. A series of regularly checked trail transects, explorative excursions, and the collection of second-hand observations led to a total of 150 records. They confirm lynx presence and allow an assessment of the situation. The first lynx are believed to have immigrated to the northern part of the study area from Austria. An increase and the distribution in the signs of presence show a south-westerly expansion. The trend in the Julian Alps and Pre-Alps is also increasing. Some interpretations of the status of this new population are made. The study area is in the far south-eastern Alps. This area is important as a corridor between the Alps and the Balkans, where a reintroduced lynx population exists which would be able to support the Alpine lynx population through dispersing lynx.

  2. Extragalactic photon-ALP conversion at CTA energies

    Kartavtsev, A.; Raffelt, G.; Vogel, H.


    Magnetic fields in extragalactic space between galaxy clusters may induce conversions between photons and axion-like particles (ALPs), thereby shielding the photons from absorption on the extragalactic background light. For TeV gamma rays, the oscillation length (losc) of the photon-ALP system becomes inevitably of the same order as the coherence length of the magnetic field l and the length over which the field changes significantly (transition length lt) due to refraction on background photons. We derive exact statistical evolution equations for the mean and variance of the photon and ALP transfer functions in the non-adiabatic regime (losc ~ l gg lt). We also make analytical predictions for the transfer functions in the quasi-adiabatic regime (losc ll l, lt). Our results are important in light of the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), and may also be applied to models with non-zero ALP masses.

  3. Sustainable mobility in Slovenian Julian Alps = Trajnostna mobilnost v slovenskem delu Julijskih Alp

    Matej Ogrin


    Full Text Available Some mountainous areas, especially tourist areas, are facing traffic loads that exceed thecarrying capacity and bring problems to local residents, visitors, public services, etc. Trafficproblems can also cause a decrease of popularity of the tourist site and a decrease oftourist income; therefore, in some Alpine areas in Slovenia, measures have begun to betaken to decrease traffic loads, and to support measures of sustainable mobility. This articledeals with such measures and plans that have been taken in the Julian Alps of Slovenia todecrease the negative traffic impacts of tourism mobility in the municipalities of KranjskaGora, Bohinj and Bovec.

  4. Overview of rock glacier kinematics research in the Swiss Alps

    Delaloye, R.; Lambiel, C; I. Gärtner-Roer


    The acceleration of rock glacier surface velocities over the two last decades and the destabilization of several landforms show that permafrost creep conditions are changing in the Alps. This article summarizes and presents current understanding of creep behaviour of rock glaciers in the Swiss Alps and emphasises changes that have occurred over the last years and decades. The almost homogeneous interannual behaviour of rock glaciers despite different geometry and activ...

  5. Constraining ALP-photon coupling using galaxy clusters

    Schlederer, Martin


    In this study, we propose a new approach to constrain the coupling of axion-like particles (ALPs) to photons. One intriguing property of these ALPs is their mixing with photons within magnetic fields. This mixing allows photons propagating in magnetic fields to convert into ALPs and \\textit{vice versa}. Plasma effects can lead to resonant conversion, further enhancing the conversion probability. For suitable ALP masses, this resonant conversion can occur for cosmic microwave background photons transversing galaxy clusters which would distort the CMB spectrum in the direction of galaxy clusters. We compare the predicted distortion with recent measurements of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich Compton parameter to obtain upper limits on the coupling between photons and ALPs. The constraints apply to the mass range of approximately $2\\cdot 10^{-14}$ eV $ \\lesssim m_\\phi \\lesssim 3\\cdot 10^{-12}$ eV in which resonant photon-ALP conversions can occur. Using simple galaxy cluster models, we obtain new limits for this ma...

  6. Crustal and upper mantle seismic structure of the Australian Plate, South Island, New Zealand

    Melhuish, Anne; Holbrook, W. Steven; Davey, Fred; Okaya, David A.; Stern, Tim


    Seismic reflection and refraction data were collected west of New Zealand's South Island parallel to the Pacific-Australian Plate boundary. The obliquely convergent plate boundary is marked at the surface by the Alpine Fault, which juxtaposes continental crust of each plate. The data are used to study the crustal and uppermost mantle structure and provide a link between other seismic transects which cross the plate boundary. Arrival times of wide-angle reflected and refracted events from 13 recording stations are used to construct a 380-km long crustal velocity model. The model shows that, beneath a 2-4-km thick sedimentary veneer, the crust consists of two layers. The upper layer velocities increase from 5.4-5.9 km/s at the top of the layer to 6.3 km/s at the base of the layer. The base of the layer is mainly about 20 km deep but deepens to 25 km at its southern end. The lower layer velocities range from 6.3 to 7.1 km/s, and are commonly around 6.5 km/s at the top of the layer and 6.7 km/s at the base. Beneath the lower layer, the model has velocities of 8.2-8.5 km/s, typical of mantle material. The Mohorovicic discontinuity (Moho) therefore lies at the base of the second layer. It is at a depth of around 30 km but shallows over the south-central third of the profile to about 26 km, possibly associated with a southwest dipping detachment fault. The high, variable sub-Moho velocities of 8.2 km/s to 8.5 km/s are inferred to result from strong upper mantle anisotropy. Multichannel seismic reflection data cover about 220 km of the southern part of the modelled section. Beneath the well-layered Oligocene to recent sedimentary section, the crustal section is broadly divided into two zones, which correspond to the two layers of the velocity model. The upper layer (down to about 7-9 s two-way travel time) has few reflections. The lower layer (down to about 11 s two-way time) contains many strong, subparallel reflections. The base of this reflective zone is the Moho. Bi

  7. The AlpArray-CASE project: temporary broadband seismic network deployment and characterization

    Dasović, Iva; Molinari, Irene; Stipčević, Josip; Šipka, Vesna; Salimbeni, Simone; Jarić, Dejan; Prevolnik, Snježan; Kissling, Eduard; Clinton, John; Giardini, Domenico


    While the northern part of the Adriatic microplate will be accurately imaged within the AlpArray project, its central and southern parts deserve detailed studies to obtain a complete picture of its structure and evolution. The Adriatic microplate forms the upper plate in the Western and Central Alps whereas it forms the lower plate in the Apennines and the Dinarides. However, the tectonics of Adriatic microplate is not well constrained and remains controversial, especially with regard to its contact with the Dinarides. The primary goal of the Central Adriatic Seismic Experiment (CASE) is to provide high quality seismological data and to shed light on seismicity and 3D lithospheric structure of the central Adriatic microplate and its boundaries. The CASE project is an international AlpArray Complementary Experiment carried out by four institutions: Department of Earth Sciences and Swiss Seismological Service of ETH Zürich (CH), Department of Geophysics and Croatian Seismological Service of Faculty of Science at University of Zagreb (HR), Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Republic of Srpska (BIH) and Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (I). It establishes a temporary seismic network, expected to be operational at least for one year, composed by existing permanent and temporary seismic stations operated by the institutions involved and newly deployed temporary seismic stations, installed in November and December 2016, provided by ETH Zürich and INGV: five in Croatia, four in Bosnia and Herzegovina and two in Italy. In this work, we present stations sites and settings and discuss their characteristics in terms of site-effects and noise level of each station. In particular, we analyse the power spectral density estimates in order to investigate major sources of noise and background noise.

  8. High T-P frictional strength and stability of exhumed fault core gouges, Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    Boulton, C. J.; Moore, D. E.; Lockner, D. A.; Toy, V. G.; Townend, J.; Sutherland, R.


    fluid overpressures favor shear failure of a frictionally strong Alpine Fault. References Boese, C.M., J. Townend, E. Smith, and T. Stern (2012), Microseismicity and stress in the vicinity of the Alpine Fault, central Southern Alps, New Zealand, J. Geophys. Res., 117, B02302, doi:10.1029/2011JB008460. Leclère, H., and O. Fabbri (2013), A new three-dimensional method of fault reactivation analysis. J. Struct. Geol., 48, 153-161. Sutherland, R., and 18 others (2012), Drilling reveals fluid control on architecture and rupture of the Alpine Fault, New Zealand, Geology, 40, p. 1143-1146, doi:10.1130/G33614.1.

  9. Heat flow, heat production, and crustal dynamics in the Central Alps, Switzerland

    Rybach, L. (Inst. of Geophysics, Zurich); Werner, D.; Mueller, S.; Berset, G.


    Interrelations between temperature field, crustal structure, and crustal dynamics (vertical crustal movements) were investigated along a selected profile: the Swiss Geotraverse which cross-sects in a NW--SE direction the following tectonic units: Rhine-Graben, Jura Mountains, Molasse Basin, Helvetic Nappes, Central Massifs with autochthonous cover, Penninic units, basement and sedimentary units of the Southern Alps (total length: 220 km). The corrected heat flow is slightly elevated along or close to the traverse (approximately equal to 75 mW/m/sup 2/). Thermal effects of Alpine overthrusting and metamorphism on the surface gradient are negligible today. For steady-state calculations of the temperature field heat production was determined experimentally for surface samples; for deep crustal rocks it was inferred from an empirical relationship between heat production and seismic compressional wave velocity or density. The temperature field shows downwarped isotherms where a pronounced inversion of seismic velocity and density occurs in the upper crust. The same area of the Central Alps (Lepontine gneiss region) exhibits the strongest recent crustal movements (vertical uplift approximately equal to 1 mm/yr). The Mohorovicic discontinuity is clearly not an isothermal surface; its asymmetric shape found by seismic and gravimetric measurements is likely to be a result of the early Alpine subduction tectonics.




    Full Text Available The Trucco Formation and the Nummulitic Limestone (Dauphinois Domain, Maritime Alps are characterized by abundant larger foraminifera, specifically nummulitids, orthophragminids and encrusting foraminifera. In the Maritime Alps, previous studies suggest a late Lutetian age for the Trucco Formation and a late Lutetian-Priabonian age for the Nummulitic Limestone.Biostratigraphic analysis of the nummulitids, in 11 stratigraphic sections, allowed us to distinguish 3 biozones:MALF1 Zone: defined by the presence of Nummulites brongniarti d’Archiac & Haime, N. puschi d’Archiac, N. perforatus de Montfort, N. striatus (Bruguière, N. cf. dufrenoyi d’Archiac & Haime, N. variolarius/incrassatus and Operculina schwageri Silvestri.MALF2 Zone: defined by the presence of Nummulites perforatus de Montfort, N. striatus (Bruguière, N. cf. dufrenoyi d’Archiac & Haime, N. variolarius/incrassatus and Operculina schwageri Silvestri.MALF 3 Zone: defined by the presence of gr. Nummulites variolarius/incrassatus, N. striatus (Bruguière and Operculina schwageri Silvestri.According to current larger foraminiferal biozonal schemes, the age of these local biozones corresponds to the Bartonian p.p.Moreover, the comparison with biostratigraphic schemes established for the Dauphinois Domain and for the Tethyan area evidences that several typical nummulitid species of the late Bartonian are lacking in the southern Dauphinois Domain, probably due to a paleogeographic control. 

  11. Developing sub 5-m LiDAR DEMs for forested sections of the Alpine and Hope faults, South Island, New Zealand: Implications for structural interpretations

    Langridge, R. M.; Ries, W. F.; Farrier, T.; Barth, N. C.; Khajavi, N.; De Pascale, G. P.


    Kilometre-wide airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) surveys were collected along portions of the Alpine and Hope faults in New Zealand to assess the potential for generating sub 5-m bare earth digital elevation models (DEMs) from ground return data in areas of dense rainforest (bush) cover as an aid to mapping these faults. The 34-km long Franz-Whataroa LiDAR survey was flown along the densely-vegetated central-most portion of the transpressive Alpine Fault. Six closely spaced flight lines (200 m apart) yielded survey coverage with double overlap of swath collection, which was considered necessary due to the low density of ground returns (0.16 m-2 or a point every 6 m2) under mature West Coast podocarp-broadleaf rainforest. This average point spacing (˜2.5 m) allowed for the generation of a robust, high quality 3-m bare earth DEM. The DEM confirmed the zigzagged form of the surface trace of the Alpine Fault in this area, originally recognised by Norris and Cooper (1995, 1997) and highlights that the surface strike variations are more variant than previously mapped. The 29-km long Hurunui-Hope LiDAR survey was flown east of the Main Divide of the Southern Alps along the dextral-slip Hope Fault, where the terrain is characterised by lower rainfall and more open beech forest. Flight line spacings of ˜275 m were used to generate a DEM from the ground return data. The average ground return values under beech forest were 0.27 m-2 and yielded an estimated cell size suitable for a 2-m DEM. In both cases the LiDAR revealed unprecedented views of the surface geomorphology of these active faults. Lessons learned from our survey methodologies can be employed to plan cost-effective, high-gain airborne surveys to yield bare earth DEMs underneath vegetated terrain and multi-storeyed canopies from densely forested environments across New Zealand and worldwide.

  12. Possible environmental effects on the evolution of the Alps-Molasse basin system

    Schlunegger, F.; Rieke-Zapp, D.; Ramseyer, K


    We propose three partly unrelated stages in the geodynamic evolution of the Alps and the sedimentary response of the Molasse Basin. The first stage comprises the time interval between ca. 35 and 20 Ma and is characterized by a high ratio between rates of crustal accretion and surface erosion. The response of the Molasse Basin was a change from the stage of basin underfill (UMM) to overfill (USM). Because the response time of erosional processes to crustal accretion and surface uplift lasts several millions of years, the orogen first experienced a net growth until the end of the Oligocene. As a result, the Molasse basin subsided at high rates causing the topographic axis to shift to the proximal basin border and alluvial fans to establish at the thrust front. During the Aquitanian, however, ongoing erosion and downcutting in the hinterland caused sediment discharge to the basin to increase and the ratio between the rates of crustal accretion and surface erosion to decrease. The result was a progradation of the dispersal systems, and a shift of the topographic axis towards the distal basin border. The second stage started at ca. 20 Ma at a time when palaeoclimate became more continental, and when the crystalline core became exposed in the orogen. The effect was a decrease in the erosional efficiency of the Swiss Alps and hence a reduction of sediment discharge to the Molasse Basin. We propose that this decrease in sediment flux caused the Burdigalian transgression of the OMM. We also speculate that this reduction of surface erosion initiated the modification of Alpine deformation from vertically- to mainly horizontally directed extrusion (deformation of the Southern Alps, and the Jura Mountains some Ma later). The third stage in the geodynamic development was initiated at the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. At that time, palaeoclimate possibly became wetter, which, in turn, caused surface erosion to increase relative to crustal accretion. This change caused the Alps to

  13. Immediate and delayed signal of slab breakoff in Oligo/Miocene Molasse deposits from the European Alps

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Castelltort, Sébastien


    High-resolution 32–20 Ma-old stratigraphic records from the Molasse foreland basin situated north of the Alps, and Gonfolite Lombarda conglomerates deposited on the southern Alpine margin, document two consecutive sedimentary responses - an immediate and delayed response - to slab breakoff beneath the central Alps c. 32–30 Ma ago. The first signal, which occurred due to rebound and surface uplift in the Alps, was a regional and simultaneous switch from basin underfill to overfill at 30 Ma paired with shifts to coarse-grained depositional environments in the foreland basin. The second signal, however, arrived several million years after slab breakoff and was marked by larger contributions of crystalline clasts in the conglomerates, larger clast sizes, larger sediment fluxes and shifts to more proximal facies. We propose that this secondary pulse reflects a delayed whiplash-type erosional response to surface uplift, where erosion and sediment flux became amplified through positive feedbacks once larger erosional thresholds of crystalline bedrock were exceeded.

  14. Long-lasting transcurrent tectonics in SW Alps evidenced by Neogene to present-day stress fields

    Bauve, Victorien; Plateaux, Romain; Rolland, Yann; Sanchez, Guillaume; Bethoux, Nicole; Delouis, Bertrand; Darnault, Romain


    The SW Alps are an active orogen undergoing intra-mountainous extension and peripheral compression. We discuss the significance of syn-orogenic extension based on a comparison of paleo-stress derived from fault-slip data inversion reflecting the long-term (< 12 Ma) evolution of SW Alps and the present-day stress state obtained by the inversion of the focal mechanisms of the last 30-years seismicity. The resulting stress states of long-term and active tectonic regimes are in good agreement, showing that extension accompanies strike-slip and reverse faulting in the southern part of the belt. The extensional deformation regime is limited to specific tectonic domains that can be interpreted as ‘transitional' between pure strike-slip segments where the deformation concentrates on inherited ductile shear zones that were formed between 32° and 20 Ma ago. We thus propose that the extensional deformation in the SW Alps can be defined as a local deformation in a pull-apart type domain (High Durance - Jausiers area) or above slowly exhuming internal massifs (Dora Maira - Ivrea Body) along a curved boundary between the slowly rotating Apulian block and the relatively immobile Western Europe. The transcurrent fault system merges into a compressional front along the Mediterranean - Ligurian coast mainly to the east of San Remo.

  15. Searching for axions and ALPs from string theory

    Ringwald, Andreas


    We review searches for closed string axions and axion-like particles (ALPs) in IIB string flux compactifications. For natural values of the background fluxes and TeV scale gravitino mass, the moduli stabilisation mechanism of the LARGE Volume Scenario predicts the existence of a QCD axion candidate with intermediate scale decay constant, f{sub a} {proportional_to}10{sup 9/12} GeV, associated with the small cycles wrapped by the branes hosting the visible sector, plus a nearly massless and nearly decoupled ALP associated with the LARGE cycle. In setups where the visible sector branes are wrapping more than the minimum number of two intersecting cycles, there are more ALPs which have approximately the same decay constant and coupling to the photon as the QCD axion candidate, but which are exponentially lighter. There are exciting phenomenological opportunities to search for these axions and ALPs in the near future. For f{sub a} {proportional_to}10{sup 11/12} GeV, the QCD axion can be the dominant part of dark matter and be detected in haloscopes exploiting microwave cavities. For f{sub a} {proportional_to}10{sup 9/10} GeV, the additional ALPs could explain astrophysical anomalies and be searched for in the upcoming generation of helioscopes and light-shining-through-a-wall experiments.

  16. Status and distribution of the lynx in the German Alps

    Petra Kaczensky


    Full Text Available Abstract The lynx (Lynx lynx had been eradicated in the German Alps by the middle of the 19th century. Since the early 1970s there have been several attempts to initiate the re-introduction of lynx into the German Alps, but none of the projects could be carried out because of the still very controversial attitudes towards the species, and because of competition between institutions. Natural re-colonization of the German Alps by lynx can be expected sooner or later from Switzerland or Austria. Although lynx are already present in some parts of Germany outside the Alps, neither an organized monitoring system nor compensation regulations for losses of livestock exist. For a successful comeback of lynx into Germany, including the German Alps, more efforts than a year-round protection by the federal hunting law is needed. Initiative management actions and intensive public education are necessary to obtain and secure public acceptance of the lynx.

  17. Speciation, range contraction and extinction in the endemic New Zealand King Shag complex.

    Rawlence, Nicolas J; Till, Charlotte E; Easton, Luke J; Spencer, Hamish G; Schuckard, Rob; Melville, David S; Scofield, R Paul; Tennyson, Alan J D; Rayner, Matt J; Waters, Jonathan M; Kennedy, Martyn


    New Zealand's endemic King Shag (Leucocarbo carunculatus) has occupied only a narrow portion of the northeastern South Island for at least the past 240years. However, pre-human Holocene fossil and archaeological remains have suggested a far more widespread distribution of the three Leucocarbo species (King, Otago, Foveaux) on mainland New Zealand at the time of Polynesian settlement in the late 13th Century CE. We use modern and ancient DNA, and morphometric and osteological analyses, of modern King Shags and Holocene fossil Leucocarbo remains to assess the pre-human distribution and taxonomic status of the King Shag on mainland New Zealand, and the resultant conservation implications. Our analyses show that the King Shag was formerly widespread around southern coasts of the North Island and the northern parts of the South Island but experienced population and lineage extinctions, and range contraction, probably after Polynesian arrival. This history parallels range contractions of other New Zealand seabirds. Conservation management of the King Shag should take into account this species narrow distribution and probable reduced genetic diversity. Moreover, combined genetic, morphometric and osteological analyses of prehistoric material from mainland New Zealand suggest that the now extinct northern New Zealand Leucocarbo populations comprised a unique lineage. Although these distinctive populations were previously assigned to the King Shag (based on morphological similarities and geographic proximity to modern Leucocarbo populations), we herein describe them as a new species, the Kohatu Shag (Leucocarbo septentrionalis). The extinction of this species further highlights the dramatic impacts Polynesians and introduced predators had on New Zealand's coastal and marine biodiversity. The prehistoric presence of at least four species of Leucocarbo shag on mainland NZ further highlights its status as a biodiversity hotspot for Phalacrocoracidae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  18. Advances in the management and understanding of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS).

    Teachey, David T; Seif, Alix E; Grupp, Stephan A


    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of T cell dysregulation caused by defective Fas-mediated apoptosis. Patients with ALPS can develop a myriad of clinical manifestations including lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmunity and increased rates of malignancy. ALPS may be more common that originally thought, and testing for ALPS should be considered in patients with unexplained lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and/or autoimmunity. As the pathophysiology of ALPS is better characterized, a number of targeted therapies are in preclinical development and clinical trials with promising early results. This review describes the clinical and laboratory manifestations found in ALPS patients, as well as the molecular basis for the disease and new advances in treatment.

  19. Characterization of optical systems for the ALPS II experiment

    Spector, Aaron D.; Põld, Jan H.; Bähre, Robin; Lindner, Axel; Willke, Benno


    ALPS II is a light shining through a wall style experiment that will use the principle of resonant enhancement to boost the conversion and reconversion probabilities of photons to relativistic WISPs. This will require the use of long baseline low-loss optical cavities. Very high power build up factors in the cavities must be achieved in order to reach the design sensitivity of ALPS II. This necessitates a number of different sophisticated optical and control systems to maintain the resonance and ensure maximal coupling between the laser and the cavity. In this paper we report on the results of the characterization of these optical systems with a 20 m cavity and discuss the results in the context of ALPS II.

  20. Characterization of optical systems for the ALPS II experiment

    Spector, Aaron D. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphsik; Pold, Jan H.; Lindner, Axel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Baehre, Robin; Willke, Benno [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics, Hannover (Germany); Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Gravitationsphysik


    ALPS II is a light shining through a wall style experiment that will use the principle of resonant enhancement to boost the conversion and reconversion probabilities of photons to relativistic WISPs. This will require the use of long baseline low-loss optical cavities. Very high power build up factors in the cavities must be achieved in order to reach the design sensitivity of ALPS II. This necessitates a number of different sophisticated optical and control systems to maintain the resonance and ensure maximal coupling between the laser and the cavity. In this paper we report on the results of the characterization of these optical systems with a 20m cavity and discuss the results in the context of ALPS II.

  1. Characterization of optical systems for the ALPS II experiment

    Spector, Aaron D; Bähre, Robin; Lindner, Axel; Willke, Benno


    ALPS II is a light shining through a wall style experiment that will use the principle of resonant enhancement to boost the conversion and reconversion probabilities of photons to relativistic WISPs. This will require the use of long baseline low-loss optical cavities. Very high power build up factors in the cavities must be achieved in order to reach the design sensitivity of ALPS II. This necessitates a number of different sophisticated optical and control systems to maintain the resonance and ensure maximal coupling between the laser and the cavity. In this paper we report on the results of the characterization of these optical systems with a 20 m cavity and discuss the results in the context of ALPS II.

  2. A new observation of ALPs-photon coupling

    Tiwari, Prabhakar


    One of the fundamental results used in observational cosmology is the distance duality relation (DDR), which relates the luminosity distance, $D_L$, with angular diameter distance, $D_A$, at a given redshift $z$. We suggest to employ the observed limits of this relation to constrain the coupling of axion like particles (ALPs) with photons. With available data we are able to provide improved mixing limit. The method can provide very stringent constraint on ALPs mixing with future improved DDR observations. Also any deviation in DDR can be conventionally explained as photons decaying to axions or vice-versa.

  3. Benign Rabbit Calicivirus in New Zealand.

    Nicholson, Leila J; Mahar, Jackie E; Strive, Tanja; Zheng, Tao; Holmes, Edward C; Ward, Vernon K; Duckworth, Janine A


    The Czech v351 strain of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV1) is used in Australia and New Zealand as a biological control agent for rabbits, which are important and damaging introduced vertebrate pests in these countries. However, nonpathogenic rabbit caliciviruses (RCVs) can provide partial immunological cross-protection against lethal RHDV infection and thus interfere with effective rabbit biocontrol. Antibodies that cross-reacted against RHDV antigens were found in wild rabbits before the release of RHDV1 in New Zealand in 1997, suggesting that nonpathogenic RCVs were already present in New Zealand. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of nonpathogenic RCV in New Zealand and describe its geographical distribution. RCV and RHDV antibody assays were used to screen serum samples from 350 wild rabbits from 14 locations in New Zealand. The serological survey indicated that both RCV and RHDV are widespread in New Zealand wild rabbits, with antibodies detected in 10 out of 14 and 12 out of 14 populations, respectively. Two closely related RCV strains were identified in the duodenal tissue from a New Zealand wild rabbit (RCV Gore-425A and RCV Gore-425B). Both variants are most closely related to Australian RCV strains, but with 88% nucleotide identity, they are genetically distinct. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the New Zealand RCV strains fall within the genetic diversity of the Australian RCV isolates, indicating a relatively recent movement of RCVs between Australia and New Zealand.IMPORTANCE Wild rabbits are important and damaging introduced vertebrate pests in Australia and New Zealand. Although RHDV1 is used as a biological control agent, some nonpathogenic RCVs can provide partial immunological cross-protection against lethal RHDV infection and thus interfere with its effectiveness for rabbit control. The presence of nonpathogenic RCVs in New Zealand wild rabbits has been long hypothesized, but earlier attempts to isolate a New Zealand RCV

  4. First record of the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne minor in New Zealand with description, sequencing information and key to known species of Meloidogyne in New Zealand.

    Zhao, Zeng Qi; Ho, Wellcome; Griffin, Ruth; Surrey, Michael; Taylor, Robert; Aalders, Lee T; Bell, Nigel L; Xu, Yu Mei; Alexander, Brett J R


    Meloidogyne minor Karssen et al. 2004 was collected from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) growing in a sports ground in Christchurch, New Zealand. This is a new record for M. minor, the first report of this nematode occurring in New Zealand, and the second report from the southern hemisphere (after Chile). In general, the New Zealand isolate of M. minor corresponds well to the descriptions of M. minor given by Karssen et al. (2004). The New Zealand isolate is characterized by having a female with dorsally curved stylet, 13-14 μm long, with transversely ovoid knobs slightly sloping backwards from shaft; rounded perineal pattern; and male with stylet 16-19 μm long, large transversely ovoid knobs sloping slightly backwards from shaft; head region not set off, labial disc elevated, lateral lips prominent; and second stage juvenile 370-390 μm long, with hemizonid posterior but adjacent to excretory pore; tail 53-63 μm long; and a distinct hyaline tail terminus 14-18 μm long. In addition, molecular phylogeny using near full length small subunit (SSU), D2/D3 expansion segments of the large subunit (LSU), the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1 and 2), and the intergenic spacer (IGS2) of the ribosomal rDNA supports the identification.

  5. Statistical adaptation of ALADIN RCM outputs over the French Alps - application to future climate and snow cover

    Rousselot, M.; Durand, Y.; Giraud, G.; Mérindol, L.; Dombrowski-Etchevers, I.; Déqué, M.; Castebrunet, H.


    In this study, snowpack scenarios are modelled across the French Alps using dynamically downscaled variables from the ALADIN Regional Climate Model (RCM) for the control period (1961-1990) and three emission scenarios (SRES B1, A1B and A2) for the mid- and late 21st century (2021-2050 and 2071-2100). These variables are statistically adapted to the different elevations, aspects and slopes of the Alpine massifs. For this purpose, we use a simple analogue criterion with ERA40 series as well as an existing detailed climatology of the French Alps (Durand et al., 2009a) that provides complete meteorological fields from the SAFRAN analysis model. The resulting scenarios of precipitation, temperature, wind, cloudiness, longwave and shortwave radiation, and humidity are used to run the physical snow model CROCUS and simulate snowpack evolution over the massifs studied. The seasonal and regional characteristics of the simulated climate and snow cover changes are explored, as is the influence of the scenarios on these changes. Preliminary results suggest that the snow water equivalent (SWE) of the snowpack will decrease dramatically in the next century, especially in the Southern and Extreme Southern parts of the Alps. This decrease seems to result primarily from a general warming throughout the year, and possibly a deficit of precipitation in the autumn. The magnitude of the snow cover decline follows a marked altitudinal gradient, with the highest altitudes being less exposed to climate change. Scenario A2, with its high concentrations of greenhouse gases, results in a SWE reduction roughly twice as large as in the low-emission scenario B1 by the end of the century. This study needs to be completed using simulations from other RCMs, since a multi-model approach is essential for uncertainty analysis.

  6. Statistical adaptation of ALADIN RCM outputs over the French Alps – application to future climate and snow cover

    M. Rousselot


    Full Text Available In this study, snowpack scenarios are modelled across the French Alps using dynamically downscaled variables from the ALADIN Regional Climate Model (RCM for the control period (1961–1990 and three emission scenarios (SRES B1, A1B and A2 for the mid- and late 21st century (2021–2050 and 2071–2100. These variables are statistically adapted to the different elevations, aspects and slopes of the Alpine massifs. For this purpose, we use a simple analogue criterion with ERA40 series as well as an existing detailed climatology of the French Alps (Durand et al., 2009a that provides complete meteorological fields from the SAFRAN analysis model. The resulting scenarios of precipitation, temperature, wind, cloudiness, longwave and shortwave radiation, and humidity are used to run the physical snow model CROCUS and simulate snowpack evolution over the massifs studied. The seasonal and regional characteristics of the simulated climate and snow cover changes are explored, as is the influence of the scenarios on these changes. Preliminary results suggest that the snow water equivalent (SWE of the snowpack will decrease dramatically in the next century, especially in the Southern and Extreme Southern parts of the Alps. This decrease seems to result primarily from a general warming throughout the year, and possibly a deficit of precipitation in the autumn. The magnitude of the snow cover decline follows a marked altitudinal gradient, with the highest altitudes being less exposed to climate change. Scenario A2, with its high concentrations of greenhouse gases, results in a SWE reduction roughly twice as large as in the low-emission scenario B1 by the end of the century. This study needs to be completed using simulations from other RCMs, since a multi-model approach is essential for uncertainty analysis.

  7. Australian Alps: Kosciuszko, Alpine and Namadgi National Parks (Second Edition

    Nicole Porter


    Full Text Available Reviewed: Australian Alps: Kosciuszko, Alpine and Namadgi National Parks (Second Edition By Deidre Slattery. Clayton South, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 2015. xvii + 302 pp. AU$ 45.00, US$ 35.95. ISBN 978-1-486-30171-3.

  8. Green light for neutrino beam to pass below the Alps

    Abbott, A


    CERN council have approved a plan to send a beam of muon neutrinos under the Alps from Geneva to the Gran Sasso laboratories near Rome. INFN is organising two experiments - OPERA and ICANOE, to study the neutrino oscillations as they travel (1/2 pg)

  9. Military-geographic evaluation of the Julian Alps area

    Zvonimir Bratun


    Full Text Available The Julian Alps have been of military significance since Roman times in a military geographic sense because of its valleys, mountain passes and lines of defence on mountain ridges. They became especially important in the 19th and 20th century. The largest mountain front in World War I was located there,and evidence of that front is still visible today. The border between Italy and Yugoslavia in the heart of the Julian Alps was clearly a line of demarcation along the Soča and Sava watersheds and was reinforced with fortification, obstacles and trenches. During the Cold War, there was an ideological line of demarcation along the western edge of the Julian Alps as well. Military strategy in that area included the use of military geographic approaches in both westerly and easterly directions. After the geopolitical changes of 1991, the Julian Alps no longer had same military geographic significance in terms of Slovenian national security. Today other military activities are more important: training under mountains conditions for NATO soldiers, non-commissioned and commissioned officers takes place in the Pokljuka region and on the Triglav mountain chain. Military facilities have been taken on significance in the terms of tourism as well.

  10. 13 CFR 120.841 - Qualifications for the ALP.


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications for the ALP. 120.841 Section 120.841 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS... contribution toward SBA mission); (d) Record of compliance with 504 program requirements. The CDC must have a...

  11. Traditional phytotherapy of the Albanians of Lepushe, Nothern Albanian Alps

    Pieroni, A.; Dibra, B.; Grishaj, G.; Grishaj, I.; Maçai, S.G.


    An ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacognostic survey has been carried out in one of the most isolated mountainous area in Europe: the village of Lepushe and its surrounding territory, in the Northern Albanian Alps. Approximately 70 botanical taxa and 160 preparations, mainly derived from plants, but

  12. Algorithms used in the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS)

    Nagle, David B.; Wright, C. Wayne


    The Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS) analyzes Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data—digitized laser-return waveforms, position, and attitude data—to derive point clouds of target surfaces. A full-waveform airborne lidar system, the EAARL seamlessly and simultaneously collects mixed environment data, including submerged, sub-aerial bare earth, and vegetation-covered topographies.ALPS uses three waveform target-detection algorithms to determine target positions within a given waveform: centroid analysis, leading edge detection, and bottom detection using water-column backscatter modeling. The centroid analysis algorithm detects opaque hard surfaces. The leading edge algorithm detects topography beneath vegetation and shallow, submerged topography. The bottom detection algorithm uses water-column backscatter modeling for deeper submerged topography in turbid water.The report describes slant range calculations and explains how ALPS uses laser range and orientation measurements to project measurement points into the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system. Parameters used for coordinate transformations in ALPS are described, as are Interactive Data Language-based methods for gridding EAARL point cloud data to derive digital elevation models. Noise reduction in point clouds through use of a random consensus filter is explained, and detailed pseudocode, mathematical equations, and Yorick source code accompany the report.

