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Sample records for zealand common dolphins

  1. Common dolphin (Delphinus delphis bycatch in New Zealand commercial trawl fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finlay N Thompson

    Full Text Available Marine mammals are regularly reported as bycatch in commercial and artisanal fisheries, but data are often insufficient to allow assessment of these incidental mortalities. Observer coverage of the mackerel trawl fishery in New Zealand waters between 1995 and 2011 allowed evaluation of common dolphin Delphinus delphis bycatch on the North Island west coast, where this species is the most frequently caught cetacean. Observer data were used to develop a statistical model to estimate total captures and explore covariates related to captures. A two-stage Bayesian hurdle model was used, with a logistic generalised linear model predicting whether any common dolphin captures occurred on a given tow of the net, and a zero-truncated Poisson distribution to estimate the number of dolphin captures, given that there was a capture event. Over the 16-year study period, there were 119 common dolphin captures reported on 4299 observed tows. Capture events frequently involved more than one individual, with a maximum of nine common dolphin observed caught in a single tow. There was a peak of 141 estimated common dolphin captures (95% c.i.: 56 to 276; 6.27 captures per 100 tows in 2002-03, following the marked expansion in annual effort in this fishery to over 2000 tows. Subsequently, the number of captures fluctuated although fishing effort remained relatively high. Of the observed capture events, 60% were during trawls where the top of the net (headline was <40 m below the surface, and the model determined that this covariate best explained common dolphin captures. Increasing headline depth by 21 m would halve the probability of a dolphin capture event on a tow. While lack of abundance data prevents assessment of the impact of these mortalities on the local common dolphin population, a clear recommendation from this study is the increasing of headline depth to reduce common dolphin captures.

  2. Behavioural Effects of Tourism on Oceanic Common Dolphins, Delphinus sp., in New Zealand: The Effects of Markov Analysis Variations and Current Tour Operator Compliance with Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Anna M.; Christiansen, Fredrik; Martinez, Emmanuelle; Pawley, Matthew D. M.; Orams, Mark B.; Stockin, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Common dolphins, Delphinus sp., are one of the marine mammal species tourism operations in New Zealand focus on. While effects of cetacean-watching activities have previously been examined in coastal regions in New Zealand, this study is the first to investigate effects of commercial tourism and recreational vessels on common dolphins in an open oceanic habitat. Observations from both an independent research vessel and aboard commercial tour vessels operating off the central and east coast Bay of Plenty, North Island, New Zealand were used to assess dolphin behaviour and record the level of compliance by permitted commercial tour operators and private recreational vessels with New Zealand regulations. Dolphin behaviour was assessed using two different approaches to Markov chain analysis in order to examine variation of responses of dolphins to vessels. Results showed that, regardless of the variance in Markov methods, dolphin foraging behaviour was significantly altered by boat interactions. Dolphins spent less time foraging during interactions and took significantly longer to return to foraging once disrupted by vessel presence. This research raises concerns about the potential disruption to feeding, a biologically critical behaviour. This may be particularly important in an open oceanic habitat, where prey resources are typically widely dispersed and unpredictable in abundance. Furthermore, because tourism in this region focuses on common dolphins transiting between adjacent coastal locations, the potential for cumulative effects could exacerbate the local effects demonstrated in this study. While the overall level of compliance by commercial operators was relatively high, non-compliance to the regulations was observed with time restriction, number or speed of vessels interacting with dolphins not being respected. Additionally, prohibited swimming with calves did occur. The effects shown in this study should be carefully considered within conservation management

  3. Behavioural effects of tourism on oceanic common dolphins, Delphinus sp., in New Zealand: the effects of Markov analysis variations and current tour operator compliance with regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Anna M; Christiansen, Fredrik; Martinez, Emmanuelle; Pawley, Matthew D M; Orams, Mark B; Stockin, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    Common dolphins, Delphinus sp., are one of the marine mammal species tourism operations in New Zealand focus on. While effects of cetacean-watching activities have previously been examined in coastal regions in New Zealand, this study is the first to investigate effects of commercial tourism and recreational vessels on common dolphins in an open oceanic habitat. Observations from both an independent research vessel and aboard commercial tour vessels operating off the central and east coast Bay of Plenty, North Island, New Zealand were used to assess dolphin behaviour and record the level of compliance by permitted commercial tour operators and private recreational vessels with New Zealand regulations. Dolphin behaviour was assessed using two different approaches to Markov chain analysis in order to examine variation of responses of dolphins to vessels. Results showed that, regardless of the variance in Markov methods, dolphin foraging behaviour was significantly altered by boat interactions. Dolphins spent less time foraging during interactions and took significantly longer to return to foraging once disrupted by vessel presence. This research raises concerns about the potential disruption to feeding, a biologically critical behaviour. This may be particularly important in an open oceanic habitat, where prey resources are typically widely dispersed and unpredictable in abundance. Furthermore, because tourism in this region focuses on common dolphins transiting between adjacent coastal locations, the potential for cumulative effects could exacerbate the local effects demonstrated in this study. While the overall level of compliance by commercial operators was relatively high, non-compliance to the regulations was observed with time restriction, number or speed of vessels interacting with dolphins not being respected. Additionally, prohibited swimming with calves did occur. The effects shown in this study should be carefully considered within conservation management

  4. Behavioural effects of tourism on oceanic common dolphins, Delphinus sp., in New Zealand: the effects of Markov analysis variations and current tour operator compliance with regulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Meissner

    Full Text Available Common dolphins, Delphinus sp., are one of the marine mammal species tourism operations in New Zealand focus on. While effects of cetacean-watching activities have previously been examined in coastal regions in New Zealand, this study is the first to investigate effects of commercial tourism and recreational vessels on common dolphins in an open oceanic habitat. Observations from both an independent research vessel and aboard commercial tour vessels operating off the central and east coast Bay of Plenty, North Island, New Zealand were used to assess dolphin behaviour and record the level of compliance by permitted commercial tour operators and private recreational vessels with New Zealand regulations. Dolphin behaviour was assessed using two different approaches to Markov chain analysis in order to examine variation of responses of dolphins to vessels. Results showed that, regardless of the variance in Markov methods, dolphin foraging behaviour was significantly altered by boat interactions. Dolphins spent less time foraging during interactions and took significantly longer to return to foraging once disrupted by vessel presence. This research raises concerns about the potential disruption to feeding, a biologically critical behaviour. This may be particularly important in an open oceanic habitat, where prey resources are typically widely dispersed and unpredictable in abundance. Furthermore, because tourism in this region focuses on common dolphins transiting between adjacent coastal locations, the potential for cumulative effects could exacerbate the local effects demonstrated in this study. While the overall level of compliance by commercial operators was relatively high, non-compliance to the regulations was observed with time restriction, number or speed of vessels interacting with dolphins not being respected. Additionally, prohibited swimming with calves did occur. The effects shown in this study should be carefully considered within

  5. The taxonomic status of common dolphins Delphinus spp. in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aside from gender differences, a principal components analysis of skull measurements of 72 adult common dolphins from South Africa failed to distinguish more than one form of Delphinus. Plots of rostral length against zygomatic width indicated most could be referred to the long-beaked form D. capensis, but three ...

  6. Organochlorines in common dolphins caught in shark nets during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of organochlorines were determined in blubber and liver samples from common dolphins inhabiting the coastal waters of the south-east coast of southern Africa. Liver levels of PCBs and DDTs are far lower and do not appear directly associated with those in blubber. In males, blubber residue ...

  7. Behavioural responses of dusky dolphin groups (Lagenorhynchus obscurus to tour vessels off Kaikoura, New Zealand.

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    David Lundquist

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Commercial viewing and swimming with dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus near Kaikoura, New Zealand began in the late 1980s and researchers have previously described changes in vocalisation, aerial behaviour, and group spacing in the presence of vessels. This study was conducted to assess the current effects that tourism has on the activity budget of dusky dolphins to provide wildlife managers with information for current decision-making and facilitate development of quantitative criteria for management of this industry in the future. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First-order time discrete Markov chain models were used to assess changes in the behavioural state of dusky dolphin pods targeted by tour vessels. Log-linear analysis was conducted on behavioural state transitions to determine whether the likelihood of dolphins moving from one behavioural state to another changed based on natural and anthropogenic factors. The best-fitting model determined by Akaike Information Criteria values included season, time of day, and vessel presence within 300 m. Interactions with vessels reduced the proportion of time dolphins spent resting in spring and summer and increased time spent milling in all seasons except autumn. Dolphins spent more time socialising in spring and summer, when conception occurs and calves are born, and the proportion of time spent resting was highest in summer. Resting decreased and traveling increased in the afternoon. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Responses to tour vessel traffic are similar to those described for dusky dolphins elsewhere. Disturbance linked to vessels may interrupt social interactions, carry energetic costs, or otherwise affect individual fitness. Research is needed to determine if increased milling is a result of acoustic masking of communication due to vessel noise, and to establish levels at which changes to behavioural budgets of dusky dolphins are likely to cause long-term harm. Threshold

  8. Cross-sectional anatomy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the head of common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Farré, J M; Gonzalo-Orden, M; Barreiro-Vázquez, J D; Barreiro-Lois, A; André, M; Morell, M; Llarena-Reino, M; Monreal-Pawlowsky, T; Degollada, E

    2015-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to scan seven by-caught dolphin cadavers, belonging to two species: four common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and three striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). CT and MRI were obtained with the animals in ventral recumbency. After the imaging procedures, six dolphins were frozen at -20°C and sliced in the same position they were examined. Not only CT and MRI scans, but also cross sections of the heads were obtained in three body planes: transverse (slices of 1 cm thickness) in three dolphins, sagittal (5 cm thickness) in two dolphins and dorsal (5 cm thickness) in two dolphins. Relevant anatomical structures were identified and labelled on each cross section, obtaining a comprehensive bi-dimensional topographical anatomy guide of the main features of the common and the striped dolphin head. Furthermore, the anatomical cross sections were compared with their corresponding CT and MRI images, allowing an imaging identification of most of the anatomical features. CT scans produced an excellent definition of the bony and air-filled structures, while MRI allowed us to successfully identify most of the soft tissue structures in the dolphin's head. This paper provides a detailed anatomical description of the head structures of common and striped dolphins and compares anatomical cross sections with CT and MRI scans, becoming a reference guide for the interpretation of imaging studies. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Organohalogen contaminants and metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid and cerebellum gray matter in short-beaked common dolphins and Atlantic white-sided dolphins from the western North Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montie, Eric W.; Reddy, Christopher M.; Gebbink, Wouter A.; Touhey, Katie E.; Hahn, Mark E.; Letcher, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of several congeners and classes of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) and/or their metabolites, namely organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated-PCBs (OH-PCBs), methylsulfonyl-PCBs (MeSO 2 -PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants, and OH-PBDEs, were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of short-beaked common dolphins (n = 2), Atlantic white-sided dolphins (n = 8), and gray seal (n = 1) from the western North Atlantic. In three Atlantic white-sided dolphins, cerebellum gray matter (GM) was also analyzed. The levels of OCs, PCBs, MeSO 2 -PCBs, PBDEs, and OH-PBDEs in cerebellum GM were higher than the concentrations in CSF. 4-OH-2,3,3',4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-CB107) was the only detectable OH-PCB congener present in CSF. The sum (Σ) OH-PCBs/Σ PCB concentration ratio in CSF was approximately two to three orders of magnitude greater than the ratio in cerebellum GM for dolphins. - Organohalogens and/or metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid and cerebellum gray matter in short-beaked common dolphins, Atlantic white-sided dolphins, and gray seal.

  10. Organochlorine contaminant and retinoid levels in blubber of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) off northwestern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornero, Victoria; Borrell, Assumpcio; Aguilar, Alex; Forcada, Jaume; Lockyer, Christina

    2006-01-01

    The effect of age, sex, nutritive condition and organochlorine concentration on blubber retinoid concentrations was examined in 74 common dolphins incidentally caught off northwestern Spain. Age and blubber lipid content were strong determinants of the retinoid concentrations in males, while these variables did not account for the variation found in females. Retinoids were positively correlated with organochlorines in males and negatively in females. However, pollution levels were moderate and likely to be below threshold levels above that a toxicological response is to be expected. Thus, a cause-effect relationship between organochlorine and retinoid concentrations could not be properly established, and the observed correlation may be the result of an independent association of the two variables with age. Further research on the influence of the best predictor variables on retinoid dynamics is required to implement the use of retinoids as biomarkers of pollutant exposure in cetaceans. - Organochlorine contaminants and retinoids in common dolphins

  11. A common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prey handling technique for marine catfish (Ariidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronje, Errol I; Barry, Kevin P; Sinclair, Carrie; Grace, Mark A; Barros, Nélio; Allen, Jason; Balmer, Brian; Panike, Anna; Toms, Christina; Mullin, Keith D; Wells, Randall S

    2017-01-01

    Few accounts describe predator-prey interactions between common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Montagu 1821) and marine catfish (Ariopsis felis Linnaeus 1766, Bagre marinus Mitchill 1815). Over the course of 50,167 sightings of bottlenose dolphin groups in Mississippi Sound and along the Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico, severed catfish heads were found floating and exhibiting movements at the surface in close proximity to 13 dolphin groups that demonstrated feeding behavior. These observations prompted a multi-disciplinary approach to study the predator-prey relationship between bottlenose dolphins and marine catfish. A review was conducted of bottlenose dolphin visual survey data and dorsal fin photographs from sightings where severed catfish heads were observed. Recovered severed catfish heads were preserved and studied, whole marine catfish were collected and examined, and stranding network pathology reports were reviewed for references to injuries related to fish spines. Photographic identification analysis confirms eight dolphins associated with severed catfish heads were present in three such sightings across an approximately 350 km expanse of coast between the Mississippi Sound and Saint Joseph Bay, FL. An examination of the severed catfish heads indicated interaction with dolphins, and fresh-caught whole hardhead catfish (A. felis) were examined to estimate the presumed total length of the catfish before decapitation. Thirty-eight instances of significant trauma or death in dolphins attributed to ingesting whole marine catfish were documented in stranding records collected from the southeastern United States of America. Bottlenose dolphins typically adhere to a ram-feeding strategy for prey capture followed by whole prey ingestion; however, marine catfish skull morphology may pose a consumption hazard due to rigid spines that can puncture and migrate through soft tissue, prompting a prey handling technique for certain dolphins, facilitating

  12. Adrenal Hormones in Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Influential Factors and Reference Intervals

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Leslie B.; Wells, Randall S.; Kellar, Nick; Balmer, Brian C.; Hohn, Aleta A.; Lamb, Stephen V.; Rowles, Teri; Zolman, Eric S.; Schwacke, Lori H.

    2015-01-01

    Inshore common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are exposed to a broad spectrum of natural and anthropogenic stressors. In response to these stressors, the mammalian adrenal gland releases hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone to maintain physiological and biochemical homeostasis. Consequently, adrenal gland dysfunction results in disruption of hormone secretion and an inappropriate stress response. Our objective herein was to develop diagnostic reference intervals (RIs) for adren...

  13. Adrenal Hormones in Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus: Influential Factors and Reference Intervals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie B Hart

    Full Text Available Inshore common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus are exposed to a broad spectrum of natural and anthropogenic stressors. In response to these stressors, the mammalian adrenal gland releases hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone to maintain physiological and biochemical homeostasis. Consequently, adrenal gland dysfunction results in disruption of hormone secretion and an inappropriate stress response. Our objective herein was to develop diagnostic reference intervals (RIs for adrenal hormones commonly associated with the stress response (i.e., cortisol, aldosterone that account for the influence of intrinsic (e.g., age, sex and extrinsic (e.g., time factors. Ultimately, these reference intervals will be used to gauge an individual's response to chase-capture stress and could indicate adrenal abnormalities. Linear mixed models (LMMs were used to evaluate demographic and sampling factors contributing to differences in serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations among bottlenose dolphins sampled in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA (2000-2012. Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly associated with elapsed time from initial stimulation to sample collection (p<0.05, and RIs were constructed using nonparametric methods based on elapsed sampling time for dolphins sampled in less than 30 minutes following net deployment (95% RI: 0.91-4.21 µg/dL and following biological sampling aboard a research vessel (95% RI: 2.32-6.68 µg/dL. To examine the applicability of the pre-sampling cortisol RI across multiple estuarine stocks, data from three additional southeast U.S. sites were compared, revealing that all of the dolphins sampled from the other sites (N = 34 had cortisol concentrations within the 95th percentile RI. Significant associations between serum concentrations of aldosterone and variables reported in previous studies (i.e., age, elapsed sampling time were not observed in the current project (p<0.05. Also, approximately 16% of

  14. Adrenal Hormones in Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Influential Factors and Reference Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Leslie B; Wells, Randall S; Kellar, Nick; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Lamb, Stephen V; Rowles, Teri; Zolman, Eric S; Schwacke, Lori H

    2015-01-01

    Inshore common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are exposed to a broad spectrum of natural and anthropogenic stressors. In response to these stressors, the mammalian adrenal gland releases hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone to maintain physiological and biochemical homeostasis. Consequently, adrenal gland dysfunction results in disruption of hormone secretion and an inappropriate stress response. Our objective herein was to develop diagnostic reference intervals (RIs) for adrenal hormones commonly associated with the stress response (i.e., cortisol, aldosterone) that account for the influence of intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., time) factors. Ultimately, these reference intervals will be used to gauge an individual's response to chase-capture stress and could indicate adrenal abnormalities. Linear mixed models (LMMs) were used to evaluate demographic and sampling factors contributing to differences in serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations among bottlenose dolphins sampled in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA (2000-2012). Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly associated with elapsed time from initial stimulation to sample collection (p<0.05), and RIs were constructed using nonparametric methods based on elapsed sampling time for dolphins sampled in less than 30 minutes following net deployment (95% RI: 0.91-4.21 µg/dL) and following biological sampling aboard a research vessel (95% RI: 2.32-6.68 µg/dL). To examine the applicability of the pre-sampling cortisol RI across multiple estuarine stocks, data from three additional southeast U.S. sites were compared, revealing that all of the dolphins sampled from the other sites (N = 34) had cortisol concentrations within the 95th percentile RI. Significant associations between serum concentrations of aldosterone and variables reported in previous studies (i.e., age, elapsed sampling time) were not observed in the current project (p<0.05). Also, approximately 16% of Sarasota Bay

  15. What caused the UK's largest common dolphin (Delphinus delphis mass stranding event?

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    Paul D Jepson

    Full Text Available On 9 June 2008, the UK's largest mass stranding event (MSE of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis occurred in Falmouth Bay, Cornwall. At least 26 dolphins died, and a similar number was refloated/herded back to sea. On necropsy, all dolphins were in good nutritive status with empty stomachs and no evidence of known infectious disease or acute physical injury. Auditory tissues were grossly normal (26/26 but had microscopic haemorrhages (5/5 and mild otitis media (1/5 in the freshest cases. Five lactating adult dolphins, one immature male, and one immature female tested were free of harmful algal toxins and had low chemical pollutant levels. Pathological evidence of mud/seawater inhalation (11/26, local tide cycle, and the relative lack of renal myoglobinuria (26/26 suggested MSE onset on a rising tide between 06:30 and 08∶21 hrs (9 June. Potential causes excluded or considered highly unlikely included infectious disease, gas/fat embolism, boat strike, by-catch, predator attack, foraging unusually close to shore, chemical or algal toxin exposure, abnormal weather/climatic conditions, and high-intensity acoustic inputs from seismic airgun arrays or natural sources (e.g., earthquakes. International naval exercises did occur in close proximity to the MSE with the most intense part of the exercises (including mid-frequency sonars occurring four days before the MSE and resuming with helicopter exercises on the morning of the MSE. The MSE may therefore have been a "two-stage process" where a group of normally pelagic dolphins entered Falmouth Bay and, after 3-4 days in/around the Bay, a second acoustic/disturbance event occurred causing them to strand en masse. This spatial and temporal association with the MSE, previous associations between naval activities and cetacean MSEs, and an absence of other identifiable factors known to cause cetacean MSEs, indicates naval activity to be the most probable cause of the Falmouth Bay MSE.

  16. What Caused the UK's Largest Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) Mass Stranding Event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul D.; Deaville, Robert; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Barnett, James; Brownlow, Andrew; Brownell Jr., Robert L.; Clare, Frances C.; Davison, Nick; Law, Robin J.; Loveridge, Jan; Macgregor, Shaheed K.; Morris, Steven; Murphy, Sinéad; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W.; Pinn, Eunice; Seibel, Henrike; Siebert, Ursula; Sierra, Eva; Simpson, Victor; Tasker, Mark L.; Tregenza, Nick; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fernández, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    On 9 June 2008, the UK's largest mass stranding event (MSE) of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) occurred in Falmouth Bay, Cornwall. At least 26 dolphins died, and a similar number was refloated/herded back to sea. On necropsy, all dolphins were in good nutritive status with empty stomachs and no evidence of known infectious disease or acute physical injury. Auditory tissues were grossly normal (26/26) but had microscopic haemorrhages (5/5) and mild otitis media (1/5) in the freshest cases. Five lactating adult dolphins, one immature male, and one immature female tested were free of harmful algal toxins and had low chemical pollutant levels. Pathological evidence of mud/seawater inhalation (11/26), local tide cycle, and the relative lack of renal myoglobinuria (26/26) suggested MSE onset on a rising tide between 06∶30 and 08∶21 hrs (9 June). Potential causes excluded or considered highly unlikely included infectious disease, gas/fat embolism, boat strike, by-catch, predator attack, foraging unusually close to shore, chemical or algal toxin exposure, abnormal weather/climatic conditions, and high-intensity acoustic inputs from seismic airgun arrays or natural sources (e.g., earthquakes). International naval exercises did occur in close proximity to the MSE with the most intense part of the exercises (including mid-frequency sonars) occurring four days before the MSE and resuming with helicopter exercises on the morning of the MSE. The MSE may therefore have been a “two-stage process” where a group of normally pelagic dolphins entered Falmouth Bay and, after 3–4 days in/around the Bay, a second acoustic/disturbance event occurred causing them to strand en masse. This spatial and temporal association with the MSE, previous associations between naval activities and cetacean MSEs, and an absence of other identifiable factors known to cause cetacean MSEs, indicates naval activity to be the most probable cause of the Falmouth Bay MSE. PMID

  17. Molecular and Morphological Differentiation of Common Dolphins (Delphinus sp.) in the Southwestern Atlantic: Testing the Two Species Hypothesis in Sympatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Haydée A.; de Castro, Rocio Loizaga; Secchi, Eduardo R.; Crespo, Enrique A.; Lailson-Brito, José; Azevedo, Alexandre F.; Lazoski, Cristiano; Solé-Cava, Antonio M.

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy of common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) has always been controversial, with over twenty described species since the original description of the type species of the genus (Delphinus delphis Linnaeus, 1758). Two species and four subspecies are currently accepted, but recent molecular data have challenged this view. In this study we investigated the molecular taxonomy of common dolphins through analyses of cytochrome b sequences of 297 individuals from most of their distribution. We included 37 novel sequences from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, a region where the short- and long-beaked morphotypes occur in sympatry, but which had not been well sampled before. Skulls of individuals from the Southwestern Atlantic were measured to test the validity of the rostral index as a diagnostic character and confirmed the presence of the two morphotypes in our genetic sample. Our genetic results show that all common dolphins in the Atlantic Ocean belong to a single species, Delphinus delphis. According to genetic data, the species Delphinus capensis is invalid. Long-beaked common dolphins from the Northeastern Pacific Ocean may constitute a different species. Our conclusions prompt the need for revision of currently accepted common dolphin species and subspecies and of Delphinus delphis distribution. PMID:26559411

  18. Molecular and Morphological Differentiation of Common Dolphins (Delphinus sp. in the Southwestern Atlantic: Testing the Two Species Hypothesis in Sympatry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydée A Cunha

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of common dolphins (Delphinus sp. has always been controversial, with over twenty described species since the original description of the type species of the genus (Delphinus delphis Linnaeus, 1758. Two species and four subspecies are currently accepted, but recent molecular data have challenged this view. In this study we investigated the molecular taxonomy of common dolphins through analyses of cytochrome b sequences of 297 individuals from most of their distribution. We included 37 novel sequences from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, a region where the short- and long-beaked morphotypes occur in sympatry, but which had not been well sampled before. Skulls of individuals from the Southwestern Atlantic were measured to test the validity of the rostral index as a diagnostic character and confirmed the presence of the two morphotypes in our genetic sample. Our genetic results show that all common dolphins in the Atlantic Ocean belong to a single species, Delphinus delphis. According to genetic data, the species Delphinus capensis is invalid. Long-beaked common dolphins from the Northeastern Pacific Ocean may constitute a different species. Our conclusions prompt the need for revision of currently accepted common dolphin species and subspecies and of Delphinus delphis distribution.

  19. Population structure of island-associated dolphins: evidence from photo-identification of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the main Hawaiian Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, Robin W.; Gorgone, Antoinette M.; McSweeney, Daniel J.; Ligon, Allan D.; Deakos, Mark H.; Webster, Daniel L.; Schorr, Gregory S.; Martien, Karen K.; Salden, Dan R.; Mahaffy, Sabre D.

    2009-01-01

    Management agencies often use geopolitical boundaries as proxies for biological boundaries. In Hawaiian waters a single stock is recognized of common bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, a species that is found both in open water and near-shore among the main Hawaiian Islands. To assess population structure, we photo-identified 336 distinctive individuals from the main Hawaiian Islands, from 2000 to 2006. Their generally shallow-water distribution, and numerous within-year and between-yea...

  20. Niche Differentiation and Prey Selectivity among Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Sighted in St. George Sound, Gulf of Mexico

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    Rachel M. Wilson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus have been identified within St. George Sound, Florida, USA: high site-fidelity individuals (HSF which are individuals sighted multiple times in the region (i.e., ≥2 months, ≥2 seasons, and ≥2 years, and low site-fidelity individuals (LSF, which are individuals sighted fewer than 2 months, in 2 different seasons among 2 different years. Our goal was to determine whether differences in foraging behaviors were correlated with differences in sighting frequency and overall usage of St. George Sound by the two groups. We used carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur stable isotopes and niche hypervolume metrics to model the foodweb of St. George Sound. Mixing model results indicated that croaker, mojarra, pigfish, pinfish, and silverperch were the most important prey items for dolphins. The hypervolume metrics demonstrate niche partitioning between HSFs and LSFs, with the HSFs relying more heavily on pinfish, pigfish, and mojarra, while the LSFs relied more on silverperch. Plankton, benthic diatoms, seagrass, and epiphytes all contributed to secondary production within St. George Sound. This diversity of source utilization by seagrass-associated consumers supported by a high rate of total production likely sustains high secondary productivity despite the potential for competition in this system. Zooplankton was the most important basal source to the system, followed by seagrass and benthic primary production (as indicated by a sanddollar proxy. The reliance of dolphins on seagrass-dependent prey indicates that alteration of seagrass habitat would significantly impact the dolphin community foraging in St. George Sound and suggests that preservation of seagrass habitat is an important component of an effective management strategy for dolphin populations in the region.

  1. Cirolana narica n. sp., a New Zealand isopod (Crustacea) found in the nasal tract of the dolphin Cephalorhynchus hectori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, Thomas E.

    1971-01-01

    A new cirolanid isopod, Cirolana narica, is described from the vestibular diverticulum of the blowhole complex of the dolphin, Cephalorhynchus hectori. The isopod is believed to be a scavenger that entered the blowhole post mortem.

  2. Demographic clusters identified within the northern Gulf of Mexico common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncates unusual mortality event: January 2010-June 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Venn-Watson

    Full Text Available A multi-year unusual mortality event (UME involving primarily common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncates was declared in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM with an initial start date of February 2010 and remains ongoing as of August 2014. To examine potential changing characteristics of the UME over time, we compared the number and demographics of dolphin strandings from January 2010 through June 2013 across the entire GoM as well as against baseline (1990-2009 GoM stranding patterns. Years 2010 and 2011 had the highest annual number of stranded dolphins since Louisiana's record began, and 2011 was one of the years with the highest strandings for both Mississippi and Alabama. Statewide, annual numbers of stranded dolphins were not elevated for GoM coasts of Florida or Texas during the UME period. Demographic, spatial, and temporal clusters identified within this UME included increased strandings in northern coastal Louisiana and Mississippi (March-May 2010; Barataria Bay, Louisiana (August 2010-December 2011; Mississippi and Alabama (2011, including a high prevalence and number of stranded perinates; and multiple GoM states during early 2013. While the causes of the GoM UME have not been determined, the location and magnitude of dolphin strandings during and the year following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, including the Barataria Bay cluster from August 2010 to December 2011, overlap in time and space with locations that received heavy and prolonged oiling. There are, however, multiple known causes of previous GoM dolphin UMEs, including brevetoxicosis and dolphin morbillivirus. Additionally, increased dolphin strandings occurred in northern Louisiana and Mississippi before the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Identification of spatial, temporal, and demographic clusters within the UME suggest that this mortality event may involve different contributing factors varying by location, time, and bottlenose dolphin populations that will be

  3. Dolphins. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The family Delphinidae is the largest family of toothed whales. It includes not only those mammals commonly referred to as dolphins, such as the bottlenosed dolphin often seen in captivity, but also the killer whale. This literature and resources guide is not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography on dolphins; the guide is designed--as the…

  4. Range extension for the common dolphin (Delphinus sp. to the Colombian Caribbean, with taxonomic implications from genetic barcoding and phylogenetic analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohelia Farías-Curtidor

    Full Text Available The nearest known population of common dolphins (Delphinus sp. to the Colombian Caribbean occurs in a fairly restricted range in eastern Venezuela. These dolphins have not been previously reported in the Colombian Caribbean, likely because of a lack of study of the local cetacean fauna. We collected cetacean observations in waters of the Guajira Department, northern Colombia (~11°N, 73°W during two separate efforts: (a a seismic vessel survey (December 2009-March 2010, and (b three coastal surveys from small boats (May-July 2012, May 2013, and May 2014. Here we document ten sightings of common dolphins collected during these surveys, which extend the known range of the species by ~1000 km into the southwestern Caribbean. We also collected nine skin biopsies in 2013 and 2014. In order to determine the taxonomic identity of the specimens, we conducted genetic barcoding and phylogenetic analyses using two mitochondrial markers, the Control Region (mtDNA and Cytochrome b (Cytb. Results indicate that these specimens are genetically closer to the short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis even though morphologically they resemble a long-beaked form (Delphinus sp.. However, the specific taxonomic status of common dolphins in the Caribbean and in the Western Atlantic remains unresolved. It is also unclear whether the distribution of the species between northern Colombia and eastern Venezuela is continuous or disjoined, or whether they can be considered part of the same stock.

  5. Random Forest population modelling of striped and common-bottlenose dolphins in the Gulf of Taranto (Northern Ionian Sea, Central-eastern Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlucci, Roberto; Cipriano, Giulia; Paoli, Chiara; Ricci, Pasquale; Fanizza, Carmelo; Capezzuto, Francesca; Vassallo, Paolo

    2018-05-01

    This study provides the first estimates of density and abundance of the striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba and common bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus in the Gulf of Taranto (Northern Ionian Sea, Central Mediterranean Sea) and identifies the predictive variables mainly influencing their occurrence and concentration in the study area. Conventional Distance Sampling (CDS) and the Delta approach on Random Forest (DaRF) methods have been applied to sightings data collected between 2009 and 2016 during standardized vessel-based surveys, providing similar outcomes. The mean value of density over the entire study area was 0.72 ± 0.26 specimens/km2 for the striped dolphin and 0.47 ± 0.09 specimens/km2 for the common bottlenose dolphin. The abundance estimated by DaRF in the Gulf of Taranto was 10080 ± 3584 specimens of S. coeruleoalba and 6580 ± 1270 specimens of T. truncatus, respectively. Eight predictive variables were selected, considering both the local physiographic features and human activities existing in the investigated area. The explanatory variables depth, distance from the coast, distance from industrial areas and distance from areas exploited by fishery seem to play a key role in influencing the spatial distribution of both species, whereas the geomorphological variables proved to be the most significant factors shaping the concentration of both dolphins. The establishment of a Specially Protected Area of Mediterranean Importance (SPAMI) according the SPA/BD Protocol in the Gulf of Taranto is indicated as an effective management tool for the conservation of both dolphin populations in the Central-eastern Mediterranean Sea.

  6. Influences of past climatic changes on historical population structure and demography of a cosmopolitan marine predator, the common dolphin (genus Delphinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Ana R; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Bilgmann, Kerstin; Freitas, Luís; Robertson, Kelly M; Sequeira, Marina; Stockin, Karen A; Coelho, M M; Möller, Luciana M

    2012-10-01

    Climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene have greatly influenced the distribution and connectivity of many organisms, leading to extinctions but also generating biodiversity. While the effects of such changes have been extensively studied in the terrestrial environment, studies focusing on the marine realm are still scarce. Here we used sequence data from one mitochondrial and five nuclear loci to assess the potential influence of Pleistocene climatic changes on the phylogeography and demographic history of a cosmopolitan marine predator, the common dolphin (genus Delphinus). Population samples representing the three major morphotypes of Delphinus were obtained from 10 oceanic regions. Our results suggest that short-beaked common dolphins are likely to have originated in the eastern Indo-Pacific Ocean during the Pleistocene and expanded into the Atlantic Ocean through the Indian Ocean. On the other hand, long-beaked common dolphins appear to have evolved more recently and independently in several oceans. Our results also suggest that short-beaked common dolphins had recurrent demographic expansions concomitant with changes in sea surface temperature during the Pleistocene and its associated increases in resource availability, which differed between the North Atlantic and Pacific Ocean basins. By proposing how past environmental changes had an effect on the demography and speciation of a widely distributed marine mammal, we highlight the impacts that climate change may have on the distribution and abundance of marine predators and its ecological consequences for marine ecosystems. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Seasonal variation in the skin transcriptome of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus from the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances M Van Dolah

    Full Text Available As long-lived predators that integrate exposures across multiple trophic levels, cetaceans are recognized as sentinels for the health of marine ecosystems. Their utility as sentinels requires the establishment of baseline health parameters. Because cetaceans are protected, measurements obtained with minimal disruption to free ranging animals are highly desirable. In this study we investigated the utility of skin gene expression profiling to monitor health and contaminant exposure in common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus. Remote integument biopsies were collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico prior to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (May 2010 and during summer and winter for two years following oil contamination (2010-2011. A bottlenose dolphin microarray was used to characterize the skin transcriptomes of 94 individuals from three populations: Barataria Bay, Louisiana, Chandeleur Sound, Louisiana, and Mississippi Sound, Mississippi/Alabama. Skin transcriptomes did not differ significantly between populations. In contrast, season had a profound effect on gene expression, with nearly one-third of all genes on the array differing in expression between winter and the warmer seasons (moderated T-test; ptwo-fold higher concentrations in summer compared to winter, due to a seasonal decrease in blubber thickness and loss of stored lipid. However, global gene expression did not correlate strongly with seasonally changing contaminant concentrations, most likely because the refractory, lipid-stored metabolites are not substrates for phase I or II xenobiotic detoxification pathways. Rather, processes related to cell proliferation, motility, and differentiation dominated the differences in expression in winter and the warmer seasons. More subtle differences were seen between spring and summer (1.5% of genes differentially expressed. However, two presumed oil-exposed animals from spring presented gene expression profiles more similar to the summer

  8. Sodium in commonly consumed fast foods in New Zealand: a public health opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Celia A; Smith, Claire; McLean, Rachael M

    2016-04-01

    (i) To determine the Na content of commonly consumed fast foods in New Zealand and (ii) to estimate Na intake from savoury fast foods for the New Zealand adult population. Commonly consumed fast foods were identified from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Na values from all savoury fast foods from chain restaurants (n 471) were obtained from nutrition information on company websites, while the twelve most popular fast-food types from independent outlets (n 52) were determined using laboratory analysis. Results were compared with the UK Food Standards Agency 2012 sodium targets. Nutrient analysis was completed to estimate Na intake from savoury fast foods for the New Zealand population using the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. New Zealand. Adults aged 15 years and above. From chain restaurants, sauces/salad dressings and fried chicken had the highest Na content (per 100 g) and from independent outlets, sausage rolls, battered hotdogs and mince and cheese pies were highest in Na (per 100 g). The majority of fast foods exceeded the UK Food Standards Agency 2012 sodium targets. The mean daily Na intake from savoury fast foods was 283 mg/d for the total adult population and 1229 mg/d for fast-food consumers. Taking into account the Na content and frequency of consumption, potato dishes, filled rolls, hamburgers and battered fish contributed substantially to Na intake for fast-food consumers in New Zealand. These foods should be targeted for Na reduction reformulation.