  13. Searching for axions and ALPs from string theory

    Ringwald, Andreas


    We review searches for closed string axions and axion-like particles (ALPs) in IIB string flux compactifications. For natural values of the background fluxes and TeV scale gravitino mass, the moduli stabilisation mechanism of the LARGE Volume Scenario predicts the existence of a QCD axion candidate with intermediate scale decay constant, f_a ~ 10^9 ... 10^12 GeV, associated with the small cycles wrapped by the branes hosting the visible sector, plus a nearly massless and nearly decoupled ALP associated with the LARGE cycle. In setups where the visible sector branes are wrapping more than the minimum number of two intersecting cycles, there are more ALPs which have approximately the same decay constant and coupling to the photon as the QCD axion candidate, but which are exponentially lighter. There are exciting phenomenological opportunities to search for these axions and ALPs in the near future. For f_a ~ 10^11 ... 10^12 GeV, the QCD axion can be the dominant part of dark matter and be detected in haloscopes ...

  14. Monochroa bronzella sp. n. from the southwestern Alps (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Karsholt, Ole; Nel, Jacques; Fournier, François


    Abstract. Monochroa bronzella sp. n. is described from the southwestern Alps (France, Italy). It is closely related to M. nomadella (Zeller, 1868), with which it was hitherto confused. Literature records of M. nomadella from France and northwestern Italy refer to M. bronzella sp. n. The two speci...

  15. Constraining ALP-photon coupling using galaxy clusters

    Schlederer, Martin; Sigl, Günter [II. Institut für theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)


    We study photon-ALP conversion by resonance effects in the magnetized plasma of galaxy clusters and compare the predicted distortion of the cosmic microwave background spectrum in the direction of such objects to measurements of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Using galaxy cluster models based on current knowledge, we obtain upper limits on the photon-ALP coupling constant g of ≲O(10{sup −11} GeV{sup −1}). The constraints apply to the mass range of 2⋅10{sup −14} eV ≲m{sub ALP}≲3⋅10{sup −12} eV in which resonant photon-ALP conversions can occur. These limits are slightly stronger than current limits, and furthermore provide an independent constraint. We find that a next generation PRISM-like experiment would allow limits down to g≈O(10{sup −14} GeV{sup −1}), two orders of magnitude stronger than the currently strongest limits in this mass range.

  16. Bergsteigen in den Alpen (Mountain Climbing in the Alps).

    Hawrysz, Ilse; Budzinski, Elisabeth

    German second language instructional materials contain a short text in German on mountain climbing in the Alps, a vocabulary list with translation, a simple German climbing song, a recipe for goulash soup in English, and a short text in English on mountain climbing. (MSE)

  17. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS): a rare cause of immune cytopenia.

    John, M Joseph; Rajasekhar, Reena; Mathews, Vikram


    Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is an inherited disorder manifesting with autoimmune cytopenia, lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. The differential diagnosis includes infections, autoimmune disorders or malignancies. The disease is characterized by accumulation of double negative (CD3+ CD4- CD8-) T cells (DNT) in the peripheral blood. We describe a case and review the literature.

  18. Extragalactic photon-ALP conversion at CTA energies

    Kartavtsev, A; Vogel, H


    Magnetic fields in extragalactic space between galaxy clusters may induce conversions between photons and axion-like particles (ALPs), thereby shielding the photons from absorption on the extragalactic background light. For TeV gamma rays, the oscillation length ($l_{\\rm osc}$) of the photon-ALP system becomes inevitably of the same order as the coherence length of the magnetic field ($l$) and the length over which the field changes significantly (transition length $l_{\\rm t}$) due to refraction on background photons. We derive exact statistical evolution equations for the mean and variance of the photon and ALP transfer functions in the non-adiabatic regime ($l_{\\rm osc} \\sim l \\gg l_{\\rm t}$). We also make analytical predictions for the transfer functions in the quasi-adiabatic regime ($l_{\\rm osc} \\ll l, l_{\\rm t}$). Our results are important in light of the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), and may also be applied to models with non-zero ALP masses.

  19. Accelerated Learning Program (ALP): Grade 3-8 Evaluation, 2001-02.

    Baenen, Nancy; Yaman, Kimberly; Lindblad, Mark

    The Wake County Public Schools, North Carolina (WCPSS), initiated the Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) in 1999-2000 as the major new intervention to help all students reach grade-level performance in reading and mathematics. The ALP program was funded through local and state funds, and in 2001-220, 7,285 students received services through ALP.…

  20. Comment diffuser les savoirs à travers les Alpes ?

    Wolfgang Pfefferkorn


    Full Text Available CIPRA’s Future in the Alps Project aims at showcasing examples of successful implementation and successful projects in the Alps, and making available to others the extensive pool of experience and practical knowledge that lies in these projects. But how to transfer knowledge in an area of some 14 million inhabitants with several linguistic and cultural regions in which thousands of projects are carried out each year, that all kinds of players who work and life in completely different contexts are able to learn and benefit from one another? How do you go about something like that?Le projet « Avenir dans les Alpes » de la CIPRA (Commission Internationale pour la Protection des Alpes a pour objectif de présenter des exemples de réalisations et de projets réussis dans les Alpes, et de mettre à disposition du public l’ensemble de l’expérience et des connaissances pratiques acquises dans le cadre de ces projets. Cependant, comment transférer les savoirs dans une zone comptant quelque 14 millions d’habitants, composée de plusieurs régions linguistiques et culturelles dans lesquelles des milliers de projets sont menés à bien chaque année, et dont tous les acteurs, qui travaillent et vivent dans des contextes complètement différents, sont capables d’apprendre et de tirer profit les uns des autres ? Comment aborder ce genre de cas ?

  1. Rapid biological speciation driven by tectonic evolution in New Zealand

    Craw, Dave; Upton, Phaedra; Burridge, Christopher P.; Wallis, Graham P.; Waters, Jonathan M.


    Collisions between tectonic plates lead to the rise of new mountain ranges that can separate biological populations and ultimately result in new species. However, the identification of links between tectonic mountain-building and biological speciation is confounded by environmental and ecological factors. Thus, there are surprisingly few well-documented examples of direct tectonic controls on terrestrial biological speciation. Here we present examples from New Zealand, where the rapid evolution of 18 species of freshwater fishes has resulted from parallel tectonic landscape evolution. We use numerical models to reconstruct changes in the deep crustal structure and surface drainage catchments of the southern island of New Zealand over the past 25 million years. We show that the island and mountain topography evolved in six principal tectonic zones, which have distinct drainage catchments that separated fish populations. We use new and existing phylogenetic analyses of freshwater fish populations, based on over 1,000 specimens from more than 400 localities, to show that fish genomes can retain evidence of this tectonic landscape development, with a clear correlation between geologic age and extent of DNA sequence divergence. We conclude that landscape evolution has controlled on-going biological diversification over the past 25 million years.

  2. Late Quaternary environments, vegetation and agriculture in northern New Zealand

    Horrocks, M.; Nichol, S. L.; Augustinus, P. C.; Barber, I. G.


    A sedimentological and plant microfossil history of the Late Quaternary is preserved in two sediment cores from early Polynesian ditch systems on southern Aupouri Peninsula. The study places human activities into a geomorphological and ecological context and allows comparison of natural and anthropogenic effects on two different geological settings: a floodplain and a relatively closed peat swamp. The data fill part of the current gap in the environmental record from northern New Zealand, namely MIS 3 (57k-26k yr BP). There is evidence for an increase in fire frequency in the region after 40k 14C yr BP, suggesting a shift to drier (and cooler) conditions. Pollen records show that conifer-hardwood forest dominated by podocarps (especially Dacrydium) prevailed prior to Polynesian arrival and deforestation within the last millennium, with Fuscopsora insignificant throughout. Both cores show sections with gaps in deposition or preservation, possible flood-stripping of peat during the pre-Holocene and mechanical disturbance by early Polynesians. The identification of prehistoric starch grains and other microremains of introduced Colocasia esculenta (taro) in both cores supports indirect evidence that the ditch systems of far northern New Zealand were used for the extensive cultivation of this crop. Copyright

  3. Atmospheric CO2 observations and models suggest strong carbon uptake by forests in New Zealand

    Steinkamp, Kay; Mikaloff Fletcher, Sara E.; Brailsford, Gordon; Smale, Dan; Moore, Stuart; Keller, Elizabeth D.; Baisden, W. Troy; Mukai, Hitoshi; Stephens, Britton B.


    A regional atmospheric inversion method has been developed to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of CO2 sinks and sources across New Zealand for 2011-2013. This approach infers net air-sea and air-land CO2 fluxes from measurement records, using back-trajectory simulations from the Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME) Lagrangian dispersion model, driven by meteorology from the New Zealand Limited Area Model (NZLAM) weather prediction model. The inversion uses in situ measurements from two fixed sites, Baring Head on the southern tip of New Zealand's North Island (41.408° S, 174.871° E) and Lauder from the central South Island (45.038° S, 169.684° E), and ship board data from monthly cruises between Japan, New Zealand, and Australia. A range of scenarios is used to assess the sensitivity of the inversion method to underlying assumptions and to ensure robustness of the results. The results indicate a strong seasonal cycle in terrestrial land fluxes from the South Island of New Zealand, especially in western regions covered by indigenous forest, suggesting higher photosynthetic and respiratory activity than is evident in the current a priori land process model. On the annual scale, the terrestrial biosphere in New Zealand is estimated to be a net CO2 sink, removing 98 (±37) Tg CO2 yr-1 from the atmosphere on average during 2011-2013. This sink is much larger than the reported 27 Tg CO2 yr-1 from the national inventory for the same time period. The difference can be partially reconciled when factors related to forest and agricultural management and exports, fossil fuel emission estimates, hydrologic fluxes, and soil carbon change are considered, but some differences are likely to remain. Baseline uncertainty, model transport uncertainty, and limited sensitivity to the northern half of the North Island are the main contributors to flux uncertainty.

  4. 4300-Year Old 'Glacier Forests', Southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia and their Global Context

    Koch, J.


    Dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating of in situ and detrital wood have been utilized to date Holocene glacier fluctuations in Garibaldi Provincial Park and at the Pemberton Icefield in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia. Fieldwork at over 30 glaciers has been carried out since 2002. The focus of this paper is on wood that has been radiocarbon dated between 4500 and 4000 years ago, which has been found at six glaciers. At four glaciers the wood was washing out from beneath present-day glacier snouts. At Helm Glacier in Garibaldi Park thirteen detrital branches and stumps were recovered, and at West Squamish Glacier at the Pemberton Icefield seven detrital branches, stems, and stumps were sampled. Some of these samples had diameters of up to 40 cm and were up to 250 cm long, and thus are much larger than any living trees near the present treeline. Tree-ring analysis shows that these glaciers advanced into and over mature forests that had grown near present-day glacier margins for at least 135 years (Helm) and 357 years (W Squamish). Evidence for permanent snow and ice patches forming, as well as glaciers advancing beyond present-day extents at this time is found in the central Coast Mountains, Yukon Territory, Arctic Canada, Norway, and the Swiss Alps. Glacier advances of similar age have been reconstructed not only in western Canada, but also in Europe, Asia, South America, New Zealand, and Antarctica indicating the global nature of this event. A peak in ice-rafted debris in the North Atlantic about 4200 years ago may have been the result of reduced solar output, and based on Earth's position in the obliquity cycle glaciers should have started to expand 4000 years ago. These 'glacier forests' thus could provide a probable start date for Neoglaciation.

  5. The not trivial subdivision of nappes in the Lower Pennine domain of the Central Alps (Riviera and Verzasca Valleys, Swiss Alps)

    Schenker, Filippo Luca; Ambrosi, Christian; Scapozza, Cristian; Castelletti, Claudio; Maino, Matteo; Gouffon, Yves


    We present new data of the geological map of the Osogna sheet in the Southern Swiss Alps (Swiss National Map no. 1293) that extends N-S from Biasca to Claro and W-E from Lavertezzo to the Pizzo di Claro, respectively. The area mapped at the 1:10'000 scale is located in the Lepontine dome and includes, from core-to-carapace, the gneissic nappes of the Leventina, Simano, Adula/Cima-Lunga and Maggia. These nappes derive from the same post-Variscan gneissic basement complicating their lithological distinction and making difficult to recognize their boundaries. In particular, the boundary between the Leventina and the Simano gneisses is difficult to recognize. In previous work, this boundary was traced within leucogneisses by joining a carbonate lens with quartzite, amphibolite or paragneiss lenses. Nevertheless, quartzites are absent in the mapped area and amphibolite and paragneiss lenses are vertically distributed in the tectonostratigraphy and do not form a single folded horizon. Furthermore, no significant strain gradient related to top-to-the-foreland shearing has been observed between these two units, also when paragneisses and amphibolites were present. Therefore, we present evidence that the top-to-the-foreland deformation between the Leventina and the Simano units was more distributed that commonly assumed, questioning the allochthonous character of the Simano unit.

  6. Pressure variations in the Monte Rosa nappe, Western Alps

    Luisier, Cindy; Vaughan-Hammon, Joshua; Baumgartner, Lukas; Schmalholz, Stefan


    The Monte Rosa nappe is part of the Penninic nappe stack of the Western Alps. It represents the southern-most European continental basement involved in the alpine orogeny. It consists of a pre-Variscan basement complex, made of mostly metapelites and paragneisses, which were intruded by a Permian-age granitic body (Pawlig, 2001). The nappe is heterogeneously deformed, with localized high strain domains separating low strain domains. The metamorphic record is tightly linked to deformation. Different thermodynamic data bases and approaches were used in the past to estimate the peak alpine metamorphic conditions. They range from 1.2 to 2.7 GPa and 490 to 650˚C, based on metagranite, metapelite, metamafic and whiteschist assemblages. The peak alpine metamorphic assemblage of zoisite, phengite and albite symplectites pseudomorphing magmatic plagioclase is preserved only in the less deformed portions of the nappe. Phengite, garnet and titanite coronas surrounding biotite, quartz and igneous K-feldspar make up the rest of the rock. The metagranite locally grades into 10 to 50 meters whiteschist bodies, consisting of talc-chloritoid-kyanite-phengite-quartz, which can contain carbonate and garnet. Their chemistry is interpreted as a metasomatic product of the late magmatic hydrothermal alteration of the granite, whereas their mineralogy results from the alpine high pressure metamorphism (Pawlig and Baumgartner, 2001; Luisier et al., 2015). We performed a phase petrology and textural study to consistently estimate peak alpine metamorphic conditions in the granite and the related whiteschists. Textural observations were used to select the best-preserved high-pressure metagranite samples. Inherited magmatic feldspar textures indicate that jadeite was never formed in these granites, confirmed independently by Si in phengite barometer (1.2 to 1.5 GPa). Note that the granite contains the phengite buffer assemblage of Massonne and Schreyer (1987). Thermodynamic calculations using

  7. Hydrogeomorphic processes and torrent control works on a large alluvial fan in the eastern Italian Alps

    Marchi, L.; Cavalli, M.; D'Agostino, V.


    Alluvial fans are often present at the outlet of small drainage basins in alpine valleys; their formation is due to sediment transport associated with flash floods and debris flows. Alluvial fans are preferred sites for human settlements and are frequently crossed by transport routes. In order to reduce the risk for economic activities located on or near the fan and prevent loss of lives due to floods and debris flows, torrent control works have been extensively carried out on many alpine alluvial fans. Hazard management on alluvial fans in alpine regions is dependent upon reliable procedures to evaluate variations in the frequency and severity of hydrogeomorphic processes and the long-term performance of the torrent training works. An integrated approach to the analysis of hydrogeomorphic processes and their interactions with torrent control works has been applied to a large alluvial fan in the southern Carnic Alps (northeastern Italy). Study methods encompass field observations, interpretation of aerial photographs, analysis of historical documents, and numerical modelling of debris flows. The overall performance of control works implemented in the early decades of 20th century was satisfactory, and a reduction of hazardous events was recognised from features observed in the field and in aerial photographs, as well as from the analysis of historical records. The 2-D simulation of debris flows confirms these findings, indicating that debris flow deposition would not affect urban areas or main roads, even in the case of a high-magnitude event. Present issues in the management of the studied alluvial fan are representative of situations frequently found in the European Alps and deal with the need for maintenance of the control structures and the pressures for land use changes aimed at the economic exploitation of the fan surface.

  8. Hydrogeomorphic processes and torrent control works on a large alluvial fan in the eastern Italian Alps

    L. Marchi


    Full Text Available Alluvial fans are often present at the outlet of small drainage basins in alpine valleys; their formation is due to sediment transport associated with flash floods and debris flows. Alluvial fans are preferred sites for human settlements and are frequently crossed by transport routes. In order to reduce the risk for economic activities located on or near the fan and prevent loss of lives due to floods and debris flows, torrent control works have been extensively carried out on many alpine alluvial fans. Hazard management on alluvial fans in alpine regions is dependent upon reliable procedures to evaluate variations in the frequency and severity of hydrogeomorphic processes and the long-term performance of the torrent training works. An integrated approach to the analysis of hydrogeomorphic processes and their interactions with torrent control works has been applied to a large alluvial fan in the southern Carnic Alps (northeastern Italy. Study methods encompass field observations, interpretation of aerial photographs, analysis of historical documents, and numerical modelling of debris flows. The overall performance of control works implemented in the early decades of 20th century was satisfactory, and a reduction of hazardous events was recognised from features observed in the field and in aerial photographs, as well as from the analysis of historical records. The 2-D simulation of debris flows confirms these findings, indicating that debris flow deposition would not affect urban areas or main roads, even in the case of a high-magnitude event. Present issues in the management of the studied alluvial fan are representative of situations frequently found in the European Alps and deal with the need for maintenance of the control structures and the pressures for land use changes aimed at the economic exploitation of the fan surface.

  9. Notified viral hepatitis in New Zealand.

    McGlashan, N


    Statistical analysis of notified cases of viral hepatits in New Zealand for an 18-month period is used first to demonstrate and then to consider a geographical gradient across the country with implications warranting further epidemiologic enquiry.

  10. International migration and New Zealand labour markets.

    Farmer, R S


    "This paper seeks to assess the value of the overseas-born members of the labour force in ensuring a flexible labour supply in New Zealand since the beginning of the 1970s. Three main issues are considered: first, the role of the labour market in New Zealand's immigration policy; second, international migration trends and the labour market; and third, the evidence on migration and labour market segmentation in New Zealand." Data used are from official external migration statistics, quinquennial censuses, and recent research. The author notes that "in New Zealand immigration measures are currently being taken that emphasize that immigration continues to add to the flexibility of the labour market while uncontrolled emigration is a major cause of labour market instability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  11. Maori and English: New Zealand's Bilingual Problem.

    Adcock, C. John


    Attempts to consider all of the relevant aspects of the role of the Maori culture and language in developing New Zealand's language policy. Those aspects considered include national identity, cultural bias, and international communication needs. (Author/CB)

  12. Miocene Fossils Reveal Ancient Roots for New Zealand's Endemic Mystacina (Chiroptera) and Its Rainforest Habitat.

    Hand, Suzanne J; Lee, Daphne E; Worthy, Trevor H; Archer, Michael; Worthy, Jennifer P; Tennyson, Alan J D; Salisbury, Steven W; Scofield, R Paul; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Kennedy, Elizabeth M; Lindqvist, Jon K


    The New Zealand endemic bat family Mystacinidae comprises just two Recent species referred to a single genus, Mystacina. The family was once more diverse and widespread, with an additional six extinct taxa recorded from Australia and New Zealand. Here, a new mystacinid is described from the early Miocene (19-16 Ma) St Bathans Fauna of Central Otago, South Island, New Zealand. It is the first pre-Pleistocene record of the modern genus and it extends the evolutionary history of Mystacina back at least 16 million years. Extant Mystacina species occupy old-growth rainforest and are semi-terrestrial with an exceptionally broad omnivorous diet. The majority of the plants inhabited, pollinated, dispersed or eaten by modern Mystacina were well-established in southern New Zealand in the early Miocene, based on the fossil record from sites at or near where the bat fossils are found. Similarly, many of the arthropod prey of living Mystacina are recorded as fossils in the same area. Although none of the Miocene plant and arthropod species is extant, most are closely related to modern taxa, demonstrating potentially long-standing ecological associations with Mystacina.

  13. The weather@home regional climate modelling project for Australia and New Zealand

    Black, Mitchell T.; Karoly, David J.; Rosier, Suzanne M.; Dean, Sam M.; King, Andrew D.; Massey, Neil R.; Sparrow, Sarah N.; Bowery, Andy; Wallom, David; Jones, Richard G.; Otto, Friederike E. L.; Allen, Myles R.


    A new climate modelling project has been developed for regional climate simulation and the attribution of weather and climate extremes over Australia and New Zealand. The project, known as weather@home Australia-New Zealand, uses public volunteers' home computers to run a moderate-resolution global atmospheric model with a nested regional model over the Australasian region. By harnessing the aggregated computing power of home computers, weather@home is able to generate an unprecedented number of simulations of possible weather under various climate scenarios. This combination of large ensemble sizes with high spatial resolution allows extreme events to be examined with well-constrained estimates of sampling uncertainty. This paper provides an overview of the weather@home Australia-New Zealand project, including initial evaluation of the regional model performance. The model is seen to be capable of resolving many climate features that are important for the Australian and New Zealand regions, including the influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on driving natural climate variability. To date, 75 model simulations of the historical climate have been successfully integrated over the period 1985-2014 in a time-slice manner. In addition, multi-thousand member ensembles have also been generated for the years 2013, 2014 and 2015 under climate scenarios with and without the effect of human influences. All data generated by the project are freely available to the broader research community.

  14. Ozone measurements along vertical transects in the Alps

    Werner, H. [Muenchen Univ., Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung; Kirchner, M. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologie; Welzl, G. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Biometrie und Biomathematik; Hangartner, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Applied Ergonomics and Hygiene


    To investigate the vertical profiles of air pollutants in the boundary layer, aircraft and balloon-born measurements and measurements using a cable car as an instrument platform have been performed in different parts of the Alps. This on-line monitoring of atmospheric pollutants requires expensive and sophisticated techniques. In order to control ambient air quality in remote regions, where no infrastructure like power supply is available, simple instruments are required. The objective of this study, which was coordinated and evaluated by the GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit was first, to investigate the vertical distribution of ozone in different parts of the Alps and secondly, in addition to continuous analyser measurements, to test monitoring by means of two types of passive samplers. The selection of these samples - one for one week use and another one for two week application - was based on a passive sampler intercomparison done in a preliminary study one year earlier.

  15. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Case report and family history.

    Ries, F; Ferster, A; Rieux-Laucat, F; Biwer, A; Dicato, M


    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare disease caused by defective lymphocyte apoptosis and is characterized by non-malignant lymphoproliferation, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmune manifestations and increased risk of both Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Most forms of the disease are due to germ line mutations of the FAS gene and manifest during the first years of life with fluctuating lymphadenopathies, hemolysis, immune thrombocytopenia. During the second decade of life disease manifestations improve spontaneously but autoimmune problems still occur and there is an increased risk of lymphoproliferative malignancy. We describe a typical case of ALPS in a now 44 year old man, followed since the age of 2 for disease manifestations that were unclear at the beginning.

  16. Ozone measurements along vertical transects in the Alps.

    Werner, H; Kirchner, M; Welzl, G; Hangartner, M


    To investigate the vertical profiles of air pollutants in the boundary layer, aircraft and balloon-born measurements and measurements using a cable car as an instrument platform have been performed in different parts of the Alps. This on-line monitoring of atmospheric pollutants requires expensive and sophisticated techniques. In order to control ambient air quality in remote regions, where no infrastructure like power supply is available, simple instruments are required. The objective of this study, which was coordinated and evaluated by the GSF-Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit was first, to investigate the vertical distribution of ozone in different parts of the Alps and secondly, in addition to continuous analyser measurements, to test monitoring by means of two types of passive samplers. The selection of these samplers - one for one week use and another one for two week application - was based on a passive sampler intercomparison done in a preliminary study one year earlier.

  17. Species radiation by niche shifts in New Zealand's rockcresses (Pachycladon, Brassicaceae).

    Joly, Simon; Heenan, Peter B; Lockhart, Peter J


    Adaptive radiations such as the Darwin finches in the Galapagos or the cichlid fishes from the Eastern African Great Lakes have been a constant source of inspiration for biologists and a stimulus for evolutionary thinking. A central concept behind adaptive radiation is that of evolution by niche shifts, or ecological speciation. Evidence for adaptive radiations generally requires a strong correlation between phenotypic traits and the environment. But adaptive traits are often cryptic, hence making this phenotype-environment approach difficult to implement. Here we propose a procedure for detecting adaptive radiation that focuses on species' ecological niche comparisons. It evaluates whether past ecological disparity in a group fits better a neutral Brownian motion model of ecological divergence or a niche shift model. We have evaluated this approach on New Zealand rockcresses (Pachycladon) that recently radiated in the New Zealand Alps. We show that the pattern of ecological divergence rejects the neutral model and is consistent with that of a niche shift model. Our approach to detect adaptive radiation has the advantage over alternative approaches that it focuses on ecological niches, a key concept behind adaptive radiation. It also provides a way to evaluate the importance of ecological speciation in adaptive radiations and will have general application in evolutionary studies. In the case of Pachycladon, the high estimated diversification rate, the distinctive ecological niches of species, and the evidence for ecological speciation suggest a remarkable example of adaptive radiation.

  18. Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from the Albanian Alps (Kosovo, Montenegro)

    Strasser, Eva A.; Hafellner, Josef; Stešević, Danijela; Geci, Fehmi; Mayrhofer, Helmut


    396 taxa (381 species) of lichenized and 45 species of lichenicolous fungi from the upper montane, subalpine and alpine belts of the Albanian Alps (= Prokletije Mountain Range, Bjeshkët e Nemuna) are presented. 92 lichenized and 26 lichenicolous fungi are new to Montenegro, 165 lichenized and 24 lichenicolous fungi are new to Kosovo, and 25 lichenized fungi (23 species) are new for the Balkan Peninsula. PMID:26869727

  19. What's new in ALPS-II

    Doebrich, Babette; Collaboration: ALPS-II collaboration


    This proceedings contribution gives a brief experimental update of the 'Any light particle search (ALPS) -II' at DESY which will be sensitive to sub-eV, very weakly coupled particles beyond the Standard Model. First data on hidden sector photon parameter space through photon-hidden photon oscillations in vacuum is expected in 2014. Axion-like particle search (implying the installation of superconducting HERA magnets) could be realized in 2017.

  20. The onset of alpine pastoral systems in the Eastern Alps

    Oeggl, Klaus; Festi, Daniela; Putzer, Andreas


    Since the discovery of the Neolithic glacier mummy "Ötzi" in the nival belt of the main Alpine ridge, the onset of alpine pasture is matter of a highly controversial debate both in archaeology and in palaeo-ecology of the Eastern Alps. The implication is that his sojourn in the high-altitudes of the Alps is considered to be connected with pastoral nomadism. Regrettably any archaeological evidence for the existence of such Neolithic alpine pastoral systems is missing up to now and the assumption is based on palynological data only. However, also the palynological record is ambiguous, because pasture indicators in the alpine regions react positive on grazing as well as on fertilization induced by a higher runoff of precipitation. Thus alpine pasture indicators reflect both grazing pressure and climatic change. Anyhow, alpine pastoral systems are a common practice in Alpine animal husbandry, but from an economic point of view such a seasonal vertical transhumance is costly. There are three main reasons for its practice: i) climatic, ii) economic (mainly in connection with population pressure or mining activities), and iii) cultural ideology. In this study we tested the above mentioned reasons in an interdisciplinary study on the beginning of pastoral activities in high altitudes in the central part of the Eastern Alps. This is conducted by palynological analyses of peat deposits situated in the vicinity of the timberline (1600 - 2400 m a.s.l.) combined with archaeological surveys. The investigated sites are located in traditional Alpine transhumance regions and aligned on a transect through the central part of the Eastern Alps. The studies reveal that grazing pressure is reflected since the Bronze Age, which is corroborated by archaeological findings in the vicinity of the investigated sites.


    Nicolè, Florence


    Through concrete examples of endangered plants chosen in the flora of the French Alps, this work presents the application of three main aspects classically used in conservation biology: the study of genetic variation, the study of reproductive performance and reproductive system and the study of population dynamics.First, we show that molecular markers are a useful tool to resolve taxonomic ambiguities and verify the status of conservation unit in the case of Potentilla delphinensis Gren. and...

  2. ALPtraum: ALP production in proton beam dump experiments

    Döbrich, Babette; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Ringwald, Andreas; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai


    With their high beam energy and intensity, existing and near-future proton beam dumps provide an excellent opportunity to search for new very weakly coupled particles in the MeV to GeV mass range. One particularly interesting example is a so-called axion-like particle (ALP), i.e. a pseudoscalar coupled to two photons. The challenge in proton beam dumps is to reliably calculate the production of the new particles from the interactions of two composite objects, the proton and the target atoms. In this work we argue that Primakoff production of ALPs proceeds in a momentum range where production rates and angular distributions can be determined to sufficient precision using simple electromagnetic form factors. Reanalysing past proton beam dump experiments for this production channel, we derive novel constraints on the parameter space for ALPs. We show that the NA62 experiment at CERN could probe unexplored parameter space by running in 'dump mode' for a few days and discuss opportunities for future experiments su...

  3. ALPtraum. ALP production in proton beam dump experiments

    Doebrich, Babette [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Jaeckel, Joerg [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Ringwald, Andreas; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)


    With their high beam energy and intensity, existing and near-future proton beam dumps provide an excellent opportunity to search for new very weakly coupled particles in the MeV to GeV mass range. One particularly interesting example is a so-called axion-like particle (ALP), i.e. a pseudoscalar coupled to two photons. The challenge in proton beam dumps is to reliably calculate the production of the new particles from the interactions of two composite objects, the proton and the target atoms. In this work we argue that Primakoff production of ALPs proceeds in a momentum range where production rates and angular distributions can be determined to sufficient precision using simple electromagnetic form factors. Reanalysing past proton beam dump experiments for this production channel, we derive novel constraints on the parameter space for ALPs. We show that the NA62 experiment at CERN could probe unexplored parameter space by running in 'dump mode' for a few days and discuss opportunities for future experiments such as SHiP.

  4. Rheumatic fever in New Zealand.

    Webb, Rachel; Wilson, Nigel


    Acute rheumatic fever and its sequel rheumatic heart disease remain major unsolved problems in New Zealand, causing significant morbidity and premature death. The disease burden affects predominantly indigenous Māori and Pacific Island children and young adults. In the past decade these ethnic disparities are even widening. Secondary prophylaxis using 28-day intramuscular penicillin has been the mainstay of disease control. In the greater Auckland region, audit shows community nurse-led penicillin delivery rates of 95% and recurrence rates of less than 5%. The true penicillin failure rate of 0.07 per 100 patient years supports 4 weekly penicillin rather than more frequent dose regimens. Landmark primary prevention research has been undertaken supporting sore throat primary prevention programmes in regions with very high rheumatic fever rates. Echocardiographic screening found 2.4% previously undiagnosed rheumatic heart disease in socially disadvantaged children. Combined with secondary prevention, echocardiography screening has the potential to reduce the prevalence of severe rheumatic heart disease.

  5. New Zealand's drug development industry.

    Lockhart, Michelle Marie; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din; Carswell, Christopher; Garg, Sanjay


    The pharmaceutical industry's profitability depends on identifying and successfully developing new drug candidates while trying to contain the increasing costs of drug development. It is actively searching for new sources of innovative compounds and for mechanisms to reduce the enormous costs of developing new drug candidates. There is an opportunity for academia to further develop as a source of drug discovery. The rising levels of industry outsourcing also provide prospects for organisations that can reduce the costs of drug development. We explored the potential returns to New Zealand (NZ) from its drug discovery expertise by assuming a drug development candidate is out-licensed without clinical data and has anticipated peak global sales of $350 million. We also estimated the revenue from NZ's clinical research industry based on a standard per participant payment to study sites and the number of industry-sponsored clinical trials approved each year. Our analyses found that NZ's clinical research industry has generated increasing foreign revenue and appropriate policy support could ensure that this continues to grow. In addition the probability-based revenue from the out-licensing of a drug development candidate could be important for NZ if provided with appropriate policy and financial support.

  6. Role of the Helicobacter pylori outer-membrane proteins AlpA and AlpB in colonization of the guinea pig stomach

    R. de Jonge (Robert); Z. Durrani; S.G. Rijpkema; E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); A.H.M. van Vliet (Arnoud); J.G. Kusters (Johannes)


    textabstractThe human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori expresses several putative outer-membrane proteins (OMPs), but the role of individual OMPs in colonization of the stomach by H. pylori is still poorly understood. The role of four such OMPs (AlpA, AlpB, OipA and HopZ) in a

  7. Swiss AlpArray: deployment of the Swiss AlpArray temporary broad-band stations and their noise characterization

    Molinari, Irene; Kissling, Edi; Clinton, John; Hetényi, György; Šipka, Vesna; Stipćević, Josip; Dasović, Iva; Solarino, Stefano; Wéber, Zoltán; Gráczer, Zoltán; Electronics Lab, SED


    One of the main actions of the AlpArray European initiative is the deployment of a dense seismic broad-band network, that complements the existing permanent stations. This will ensure a spatially homogeneous seismic coverage of the greater Alpine area for at least two years, allowing a great number of innovative scientific works to be carried out. Our contribution to the AlpArray Seismic Network consists in the deployment of 24 temporary broad-band stations: three in Switzerland, twelve in Italy, three in Croatia, three in Bosnia and Herzegovina and three in Hungary. This deployment is lead by ETH Zurich and founded by the Swiss-AlpArray Sinergia programme by SNSF, and is the result of a fruitful collaboration between five research institutes. Stations were installed between Autumn and Winter 2015. Our installations are both free field and in-house and consist of 21 STS-2 and 3 Trillium Compact sensors equipped with Taurus digitizers and 3G telemetry sending data in real time to the ETH EIDA node. In this work, we present sites and stations setting and we discuss in details the characteristics in terms of site effects and noise level of each station. In particular we analyse the power spectral density estimates investigating the major source of noise and the background noise related to seasons, time of the day, human activities and type of installation. In addition we will show examples of data usage - i.e. earthquake locations, noise cross correlations, measures of surface wave dispersion curves. We thanks the Swiss AlpArray Field Team: Blanchard A., Erlanger E. D., Jarić D., Herak D., M. Herak, Hermann M., Koelemeijer P. J., Markušić S., Obermann A., Sager K., Šikman S., Singer J., Winterberg S. SED Electronic Lab: Barman S., Graf P., Hansemann R., Haslinger F., Hiemer S., Racine R., Tanner R., Weber F.