  9. A common language of landscape representation: New Zealand and California painting in the nineteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath Schenker

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available In the nineteenth century, landscape painters in California and New Zealand shared a common language of landscape representation, looking at untamed coasts and rugged mountains through a lens shaped by two centuries of European artistic tradition. Explored in this paper is the influence of the picturesque tradition in New Zealand and California art in the nineteenth century. Ideological functions of landscape painting are identified: that is, ways artists in both New Zealand and California appropriated the landscape to support certain cultural, political and social agendas. Their work represents not only the land but the myths inscribed upon it by bourgeois culture.

  10. Skin Transcriptomes of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the northern Gulf of Mexico and southeastern U.S. Atlantic coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Marion G; Morey, Jeanine S; Anderson, Paul; Balmer, Brian C; Ylitalo, Gina M; Zolman, Eric S; Speakman, Todd R; Sinclair, Carrie; Bachman, Melannie J; Huncik, Kevin; Kucklick, John; Rosel, Patricia E; Mullin, Keith D; Rowles, Teri K; Schwacke, Lori H; Van Dolah, Frances M

    2018-04-01

    Common bottlenose dolphins serve as sentinels for the health of their coastal environments as they are susceptible to health impacts from anthropogenic inputs through both direct exposure and food web magnification. Remote biopsy samples have been widely used to reveal contaminant burdens in free-ranging bottlenose dolphins, but do not address the health consequences of this exposure. To gain insight into whether remote biopsies can also identify health impacts associated with contaminant burdens, we employed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to interrogate the transcriptomes of remote skin biopsies from 116 bottlenose dolphins from the northern Gulf of Mexico and southeastern U.S. Atlantic coasts. Gene expression was analyzed using principal component analysis, differential expression testing, and gene co-expression networks, and the results correlated to season, location, and contaminant burden. Season had a significant impact, with over 60% of genes differentially expressed between spring/summer and winter months. Geographic location exhibited lesser effects on the transcriptome, with 23.5% of genes differentially expressed between the northern Gulf of Mexico and the southeastern U.S. Atlantic locations. Despite a large overlap between the seasonal and geographical gene sets, the pathways altered in the observed gene expression profiles were somewhat distinct. Co-regulated gene modules and differential expression analysis both identified epidermal development and cellular architecture pathways to be expressed at lower levels in animals from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Although contaminant burdens measured were not significantly different between regions, some correlation with contaminant loads in individuals was observed among co-expressed gene modules, but these did not include classical detoxification pathways. Instead, this study identified other, possibly downstream pathways, including those involved in cellular architecture, immune response, and oxidative stress

  11. Lobomycosis-like disease in common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from Belize and Mexico: bridging the gap between the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Eric A; Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma N; Garcia, Jazmin; Rojas Arias, Jorge; Foley, James R; Audley, Katherina; Van Waerebeek, Koen; Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise

    2018-03-22

    Lobomycosis and lobomycosis-like diseases (LLD) (also: paracoccidioidomycosis) are chronic cutaneous infections that affect Delphinidae in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. In the Americas, these diseases have been relatively well-described, but gaps still exist in our understanding of their distribution across the continent. Here we report on LLD affecting inshore bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the Caribbean waters of Belize and from the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean off the southwestern coast of Mexico. Photo-identification and catalog data gathered between 1992 and 2017 for 371 and 41 individuals, respectively from Belize and Mexico, were examined for the presence of LLD. In Belize, 5 free-ranging and 1 stranded dolphin were found positive in at least 3 communities with the highest prevalence in the south. In Guerrero, Mexico, 4 inshore bottlenose dolphins sighted in 2014-2017 were affected by LLD. These data highlight the need for histological and molecular studies to confirm the etiological agent. Additionally, we document a single case of LLD in an adult Atlantic spotted dolphin Stenella frontalis in southern Belize, the first report in this species. The role of environmental and anthropogenic factors in the occurrence, severity, and epidemiology of LLD in South and Central America requires further investigation.

  12. Brucellosis in Endangered Hector's Dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Kelly; Roe, Wendi D; Howe, Laryssa; Michael, Sarah; Duignan, Padraig J; Burrows, E; Ha, Hye Jeong; Humphrey, Sharon; McDonald, Wendy L

    2017-09-01

    Brucella spp infections of marine mammals are often asymptomatic but have been associated with reproductive losses and deaths. Zoonotic infections originating from marine isolates have also been described. Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori) are an endangered species with a declining population, and the role of infectious disease in population dynamics is not fully understood. In this study, 27 Hector's dolphins found dead around the New Zealand coastline between November 2006 and October 2010 were evaluated for lesions previously associated with cetacean brucellosis. Tissues were examined using histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) techniques. Seven of 27 dolphins (26%) had at least 1 tissue that was positive on PCR for Brucella spp. Lesions consistent with brucellosis were present in 10 of 27 (37%) dolphins, but in 8 of these dolphins Brucella infection could not be demonstrated in lesional tissues. Two dolphins (7%) were diagnosed with active brucellosis: 1 female with placentitis and metritis, and 1 stillborn male fetus. Brucella identified in these 2 dolphins had genetic similarity (99%) to Brucella pinnipedialis. The omp2a gene amplicon from the uterus of the female had 100% homology with ST27 genotype isolates from a human in New Zealand and a bottlenose dolphin of Pacific origin. The remaining 5 PCR-positive dolphins were assessed as having asymptomatic or latent infection. While most Brucella infections identified in this study appeared to be subclinical, the finding of 2 dolphins with reproductive disease due to Brucella infection suggests that this disease has the potential to affect reproductive success in this species.

  13. Common dolphins in the Alboran Sea: Facing a reduction in their suitable habitat due to an increase in Sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañadas, A.; Vázquez, J. A.

    2017-07-01

    The short-beaked common dolphin Mediterranean subpopulation appears to have suffered a steep decline over recent decades and was listed in 2003 as 'Endangered' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The Alboran Sea is the last region in the Mediterranean where it is still abundant. In this study, we relate features of this species' ecology to climate change, focusing on distribution and density. This work used a two decades-long dataset on the common dolphin in the Alboran Sea and a time series of environmental changes. Once established, these relationships were used in conjunction with some simulated scenarios of environmental change to predict the potential effects of further change on these species over the next 100 years. Two approaches were used: 1) projection from a regression line from local variation, and 2) a HadCM3 climate model with time-varying anthropogenic effects. Generalized Additive Models were used to model the relationship between density of the animals with SST and other environmental covariates. Results from both approaches were very similar. The predictions of density from the regression line fell within the ranges from the HadCM3 climate model, the first being based on local and locally, point to point, differentiated information, which lead us to consider the first approach as the best for this area. At the small spatial scale of the Alboran Sea and Gulf of Vera, an increase in SST will potentially yield a reduction in suitable habitat for common dolphins, with a progressive reduction in density from east to west.

  14. Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in female common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from western European seas: Geographical trends, causal factors and effects on reproduction and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, G.J.; Santos, M.B.; Murphy, S.; Learmonth, J.A.; Zuur, A.F.; Rogan, E.; Bustamante, P.; Caurant, F.; Lahaye, V.; Ridoux, V.; Zegers, B.N.; Mets, A.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blubber of female common dolphins and harbour porpoises from the Atlantic coast of Europe were frequently above the threshold at which effects on reproduction could be expected, in 40% and 47% of cases respectively. This rose to 74% for porpoises from the southern North Sea. PCB concentrations were also high in southern North Sea fish. The average pregnancy rate recorded in porpoises (42%) in the study area was lower than in the western Atlantic but that in common dolphins (25%) was similar to that of the western Atlantic population. Porpoises that died from disease or parasitic infection had higher concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) than animals dying from other causes. Few of the common dolphins sampled had died from disease or parasitic infection. POP profiles in common dolphin blubber were related to individual feeding history while those in porpoises were more strongly related to condition. - High PCB levels were recorded in porpoises and common dolphins from European coasts

  15. Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in female common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from western European seas: Geographical trends, causal factors and effects on reproduction and mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, G.J. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Centro Oceanografico de Vigo, P.O. Box 1552, 36200, Vigo (Spain)], E-mail: g.j.pierce@abdn.ac.uk; Santos, M.B. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Centro Oceanografico de Vigo, P.O. Box 1552, 36200, Vigo (Spain); Murphy, S. [AFDC, Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, University College, National University of Ireland, Enterprise Centre, North Mall, Cork (Ireland); Sea Mammal Research Unit, Gatty Marine Laboratory, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 8LB (United Kingdom); Learmonth, J.A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Zuur, A.F. [Highland Statistics, 6 Laverock Road, Newburgh, Aberdeenshire AB41 6FN (United Kingdom); Rogan, E. [AFDC, Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, University College, National University of Ireland, Enterprise Centre, North Mall, Cork (Ireland); Bustamante, P.; Caurant, F. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217 CNRS-IFREMER-Universite de la Rochelle, 22 avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Lahaye, V. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217 CNRS-IFREMER-Universite de la Rochelle, 22 avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Ridoux, V. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217 CNRS-IFREMER-Universite de la Rochelle, 22 avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Zegers, B.N.; Mets, A. [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel (Netherlands)] (and others)

    2008-05-15

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blubber of female common dolphins and harbour porpoises from the Atlantic coast of Europe were frequently above the threshold at which effects on reproduction could be expected, in 40% and 47% of cases respectively. This rose to 74% for porpoises from the southern North Sea. PCB concentrations were also high in southern North Sea fish. The average pregnancy rate recorded in porpoises (42%) in the study area was lower than in the western Atlantic but that in common dolphins (25%) was similar to that of the western Atlantic population. Porpoises that died from disease or parasitic infection had higher concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) than animals dying from other causes. Few of the common dolphins sampled had died from disease or parasitic infection. POP profiles in common dolphin blubber were related to individual feeding history while those in porpoises were more strongly related to condition. - High PCB levels were recorded in porpoises and common dolphins from European coasts.

  16. Adrenal Gland and Lung Lesions in Gulf of Mexico Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Found Dead following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Venn-Watson

    Full Text Available A northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM cetacean unusual mortality event (UME involving primarily bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama began in February 2010 and continued into 2014. Overlapping in time and space with this UME was the Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil spill, which was proposed as a contributing cause of adrenal disease, lung disease, and poor health in live dolphins examined during 2011 in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. To assess potential contributing factors and causes of deaths for stranded UME dolphins from June 2010 through December 2012, lung and adrenal gland tissues were histologically evaluated from 46 fresh dead non-perinatal carcasses that stranded in Louisiana (including 22 from Barataria Bay, Mississippi, and Alabama. UME dolphins were tested for evidence of biotoxicosis, morbillivirus infection, and brucellosis. Results were compared to up to 106 fresh dead stranded dolphins from outside the UME area or prior to the DWH spill. UME dolphins were more likely to have primary bacterial pneumonia (22% compared to 2% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003 and thin adrenal cortices (33% compared to 7% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003. In 70% of UME dolphins with primary bacterial pneumonia, the condition either caused or contributed significantly to death. Brucellosis and morbillivirus infections were detected in 7% and 11% of UME dolphins, respectively, and biotoxin levels were low or below the detection limit, indicating that these were not primary causes of the current UME. The rare, life-threatening, and chronic adrenal gland and lung diseases identified in stranded UME dolphins are consistent with exposure to petroleum compounds as seen in other mammals. Exposure of dolphins to elevated petroleum compounds present in coastal GoM waters during and after the DWH oil spill is proposed as a cause of adrenal and lung disease and as a contributor to increased dolphin deaths.

  17. Monitoring the habitat use of common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus using passive acoustics in a Mediterranean marine protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. LA MANNA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Tursiops truncatus subpopulation has been classified as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List because of its decline. This species in coastal areas is exposed to a wide variety of threats: directed kills, bycatch, reduced prey availability caused by environmental degradation and overfishing, habitat degradation including disturbances from boat traffic and noise. Despite the increase in boat traffic in the Mediterranean Sea, the effect on T. truncatus’ habitat use has been studied in little detail and few data have been published. This study represents the first attempt to characterise spatial and temporal habitat use by T. truncatus and its relation to boat traffic in the Isole Pelagie Marine Protected Area (Italy on the basis of an originally developed passive acoustic monitoring system (PAM. The devices were deployed in 2 areas in the southern waters of Lampedusa, during 2 separate years (2006 and 2009, each time for 3 months (from July to September and in 6 time slots (3 diurnal and 3 nocturnal. Acoustic analysis showed that T. truncatus used the Southern coastal area of Lampedusa independently of the year, primarily during the early summer, a period coinciding with the peak of calving season. Dolphin occurrences appeared independent of boat traffic, with the exception of the smallest temporal scale (time slots: dolphin occurrences were more prevalent during the night when the level of boat traffic was lower. This study provides evidence on T. truncatus habitat use in the Mediterranean Sea and reveals that boat traffic could be one of the factors influencing it, thus stressing the need for further detailed investigation regarding this topic.

  18. Metazoan parasites from odontocetes off New Zealand: new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Kristina; Randhawa, Haseeb; Poulin, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Information about the parasite fauna of spectacled porpoises and cetaceans from New Zealand waters in general is scarce. This study takes advantage of material archived in collections of the Otago Museum in Dunedin and Massey University in Auckland, sampled from cetacean species found stranded along the New Zealand coastline between 2007 and 2014. Parasites from seven species of cetaceans (spectacled porpoise, Phocoena dioptrica (n = 2 individuals examined); pygmy sperm whale (n = 1); long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas (n = 1); Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus (n = 1); short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis (n = 7); striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba (n = 3) and dusky dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obscurus (n = 2)) from the respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract, cranial sinus, liver, urogenital and mammary tract, fascia and blubber were investigated. Ten parasite species were identified, belonging to the Nematoda (Stenurus minor, Stenurus globicephalae, Halocercus sp. (Pseudaliidae), Anisakis sp. (Anisakidae), Crassicauda sp. (Crassicaudidae)), Cestoda (Phyllobothrium delphini and Monorygma grimaldii (Phyllobothriidae)), Trematoda (Brachicladium palliata and Brachicladium delphini (Brachicladiidae)) and Crustacea (Scutocyamus antipodensis (Cyamidae)). Some of the parasite species encountered comprises new records for their host. Although the material was not sampled within a systematic parasitological survey, the findings contain valuable new information about the parasite fauna of rare, vagile and vulnerable marine wildlife from a remote oceanic environment.

  19. A short review of the distribution of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis in the central and eastern North Atlantic with an abundance estimate for part of this area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cañadas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses data from 3 programmes: (1 the North Atlantic Sightings Surveys (NASS surveys undertaken throughout much of the central and eastern North Atlantic north of about 40° N in 1987, 1989, 1995 and 2001; (2 the MICA-93 programme; and (3 the north eastern Atlantic segment of the Small Cetacean Abundance in the North Sea (SCANS survey in 1994. The data from all surveys were used to examine the distribution of common dolphins in the NE Atlantic. No sightings were made north of 57° N. An initial attempt to examine distribution against 4 potential non biological explanatory variables was made. A simple interpretation of the preliminary analyses presented here is that the primary areas for groups of common dolphins were in waters over 15° C and depths of 400-1,000 m (there does appear a link with shelf features, between around 49°-55° N especially between 20°-30°W. An illustrative example of spatial modelling is presented. Only for 1 year (and part of the total survey area were there sufficient data to attempt to estimate abundance: 1995. The estimated abundance in the W Block of the NASS-95 Faroese survey was 273,159 (cv=0.26; 95% CI=153,392-435,104 short-beaked common dolphins. This estimate is corrected for animals missed on the trackline (g(0 and for responsive movement.

  20. Precision and accuracy of commonly used dental age estimation charts for the New Zealand population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Stephanie; Bassed, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Little research has been undertaken for the New Zealand population in the field of dental age estimation. This research to date indicates there are differences in dental developmental rates between the New Zealand population and other global population groups, and within the New Zealand population itself. Dental age estimation methods range from dental development charts to complex biometric analysis. Dental development charts are not the most accurate method of dental age estimation, but are time saving in their use. They are an excellent screening tool, particularly for post-mortem identification purposes, and for assessing variation from population norms in living individuals. The aim of this study was to test the precision and accuracy of three dental development charts (Schour and Massler, Blenkin and Taylor, and the London Atlas), used to estimate dental age of a sample of New Zealand juveniles between the ages of 5 and 18 years old (n=875). Percentage 'best fit' to correct age category and to expected chart stage were calculated to determine which chart was the most precise for the sample. Chronological ages were compared to estimated dental ages using a two-tailed paired t-test (Pcharts tested against the New Zealand population sample, the Blenkin and Taylor Australian charts performed best overall. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Poisonous plants in New Zealand: a review of those that are most commonly enquired about to the National Poisons Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Robin J; Beasley, D Michael G; Lambie, Bruce S; Wilkins, Gerard T; Schep, Leo J

    2012-12-14

    New Zealand has a number of plants, both native and introduced, contact with which can lead to poisoning. The New Zealand National Poisons Centre (NZNPC) frequently receives enquiries regarding exposures to poisonous plants. Poisonous plants can cause harm following inadvertent ingestion, via skin contact, eye exposures or inhalation of sawdust or smoked plant matter. The purpose of this article is to determine the 15 most common poisonous plant enquiries to the NZNPC and provide a review of current literature, discussing the symptoms that might arise upon exposure to these poisonous plants and the recommended medical management of such poisonings. Call data from the NZNPC telephone collection databases regarding human plant exposures between 2003 and 2010 were analysed retrospectively. The most common plants causing human poisoning were selected as the basis for this review. An extensive literature review was also performed by systematically searching OVID MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar. Further information was obtained from book chapters, relevant news reports and web material. For the years 2003-2010 inclusive, a total of 256,969 enquiries were received by the NZNPC. Of these enquiries, 11,049 involved exposures to plants and fungi. The most common poisonous plant enquiries, in decreasing order of frequency, were: black nightshade (Solanum nigrum), arum lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), kowhai (Sophora spp.), euphorbia (Euphorbia spp.), peace lily (Spathiphyllum spp.), agapanthus (Agapanthus spp.), stinking iris (Iris foetidissima), rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum), taro (Colocasia esculentum), oleander (Nerium oleander), daffodil (Narcissus spp.), hemlock (Conium maculatum), karaka (Corynocarpus laevigatus), foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and ongaonga/New Zealand tree nettle (Urtica ferox). The combined total of enquiries for these 15 species was 2754 calls (representing approximately 25% of all enquiries regarding plant exposures). The signs

  2. Where's That Dolphin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Carolyn; Curran, Mary Carla; Cox, Tara

    2013-01-01

    In this article , the authors describe an activity in which students in Savannah, Georgia, use handheld GPS devices to record the sightings of bottlenose dolphins, examine spatial data from five pairs of dolphins in the study, and then form hypotheses about the spatial patterns they observe. In the process, they learn not only about the ecology of…

  3. Attraction and antennal response of the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris (L.), to selected synthetic chemicals in New Zealand beech forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Manning, Lee-Anne; Unelius, C Rikard; Park, Kye Chung; Stringer, Lloyd D; White, Nicola; Bunn, Barry; Twidle, Andrew; Suckling, David M

    2009-09-01

    The common wasp, Vespula vulgaris (L.), and the German wasp, Vespula germanica (F.), are significant problems in New Zealand beech forests (Nothofagus spp.), adversely affecting native birds and invertebrate biodiversity. This work was undertaken to develop synthetic attractants for these species to enable more efficient monitoring and management. Seven known wasp attractants (acetic acid, butyl butyrate, isobutanol, heptyl butyrate, octyl butyrate and 2,4-hexadienyl butyrate) were field tested, and only heptyl butyrate and octyl butyrate attracted significantly higher numbers of wasps than a non-baited trap. Accordingly, a series of straight-chain esters from methyl to decyl butyrate were prepared and field tested for attraction of social wasps. Peak biological activity occurred with hexyl butyrate, heptyl butyrate, octyl butyrate and nonyl butyrate. Polyethylene bags emitting approximately 18.4-22.6 mg day(-1) of heptyl butyrate were more attractive than polyethylene bags emitting approximately 14.7-16.8 mg day(-1) of heptyl butyrate in the field. Electroantennogram (EAG) studies indicated that queens and workers of V. vulgaris had olfactory receptor neurons responding to various aliphatic butyrates. These results are the first to be reported on the EAG response and the attraction of social wasps to synthetic chemicals in New Zealand beech forests and will enable monitoring of social wasp activity in beech forests. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Why do Dolphins Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan A. Kuczaj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play is an important aspect of dolphin life, perhaps even an essential one. Play provides opportunities for dolphin calves to practice and perfect locomotor skills, including those involved in foraging and mating strategies and behaviors. Play also allows dolphin calves to learn important social skills and acquire information about the characteristics and predispositions of members of their social group, particularly their peers. In addition to helping dolphin calves learn how to behave, play also provides valuable opportunities for them to learn how to think. The ability to create and control play contexts enables dolphins to create novel experiences for themselves and their playmates under relatively safe conditions. The behavioral variability and individual creativity that characterize dolphin play yield ample opportunities for individual cognitive development as well as social learning, and sometimes result in innovations that are reproduced by other members of the group. Although adults sometimes produce innovative play, calves are the primary source of such innovations. Calves are also more likely to imitate novel play behaviors than are adults, and so calves contribute significantly to both the creation and transmission of novel play behaviors within a group. Not unexpectedly, then, the complexity of dolphin play increases with the involvement of peers. As a result, the opportunity to observe and/or interact with other dolphin calves enhances the effects of play on the acquisition and maintenance of flexible problem solving skills, the emergence and strengthening of social and communicative competencies, and the establishment of social relationships. It seems that play may have evolved to help young dolphins learn to adapt to novel situations in both their physical and social worlds, the beneficial result being a set of abilities that increases the likelihood that an individual survives and reproduces.

  5. Patterns of dolphin bycatch in a north-western Australian trawl fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Simon J; Tyne, Julian A; Kobryn, Halina T; Bejder, Lars; Pollock, Kenneth H; Loneragan, Neil R

    2014-01-01

    The bycatch of small cetaceans in commercial fisheries is a global wildlife management problem. We used data from skippers' logbooks and independent observers to assess common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) bycatch patterns between 2003 and 2009 in the Pilbara Trawl Fishery, Western Australia. Both datasets indicated that dolphins were caught in all fishery areas, across all depths and throughout the year. Over the entire datasets, observer reported bycatch rates (n = 52 dolphins in 4,124 trawls, or 12.6 dolphins/1,000 trawls) were ca. double those reported by skippers (n = 180 dolphins in 27,904 trawls, or 6.5 dolphins/1,000 trawls). Generalised Linear Models based on observer data, which better explained the variation in dolphin bycatch, indicated that the most significant predictors of dolphin catch were: (1) vessel--one trawl vessel caught significantly more dolphins than three others assessed; (2) time of day--the lowest dolphin bycatch rates were between 00:00 and 05:59; and (3) whether nets included bycatch reduction devices (BRDs)--the rate was reduced by ca. 45%, from 18.8 to 10.3 dolphins/1,000 trawls, after their introduction. These results indicated that differences among vessels (or skippers' trawling techniques) and dolphin behavior (a diurnal pattern) influenced the rates of dolphin capture; and that spatial or seasonal adjustments to trawling effort would be unlikely to significantly reduce dolphin bycatch. Recent skipper's logbook data show that dolphin bycatch rates have not declined since those reported in 2006, when BRDs were introduced across the fishery. Modified BRDs, with top-opening escape hatches from which dolphins might escape to the surface, may be a more effective means of further reducing dolphin bycatch. The vulnerability of this dolphin population to trawling-related mortality cannot be assessed in the absence of an ongoing observer program and without information on trawler-associated dolphin community size

  6. Patterns of dolphin bycatch in a north-western Australian trawl fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Allen

    Full Text Available The bycatch of small cetaceans in commercial fisheries is a global wildlife management problem. We used data from skippers' logbooks and independent observers to assess common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus bycatch patterns between 2003 and 2009 in the Pilbara Trawl Fishery, Western Australia. Both datasets indicated that dolphins were caught in all fishery areas, across all depths and throughout the year. Over the entire datasets, observer reported bycatch rates (n = 52 dolphins in 4,124 trawls, or 12.6 dolphins/1,000 trawls were ca. double those reported by skippers (n = 180 dolphins in 27,904 trawls, or 6.5 dolphins/1,000 trawls. Generalised Linear Models based on observer data, which better explained the variation in dolphin bycatch, indicated that the most significant predictors of dolphin catch were: (1 vessel--one trawl vessel caught significantly more dolphins than three others assessed; (2 time of day--the lowest dolphin bycatch rates were between 00:00 and 05:59; and (3 whether nets included bycatch reduction devices (BRDs--the rate was reduced by ca. 45%, from 18.8 to 10.3 dolphins/1,000 trawls, after their introduction. These results indicated that differences among vessels (or skippers' trawling techniques and dolphin behavior (a diurnal pattern influenced the rates of dolphin capture; and that spatial or seasonal adjustments to trawling effort would be unlikely to significantly reduce dolphin bycatch. Recent skipper's logbook data show that dolphin bycatch rates have not declined since those reported in 2006, when BRDs were introduced across the fishery. Modified BRDs, with top-opening escape hatches from which dolphins might escape to the surface, may be a more effective means of further reducing dolphin bycatch. The vulnerability of this dolphin population to trawling-related mortality cannot be assessed in the absence of an ongoing observer program and without information on trawler-associated dolphin community

  7. Postmortem evidence of interactions of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with other dolphin species in south-west England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, J; Davison, N; Deaville, R; Monies, R; Loveridge, J; Tregenza, N; Jepson, P D

    2009-10-10

    Reports of violent interactions between bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the coastal waters of the UK are well documented. Examination of stranded cetaceans by the Cornwall Wildlife Trust Marine Strandings Network and the UK Cetacean Strandings Investigation Programme has indicated that seven animals, of four other species, found stranded in south-west England, had pathology consistent with bottlenose dolphin interaction, including two juvenile and two adult common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), one juvenile pilot whale (Globicephala melas), one juvenile Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) and one adult striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba). Although recorded traumatic lesions were often not as severe as those found in harbour porpoises, it is probable that the interactions did contribute to stranding and/or death in all four of the juvenile animals examined. Furthermore, analysis of photographs taken before establishment of the Marine Strandings Network revealed rake (teeth) marks consistent with bottlenose dolphin interaction on one stranded common dolphin in 1992. A number of causes have been suggested for these interactions in harbour porpoises stranded in the UK and it is possible that any combination of these factors may also be implicated in the cases described in this report.

  8. Dolphin underwater bait-balling behaviors in relation to group and prey ball sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn-Hirshorn, Robin L; Muzi, Elisa; Richardson, Jessica L; Fox, Gabriella J; Hansen, Lauren N; Salley, Alyce M; Dudzinski, Kathleen M; Würsig, Bernd

    2013-09-01

    We characterized dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) feeding behaviors recorded on underwater video, and related behaviors to variation in prey ball sizes, dolphin group sizes, and study site (Argentina versus New Zealand, NZ). Herding behaviors most often involved dolphins swimming around the side or under prey balls, but dolphins in Argentina more often swam under prey balls (48% of passes) than did dolphins in NZ (34% of passes). This result may have been due to differences in group sizes between sites, since groups are larger in Argentina. Additionally, in NZ, group size was positively correlated with proportion of passes that occurred under prey balls (pdolphins in Argentina more often swam through prey balls (8% of attempts) than did dolphins in NZ (4% of attempts). This result may have been due to differences in prey ball sizes between sites, since dolphins fed on larger prey balls in Argentina (>74m(2)) than in NZ (maximum 33m(2)). Additionally, in NZ, dolphins were more likely to swim through prey balls to capture fish when they fed on larger prey balls (p=0.025). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Risso's dolphins plan foraging dives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, Patricia; Benoit-Bird, Kelly J; Southall, Brandon L; Calambokidis, John; Friedlaender, Ari S; Tyack, Peter L

    2018-02-28

    Humans remember the past and use that information to plan future actions. Lab experiments that test memory for the location of food show that animals have a similar capability to act in anticipation of future needs, but less work has been done on animals foraging in the wild. We hypothesized that planning abilities are critical and common in breath-hold divers who adjust each dive to forage on prey varying in quality, location and predictability within constraints of limited oxygen availability. We equipped Risso's dolphins with sound-and-motion recording tags to reveal where they focus their attention through their externally observable echolocation and how they fine tune search strategies in response to expected and observed prey distribution. The information from the dolphins was integrated with synoptic prey data obtained from echosounders on an underwater vehicle. At the start of the dives, whales adjusted their echolocation inspection ranges in ways that suggest planning to forage at a particular depth. Once entering a productive prey layer, dolphins reduced their search range comparable to the scale of patches within the layer, suggesting that they were using echolocation to select prey within the patch. On ascent, their search range increased, indicating that they decided to stop foraging within that layer and started searching for prey in shallower layers. Information about prey, learned throughout the dive, was used to plan foraging in the next dive. Our results demonstrate that planning for future dives is modulated by spatial memory derived from multi-modal prey sampling (echoic, visual and capture) during earlier dives. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Spatial Models of Abundance and Habitat Preferences of Commerson's and Peale's Dolphin in Southern Patagonian Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellabianca, Natalia A; Pierce, Graham J; Raya Rey, Andrea; Scioscia, Gabriela; Miller, David L; Torres, Mónica A; Paso Viola, M Natalia; Goodall, R Natalie P; Schiavini, Adrián C M

    2016-01-01

    Commerson's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus c. commersonii) and Peale's dolphins (Lagenorhynchus australis) are two of the most common species of cetaceans in the coastal waters of southwest South Atlantic Ocean. Both species are listed as Data Deficient by the IUCN, mainly due to the lack of information about population sizes and trends. The goal of this study was to build spatially explicit models for the abundance of both species in relation to environmental variables using data collected during eight scientific cruises along the Patagonian shelf. Spatial models were constructed using generalized additive models. In total, 88 schools (212 individuals) of Commerson's dolphin and 134 schools (465 individuals) of Peale's dolphin were recorded in 8,535 km surveyed. Commerson's dolphin was found less than 60 km from shore; whereas Peale's dolphins occurred over a wider range of distances from the coast, the number of animals sighted usually being larger near or far from the coast. Fitted models indicate overall abundances of approximately 22,000 Commerson's dolphins and 20,000 Peale's dolphins in the total area studied. This work provides the first large-scale abundance estimate for Peale's dolphin in the Atlantic Ocean and an update of population size for Commerson's dolphin. Additionally, our results contribute to baseline data on suitable habitat conditions for both species in southern Patagonia, which is essential for the implementation of adequate conservation measures.

  11. Spatial Models of Abundance and Habitat Preferences of Commerson's and Peale's Dolphin in Southern Patagonian Waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A Dellabianca

    Full Text Available Commerson's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus c. commersonii and Peale's dolphins (Lagenorhynchus australis are two of the most common species of cetaceans in the coastal waters of southwest South Atlantic Ocean. Both species are listed as Data Deficient by the IUCN, mainly due to the lack of information about population sizes and trends. The goal of this study was to build spatially explicit models for the abundance of both species in relation to environmental variables using data collected during eight scientific cruises along the Patagonian shelf. Spatial models were constructed using generalized additive models. In total, 88 schools (212 individuals of Commerson's dolphin and 134 schools (465 individuals of Peale's dolphin were recorded in 8,535 km surveyed. Commerson's dolphin was found less than 60 km from shore; whereas Peale's dolphins occurred over a wider range of distances from the coast, the number of animals sighted usually being larger near or far from the coast. Fitted models indicate overall abundances of approximately 22,000 Commerson's dolphins and 20,000 Peale's dolphins in the total area studied. This work provides the first large-scale abundance estimate for Peale's dolphin in the Atlantic Ocean and an update of population size for Commerson's dolphin. Additionally, our results contribute to baseline data on suitable habitat conditions for both species in southern Patagonia, which is essential for the implementation of adequate conservation measures.

  12. Pesca associada entre golfinhos e aves marinhas Feeding associations between dolphin and sea birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emygdio L. A. Monteiro-Filho

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Along ten years of study of a common dolphin from the brazilian coast, Sotalia brasiliensis Van Beneden, 1874, I could see some occasions of feeding associations of this dolphin with five species of birds, Sula leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783, Fregata magnificens Mathews, 1914, Sterna hirundinacea Lesson, 1831, Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 and Phalacrocorax olivaceus Humboldt, 1895. The commonest association observed was between the dolphin and S. leucogaster, and in all the associations was characterized the commensalism, with advantaged to the birds.