  8. Preliminary comparative study of middle Anisian vertebrate ichnoassociation from South-Eastern Alps

    Valdiserri, D.; Todesco, R.; Avanzini, M.


    Pelsonian ichno-association seem to corroborate the hypothesis of two different ichoassemblages in the late Middle Triassic (Lucas, 2007). Further studies could allow a better understanding of the evolution of the Chirotherian tracks group and the systematics of the Rhynchosauroidae ichnofamily. References Abel, O. 1926. Der erste Fund einer Tetrapodenfährte in den unteren alpinen Trias. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 7: 22-24. Avanzini, M., Mietto, P. 2008. Lower and Middle Triassic footprint-based Biochronology in the Italian Southern Alps. Oryctos, Vol. 8, 2008: 3-13. Avanzini, M., Wachtler, M., Dellantonio, E. & Todesco, R. 2007. A new Late Anisian vertebrate ichnosite from Dolomites (Val Duron, Val di Fassa). Geoitalia 2007, Abstract Vol. 10.1474/ Epitome 02.1081. Lucas, S. G. 2007. Tetrapod Footprint Biostratigraphy and Biochronology, Ichnos, 14,1:5-38 Todesco, R. 2007. Studio paleontologico delle orme di rettili triassici (Pelsonico) nel Conglomerato di Voltago (Valle di Prissiano, Trentino-Alto Adige). Degree thesis, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia. Todesco, R.; Wachtler, M; Kustatscher, E. & Avanzini, M. 2008. Preliminary reporton a new vertebrate track and flora site from Piz da Peres (Anisian-Illyrian): Olang Dolomites, Northern Italy. Geo. Alp, 5: 121-137 Valdiserri, D. & Avanzini, M. 2006: A tetrapod ichnoassociation from the Middle Triassic (Anisian, Pelsonian) of Northern Italy. Ichnos, 14: 105-116.

  9. A new rock glacier inventory of the Lombardy, Central Alps, Italy

    Scotti, R.; Brardinoni, F.; Alberti, S.; Frattini, P.; Crosta, G. B.


    The Lombardy Alps, with a surface of 2148 km2 above 2000 m a.s.l. (9% of the total) represents an important portion of the southern side of the orogen. For encompassing a variety of tectonic and climatic regimes, they represent an interesting area to examine environmental controls on periglacial processes. Today, technological developments in remote sensing techniques allow us to study periglacial landforms with increasing detail. We present a new inventory for the whole Lombardy Alps in which we identify and classify rock glaciers and protalus ramparts. The inventory has been conducted by combining a number of remotely-sensed images with field traverses. Specifically, the interpretation of high-resolution (0.5 x 0.5 m) digital aerial photos (2000, 2003, 2007) and a 2 m*2 m Digital Surface Model that cover the whole region has allowed inventorying a greater number of relevant landforms when compared to prior regional efforts. Measurements and photographs taken during fieldwork provided critical ground control for the validation of data extracted from remotely-based analysis. Rock glaciers have been mapped in GIS polygons. The inventory follows the specifics detailed by Scapozza and Mari (2010), with some additional information adapted from the PermaNET evidences guidelines (Cremonese et al., 2011). Landform attributes include, geographic coordinates, mountain sector, type, activity, area, elevation (min, max and mean), slope gradient, slope aspect, dominant lithology, vegetation at the front, and upstream presence/absence of a glacier. In total, we identify 1734 periglacial landforms covering a surface of 81,5 km2 (0,34% of the region). In terms of activity, the inventory includes 673 (39%) intact classified and 1061 (61%) relict landforms. The most common landform typology is the talus-lobate (931, 54%) followed by talus tongue-shaped (436, 25%) and protalus ramparts (232, 13%). Minimum elevation, often considered a good approximation of discontinuous permafrost

  10. Impacts of climate change scenarios on runoff regimes in the southern Alps

    S. Barontini


    Full Text Available The potential impact of climate change scenarios on the runoff regime in the Italian Alpine area was investigated. A preliminary analysis of the output of three Global Circulation Models (PCM, HADCM, ECHAM was needed to select IPCC-based scenarios for the 2000–2099 period. Two basins, 1840 and 236 km2 in size, respectively, and with different glaciated areas and storage capacity of reservoirs were selected as case studies. The PCM model, the one capable to better reproduce the observed rainfall regime in the investigated area, with the IPCC SRES A2 scenario was adopted for the meteorological forcing. On average for the two basins, an increase of annual precipitation of about 3% is expected for the 2050 scenario and should not significantly vary at the end of this century compared to present conditions. At the same time temperature should increase of 1.1°C in 2050 and 2.4°C for 2090. Because of the coarse resolution of the climate models' output, the statistics of the simulated rainy days and daily precipitation were adapted to the scale of the two selected basins using a modified version of the multiplicative cascade β-model, proposed in the literature to explain the statistics of intermittent fully developed turbulence. As regards to land cover, glaciated areas are decreased, in the future scenarios, according to the Kuhn's concept of equilibrium line adaptation to climate fluctuations. The tree-line altitude is increased, according to the observed trend since the end of the Little Ice Age: thus boundary conditions for evapotranspiration changed. The resulting meteorological variables and hydrological parameters were used to run the WATFLOOD hydrological model in order to assess the changes of runoff regimes in the two watersheds. A decrease of about 7% of annual runoff volume for the 2050 scenario and of 13% for the 2090 scenario was estimated, on average, at the outlet of the Oglio river basin, the largest one. In the smaller Lys basin, where the glaciated area is 8% of the total area, the annual runoff is foreseen to decrease by about 3% (for the 2050 scenario and 14% at the end of this century. Also the runoff regime changes are significant, with an increase of spring melt and a decrease of summer and autumn runoff. No clear evidence is found for changes in the precipitation extremes and in the fraction of rainy days.



    The transitional beds between Bellerophon and Werfen Formations, few centimetres thick and latest Permian in age, contain a brachiopod fauna with a relatively rich athyridoid assemblage, among which Janiceps is the most common and characteristic genus. The internal morphology of the type species (J. peracuta) is here described for the first time, and a taxonomical revision of the South Alpine species is proposed. The new subfamily Janicepsinae is proposed, which contains Janiceps and the new ...

  12. Measurements of UV aerosol optical depth in the French Southern Alps

    J. Lenoble


    Full Text Available Routine measurements of global and diffuse UV irradiances at Briançon station (1310 m a.s.l. are used to retrieve the direct solar irradiance and the aerosol optical depth (AOD, for cloudless days. Data of three years (2003, 2004, 2005 are analyzed; the results confirm those of a preliminary analysis for 2001, 2002.

    The atmosphere is very clear in winter, with AODs between 0.05 and 0.1. The turbidity increases slowly in spring, starting end of February, with AODs around 0.2–0.3 in mid summer, some values reaching 0.4. A similar behaviour is observed for all years, with somewhat higher values in late summer for the year 2003.

  13. 6-kyr record of flood frequency and intensity in the western Mediterranean Alps - Interplay of solar and temperature forcing

    Pierre, Sabatier; Bruno, Wilhelm; Francesco, Ficetola Gentile; Fanny, Moiroux; Jérôme, Poulenard; Anne-Lise, Develle; Adeline, Bichet; Wentao, Chen; Cécile, Pignol; Jean-Louis, Reyss; Ludovic, Gielly; Manon, Bajard; Yves, Perrette; Emmanuel, Malet; Pierre, Taberlet; Fabien, Arnaud


    The high-resolution sedimentological and geochemical analysis of a sediment sequence from Lake Savine (Western Mediterranean Alps, France) led to the identification of 220 event layers for the last 6000 years. 200 were triggered by flood events and 20 by underwater mass movements possibly related to earthquakes that occurred in 5 clusters of increase seismicity. Because human activity could influence the flood chronicle, the presence of pastures was reconstructed through ancient DNA, which suggested that the flood chronicle was mainly driven by hydroclimate variability. Weather reanalysis of historical floods allow to identify that mesoscale precipitation events called ;East Return; events were the main triggers of floods recorded in Lake Savine. The first part of this palaeoflood record (6-4 kyr BP) was characterized by increases in flood frequency and intensity in phase with Northern Alpine palaeoflood records. By contrast, the second part of the record (i.e., since 4 kyr BP) was phased with Southern Alpine palaeoflood records. These results suggest a palaeohydrological transition at approximately 4 kyr BP, as has been previously described for the Mediterranean region. This may have resulted in a change of flood-prone hydro-meteorological processes, i.e., in the balance between occurrence and intensity of local convective climatic phenomena and their influence on Mediterranean mesoscale precipitation events in this part of the Alps. At a centennial timescale, increases in flood frequency and intensity corresponded to periods of solar minima, affecting climate through atmospheric changes in the Euro-Atlantic sector.

  14. Business Cycle Synchronization Between Australia and New Zealand

    Jie Wei; Minsoo Lee; Christopher Gan


    .... By analyzing the shock-transmission channels via trade, monetary policy, and exchange rates between Australia and New Zealand we can infer that if Australia and New Zealand trade less, have more...

  15. Development Education Revisited: The New Zealand Experience

    Small, David


    Until the mid-1980s, New Zealanders were progressing in their understanding of the causes of and strategies for overcoming world poverty and injustice. However, the arrival of more multinational aid agencies and the increased competition for the donor dollar have given rise to a new conservatism in the development debate. This has coincided with the imposition of structural adjustment policies in New Zealand which provides an opportunity to demonstrate connections between poverty and powerlessness, and parallels between the growth of poverty and inequality at home and in "underdeveloped" countries. The government, the media and the wealthy agencies conceal these parallels and promote aid responses based on charity. This excludes from the development debate the increasingly marginalised sectors of New Zealand society and undermines the international solidarity essential for building strategies for change.

  16. Results of the MERKUR experiment: Structural changes of a weak cold front in the area of the Alps

    Freytag, C.; Beier, N. (ed.)


    The examination of fronts and the effect on them of mountains are the research aims of ALPEX. A whole series of works are available on about 15 'front events' during ALPEX-SOP (special observing period March-April 1982). The first results on a weak cold front are shown, which reached the southern spur of the Alps on the 2nd and 3rd of April 1982, but which did not cross the mountains. The passage of the front came in the 3rd intensive measurement phase of the MERKUR experiment. Apart from the ALPEX soundings, the additional measurements during MERKUR are also available. This permits structural investigations with relatively good resolution in the border area mountains/foothills and in the mountains themselves.

  17. Isotopic composition of sulfate accumulations, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Halas, Stanislaw; Bojar, Hans-Peter; Trembaczowski, Andrzej


    The Eastern Alps are characterised by the presence of three main tectonic units, such as the Lower, Middle and Upper Austroalpine, which overlie the Penninicum (Tollmann, 1977). The Upper Austroalpine unit consists of the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) overlying the Greywacke zone and corresponding to the Graz Paleozoic, Murau Paleozoic and the Gurktal Nappe. Evaporitic rocks are lacking in the later ones. The Northern Calcareous Alps are a detached fold and thrust belt. The sedimentation started in the Late Carboniferous or Early Permian, the age of the youngest sediments being Eocene. The NCA are divided into the Bajuvaric, Tirolic and Juvavic nappe complexes. The evaporitic Haselgebirge Formation occurs in connection with the Juvavic nappe complex at the base of the Tirolic units (Leitner et al., 2013). The Haselgebirge Formation consists mainly of salt, shales, gypsum and anhydrite and includes the oldest sediments of the NCA. The age of the Haselgebirge Formation, established by using spors and geochronological data, is Permian to Lower Triassic. For the Northern Calcareous Alps, the mineralogy of sulphate accumulations consists mainly of gypsum and anhydrite and subordonates of carbonates. The carbonates as magnesite, dolomite and calcite can be found either as singular crystals or as small accumulations within the hosting gypsum. Sulfides (sphalerite, galena, pyrite), sulfarsenides (enargite, baumhauerite) and native sulphur enrichments are known from several deposits (Kirchner, 1987; Postl, 1990). The investigated samples were selected from various gypsum and halite rich deposits of the Northern Calcareous Alps. A total of over 20 samples were investigated, and both oxygen and sulfur isotopic composition were determined for anhydrite, gyps, polyhalite, blödite and langbeinite. The sulfur isotopic values vary between 10.1 to 14 ‰ (CDT), with three values higher than 14 ‰. The Oxygen isotopic values show a range from 9 to 23 ‰ (SMOW). The sulfur

  18. Debris flows in the Eastern Italian Alps: seasonality and atmospheric circulation patterns

    E. I. Nikolopoulos


    Full Text Available The work examines the seasonality and large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns of debris flows in the Trentino-Alto Adige region (Eastern Italian Alps. Analysis is based on classification algorithms applied on a uniquely dense archive of debris flows and hourly rain gauge precipitation series covering the period 2000–2009. Results highlight the seasonal and synoptic forcing patterns linked to debris flows in the study area. Summer and fall season account for 92% of the debris flows in the record, while atmospheric circulation characterized by Zonal West, Mixed and Meridional South, Southeast patterns account for 80%. Both seasonal and circulation patterns exhibit geographical preference. In the case of seasonality, there is a strong north–south separation of summer–fall dominance while spatial distribution of dominant circulation patterns exhibits clustering, with both Zonal West and Mixed prevailing in the northwest and central east part of the region, while the southern part relates to Meridional South, Southeast pattern. Seasonal and synoptic pattern dependence is pronounced also on the debris flow triggering rainfall properties. Examination of rainfall intensity–duration thresholds derived for different data classes (according to season and synoptic pattern revealed a distinct variability in estimated thresholds. These findings imply a certain control on debris-flow events and can therefore be used to improve existing alert systems.

  19. Attitudes of non-Maori New Zealanders towards the use of Maori in New Zealand English

    De Bres, Julia


    As majority language speakers have an important impact on minority languages, the the attitudes and behaviours of non-Māori New Zealanders towards the Māori language are likely to have an influence on Māori language regeneration (de Bres 2008). Moreover, as the presence of Māori words is arguably the most distinctive feature of New Zealand English (Deverson 1991, Macalister 2005), these attitudes and behaviours are also likely to influence aspects of New Zealand English. Although there is now...

  20. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for monitoring lymphadenopathy in the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS).

    Rao, V Koneti; Carrasquillo, Jorge A; Dale, Janet K; Bacharach, Stephen L; Whatley, Millie; Dugan, Faith; Tretler, Jean; Fleisher, Thomas; Puck, Jennifer M; Wilson, Wyndham; Jaffe, Elaine S; Avila, Nilo; Chen, Clara C; Straus, Stephen E


    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is associated with mutations that impair the activity of lymphocyte apoptosis proteins, leading to chronic lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmunity, and an increased risk of lymphoma. We investigated the utility of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in discriminating benign from malignant lymphadenopathy in ALPS. We report that FDG avidity of benign lymph nodes in ALPS can be high and, hence, by itself does not imply presence of lymphoma; but FDG-PET can help guide the decision for selecting which of many enlarged nodes in ALPS patients to biopsy when lymphoma is suspected.

  1. Marine biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand.

    Dennis P Gordon

    Full Text Available The marine-biodiversity assessment of New Zealand (Aotearoa as known to Māori is confined to the 200 nautical-mile boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which, at 4.2 million km(2, is one of the largest in the world. It spans 30 degrees of latitude and includes a high diversity of seafloor relief, including a trench 10 km deep. Much of this region remains unexplored biologically, especially the 50% of the EEZ deeper than 2,000 m. Knowledge of the marine biota is based on more than 200 years of marine exploration in the region. The major oceanographic data repository is the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA, which is involved in several Census of Marine Life field projects and is the location of the Southwestern Pacific Regional OBIS Node; NIWA is also data manager and custodian for fisheries research data owned by the Ministry of Fisheries. Related data sources cover alien species, environmental measures, and historical information. Museum collections in New Zealand hold more than 800,000 registered lots representing several million specimens. During the past decade, 220 taxonomic specialists (85 marine from 18 countries have been engaged in a project to review New Zealand's entire biodiversity. The above-mentioned marine information sources, published literature, and reports were scrutinized to give the results summarized here for the first time (current to 2010, including data on endemism and invasive species. There are 17,135 living species in the EEZ. This diversity includes 4,315 known undescribed species in collections. Species diversity for the most intensively studied phylum-level taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Kinorhyncha, Echinodermata, Chordata is more or less equivalent to that in the ERMS (European Register of Marine Species region, which is 5.5 times larger in area than the New Zealand EEZ. The implication is that, when all other New Zealand phyla are equally well studied


    H. L. Maranhão


    Full Text Available New Zealand is unique when it comes to landscapes and biodiversity, being one of the countries which has the highest numbers of endemism. With such vast diversity, wetlands play a key role maintaining many of these species and also providing essential ecosystem services for the local communities. However, New Zealand has been largely degraded on wetland areas in the last two hundred years, remaining only 10% of the original composition which brings a special attention to the country. In this case, this review provides an overview of New Zealand’s wetlands highlighting aspects such as definitions, uses, values, threats and management.

  3. Celebrating Islam and Multiculturalism in New Zealand

    Ismatu Ropi


    Full Text Available Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University (UIN Jakarta in collaboration with the Embassy of New Zealand in Jakarta, the Asia New Zealand Foundation and the International Office of UIN Jakarta on 20 to 24 May 2013 held a photographic exhibition documenting the stories of Asian Muslims in the Kiwi Island, and a half-day discussion of a book by Adrienne Jansen and Ans Westra entitled “The Crescent Moon: The Asian Face of Islam in New Zealand”.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v20i2.392 

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-32 - Peppers from New Zealand.


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from New Zealand. 319.56-32 Section 319.56-32... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-32 Peppers from New Zealand. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) from New Zealand may be imported into the...

  5. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Maori Community in New Zealand


    <正>At the invitation of the New Zealand Maori China Friendship Association (NZMCFA), a CPAFFC delegation paid a visit to New Zealand from February 28 to March 9. They had a close contact with the Maoris in New Zealand. They stayed at their homes, and

  6. An Overview of New Zealand Career Development Services

    Furbish, Dale


    Career development services have existed in New Zealand since the early part of the 20th century. In many aspects, the profession has developed in New Zealand parallel to the development of career guidance and counselling in other Western countries but New Zealand also represents a unique context. In acknowledgement of the distinctive…

  7. Inclusive Education Policy in New Zealand: Reality or Ruse?

    Kearney, Alison; Kane, Ruth


    New Zealand, like many countries, is beginning the journey towards a more inclusive education system. This paper examines inclusive education in New Zealand, and in particular policy related to inclusive education. New Zealand has the chance to make inclusion a reality, but as Skrtic (1991) points out this will require a different way of thinking…

  8. An Overview of New Zealand Career Development Services

    Furbish, Dale


    Career development services have existed in New Zealand since the early part of the 20th century. In many aspects, the profession has developed in New Zealand parallel to the development of career guidance and counselling in other Western countries but New Zealand also represents a unique context. In acknowledgement of the distinctive…

  9. Soils on the Late Triassic carbonate rocks in the West Karavanke Mountains and the high plateaus of the Julian Alps (Slovenia

    Tomaž Budkovič


    Full Text Available Grain-size analysis, mineral composition of heavy and light fraction, and surface texture of quartz grains in soilsdeveloped on different parent carbonate rocks in the region of the West Karavanke Mountains and the high plateausof the Julian Alps (Mežakla, Pokljuka, Jelovica revealed their polygenetic origin. Homogeneity of the heavymineral assemblage in the soils developed on different parent carbonate rocks indicates – besides autochthonousmaterial (insoluble residue of carbonate rocks, the presence of allochthonous (external material in the compositionof mineral component of soils, too. Heavy mineral assemblage indicates a metamorphic-igneous source area, whichis most probably in the Central Alps. The Drava glacier transported material from there, and deposited it in tillesalong the Drava valley. They were exposed to the fluvial and eolian erosion after the Würm deglaciation. Mostly siltymaterial was transported over the ridges of the Karavanke Mountains by the northeren winds. Their deposition beganon the southern calm and protected slopes and saddles, and continued southward on high plateaus of the JulianAlps, and very possibly even farther.

  10. New ALPS results on hidden-sector lightweights

    Ehret, Klaus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Frede, Maik [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Ghazaryan, Samvel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Hildebrandt, Matthias [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Knabbe, Ernst-Axel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kracht, Dietmar [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Lindner, Axel, E-mail: axel.lindner@desy.d [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); List, Jenny [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Meier, Tobias [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert-Einstein-Institute, Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet, Hannover, Callinstrasse 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Meyer, Niels; Notz, Dieter; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Wiedemann, Guenter [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Willke, Benno [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert-Einstein-Institute, Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet, Hannover, Callinstrasse 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)


    The ALPS Collaboration runs a 'Light Shining through a Wall' (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into 'Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles' (WISPs) often predicted by extensions of the Standard Model. The experiment is set up around a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. Due to several upgrades of the experiment we are able to place limits on the probability of photon-WISP-photon conversions of a fewx10{sup -25}. These limits result in today's most stringent laboratory constraints on the existence of low mass axion-like particles, hidden photons and minicharged particles.

  11. New ALPS Results on Hidden-Sector Lightweights

    Ehret, Klaus; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Hildebrandt, Matthias; Knabbe, Ernst-Axel; Kracht, Dietmar; Lindner, Axel; List, Jenny; Meier, Tobias; Meyer, Niels; Notz, Dieter; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas; Wiedemann, Günter; Willke, Benno


    The ALPS collaboration runs a "Light Shining through a Wall" (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into "Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles" (WISPs) often predicted by extensions of the Standard Model. The experiment is set up around a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. Due to several upgrades of the experiment we are able to place limits on the probability of photon-WISP-photon conversions of a few 10^{-25}. These limits result in today's most stringent laboratory constraints on the existence of low mass axion-like particles, hidden photons and minicharged particles.

  12. Precipitation and snow cover variability in the french alps

    Martin, Eric; Durand, Yves

    The distribution of winter precipitation as analysed by the meteorological analysis system SAFRAN is validated using data from two test sites. This system, applied to the French Alps, shows that the frequency of high precipitation events is not necessarily linked to mean precipitation. Using a downscaling procedure, the system was run with General Circulation Model (GCM) outputs. The corresponding snow cover is derived with the snow model CROCUS. The results are very sensitive to the quality of the GCM run. The analyses of two future climate scenarios show that drastic changes in precipitation distribution may occur in the future.

  13. Attitudes of livestock farmers and sensitivity of livestock farming systems to drought conditions in the French Alps

    Laurent Dobremez


    Full Text Available Livestock farming systems in the French Alps are particularly exposed to the predicted climate change and most of them have already experienced periods of drought since the beginning of the 2000s. Faced with this risk, livestock farmers have put in place a certain number of measures and envisage introducing others in the future. For the present study, surveys were conducted among livestock farmers to identify these measures and analyses were carried out to characterise the attitudes of livestock farmers to drought conditions and to evaluate changes in the sensitivity of their livestock farming systems. With the exception of those farms with extensive irrigated areas, all the farms are seeking solutions to deal with the risks arising from droughts. One solution is to purchase fodder to compensate for the decrease in the harvests that normally provide animal feed in the winter; the amounts purchased vary with the length of wintering required. For the grazing periods, the high mountain livestock breeders and the dairy systems of the Northern Alps rely above all on extending and over-sizing the pasture areas in relation to the needs of the herds. The livestock farms of the Southern Alps also rely on the diversity of vegetation areas and a certain flexibility in the practices used to adapt to conditions experienced during the year. A succession of dry years could result in more radical breakdowns in the livestock systems. It should also be remembered that climate change is only one of the factors influencing the types of changes taking place on farms.Les systèmes d'élevage des Alpes françaises sont fortement exposés au changement climatique annoncé et la plupart subissent déjà des épisodes de sécheresse depuis le début des années 2000. Face à ces aléas, les éleveurs ont mis en œuvre un certain nombre de leviers et envisagent d'en activer d'autres à l'avenir. Des enquêtes en exploitation ont permis d’identifier ces leviers. Leur

  14. Characterization of the ALP1 gene locus of Trichophyton tonsurans.

    Bhathena, Anahita; Gaedigk, Roger; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M


    Trichophyton tonsurans is the primary etiologic agent of fungal infections in the pediatric population. Establishing techniques that facilitate strain discrimination offer the opportunity to investigate the relationship between fungal genotype, biochemical phenotype and disease presentation in the host. In the process of expanding efforts to elucidate intra-specific genetic variability in T. tonsurans, we have identified 2 genetic polymorphisms in the ALP1 gene: a fragment length polymorphism in the 5'UTR and a single SNP (G-->A) within the 3'UTR. Full sequence data revealed that the length polymorphism was constituted by a 16 bp repeat element, present in tandem from 3 to 6 times depending on the strain. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated a clear association between the length polymorphism and ALP1 mRNA transcript levels. Not only do the sequence variations identified in this study increase our ability to discriminate T. tonsurans strains, but they also reveal the presence of a genetic variation with functional consequences at the transcript level that may play a role in regulating disease severity.

  15. ALPS: the Dark Matter Generator (coming in 2019)

    Barke, Simon; Bush, Zachary; Baum, Claire; Hollis, Hal; Mueller, Guido; Tanner, David


    Very promising dark matter candidates are axion-like particles: sub-eV particles that are expected to (weakly) interact with photons in the presence of a static electric or magnetic field. This interaction can turn photons into axions and back into photons. Hence, in order to generate axions, we will set up a 100 meter long Fabry-Perot cavity that can hold a 150,000 watt laser field and have a 5.3 tesla magnetic field along the entire length. If the theory holds up, a fraction of the photons should transform into relativistic axions. These axions would then propagate through any optical barrier and enter a matched cavity that is situated within an identical magnetic field. Here, some of the axions should turn back into photons of equal energy. Thus these photons resonate in the otherwise empty cavity where they can be detected. It is unknown if axion-like particles exist in the targeted mass range. However, the ALPS detection principle is very convenient because we will know the exact energy of the regenerated photons beforehand thus making a detection much easier.The final stage of the ALPS experiment will be completed by 2019 at the German Electron Synchrotron (DESY) site in Hamburg, Germany. This work is supported by grants from the Heising-Simons Foundation and the National Science Foundation.

  16. The AlpArray Seismic Network: status and operation

    Hetényi, György; Molinari, Irene; Clinton, John; Kissling, Edi


    The AlpArray initiative ( is a large-scale European collaboration to study the entire Alpine orogen at high resolution and in 3D with a large variety of geoscientific methods. The core element of the initiative is an extensive and dense broadband seismological network, the AlpArray Seismic Network (AASN). Over 300 temporary stations complement the permanent seismological stations to ensure homogeneous coverage of the greater Alpine area. The AASN has officially started operation in January 2016 and is now complete on land. It is operated in a joint effort by a number of institutions from Austria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Slovakia and Switzerland. In the Ligurian Sea, a 32-station OBS campaign is planned from June 2017 until March 2018. This will complete the coverage of the greater Alpine area at an unprecedented resolution. In this poster we present the actual status of the deployment, the effort undertaken by the contributing groups, station performance, best practices, data management as well as often encountered challenges, and provide a meeting and discussion point during the conference.

  17. Hyperomma of New Zealand (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Paederinae)

    Schomann, Andrea Maria

    was investigated by using a time-calibrated relaxed molecular clock with fossil calibration points. The results showed, that New Zealand was colonised by Hyperomma at least two times independently, once about 43–68 ma (possibly while still connected to Gondwana) and at least once ca. 28.5–47 ma (most probable...

  18. Iron from Zealandic bog iron ore -

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach


    og geologiske materiale, metallurgiske analyser og eksperimentel arkæologiske forsøg - konturerne af en jernproduktion med udgangspunkt i den sjællandske myremalm. The frequent application by archaeologists of Werner Christensen’s distribution map for the occurrence of bog iron ore in Denmark (1966...... are sketched of iron production based on bog iron ore from Zealand....

  19. Hybrid Compounding in New Zealand English

    Degani, Marta; Onysko, Alexander


    This study investigates hybrid compound formation of Maori and English terms in present day New Zealand English (NZE). On the background of Maori and English language contact, the phenomenon of hybrid compounding emerges as a process that, on the one hand, symbolizes the vitality of the Maori element in NZE and, on the other hand, marks the…

  20. Wellbeing in the New Zealand Curriculum

    Soutter, Anne K.; O'Steen, Billy; Gilmore, Alison


    This study examines the usage and contexts of "wellbeing" in New Zealand's curriculum, a formal statement of education policy enacted by a democratically elected government. The analysis is guided by a current model of student wellbeing rooted in seven, interdependent domains: "Having," "Being," "Relating," "Thinking," "Feeling," "Functioning,"…

  1. Rural Medical Education in New Zealand.

    Mayer, Heidi; Renouf, Tia


    Despite a large number of yearly medical graduates, rural New Zealand is faced with a scarcity of practicing physicians. Opportunities to learn and practice in rural settings start at the undergraduate level and extend to practicing physicians. There are a number of different programs available to facilitate rural medical education for all students and physicians. These programs will be discussed in this article.

  2. Early Childhood Inclusion in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Foster-Cohen, Susan H.; van Bysterveldt, Anne K.


    Early childhood education is encouraged for all 3- to 5-year-old children in New Zealand (known in the Maori language as Aotearoa) and is supported by a well-constructed bicultural curriculum (Te Whariki) and reasonably generous government funding. However, a number of factors mitigate against inclusion of children with developmental delays and…

  3. Numeral Variation in New Zealand Sign Language

    McKee, David; McKee, Rachel; Major, George


    Lexical variation abounds in New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) and is commonly associated with the introduction of the Australasian Signed English lexicon into Deaf education in 1979, before NZSL was acknowledged as a language. Evidence from dictionaries of NZSL collated between 1986 and 1997 reveal many coexisting variants for the numbers from one…

  4. New Zealand scientists in firing line


    "Kiwi scientists have a great chance to have their work bombarded with protons and to participate in world-class particle physics research, with the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between CERN (the European Organisation for Nuclear Research) and New Zealand" (1/2 page)

  5. Culture and Crisis Response in New Zealand

    Annan, Jean; Dean, Shelley; Henry, Geoff; McGhie, Desiree; Phillipson, Roger


    New Zealand is a bicultural nation, founded on the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi by the native Maori and the British Crown. It is also home to people from many countries, cultures and ethnicities. Therefore, culturally-relevant response to crisis events has become a significant aspect of the Ministry of Education's interdisciplinary Traumatic…

  6. Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) from cats and dogs in New Zealand: Molecular characterisation, presence of Rickettsia felis and Bartonella clarridgeiae and comparison with Australia.

    Chandra, Shona; Forsyth, Maureen; Lawrence, Andrea L; Emery, David; Šlapeta, Jan


    The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is the most common flea species parasitising both domestic cats and dogs globally. Fleas are known vectors of zoonotic pathogens such as vector borne Rickettsia and Bartonella. This study compared cat fleas from domestic cats and dogs in New Zealand's North and South Islands to Australian cat fleas, using the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and II (cox1, cox2). We assessed the prevalence of Rickettsia and Bartonella using genus specific multiplexed real-time PCR assays. Morphological identification confirmed that the cat flea (C. felis) is the most common flea in New Zealand. The examined fleas (n=43) at cox1 locus revealed six closely related C. felis haplotypes (inter-haplotype distance 1.1%) across New Zealand. The New Zealand C. felis haplotypes were identical or near identical with haplotypes from southern Australia demonstrating common dispersal of haplotype lineage across both the geographical (Tasman Sea) and climate scale. New Zealand cat fleas carried Rickettsia felis (5.3%) and Bartonella clarridgeiae (18.4%). To understand the capability of C. felis to vector zoonotic pathogens, we determined flea cox1 and cox2 haplotype diversity with the tandem multiplexed real-time PCR and sequencing for Bartonella and Rickettsia. This enabled us to demonstrate highly similar cat fleas on cat and dog populations across Australia and New Zealand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Production and genetic characterization of near-isogenic lines in the bread-wheat cultivar Alpe.