  13. Terrestrial locomotion of the New Zealand short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata and the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Daniel K; Parsons, Stuart; Schutt, William A; Carter, Gerald G; Hermanson, John W

    2006-05-01

    Bats (Chiroptera) are generally awkward crawlers, but the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the New Zealand short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) have independently evolved the ability to manoeuvre well on the ground. In this study we describe the kinematics of locomotion in both species, and the kinetics of locomotion in M. tuberculata. We sought to determine whether these bats move terrestrially the way other quadrupeds do, or whether they possess altogether different patterns of movement on the ground than are observed in quadrupeds that do not fly. Using high-speed video analyses of bats moving on a treadmill, we observed that both species possess symmetrical lateral-sequence gaits similar to the kinematically defined walks of a broad range of tetrapods. At high speeds, D. rotundus use an asymmetrical bounding gait that appears to converge on the bounding gaits of small terrestrial mammals, but with the roles of the forelimbs and hindlimbs reversed. This gait was not performed by M. tuberculata. Many animals that possess a single kinematic gait shift with increasing speed from a kinetic walk (where kinetic and potential energy of the centre of mass oscillate out of phase from each other) to a kinetic run (where they oscillate in phase). To determine whether the single kinematic gait of M. tuberculata meets the kinetic definition of a walk, a run, or a gait that functions as a walk at low speed and a run at high speed, we used force plates and high-speed video recordings to characterize the energetics of the centre of mass in that species. Although oscillations in kinetic and potential energy were of similar magnitudes, M. tuberculata did not use pendulum-like exchanges of energy between them to the extent that many other quadrupedal animals do, and did not transition from a kinetic walk to kinetic run with increasing speed. The gait of M. tuberculata is kinematically a walk, but kinetically run-like at all speeds.

  14. Microarray applications to understand the impact of exposure to environmental contaminants in wild dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Annalaura; Abelli, Luigi; Kucklick, John R; Rowles, Teresa K; Wells, Randall S; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Baatz, John E; Ryan, James C

    2015-02-01

    It is increasingly common to monitor the marine environment and establish geographic trends of environmental contamination by measuring contaminant levels in animals from higher trophic levels. The health of an ecosystem is largely reflected in the health of its inhabitants. As an apex predator, the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) can reflect the health of near shore marine ecosystems, and reflect coastal threats that pose risk to human health, such as legacy contaminants or marine toxins, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brevetoxins. Major advances in the understanding of dolphin biology and the unique adaptations of these animals in response to the marine environment are being made as a result of the development of cell-lines for use in in vitro experiments, the production of monoclonal antibodies to recognize dolphin proteins, the development of dolphin DNA microarrays to measure global gene expression and the sequencing of the dolphin genome. These advances may play a central role in understanding the complex and specialized biology of the dolphin with regard to how this species responds to an array of environmental insults. This work presents the creation, characterization and application of a new molecular tool to better understand the complex and unique biology of the common bottlenose dolphin and its response to environmental stress and infection. A dolphin oligo microarray representing 24,418 unigene sequences was developed and used to analyze blood samples collected from 69 dolphins during capture-release health assessments at five geographic locations (Beaufort, NC, Sarasota Bay, FL, Saint Joseph Bay, FL, Sapelo Island, GA and Brunswick, GA). The microarray was validated and tested for its ability to: 1) distinguish male from female dolphins; 2) differentiate dolphins inhabiting different geographic locations (Atlantic coasts vs the Gulf of Mexico); and 3) study in detail dolphins resident in one site, the Georgia coast, known to

  15. The Maui's Dolphin Challenge: Lessons from a School-Based Litter Reduction Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townrow, Carly S.; Laurence, Nick; Blythe, Charlotte; Long, Jenny; Harré, Niki

    2016-01-01

    The Maui's Dolphin Challenge was a litter reduction project that was run twice at a secondary school in Aotearoa New Zealand. The project drew on a theoretical framework encompassing four psycho-social principles: values, embodied learning, efficacy, and perceived social norms. It challenged students to reduce the litter at the school by offering…

  16. Bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus at São Tomé Island (São ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus is one of the most common cetacean species around São Tomé Island, Gulf of Guinea, little research has focused on this species in this region. This study investigated the population of bottlenose dolphins around São Tomé Island by estimating the minimum population ...

  17. Humpback Dolphins (Genus Sousa) in India: An Overview of Status and Conservation Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutaria, Dipani; Panicker, Divya; Jog, Ketki; Sule, Mihir; Muralidharan, Rahul; Bopardikar, Isha

    2015-01-01

    This chapter aims to collate recent work done by different research teams along the Indian coast and presents research plans for the conservation and management of the genus Sousa in Indian waters. Humpback dolphins are the most common nearshore cetaceans found along the Indian coast. The taxonomy is confused, but two or more species of humpback dolphins may be present in India. Dedicated research on humpback dolphins and other cetaceans has been initiated only in the past few years and vast gaps in the ecology and conservation of the genus from the region remain. Dedicated and opportunistic research indicates that humpback dolphin presence is continuous along the west coast of India, owing to the contiguous favourable habitat of shallow nearshore waters, while along the east coast humpback dolphins are apparently found in pockets. Humpback dolphins are also the most numerous in incidental catch records from the coast, owing to the large overlap in space use with nearshore fisheries like small gillnets, trawls, shore seines and purse seines. Along many coastal sites, humpback dolphins are known to cause damage and depredation of fish catch of certain fishing gears, making them unpopular. At the same time, many fishers along the west coast have developed local dolphin-watching programmes as an alternate source of livelihood, providing positive impetus for conservation. However, research on the long-term effects of dolphin watching and its management is required. Some recommendations for more effective management of this species are made. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  18. Spatial Models of Abundance and Habitat Preferences of Commerson’s and Peale’s Dolphin in Southern Patagonian Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellabianca, Natalia A.; Pierce, Graham J.; Raya Rey, Andrea; Scioscia, Gabriela; Miller, David L.; Torres, Mónica A.; Paso Viola, M. Natalia; Schiavini, Adrián C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Commerson’s dolphins (Cephalorhynchus c. commersonii) and Peale’s dolphins (Lagenorhynchus australis) are two of the most common species of cetaceans in the coastal waters of southwest South Atlantic Ocean. Both species are listed as Data Deficient by the IUCN, mainly due to the lack of information about population sizes and trends. The goal of this study was to build spatially explicit models for the abundance of both species in relation to environmental variables using data collected during eight scientific cruises along the Patagonian shelf. Spatial models were constructed using generalized additive models. In total, 88 schools (212 individuals) of Commerson’s dolphin and 134 schools (465 individuals) of Peale’s dolphin were recorded in 8,535 km surveyed. Commerson’s dolphin was found less than 60 km from shore; whereas Peale’s dolphins occurred over a wider range of distances from the coast, the number of animals sighted usually being larger near or far from the coast. Fitted models indicate overall abundances of approximately 22,000 Commerson’s dolphins and 20,000 Peale’s dolphins in the total area studied. This work provides the first large-scale abundance estimate for Peale’s dolphin in the Atlantic Ocean and an update of population size for Commerson’s dolphin. Additionally, our results contribute to baseline data on suitable habitat conditions for both species in southern Patagonia, which is essential for the implementation of adequate conservation measures. PMID:27783627

  19. Distribution and feeding ecology of dolphins along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between Iceland and the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doksæter, L.; Olsen, E.; Nøttestad, L.; Fernö, A.

    2008-01-01

    During Leg 1 of the MAR-ECO expedition on the R.V. G.O. Sars in June 2004 four main species of dolphins were observed along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from Iceland to the Azores: pilot whale ( Globicephala melas) ( n=326), short-beaked common dolphin ( Delphinus delphis) ( n=273), white-sided dolphin ( Lagenorhynchus acutus) ( n=103), and striped dolphin ( Stenella coeruleoalba) ( n=86). Pilot whales and white-sided dolphins were found in cold (5-16 °C) and less-saline (34.6-35.8‰) water masses in the northern part of the study area, whereas common and striped dolphins inhabited warmer (12-22 °C) and more-saline (34.8-36.7‰) waters in the south. Dolphins tended to aggregate in areas of steep slopes, but actual bottom depth appeared to be less important. Based on spatial correlations between dolphin occurrence and candidate prey organisms recorded acoustically and by midwater trawling, mesopelagic fishes and squids were assumed to be important prey items, with Benthosema glaciale probably being the most important prey for pilot whales and white-sided dolphins, while Lampanyctus macdonaldi, Stomias boa ferox and Chauliodus sloani were probably of particular importance for common dolphins. Cephalopods, especially Gonatus sp. and Teuthowenia megalops were the most likely prey species of pilot whales and striped dolphins, respectively. The difference in physical habitat north and south of the Sub-polar Frontal Zone seemed to have important effects on prey distribution, in turn influencing dolphin distribution.

  20. Comparison of potential dietary and urinary risk factors for ammonium urate nephrolithiasis in two bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Bert, Carolina R; Smith, Cynthia R; Poindexter, John; Ardente, Amanda; Meegan, Jenny; Wells, Randall S; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Jensen, Eric D; Sakhaee, Khashayar

    2018-04-04

    Dietary and urinary risk factors have been implicated in conditions favoring ammonium urate nephrolithiasis in managed dolphins compared to free-ranging dolphins. In this study, urine samples were collected from 16 dolphins (8 cases, 8 controls) from the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program (MMP) for the purposes of assessing changes in urinary biomarkers after a large meal. Urinary biomarkers and nephrolithiasis presence were assessed opportunistically in 15 long-term resident free-ranging dolphins living in Sarasota Bay, Florida (SB). Additionally, the total purine contents of fish commonly consumed by each dolphin population were measured to evaluate potential dietary risk factors. Populations were compared for total dietary purine composition, recently fed status, nephrolithiasis presence, and differences in urinary biochemical, acid-base, and physicochemical parameters via Wilcoxon rank sum analysis and least square means. Managed dolphins had higher urinary pH and ammonium (NH4+) in both pre- and postprandial conditions and higher urinary uric acid and saturation indices of NH4U in the postprandial condition compared to free-ranging dolphins (p dolphins (7 mmol/Mcal ME) than in the free-ranging dolphin diet (4 mmol/Mcal ME). Free-ranging dolphins did not show evidence of nephrolithiasis. Observed differences in urinary biomarkers and dietary purine content in these two dolphin populations suggest a pathophysiologic basis for the role of fish types on risk of NH4U stone formation. Future research should investigate fish type and feeding frequency, inhibitors and promoters, and alkalinizing therapy for reducing NH4U nephrolithiasis in dolphins.

  1. Fishing for food : feeding ecology of harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena and white-beaked dolphins Lagenorhynchus albirostris in Dutch waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, O.E.

    2013-01-01

    Harbour porpoises and white-beaked dolphins are the most common small cetaceans in the North Sea and Dutch coastal waters. The distribution and relative abundance of harbour porpoises and white-beaked dolphins from the Dutch coastal waters has changed significantly over the past decades. This

  2. Platelet-rich plasma and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative medicine-associated treatments in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Griffeth

    Full Text Available Dolphins exhibit an extraordinary capacity to heal deep soft tissue injuries. Nevertheless, accelerated wound healing in wild or captive dolphins would minimize infection and other side effects associated with open wounds in marine animals. Here, we propose the use of a biological-based therapy for wound healing in dolphins by the application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP. Blood samples were collected from 9 different dolphins and a specific and simple protocol which concentrates platelets greater than two times that of whole blood was developed. As opposed to a commonly employed human protocol for PRP preparation, a single centrifugation for 3 minutes at 900 rpm resulted in the best condition for the concentration of dolphin platelets. By FACS analysis, dolphin platelets showed reactivity to platelet cell-surface marker CD41. Analysis by electron microscopy revealed that dolphin platelets were larger in size than human platelets. These findings may explain the need to reduce the duration and speed of centrifugation of whole blood from dolphins to obtain a 2-fold increase and maintain proper morphology of the platelets. For the first time, levels of several growth factors from activated dolphin platelets were quantified. Compared to humans, concentrations of PDGF-BB were not different, while TGFβ and VEGF-A were significantly lower in dolphins. Additionally, adipose tissue was obtained from cadaveric dolphins found along the Spanish Mediterranean coast, and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs were successfully isolated, amplified, and characterized. When dolphin ASCs were treated with 2.5 or 5% dolphin PRP they exhibited significant increased proliferation and improved phagocytotic activity, indicating that in culture, PRP may improve the regenerative capacity of ASCs. Taken together, we show an effective and well-defined protocol for efficient PRP isolation. This protocol alone or in combination with ASCs, may constitute the basis of a

  3. Visual laterality in dolphins: importance of the familiarity of stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Many studies of cerebral asymmetries in different species lead, on the one hand, to a better understanding of the functions of each cerebral hemisphere and, on the other hand, to develop an evolutionary history of hemispheric laterality. Our animal model is particularly interesting because of its original evolutionary path, i.e. return to aquatic life after a terrestrial phase. The rare reports concerning visual laterality of marine mammals investigated mainly discrimination processes. As dolphins are migrant species they are confronted to a changing environment. Being able to categorize new versus familiar objects would allow dolphins a rapid adaptation to novel environments. Visual laterality could be a prerequisite to this adaptability. To date, no study, to our knowledge, has analyzed the environmental factors that could influence their visual laterality. Results We investigated visual laterality expressed spontaneously at the water surface by a group of five common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in response to various stimuli. The stimuli presented ranged from very familiar objects (known and manipulated previously) to familiar objects (known but never manipulated) to unfamiliar objects (unknown, never seen previously). At the group level, dolphins used their left eye to observe very familiar objects and their right eye to observe unfamiliar objects. However, eyes are used indifferently to observe familiar objects with intermediate valence. Conclusion Our results suggest different visual cerebral processes based either on the global shape of well-known objects or on local details of unknown objects. Moreover, the manipulation of an object appears necessary for these dolphins to construct a global representation of an object enabling its immediate categorization for subsequent use. Our experimental results pointed out some cognitive capacities of dolphins which might be crucial for their wild life given their fission-fusion social system

  4. Visual laterality in dolphins: importance of the familiarity of stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blois-Heulin Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of cerebral asymmetries in different species lead, on the one hand, to a better understanding of the functions of each cerebral hemisphere and, on the other hand, to develop an evolutionary history of hemispheric laterality. Our animal model is particularly interesting because of its original evolutionary path, i.e. return to aquatic life after a terrestrial phase. The rare reports concerning visual laterality of marine mammals investigated mainly discrimination processes. As dolphins are migrant species they are confronted to a changing environment. Being able to categorize new versus familiar objects would allow dolphins a rapid adaptation to novel environments. Visual laterality could be a prerequisite to this adaptability. To date, no study, to our knowledge, has analyzed the environmental factors that could influence their visual laterality. Results We investigated visual laterality expressed spontaneously at the water surface by a group of five common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in response to various stimuli. The stimuli presented ranged from very familiar objects (known and manipulated previously to familiar objects (known but never manipulated to unfamiliar objects (unknown, never seen previously. At the group level, dolphins used their left eye to observe very familiar objects and their right eye to observe unfamiliar objects. However, eyes are used indifferently to observe familiar objects with intermediate valence. Conclusion Our results suggest different visual cerebral processes based either on the global shape of well-known objects or on local details of unknown objects. Moreover, the manipulation of an object appears necessary for these dolphins to construct a global representation of an object enabling its immediate categorization for subsequent use. Our experimental results pointed out some cognitive capacities of dolphins which might be crucial for their wild life given their

  5. A new dolphin species, the Burrunan Dolphin Tursiops australis sp. nov., endemic to southern Australian coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton-Robb, Kate; Gershwin, Lisa-ann; Thompson, Ross; Austin, Jeremy; Owen, Kylie; McKechnie, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Small coastal dolphins endemic to south-eastern Australia have variously been assigned to described species Tursiops truncatus, T. aduncus or T. maugeanus; however the specific affinities of these animals is controversial and have recently been questioned. Historically 'the southern Australian Tursiops' was identified as unique and was formally named Tursiops maugeanus but was later synonymised with T. truncatus. Morphologically, these coastal dolphins share some characters with both aforementioned recognised Tursiops species, but they also possess unique characters not found in either. Recent mtDNA and microsatellite genetic evidence indicates deep evolutionary divergence between this dolphin and the two currently recognised Tursiops species. However, in accordance with the recommendations of the Workshop on Cetacean Systematics, and the Unified Species Concept the use of molecular evidence alone is inadequate for describing new species. Here we describe the macro-morphological, colouration and cranial characters of these animals, assess the available and new genetic data, and conclude that multiple lines of evidence clearly indicate a new species of dolphin. We demonstrate that the syntype material of T. maugeanus comprises two different species, one of which is the historical 'southern form of Tursiops' most similar to T. truncatus, and the other is representative of the new species and requires formal classification. These dolphins are here described as Tursiops australis sp. nov., with the common name of 'Burrunan Dolphin' following Australian aboriginal narrative. The recognition of T. australis sp. nov. is particularly significant given the endemism of this new species to a small geographic region of southern and south-eastern Australia, where only two small resident populations in close proximity to a major urban and agricultural centre are known, giving them a high conservation value and making them susceptible to numerous anthropogenic threats.