    Pogna, N E; Redaelli, R; Vaccino, P; Biancardi, A M; Peruffo, A D; Curioni, A; Metakovsky, E V; Pagliaricci, S


    Two biotypes of the bread-wheat cultivar Alpe were shown to possess contrasting alleles at each of the glutenin (Glu-B1, Glu-D1, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3) and gliadin (Gli-B1 and Gli-D1) loci on chromosomes 1B and 1D. Fourteen near-isogenic lines (NILs) were produced by crossing these biotypes and used to determine the genetic control of both low-molecular-weight (LMW) glutenin subunits and gliadins by means of one-dimensional or two-dimensional electrophoresis. Genes coding for the B, C and D groups of EMW subunits were found to be inherited in clusters tightly linked with those controlling gliadins. Southern-blot analysis of total genomic DNAs hybridized to a γ-gliadin-specific cDNA clone revealed that seven NILs lack both the Gli-D1 and Glu-D3 loci on chromosome 1D. Segregation data indicated that these "null" alleles are normally inherited. Comparison of the "null" NILs with those possessing allele b at the Glu-D3 locus showed one B subunit, seven C subunits and two D subunits, as fractionated by two-dimensional A-PAGExSDS-PAGE, to be encoded by this allele. Alleles b and k at Glu-B3 were found to code for two C subunits plus eight and six B subunits respectively, whereas alleles b and k at Gli-B1 each controlled the synthesis of two β-gliadins, one γ and two ω-gliadins. The novel Gli-B5 locus coding for two ω-gliadins was shown to recombine with the Gli-B1 locus on chromosome 1B. The two-dimensional map of glutenin subunits showed α-gliadins encoded at the Gli-A2 locus on chromosome 6A. The use of Alpe NILs in the study of the individual and combined effects of glutenin subunits on dough properties is discussed.

  8. ALP: Alternate Learning Project; Overview of a Model High School in Providence, Rhode Island.

    Kenyon, Charles B.

    The Alternate Learning Project (ALP) is a community based public high school in Providence, Rhode Island. The ALP student population participates in a program offering individualized basic skills instruction, college preparatory courses, career exploration activities, and a broad arts curriculum. Throughout, the emphasis is on continuous…

  9. Unmasking Evans syndrome: T-cell phenotype and apoptotic response reveal autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS).

    Teachey, David T; Manno, Catherine S; Axsom, Kelly M; Andrews, Timothy; Choi, John K; Greenbaum, Barbara H; McMann, Joseph M; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Travis, Susan F; Grupp, Stephan A


    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare disorder of disrupted lymphocyte homeostasis. Clinical manifestations of ALPS vary but typically include autoimmune cytopenias, organomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and increased risk of malignancies. A similar spectrum of symptoms may be seen in some patients with Evans syndrome (ES), a hematologic disorder defined by autoimmune destruction of at least 2 hematologic cell types. We hypothesized that a subset of patients diagnosed with ES may have ALPS. We screened 12 children with ES by flow cytometric analysis for CD4-/CD8- (double negative) T cells (DNTs) and with the definitive test for ALPS, defective in vitro Fas-mediated apoptosis. Six of the patients had elevated DNTs, suggestive of ALPS and also had defective Fas-mediated apoptosis. The other 6 patients displayed normal T-cell apoptosis; 5 of whom had normal DNTs, and 1 had a borderline result. Thus, 7 (58%) of 12 patients with ES had elevated DNTs suggestive of ALPS, with functional confirmation in 6 of 7. This suggests that analysis of DNTs may be a sensitive first-line screening test, serving as a marker of patients who should undergo definitive testing for ALPS. Our data further suggest that a number of patients with ES may have ALPS, a novel finding with important therapeutic implications.

  10. Germline FAS gene mutation in a case of ALPS and NLP Hodgkin lymphoma

    van den Berg, Anke; Maggio, Ewerton; Diepstra, A; de Jong, Doetje; van Krieken, J; Poppema, S


    FAS germline mutations have been associated with the development of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Occurrence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has been reported in 2 families with ALPS. In both families an uncle of the index patient developed HL. A 15-year-old boy with autoommune thrombopen

  11. Contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the western Alps (Italy, France

    Sabovljević M.


    Full Text Available The study is a contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the Alps. The huge bryophyte collection made during 1997 in the Western Alps is presented. A total of 152 bryophyte species were recorded, including 113 mosses and 39 hepatics.

  12. Rhône-Alpes renforce sa coopération avec le CERN

    Gruzelle, F


    La région Rhône-Alpes finance, à hauteur de 26 millions sur 7 ans, le "programme Rhône-Alpes-CERN", tandis que les départements de l'Ain et de la Haute-Savoie ont respectivement subventionné une partie des bâtiments et certaines innovations (1 page).

  13. Contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the western Alps (Italy, France)

    Sabovljević M.


    The study is a contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the Alps. The huge bryophyte collection made during 1997 in the Western Alps is presented. A total of 152 bryophyte species were recorded, including 113 mosses and 39 hepatics.

  14. Quantifying potential tsunami hazard in the Puysegur subduction zone, south of New Zealand

    Hayes, G.P.; Furlong, K.P.


    Studies of subduction zone seismogenesis and tsunami potential, particularly of large subduction zones, have recently seen a resurgence after the great 2004 earthquake and tsunami offshore of Sumatra, yet these global studies have generally neglected the tsunami potential of small subduction zones such as the Puysegur subduction zone, south of New Zealand. Here, we study one such relatively small subduction zone by analysing the historical seismicity over the entire plate boundary region south of New Zealand, using these data to determine the seismic moment deficit of the subduction zone over the past ~100 yr. Our calculations indicate unreleased moment equivalent to a magnitude Mw 8.3 earthquake, suggesting this subduction zone has the potential to host a great, tsunamigenic event. We model this tsunami hazard and find that a tsunami caused by a great earthquake on the Puysegur subduction zone would pose threats to the coasts of southern and western South Island, New Zealand, Tasmania and southeastern Australia, nearly 2000 km distant. No claim to original US government works Geophysical Journal International ?? 2010 RAS.

  15. Erythemal ultraviolet insolation in New Zealand at solar zenith angles of 30 and 45..

    Ryan, K G; Smith, G J; Rhoades, D A; Coppell, R B


    Solar UV radiometers with spectral responsivities that are close to the erythemal/carcinogenic action spectrum of skin have been installed at several centers of population in New Zealand, including Auckland, 37 degrees S, Wellington, 41 degrees S and Christchurch, 43.5 degrees S. The data set covers the period from the time the radiometry program commenced in 1988/1989 to the end of the southern summer, March 1995. The radiometers were recalibrated annually and the data were corrected for changes in the absolute responsivity of the radiometers. Erythemally effective UV irradiances at solar zenith angles of 30 degrees and 45 degrees were then extracted from the data set. No monotonic trend in these data is apparent, although there are statistically significant differences in mean irradiances from one year to the next. An example of this is the decrease observed in all sites following the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in June 1991. The maximum erythemally effective insolations at solar zenith angles of 30 degrees and 45 degrees were consistently lower in Christchurch than in the other two New Zealand sites. This could arise from higher levels of atmospheric turbidity and/or tropospheric ozone at this location. Also, a seasonal increase in erythemally effective UV insolation from spring to autumn was observed each year in all three New Zealand sites.

  16. Three-dimensional geometry and tectonostratigraphy of the Pennine zone, Central Alps, Switzerland and Northern Italy

    Maxelon, Michael; Mancktelow, Neil S.


    Continental collision during Alpine orogenesis entailed a polyphase deformation history (D 1-D 5) in the Pennine zone of the Central Alps. The regional tectonostratigraphy was basically developed during D 1 and D 2, characterised by isoclinal, typically north-closing recumbent anticlines, separated by pinched-in synclines, on the scale of tens of kilometres. Later deformation phases (D 3 and D 4) warped the stack into wavy to open folds. Exhumation of this zone resulted locally in later vertical shortening and folding of already steep fabrics (D 5). Three-dimensional models of the nappe pile were constructed, based on geostatistical assessment of the regional foliation field and considering the abundant structural field data. These models indicate the existence of five principal tectonostratigraphic levels developed during D 1 and thus equivalent to nappe units s. str.: the Gotthard, the Leventina-Antigorio, the Maggia-Simano (and probably the Monte Leone as well as the Composite Lepontine Series), Lebendun-Soja and Adula-Cima Lunga levels. All these tectonic units formed part of the passive continental margin of Europe prior to the onset of the Alpine orogenesis. Individual isoclinal post-nappe folds reflect relative displacements on the order of 40 km or more. The most prominent D 2 post-nappe structure is the Wandfluhhorn Fold, structurally equivalent to the northern closure of the Leventina-Lucomagno Antiform. The Lebendun and Monte Leone folds are of similar magnitudes and also affect the whole nappe pile, whereas the smaller Mogno and Molare synforms only refold the Maggia-Simano nappe internally. Principal D 3 and D 4 structures are the tight Mergoscia Synform directly north of the Insubric Fault between Bellinzona and Locarno (Southern Steep Belt), the Maggia Steep Zone, forming the steep western limb of the Campo Tencia Synform and subdividing the Lepontine dome into the Simplon and Ticino subdomes, the Chiéra Synform steepening the dominant foliation in

  17. Results and prospects of axion searches with the OSQAR and ALPS II experiment

    Schott, Matthias; Weinsheimer, Christoph [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)


    The Axion and axion-like particles (ALPs) are well motivated hypothetical Spin-0 bosons, naturally arising in many extensions of the Standard Model. At first introduced to solve the strong-CP problem by breaking an additional U(1) Pecci-Quinn symmetry, meanwhile several astrophysical observations hint to the ALPs sector as well. In so called Light-Shining-through-Wall (LSW) experiments the effective diphoton vertex inherent to Axions and ALPs is exploited for direct searches. High power laser beams traversing strong magnetic fields are used to create and annihilate ALPs making them accessible in laboratory setups. In this talk the latest results of the of the OSQAR experiment (CERN) are presented as well as prospects of near future enhancements by the ALPS II (DESY) experiment aiming for an improved sensitivity of 3 orders of magnitude.

  18. Cultures and politics in the present-day Alps

    Bernard Debarbieux


    Full Text Available Plus que jamais, l’espace alpin est marqué par le déploiement de flux toujours plus variés, toujours plus puissants, et symétriquement par la multiplication d’initiatives destinées à conforter ou à régénérer l’idée de localité. Quelles spatialités et quelles territorialités travaillent les populations alpines aujourd’hui ? Quelles sont les figures contemporaines de la circulation et des flux, et les figures complémentaires de l’ancrage et de la refondation territoriale ? Voici les questions que cet essai se propose de développer. Ce texte reprend le contenu d’une conférence donnée dans le cadre de la célébration du centenaire de l’Institut de Géographie Alpine. Cette conférence, comme les autres données à cette occasion, avait adopté une forme libre dressant un bilan et des perspectives de la situation alpine. La trace écrite adoptée ici prend alors logiquement la forme d’un essai.More than ever before, the Alps are affected by increasingly varied and powerful flows and equally by the multiplication of initiatives designed to strengthen or regenerate the idea of “locality” (place. What spatialities and what territorialities activate the populations of the Alps today? What are the contemporary figures relating to circulation and flows and the complementary figures concerning spatial “anchoring” or fixity and new territorial foundations? These are the questions that this essay, proposes to develop. This text takes another look at the subject of a lecture given as part of celebrations to mark the centenary of the Institut de Géographie Alpine. This lecture, like the others given on this occasion, adopted a free format, presenting a report on the current situation in the Alps and prospects for the future. The written format adopted here logically takes the form of an essay. Readers looking for detailed illustrations and references are referred to three scientific articles published by the same

  19. Medical ethnobotany of the Albanian Alps in Kosovo


    Background Ethnobotanical studies are crucial in South-Eastern Europe for fostering local development and also for investigating the dynamics of Traditional Environmental Knowledge (TEK) related to plants in one of the most crucial European hotspots for biocultural diversity. The current medico-ethnobotanical survey was conducted in rural alpine communities in Kosovo. The aims of the study were twofold: 1) to document the state of TEK of medicinal plants in these communities; 2) to compare these findings with that of similar field studies previously conducted among local populations inhabiting the Montenegrin and Albanian side of the same Alpine range. Methods Field research was conducted in 36 villages on the Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit 91 elderly informants (≥ 50 years-old) for participation in semi-structured interviews and structured surveys regarding the use of the local flora for medicinal and food purposes. Standard ethnobotanical methods were employed and prior informed consent was obtained for all study participants. Results and Conclusion The uses of 98 plants species belonging to 39 families were recorded; the most quoted botanical families were Rosaceae, Asteraceae, and Lamiaceae. Mainly decoctions and infusions were quoted as folk medicinal preparations and the most common uses referred to gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders, as well as illnesses of the uro-genital system. Among the most uncommon medicinal taxa quoted by the informants, Carduus nutans L., Echinops bannaticus Rochel ex Schrad., and Orlaya grandiflora Hoffm. may merit phytochemical and phytopharmacological investigations. Comparison of the data with other ethnobotanical field studies recently conducted on the Albanian and Montenegrin sides of the same Alps has shown a remarkable link between the medical ethnobotany of Montenegrin and Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Moreover, folk uses of the most quoted wild medicinal

  20. Gone for good? Future snowfall in the Alps.

    Frei, Prisco; Kotlarski, Sven; Liniger, Mark A.; Schär, Christoph


    The snowfall climate of the Alps is central to the state of the Alpine cryosphere, determining accumulation conditions and impacting society through associated natural hazards. Accordingly, the assessment of future changes of Alpine snowfall is highly relevant for various sectors. The situation is complex, however, as snowfall reductions driven by the projected temperature increase could potentially be offset by an increase of winter precipitation. Furthermore, changes in heavy snowfall do not necessarily mirror changes in mean snowfall conditions. Here we take a closer look at these issues by assessing 21st century snowfall changes over the European Alps in high-resolution regional climate model (RCM) data that recently became available through the EURO-CORDEX initiative. Fourteen different combinations of global and regional climate models with a target resolution of 12 km, and two different greenhouse gas emission scenarios are considered (RCP4.5, RCP8.5). A newly developed method to separate snowfall from total precipitation based on near-surface temperature conditions and accounting for subgrid topographic variability is employed. The evaluation of simulated snowfall amounts against an observation-based reference indicates the ability of RCMs to capture the main characteristics of the snowfall seasonal cycle and its elevation dependency, but also reveals considerable positive biases especially at high elevations. These biases can partly be removed by the application of a dedicated RCM bias correction that separately considers temperature and precipitation biases. Twenty-first Century snowfall projections reveal a robust signal of decreasing mean September-May snowfall amounts over most parts of the Alps for both emission scenarios. Domain and multimodel-mean decreases by the end of the century amount to -25% and -45% for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. Snowfall in low-lying areas in the Alpine forelands could be reduced by more than -80%. This decrease is

  1. 21st Century Climate Change in the European Alps

    Gobiet, Andreas; Kotlarski, Sven; Stoffel, Markus; Heinrich, Georg; Rajczak, Jan; Beniston, Martin


    The Alps are particularly sensitive to global warming and warmed twice as much as the global average in the recent past. In addition, the Alps and its surroundings are a densly populated areas where society is affected by climate change in many ways, which calls for reliable estimates of future climate change. However, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in future climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. It will be demonstrated that considerable and accelerating changes are not only to be expected with regard to temperature, but also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be effected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will most probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity. More intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential are particularly expected in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500 - 2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic variables and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities. Acknowledgements: This study has been initiated and is partly funded by

  2. Risk assessment of mountain infrastructure destabilization in the French Alps

    Duvillard, Pierre-Allain; Ravanel, Ludovic; Deline, Philip


    In the current context of imbalance of geosystems in connection with the rising air temperature for several decades, high mountain environments are especially affected by the shrinkage of glaciers and the permafrost degradation which can trigger slope movements in the rock slopes (rockfall, rock avalanches) or in superficial deposits (slides, rock glacier rupture, thermokarst). These processes generate a risk of direct destabilization for high mountain infrastructure (huts, cable-cars...) in addition to indirect risks for people and infrastructure located on the path of moving rock masses. We here focus on the direct risk of infrastructure destabilization due to permafrost degradation and/or glacier shrinkage in the French Alps. To help preventing these risks, an inventory of all the infrastructure was carried out with a GIS using different data layers among which the Alpine Permafrost Index Map and inventories of the French Alps glaciers in 2006-2009, 1967-1971 and at the end of the Little Ice Age. 1769 infrastructures have been identified in areas likely characterized by permafrost and/or possibly affected by glacier shrinkage. An index of risk of destabilization has been built to identify and to rank infrastructure at risk. This theoretical risk index includes a characterization of hazards and a diagnosis of the vulnerability. The value of hazard is dependent on passive factors (topography, lithology, geomorphological context...) and on so-considered active factors (thermal state of the permafrost, and changing constraints on slopes related to glacier shrinkage). The diagnosis of vulnerability has meanwhile been established by combining the level of potential damage to the exposed elements with their operational and financial values. The combination of hazard and vulnerability determines a degree of risk of infrastructure destabilization (from low to very high). Field work and several inventories of infrastructure damages were used to validate it. The

  3. Long-term continuous atmospheric CO2 measurements at Baring Head, New Zealand

    S. E. Nichol


    Full Text Available We present descriptions of the in situ instrumentation, calibration procedures, intercomparison efforts, and data filtering methods used in a 39-yr record of continuous atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 observations made at Baring Head, New Zealand. Located on the southern coast of the North Island, Baring Head is exposed to extended periods of strong air flow from the south with minimal terrestrial influence resulting in low CO2 variability. The site is therefore well suited for sampling air masses that are representative of the Southern Ocean region. Instrumental precision is better than 0.015 ppm (1-σ on 1-Hz values. Comparisons to over 600 co-located flask samples, as well as laboratory based flask and cylinder comparison exercises, suggest that over recent decades compatibility with respect to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO and World Meteorological Organisation (WMO CO2 scales has been 0.3 ppm or better.

  4. Avalanche risk assessment for mountain roads - a comparison of case studies from Iceland and the Alps

    Wastl, M.; Stötter, J.


    While the management of alpine natural hazards in settlements follows highly developed operational standardised procedures in many countries, there are very few approaches for a systematic survey and assessment of these natural hazard processes and the related risks and for a sustainable planning of measures for roads. This is even more surprising against the background of the ongoing increase of traffic in Europe and its economic importance. This contribution compares the results of a regional scale assessment of the avalanche risk on mountain roads for case studies from Austria, Italy and Iceland. It provides the first assessment of the natural hazard situation for roads outside closed settlements in Iceland and discusses the applicability of regional scale risk based approaches developed in the Alps to the specific natural, economic and social situation. It also compares the role of risk in the assessment and management of natural hazards in these countries. The assessment of the risk by natural hazard processes for roads follows approaches developed by Wilhelm (1997, 1998, 1999) and Borter (1999a, 1999b) in the Alps adapted to comply with the data availability of the regional scale. These approaches distinguish between the individual risk on the one hand and the collective risk for the society on the other hand for each process area as well as the cumulative risk for the investigated road section. As the spatial and temporal distribution of avalanches is relatively well documented in some of the Alpine countries practical approaches have been developed for the assessment of this natural hazard process. These have been successfully applied e.g. to roads in inner Oetz and inner Stubai Valley, Tyrol, Austria by Huttenlau (2004) and Gufler (2007) and Sulden road, Ortles Alps, Southern Tyrol, Italy by Zischg et al. (2004). On the basis of these investigations the individual, collective and cumulative death risk for avalanches was determined for Siglufjar

  5. Crustal structure and active tectonics in the Eastern Alps

    Brückl, E.; Behm, M.; Decker, K.


    During the last decade, a series of controlled source seismic experiments brought new insight into the crustal and lithospheric structure of the Eastern Alps and their adjacent tectonic provinces. A fragmentation of the lithosphere into three blocks, Europe (EU), Adria (AD), and the new Pannonian...... fragment (PA), was interpreted and a triple junction was inferred. The goal of this study has been to relate these deep crustal structures to active tectonics. We used elastic plate modeling to reconsider the Moho fragmentation. We interpret subduction of EU below AD and PA from north to south...... and underthusting of AD mantle below PA from southwest to northeast. The Moho fragmentation correlates well with major upper crustal structures and is supported by gravity, seismic, and geodetic data. An analysis of crustal thickening suggests that active convergence is associated with continued thrusting...

  6. New ALPS results on hidden-sector lightweights

    Ehret, Klaus; Ghazaryan, Samvel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Frede, Maik [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (DE)] (and others)


    The ALPS collaboration runs a ''Light Shining through a Wall'' (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into ''Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles'' (WISPs) often predicted by extensions of the Standard Model. The experiment is set up around a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. Due to several upgrades of the experiment we are able to place limits on the probability of photon-WISP-photon conversions of a few x 10{sup -25}. These limits result in today's most stringent laboratory constraints on the existence of low mass axion-like particles, hidden photons and minicharged particles. (orig.)

  7. AlpArray-Italy: Site description and noise characterization

    Govoni, Aladino; Bonatto, Luciana; Capello, Marco; Cavaliere, Adriano; Chiarabba, Claudio; D'Alema, Ezio; Danesi, Stefania; Lovati, Sara; Margheriti, Lucia; Massa, Marco; Mazza, Salvatore; Mazzarini, Francesco; Monna, Stephen; Moretti, Milena; Nardi, Anna; Piccinini, Davide; Piromallo, Claudia; Pondrelli, Silvia; Salimbeni, Simone; Serpelloni, Enrico; Solarino, Stefano; Vallocchia, Massimiliano; Santulin, Marco; AlpArray Working Group


    Within the framework of the European collaborative research initiative AlpArray (, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanolgia (INGV) deployed overall 20 broad-band seismic stations in Northern Italy and on two islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Capraia and Montecristo) during Fall-Winter 2015. The temporary deployment (16 stations) will run for two to three years and 4 INGV National Seismic Network accelerometric sites are now equipped with additional permanent broad-band sensors. The 16 temporary stations are equipped with REF TEK 130 digitizers and Nanometrics Trillium Compact 120 s sensors, a couple have Nanometrics Trillium 120P sensors and one a Streckeisen STS2. For each site we describe the settings and discuss the noise levels, the site effects and the preliminary sensitivity analysis.

  8. Climate change and geomorphological hazards in the eastern European Alps.

    Keiler, Margreth; Knight, Jasper; Harrison, Stephan


    Climate and environmental changes associated with anthropogenic global warming are being increasingly identified in the European Alps, as seen by changes in long-term high-alpine temperature, precipitation, glacier cover and permafrost. In turn, these changes impact on land-surface stability, and lead to increased frequency and magnitude of natural mountain hazards, including rock falls, debris flows, landslides, avalanches and floods. These hazards also impact on infrastructure, and socio-economic and cultural activities in mountain regions. This paper presents two case studies (2003 heatwave, 2005 floods) that demonstrate some of the interlinkages between physical processes and human activity in climatically sensitive alpine regions that are responding to ongoing climate change. Based on this evidence, we outline future implications of climate change on mountain environments and its impact on hazards and hazard management in paraglacial mountain systems.

  9. Preliminary Results From Combined Geomorphic LiDAR Mapping, Radiocarbon Dating, and Slip-rates Along The Central Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    De Pascale, G. P.; Langridge, R. M.


    In central South Island of New Zealand, the dextral-reverse Alpine Fault Zone (AFZ) forms the major plate boundary structure between the Pacific and Australian plates. The AFZ is thought to fail in large earthquakes (~ Mw 7-8+) approximately every 200 to 400 years, to have last ruptured around 1717 AD, and has a geologic slip rate of approximately 2.7 cm/yr. Climate plays a large role in both the surface expression of the AFZ and contributes to our limited knowledge of this important plate boundary. Very high precipitation rates (9-15 m of rain/year) and associated rainforest and steep hillslopes mask the tectonic geomorphology along the central section of the fault and limits the value of airphoto and satellite mapping. However, recently acquired LIDAR data allows accurate mapping along the central section of the fault. We used a 2 meter LIDAR-derived digital elevation model (DEM) to map geological and geomorphological features along the AFZ. A new paleoseismic site was selected along on a previously unmapped scarp based on LIDAR mapping near Gaunt Creek in Westland. The site was excavated and exposed via trenching and the scarp was found to be the surface expression of the Alpine fault with mylonites and cataclasites thrust over young unconsolidated alluvium. Radiocarbon dates from this site suggest that the most recent surface rupture along this section of the fault occurred around 1717 AD - making this the first on-fault record of this event along this ~200 km section of the fault. Radiocarbon dates from select geomorphic surfaces coupled with stratigraphic evidence from creek exposures give us range of sediment ages from Late-Pleistocene to recent around Gaunt Creek. In addition to the paleoseismic site, based on LIDAR mapping, fluvial erosion and deposition clearly dominate the landscape, with large alluvial fans at the Southern Alps range-front that are often faulted. Landslides are also common and possibly will yield information on slip-rates where they

  10. Brooks Range and eastern Alps: a tectonic comparison

    Helwig, J.A.


    A comparison of the tectonic evolution of the Brooks Range (BR) and the Eastern Alps (EA) reveals a remarkable parallelism. Both of these Mesozoic-Cenozoic orogenic belts are underlain by sialic crust formed in an earlier Paleozoic orogenic cycle. The old basement is revealed in major tectonic windows: the Tauern Fenster (EA) and the Doonerak Window-Schwatka Mountains (BR) - which are unconformably overlapped by transgressive, neritic marine clastic to carbonate successions - the Permo-Triassic through Hochstegenkalk sequence (EA), and the Kekiktuk-Kayak-Lisburne sequence (BR). These successions are passive-margin sequences that pass southward, in palinspastically restored cross sections, to synchronous deep-water facies deposited on ophiolitic basement - Bunderschiefer on Triassic-Jurassic ophiolites (EA) and Kuna facies or Etivluk sequence on upper Paleozoic ophiolites (BR). Onset of subduction-collision is marked by olistostromal facies - Cretaceous wildflysch (EA) and Jura-Cretaceous Okpikruak Formation (BR) - and the development of major flysch-molasse successions in the foreland basins of the collisional fold and thrust belts. Important major contrasts between these two mountain ranges reside in their colliding blocks and their post-orogenic histories. Alpine orogenesis was driven by continent-continent collision, closing out a young, narrow ocean, whereas Brooks Range deformation appears to have originated by arc-continent collision, closing out an older, broad (.)ocean. Younger Cenozoic deformation is extensional and strike-slip in the Eastern Alps, producing disjunctive basins, but Cenozoic deformation in the Brooks Range is diverse and includes compression in the east and extension in the far west.

  11. Paleointensities on 8 ka obsidian from Mayor Island, New Zealand

    A. Ferk


    Full Text Available The 8 ka BP (6050 BCE pantelleritic obsidian flow on Mayor Island, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, has been investigated using 30 samples from two sites. Due to a very high paramagnetic/ferromagnetic ratio, it was not possible to determine the remanence carriers. This is despite the fact that the samples were studied intensively at low, room, and high temperatures. We infer that a stable remanence within the samples is carried by single- or close to single-domain particles. Experiments to determine the anisotropy of thermoremanence tensor and the dependency on cooling rate were hampered due to alteration resulting from the repeated heating of the samples to temperatures just below the glass transition. Nonetheless, a well-defined mean paleointensity of 57.0 ± 1.0 μT, based on individual high quality paleointensity determinations, was obtained. This field value compares very well to a paleointensity of 58.1 ± 2.9 μT, which Tanaka et al. (2009 obtained for 5500 BCE at a site 100 km distant. Agreement with geomagnetic field models, however, is poor. Thus, gathering more high-quality paleointensity data for the Pacific region and for the southern hemisphere in general to better constrain global field models is very important.

  12. Incidence of plastic fragments among burrow-nesting seabird colonies on offshore islands in northern New Zealand.

    Buxton, Rachel T; Currey, Caitlin A; Lyver, Philip O'B; Jones, Christopher J


    Marine plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the world's oceans, and has been found in high concentrations in oceanic gyres of both the northern and southern hemispheres. The number of studies demonstrating plastic debris at seabird colonies and plastic ingestion by adult seabirds has increased over the past few decades. Despite the recent discovery of a large aggregation of plastic debris in the South Pacific subtropical gyre, the incidence of plastics at seabird colonies in New Zealand is unknown. Between 2011 and 2012 we surveyed six offshore islands on the northeast coast of New Zealand's North Island for burrow-nesting seabird colonies and the presence of plastic fragments. We found non-research related plastic fragments (0.031 pieces/m(2)) on one island only, Ohinau, within dense flesh-footed shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) colonies. On Ohinau, we found a linear relationship between burrow density and plastic density, with 3.5 times more breeding burrows in areas with plastic fragments found. From these data we conclude that plastic ingestion is a potentially a serious issue for flesh-footed shearwaters in New Zealand. Although these results do not rule out plastic ingestion by other species, they suggest the need for further research on the relationship between New Zealand's pelagic seabirds and marine plastic pollution.

  13. Seroepidemiologic effects of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Australia, New Zealand, and Singapore.

    Trauer, James M; Bandaranayake, Don; Booy, Robert; Chen, Mark I; Cretikos, Michelle; Dowse, Gary K; Dwyer, Dominic E; Greenberg, Michael E; Huang, Q Sue; Khandaker, Gulam; Kok, Jen; Laurie, Karen L; Lee, Vernon J; McVernon, Jodie; Walter, Scott; Markey, Peter G


    To estimate population attack rates of influenza A(H1N1)pdm2009 in the Southern Hemisphere during June-August 2009, we conducted several serologic studies. We pooled individual-level data from studies using hemagglutination inhibition assays performed in Australia, New Zealand, and Singapore. We determined seropositive proportions (titer ≥40) for each study region by age-group and sex in pre- and postpandemic phases, as defined by jurisdictional notification data. After exclusions, the pooled database consisted of, 4,414 prepandemic assays and 7,715 postpandemic assays. In the prepandemic phase, older age groups showed greater seropositive proportions, with age-standardized, community-based proportions ranging from 3.5% in Singapore to 11.9% in New Zealand. In the postpandemic phase, seropositive proportions ranged from 17.5% in Singapore to 30.8% in New Zealand, with highest proportions seen in school-aged children. Pregnancy and residential care were associated with lower postpandemic seropositivity, whereas Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and Pacific Peoples of New Zealand had greater postpandemic seropositivity.

  14. A small world: Uncovering hidden diversity in Frullania – a new species from Aotearoa-New Zealand

    Konrat Matt von


    Full Text Available Frullania is a large and taxonomically complex genus. Here a new Frullania, F. toropuku von Konrat, de Lange & Larraín, sp. nov. is described from New Zealand. Frullania toropuku is placed in F. subg. Microfrullania. The new species is readily recognised by a combination of morphological characters associated with branching, the perianth, sexuality, and sporophyte, which distinguish it from all other New Zealand and regional species of Frullania. However, morphologically F. toropuku most closely resembles the widespread F. rostrata, which might well be regarded as a Southern Hemisphere equivalent of the Holarctic F. tamarisci species-complex in terms of its cryptic diversity. A combination of morphological characters associated with branching, the perianth, sexuality, and sporophyte distinguish F. toropuku from all other New Zealand and regional species of Frullania. A comparison is made between F. toropuku and morphologically allied species of botanical regions outside the New Zealand region and an artificial key is provided. In a prior investigation, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of nuclear ribosomal ITS2 and plastidic trnL-trnF sequences from purported related species confirms its independent taxonomic status and corroborates its placement within F. subg. Microfrullania. The ongoing studies of Frullania species-complexes reveal the urgent need for more species-level phylogenies with extensive population sampling to approximate the actual diversity of Frullania, and to elucidate speciation processes and distribution range formation.

  15. Hyperomma of New Zealand (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Paederinae)

    Schomann, Andrea Maria

    found, 8 known species re-described after contemporary standards, and a species inventory with keys to those 25 species and the paederine genera occurring in New Zealand was produced. The genus was placed in the phylogenetic context of its subfamily, Paederinae, for which a robust phylogenetic...... was investigated by using a time-calibrated relaxed molecular clock with fossil calibration points. The results showed, that New Zealand was colonised by Hyperomma at least two times independently, once about 43–68 ma (possibly while still connected to Gondwana) and at least once ca. 28.5–47 ma (most probable....... Additionally, the extinct Cretaceous staphylinid genus Apticax was described connected with a short review on fossil Paederinae and closely related fossils....

  16. Geothermal energy exploitation in New Zealand

    Elder, J.W.


    The essential factors, human and technical, which control the operation of geothermal systems, particularly those which allow prediction of behavior during and after exploitation, are sketched. The strategy and co-ordination involved in using New Zealand's geothermal resources for power production are considered. The broader aspects of the technical matters involved in the design of the parasitic plant reservoir system are described. (MHR)

  17. Cancer in Pacific people in New Zealand.

    Meredith, Ineke; Sarfati, Diana; Ikeda, Takayoshi; Blakely, Tony


    To describe cancer incidence rates among Pacific people living in New Zealand from 1981 to 2004. Linked census-cancer registration data were used to calculate age-standardized cancer incidence rates for Pacific people. Both trends over time within Pacific people and differences in rates between Pacific and European/Other people in New Zealand were assessed. Pacific rates were higher for cancers of the cervix, endometrium, gallbladder, lip, mouth and pharynx, liver, lung, ovary, pancreas, stomach, and thyroid, and lower for colorectal, bladder, and testicular cancers and melanoma. Differences were large, ranging from a 90 % lower rate of melanoma to over seven times higher rate of liver cancer compared to European/Other. Breast and prostate cancers were the commonest malignancies for Pacific women and men, respectively. Important changes for Pacific women over time include a 64 % decrease in cervical cancer incidence (ptrend = 0.02) and a 245 % increase for lung cancer (ptrend = 0.02), while men had a 366 % increase in prostate cancer (ptrend = 0.02). Pacific people in New Zealand have a disproportionate cancer burden related to infectious diseases such as HPV and Hepatitis B. However, with escalating evidence for causal associations between diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity with various cancers, the challenge will be to prevent these cancers from rising in Pacific people who have the highest rates of these conditions in New Zealand. Disparities for tobacco-related cancers support tobacco consumption as another important cause of cancer incidence disparity. Continued efforts are needed to reduce infectious disease and improve screening program uptake among Pacific people.