  6. A new dolphin species, the Burrunan Dolphin Tursiops australis sp. nov., endemic to southern Australian coastal waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Charlton-Robb

    Full Text Available Small coastal dolphins endemic to south-eastern Australia have variously been assigned to described species Tursiops truncatus, T. aduncus or T. maugeanus; however the specific affinities of these animals is controversial and have recently been questioned. Historically 'the southern Australian Tursiops' was identified as unique and was formally named Tursiops maugeanus but was later synonymised with T. truncatus. Morphologically, these coastal dolphins share some characters with both aforementioned recognised Tursiops species, but they also possess unique characters not found in either. Recent mtDNA and microsatellite genetic evidence indicates deep evolutionary divergence between this dolphin and the two currently recognised Tursiops species. However, in accordance with the recommendations of the Workshop on Cetacean Systematics, and the Unified Species Concept the use of molecular evidence alone is inadequate for describing new species. Here we describe the macro-morphological, colouration and cranial characters of these animals, assess the available and new genetic data, and conclude that multiple lines of evidence clearly indicate a new species of dolphin. We demonstrate that the syntype material of T. maugeanus comprises two different species, one of which is the historical 'southern form of Tursiops' most similar to T. truncatus, and the other is representative of the new species and requires formal classification. These dolphins are here described as Tursiops australis sp. nov., with the common name of 'Burrunan Dolphin' following Australian aboriginal narrative. The recognition of T. australis sp. nov. is particularly significant given the endemism of this new species to a small geographic region of southern and south-eastern Australia, where only two small resident populations in close proximity to a major urban and agricultural centre are known, giving them a high conservation value and making them susceptible to numerous anthropogenic

  7. Dolphins in a Scaled-Down Mediterranean: The Gulf of Corinth's Odontocetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearzi, G; Bonizzoni, S; Santostasi, N L; Furey, N B; Eddy, L; Valavanis, V D; Gimenez, O

    The Gulf of Corinth is a 2400-km 2 semi-enclosed inland system (a mediterraneus) in central Greece. Its continental shelf areas, steep bottom relief, and waters up to 500-900m deep offer suitable habitat to neritic and pelagic species. We used photographic capture-recapture, distribution modelling, and direct observations to investigate the abundance, status, habitat preferences, movements, and group size of four odontocete species regularly observed in the Gulf, based on five years (2011-2015) of survey effort from small boats. Striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) are more abundant (1324 individuals, 95%CI 1158-1515) than was determined from previous estimates. Striped dolphins appear to be confined to the Gulf, where they favour deep and oligotrophic waters, and were encountered in single-species and mixed-species groups. Short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) (22 individuals, 95%CI 16-31), individuals with intermediate pigmentation (possibly striped/common dolphin hybrids) (55, 95%CI 36-83), and a single Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) were only encountered in mixed-species groups with striped dolphins. Short-beaked common dolphins constitute a discrete conservation unit (subpopulation), and based on the current estimate, would qualify as Critically Endangered according to International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) (39 animals, 95%CI 33-47) occur in single-species groups; they prefer continental shelf waters and areas near fish farms in the northern sector, and several animals appear to move into and out of the Gulf. Additionally, we contribute records of marine fauna and an assessment of the fishing fleet operating in the Gulf. Our study shows that the importance of this vulnerable marine environment has been underestimated, and management action must be taken to mitigate human impact and ensure long-term protection. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic isolation between coastal and fishery-impacted, offshore bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Simon J; Bryant, Kate A; Kraus, Robert H S; Loneragan, Neil R; Kopps, Anna M; Brown, Alexander M; Gerber, Livia; Krützen, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The identification of species and population boundaries is important in both evolutionary and conservation biology. In recent years, new population genetic and computational methods for estimating population parameters and testing hypotheses in a quantitative manner have emerged. Using a Bayesian framework and a quantitative model-testing approach, we evaluated the species status and genetic connectedness of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations off remote northwestern Australia, with a focus on pelagic 'offshore' dolphins subject to incidental capture in a trawl fishery. We analysed 71 dolphin samples from three sites beyond the 50 m depth contour (the inshore boundary of the fishery) and up to 170 km offshore, including incidentally caught and free-ranging individuals associating with trawl vessels, and 273 dolphins sampled at 12 coastal sites inshore of the 50 m depth contour and within 10 km of the coast. Results from 19 nuclear microsatellite markers showed significant population structure between dolphins from within the fishery and coastal sites, but also among dolphins from coastal sites, identifying three coastal populations. Moreover, we found no current or historic gene flow into the offshore population in the region of the fishery, indicating a complete lack of recruitment from coastal sites. Mitochondrial DNA corroborated our findings of genetic isolation between dolphins from the offshore population and coastal sites. Most offshore individuals formed a monophyletic clade with common bottlenose dolphins (T. truncatus), while all 273 individuals sampled coastally formed a well-supported clade of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (T. aduncus). By including a quantitative modelling approach, our study explicitly took evolutionary processes into account for informing the conservation and management of protected species. As such, it may serve as a template for other, similarly inaccessible study populations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Is crypsis a common defensive strategy in plants? Speculation on signal deception in the New Zealand flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kevin C

    2010-01-01

    Color is a common feature of animal defense. Herbivorous insects are often colored in shades of green similar to their preferred food plants, making them difficult for predators to locate. Other insects advertise their presence with bright colors after they sequester enough toxins from their food plants to make them unpalatable. Some insects even switch between cryptic and aposomatic coloration during development. Although common in animals, quantitative evidence for color-based defense in plants is rare. After all, the primary function of plant leaves is to absorb light for photosynthesis, rather than reflect light in ways that alter their appearance to herbivores. However, recent research is beginning to challenge the notion that color-based defence is restricted to animals.

  10. An Interview with a Dolphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Kathy; Keilty, Jennifer

    1993-01-01

    A fabricated conversation between two humans and a dolphin at Marineland illustrates man's relationship to nature and the impact that human actions have on living creatures and the environment, and stresses developing a deeper understanding and value for the natural world and consideration of the universality of continued human error and…

  11. Concurrent Exposure of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to Multiple Algal Toxins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twiner, Michael J.; Fire, Spencer; Schwacke, Lori; Davidson, Leigh; Wang, Zhihong; Morton, Steve; Roth, Stephen; Balmer, Brian; Rowles, Teresa K.; Wells, Randall S.

    2011-01-01

    Sentinel species such as bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can be impacted by large-scale mortality events due to exposure to marine algal toxins. In the Sarasota Bay region (Gulf of Mexico, Florida, USA), the bottlenose dolphin population is frequently exposed to harmful algal blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis and the neurotoxic brevetoxins (PbTx; BTX) produced by this dinoflagellate. Live dolphins sampled during capture-release health assessments performed in this region tested positive for two HAB toxins; brevetoxin and domoic acid (DA). Over a ten-year study period (2000–2009) we have determined that bottlenose dolphins are exposed to brevetoxin and/or DA on a nearly annual basis (i.e., DA: 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009; brevetoxin: 2000, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2009) with 36% of all animals testing positive for brevetoxin (n = 118) and 53% positive for DA (n = 83) with several individuals (14%) testing positive for both neurotoxins in at least one tissue/fluid. To date there have been no previously published reports of DA in southwestern Florida marine mammals, however the May 2008 health assessment coincided with a Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima bloom that was the likely source of DA observed in seawater and live dolphin samples. Concurrently, both DA and brevetoxin were observed in common prey fish. Although no Pseudo-nitzschia bloom was identified the following year, DA was identified in seawater, fish, sediment, snails, and dolphins. DA concentrations in feces were positively correlated with hematologic parameters including an increase in total white blood cell (p = 0.001) and eosinophil (p<0.001) counts. Our findings demonstrate that dolphins within Sarasota Bay are commonly exposed to two algal toxins, and provide the impetus to further explore the potential long-term impacts on bottlenose dolphin health. PMID:21423740

  12. Concurrent exposure of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus to multiple algal toxins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Twiner

    Full Text Available Sentinel species such as bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus can be impacted by large-scale mortality events due to exposure to marine algal toxins. In the Sarasota Bay region (Gulf of Mexico, Florida, USA, the bottlenose dolphin population is frequently exposed to harmful algal blooms (HABs of Karenia brevis and the neurotoxic brevetoxins (PbTx; BTX produced by this dinoflagellate. Live dolphins sampled during capture-release health assessments performed in this region tested positive for two HAB toxins; brevetoxin and domoic acid (DA. Over a ten-year study period (2000-2009 we have determined that bottlenose dolphins are exposed to brevetoxin and/or DA on a nearly annual basis (i.e., DA: 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009; brevetoxin: 2000, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2009 with 36% of all animals testing positive for brevetoxin (n = 118 and 53% positive for DA (n = 83 with several individuals (14% testing positive for both neurotoxins in at least one tissue/fluid. To date there have been no previously published reports of DA in southwestern Florida marine mammals, however the May 2008 health assessment coincided with a Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima bloom that was the likely source of DA observed in seawater and live dolphin samples. Concurrently, both DA and brevetoxin were observed in common prey fish. Although no Pseudo-nitzschia bloom was identified the following year, DA was identified in seawater, fish, sediment, snails, and dolphins. DA concentrations in feces were positively correlated with hematologic parameters including an increase in total white blood cell (p = 0.001 and eosinophil (p<0.001 counts. Our findings demonstrate that dolphins within Sarasota Bay are commonly exposed to two algal toxins, and provide the impetus to further explore the potential long-term impacts on bottlenose dolphin health.

  13. By the Light of the Moon: North Pacific Dolphins Optimize Foraging with the Lunar Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Anne Elizabeth

    The influence of the lunar cycle on dolphin foraging behavior was investigated in the productive, southern California Current Ecosystem and the oligotrophic Hawaiian Archipelago. Passive acoustic recordings from 2009 to 2015 were analyzed to document the presence of echolocation from four dolphin species that demonstrate distinct foraging preferences and diving abilities. Visual observations of dolphins, cloud coverage, commercial landings of market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) and acoustic backscatter of fish were also considered in the Southern California Bight. The temporal variability of echolocation is described from daily to annual timescales, with emphasis on the lunar cycle as an established behavioral driver for potential dolphin prey. For dolphins that foraged at night, the presence of echolocation was reduced during nights of the full moon and during times of night that the moon was present in the night sky. In the Southern California Bight, echolocation activity was reduced for both shallow- diving common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and deeper-diving Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) during times of increased illumination. Seasonal differences in acoustic behavior for both species suggest a geographic shift in dolphin populations, shoaling scattering layers or prey switching behavior during warm months, whereby dolphins target prey that do not vertically migrate. In the Hawaiian Archipelago, deep-diving short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) and shallow-diving false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) also showed reduced echolocation behavior during periods of increased lunar illumination. In contrast to nocturnal foraging in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, false killer whales in the main Hawaiian Islands mainly foraged during the day and the lunar cycle showed little influence on their nocturnal acoustic behavior. Different temporal patterns in false killer whale acoustic behavior between the main and northwestern Hawaiian

  14. Health and Environmental Risk Assessment Project for bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the southeastern USA. II. Environmental aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, John S; Schaefer, Adam M; Bossart, Gregory D; Fair, Patricia A

    2017-07-24

    Bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus are the most common apex predators found in coastal and estuarine ecosystems along the southeastern coast of the USA, where these animals are exposed to multiple chemical pollutants and microbial agents. In this review, we summarize the results of investigations of environmental exposures evaluated in 360 free-ranging dolphins between 2003 and 2015. Bottlenose dolphins inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon, Florida (IRL, n = 246), and coastal waters of Charleston, South Carolina (CHS, n = 114), were captured, given comprehensive health examinations, and released as part of a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional study of individual and population health. High concentrations of persistent organic pollutants including legacy contaminants (DDT and other pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds) as well as 'emerging' contaminants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers, perfluorinated compounds) were detected in dolphins from CHS, with lower concentrations in the IRL. Conversely, the concentrations of mercury in the blood and skin of IRL dolphins were among the highest reported worldwide and approximately 5 times as high as those found in CHS dolphins. A high prevalence of resistance to antibiotics commonly used in humans and animals was detected in bacteria isolated from fecal, blowhole, and/or gastric samples at both sites, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at CHS. Collectively, these studies illustrate the importance of long-term surveillance of estuarine populations of bottlenose dolphins and reaffirm their important role as sentinels for marine ecosystems and public health.

  15. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims or...

  16. Multi-locus phylogeography of the dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus: passive dispersal via the west-wind drift or response to prey species and climate change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Würsig Bernd

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus is distributed along temperate, coastal regions of New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina, and Peru where it feeds on schooling anchovy, sardines, and other small fishes and squid tightly associated with temperate ocean sea surface temperatures. Previous studies have suggested that the dusky dolphin dispersed in the Southern Hemisphere eastward from Peru via a linear, temperate dispersal corridor provided by the circumpolar west-wind drift. With new mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, we propose an alternative phylogeographic history for the dusky dolphin that was structured by paleoceanographic conditions that repeatedly altered the distribution of its temperate prey species during the Plio-Pleistocene. Results In contrast to the west-wind drift hypothesis, phylogenetic analyses support a Pacific/Indian Ocean origin, with a relatively early and continued isolation of Peru from other regions. Dispersal of the dusky dolphin into the Atlantic is correlated with the history of anchovy populations, including multiple migrations from New Zealand to South Africa. Additionally, the cooling of the Eastern Equatorial Pacific led to the divergence of anchovy populations, which in turn explains the north-south equatorial transgression of L. obliquidens and the subsequent divergence of L. obscurus in the Southern Hemisphere. Conclusion Overall, our study fails to support the west-wind drift hypothesis. Instead, our data indicate that changes in primary productivity and related abundance of prey played a key role in shaping the phylogeography of the dusky dolphin, with periods of ocean change coincident with important events in the history of this temperate dolphin species. Moderate, short-term changes in sea surface temperatures and current systems have a powerful effect on anchovy populations; thus, it is not infeasible that repeated fluctuations in anchovy populations continue to play

  17. Spatial and social sexual segregation patterns in indo-pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Ann Fury

    Full Text Available Sexual segregation seems to be common in bottlenose dolphins, whereby males and females live in different pods that mix mainly for mating. Male dolphins often use aggressive behaviour to mate with females, while females with calves may have different activity and dietary requirements to males and different susceptibility to predation. We investigated the degree of spatial and social sexual segregation in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus in a subtropical estuary in Australia. Based on surveys completed over three years, dolphin groups were mostly mixed-sex or female. Mixed-sex groups were found in larger groups in mostly deeper water, whereas, female groups were foraging across all water depths in smaller groups. Aggressive coercive behaviour by males towards females was high, occurring mainly in deeper water, at higher tides, and outside the breeding season. Habitat use by female dolphin groups suggests that shallow tributaries may provide a sanctuary from aggressive males, access to suitable prey items and density for mothers and their calves, or a combination of these factors.

  18. Biscayne Bay Dolphin Photo ID System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — It has been shown through a variety of photo-identification studies that populations of bottlenose dolphin inhabit the various embayments along the coast of Florida....

  19. Biscayne Bay Florida Bottlenose Dolphin Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of small vessel based studies of bottlenose dolphins that reside within Biscayne Bay, Florida, adjacent estuaries and nearshore...

  20. The importance of bioacoustics for dolphin welfare: Soundscape characterization with implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Heather Ruth

    most biologically and physically distinct from the ocean habitat also differed greatly from the other sites acoustically, with the most common and high amplitude sound being pump noise versus biological sounds at the other sites. Overall the dolphin facilities were neither clearly noisier nor more sterile than the wild site, but rather differed in particular characteristics. The findings are encouraging for dolphin welfare for several reasons. Sound levels measured were unlikely to cause threshold shifts in hearing. At three of four facilities, prominent biological sounds in the wild site -- snapping shrimp and fish sounds -- were present, meaning that the dolphins at these facilities are experiencing biotic features of the soundscape they would experience in the wild. Additionally, the main anthropogenic sounds experienced at the facilities (construction and cleaning sounds) did not reach the levels of the anthropogenic sounds experienced at the wild site (boat motor sounds), and the highest noise levels for anthropogenic sounds fall outside the dolphins' most sensitive range of hearing. However, there are anthropogenic contributors to the soundscape that are of particular interest and possible concern that should be investigated further, particularly pump noise and periodic or intermittent construction noise. These factors need to be considered on a facility-by-facility basis and appropriate mitigation procedures incorporated in animal handling to mitigate potential responses to planned or anticipated sound producing events, e.g. animal relocation or buffering sound producing activities. The central role of bioacoustics for dolphins means that PAM is a basic life support requirement along with water and food testing. Periodic noise is of highest concern, and PAM is needed to inform mitigation of noise from periodic sources. Priority actions are more widespread and long-term standardized monitoring, further research on habituation, preference, coupling and pool

  1. Post-epizootic chronic dolphin morbillivirus infection in Mediterranean striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Sara; Alba, Ana; Ganges, Llilianne; Vidal, Enric; Raga, Juan Antonio; Alegre, Ferrán; González, Beatriz; Medina, Pascual; Zorrilla, Irene; Martínez, Jorge; Marco, Alberto; Pérez, Mónica; Pérez, Blanca; Pérez de Vargas Mesas, Ana; Martínez Valverde, Rosa; Domingo, Mariano

    2011-10-06

    Dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) has caused 2 epizootics with high mortality rates on the Spanish Mediterranean coast, in 1990 and 2006-07, mainly affecting striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba. Following the first epizootic unusual DMV infections affecting only the central nervous system of striped dolphins were found, with histological features similar to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and old dog encephalitis, the chronic latent localised infections caused by defective forms of measles virus and canine distemper virus, respectively. Between 2008 and 2010, monitoring by microscopic and immunohistochemical (IHC) studies of 118 striped dolphins stranded along Catalonia, the Valencia Region and Andalusia showed similar localised DMV nervous system infections in 25.0, 28.6 and 27.4% of cases, respectively, with no significant differences among regions or sex. The body length of DMV-infected dolphins was statistically greater than that of non-infected dolphins (196.5 vs. 160.5 cm; p dolphins with positive IHC-DMV had positive PCR results. All 6 cases were positive with the 78 bp RT-PCR. These findings contraindicate the use of the 429 bp RT-PCR protocol based on the P gene to detect this specific form of DMV. DMV localised nervous infection constitutes the most relevant single cause of stranding and death in Mediterranean striped dolphins in the years following a DMV epizootic, and it might even overwhelm the effects of the epizootic itself, at least in 2007.