  18. Equity in statin use in New Zealand

    Norris P


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Preventive medications such as statins are used to reduce cardiovascular risk. There is some evidence to suggest that people of lower socioeconomic position are less likely to be prescribed statins. In New Zealand, Maori have higher rates of cardiovascular disease. AIM: This study aimed to investigate statin utilisation by socioeconomic position and ethnicity in a region of New Zealand. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which data were collected on all prescriptions dispensed from all pharmacies in one city during 2005/6. Linkage with national datasets provided information on patients' age, gender and ethnicity. Socioeconomic position was identified using the New Zealand Index of Socioeconomic Deprivation 2006. RESULTS: Statin use increased with age until around 75 years. Below age 65 years, those in the most deprived socioeconomic areas were most likely to receive statins. In the 55-64 age group, 22.3% of the most deprived population received a statin prescription (compared with 17.5% of the mid and 18.6% of the least deprived group. At ages up to 75 years, use was higher amongst Maori than non-Maori, particularly in middle age, where Maori have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. In the 45-54 age group, 11.6% of Maori received a statin prescription, compared with 8.7% of non-Maori. DISCUSSION: Statin use approximately matched the pattern of need, in contrast to other studies which found under-treatment of people of low socioeconomic position. A PHARMAC campaign to increase statin use may have increased use in high-risk groups in New Zealand.

  19. Recovery in New Zealand: an evolving concept?

    O'Hagan, Mary; Reynolds, Paul; Smith, Cherryl


    Recovery was first officially promoted in New Zealand in 1998 and it became a key concept in mental health service development. Since the mid 2000s however, recovery has been on the wane in New Zealand, but the fundamental concepts within the term live on in two more recently adopted terms: whanau ora and well-being. He Korowai Oranga (Maori Health Strategy) defines whanau ora as families being supported to achieve health and well-being. The extended family is recognized as a source of strength, identity, security and support. Whanau ora is underpinned by Te Whare Tapa Wha, a well-being model that focuses on health being a balance between Taha Wairua (spiritual health), Taha Tinana (physical health), Taha Hinengaro (psychological health) and Taha Whānau (family health). New Zealanders are also using the term well-being, not just for the whole population but for people diagnosed with mental illness. The advantages of placing recovery into the larger well-being agenda are reduced discrimination and segregation of people with a diagnosis into a distinct population group, reduced association with medical and deficits approaches that can counter the recovery approach, and bypassing the dilution of the recovery approach that has occurred in traditional services.

  20. Locating women in the New Zealand computing industry

    Alison Hunter, PhD

    Full Text Available It is well recognised that women are under-represented in computing occupations in many Western countries, but is the situation similar in New Zealand? This article presents a quantitative analysis of gendered employment patterns in New Zealand\\'s computing industry. Findings from analysis of 2001 and 2006 census employment data demonstrate that women are now well represented in some newer computing occupations in New Zealand, but they remain significantly under-represented in traditional computing roles such as programming and systems analysis. Furthermore, New Zealand women in computing do not have pay parity with men. On some occasions during the early days of computing in New Zealand women participated more equally in number but they have always experienced pay discrimination.

  1. Diagnosis value of serum ALP and osteocalcin in early prostate cancer bone metastasis

    Zong-Yong Cheng


    Objective:To explore the role and significance of the joint detection of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin in prostate cancer bone metastases.Methods:A total of 87 cases of prostate cancer patients were diagnosed by radionuclide bone imaging, and 51 cases of them were included in the bone metastases group, while the other 36 cases were selected as the non-metastases group. Serum levels of ALP and osteocalcin of all patients were detected. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, likelihood ratio and the predictive value of patients in the two groups were analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of the combined detection of ALP and osteocalcin and their expression levels in different bone metastases degrees were analyzed.Results:Serum ALP and osteocalcin levels of patients in metastases group were higher than those in non-metastases group and normal control group. In non-metastases group, the ALP level was higher than that in normal control group, while its osteocalcin level was lower than that in control group (P<0.05); The sensitivities of ALP and osteocalcin were 77.2% and 70.6%, respectively, and their specificities were 61.1% and 54.6%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity became 93.3% and 82.33% in combined detection of ALP and osteocalcin, which was significantly higher than the single detection (P<0.05). The expression levels of ALP and osteocalcin increased with the increase of the metastases degrees (P<0.05). Conclusions:Combined detection of ALP and osteocalcin can be used in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer with improved diagnostic efficiency.

  2. The quest for an intermediate-scale accidental axion and further ALPs

    Dias, A.G.; Nishi, C.C. [Univ. Federal do ABC - UFABC, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Machado, A.C.B. [Teorica-Univ. Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Vaudrevange, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Excellence Cluster Universe


    The recent detection of the cosmic microwave background polarimeter experiment BICEP2 of tensor fluctuations in the B-mode power spectrum basically excludes all plausible axion models where its decay constant is above 10{sup 13} GeV. Moreover, there are strong theoretical, astrophysical, and cosmological motivations for models involving, in addition to the axion, also axion-like particles (ALPs), with decay constants in the intermediate scale range, between 10{sup 9} GeV and 10{sup 13} GeV. Here, we present a general analysis of models with an axion and further ALPs and derive bounds on the relative size of the axion and ALP photon (and electron) coupling. We discuss what we can learn from measurements of the axion and ALP photon couplings about the fundamental parameters of the underlying ultraviolet completion of the theory. For the latter we consider extensions of the Standard Model in which the axion and the ALP(s) appear as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the breaking of global chiral U(1) (Peccei-Quinn (PQ)) symmetries, occuring accidentally as low energy remnants from exact discrete symmetries. In such models, the axion and the further ALP are protected from disastrous explicit symmetry breaking effects due to Planck-scale suppressed operators. The scenarios considered exploit heavy right handed neutrinos getting their mass via PQ symmetry breaking and thus explain the small mass of the active neutrinos via a seesaw relation between the electroweak and an intermediate PQ symmetry breaking scale. We show some models that can accommodate simultaneously an axion dark matter candidate, an ALP explaining the anomalous transparency of the universe for γ-rays, and an ALP explaining the recently reported 3.55 keV gamma line from galaxies and clusters of galaxies, if the respective decay constants are of intermediate scale.

  3. Inflation Targeting and Economic Reforms in New Zealand

    Matteo Cacciatore; Fabio Ghironi; Turnovsky, Stephen J.


    We study the consequences of economic reforms in New Zealand since the beginning of the 1990s. Inflation targeting became the monetary policymaking framework of the RBNZ in 1990. In the years that followed, New Zealand implemented labor market reform and became increasingly integrated in world trade. We use a New Keynesian model with rich trade microfoundations and labor market dynamics to study the performance of inflation targeting versus alternative monetary policy rules for New Zealand in...

  4. The Enduring Legacy of New Zealand's UNCLOS Investment (Invited)

    Wood, R.; Davy, B. W.; Herzer, R. H.; Barnes, P.; Barker, D. H.; Stagpoole, V.; Uruski, C.


    Data collected by surveys for New Zealand's extended continental shelf project have contributed to research into the tectonic history and resource potential of New Zealand. More than 20 scientific papers and a similar number of conference presentations and posters have used the data collected by these surveys. Data collected by these surveys have added significantly to national and international databases. Although the surveys were generally oriented to establish prolongation rather than to cross structural trends, the data have revealed the crustal, basement and sedimentary structure of many parts of the New Zealand region. In the area east of New Zealand, the data provide insight into the Cretaceous evolution of the New Zealand sector of Gondwana. Data collected southwest of New Zealand provided details about the relatively sudden transition from sea floor spreading between New Zealand and Australia in the Tasman Sea to orthogonal spreading in the Emerald Basin and the development of the modern Australian-Pacific plate boundary, including Late Tertiary motion on the Alpine Fault in the South Island, New Zealand. The data have been used to understand the formation of the New Caledonia Basin, the Norfolk Ridge and their associated structures, and they underpin the international collaboration between New Zealand, New Caledonia and Australia to promote resource exploration in the Tasman Sea. Data north of New Zealand have been used to understand the complex tectonic history of back arc spreading and island arc migration in the South Fiji Basin region. Seismic data collected along the axis of the New Caledonia Basin led to extensive hydrocarbon exploration surveys in the deepwater Taranaki region inside New Zealand's EEZ, and to an application for a hydrocarbon exploration licence in New Zealand's extended continental shelf.

  5. Health economics and health policy: experiences from New Zealand.

    Cumming, Jacqueline


    Health economics has had a significant impact on the New Zealand health system over the past 30 years. In this paper, I set out a framework for thinking about health economics, give some historical background to New Zealand and the New Zealand health system, and discuss examples of how health economics has influenced thinking about the organisation of the health sector and priority setting. I conclude the paper with overall observations about the role of health economics in health policy in New Zealand, also identifying where health economics has not made the contribution it could and where further influence might be beneficial.

  6. Midwifery education in New Zealand: Education, practice and autonomy.

    Gilkison, Andrea; Pairman, Sally; McAra-Couper, Judith; Kensington, Mary; James, Liz


    New Zealand's midwifery education model is intertwined with a practice model which is underpinned by autonomy and partnership. The curriculum prepares students for practice across the scope of midwifery on their own responsibility. While students have formal learning opportunities within educational institutions they spend at least half of their programme learning through authentic work experiences alongside midwives and women. Midwifery educators partner with practising midwives to support students to develop the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to practise midwifery in the New Zealand context. This paper provides an overview of New Zealand's midwifery education model and identifies how it is integrated with New Zealand's unique midwifery service.

  7. Mineral dust radiative effect on snow in European Alps

    Di Mauro, Biagio; Fava, Francesco; Ferrero, Luca; Garzonio, Roberto; Baccolo, Giovanni; Delmonte, Barbara; Colombo, Roberto


    Mineral Dust (MD) is known to increase the absorption of solar radiation when deposited on snow and ice. This process causes a decrease in the albedo and may enhance snow melting, resulting in a positive radiative forcing (RF) in climate system. The RF from MD on snow can assume high values (~100-200 W/m2) after depositional events altering snow and ice radiative balance and hydrological cycle. In this study, we analyzed a significant MD transport happened during spring in 2014 and in particular its impact on snow optical properties. The dust plume was entrained in the troposphere over the Saharan desert (North African Grand Erg Oriental) during the passage of a cold front, and then transported NE over the Mediterranean by cyclonic atmospheric conditions. MD reached the European Alps where it was deposited by snowfall. We conducted a field proximal sensing survey in 10 plots (2x2 meters) at the Artavaggio plains (Lecco, Italy) with a hyperspectral radiometer (ASD Field-spec pro) collecting reflected radiance of snow in a spectral range between 350 and 2500 nm. Surface snow samples were collected and analyzed in clean room with microparticle counter in order to determine the size distribution and the concentration of MD in each sample. In addition, total mass of insoluble material was also measured by filtering the melted snow. Observed spectra were compared to those simulated by parameterizing the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) radiative transfer model with observed variables such as snow grain size, snow density and size distribution of MD. We defined a novel spectral index, the Snow Darkening Index (SDI) to combine red and green wavelengths showing nonlinear correlation with measured MD concentration. Instantaneous radiative forcing was then estimated as the spectral difference between upwelling irradiance of plot containing MD and pure snow plots. MD concentration was up to 107 ppm and total mass of insoluble material up to 325 ppm. Measured RF values

  8. Modeling Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Alps

    Kraxner, Florian; Leduc, Sylvain; Kindermann, Georg; Fuss, Sabine; Pietsch, Stephan; Lakyda, Ivan; Serrano Leon, Hernan; Shchepashchenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly


    Sustainability of bioenergy is often indicated by the neutrality of emissions at the conversion site while the feedstock production site is assumed to be carbon neutral. Recent research shows that sustainability of bioenergy systems starts with feedstock management. Even if sustainable forest management is applied, different management types can impact ecosystem services substantially. This study examines different sustainable forest management systems together with an optimal planning of green-field bioenergy plants in the Alps. Two models - the biophysical global forest model (G4M) and a techno-economic engineering model for optimizing renewable energy systems (BeWhere) are implemented. G4M is applied in a forward looking manner in order to provide information on the forest under different management scenarios: (1) managing the forest for maximizing the carbon sequestration; or (2) managing the forest for maximizing the harvestable wood amount for bioenergy production. The results from the forest modelling are then picked up by the engineering model BeWhere, which optimizes the bioenergy production in terms of energy demand (power and heat demand by population) and supply (wood harvesting potentials), feedstock harvesting and transport costs, the location and capacity of the bioenergy plant as well as the energy distribution logistics with respect to heat and electricity (e.g. considering existing grids for electricity or district heating etc.). First results highlight the importance of considering ecosystem services under different scenarios and in a geographically explicit manner. While aiming at producing the same amount of bioenergy under both forest management scenarios, it turns out that in scenario (1) a substantially larger area (distributed across the Alps) will need to be used for producing (and harvesting) the necessary amount of feedstock than under scenario (2). This result clearly shows that scenario (2) has to be seen as an "intensification

  9. The 8.2 ka event in the northern Alps

    Luetscher, M.; Hoffmann, D. L.; Müller, W.; Spötl, C.


    The 8.2 ka event has been identified as a widespread climate excursion affecting most of the Northern Hemisphere. High-resolution records from ice cores and speleothems constrain the chronology of this event to between 8.21±0.02 and 8.08±0.03 ka BP (Vinther et al. 2006, Cheng et al. 2009). A distinctive asymmetrical pattern in d18O is consistent with modelling results suggesting rapid input of freshwater into the northern Atlantic due to catastrophic drainage of ice-marginal lakes (LeGrande et al., 2008). Despite an increasing amount of data, the regional expression of this event is still poorly understood. Here, we present a new speleothem record from Gasselhöhle in the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria. The 205 mm-long GAS19 stalagmite was analysed at high resolution for stable isotopes (100 µm) and trace elements (~10-15 µm; continuous LA-ICPMS profiles). Twelve individual MC-ICP-MS U/Th ages underline an annual growth rate of ca. 60 µm during the Early Holocene. The d18O averages -8.9‰, only slightly more depleted than modern carbonate precipitates from the same cave chamber. The 8.2 ka event is marked in GAS19 by a ca. 1‰ excursion with a minimum value of -9.9‰. Largely invariant trace element concentrations (e.g. Mg, U, Sr, Ba) indicate essentially no changes in the local hydrological regime and therefore support the hypothesis of a temperature-dominated signal. The proximity to the lacustrine isotope record from Mondsee (eg. Lauterbach et al. 2011) opens new perspectives for the interpretation of the oxygen isotope signal using two archives at different elevations. Moreover, several coeval speleothem records are available across the Eastern Alps fostering a spatial comparison of the proxy signals associated with this event. Cheng, H. et al. (2009), Geology, 37, 1007-1010 Lauterbach, S. et al. (2011), JQS, 26, 253-267 LeGrande, A.N., Schmidt, G.A. (2008), Paleoceanography, 23, doi: 10.1029/2008PA001610 Vinther, B. et al. (2006), JGR, 111, D13103

  10. Dendroclimatic trend and glacial fluctuations in the Central Italian Alps

    Pelfini, M.; Santilli, M.; D Agata, C.; Diolaiuti, G.; Smiraglia, C.


    In the Alpine environment, one of the main limiting factors for tree growth is the thermal conditions of the vegetative season. The conifers at high altitude, if not subject to others disturbs, such as geomorphological processes or biological interferences, undergo a development, from which the width of annual rings depends. Five chronologies few centuries long, obtained for the species Larix decidua Mill. and Pinus cembra L. from different valleys of the Central Italian Alps (Alpisella, Valfurva, Gavia and Solda) in proximity of timberline (2000-2550 m of altitude), were analysed and their climatic signal gained; this last one was then related to the recent glacial fluctuations. The chronologies are the averages of many dendrochronological indicized curves obtained from dominant trees with regular growth and extended from 13th-17th century up to the present. The time intervals of the chronologies are the following ones: Pinus cembra: 1752-1999 for Valfurva; 1607-1999 for Gavia; 1593-1999 for Val Solda. With regard to Larix decidua: 1252-1998 for Val Solda; 1784-2001 for Alpisella. The good correspondence between the various chronologies allows to consider them representative of the climatic regional signal. In order to evidence climatic evolution, linear trends based on running mean with period of 11 years have been constructed. Those curves have been compared between them and then overlapped and mediated in order to obtain a climatic signal of regional value that excludes eventual local anomalies. Finally, the growth variations in the chronologies have been compared to known alpine climatic variations and glacial fluctuations. In particular time-distance curves (curves of cumulated frontal variations) of some glaciers from the Ortles-Cevedale Group were utilized. The periods of tree rings growth rate reduction appear well correlated to glacial advancing phases of the Little Ice Age and of the following phases. In particular, growth rate reductions are observable

  11. A New Fossil Termite(Isoptera,Stolotermitidae,Stolotermes)from the Early Miocene of Otago,New Zealand

    Uwe KAULFUSS; Anthony C.HARRIS; Daphne E.LEE


    The forewing of a termite from Eady Miocene lake sediments in Otago,southern New Zealand is figured and described.It exhibits the generic characters of the damp-wood termite Stolotermes Hagen,but differs from forewings of the known species in size and venation pattern and is described as Stolotermes kupe sp.nov.S.kupe represents the first confident record of fossil Stolotermitidae and extends the fossil record of the family back to the Early Miocene.It also is the first direct evidence of fossil Isoptera from New Zealand.though silicified termite faecal pellets.referable to Kalotermes brauni,have been previously described.S.kupe indicates that Stolotermitidae has been present in the Australasian re#on since at least the Early Miocene.

  12. Novel morphological and molecular data for Corynosoma hannae Zdzitowiecki, 1984 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) from teleosts, fish-eating birds and pinnipeds from New Zealand.

    Hernández-Orts, Jesús S; Smales, Lesley R; Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos D; García-Varela, Martín; Presswell, Bronwen


    The polymorphid acanthocephalan, Corynosoma hannae Zdzitowiecki, 1984 is characterised on the basis of newly collected material from a New Zealand sea lion, Phocarctos hookeri (Gray), and long-nosed fur seal, Arctophoca forsteri (Lesson) (definitive hosts), and from Stewart Island shags, Leucocarbo chalconotus (Gray), spotted shags, Phalacrocorax punctatus (Sparrman) and yellow-eyed penguins, Megadyptes antipodes (Hombron & Jacquinot) (non-definitive hosts) from New Zealand. Specimens are described in detail and scanning electron micrographs for C. hannae are provided. Additionally, cystacanths of C. hannae are reported and described for the first time from the body cavity and mesenteries of New Zealand brill, Colistium guntheri (Hutton) and from New Zealand sole, Peltorhamphus novaezeelandiae Günther from Kaka Point, Otago in New Zealand. Partial sequence data for the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene (cox1) for adults, immature specimens and cystacanths of C. hannae were obtained. Phylogenetic analyses of the newly-generated sequences and for available cox1 sequences of Corynosoma spp. revealed a close relationship between C. hannae and C. australe Johnston, 1937, both species infecting pinnipeds in the Southern Hemisphere. However, a morphological comparison of the species suggests that C. hannae mostly closely resembles C. evae Zdzitowiecki, 1984 and C. semerme (Forssell, 1904), the latter of which occurs in pinnipeds in the Northern Hemisphere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Epigondolella abneptis and E. spatulata in the Lower Norian in the central Kamnik Alps, Slovenia

    Anton Ramovš


    Full Text Available Epigondolella abneptis (Huckriede, 1958 and E. spatulata (Hayashi, 1968from the Lower Norian (Upper Triassic deeper marine micritic limestones with chert nodules and lenses in the locality Sleme, central Kamnik Alps, are presented.

  14. Detecting an infrared photon within an hour. Transition-edge detector at ALPS-II

    Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Horns, Dieter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Collaboration: ALPS-II collaboration


    An essential design requirement of the ALPS-II experiment is the efficient detection of single photons with a very low instrumental background of 10 {mu}Hz. In 2011 the ALPS collaboration started to set up a TES detector (Transition-Edge Sensor) for ALPS-II, the second phase of the experiment. Since mid of 2013 the setup is ready for characterization in the ALPS laboratory: an ADR cryostat (Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator) as millikelvin environment, a low noise SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) with electronics for read-out and a fiber-coupled high-efficient TES for near-infrared photons as sensor. First measurements have shown a good discrimination between noise and 1064 nm signals.

  15. Diterpenoid alkaloid toxicosis in cattle in the Swiss Alps.

    Puschner, Birgit; Booth, Marcia C; Tor, Elizabeth R; Odermatt, Arnold


    Between 1995 and 1999, several cattle of a group of 80 heifers died acutely on a pasture in the Swiss Alps. The animals were Found dead between July 9th and 15th eachyear. Only 1 animal was examined on post-mortem, and no significant lesions were found. Aconitum vulpera, A napellus, and Delphinium elatum were identified in the pasture. The presence of diterpenoid alkaloid-containing plants in the pasture, the rapid death of the animals, and the lack of pathologic lesions suggested diterpenoid alkaloid toxicosis as a cause of death. A multiresidue alkaloid screen using gas chromatography with a mass spectrometric detector was employed on rumen, abomasal, small intestine, and cecal contents from the I heifer. Deltaline, deltamine, and lycoctonine were identified. Aconitine was found in all gastrointestinal samples using a sensitive and highly specific liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry methodology for aconitine analysis. The findings ofditerpenoid alkaloids in the gastrointestinal contents confirmed exposure to Delphinium and Aconitum spp, possibly resulting in sudden death.

  16. CLIM-RUN: Tourism cas study over the French Alps

    Dubois, C.


    Climate information for societal use has becoming a major challenge for tourism management and adaptation in a context of strong climate variability and change. Within the CLIMRUN EU FP7, a case study on summer tourism in the French Alps has been identify. I will introduce the bottom-up approach use in the project where stakeholders and local users meet with climate experts. From those meetings, they thus identify the climate dependence and information which impact their summer activities over this region. All the activities are located in a mountainous region where outdoor leisure is the main economic driver of the region. It has emerged that the climate requirements are as well on past as on future climate information. On one side, the past climate parameters are found to be an invaluable information to evaluate the climate dependence of the different activities. A better knowledge as well as a growing interest in climate variability has been express to quantify the climate dependence on their activities. On the other side, the future climate information requested mainly on seasonal to decadal timescale. A particular interest has been express on the snow cover at the end of the winter season, evolution of heavy precipitations, heatwave, air temperatures and well as the water temperature of the mountainous lakes. Those climate variables are used to create comfort index under climate change. All those targeted climate information are based on on-going projects as well as future model development.

  17. Advanced Large Area Plastic Scintillator Project (ALPS): Final Report

    Jordan, David V.; Reeder, Paul L.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Warren, Glen A.; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Alzheimer, James M.; Crowell, Shannon L.; Sliger, William A.


    The advanced Large-Area Plastic Scintillator (ALPS) Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigated possible technological avenues for substantially advancing the state-of-the-art in gamma-ray detection via large-area plastic scintillators. The three predominant themes of these investigations comprised the following: * Maximizing light collection efficiency from a single large-area sheet of plastic scintillator, and optimizing hardware event trigger definition to retain detection efficiency while exploiting the power of coincidence to suppress single-PMT "dark current" background; * Utilizing anti-Compton vetoing and supplementary spectral information from a co-located secondary, or "Back" detector, to both (1) minimize Compton background in the low-energy portion of the "Front" scintillator's pulse-height spectrum, and (2) sharpen the statistical accuracy of the front detector's low-energy response prediction as impelmented in suitable energy-windowing algorithms; and * Investigating alternative materials to enhance the intrinsic gamma-ray detection efficiency of plastic-based sensors.

  18. Statistically extrapolated nowcasting of summertime precipitation over the Eastern Alps

    Chen, Min; Bica, Benedikt; Tüchler, Lukas; Kann, Alexander; Wang, Yong


    This paper presents a new multiple linear regression (MLR) approach to updating the hourly, extrapolated precipitation forecasts generated by the INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) system for the Eastern Alps. The generalized form of the model approximates the updated precipitation forecast as a linear response to combinations of predictors selected through a backward elimination algorithm from a pool of predictors. The predictors comprise the raw output of the extrapolated precipitation forecast, the latest radar observations, the convective analysis, and the precipitation analysis. For every MLR model, bias and distribution correction procedures are designed to further correct the systematic regression errors. Applications of the MLR models to a verification dataset containing two months of qualified samples, and to one-month gridded data, are performed and evaluated. Generally, MLR yields slight, but definite, improvements in the intensity accuracy of forecasts during the late evening to morning period, and significantly improves the forecasts for large thresholds. The structure-amplitude-location scores, used to evaluate the performance of the MLR approach, based on its simulation of morphological features, indicate that MLR typically reduces the overestimation of amplitudes and generates similar horizontal structures in precipitation patterns and slightly degraded location forecasts, when compared with the extrapolated nowcasting.

  19. The ALP-PALS project: optimal coupling for laser propulsion

    Boody, F. P.; Badziak, J.; Eckel, H. A.; Gammino, S.; Krasa, J.; Laska, L.; Mezzasalma, A.; Pakhomov, A. J.; Parys, P.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Schall, W.; Torrisi, L.; Wolowski, J.


    Ablative laser propulsion (ALP) could revolutionize space travel by reducing the 30:1 propellant/payload ratio needed for near-earth orbit 50-fold. Experiments to date have demonstrated the necessary efficiency, coupling coefficient, and specific impulse for application, but were performed at pulse energies and spot sizes much smaller than required and at wavelengths not usable in the atmosphere. Prior experiments have also not simultaneously measured the properties of the ions produced or of the ablated surface, properties that would allow full understanding of the propulsion properties in terms of ion characteristics. The first realistic measurements of laser propulsion parameters are proposed using PALS (Prague Asterix Laser System), the important parameters of which (pulse energy (similar to 1 kJ), pulse length (400 ps), beam diameter (similar to 29 cm), and flat beam profile) equal those required for application. The PALS wavelength is a little short (1.3 mu mvs. > 1.5 mu m) but is closer than any other laser available and PALS' 2 omega/omega capability should allow extrapolation to application values. The PALS proven infrastructure for measuring laser-driven ion properties means that only a ballistic pendulum for measuring momentum transfer will have to be added.

  20. A Proposal for an ALPs-Chameleon Experiments Station

    Boyce, James R; Baker, Oliver Keith; Shinn, Michelle


    It is generally accepted that certain astronomical and cosmological observations can be explained by invoking the concepts of Dark Matter and Dark Energy (DM/DE). Applying straightforward extensions of the Standard Model to DM/DE, results in scalar fi?elds and predictions of particles generation via photo-magnetic coupling . Under the right conditions, these particles should be observable in earth-bound laboratory settings. Although many attempts have been made to observe these particles, none have succeeded. Heretofore, most searches have focused on detecting multi-GeV Dark Matter WIMPS. Recently, however, searches have been conducted in the lighter dark matter, sub-eV, WISP mass range. By comparison, little has been done to search for dark energy particles. The ALPs-Chameleon Experiments Stations (ACES) program, described herein, proposes a compact station that would search for both dark sector particles. Finally, it is noted that both "species" of particles - dark energy and dark matter - could be generate...

  1. Infrasound monitoring of snow avalanches in the Italian Alps

    Ripepe, Maurizio; Ulivieri, Giacomo; Marchetti, Emanuele; Chiambretti, Igor; Segor, Valerio; Pitet, Luca


    Risk assessment of snow avalanches is mostly related to weather conditions and snow cover. However a robust risk validation requires to identify all avalanches occurring, in order to compare predictions to real effects. For this purpose on December 2009 we installed a temporary 4-element, small aperture (100 m), infrasound array in the Alps. The array has been deployed south of Mt. Rosa, at an elevation of 2000 m a.s.l. in the valley of Gressoney, where natural avalanches are expected and triggered ones are regularly programmed. The array consists into 4 absolute pressure transducers with a sensitivity of 0.01 Pa in the 0.1-50 Hz frequency band and a 7 channel Guralp CMG-DM24 A/D converter, sampling at 100 Hz. Timing is achieved with a GPS receiver. The array is completely buried in snow. Gel cell batteries and 200 W solar panels provide the array power requirements (~3 W) and should allow a continuous operation during the winter season. A multi-channel semblance is carried out on the continuous data set as a function of slowness, back-azimuth and frequency of recorded infrasound in order to detect all avalanches occurring from the back-ground signal, strongly affected by microbarom and mountain induced gravity waves. This pilot experiment in Italy will allow to verify the efficiency of the system, and might represent an important validation to modeled avalanches activity during this winter season.

  2. The New Zealand Food Composition Database: A useful tool for assessing New Zealanders' nutrient intake.

    Sivakumaran, Subathira; Huffman, Lee; Sivakumaran, Sivalingam


    A country-specific food composition databases is useful for assessing nutrient intake reliably in national nutrition surveys, research studies and clinical practice. The New Zealand Food Composition Database (NZFCDB) programme seeks to maintain relevant and up-to-date food records that reflect the composition of foods commonly consumed in New Zealand following Food Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations/International Network of Food Data Systems (FAO/INFOODS) guidelines. Food composition data (FCD) of up to 87 core components for approximately 600 foods have been added to NZFCDB since 2010. These foods include those identified as providing key nutrients in a 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Nutrient data obtained by analysis of composite samples or are calculated from analytical data. Currently >2500 foods in 22 food groups are freely available in various NZFCDB output products on the website: NZFCDB is the main source of FCD for estimating nutrient intake in New Zealand nutrition surveys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploration of the South-Eastern Alps lithosphere with 3D refraction seismics project Alp 2002 – data acquisition in Slovenia

    Andrej Gosar


    Full Text Available Using combined seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection method project Alp 2002 explored the contact zone between South-Eastern Alps, Dinarides and Pannonian basin. In a network of 12 profiles of 4100 km total length, which are spread over seven countries,1055 portable seismographs were deployed and 31 strong (300 kg explosions fired. In Slovenia 127 seismographs were deployed along five profiles totalling 575 km and two explosions fired near Vojnik and Gradin. The collected data will allow construction of athree-dimensional model of the lithosphere and will contribute to the understanding of the tectonics and geodynamics at the junction of European, Adriatic and Tisza plates.

  4. Present status and distribution of the Lynx in the Swiss Alps

    Anja Molinari-Jobin


    Full Text Available Abstract To evaluate the population trend of lynx in the Swiss Alps, we analysed the spatial and numerical development of signs of presence found from 1995 to 1999 and compared them with previous years. Three sources of information on the presence of lynx are available: (1 reports of lynx killed or found dead; (2 records of livestock killed by lynx; (3 records of wild prey remains, tracks, scats, sightings, and vocalisations. We distinguished three levels of reliability: Quality 1 represent the hard facts, e.g. all reports of lynx killed or found dead, photographs of lynx as well as young orphaned lynx caught in the wild and taken into captivity. Quality 2 include all records of livestock killed, wild prey remains, tracks and scats reported by people who have attended special courses, e.g. mainly game wardens. Quality 3 are all wild prey remains and tracks reported by the general public as well as all sightings, scats and vocalisations, e.g. signs that cannot be verified. More than 1600 signs of presence were recorded in the Swiss Alps in this 5-year-period. A high number of quality 1 and 2 records showed that (1 the lynx population in the north-western Swiss Alps increased from 1994 to 1999, that (2 there is a moderate presence of the species in the central and south-western parts and (3 none or hardly any lynx are found in the eastern Alps of Switzerland. Based on a radio-telemetry study and the number of quality 2 data, we were able to estimate the number of lynx in the Swiss Alps at 70 individuals. To counterpart the uneven distribution of lynx in Switzerland, lynx are being translocated from the north-western Alps to the eastern Swiss Alps, as the expansion of the Swiss lynx population is crucial for the conservation of the lynx in the whole Alps.

  5. A hydrological model of New Zealand

    Woods, R. A.; Tarboton, D. G.; Ibbitt, R. P.; Wild, M.; Henderson, R. D.; Turner, R.


    We present initial results from a hydrological model of New Zealand, using Topnet, a variant of TOPMODEL, linked to a kinematic wave channel network routing algorithm. This model run uses daily timesteps for the period 1985-2001, and subdivides the country into approximately 35,000 sub-catchments of 7-10 sq km each. The sub-catchments are linked by 55,000 river reaches, which route sub-catchment runoff. The model subcatchments and reaches are defined automatically by DEM analyses, and initial estimates of model parameters are defined by GIS overlay, coupled with purpose-built model assembly code, and lookup tables for model parameters. A daily simulation for 1 year over New Zealand takes two hours on a standard desktop computer. The model is forced by gridded daily rainfall and temperature data, and it calculates daily water balance for each of the sub-catchments (rain, evaporation, throughfall, infiltration, soil drainage, surface runoff, subsurface runoff, and changes in storage in the canopy, root zone, and saturated storage), as well as daily flows in each river reach. The model as currently implemented does not include snow, glaciers, or deep groundwater flow (i.e. across sub-catchment boundaries). The first applications of the model are for developing an annual water balance of New Zealand for the period 1994-2001, at the regional scale, and for driving a high-spatial resolution, daily time-stepping national erosion model. We are moving to further applications for water resource modeling (e.g. impact of abstraction and/or storage), and for flood forecasting, using hourly rainfall from a mesoscale atmospheric model.

  6. TAG Oil hunting elephants in New Zealand



    Calgary-based TAG Oil is an exploration company that manages 4.1 million acres of major producing oil and gas fields in New Zealand. The enormous Maui field, with 4 tcf of natural gas in place, has dominated the gas market in New Zealand by meeting nearly 90 per cent of the country's energy demand at costs much lower than world prices. However, the maturing field is in decline and will cease production by 2008. New gas field discoveries will only meet 60 per cent of the country's energy requirements for 5 additional years. Unless new large reserves of gas are discovered, the supply and demand situation will get worse. Lead time to place new production on-stream requires 5 to 10 years, which creates a large supply gap over the next decade. Public resistance to coal-fired power plants, new hydroelectric dams and nuclear power has left the country with no viable alternative to natural gas. TAG Oil has taken this unique opportunity to create value when gas demand is at its maximum and energy alternatives are at a minimum. This paper presented 8 reasons why New Zealand is a good place for petroleum investment. Most exploration has occurred in the Taranaki Basin, where only 130 exploration wells have been drilled. The rest of the sedimentary basins are essentially unexplored, although many exhibit oil seeps and have hydrocarbon potential. In 1998, an onshore gas discovery was made on the East Coast Basin. Sub-commercial discoveries have also been made in the offshore Canterbury and Great South basins. TAG Oil is focusing on shallow oil and gas pools in the Miocene reservoirs at Taranaki, as well as on deeper gas prospects in Tariki and Kapuni Sands. One of the challenges was a shortage of drilling rigs, so TAG is having a rig built in Calgary and shipped south. 2 figs.

  7. TAG Oil hunting elephants in New Zealand



    Calgary-based TAG Oil is an exploration company that manages 4.1 million acres of major producing oil and gas fields in New Zealand. The enormous Maui field, with 4 tcf of natural gas in place, has dominated the gas market in New Zealand by meeting nearly 90 per cent of the country's energy demand at costs much lower than world prices. However, the maturing field is in decline and will cease production by 2008. New gas field discoveries will only meet 60 per cent of the country's energy requirements for 5 additional years. Unless new large reserves of gas are discovered, the supply and demand situation will get worse. Lead time to place new production on-stream requires 5 to 10 years, which creates a large supply gap over the next decade. Public resistance to coal-fired power plants, new hydroelectric dams and nuclear power has left the country with no viable alternative to natural gas. TAG Oil has taken this unique opportunity to create value when gas demand is at its maximum and energy alternatives are at a minimum. This paper presented 8 reasons why New Zealand is a good place for petroleum investment. Most exploration has occurred in the Taranaki Basin, where only 130 exploration wells have been drilled. The rest of the sedimentary basins are essentially unexplored, although many exhibit oil seeps and have hydrocarbon potential. In 1998, an onshore gas discovery was made on the East Coast Basin. Sub-commercial discoveries have also been made in the offshore Canterbury and Great South basins. TAG Oil is focusing on shallow oil and gas pools in the Miocene reservoirs at Taranaki, as well as on deeper gas prospects in Tariki and Kapuni Sands. One of the challenges was a shortage of drilling rigs, so TAG is having a rig built in Calgary and shipped south. 2 figs.

  8. The principal time balls of New Zealand

    Kinns, Roger


    Accurate time signals in New Zealand were important for navigation in the Pacific. Time balls at Wellington and Lyttelton were noted in the 1880 Admiralty list of time signals, with later addition of Otago. The time ball service at Wellington started in March 1864 using the first official observatory in New Zealand, but there was no Wellington time ball service during a long period of waterfront redevelopment during the 1880s. The time ball service restarted in November 1888 at a different harbour location. The original mechanical apparatus was used with a new ball, but the system was destroyed by fire in March 1909 and was never replaced. Instead, a time light service was inaugurated in 1912. The service at Lyttelton, near Christchurch, began in December 1876 after construction of the signal station there. It used telegraph signals from Wellington to regulate the time ball. By the end of 1909, it was the only official time ball in New Zealand, providing a service that lasted until 1934. The Lyttelton time ball tower was an iconic landmark in New Zealand that had been carefully restored. Tragically, the tower collapsed in the 2011 earthquakes and aftershocks that devastated Christchurch. A daily time ball service at Port Chalmers, near Dunedin, started in June 1867, initially using local observatory facilities. The service appears to have been discontinued in October 1877, but was re-established in April 1882 as a weekly service, with control by telegraph from Wellington. The service had been withdrawn altogether by the end of 1909. Auckland never established a reliable time ball service, despite provision of a weekly service for mariners by a public-spirited citizen between August 1864 and June 1866. A time ball was finally installed on the Harbour Board building in 1901, but the signal was unreliable and it ceased in 1902. Complaints from ships' masters led to various proposals to re-establish a service. These concluded with erection of a time ball on the new

  9. Interference Tests at Kawerau, New Zealand

    Burnell, John G.; McGuinness, Mark J.


    Analysis of interference tests at the Kawerau geothermal field in New Zealand has indicated that the reservoir may be viewed on a coarse scale as a two-layer structure. While these layers have high permeabilities, they are in poor hydrological communication with each other. The shallower layer is modelled as a finite cylindrical reservoir. The deeper layer is modelled as a larger cylindrical reservoir with recharge from the sides. The fitted permeabilities and storativities suggest the importance of flow in fractures at Kawerau. 2 tabs., 14 figs., 8 refs.

  10. Configurational effects of collagen/ALP coatings on enzyme immobilization and surface mineralization

    Bosco, R.; Leeuwenburgh, S. C. G.; Jansen, J. A.; van den Beucken, J. J. J. P.


    The ultimate goal for surface modifications in bone implants is to achieve biologically active surface able to control and trigger specific tissue response. In this study was evaluated the effects of organic compound, derived from extracellular matrix, involved in tissue mineralization. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) plays a fundamental role in bone mineralization concurrently with collagen, the main organic components of bones. Electrospray deposition (ESD) was used to coat titanium disks with ALP and collagen at room temperature. To verify the synergistic role of ALP and collagen different conformations of coatings (mixed and layered) were obtained and their mineralization capacity was tested in vitro. The mineralization tests indicated the fundamental role of collagen to increase ALP coating retention. Analyses indicated that the coating conformation has a role; in fact the mixed group showed improved ALP retention, enzymatic activity and unique mineralized surface morphology. ESD demonstrated to be a successful method to deposit organic molecules preserving their properties as indicated by the in vitro results. These findings proved the synergistic effect of ALP and collagen in inducing mineralization offering an intriguing coating constituent for medical device that aim to trigger surface mineralization such as bone implants.

  11. The Quest for an Intermediate-Scale Accidental Axion and Further ALPs

    Dias, A G; Nishi, C C; Ringwald, A; Vaudrevange, P


    The recent detection of the cosmic microwave background polarimeter experiment BICEP2 of tensor fluctuations in the B-mode power spectrum basically excludes all plausible axion models where its decay constant is above $10^{13}$ GeV. Moreover, there are strong theoretical, astrophysical, and cosmological motivations for models involving, in addition to the axion, also axion-like particles (ALPs), with decay constants in the intermediate scale range, between $10^9$ GeV and $10^{13}$ GeV. Here, we present a general analysis of models with an axion and further ALPs and derive bounds on the relative size of the axion and ALP photon (and electron) coupling. We discuss what we can learn from measurements of the axion and ALP photon couplings about the fundamental parameters of the underlying ultraviolet completion of the theory. For the latter we consider extensions of the Standard Model in which the axion and the ALP(s) appear as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the breaking of global chiral $U(1)$ (Peccei-Quinn ...

  12. IL-17 protects T cells from apoptosis and contributes to development of ALPS-like phenotypes.

    Boggio, Elena; Clemente, Nausicaa; Mondino, Anna; Cappellano, Giuseppe; Orilieri, Elisabetta; Gigliotti, Casimiro L; Toth, Erika; Ramenghi, Ugo; Dianzani, Umberto; Chiocchetti, Annalisa


    In autoimmune/lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), defective Fas death receptor function causes lymphadenomegaly/splenomegaly, the expansion of T-cell receptor αβ(+) CD4/CD8 double-negative T cells, and frequent development of hematologic autoimmunity. Dianzani autoimmune lymphoproliferative disease (DALD) has a similar phenotype but lacks the expansion of double-negative T cells. This work shows that patients with ALPS and DALD have high serum levels of interleukin 17A (IL-17A), IL-17F, and IL-17AF, which are involved in several autoimmune diseases, and that their T cells show increased secretion of these cytokines upon activation in vitro. The following data indicate that these cytokines may contribute to ALPS and DALD: (1) recombinant IL-17A and IL-17F significantly inhibit Fas-induced cell death in Fas-sensitive T cells from healthy donors; (2) this inhibitory effect is also induced by the patients' serum and is reversed by anti-IL-17A antibodies; (3) IL-17A neutralization substantially increases Fas-induced cell death in T cells from ALPS and DALD patients in vitro; and (4) treatment with anti-IL-17A antibodies ameliorates the autoimmune manifestations and, at a lesser extent, the lymphoproliferative phenotype and prolongs survival in MRLlpr/lpr mice, which are an animal model of ALPS. These data suggest that IL-17A and IL-17F could be targeted therapeutically to improve Fas function in ALPS and DALD.

  13. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) caused by Fas (CD95) mutation mimicking sarcoidosis.

    Müllauer, Leonhard; Emhofer, Josef; Wohlfart, Sabine; Pichlhöfer, Bettina; Stary, Susanne; Ebetsberger, Georg; Mannhalter, Christine; Chott, Andreas


    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is an inherited disorder associated with defects in apoptosis, characterized by childhood onset of lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hyperimmunoglobulinemia, and autoimmune disease. ALPS is most frequently associated with a mutation in the cell death receptor Fas (CD95). Very rarely a mutation in caspase 10 is present. An increase of CD4/CD8 double negative T cells in the peripheral blood and lymph nodes is a feature characteristic of ALPS. Additionally, histiocytic proliferations resembling sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease) were reported recently in patients with ALPS. In the rare cases with a caspase 10 mutation an accumulation of dendritic cells in lymphoid organs was noted. We describe a different, sarcoidosislike, histiocytic infiltration of lymph nodes that persisted for years in a girl, that was initially supposed to suffer from sarcoidosis, but was eventually diagnosed as ALPS, associated with a missense mutation in the intracellular death domain of Fas. This sarcoidosislike histologic picture extends the spectrum of histiocytic lymph node alterations observed in ALPS and alerts of a potential diagnostic pitfall.

  14. IA of bio-economic projects in Region Zealand, Denmark

    Lybæk, Rikke; Kjær, Tyge; Palsberg, Aske

    Creating new pathways for sustainable ready-to-implement bio-economic projects within Region Zealand, Denmark, based on available biomass resources and existing and proven technology concepts.......Creating new pathways for sustainable ready-to-implement bio-economic projects within Region Zealand, Denmark, based on available biomass resources and existing and proven technology concepts....

  15. Community Psychology in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Fisher, Adrian T.; Gridley, Heather; Thomas, David R.; Bishop, Brian


    Community psychology in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand reflect interesting parallels and convergences. While both have a strong educational basis influenced by North American publications, they have developed foci and forms of practice reflecting the cultural, political, and historic underpinnings of these two countries. In New Zealand,…

  16. Recovery Competencies for New Zealand Mental Health Workers.

    O'Hagan, Mary

    This book contains a detailed report of the recovery principles set out in the Mental Health Commission's Blueprint for Mental Health Services in New Zealand. The competencies, endorsed by the New Zealand government, describe what mental health workers need to know about using the recovery approach in their work with people with mental illness.…

  17. Relativism, Values and Morals in the New Zealand Curriculum Framework

    Jorgensen, Lone Morris; Ryan, SueAnn


    "The New Zealand Curriculum Framework", 1993, is the official document for teaching, learning and assessment in New Zealand schools. It consists of a set of curriculum statements, which define the learning principles, achievement aims and essential skills for seven learning areas. It also indicates the place of attitudes and values in…

  18. Competition and Reform of the New Zealand Tertiary Education Sector

    Abbott, Malcolm


    The purpose of this paper is to use an historical approach to examine the changing nature, size and diversification of education and training in New Zealand. In particular, attention will be concentrated on the impact of the introduction of competition into the New Zealand tertiary education industry since 1989. It will examine the relationship…

  19. Water quality in New Zealand's planted forests: A review

    Brenda R. Baillie; Daniel G. Neary


    This paper reviewed the key physical, chemical and biological water quality attributes of surface waters in New Zealand’s planted forests. The purpose was to: a) assess the changes in water quality throughout the planted forestry cycle from afforestation through to harvesting; b) compare water quality from planted forests with other land uses in New Zealand; and c)...

  20. Spirituality in Career from a New Zealand Maori Perspective.

    Furbish, Dale S.; Reid, Lynette

    New Zealand Maori are the indigenous people of New Zealand Aotearoa, a relatively small nation of 4 million people. The juxtaposition of Maori and European cultures presents an opportunity to contrast the highly spiritual nature of Maori culture with European traditions of linearity and rationality. This contrast can be especially appreciated in…

  1. Small Country, Big Business? New Zealand as Education Exporter

    Martens, Kerstin; Starke, Peter


    This paper discusses New Zealand's role in the global market for tertiary education. The internationalisation and liberalisation of education markets is progressing rapidly in today's globalising world, as reflected by the incorporation of education as a service into the GATS framework. Through the example of New Zealand as a case study for the…

  2. Fluid-mediated slab-mantle interaction during (U)HP and HT metamorphism of garnet peridotites and their hosting crustal rocks (Monte Duria, Central Alps, N Italy)

    Pellegrino, Luca; Malaspina, Nadia; Zanchetta, Stefano; Tumiati, Simone


    The Adula-Cima Lunga nappe represents the highest of the Lower Penninic units of the Central Alps. It consists of orthogneiss and paragneiss of pre-Mesozoic origin hosting lenses of metacarbonates, partly retrogressed eclogites and garnet/chlorite peridotites. The garnet peridotite bodies cropping out in the southern area of the nappe complex (Alpe Arami, Cima di Gagnone and Monte Duria) record the highest metamorphic conditions (P>3.0 GPa, T=800-850°C. In the study area garnet peridotite lenses are in contact with biotite-bearing migmatites or hosted in amphibole-bearing migmatites and K-feldspar gneisses. Petrographic and minerochemical data indicate a previously unknown HT stage during peridotite and eclogite exhumation. Peridotites show orthopyroxene with symplectites of tiny crystals of baddeleyte (ZrO2) and srilankite (ZrTi2O6), whereas only zircon was found in the symplectites after garnet. Bulk rock analyses of peridotites show REE content 3 to 5 times lower than PM but with a clear selective enrichment in LREE (spoon-like pattern), and with a Eu positive anomaly. The same "spoon like" pattern in the LREE field is displayed also by eclogites, shifted to values 2 to 5 times higher than PM. Due to the similarities of the REE patterns of peridotite and eclogite and the occurrence of the Eu positive anomaly in most of the peridotite analyses that points to a contamination by a "basaltic" source, we suggest that eclogites are the source of the metasomatic agent that enriched the original garnet peridotite. The Monte Duria area thus represents a natural laboratory where is possible to study "in situ" the mantle-crust interaction. Metasomatic agents and processes, relationships between UHP-UHT metamorphism and metasomatism, and mechanisms of emplacement of mantle rocks into crustal slab can be here addressed and framed in the context of the well known geological background of the Alps.

  3. New Zealand needs a Practice Based Research Network.

    Leitch, Sharon


    Practice Based Research Networks (PBRNs) are groups of general practices collaborating to produce research. Contemporary New Zealand health information technology systems are ideal for electronic data extraction for PBRN research. Stakeholders have a valuable, but typically underutilised, part to play in research. Development of an e-participation platform will facilitate stakeholder engagement. New Zealand is in a unique position to create an innovative, low cost, stakeholder-engaged PBRN. This type of PBRN would offer unparalleled research opportunities, and would strengthen New Zealand's general practice research capacity. The more research information we have based on our New Zealand population, the more appropriate care we can provide. Establishing a stakeholder-engaged PBRN in New Zealand will promote and support transformational change within our health system.

  4. Interactions between climate and vegetation during the Lateglacial period as recorded by lake and mire sediment archives in Northern Italy and Southern Switzerland

    Vescovi, E.; Ravazzi, C.; Arpenti, E.; Finsinger, W.; Pini, R.; Valsecchi, V.; Wick, L.; Ammann, B.; Tinner, W.


    We reconstruct the vegetational history of the southern side of the Alps at 18,000–10,000 cal yr BP using previous and new AMS-dated stratigraphic records of pollen, stomata, and macrofossils. To address potential effects of climatic change on vegetation, we compare our results with independent pale

  5. New Zealand students on tour at CERN


    The three prize-winners Katrina Hamblin, Jordan Roach and Ellen Clarkson in front of the CMS magnet, with their teacher Noema Watene on the left. The "Journey to the End of Science" makes a stop at CERN. Katrina Hamblin, Jordan Roach and Ellen Clarkson, three high-school students from Fairfield College in Hamilton, New Zealand, won first prize in the New Zealand Royal Society's scientific film competition - the trip of a lifetime to Europe. The reward for their excellent documentary on the nuclear physicist and winner of the Nobel prize for Medicine Maurice Wilkins was a trip to Italy and Switzerland, stopping at CERN on the way. Accompanied by one of their teachers and a science journalist, the students were shown around the antiproton decelerator and the CMS experiment by Alick Macpherson, a Kiwi physicist at CERN. Their faithful camera always at the ready, the students filmed every minute of their visits to the various sites - perhaps they were hatching plans for next year's competition...

  6. Carbon and Water Cycles in a New Zealand Peat Bog

    Campbell, D.; Smith, J.


    Peat soils represent globally significant stores of carbon and an understanding of carbon exchange processes between peat wetland ecosystems and the atmosphere is important for understanding the effects of, and impacts upon, global climate change. Eddy covariance measurements of CO2, water vapour and energy fluxes were made during 1999 and 2000 at a remnant oligotrophic raised peat bog in North Island, New Zealand. The bog's hydrology has been modified by drainage of surrounding agricultural land, so that the water table is relatively deep compared to that of unmodified bogs in the region. Vegetation is dominated by two indigenous species of rush-like vascular plants belonging to the Southern hemisphere family Restionaceae. Maximum daytime CO2 fluxes were commonly -9 {μ }mol m-2 s-1 and averaged -1.3 {μ }mol m-2 s-1 over the 24-hour period in summertime. The ecosystem was a sink of atmospheric carbon for most of the year, with wintertime characterised by 12--15 weeks of carbon neutrality or slight carbon loss. Average carbon uptake by the ecosystem was 196 gC m-2 yr-1 for the two-year period. Modelling suggests that the key factor determining inter-annual variability of the carbon budget is seasonal soil temperature, whereas ecosystem respiration is relatively insensitive to the position of the lowered water table. The bog vegetation acts as a major control over water vapour loss and energy partitioning favors sensible heat production with mean summertime Bowen ratios of approximately 2.0. Water use efficiency was highest in the morning, indicating that the vegetation maximizes CO2 assimilation while the saturation vapour pressure deficit and transpiration rates are low. The dense canopy structure also restricts penetration of solar radiation to the peat surface, which minimizes evaporation and soil respiration.

  7. An inventory of glacial lakes in the Austrian Alps

    Buckel, Johannes; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Keuschnig, Markus; Götz, Joachim


    The formation of lakes is one of the consequences of glacier retreat due to climate change in mountain areas. Numerous lakes have formed in the past few decades in many mountain regions around the globe. Some of these lakes came into focus due to catastrophic hazard events especially in the Himalayas and the Andes. Glacial lake development and lifetime is controlled by the complex interplay of glacier dynamics, geomorphological process activity and geological boundary conditions. Besides the hazard potential new lakes in formerly glaciated areas will significantly contribute to a new landscape setting and to changing geomorphologic, hydrologic and ecologic conditions at higher alpine altitudes. We present an inventory of high alpine lakes in the Austrian Alps located above an altitude of 1700 m asl. Most of these lakes are assumed to be of glacial origin, but other causes for development, like mass movements are considered as well. The inventory is a central part of the project FUTURELAKES that aims at modelling the potential development of glacial lakes in Austria (we refer to the presentation by Helfricht et al. during the conference for more details on the modelling part). Lake inventory data will serve as one basis for model validation since modelling is performed on different time steps using glacier inventory data. The purpose of the lake inventory is to get new insights into boundary conditions for lake formation and evolution by analysing existing lake settings. Based on these information the project seeks to establish a model of lake sedimentation after glacier retreat in order to assess the potential lifetime of the new lakes in Austria. Lakes with a minimum size of 1000 m² were mapped using multiple aerial imagery sources. The dataset contains information on location, geometry, dam type, and status of sedimentation for each lake. Additionally, various geologic, geomorphic and morphometric parameters describe the lake catchments. Lake data is related to

  8. La Directísima en los Alpes, Austria

    Schmidt, Wilhelm


    Full Text Available This article deals with the construction procesa of the «straight» expressway through the Tauern AIps, where several engineering works deserve special mention: — The Tauern Tunnel, 6.4 km In length. — The Katschberg Tunnel, 5.4 km In length. — The Eben-Pongan cloverleaf. — The Liesertal stretch, 75 per 100 of its length being tunnels and viaducts. The most important of this Is the Tauern Tunnel where, owing to the serious problems encountered in the brittle character of the soil, the Austrian tunnel excavation process was used, this method consisting in tensing the mountain soil in order to be able to counteract the high pressures occurring. This tunnel has a 600 m long, 11 m diameter ventilation shaft, the largest of its kind in the World.

    Se trata, en este artículo, del proceso de construcción de la Autopista de Tauern, La Directísima, en los Alpes, en la que destacan varias obras: — Túnel de Tauern, de 6,4 km de longitud. — Túnel de Katschberg, de 5,4 km de longitud. — Punto de enlace Eben-Pongau. — Tramo de Liesertal, realizado en un 75 por 100 mediante viaductos y túneles. La obra más importante es el túnel de Tauern donde, debido a los grandes problemas surgidos por la naturaleza quebradiza del terreno, hubo de emplearse un método austríaco de perforación de túneles consistente en poner en tensión la montaña para, de esta manera, contrarrestar las altas presiones que se producen. Este túnel tiene un pozo de ventilación de 600 m de longitud y 11 m de diámetro de perforación. Es el pozo vertical más grande del mundo.

  9. Examining innovation in the Alps at the local scale

    Philippe Bourdeau


    Full Text Available The Pays des Ecrins, which hosted the 2008 Alpine Week, is an emblematic mountain region of the French Alps that has to adapt in the face of numerous endogenous and exogenous crises and changes. Questions relating to creativity and innovation are thus raised in a structural manner and can be seen both as an injunction and a means to developing resources. Based on a review of the path taken by this region over the past twenty years, this paper examines the geo-historical and geo-cultural underpinnings of innovation in a context of local heritage and tourism development.Lieu d’accueil de la semaine alpine 2008, le Pays des Ecrins constitue un cas emblématique de territoire de montagne confronté à un impératif de mouvement face à de multiples facteurs de crise et de recomposition endogènes et exogènes. Les questions de la créativité et de l’innovation se voient alors posées de manière structurelle, à la fois comme ressource et injonction. A partir d’une relecture de la trajectoire de ce territoire à l’échelle des vingt dernières années, ce texte examine les conditions et les dynamiques géohistoriques et géoculturelles dans lesquelles la problématique de l’innovation peut être replacée dans un contexte de développement local patrimonial et touristique.

  10. Infrasonic monitoring of snow avalanches in the Alps

    Marchetti, E.; Ulivieri, G.; Ripepe, M.; Chiambretti, I.; Segor, V.


    Risk assessment of snow avalanches is mostly related to weather conditions and snow cover. However a robust risk validation requires to identify all avalanches occurring, in order to compare predictions to real effects. For this purpose on December 2010 we installed a permanent 4-element, small aperture (100 m), infrasound array in the Alps, after a pilot experiment carried out in Gressonay during the 2009-2010 winter season. The array has been deployed in the Ayas Valley, at an elevation of 2000 m a.s.l., where natural avalanches are expected and controlled events are regularly performed. The array consists into 4 Optimic 2180 infrasonic microphones, with a sensitivity of 10-3 Pa in the 0.5-50 Hz frequency band and a 4 channel Guralp CMG-DM24 A/D converter, sampling at 100 Hz. Timing is achieved with a GPS receiver. Data are transmitted to the Department of Earth Sciences of the University of Firenze, where data is recorded and processed in real-time. A multi-channel semblance is carried out on the continuous data set as a function of slowness, back-azimuth and frequency of recorded infrasound in order to detect all avalanches occurring from the back-ground signal, strongly affected by microbarom and mountain induced gravity waves. This permanent installation in Italy will allow to verify the efficiency of the system in short-to-medium range (2-8 km) avalanche detection, and might represent an important validation to model avalanches activity during this winter season. Moreover, the real-time processing of infrasonic array data, might strongly contribute to avalanche risk assessments providing an up-to-description of ongoing events.

  11. A statistical permafrost distribution model for the European Alps

    L. Boeckli


    Full Text Available Permafrost distribution modeling in densely populated mountain regions is an important task to support the construction of infrastructure and for the assessment of climate change effects on permafrost and related natural systems. In order to analyze permafrost distribution and evolution on an Alpine-wide scale, one consistent model for the entire domain is needed.

    We present a statistical permafrost model for the entire Alps based on rock glacier inventories and rock surface temperatures. Starting from an integrated model framework, two different sub-models were developed, one for debris covered areas (debris model and one for steep rock faces (rock model. For the debris model a generalized linear mixed-effect model (GLMM was used to predict the probability of a rock glacier being intact as opposed to relict. The model is based on the explanatory variables mean annual air temperature (MAAT, potential incoming solar radiation (PISR and the mean annual sum of precipitation (PRECIP, and achieves an excellent discrimination (area under the receiver-operating characteristic, AUROC = 0.91. Surprisingly, the probability of a rock glacier being intact is positively associated with increasing PRECIP for given MAAT and PISR conditions. The rock model was calibrated with mean annual rock surface temperatures (MARST and is based on MAAT and PISR. The linear regression achieves a root mean square error (RMSE of 1.6 °C. The final model combines the two sub-models and accounts for the different scales used for model calibration. Further steps to transfer this model into a map-based product are outlined.

  12. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic constraints on the terrigenous sediments of the Western Alps and their paleogeographic implications

    Chu, Yang; Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Wang, Qingchen


    Detrital zircons from Cretaceous micaschist, late Eocene-earliest Oligocene sandstone and early Oligocene siltstone of the Western Alps fall into three main separable age clusters at 610-540 Ma, 490-430 Ma, and 340-280 Ma that correspond to the Cadomian (Neoproterozoic), Ordovician, and Variscan (Carboniferous) events widespread in western and central Europe. Hf isotopic results indicate that these three magmatic and tectonic episodes did not give rise to significant production of juvenile crust. A distinguishable group of Triassic zircons, around 250-200 Ma which is considered to derive from the Southern Alps, has been detected in the early Oligocene "Schistes à Blocs" formation and the Briançonnais "Flysch Noir". In contrast, this age group is absent in late Eocene to earliest Oligocene sandstones. In agreement with sedimentological studies, our results show that the main source areas of the Eocene sandstone were probably located in the European continent. The arrival of detritus from the Internal Zone occurred in early Oligocene, coeval with the tectonic rotation from northwestward to westward in the propagation of allochthonous units. Based on previous studies and our new data, we argue that the Briançonnais Zone was likely a paleorelief since the middle Eocene that accounts for the lack of detritus from the Adriatic units. Contemporary sediments were accumulated in the foredeep of the Adriatic plate. From Oligocene time onward, the blockage was cut through after a regional uplifting, and thus, the Internal Zone started to provide detritus into the western flexural basins.

  13. Diversity and distribution patterns in high southern latitude sponges.

    Rachel V Downey

    Full Text Available Sponges play a key role in Antarctic marine benthic community structure and dynamics and are often a dominant component of many Southern Ocean benthic communities. Understanding the drivers of sponge distribution in Antarctica enables us to understand many of general benthic biodiversity patterns in the region. The sponges of the Antarctic and neighbouring oceanographic regions were assessed for species richness and biogeographic patterns using over 8,800 distribution records. Species-rich regions include the Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, South Georgia, Eastern Weddell Sea, Kerguelen Plateau, Falkland Islands and north New Zealand. Sampling intensity varied greatly within the study area, with sampling hotspots found at the Antarctic Peninsula, South Georgia, north New Zealand and Tierra del Fuego, with limited sampling in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas in the Southern Ocean. In contrast to previous studies we found that eurybathy and circumpolar distributions are important but not dominant characteristics in Antarctic sponges. Overall Antarctic sponge species endemism is ∼43%, with a higher level for the class Hexactinellida (68%. Endemism levels are lower than previous estimates, but still indicate the importance of the Polar Front in isolating the Southern Ocean fauna. Nineteen distinct sponge distribution patterns were found, ranging from regional endemics to cosmopolitan species. A single, distinct Antarctic demosponge fauna is found to encompass all areas within the Polar Front, and the sub-Antarctic regions of the Kerguelen Plateau and Macquarie Island. Biogeographical analyses indicate stronger faunal links between Antarctica and South America, with little evidence of links between Antarctica and South Africa, Southern Australia or New Zealand. We conclude that the biogeographic and species distribution patterns observed are largely driven by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the timing of past continent

  14. Volcanic records of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion from Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand

    Ingham, E.; Turner, G. M.; Conway, C. E.; Heslop, D.; Roberts, A. P.; Leonard, G.; Townsend, D.; Calvert, A.


    We present palaeodirectional records of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion from lavas on Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand. Fourteen lava flows on the northwestern and southern flanks of Mt Ruapehu, with 40Ar/39Ar weighted mean plateau ages that range from 46.3 ± 2.0 to 39.9 ± 1.4 ka, were studied. The youngest and older flows carry a normal polarity magnetization; however, six flows, dated between 46.3 ± 2.0 and 42.7 ± 1.8 ka, record excursional directions. Three of these flows record southerly palaeomagnetic declinations and negative inclinations that agree well with a published Laschamp record from the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF). Together, the AVF and Mt Ruapehu lavas currently represent the only volcanic records of the Laschamp excursion outside the Chaîne des Puys region, France. Thus, they make an important contribution to the global set of Laschamp excursion records. Virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) groups for the New Zealand and French records early in the excursion are compatible with a dipole-dominated field that rotated to an equatorial orientation while simultaneously decaying in strength. In contrast, younger excursional flows from France and New Zealand yield separate VGP groups, which suggest either that the field had a nondipolar morphology in this later phase, or that the VGP groups were not synchronous. 40Ar/39Ar ages for the Mt Ruapehu record are on average slightly older than published northern hemisphere ages and from the relative palaeointensity minimum in the GLOPIS sedimentary stack. Although few individual ages differ significantly at the 2σ level, the spread suggests an overall excursion duration that is longer than the currently accepted 1500 years. This age spread may result from excess Ar in magmas at the time of the eruption biasing the results to slightly older ages, or from non-synchronous excursional field behaviour at near-antipodal locations, or, possibly, a precursory phase prior to the main excursion.

  15. Export production in the New-Zealand region since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Durand, Axel; Chase, Zanna; Noble, Taryn L.; Bostock, Helen; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Kitchener, Priya; Townsend, Ashley T.; Jansen, Nils; Kinsley, Les; Jacobsen, Geraldine; Johnson, Sean; Neil, Helen


    Increased export production (EP) in the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) of the Southern Ocean due to iron fertilisation has been proposed as a key mechanism for explaining carbon drawdown during the last glacial maximum (LGM). This work reconstructs marine EP since the LGM at four sites around New Zealand. For the first time in this region, 230-Thorium-normalised fluxes of biogenic opal, carbonate, excess barium, and organic carbon are presented. In Subtropical Waters and the SAZ, these flux variations show that EP has not changed markedly since the LGM. The only exception is a site currently north of the subtropical front. Here we suggest the subtropical front shifted over the core site between 18 and 12 ka, driving increased EP. To understand why EP remained mostly low and constant elsewhere, lithogenic fluxes at the four sites were measured to investigate changes in dust deposition. At all sites, lithogenic fluxes were greater during the LGM compared to the Holocene. The positive temporal correlation between the Antarctic dust record and lithogenic flux at a site in the Tasman Sea shows that regionally, increased dust deposition contributed to the high glacial lithogenic fluxes. Additionally, it is inferred that lithogenic material from erosion and glacier melting deposited on the Campbell Plateau during the deglaciation (18-12 ka). From these observations, it is proposed that even though increased glacial dust deposition may have relieved iron limitation within the SAZ around New Zealand, the availability of silicic acid limited diatom growth and thus any resultant increase in carbon export during the LGM. Therefore, silicic acid concentrations have remained low since the LGM. This result suggests that both silicic acid and iron co-limit EP in the SAZ around New Zealand, consistent with modern process studies.

  16. Biodiversity of macrozoobenthos some running waters of southern Moravia

    Ivo Sukop


    Full Text Available The present work gives the results of the research of macrozoobenthos some running waters drai­na­ge areas of the Dyje River (southern Moravia – Czech Republic. Altogether, 762 taxa of macrozoobenthos were determined from the running waters of southern Moravia. Porifera (3, Hydrozoa (3, Turbellaria (8, Nematoda (14, Nematomorpha (1, Oligochaeta (60, Hirudinea (18, Bryozoa (5, Mollusca (44, Isopoda (2, Amphipoda (4, Decapoda (2, Hydracarina (17, Ephemeroptera (65, Plecoptera (55, Odonata (26, Heteroptera (3, Plannipennia (2, Trichoptera (128, Coleoptera (59, Diptera (243. Some taxa of macrozoobenthos are extinct unfortunately in running waters of Southern Moravia at present time. Another ones appear newly, for example snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum from New Zealand or Dreissena polymorpha from Pontic region. The data presented in this paper may serve as a basis for future monitoring of water quality and zoobenthos composition in connection with presumption of climate changes.