  2. Nocturnal Vocal Activity in Captive Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus: Could Dolphins have Presleep Choruses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Kremers

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal vocal activity in dolphins is often thought to be associated with feeding activity. However, when no food resources are available dolphins spend their time for the most part resting/sleeping. While unihemispherically sleeping, dolphins mostly swim slowly and synchronously in close proximity with one or more other individuals. Although vocal activity is lower during resting/sleeping, dolphins are not entirely silent the entire night. However, nothing is known about the temporal patterning of vocal activity at night and its potential relation with activity in dolphins. Here we recorded the vocal activity of a group of five captive bottlenose dolphins at night while having no feeding opportunity, examined whether there was any temporal pattern and/or a relation with breathing activity, used here as an index of overall activity. The temporal pattern revealed two peaks of intense whistle activity (8 p.m. and midnight, which were followed by a strong decrease of whistle rate and a slight decrease of respiration rate. We suggest that the high vocal activity at the peak periods might indicate socializing periods and that dolphins, like many other species, show periods of increased social and vocal interactions (chorusing? before starting to rest/sleep, maybe to ensure the synchrony of slow swimming observed in this species. These findings contribute to a better understanding of nocturnal vocal activity in cetaceans and suggest new lines of research on vocal/social activity of dolphins in relation to presleep and resting behavior.

  3. Observations of NC stop nets for bottlenose dolphin takes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To observe the NC stop net fishery to document the entanglement of bottlenose dolphins and movement of dolphins around the nets.

  4. The orexin system in the enteric nervous system of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Claudia; Russo, Finizia; Russolillo, Maria Grazia; Varricchio, Ettore; Paolucci, Marina; Castaldo, Luciana; Lucini, Carla; de Girolamo, Paolo; Cozzi, Bruno; Maruccio, Lucianna

    2014-01-01

    This study provides a general approach to the presence and possible role of orexins and their receptors in the gut (three gastric chambers and intestine) of confined environment bottlenose dolphin. The expression of prepro-orexin, orexin A and B and orexin 1 and 2 receptors were investigated by single immunostaining and western blot analysis. The co-localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide and orexin 1 receptor in the enteric nervous system was examined by double immunostaining. Also, orexin A concentration were measured in plasma samples to assess the possible diurnal variation of the plasma level of peptide in this species. Our results showed that the orexin system is widely distributed in bottlenose dolphin enteric nervous system of the all gastrointestinal tract examined. They are very peculiar and partially differs from that of terrestrial mammals. Orexin peptides and prepro-orexin were expressed in the main stomach, pyloric stomach and proximal intestine; while orexin receptors were expressed in the all examined tracts, with the exception of main stomach where found no evidence of orexin 2 receptor. Co-localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide and orexin 1 receptor were more evident in the pyloric stomach and proximal intestine. These data could suggest a possible role of orexin system on the contractility of bottlenose dolphin gastrointestinal districts. Finally, in agreement with several reports, bottlenose dolphin orexin A plasma level was higher in the morning during fasting. Our results emphasize some common features between bottlenose dolphin and terrestrial mammals. Certainly, further functional investigations may help to better explain the role of the orexin system in the energy balance of bottlenose dolphin and the complex interaction between feeding and digestive physiology.

  5. The orexin system in the enteric nervous system of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gatta

    Full Text Available This study provides a general approach to the presence and possible role of orexins and their receptors in the gut (three gastric chambers and intestine of confined environment bottlenose dolphin. The expression of prepro-orexin, orexin A and B and orexin 1 and 2 receptors were investigated by single immunostaining and western blot analysis. The co-localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide and orexin 1 receptor in the enteric nervous system was examined by double immunostaining. Also, orexin A concentration were measured in plasma samples to assess the possible diurnal variation of the plasma level of peptide in this species. Our results showed that the orexin system is widely distributed in bottlenose dolphin enteric nervous system of the all gastrointestinal tract examined. They are very peculiar and partially differs from that of terrestrial mammals. Orexin peptides and prepro-orexin were expressed in the main stomach, pyloric stomach and proximal intestine; while orexin receptors were expressed in the all examined tracts, with the exception of main stomach where found no evidence of orexin 2 receptor. Co-localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide and orexin 1 receptor were more evident in the pyloric stomach and proximal intestine. These data could suggest a possible role of orexin system on the contractility of bottlenose dolphin gastrointestinal districts. Finally, in agreement with several reports, bottlenose dolphin orexin A plasma level was higher in the morning during fasting. Our results emphasize some common features between bottlenose dolphin and terrestrial mammals. Certainly, further functional investigations may help to better explain the role of the orexin system in the energy balance of bottlenose dolphin and the complex interaction between feeding and digestive physiology.

  6. Bottlenose dolphins perceive object features through echolocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Heidi E; Putman, Erika A; Roitblat, Herbert L

    2003-08-07

    How organisms (including people) recognize distant objects is a fundamental question. The correspondence between object characteristics (distal stimuli), like visual shape, and sensory characteristics (proximal stimuli), like retinal projection, is ambiguous. The view that sensory systems are 'designed' to 'pick up' ecologically useful information is vague about how such mechanisms might work. In echolocating dolphins, which are studied as models for object recognition sonar systems, the correspondence between echo characteristics and object characteristics is less clear. Many cognitive scientists assume that object characteristics are extracted from proximal stimuli, but evidence for this remains ambiguous. For example, a dolphin may store 'sound templates' in its brain and identify whole objects by listening for a particular sound. Alternatively, a dolphin's brain may contain algorithms, derived through natural endowments or experience or both, which allow it to identify object characteristics based on sounds. The standard method used to address this question in many species is indirect and has led to equivocal results with dolphins. Here we outline an appropriate method and test it to show that dolphins extract object characteristics directly from echoes.

  7. Echolocation in the Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Jennifer D.; Nachtigall, Paul E.; Au, Whitlow W. L.; Pawloski, Jeffrey L.; Roitblat, Herbert L.

    2003-01-01

    The Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) is an exclusively cephalopod-consuming delphinid with a distinctive vertical indentation along its forehead. To investigate whether or not the species echolocates, a female Risso's dolphin was trained to discriminate an aluminum cylinder from a nylon sphere (experiment 1) or an aluminum sphere (experiment 2) while wearing eyecups and free swimming in an open-water pen in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. The dolphin completed the task with little difficulty despite being blindfolded. Clicks emitted by the dolphin were acquired at average amplitudes of 192.6 dB re 1 μPa, with estimated sources levels up to 216 dB re 1 μPa-1 m. Clicks were acquired with peak frequencies as high as 104.7 kHz (Mfp=47.9 kHz), center frequencies as high as 85.7 kHz (Mf0=56.5 kHz), 3-dB bandwidths up to 94.1 kHz (MBW=39.7 kHz), and root-mean-square bandwidths up to 32.8 kHz (MRMS=23.3 kHz). Click durations were between 40 and 70 μs. The data establish that the Risso's dolphin echolocates, and that, aside from slightly lower amplitudes and frequencies, the clicks emitted by the dolphin were similar to those emitted by other echolocating odontocetes. The particular acoustic and behavioral findings in the study are discussed with respect to the possible direction of the sonar transmission beam of the species.

  8. Multiple populations of pantropical spotted dolphins in Hawaiian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbis, Sarah; Baird, Robin W; Cipriano, Frank; Duffield, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Understanding gene flow and dispersal patterns is important for predicting effects of natural events and anthropogenic activities on animal populations. In Hawaii, most species of odontocetes are managed as single populations. Recent exceptions include false killer whales, spinner dolphins, and common bottlenose dolphins, for which studies have shown fidelity to individual islands or groups of islands. Our study focused on pantropical spotted dolphins. We analyzed mitochondrial control region and 11 microsatellite loci from 101 individuals from 4 areas: Hawaii, Maui/Lanai, Oahu, and Kauai/Niihau. We examined F ST, F' ST, R ST, Jost's D, and ΦST and used TESS to estimate number of populations and assignment probabilities. Our results support genetic differentiation among Hawaii, Maui/Lanai, and Oahu and suggest that pantropical spotted dolphins near Kauai/Niihau are likely transient and in low numbers. Between island regions, F ST for microsatellites ranged from 0.016 to 0.045 and for mtDNA, from 0.011 to 0.282. F ' ST, ranged from 0.098 to 0.262 for microsatellites and 0.019 to 0.415 for mtDNA. R ST and ΦST showed similar results to F ST for microsatellites and mtDNA respectively, and Jost's D fell between F ST and F ' ST. TESS supported 3 populations, and greatest mean assignment probability by island region ranged from 0.50 to 0.72. The private alleles method indicated migration rates among regions from 1.49 to 3.45, and effective population size of the island of Hawaii was estimated to be 220. There was no strong evidence to support sex-biased dispersal or group fidelity. Considering this study in the larger context of other odontocete population studies and studies of connectivity, we suggest genetic differentiation may be mediated by behavior adapted to differing habitat types and niches. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) as marine ecosystem sentinels: ecotoxicology and emerging diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Jailson Fulgencio; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Lemos, Leila; Emin-Lima, Renata; Siciliano, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) are small cetaceans that inhabit coastal regions down to a 50 m depth. As a coastally distributed species, they are exposed to a variety of human-induced risks that include passive fishing nets, persistent environmental pollution, and emerging diseases. As a top predatorS. guianensis occupies an important ecological niche in marine ecosystems. However, this niche also exposes this dolphin to extensive biomagnification of marine contaminants that may accumulate and be stored throughout their life of about 30 years.In this paper, we have compiled available data on the Guiana dolphin as regards its exposure to chemical pollutants, pathogenic microbes, infectious diseases, and injuries caused by interactions with passive fishing gears. Our analysis of the data shows that Guiana dolphins are particularly sensitive to environmental changes.Although the major mortal threat to dolphins results from contact with fishing other human-related activities in coastal zones also pose risks and need more attention.Such human-related risks include the presence of persistent toxicants in the marine environment, such as PCBs and PBDEs. Residues of these chemicals have been detected in Guiana dolphin's tissues at similar or higher levels that exist in cetaceans from other known polluted areas. Another risk encountered by this species is the non lethal injuries caused by fishing gear. Several incidents of this sort have occurred along the Brazilian coast with this species. When injuries are produced by interaction with fishing gear, the dorsal fin is the part of the dolphin anatomy that is more affected, commonly causing severe laceration or even total loss.The Guiana dolphins also face risks from infectious diseases. The major ones thus far identified include giardiasis, lobomycosis, toxoplasmosis, skin and skeletal lesions. Many bacterial pathogens from the family Aeromonadaceae and Vibrionaceae have been isolated from Guiana dolphins. Several

  10. Behavioural responses of spinner dolphins to human interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Maddalena; Cesario, Amina; Costa, Marina; Harraway, John; Notarbartolo di Sciara, Giuseppe; Slooten, Elisabeth

    2018-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that whale and dolphin watching activities have detrimental effects on targeted cetacean populations. In Egypt, spinner dolphins regularly occur in the resting areas of Samadai, Satayah and Qubbat'Isa reefs. In-water human interactions with dolphins are regulated with a time-area closure system at Samadai, unregulated at Satayah and non-existent at Qubbat'Isa. This provided an ideal experimental setting to advance our understanding of the effects of tourism on a species highly sensitive to disturbances. Our study confirmed that the intensity and duration of interactions, and therefore, dolphin exposure to tourism, differed among the study sites. Compared with the Qubbat'Isa control site, behavioural reactions to boats and swimmers at the two tourism sites suggested that dolphin rest was disrupted, especially around the middle of the day and especially at Satayah, where dolphin tourism is unregulated. Our results indicate also that the dolphin protection measures at Samadai reduce the level of disturbance. We recommend that similar measures be implemented at other dolphin tourism locations, and that no new operations be initiated until the long-term impacts on dolphin populations are better understood. Our experience emphasizes the need to adopt precautionary approaches in research and management of whale and dolphin watching.

  11. Audiogram of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Hagedoorn, M.; Au, W.W.L.; Haan, de D.

    2003-01-01

    The underwater hearing sensitivity of a striped dolphin was measured in a pool using standard psycho-acoustic techniques. The go/no-go response paradigm and up¿down staircase psychometric method were used. Auditory sensitivity was measured by using 12 narrow-band frequency-modulated signals having

  12. Characterization of Alpha-fetoprotein Levels in Three Dolphin Species: Development of Sensitive Immunoassays for Analysis of the Pregnancy-associated Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    MORITA, Yuka; HIRAMATSU, Naoshi; FUJITA, Toshiaki; AMANO, Haruna; KATSUMATA, Etsuko; ARAI, Kazutoshi; IWASAKI, Toshihide; TODO, Takashi; HARA, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay and a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) were initially developed for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) of the striped dolphin. Utilizing these developed assays, we investigated pregnancy-associated changes in the levels of AFP in the sera of fetuses and pregnant females of three dolphin species; samples were either collected from captive individuals or obtained as fishery by-products. The concentrations of AFP in the fetal serum ranged from 419.0 to 2026.3 μg/ml in the striped dolphin, 12.6 to 1218.7 μg/ml (for an AFP equivalent; eqAFP) in the common bottlenose dolphin and 770.6 to 3129.1 μg eqAFP/ml in the Risso's dolphin. AFP levels decreased with increased fetal size in fetuses over 20 cm in length. The concentrations of AFP in sera of pregnant females ranged from 7.18 to 8068.7 ng/ml in the striped dolphin, 6.6 to 1241.1 ng eqAFP/ml in the common bottlenose dolphin and 3.4 to 2868.7 ng eqAFP/ml in the Risso's dolphin. The levels in most pregnant females were equal to or lower than those found in males and nonpregnant individuals, although a few pregnant females exhibited extremely high levels (in the range of hundreds to thousands of nanograms per milliliter). Such high levels of AFP were not observed during pseudopregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the first report on basal profiles for serum AFP levels in small odontocetes. The profiles indicated that AFP may play a significant role during embryonic development, although maternal levels do not appear to be a diagnostic biomarker for monitoring pregnancy. PMID:23656975

  13. Modulation of whistle production related to training sessions in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) under human care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Marulanda, Juliana; Adam, Olivier; Delfour, Fabienne

    2016-11-01

    Bottlenose dolphins are highly social cetaceans with an extensive sound production including clicks, burst-pulsed sounds, and whistles. Some whistles, known as signature whistles, are individually specific. These acoustic signatures are commonly described as being emitted in contexts of stress during forced isolation and as group cohesion calls. Interactions between humans and captive dolphins is largely based on positive reinforcement conditioning within several training/feeding sessions per day. Vocal behavior of dolphins during these interactions might vary. To investigate this, we recorded 10 bottlenose dolphins of Parc Asterix dolphinarium (France) before, during and after 10 training sessions for a total duration of 7 hr and 32 min. We detected 3,272 whistles with 2,884 presenting a quality good enough to be categorized. We created a catalog of whistle types by visual categorization verified by five naive judges (Fleiss' Kappa Test). We then applied the SIGID method to identify the signatures whistles present in our recordings. We found 279 whistles belonging to one of the four identified signature whistle types. The remaining 2,605 were classified as non-signature whistles. The non-signature whistles emission rate was higher during and after the training sessions than before. Emission rate of three signature whistles types significantly increased afterwards as compared to before the training sessions. We suggest that dolphins use their signature whistles when they return to their intraspecific social interactions succeeding scheduled and human-organized training sessions. More observations are needed to make conclusions about the function of signature whistles in relation to training sessions. Zoo Biol. 35:495-504, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Neural network modeling of a dolphin's sonar discrimination capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Lars Nonboe; René Rasmussen, A; Au, WWL; Nachtigall, PE; Roitblat, H.

    1994-01-01

    The capability of an echo-locating dolphin to discriminate differences in the wall thickness of cylinders was previously modeled by a counterpropagation neural network using only spectral information of the echoes [W. W. L. Au, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 2728–2735 (1994)]. In this study, both time and frequency information were used to model the dolphin discrimination capabilities. Echoes from the same cylinders were digitized using a broadband simulated dolphin sonar signal with the transducer ...

  15. Prion search and cellular prion protein expression in stranded dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Guardo, G; Cocumelli, C; Meoli, R; Barbaro, K; Terracciano, G; Di Francesco, C E; Mazzariol, S; Eleni, C

    2012-01-01

    The recent description of a prion disease (PD) case in a free-ranging bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prompted us to carry out an extensive search for the disease-associated isoform (PrPSc) of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) in the brain and in a range of lymphoid tissues from 23 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), 5 bottlenose dolphins and 2 Risso s dolphins (Grampus griseus) found stranded between 2007 and 2012 along the Italian coastline. Three striped dolphins and one bottlenose dolphin showed microscopic lesions of encephalitis, with no evidence of spongiform brain lesions being detected in any of the 30 free-ranging cetaceans investigated herein. Nevertheless, we could still observe a prominent PrPC immunoreactivity in the brain as well as in lymphoid tissues from these dolphins. Although immunohistochemical and Western blot investigations yielded negative results for PrPSc deposition in all tissues from the dolphins under study, the reported occurrence of a spontaneous PD case in a wild dolphin is an intriguing issue and a matter of concern for both prion biology and intra/inter-species transmissibility, as well as for cetacean conservation medicine.