  17. A multidisciplinary methodology for the characterization of a large rock spread in the Northern Calcareous Alps (Eastern Alps)

    Melzner, Sandra; Ottowitz, David; Pfeiler, Stefan; Moser, Michael; Motschka, Klaus; Lotter, Michael; Mandl, Gerhard Walter; Rohn, Joachim; Otter, Juergen; Wimmer-Frey, Ingeborg


    The Northern Calcareous Alps are characterized by complex lithological and tectonic settings, which are a consequence of the multiphase Alpine orogeny. Several tectonic events caused a varying structural anisotropy with a high susceptibility towards certain types of gravitational mass movement. Mt. Plassen is situated west of the Hallstatt village (Upper Austria). It is composed of Jurassic limestone, which overlies Permotriassic fine-grained clastic rocks and evaporites (mainly part of the so-called Haselgebirge). This geotechnical predisposition causes rock spreading of the more hard and rigid limestone on the weak, mainly clayey rocks. Associated to this large slope instability are secondary rockfall and sliding processes. Further common process chains include rockfall triggering slides and/or earth flows by undrained loading of the ductile clay material. Thus, such fast moving flows/slides may endanger the houses and infrastructures in the Salzberg high valley and Hallstatt village. Recent rockfall activity at Mt. Plassen provide evidences for greater, perhaps accelerating displacement rates of the rock spread. A multidisciplinary assessment strategy was chosen to analyse the ground conditions, to characterize the potential failure mechanisms in more detail and to evaluate the hazard potential of future events. Methods include field mapping (geologic, engineering geologic and geomorphologic), sampling and determination of soil parameters in active process areas, geophysical surveys (airborne geophysics and geoelectric measurements) and kinematic measurements (tape dilatometer and geodetic measurements over a period of 50 years). Results of this multidisciplinary approach form the basis for further decision making such as the installation of a monitoring system or other preventive measures.

  18. Nuclear translocation of the cytoskeleton-associated protein, smALP, upon induction of skeletal muscle differentiation

    Cambier, Linda [CNRS UMR5237, Universite Montpellier 1, Universite Montpellier 2, Centre de Recherche en Biochimie Macromoleculaire, Montpellier (France); Pomies, Pascal, E-mail: [CNRS UMR5237, Universite Montpellier 1, Universite Montpellier 2, Centre de Recherche en Biochimie Macromoleculaire, Montpellier (France)


    Highlights: {yields} The cytoskeleton-associated protein, smALP, is expressed in differentiated skeletal muscle. {yields} smALP is translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of C2C12 myoblasts upon induction of myogenesis. {yields} The differentiation-dependent nuclear translocation of smALP occurs in parallel with the nuclear accumulation of myogenin. {yields} The LIM domain of smALP is essential for the nuclear accumulation of the protein. {yields} smALP might act in the nucleus to control some critical aspect of the muscle differentiation process. -- Abstract: The skALP isoform has been shown to play a critical role in actin organization and anchorage within the Z-discs of skeletal muscles, but no data is available on the function of the smALP isoform in skeletal muscle cells. Here, we show that upon induction of differentiation a nuclear translocation of smALP from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of C2C12 myoblasts, concomitant to an up-regulation of the protein expression, occurs in parallel with the nuclear accumulation of myogenin. Moreover, we demonstrate that the LIM domain of smALP is essential for the nuclear translocation of the protein.

  19. Fracture distribution and porosity in a fault-bound hydrothermal system (Grimsel Pass, Swiss Alps)

    Egli, Daniel; Küng, Sulamith; Baumann, Rahel; Berger, Alfons; Baron, Ludovic; Herwegh, Marco


    The spatial distribution, orientation and continuity of brittle and ductile structures strongly control fluid pathways in a rock mass by joining existing pores and creating new pore space (fractures, joints) but can also act as seals to fluid flow (e.g. ductile shear zones, clay-rich fault gouges). In long-lived hydrothermal systems, permeability and the related fluid flow paths are therefore dynamic in space and time. Understanding the evolution and behaviour of naturally porous and permeable rock masses is critical for the successful exploration and sustainable exploitation of hydrothermal systems and can advance methods for planning and implementation of enhanced geothermal systems. This study focuses on an active fault-bound hydrothermal system in the crystalline basement of the Aar Massif (hydrothermal field Grimsel Pass, Swiss Alps) that has been exhumed from few kilometres depth and which documents at least 3 Ma of hydrothermal activity. The explored rock unit of the Aar massif is part of the External Crystalline Massifs that hosts a multitude of thermal springs on its southern border in the Swiss Rhône valley and furthermore represents the exhumed equivalent of potentially exploitable geothermal reservoirs in the deep crystalline subsurface of the northern Alpine foreland basin. This study combines structural data collected from a 125 m long drillhole across the hydrothermal zone, the corresponding drill core and surface mapping. Different methods are applied to estimate the porosity and the structural evolution with regard to porosity, permeability and fracture distribution. Analyses are carried out from the micrometre to decametre scale with main focus on the flow path evolution with time. This includes a large variety of porosity-types including fracture-porosity with up to cm-sized aperture down to grain-scale porosity. Main rock types are granitoid host rocks, mylonites, paleo-breccia and recent breccias. The porosity of the host rock as well as the

  20. Low altitude aerial photogrammetry application to braided river systems. Example of the Buech River, Alps, France.

    Jules Fleury, Thomas; Pothin, Virginie; Vella, Claude; Dussouillez, Philippe; Izem, Abdelkoddouss


    Low-altitude aerial photogrammetry offers new opportunities for geomorphology and other fields requiring very high-resolution topographic data. It combines the advantages of the reproducibility of GPS topographic surveys with the high accuracy of LIDAR, but at relatively low-cost, easy-to-deploy and with the synaptic advantage of remote sensing. In order to evaluate the potential of photogrammetry on river systems and to assess river-bed changes and erosion-accretion processes, we conducted several surveys over the period of one year on the Buech river, a gravel-bed braided river located in the French Southern Alps. The study area is located directly upstream of a gravel pit and there is an interest in evaluating its effects on the riverbed. Our field protocol was comprised of vertical aerial photographs taken from a microlight aircraft flying approximately 300 ft above the ground. The equipment used was a full-frame DSLR with a wide angle lense, synchronised with a DGPS onboard. Fourty 40cm wide targets were placed on the ground and georeferenced by RTK DGPS with an accuracy of 2cm. In addition, close to one thousand Ground Control Points (GCPs) were measured within the different types of ground surfaces (vegetated, water, gravels) in order to assess the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) accuracy. We operated the production of the 3D model and its derived products: Digital Surface Model (DSM) and orthophotography, with user-friendly Agisoft (c) Photoscan Professional software. The processing of several hundred pictures with 2.5 cm ground resolution resulted in a DSM with a resolution of 10 cm and a vertical accuracy within 5 cm. As is expected, accuracy was best on bare bars and decreased with increasing vegetation density. To complement the DSM in the wetted channels, we used the orthophotos to establish a relationship between water color and flow depth using statistical multivariate regressions. Merging the bathymetric model and the DSM produced a DTM with a vertical

  1. Expression of Helicobacter pylori AlpA protein and its immunogenicity

    Jing Xue; Yang Bai; Ye Chen; Ji-De Wang; Zhao-Shan Zhang; Ya-Li Zhang; Dian-Yuan Zhou


    AIM: To construct a recombinant strain which expresses adhesin AlpA of Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) and to study the immunogenicity of adhesin AlpA.METHODS: Gene Ab, which was amplified from H pylori chromosomal DNA by PCR technique, was sequenced and the biological information was analyzed, and inserted into the Nco Ⅰ and NotⅠ restriction fragments of the expression vector pET-22b(+) using T4 DNA ligase. The resulting plasmid pET-AlpA was transformed into competent E.coli BL21(DE3) cells using ampicillin resistance for selection.Recombinant strains were incubated in 5 mL LB with 100 μg/mL ampicillin overnight at 37 ℃. Sonication of BL21(DE3)pET-22b(+)/AlpA was analyzed by Western blot to detect AlpA immunogenicity.RESULTS: The gene encoding AlpA protein was amplified by PCR with chromosomal DNA of H pylori Sydney strain (SS1) as templates. It revealed that AlpA DNA fragment amplified by PCR had approximately 1 500 nucleotides,compatible with the previous reports. The recombinant plasmid pET-22b(+)/AB was successfully constructed. DNA sequencing showed one open reading frame with the length of 588 bp. It encoded seven conservative regions that showed good antigenicity and hydrophobicity by Parker and Welling method. Furthermore, INTERNET EXPASY,NNPREDICT and ISREC predicted that it was a porin-like structure consisting of β-pleated sheets that were embedded in the outer membrane. BLAST analyzed 836 767 protein sequences and found that the similar sequences were all belonging to H pylori OMP sequences. SDS-PAGE and scan analysis showed that the molecular weight of AB was 22.5 ku and recombinant protein amounted to 29% of the total bacterial protein, among which dissolved expression amounted to 21.9% of sonicated supernatant. The rAB purity amounted to 96% through affinity chromatography.Western blot analysis of rAB confirmed that it could be specially recognized by serum form rabbit immunized with AlpA and H pylori infected.CONCLUSION: Adhesin Alp

  2. Defective anti-polysaccharide response and splenic marginal zone disorganization in ALPS patients.

    Neven, Bénédicte; Bruneau, Julie; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Meyts, Isabelle; Magerus-Chatinet, Aude; Moens, Leen; Lanzarotti, Nina; Weller, Sandra; Amiranoff, Denise; Florkin, Benoit; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Leverger, Guy; Ferster, Alice; Chantrain, Christophe; Blanche, Stéphane; Picard, Capucine; Molina, Thierry Jo; Brousse, Nicole; Durandy, Anne; Rizzi, Marta; Bossuyt, Xavier; Fischer, Alain; Rieux-Laucat, Frederic


    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) caused by impaired FAS-mediated apoptosis of lymphocytes is characterized by lymphoproliferation, autoimmunity, but also an increased risk of invasive bacterial infection, notably following splenectomy. We surveyed a cohort of 100 ALPS patients (including 33 splenectomized) and found that 12 (10 splenectomized) had experienced 23 invasive bacterial infections mainly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. This vulnerability was associated with evidence of defective B-cell function characterized by low serum immunoglobulin (Ig) M, low IgM antibody production in response to S pneumoniae following nonconjugated immunization, and low blood memory B-cells counts (including marginal zone [MZ] B-cell counts). This immunodeficiency strongly correlated with intensity of lymphoproliferation. Spleen sections from 9 ALPS patients revealed double-negative T-cell (DN-T) infiltration of the MZ, which was depleted of B cells. MZ in ALPS patients contained an abnormally thick layer of MAdCAM-1((+)) stromal cells and an excess of DN-Ts. DN-Ts were shown to express MAdCAM-1 ligand, the α4β7 integrin. These observations suggest that accumulating DN-Ts are trapped within stromal cell meshwork and interfere with correct localization of MZ B cells. Similar observations were made in spleens of fas-deficient mice. Our data revealed an unexpected mechanism by which ALPS results in anti-polysaccharide IgM antibody production-specific defect. Splenectomy should be avoided.

  3. Non-perturbative over-production of axion-like-particles (ALPs) via derivative interaction

    Mazumdar, Anupam


    Axion like particles (ALPs) are quite generic in many scenarios for physics beyond the Standard Model, they are pseudoscalar Nambu-Goldstone bosons, and appear once any global $U(1)$ symmetry is broken spontaneously. The ALPs can gain mass from various non-perturbative quantum effects, such as anomalies or instantons. ALPs can couple to the matter sector incluidng a scalar condensate such as inflaton or moduli field via derivative interactions, which are suppressed by the axion {\\it decay constant}, $f_\\chi$ . Although weakly interacting, the ALPs can be produced abundantly from the coherent oscillations of a homogeneous condensate. In this paper we will study such a scenario where the ALPs can be produced abundantly, and in some cases can even overclose the Universe via odd and even dimensional operators, as long as $f_\\chi/\\Phi_{\\rm I} \\ll 1$, where $\\Phi_{\\rm I}$ denotes the initial amplitude of the coherent oscillations of the scalar condensate, $\\phi$. We will briefly mention how such dangerous overprodu...

  4. Adjacent Lone Pair (ALP) Effect: A Computational Approach for Its Origin.

    Zhang, Huaiyu; Wu, Wei; Ahmed, Basil M; Mezei, Gellert; Mo, Yirong


    The adjacent lone pair (ALP) effect is an experimental phenomenon in certain nitrogenous heterocyclic systems exhibiting the preference of the products with lone pairs separated over other isomers with lone pairs adjacent. A theoretical elucidation of the ALP effect requires the decomposition of intramolecular energy terms and the isolation of lone pair-lone pair interactions. Here we used the block-localized wavefunction (BLW) method within the ab initio valence bond (VB) theory to derive the strictly localized orbitals which are used to accommodate one-atom centered lone pairs and two-atom centered σ or π bonds. As such, interactions among electron pairs can be directly derived. Two-electron integrals between adjacent lone pairs do not support the view that the lone pair-lone pair repulsion is responsible for the ALP effect. Instead, the disabling of π conjugation greatly diminishes the ALP effect, indicating that the reduction of π conjugation in deprotonated forms with two σ lone pairs adjacent is one of the major causes for the ALP effect. Further electrostatic potential analysis and intramolecular energy decomposition confirm that the other key factor is the favorable electrostatic attraction within the isomers with lone pairs separated.

  5. New data on the progradation of the Dachstein carbonate platform (Kamnik-Savinja Alps, Slovenia

    Bogomir Celarc


    Full Text Available Upper Triassic basin-platform succession in the Kamnik-Savinja Alps (N-central Slovenia is similar to the succession known from the Julian Alps (Martuljek Mountain Group. It was part of the same Late Triassic depositional edifice, with the progradation of the Dachstein Platform in the SW-NE direction (recent orientation from Julian Alps toward the Kamnik-Savinja Alps. Tectonic blocks with the same/similar stratigraphic record, were displaced as a consequence of the Alpine and later tectonic displacements. In the Kamnik-Savinja Alps, the upper part of the Martuljek platy limestone was dated with the conodonts as Late Carnian – Early Norian in the Mt. Ko~na. In the Mt. Skuta area, Limestone with chert is positioned above Martuljek platy limestone and under the Dachstein carbonate platform. Uppermost part of the Limestone with chert is Late Norian. Mutual vertical and lateral relationship, age of the lithological units, especially upper part of the deeper-water limestone, points to the progradation of the Dachstein carbonate platform in the Early Norian and possible aggradation in the part of the Middle and in the Late Norian.

  6. Assessing Glacier Hazards At Ghiacciaio Del Belvedere, Macugnaga, Italian Alps

    Haeberli, W.; Chiarle, M.; Mortara, G.; Mazza, A.

    The uppermost section of the Valle Anzasca behind and above the community of Macugnaga in the Italian Alps is one of the most spectacular high-mountain land- scapes in Europe, with gigantic rock walls and numerous steep hanging glaciers. Its main glacier, Ghiacciaio del Belvedere at the foot of the huge Monte Rosa east face, is a heavily debris-covered glacier flowing on a thick sediment bed. Problems with floods, avalanches and debris flows from this ice body have been known for extended time periods. Most recently, however, the evolution of this highly dynamic environ- ment has become more dramatic. An outburst of Lago delle Locce, an ice-dammed lake at the confluenec of the tributary Ghiacciaio delle Locce with Ghiacciaio del Belvedere, caused heavy damage in 1979 and necessitated site investigation and con- struction work to be done for flood protection. The intermittent glacier growth ten- dency in the 1970es induced strong bulging of the glacier surface and, in places, caused the glacier tongue to override historical morains and to destroy newly-grown forest stands. A surge-type flow acceleration started in the lower parts of the Monte- Rosa east face during summer 2000, leading to strong crevassing and deformation of Ghiacciaio del Belvedere and extreme bulging of its orographic right margin. High water pressure and accelerated movement lasted into winter 2001/2002: the ice now started overriding the LIA moraine near Rifugio Zamboni of the CAI. In addition but rather independently, a most active detachment zone for rock falls and debris flows developed for several years now in the east face of Monte Rosa, somewhat more to the south of the accelerated glacier movement and at an altitude where relatively warm permafrost must be expected. Besides the scientific interest in these phenomena, the growing hazard potential to the local infrastructure must be considered seriously. Es- pecially potentials for the destabilization of large rock and ice masses in the

  7. Natural gas seeps in the French Alps: Sources and pathways

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Blessing, Michaela; Proust, Eric; Gal, Frédéric; Bentivegna, Gaetan; Henry, Benoit; Defossez, Pierrick; Catherine, Lerouge; Humez, Pauline; Mayer, Bernhard; Millot, Romain; Gaucher, Eric


    Natural gas emanations are part of the geochemical baseline to take into account when assessing global greenhouse gas emissions and potential impacts of conventional and unconventional gas exploration and exploitation on groundwater. Examples of such natural gas macro-seeps are known in several parts of the world (Etiope et al., 2009). Only a limited number of them have been characterized for their gas and isotopic compositions. Such analyses can provide essential information for baseline studies, providing insight in the sources (biogenic vs. thermogenic or modified thermogenic) and pathways of such seeps and may allow for distinction of natural seeps from stray gas leakage associated with human activities. Here, we report gas concentrations and multi-isotope data (δ13C and δ2H of methane and ethane, δ13C and δ18O of CO2, 3He/4He ratio) of two gas seeps in the French subalpine chains, both in a similar geological and structural position within Middle Jurassic claystones along the eastern border of the large synclinal structures of the Vercors and the Chartreuse massifs (Moss, 1992). The "ardent fountain" (fontaine ardente) of Le Gua, 30 km south of Grenoble has most likely the longest continuous written record of existence of any individual natural gas seep, mentioned explicitly as early as the first quarter of the 5th century (Augustin of Hippo (St. Augustin), approx. 426) This natural seep was described in the past as a "wet seep" associated with a spring, whereas the second investigated seep, Rochasson near Meylan north of Grenoble, is a dry seep. Both seeps contain methane and ethane with thermogenic C and H isotope signatures, comparable with a seep in the Northern Swiss Alps at Giswil (Etiope et al., 2010) but with a higher dryness (C1/(C2+C3)>1000) for the Le Gua seep, possibly due to molecular fractionation upon advective fluid+gas migration (Etiope et al., 2009). Maturity (R0) of the reservoir rocks deduced from δ13C(CH4), δ13C(C2H6) is similar to

  8. Early childhood caries: a New Zealand perspective

    Bach K


    Full Text Available Dental caries, primarily a preventable disease, remains the most common chronic disease of childhood and one of the most common reasons for hospital admissions for children in New Zealand. The most vulnerable children are shouldering the burden of the disease, with Maori and Pacific children having greater experience and severity of dental caries. Early childhood caries has deleterious effects on a child’s oral and general health and significant numbers of preschool-aged children experience pain and infection. Early identification by primary health care providers of children at high risk of developing early childhood caries can ensure these children are referred to the appropriate oral health services to receive appropriate and timely management.

  9. Lavender Islands: the New Zealand study.

    Henrickson, Mark; Neville, Stephen; Jordan, Claire; Donaghey, Sara


    Lavender Islands: Portrait of the Whole Family is the first national strengths-based study of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people in New Zealand. The 133-item survey was made available both by website and paper copy from April to July 2004. Multidisciplinary interest areas were developed by a community reference group, and included identity and self-definition, families of origin, relationships and sexuality, families of choice, immigration and internal migration, wellbeing, politics, income and spending, education, careers and leisure, community connections, challenges, and spirituality. A four-axis model of sexual identity was also tested; 2,269 responses were received. Of these 83% were from the website; 45% of responses were from women and 54% from men. Responses identified a robust, highly educated, relatively high-income, politically active LGB community. Male and female respondents experienced same-sex relationships and identity in significantly different ways.

  10. Transfers from rural hospitals in New Zealand.

    Lloyd, Trevor; Blattner, Katharina; Nixon, Garry


    To canvass the experience of a group of New Zealand rural hospital doctors of transfers from their hospitals. Ten rural hospital doctors were required to write an assignment on patient transfer as part of their assessment for a postgraduate diploma. The information from the completed assignments was grouped into themes for analysis. The responses from the ten doctors could be grouped into six themes: resources at the rural hospital, clinical conditions, mode of transfer, communication, issues during transfer, and health system issues. The experience of this group of doctors is consistent with the available published information. Transfer of patients is an inevitable part of rural hospital practice. The outcome for patients could be improved through better resourcing of rural hospitals and education for staff, improved communication with transport services and with base hospital specialists, and involvement in the development of regionalised transport protocols.

  11. Mad on radium New Zealand in the atomic age

    Priestley, Rebecca


    Although New Zealander Lord Rutherford was the first to split the atom, the country has since been known around the world for its nuclear-free stance. In this engaging and accessible book, an alternative history is revealed of ""nuclear New Zealand""-when there was much enthusiasm for nuclear science and technology. From the first users of X-rays and radium in medicine to the plans for a nuclear power station on the Kaipara Harbour, this account uncovers the long and rich history of New Zealanders' engagement with the nuclear world and the roots

  12. Return migration of New Zealanders: a profile of 1990 returnees.

    Lidgard, J M


    "In the 1990s the population [of New Zealand] is experiencing higher levels of mobility than at any time in its history. However, with regards to European migration to New Zealand, the settler flows of the past have been overtaken in importance by reverse flows of temporary migrants. Now flows of new settlers come predominantly from Asia and the Pacific....This paper is about return migration--a process that has been largely ignored in the literature on international migration to New Zealand."

  13. Kiwi magic: New Zealand paleomagnetism comes of age

    Turner, Gillian M.; Roberts, Andrew P.

    When the New Zealand Geological Society held its annual meeting in November 1988 in Hamilton, they scheduled a major symposium, Palaeomagnetism and Its Applications in the New Zealand Region. That interest and enthusiasm for paleomagnetic research in New Zealand has reached such a level is a tribute to those who, over the past 30 years, have built expertise and developed our facilities to international standards.In 1957 Colin Bull became the first geophysicist appointed to the physics department at Victoria University, in Wellington. He brought with him from the United Kingdom a magnet assembly that was incorporated into an astatic magnetometer by Jim Gellen [1959] as part of his Master's degree project.

  14. [Smoke-free New Zealand 2025 - utopia or a model?].

    Králíková, Eva


    New Zealand politicians are aware of the devastating economic and health impact of smoking in their country. The prevalence of that dependence is in New Zealand population aged 15 to 64 years about 20%, but only 4% of the population are "happy" smokers. Therefore, the majority of the population, including smokers, should support plan of gradual effective steps, leading in 2025 to "smoke-free" New Zealand with smoking prevalence in the population below 5%. In the same age group, according to the National Institute of Public Health, the Czech smoking prevalence has remained about 30% for almost ten years and no effective tobacco control legislation is in sight.

  15. Space and place in Outdoor Education in New Zealand

    Andkjær, Søren


    The article draws on a doctoral study of young peoples’ participation in organised friluftsliv and outdoor education in Denmark and New Zealand. The research questions concentrate on views of nature, values and general characteristics in friluftsliv and outdoor education. The results are based...... on a qualitative approach using case study design with interviews and observations. For the analysis, ethnological cultural analysis was employed combined with configuration analysis to conceptualise the data. Theories and concepts of space and place in outdoor education in New Zealand are discussed. Results from...... the empirical studies on outdoor education in New Zealand are discussed and compared to the cultural perspective of friluftsliv in Denmark....

  16. Survival on home dialysis in New Zealand.

    Mark R Marshall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New Zealand (NZ has a high prevalence of both peritoneal dialysis (PD and home haemodialysis (HD relative to other countries, and probably less selection bias. We aimed to determine if home dialysis associates with better survival than facility HD by simultaneous comparisons of the three modalities. METHODS: We analysed survival by time-varying dialysis modality in New Zealanders over a 15-year period to 31-Dec-2011, adjusting for patient co-morbidity by Cox proportional hazards multivariate regression. RESULTS: We modelled 6,419 patients with 3,254 deaths over 20,042 patient-years of follow-up. Patients treated with PD and facility HD are similar; those on home HD are younger and healthier. Compared to facility HD, home dialysis (as a unified category associates with an overall 13% lower mortality risk. Home HD associates with a 52% lower mortality risk. PD associates with a 20% lower mortality risk in the early period (3 years, with no overall net effect. There was effect modification and less observable benefit associated with PD in those with diabetes mellitus, co-morbidity, and in NZ Maori and Pacific People. There was no effect modification by age or by era. CONCLUSION: Our study supports the culture of home dialysis in NZ, and suggests that the extent and duration of survival benefit associated with early PD may be greater than appreciated. We are planning further analyses to exclude residual confounding from unmeasured co-morbidity and other sociodemographic factors using database linkage to NZ government datasets. Finally, our results suggest further research into the practice of PD in NZ Maori and Pacific People, as well as definitive study to determine the best timing for switching from PD in the late phase.

  17. New Lepidium (Brassicaceae from New Zealand

    Peter de Lange


    Full Text Available A revision of the New Zealand endemic Lepidium oleraceum and allied species is presented. Sixteen species are recognised, 10 of these are new. The new species are segregated on the basis of morphological characters supported by molecular data obtained from three DNA markers (two rDNA and one cpDNA. One species, L. castellanum sp. nov., is endemic to the Kermadec Islands where it is sympatric with L. oleraceum. The North Island of New Zealand supports four species, with two of them, L. amissum sp. nov. and L. obtusatum, now extinct. The South Island supports six species, that, aside from L. banksii, L. flexicaule and L. oleraceum, are all confined to the south-eastern half of the island (L. aegrum sp. nov., L. crassum sp. nov. and L. juvencum sp. nov.. One of these, L. juvencum sp. nov., extends to Stewart Island. The Chatham Islands support six species (L. flexicaule, L. oblitum sp. nov., L. oleraceum, L. oligodontum sp. nov., L. panniforme sp. nov., and L. rekohuense sp. nov., one of which, L. oligodontum sp. nov., extends to the Antipodes Islands group. The remote, subantarctic Bounty Islands group supports one endemic, L. seditiosum sp. nov., which is the only vascular plant to be recorded from there. Lepidium limenophylax sp. nov. is known from islands off the south-western side of Stewart Island/Rakiura, The Snares and Auckland islands. Lepidium naufragorum, although not related to L. oleraceum and its allies, is also treated because populations with entire leaves are now known. Typification is undertaken for L. banksii, L. oleraceum, L. oleraceum var. acutidentatum, var. frondosum and var. serrulatum.

  18. New Lepidium (Brassicaceae) from New Zealand

    de Lange, P. J.; Heenan, P. B.; Houliston, G. J.; Rolfe, J. R.; Mitchell, A. D.


    Abstract A revision of the New Zealand endemic Lepidium oleraceum and allied species is presented. Sixteen species are recognised, 10 of these are new. The new species are segregated on the basis of morphological characters supported by molecular data obtained from three DNA markers (two rDNA and one cpDNA). One species, Lepidium castellanum sp. nov., is endemic to the Kermadec Islands where it is sympatric with Lepidium oleraceum. The North Island of New Zealand supports four species, with two of them, Lepidium amissum sp. nov. and Lepidium obtusatum, now extinct. The South Island supports six species, that, aside from Lepidium banksii, Lepidium flexicaule and Lepidium oleraceum, are all confined to the south-eastern half of the island (Lepidium aegrum sp. nov., Lepidium crassum sp. nov. and Lepidium juvencum sp. nov.). One of these, Lepidium juvencum sp. nov., extends to Stewart Island. The Chatham Islands support six species (Lepidium flexicaule, Lepidium oblitum sp. nov., Lepidium oleraceum, Lepidium oligodontum sp. nov., Lepidium panniforme sp. nov., and Lepidium rekohuense sp. nov.), one of which, Lepidium oligodontum sp. nov., extends to the Antipodes Islands group. The remote, subantarctic Bounty Islands group supports one endemic, Lepidium seditiosum sp. nov., which is the only vascular plant to be recorded from there. Lepidium limenophylax sp. nov. is known from islands off the south-western side of Stewart Island/Rakiura, The Snares and Auckland islands. Lepidium naufragorum, although not related to Lepidium oleraceum and its allies, is also treated because populations with entire leaves are now known. Typification is undertaken for Lepidium banksii, Lepidium oleraceum, Lepidium oleraceum var. acutidentatum, var. frondosum and var. serrulatum. PMID:23794938

  19. Absence of Cooling in New Zealand and the Adjacent Ocean During the Younger Dryas Chronozone

    Barrows, Timothy T.; Lehman, Scott J.; Fifield, L. Keith; De Deckker, Patrick


    As the climate warmed at the end of the last glacial period, a rapid reversal in temperature, the Younger Dryas (YD) event, briefly returned much of the North Atlantic region to near full-glacial conditions. The event was associated with climate reversals in many other areas of the Northern Hemisphere and also with warming over and near Antarctica. However, the expression of the YD in the mid- to low latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere (and the southwest Pacific region in particular) is much more controversial. Here we show that the Waiho Loop advance of the Franz Josef Glacier in New Zealand was not a YD event, as previously thought, and that the adjacent ocean warmed throughout the YD.

  20. Late Eocene-Oligocene Te Kuiti Group at Mount Roskill, Auckland, New Zealand

    Edbrooke, S.W.; Crouch, E.M.; Morgans, H.E.G.; Sykes, R. [Institute of Geology and Nuclear Sciences, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)


    A 592 m deep water bore drilled at Mount Roskill in central Auckland, New Zealand, produced the first record of the Te Kuiti Group in Central Auckland. The group comprised erosionally truncated Glen Massey Formation beneath the Waitemata Group, a complete section through Mangakotuku Formation, and an incomplete Waikato Coal Measures section. Drilling stopped in Waikato Coal Measures, probably less than 30 m short of Paleozoic or Mesozoic basement. Vitrinite reflectance measurements indicate a lignite rank for coal fragments collected from the coal measures, and suggest a maximum burial depth of c. 800 m. Six Te Kuiti Group samples examined for palynomorphs and foraminifers gave ages ranging from Runangan to early Whaingaroan and show a transition from a predominantly terrestrial late Eocene environment to a shallow marine setting in the early Oligocene. Results support the suggestion that the southern limit to the Northland Allochthon lies north of Auckland.

  1. Vocal repertoire of the New Zealand kea parrot Nestor notabilis

    Raoul SCHWING, Stuart PARSONS, Ximena J. NELSON


    Full Text Available The unique alpine-living kea parrot Nestor notabilis has been the focus of numerous cognitive studies, but its communication system has so far been largely neglected. We examined 2,884 calls recorded in New Zealand’s Southern Alps. Based on audio and visual spectrographic differences, these calls were categorised into seven distinct call types: the non-oscillating ‘screech’ contact call and ‘mew’; and the oscillating ‘trill’, ‘chatter’, ‘warble’ and ‘whistle’; and a hybrid ‘screech-trill’. Most of these calls contained aspects that were individually unique, in addition to potentially encoding for an individual’s sex and age. Additionally, for each recording, the sender’s previous and next calls were noted, as well as any response given by conspecifics. We found that the previous and next calls made by the sender were most often of the same type, and that the next most likely preceding and/or following call type was the screech call, a contact call which sounds like the ‘kee-ah’ from which the bird’s name derives. As a social bird capable of covering large distances over visually obstructive terrain, long distance contact calls may be of considerable importance for social cohesion. Contact calls allow kea to locate conspecifics and congregate in temporary groups for social activities. The most likely response to any given call was a screech, usually followed by the same type of call as the initial call made by the sender, although responses differed depending on the age of the caller. The exception was the warble, the kea’s play call, to which the most likely response was another warble. Being the most common call type, as well as the default response to another call, it appears that the ‘contagious’ screech contact call plays a central role in kea vocal communication and social cohesion [Current Zoology 58 (5: 727-740, 2012].

  2. Geochemistry of Coesite-Bearing Pyrope Quartzites and Related Rocks From the Dora Maira Massif, Western Alps: New Results and the Enigma of the Jadeite-Rocks

    Schertl, H.


    In contrast to the extensive petrological and geochronological work on the various ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks of the coesite-bearing unit of the Dora Maira Massif, there is still a deficiency of basic geochemical data. A complete suite of geochemical data for pyrope quartzites, various intercalations of phengite-schists and jadeite-bearing rocks, as well as country rock gneisses from different localities within the southern Dora Maira Massiv is now available, which was studied in detail in order to establish the nature of the different protoliths and their primary relationships (Schertl and Schreyer, 2008; see also Chopin, 1984 and Compagnoni and Hirajima, 2001). Typically, the pyrope quartzites are high in Mg and strongly depleted in Na, Ca, Fe, Cu, P, Rb, Ba, Sr against their country rock gneisses which essentially exhibit a granitic bulk composition. The country rocks have a peraluminous chemistry; they generally are corundum normative and best attributed to S-type granites. Trace element contents of phengite-schist inclusions in pyrope quartzite confirm their close relationship to the granitic country rocks. Internal variations of Na, Ca versus K, Mg are matched by Rb, Ba and Sr, which is in line with some phengite-schists to contain higher amounts of phengite or higher amounts of jadeite-pseudomorphs, respectively. The origin of the jadeite-rich rocks is still a matter of debate. Jadeite-bearing layers and jadeite quartzite forming conformable bands and boudins within pyrope quartzite differ generally by their lower contents in K, Mg, Rb and higher contents in Na, Fe, Ca, Mn, P and Zn. Earlier suggestions that these layers represent former melts seem unlikely in the view of their almost constant mass behaviour for SiO2 and Al2O3 relative to the surrounding pyrope quartzites. The present study indicates that the pyrope quartzites were formed metasomatically whereas an evaporitic nature of the protolith can be ruled out. Discrimination plots

  3. Seasonal variations in aridity and temperature characterize changing climate during the last deglaciation in New Zealand

    Sikes, E. L.; Schiraldi, B.; Medeiros, P. M.; Augustinus, P. M.; Wilmshurst, J.; Freeman, K. H.


    Variable responses among paleoproxies resulting in different interpretations of past climate change from different proxy records can occur because seasonality effects on ecosystems and their resultant proxies imparts seasonal biased and consequently, differing records of climatic events. Deconvolving the response of multiple climate proxies to different environmental triggers, in different depositional environments requires tight stratigraphic correlation. In Northern New Zealand, frequent, widespread, and well dated, late Quaternary tephra provide a single chronostratigraphy across different depositional environments and means the relative timing among sites can be particularly well constrained. We compare a multi-proxy terrestrial record of temperature and aridity based on biomarkers and pollen in a core from Onepoto, a maar lake from the Auckland region of New Zealand to new sea surface temperature (SST) records based on alkenones and Mg/Ca in Globogerina bulloides from marine core JPC 87 in the nearby Bay of Plenty. Pollen assemblages in New Zealand are most strongly affected by the winter temperature minima and precipitation, foraminifera bloom in early spring, and alkenone producers bloom in early summer. Their temperature estimates can be expected to be weighted by these seasons. The pollen based temperatures and two SST records all document cooler conditions in the glaciation. However, although both SST proxies show a 3 degree C warming from the glaciation to the Holocene, the absolute temperatures are offset by almost 3 C with alkenone glacial SST ~18 C and Holocene, ~21 C whereas foraminifera- based SSTS are ~16 C and ~18 C respectively. Pollen reconstructions suggest glacial T of ~8 C and Holocene 14C with a 6 C change from the last glaciation to the early Holocene in northern New Zealand. Additionally, the marine records initiate warming at ~21ka whereas the terrestrial record warms ~3kyr later at 18ka. Terrestrial biomarker-biomass burning indicators

  4. The vegetation cover of New Zealand at the Last Glacial Maximum

    Newnham, Rewi; McGlone, Matt; Moar, Neville; Wilmshurst, Janet; Vandergoes, Marcus


    A new reconstruction of the vegetation cover for New Zealand at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is presented, based primarily on a database of 66 pollen site records and a more limited range of plant macrofossil and coleopteran records. Extensive forest is evident only from Auckland northwards. Conifer-broadleaf forest similar to that in the region today, but with Agathis australis scarce, persisted in the far north, whilst Nothofagus trees and a range of shrub taxa characterised the more open forests elsewhere in Northland. Survival of Nothofagus-dominated forest in coastal and exposed continental shelf locations to the southwest of Auckland and northwestern South Island is also indicated. Beyond these regions, vegetation cover comprised shrubland- and grassland-dominant communities, with the latter more prominent in eastern areas, to the south and presumably at higher altitudes. Nevertheless the survival of forest trees is indicated unambiguously in most regions apart from the eastern South Island. Thus the concept of 'micro glacial forest refugia' in New Zealand remains supported by this latest glacial vegetation reconstruction and we draw possible parallels with the developing but contentious concept of 'northern cryptic refugia' in Europe. Recent assertions that pollen and beetle reconstructions of the New Zealand LGM vegetation patterns diverge significantly are not supported by this analysis. Rather, the two proxies are readily reconciled if the term 'woody' as indicated by coleoptera is not restricted to tall forest trees but extended to the widespread woody shrub and small tree elements of the New Zealand flora. Regional distinctions in the LGM vegetation reconstruction concur broadly with the contemporary vegetation pattern, suggesting that, along with temperature depression and likely drier growing conditions, a zonal circulation regime with prominent southern westerly winds was important at 21 ka, as it is today. Pollen-climate modelling of the extent of

  5. Motivating Information Technology Professionals: The case of New Zealand

    Shoaib Ahmed; Nazim Taskin; DAVID J. PAULEEN; Jane Parker


    IT professionals play a critical role in organizations. Research indicates that they may be unique in their attitudes toward motivation and job satisfaction. In New Zealand, a shortage of skilled professionals may contribute to or impact on motivation. Using a modified model of Herzberg’s two-factor theory by Smerek and Peterson (2007), this research seeks to answer the question: what motivates New Zealand IT professionals? In response, an online questionnaire was distributed to a population ...

  6. The long locum: health propaganda in New Zealand.

    Dow, Derek


    Health Department folklore since the 1950s has attributed the rise of health education in New Zealand almost entirely to the efforts of one man, 'Radio Doctor' Harold Turbott. The historical evidence reveals, however, a more extensive commitment by the Health Department, dating back to its foundation in 1900. This paper examines the evolution of health education in New Zealand and concludes that Turbott's role in its development has been overstated, largely at his own instigation.

  7. A dissident voice in New Zealand wartime sex education.

    Gooder, Claire


    Sex education in wartime New Zealand focused primarily on adults and was concerned with community stability in aberrant times. In 1943 Dr. Clara Lee's bold move to ask a group of New Zealand women candidly about their sexual experiences caused her dismissal as lecturer in sex hygiene to military women. This encounter provides an important counter discourse to the dominantly held contemporary sex education framework of marital love and premarital chastity.

  8. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure

    Stockwell Alannah; Carroll Rebecca; Townsend Simon; Yi Jesse; Ah-Yen Damien; Chakrabarti Anannya; Okawa Ken; Smith Tara; Fry Bridget; Gale Jesse; Sievwright Andrea; Dew Kevin; Thomson George


    Abstract Background Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. Methods The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New ...

  9. Nursing Informatics in New Zealand: From History to Strategy

    Michelle L. L. Honey; Westbrooke, Lucy A.


    As technological advances saw computers become more common, nurses in New Zealand were inspired to look for ways to harness the use of computers and other technologies to aid patient care and their practice. This paper traces the history of the development of nursing informatics in New Zealand from the earliest days in the 1980s through to the present, when nurses have leadership roles in informatics and are represented at the highest levels in national decision making, thereby influencing th...

  10. CPAFFC Publicity Group Visits Australia and New Zealand


    <正>Invited by the Australia-China Friendship Society and the New Zealand-China Friendship So-ciety, a 4-member CPAFFC publicity group visited Australia and New Zealand from September 14 to 27, 2003. The Group, consisting of Li Shantong, director general of the Research Department of Development Strategy and Regional Economy under the Development Research Centre of the State Council, Wang Qiliang, former Chi

  11. [Assessment of cancer RCP meetings in Rhône-Alpes: a survey on the ground].

    Descotes, J-L; Guillem, P; Bondil, P; Colombel, M; Chabloz, C


    The results of a local survey sent to urologists, oncologists and radiotherapeutists working in Rhône-Alpes have been reported to assess the value of multidisciplinary oncological meetings (RCP) in Urology. The results of this short study have been analyzed and compared to the national results published by the Inspection Générale des Affaires Sociales report. Meanwhile, we have created a professional electronic directory collecting all RCP of Rhône-Alpes, which will be accessible soon. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Changes of forest cover and disturbance regimes in the mountain forests of the Alps.

    Bebi, P; Seidl, R; Motta, R; Fuhr, M; Firm, D; Krumm, F; Conedera, M; Ginzler, C; Wohlgemuth, T; Kulakowski, D


    Natural disturbances, such as avalanches, snow breakage, insect outbreaks, windthrow or fires shape mountain forests globally. However, in many regions over the past centuries human activities have strongly influenced forest dynamics, especially following natural disturbances, thus limiting our understanding of natural ecological processes, particularly in densely-settled regions. In this contribution we briefly review the current understanding of changes in forest cover, forest structure, and disturbance regimes in the mountain forests across the European Alps over the past millennia. We also quantify changes in forest cover across the entire Alps based on inventory data over the past century. Finally, using the Swiss Alps as an example, we analyze in-depth changes in forest cover and forest structure and their effect on patterns of fire and wind disturbances, based on digital historic maps from 1880, modern forest cover maps, inventory data on current forest structure, topographical data, and spatially explicit data on disturbances. This multifaceted approach presents a long-term and detailed picture of the dynamics of mountain forest ecosystems in the Alps. During pre-industrial times, natural disturbances were reduced by fire suppression and land-use, which included extraction of large amounts of biomass that decreased total forest cover. More recently, forest cover has increased again across the entire Alps (on average +4% per decade over the past 25-115 years). Live tree volume (+10% per decade) and dead tree volume (mean +59% per decade) have increased over the last 15-40 years in all regions for which data were available. In the Swiss Alps secondary forests that established after 1880 constitute approximately 43% of the forest cover. Compared to forests established previously, post-1880 forests are situated primarily on steep slopes (>30°), have lower biomass, a more aggregated forest structure (primarily stem-exclusion stage), and have been more strongly

  13. Morphostructural study of the Belledonne faults system (French Alps).

    Billant, Jérémy; Bellier, Olivier; Hippolyte, Jean-Claude; Godard, Vincent; Manchuel, Kevin


    The NE trending Belledonne faults system, located in the Alps, is a potentially active faults system that extends from the Aiguilles Rouges and Mont Blanc massifs in the NE to the Vercors massif in the SW (subalpine massifs). It includes the Belledonne border fault (BBF), defined by an alignment of micro earthquakes (ML≤3.5) along the eastern part of the Grésivaudan valley (Thouvenot et al., 2003). Focal mechanisms and their respective depths tend to confirm a dextral strike-slip faulting at crustal scale. In the scope of the Sigma project (, EDF), this study aims at better constraining the geometry, kinematic and seismogenic potential of the constitutive faults of the Belledonne fault system, by using a multidisciplinary approach that includes tectonics, geomorphology and geophysics. Fault kinematic analysis along the BBF (Billant et al., 2015) and the Jasneuf fault allows the determination of a strike-slip tectonic regime characterised by an ENE trending σ1 stress axes, which is consistent with stress state deduced from the focal mechanisms. Although no morphological anomalies could be related to recent faulting along the BBF, new clues of potential Quaternary deformations were observed along the other faults of the system: -right lateral offset of morphologic markers (talwegs...) along the NE trending Arcalod fault located at the north-eastern terminations of the BBF; -left lateral offset of the valley formed by the Isère glacier along the NW trending Brion fault which is consistent with its left-lateral slip inferred from the focal mechanisms; -fault scarps and right lateral offsets of cliffs bordering a calcareous plateau and talwegs along the four fault segments of the NE trending Jasneuf fault located at the south-western termination of the BBF in the Vercors massif. Some offsets were measured using a new method that does not require the identification of piercing points and take advantage of the high resolution

  14. The New Zealand Tsunami Database: historical and modern records

    Barberopoulou, A.; Downes, G. L.; Cochran, U. A.; Clark, K.; Scheele, F.


    A database of historical (pre-instrumental) and modern (instrumentally recorded)tsunamis that have impacted or been observed in New Zealand has been compiled andpublished online. New Zealand's tectonic setting, astride an obliquely convergenttectonic boundary on the Pacific Rim, means that it is vulnerable to local, regional andcircum-Pacific tsunamis. Despite New Zealand's comparatively short written historicalrecord of c. 200 years there is a wealth of information about the impact of past tsunamis.The New Zealand Tsunami Database currently has 800+ entries that describe >50 highvaliditytsunamis. Sources of historical information include witness reports recorded indiaries, notes, newspapers, books, and photographs. Information on recent events comesfrom tide gauges and other instrumental recordings such as DART® buoys, and media ofgreater variety, for example, video and online surveys. The New Zealand TsunamiDatabase is an ongoing project with information added as further historical records cometo light. Modern tsunamis are also added to the database once the relevant data for anevent has been collated and edited. This paper briefly overviews the procedures and toolsused in the recording and analysis of New Zealand's historical tsunamis, with emphasison database content.

  15. James Henry Marriott: New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker

    Orchiston, Wayne; Romick, Carl; Brown, Pendreigh.


    James Henry Marriott was born in London in 1799 and trained as an optician and scientific instrument- maker. In 1842 he emigrated to New Zealand and in January 1843 settled in the newly-established town of Wellington. He was New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker, but we have only been able to locate one telescope made by him while in New Zealand, a brass 1-draw marine telescope with a 44-mm objective, which was manufactured in 1844. In 2004 this marine telescope was purchased in Hawaii by the second author of this paper. In this paper we provide biographical information about Marriott, describe his 1844 marine telescope and speculate on its provenance. We conclude that although he may have been New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker Marriot actually made very few telescopes or other scientific instruments. As such, rather than being recognised as a pioneer of telescope-making in New Zealand he should be remembered as the founder of New Zealand theatre.

  16. A terrestrial record of Last Interglacial climate preserved by voluminous debris avalanche inundation in Taranaki, New Zealand

    Newnham, Rewi; Alloway, Brent


    At Airedale Reef, western North Island, New Zealand, a ca. 4 m thick volcanogenic debris avalanche deposit has facilitated the preservation of an enveloping sequence of peats with interbedded andesitic tephras spanning marine isotope (MIS) 5. The sequence closely overlies a wave-cut terrace correlated to MIS 5e and, in turn, is overlain by andic beds with tephra interbeds including the Rotoehu and Kawakawa tephras deposited during early MIS 3 and mid-MIS 2, respectively. Pollen analysis of the organic sequence shows a coherent pattern of fluctuating climate for the Last Interglacial-Last Glacial transition that corresponds with marine isotope stratigraphy and supports the contention that orbital variations were a primary factor in late Quaternary southern mid-latitude climate change. A five-stage subdivision of MIS 5 is clearly recognised, with marine isotope substage (MISS) 5b drier than MISS 5d, and the cooling transition from 5a to MIS 4 also may have been comparatively dry and characterised by natural fire, perhaps associated with volcanism. Several other examples of volcanic impact on vegetation and the landscape are evident. The Airedale Reef sequence exhibits strong similarities with fragmentary MIS 5 pollen records preserved elsewhere in New Zealand and enables the proxy record of southern mid-latitude climatic variability during the Last Interglacial-Glacial cycle to be extended. Copyright

  17. Ceilometer measurements in the Southern Ocean

    McDonald, Adrian; Alexander, Simon; French, John; Harvey, Mike; Ichoja, Andrew; Klekociuk, Andrew; Plank, Graeme; Katurji, Marwan


    Current climate models display a consistent deficit of reflected shortwave radiation over the Southern Ocean which is mainly due to the poor representation of clouds. Recent work has also shown that reanalysis also perform poorly relative to satellite observations in terms of cloud fraction. In particular, satellite observations have shown that low-level clouds (with tops below 3 km) are ubiquitous over the Southern Ocean. But, most satellite instruments, even the current generation of active satellite instruments, have difficulties in sampling low level clouds. As part of the New Zealand Deep South challenge project focussed on improving the representation of clouds in the Southern Ocean, we have begun to deploy autonomous instruments on 'ships of opportunity'. This study discusses measurements from a Väisälä CL51 laser ceilometer and ancillary instruments on the first two research voyages in the Southern Ocean and initial results. The route of the first voyage covers a return trip from Wellington (New Zealand) to Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica) onboard the R/V Tangaroa and occurred in January to mid-February 2015. The second deployment is onboard the Aurora Australis Australian Antarctic Division supply ship and began in October 2015 and is planned to finish at Macquarie Island in March 2016. The sampling provided by the ships route allows the ceilometer measurements of the height of the cloud base in a region where limited data apart from, potentially biased, satellite measurements of low-level cloud exist. Analysis of the boundary layer height derived from the ceilometer is also presented. The climatological structure derived from the ceilometer measurements is first detailed. We then compare these measurements with satellite and ground-based observations. We then examine variations in these measurements relative to their meteorological context. Details of plans for future voyages are also detailed. We will also present a preliminary analysis of a case study of

  18. Traditional Chinese medicine practitioners in New Zealand: differences associated with being a practitioner in New Zealand compared to China.

    Patel, Asmita; Toossi, Vahideh


    While New Zealand has experienced an increase in the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) based acupuncture, very little is known about the practitioners who provide this type of treatment modality. Therefore, this study was designed to identify differences associated with being a TCM practitioner in New Zealand compared to China. Ten Auckland-based TCM practitioners were individually interviewed. The interview schedule comprised of questions that were designed to identify any potential differences in practising TCM in New Zealand compared to China. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic approach. The main differences in practising between the two countries were related to the role and authority that a TCM practitioner had. This in turn resulted in differences between the conditions that were treated in these two countries. Differences in patient demography were also identified between the two countries. TCM is used as a form of alternative healthcare treatment in New Zealand for non-Chinese individuals. Acupuncture is the most utilised form of TCM treatment in New Zealand, and is predominantly used for pain management purposes. TCM treatment has been utilised by individuals from a number of different ethnic groups, reflecting the ethnic diversity of the New Zealand population.

  19. Climate warming and vegetation response at the end of Heinrich event 1 (16 700–16 000 cal yr BP in Europe south of the Alps

    S. Samartin


    Full Text Available Chironomids preserved in a sediment core from Lago di Origlio (416 m a.s.l., a lake in the foreland of the Southern Swiss Alps, allowed quantitative reconstruction of Late Glacial and early Holocene temperatures using a combined Swiss-Norwegian temperature inference model based on chironomid assemblages from 274 lakes. We reconstruct July air temperatures of ca. 10 °C between 17 300 and 16 000 cal yr BP, a rather abrupt warming to ca. 12.0 °C at ca. 16 500–16 000 cal yr BP, and a strong temperature increase at the transition to the Bølling/Allerød Interstadial with average temperatures of about 14 °C. During the Younger Dryas and earliest Holocene very similar temperatures are reconstructed as for the interstadial. The rather abrupt warming at 16 500–16 000 cal yr BP is consistent with sea-surface temperature as well as speleotherm records, which indicate a marked Pre-Bølling warming after the end of Heinrich event 1 in southern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea. The pollen record of Origlio and other sites from southern Switzerland and northern Italy indicate an early reforestation of the lowlands prior to the large-scale afforestation at the onset of the Bølling period at 14 700 cal yr BP in Central Europe. Our results suggest that these afforestation processes in the formerly glaciated areas of southern Switzerland and Northern Italy have been promoted by increasing temperatures.

  20. Climate warming and vegetation response after Heinrich event 1 (16 700–16 000 cal yr BP in Europe south of the Alps

    W. Tinner


    Full Text Available Chironomids preserved in a sediment core from Lago di Origlio (416 m a.s.l., a lake in the foreland of the Southern Swiss Alps, allowed quantitative reconstruction of Late Glacial and Early Holocene summer temperatures using a combined Swiss–Norwegian temperature inference model based on chironomid assemblages from 274 lakes. We reconstruct July air temperatures of ca. 10 °C between 17 300 and 16 000 cal yr BP, a rather abrupt warming to ca. 12.0 °C at ca. 16 500–16 000 cal yr BP, and a strong temperature increase at the transition to the Bølling/Allerød interstadial with average temperatures of about 14 °C. During the Younger Dryas and earliest Holocene similar temperatures are reconstructed as for the interstadial. The rather abrupt warming at 16 500–16 000 cal yr BP is consistent with sea-surface temperature as well as speleothem records, which indicate a warming after the end of Heinrich event 1 (sensu stricto and before the Bølling/Allerød interstadial in southern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea. Pollen records from Origlio and other sites in southern Switzerland and northern Italy indicate an early reforestation of the lowlands 2000–1500 yr prior to the large-scale afforestation of Central Europe at the onset of the Bølling/Allerød period at ca. 14 700–14 600 cal yr BP. Our results suggest that these early afforestation processes in the formerly glaciated areas of northern Italy and southern Switzerland have been promoted by increasing temperatures.

  1. Nocturnal haemodialysis in Australia and New Zealand.

    Agar, John W M


    Although early experience in Australia and New Zealand confirmed home haemodialysis to be well tolerated, effective and with lower morbidity and mortality compared with centre-based haemodialysis, the advent of ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and 'satellite' haemodialysis has led to a steadily declining home haemodialysis population. However, the emergence of nocturnal haemodialysis, as a safe and highly effective therapy, has added to the modality choices now available and offers a new, highly attractive home-based option with many advantages over centre-based dialysis. For the patient, nocturnal haemodialysis means fluid and dietary freedom, less antihypertensive medication, the abolition of phosphate binders, the return of daytime freedom and the capacity for full-time employment. Potential biochemical benefits include normalization of the blood urea, serum creatinine, albumin, beta(2) microglobulin, homocysteine and triglyceride levels and other nutritional markers. Improved quality of life and sleep patterns and a resolution of sleep apnoea have been shown. Left ventricular function has also shown marked improvement. For the provider, nocturnal home haemodialysis offers clear cost advantages by avoiding high-cost nursing and infrastructure expenditure. Although consumable and equipment costs are higher, the savings on wage and infrastructure far outweigh this added expenditure. These combined factors make nocturnal haemodialysis an irresistible addition to comprehensive dialysis services, both from a clinical outcome and fiscal perspective.

  2. Trampoline injury in New Zealand: emergency care.

    Hume, P A; Chalmers, D J; Wilson, B D


    OBJECTIVE: To examine trampoline related injuries resulting in emergency department attendance. METHODS: Cases were identified by searching free text descriptions of the circumstances of injury contained in the records of the emergency department of a large city hospital. RESULTS: 114 cases were identified for a 12 month period, giving an incidence rate of 108 per 100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval = 89 to 129) compared with 9.3 hospital admissions per 100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval = 8.3 to 10.4) for a corresponding period reported in earlier research from New Zealand. This suggested that for every one hospital admission there are approximately 12 emergency department attendances. Of the cases, 95% were aged less than 20 years. As for the earlier research, falls from the trampoline to the surrounding surface were the commonest cause of injury. In the present study, sprains and strains were the commonest type of injury (40%), and the body site most frequently involved was the lower limb (46%). CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the conclusion from earlier research that although existing trampoline standards address many of the issues relating to trampoline safety, the need remains for measures to reduce the impact of falls from the trampoline to the ground surface and to prohibit the use of trampolines as unsupervised "play equipment". PMID:9015596

  3. Geothermal Field Near Rotorua, New Zealand


    Historical sketches show the indigenous Maori cooking with natural hot waters and steam prior to the arrival of Europeans on North Island, New Zealand. Since the 1950s, geothermal heat and steam have been exploited for both heating and electrical power generation, and some excess electrical power is exported to South Island. The geothermal development can be identified by the unique patterns of infrastructure that look like tan beads on a string in the midst of otherwise green vegetation. This one near the town of Rotorua lies within a northeast-trending line of active volcanoes (Ruapehu, Tongariro, and White Island) that are the surface result of the Pacific tectonic plate descending beneath the Australian-Indian plate. Image STS110-726-10 was taken by space shuttle crewmembers in April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  4. Alcohol imagery on New Zealand television

    Reeder Anthony I


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral and promotional imagery; and the mean number of scenes with alcohol per hour, and characteristics of scenes in which alcohol featured. Results There were 648 separate depictions of alcohol imagery across the week, with an average of one scene every nine minutes. Scenes depicting uncritical imagery outnumbered scenes showing possible adverse health consequences of drinking by 12 to 1. Conclusion The evidence points to a large amount of alcohol imagery incidental to storylines in programming on NZ television. Alcohol is also used in many advertisements to market non-alcohol goods and services. More attention needs to be paid to the extent of alcohol imagery on television from the industry, the government and public health practitioners. Health education with young people could raise critical awareness of the way alcohol imagery is presented on television.

  5. A Southern Ocean terrestrial record of global climate change for the past 130 ka

    Vandergoes, M.; Newnham, R.; Hendy, C.; Lowell, T.; Preusser, F.; Almond, P.; Fitzsimons, S.


    The coastal plain of South Westland, New Zealand, is characterised by a complex pattern of Late Quaternary moraines and outwash surfaces formed form the advance and retreat of successive piedmont glaciers originating from the adjacent Southern Alps ice centre. Associated with the glacial landforms are numerous bogs and lakes, whose accumulated sedimentary sequences serve as rich natural archives for subsequent climate change. At one such site, Okarito Pakihi, 15 cores have been taken to depths of up to 10 m, without reaching bottom. The generalised stratigraphy from the top consists of a 2-4 m peat layer extending back to 12.0 14C ka, overlying 2-3 m of massive blue-grey silt, often with a zone of greater organic content in its midst. Towards the top of this unit is a layer of glass shards from the Kawakawa Tephra (22.5 14C ka), whilst optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating indicates the age of this unit ranges from 28 ka near the top to 75 ka near the base. At its base, the blue-grey silt changes abruptly to a 3-4 m thick brown organic-rich silt which in turn changes abruptly to massive blue-grey silt grading into a finely laminated silt. Preliminary OSL results suggest an age of >130 ka for the laminated silts. This chronostratigraphy thus indicates a continuous sedimentary record extending from near present back to at least the penultimate glaciation, whilst the palynology of this record shows a sequence of vegetation and climate change that corresponds broadly to the marine isotope (MI) record for this interval. The upper organic unit (Holocene) is dominated by lowland temperate (podocarp) rainforest pollen which is near absent in the underlying blue-grey silts, deposited during MI Stages 2-4, when long periods of sub-alpine shrubland were punctuated by short intervals of grassland expansion. There appears to be good correspondence between these palynologically determined grassland intervals and other records of glacier movement during the last

  6. Demodicosis in Chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra subsp. rupicapra) in the Italian Alps, 2013-14.

    Salvadori, Claudia; Formenti, Nicoletta; Trogu, Tiziana; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Papini, Roberto A; Poli, Alessandro


    We report demodicosis in five alpine chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra subsp. rupicapra) from the Italian Alps that showed moderate crusts on the head and dorsal aspect of the trunk. We detected intramural folliculitis, moderate dermatitis, and T-lymphocytes and macrophages associated with Demodex spp. in follicles and sebaceous glands.

  7. Linking Up the Alps: How Networks of Local Political Actors Build the Pan-Alpine Region

    Clive H. Church


    Full Text Available Reviewed: Linking Up the Alps: How Networks of Local Political Actors Build the Pan-Alpine Region By Cristina Del Biaggio. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang, 2016. 370 pp. €52.50. ISBN 978-3-0343-1630-9.

  8. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Pasterze (Eastern Alps, Carinthia, Austria).

    Bilovitz, Peter O; Wallner, Anja; Tutzer, Veronika; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut


    The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Pasterze yielded 35 lichen species. Placidiopsis oreades Breuss (Verrucariales) is new to Austria. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition within the forefield and with four other glacier forefields of the Eastern Alps.

  9. Permafrost distribution in the European Alps: calculation and evaluation of an index map and summary statistics

    L. Boeckli


    Full Text Available The objective of this study is the production of an Alpine Permafrost Index Map (APIM covering the entire European Alps. A unified statistical model that is based on Alpine-wide permafrost observations is used for debris and bedrock surfaces across the entire Alps. The explanatory variables of the model are mean annual air temperatures, potential incoming solar radiation and precipitation. Offset terms were applied to make model predictions for topographic and geomorphic conditions that differ from the terrain features used for model fitting. These offsets are based on literature review and involve some degree of subjective choice during model building. The assessment of the APIM is challenging because limited independent test data are available for comparison and these observations represent point information in a spatially highly variable topography. The APIM provides an index that describes the spatial distribution of permafrost and comes together with an interpretation key that helps to assess map uncertainties and to relate map contents to their actual expression in the terrain. The map can be used as a first resource to estimate permafrost conditions at any given location in the European Alps in a variety of contexts such as research and spatial planning.

    Results show that Switzerland likely is the country with the largest permafrost area in the Alps, followed by Italy, Austria, France and Germany. Slovenia and Liechtenstein may have marginal permafrost areas. In all countries the permafrost area is expected to be larger than the glacier-covered area.

  10. IFLA's Core Programme for the Advancement of Librarianship in the Third World--ALP.

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This brochure provides information on the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) core program for the Advancement of Librarianship in the Third World (ALP), which was launched in 1984 to further the library profession, library institutions, and library and information services in less developed countries. Program objectives are…

  11. Thermal evolution of high-pressure metamorphic rocks in the Alps

    Brouwer, F.M.


    There are two major and currently unresolved issues in Alpine geology concerning the metamorphic evolution of the rocks in the internal zones of the Alps. First, rocks showing evidence for geologically young, high-pressure to very high-pressure metamorphism are now exposed at the Earth's surface, im

  12. Ecological characterisation of supina bluegrass (Poa supina Schrad.) germplasm from the Italian Alps

    Supina bluegrass (Poa supina Schrad.) is a potential turfgrass species for cool, northern type climates, yet few genetic resources for research and development are very limited. As a result, a field exploration for P. supina was conduction in the Italian Alps in 2008. Altogether, 55 populations of...

  13. Keeping on: How ALP Brings Disaffected Youth Back to School in Liberia

    von Hahmann, Gail; Tengbeh, Josephine F. D.


    Moses is entering 7th grade this semester. He is a graduate of the Accelerated Learning Program (ALP), a Liberian government initiative to assist over-age students to complete six grades of primary school in three years. He has all the interests of a typical 15-year old--fixing generators, playing football, earning money to buy a school uniform.…

  14. The geology of the Vicentinian Alps (NE-Italy) : (with special reference to their paleomagnetic history)

    Boer, J. de


    This geological study on the Vicentinian Alps is mainly an analysis of the tectonic and paleomagnetic data, collected by the author in the years 1959, 1960, and 1961. The stratigraphy is based for the greater part on data published in the first decenniums of this century. In the westtern part of the

  15. The geology of the Vicentinian Alps (NE-Italy) : with special reference to their paleomagnetic history

    Boer, Jelle de


    This geological study on the Vicentinian Alps is mainly an analysis of the tectonic and paleomagnetic data, collected by the author in the years 1959, 1960, and 1961. The stratigraphy is based for the greater part on data published in the first decenniums of this century. In the westtern part of the

  16. Thermal evolution of high-pressure metamorphic rocks in the Alps

    Brouwer, F.M.


    There are two major and currently unresolved issues in Alpine geology concerning the metamorphic evolution of the rocks in the internal zones of the Alps. First, rocks showing evidence for geologically young, high-pressure to very high-pressure metamorphism are now exposed at the Earth's surface, im

  17. Evropska dimenzija poučevanja o Alpah = European dimension of teaching about Alps

    Tatjana Resnik-Planninc


    Full Text Available Situated in several European states, Alps can be an extraordinary factor of connection and mutual study in the whole school vertical. With joint projects of the schools of Alpine countries many goals, written in the Green Paper on the European Dimension of Education, could be fulfilled. The article presents such possibilities of cooperation in the field of geography.

  18. Biodiversity governance and social-ecological system dynamics: transformation in the Australian Alps

    Michael Lockwood


    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation continues to be a challenging task for societies worldwide. We undertook a resilience assessment to address the following question: What are the ramifications of social-ecological system dynamics for biodiversity governance of a nationally significant landscape? Resilience assessment offers promise for guiding response strategies, potentially enabling consideration of ecological, social, economic, and governance influences on biodiversity-related activities. Most resilience assessments have, however, struggled to effectively incorporate governance influences. We applied a modified version of the Resilience Alliance workbook approach to explicitly address governance influences at each stage of an assessment of internationally significant biodiversity features in protected areas of the Australian Alps. The vulnerability of the Alps system to climate change suggests that it is moving into a release stage, with subsequent transformation hypothesized. Network governance is argued as enabling flexible, adaptive management and comprehensive engagement of stakeholders, both of which are critical to shaping how this transformation of the Alps as a valued focal system will occur. The Australian Alps Liaison Committee provides a promising governance structure for collaboration and comanagement across multiple jurisdictions. Our contribution was to demonstrate how a resilience assessment that explicitly embeds governance influences in social-ecological system dynamics can point to pathways for governance reform in the context of system transformation.

  19. Effects of atmospheric and climate change at the timberline of the Central European Alps.

    Wieser, Gerhard; Matyssek, Rainer; Luzian, Roland; Zwerger, Peter; Pindur, Peter; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas


    This review considers potential effects of atmospheric change and climate warming within the timberline ecotone of the Central European Alps. After focusing on the impacts of ozone (O(3)) and rising atmospheric CO(2) concentration, effects of climate warming on the carbon and water balance of timberline trees and forests will be outlined towards conclusions about changes in tree growth and treeline dynamics.Presently, ambient ground-level O(3) concentrations do not exert crucial stress on adult conifers at the timberline of the Central European Alps. In response to elevated atmospheric CO(2)Larix decidua showed growth increase, whereas no such response was found in Pinus uncinata. Overall climate warming appears as the factor responsible for the observed growth stimulation of timberline trees.Increased seedling re-establishment in the Central European Alps however, resulted from invasion into potential habitats rather than upward migration due to climate change, although seedlings will only reach tree size upon successful coupling with the atmosphere and thus loosing the beneficial microclimate of low stature vegetation.In conclusion, future climate extremes are more likely than the gradual temperature increase to control treeline dynamics in the Central European Alps.

  20. Increased dust deposition in the Pacific Southern Ocean during glacial periods

    Lamy, Frank; Gersonde, Rainer; Winckler, Gisela; Esper, Oliver; Jaeschke, Andrea; Kuhn, Gerhard; Ullermann, Johannes; Martinez-Garcia, Alfredo; Lambert, Fabrice; Kilian, Rolf


    Dust deposition across the Southern Ocean plays a critical role for marine biological production through iron fertilization and is supposed to control a significant fraction of glacial-interglacial atmospheric CO2 changes. However, in the Pacific, the largest Southern Ocean sector, reliable sediment records are sparse and climate models mostly indicate low dust deposition both for modern times and the last glacial maximum. Here, we present comprehensive data-sets of dust supply based on the analysis of sediment records recently retrieved across the Pacific Southern Ocean. The shape and glacial/interglacial pattern of lithogenic sediment input records in the western and central sector reveals strong similarities to dust records from Antarctica and the South Atlantic. Though our new data document substantial sediment redistribution, glacial dust mass accumulation rates corrected for sediment focusing exceed interglacial values by a factor of ~3. The first-order changes in Subantarctic biological productivity largely follow increased dust supply during glacials. Taken together our new sediment records document a substantial glacial dust supply from Australian and New Zealand sources to the Pacific SO sector eastward to at least 125°W. Such enhancement of dust supply is consistent with stronger aridity in Australia and a glacial dust source in New Zealand. Although the most likely dust source for the South Pacific is Australia/New Zealand, the glacial/interglacial pattern and timing of lithogenic sediment deposition is similar to dust records from Antarctica and the South Atlantic dominated by Patagonian sources. These similarities imply large-scale common climate forcings such as latitudinal shifts of the southern westerlies and regionally enhanced glaciogenic dust mobilization in New Zealand and Patagonia.