  16. Developing high throughput quantitative PCR assays for diagnosing Ikeda and other Theileria orientalis types common to New Zealand in bovine blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulford, D J; Gias, E; Bueno, I M; McFadden, Amj

    2016-01-01

    To develop rapid, quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis and type-specific TaqMan assays for identifying the prevalent types of Theileria orientalis found in New Zealand cattle; and to evaluate their analytical and diagnostic characteristics compared with other assays for T. orientalis. Nucleotide sequences aligned with T. orientalis Buffeli, Chitose and Ikeda types, obtained from DNA extracted from blood samples from infected cattle, were used to design HRM and type-specific probe-based qPCR assays. The three type-specific assays were also incorporated into a single-tube multiplex qPCR assay. These assays were validated using DNA extracted from blood samples from cattle in herds with or without clinical signs of T. orientalis infection, other veterinary laboratory samples, as well as plasmids containing T. orientalis type-specific sequences. Diagnostic specificity (DSp) and sensitivity (DSe) estimates for the qPCR assays were compared to blood smear piroplasm results, and other PCR assays for T. orientalis. Copy number estimates of Ikeda DNA in blood were determined from cattle exhibiting anaemia using the Ikeda-specific qPCR assay. The T. orientalis type-specific and the HRM qPCR assays displayed 100% analytical specificity. The Ikeda-specific qPCR assay exhibited linearity (R(2) = 0.997) with an efficiency of 94.3%. Intra-assay CV were ≤0.08 and inter-assay CV were ≤0.095. For blood samples from cows with signs of infection with T. orientalis, the DSp and DSe of the multiplex probe qPCR assay were 93 and 96%, respectively compared with blood smears, and 97 and 100%, respectively compared with conventional PCR assays. For the Ikeda-specific qPCR assay, the number of positive samples (n=66) was slightly higher than a conventional PCR assay (n=64). The concentration of Ikeda genomes in blood samples from 41 dairy cows with signs of infection with T. orientalis ranged between 5.6 × 10(4) and 3.3 × 10(6) genomes per

  17. Solar energy. [New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benseman, R.

    1977-10-15

    The potential for solar space heating and solar water heating in New Zealand is discussed. Available solar energy in New Zealand is indicated, and the economics of solar space and water heating is considered. (WHK)

  18. Is dolphin morbillivirus virulent for white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elk, C E; van de Bildt, M W G; Jauniaux, T; Hiemstra, S; van Run, P R W A; Foster, G; Meerbeek, J; Osterhaus, A D M E; Kuiken, T

    2014-11-01

    The virulence of morbilliviruses for toothed whales (odontocetes) appears to differ according to host species. In 4 species of odontocetes, morbilliviruses are highly virulent, causing large-scale epizootics with high mortality. In 8 other species of odontocetes, including white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), morbilliviruses have been found as an incidental infection. In these species, the virulence of morbilliviruses is not clear. Therefore, the admission of 2 white-beaked dolphins with morbillivirus infection into a rehabilitation center provided a unique opportunity to investigate the virulence of morbillivirus in this species. By phylogenetic analysis, the morbilliviruses in both animals were identified as a dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) most closely related to that detected in a white-beaked dolphin in Germany in 2007. Both animals were examined clinically and pathologically. Case No. 1 had a chronic neural DMV infection, characterized by polioencephalitis in the cerebrum and morbillivirus antigen expression limited to neurons and glial cells. Surprisingly, no nervous signs were observed in this animal during the 6 months before death. Case No. 2 had a subacute systemic DMV infection, characterized by interstitial pneumonia, leucopenia, lymphoid depletion, and DMV antigen expression in mononuclear cells and syncytia in the lung and in mononuclear cells in multiple lymphoid organs. Cause of death was not attributed to DMV infection in either animal. DMV was not detected in 2 contemporaneously stranded white-beaked dolphins. Stranding rate did not increase in the region. These results suggest that DMV is not highly virulent for white-beaked dolphins. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Biochemical and Anatomical Characteristics of Dolphin Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    the Bioengineering Branch (Code 5143) of the Naval Ocean Systems Center and the Kinesiology Department of the University of California, Los Angeles...such a sample. TENDON ANALYSES The biochemistry of the dolphin tendon suggests that this tissue is well adapted to withstand large forces and significant...neuromuscular physiology, connective tissue, and muscle biochemistry . A detailed proposal outlining the goals, approach, milestones, and costs for

  20. DolphinAtack: Inaudible Voice Commands

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guoming; Yan, Chen; Ji, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Taimin; Zhang, Tianchen; Xu, Wenyuan

    2017-01-01

    Speech recognition (SR) systems such as Siri or Google Now have become an increasingly popular human-computer interaction method, and have turned various systems into voice controllable systems(VCS). Prior work on attacking VCS shows that the hidden voice commands that are incomprehensible to people can control the systems. Hidden voice commands, though hidden, are nonetheless audible. In this work, we design a completely inaudible attack, DolphinAttack, that modulates voice commands on ultra...

  1. 50 CFR 216.95 - Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Official mark for âDolphin-safeâ tuna... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.95 Official mark for “Dolphin-safe... Department of Commerce that may be used to label tuna products that meet the “dolphin-safe” standards set...

  2. Enron and Totalfina enter the Dolphin project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The UAE Offsets Group Office (UOG), responsible for developing alliances between the private sector of the United Arab Emirates and international companies, announced on 1. March that a strategic partnership has been established with Enron and TotalFina Elf for implementation of the Dolphin Project, one of the largest world-wide integrated initiatives in the energy sector. The First objective of this partnership, the life of which has been fixed at 25 years, will be to develop the Dolphin infrastructure through a new gas pipeline with a capacity of 85 million cu.m of gas per day, linking Qatar to Abu Dhabi and the Sultanate of Oman. This initial phase will be based on the development of activities all along the gas line. The Project Development Agreement (PDA) concluded by the UOG, Enron and Elf also includes the exploitation of other opportunities in the Gulf countries and the region. The UOG will hold a majority share of 51% in this partnership, the remaining 49% being shared equally between Enron and Elf. Construction work on the gas pipeline and the various installations upstream of Qatar should be quickly put in hand. A series of preliminary agreements concluded with the government authorities of Qatar, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Oman and Pakistan, relating to the procurement and sale of gas, has enabled the implementation of the geographical and political organisation necessary to realize the Dolphin Project. (author)

  3. Common dolphin at-sea density off California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuary Program (ONMS) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the...

  4. Analysis of whistles produced by the Tucuxi Dolphin Sotalia fluviatilis from Sepetiba Bay, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erber Claudia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available From July 2001 to June 2002, we recorded a total of 2h55min of Tucuxi Dolphin Sotalia fluviatilis vocalizations from Sepetiba Bay, Brazil (22º35'S-44º03'W. A total of 3350 whistles were analyzed quantitative and qualitatively and were divided into 124 types, by visual inspection of sonograms. The following parameters were measured: Initial Frequency, Final Frequency, Minimum Frequency, Maximum Frequency, Duration, Number of Inflections, Frequency at the Inflection Points, Frequency at 1/2, 1/4, and 3/4 of whistle duration, Presence of Frequency Modulation and Harmonics. Ascending type whistles (N=2719 were most common, representing 82% of the total. Dolphin behavior and average group size observed during recording influenced the whistle's quantitative and qualitative parameters. The results demonstrate the great diversity of whistles emitted and indicate a functional role of these vocalizations during the observed behaviors.

  5. The Occurrence and Distribution of Dolphins in Zanzibar, Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidental catches (bycatch) in gillnet fisheries off Zanzibar (Unguja Island), as a source of mortality among several species of dolphins, were reported in a questionnaire survey conducted in 1999. As a follow-up to that survey, from January 2000 to August 2003, we monitored the incidental catches of dolphins collected from ...

  6. Spinner dolphins Stenella longirostris off south-west Mauritius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spinner dolphins Stenella longirostris longirostris off the south-west coast of Mauritius are subject to ongoing anthropogenic disturbance in the form of daily dolphin tourism, which has intensified since 1998. Abundance of this species was estimated using photo-identification data and mark-recapture analysis. Between April ...

  7. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S

    2013-01-01

    Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Echolocation click source parameters of Australian snubfin dolphins (Orcaella heinsohni)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Freitas, Mafalda; Smith, Joshua N; Jensen, Frants H

    2018-01-01

    The Australian snubfin dolphin (Orcaella heinsohni) is endemic to Australian waters, yet little is known about its abundance and habitat use. To investigate the feasibility of Passive Acoustic Monitoring for snubfin dolphins, biosonar clicks were recorded in Cygnet Bay, Australia, using a four-el...

  9. Acoustic features of objects matched by an echolocating bottlenose dolphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delong, Caroline M; Au, Whitlow W L; Lemonds, David W; Harley, Heidi E; Roitblat, Herbert L

    2006-03-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate how dolphins use acoustic features in returning echolocation signals to discriminate among objects. An echolocating dolphin performed a match-to-sample task with objects that varied in size, shape, material, and texture. After the task was completed, the features of the object echoes were measured (e.g., target strength, peak frequency). The dolphin's error patterns were examined in conjunction with the between-object variation in acoustic features to identify the acoustic features that the dolphin used to discriminate among the objects. The present study explored two hypotheses regarding the way dolphins use acoustic information in echoes: (1) use of a single feature, or (2) use of a linear combination of multiple features. The results suggested that dolphins do not use a single feature across all object sets or a linear combination of six echo features. Five features appeared to be important to the dolphin on four or more sets: the echo spectrum shape, the pattern of changes in target strength and number of highlights as a function of object orientation, and peak and center frequency. These data suggest that dolphins use multiple features and integrate information across echoes from a range of object orientations.

  10. Dams and river dolphins: Can they co-exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, R.R.; Leatherwood, S.

    1994-01-01

    Dam construction is one of many ways that humans have modified river-dolphin habitats. It is suggested that physiographic and hydrologic complexity plays an important role in making rivers suitable for dolphins. If this hypothesis is true, then it can be assumed that dams and other artificial obstructions degrade dolphin habitat insofar as they reduce such complexity. This paper identifies some of the impacts that dams, barrages, and dikes might have on dolphins. Research is needed at project sites, both before and after construction, to document impacts. Specially designed ''swimways'' may allow upstream and downstream passage by dolphins and thus mitigate at least one of the adverse effects of dam projects, namely population fragmentation, but such measures aimed at benefiting single species are no substitute for protecting ecosystems. 30 refs

  11. Increased Dietary Intake of Saturated Fatty Acid Heptadecanoic Acid (C17:0) Associated with Decreasing Ferritin and Alleviated Metabolic Syndrome in Dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K.; Parry, Celeste; Baird, Mark; Stevenson, Sacha; Carlin, Kevin; Daniels, Risa; Smith, Cynthia R.; Jones, Richard; Wells, Randall S.; Ridgway, Sam; Jensen, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Similar to humans, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can develop metabolic syndrome and associated high ferritin. While fish and fish-based fatty acids may protect against metabolic syndrome in humans, findings have been inconsistent. To assess potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome related to fish diets, fatty acids were compared between two dolphin populations with higher (n = 30, Group A) and lower (n = 19, Group B) mean insulin (11 ± 12 and 2 ± 5 μIU/ml, respectively; P dolphins. Capelin, a common dietary fish for Group A, had no detectable C17:0, while pinfish and mullet, common in Group B’s diet, had C17:0 (41 and 67 mg/100g, respectively). When a modified diet adding 25% pinfish and/or mullet was fed to six Group A dolphins over 24 weeks (increasing the average daily dietary C17:0 intake from 400 to 1700 mg), C17:0 serum levels increased, high ferritin decreased, and blood-based metabolic syndrome indices normalized toward reference levels. These effects were not found in four reference dolphins. Further, higher total serum C17:0 was an independent and linear predictor of lower ferritin in dolphins in Group B dolphins. Among off the shelf dairy products tested, butter had the highest C17:0 (423mg/100g); nonfat dairy products had no detectable C17:0. We hypothesize that humans’ movement away from diets with potentially beneficial saturated fatty acid C17:0, including whole fat dairy products, could be a contributor to widespread low C17:0 levels, higher ferritin, and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26200116

  12. Serologic response in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus infected with Brucella sp. using a dolphin-specific indirect ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegan, Jenny; Dunn, J Lawrence; Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Smith, Cynthia R; Sidor, Inga; Jensen, Eric D; Van Bonn, William G; Pugh, Roberta; Ficht, Thomas; Adams, L Garry; Nielsen, Klaus; Romano, Tracy A

    2012-12-03

    Marine-origin Brucella infections and serologic evidence of exposure have been documented in multiple cetacean species. A dolphin-specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to screen bottlenose dolphin sera for anti-Brucella antibodies. A total of 131 serum samples collected over a 2 to 18 yr period from 6 bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus with confirmed Brucella infections were analyzed for the presence and magnitude of antibody titers against marine-origin Brucella to compare individual antibody responses to various disease manifestations. Additionally, an epidemiologic serologic survey of a managed population of 64 bottlenose dolphins was performed to evaluate for the presence of antibodies and to determine whether there were any clinical pathology predictors for exposure or infection. The serologic results revealed that the dolphins with Brucella-associated abortions were seronegative for 7 to 18 yr until after the abortion and maintained positive titers for several years, with 2 of 3 animals returning to seronegative status. In contrast, the dolphins with Brucella-associated pulmonary or bone lesions maintained persistent positive titers for 2 to 18 yr. The population serosurvey revealed no significant differences in antibody levels among males and females, and dolphins between the ages of 17 and 25 yr were 6.8 times more likely to be Brucella antibody positive compared to those that were younger or older. Seropositive dolphins did not have significant inflammation compared to seronegative dolphins but were more likely to have higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Among 16 dolphins that tested seropositive, 13 (81.3%) had previously been seropositive for at least 3 to 5 yr.

  13. Dolphins adjust species-specific frequency parameters to compensate for increasing background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, Elena; Gamba, Marco; Perez-Gil, Monica; Martin, Vidal Martel; Giacoma, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    An increase in ocean noise levels could interfere with acoustic communication of marine mammals. In this study we explored the effects of anthropogenic and natural noise on the acoustic properties of a dolphin communication signal, the whistle. A towed array with four elements was used to record environmental background noise and whistles of short-beaked common-, Atlantic spotted- and striped-dolphins in the Canaries archipelago. Four frequency parameters were measured from each whistle, while Sound Pressure Levels (SPL) of the background noise were measured at the central frequencies of seven one-third octave bands, from 5 to 20 kHz. Results show that dolphins increase the whistles' frequency parameters with lower variability in the presence of anthropogenic noise, and increase the end frequency of their whistles when confronted with increasing natural noise. This study provides the first evidence that the synergy among SPLs has a role in shaping the whistles' structure of these three species, with respect to both natural and anthropogenic noise.

  14. Dolphins adjust species-specific frequency parameters to compensate for increasing background noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Papale

    Full Text Available An increase in ocean noise levels could interfere with acoustic communication of marine mammals. In this study we explored the effects of anthropogenic and natural noise on the acoustic properties of a dolphin communication signal, the whistle. A towed array with four elements was used to record environmental background noise and whistles of short-beaked common-, Atlantic spotted- and striped-dolphins in the Canaries archipelago. Four frequency parameters were measured from each whistle, while Sound Pressure Levels (SPL of the background noise were measured at the central frequencies of seven one-third octave bands, from 5 to 20 kHz. Results show that dolphins increase the whistles' frequency parameters with lower variability in the presence of anthropogenic noise, and increase the end frequency of their whistles when confronted with increasing natural noise. This study provides the first evidence that the synergy among SPLs has a role in shaping the whistles' structure of these three species, with respect to both natural and anthropogenic noise.

  15. Dolphins Adjust Species-Specific Frequency Parameters to Compensate for Increasing Background Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, Elena; Gamba, Marco; Perez-Gil, Monica; Martin, Vidal Martel; Giacoma, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    An increase in ocean noise levels could interfere with acoustic communication of marine mammals. In this study we explored the effects of anthropogenic and natural noise on the acoustic properties of a dolphin communication signal, the whistle. A towed array with four elements was used to record environmental background noise and whistles of short-beaked common-, Atlantic spotted- and striped-dolphins in the Canaries archipelago. Four frequency parameters were measured from each whistle, while Sound Pressure Levels (SPL) of the background noise were measured at the central frequencies of seven one-third octave bands, from 5 to 20 kHz. Results show that dolphins increase the whistles’ frequency parameters with lower variability in the presence of anthropogenic noise, and increase the end frequency of their whistles when confronted with increasing natural noise. This study provides the first evidence that the synergy among SPLs has a role in shaping the whistles' structure of these three species, with respect to both natural and anthropogenic noise. PMID:25853825

  16. Precocious development of self-awareness in dolphins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Morrison

    Full Text Available Mirror-self recognition (MSR is a behavioral indicator of self-awareness in young children and only a few other species, including the great apes, dolphins, elephants and magpies. The emergence of self-awareness in children typically occurs during the second year and has been correlated with sensorimotor development and growing social and self-awareness. Comparative studies of MSR in chimpanzees report that the onset of this ability occurs between 2 years 4 months and 3 years 9 months of age. Studies of wild and captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus have reported precocious sensorimotor and social awareness during the first weeks of life, but no comparative MSR research has been conducted with this species. We exposed two young bottlenose dolphins to an underwater mirror and analyzed video recordings of their behavioral responses over a 3-year period. Here we report that both dolphins exhibited MSR, indicated by self-directed behavior at the mirror, at ages earlier than generally reported for children and at ages much earlier than reported for chimpanzees. The early onset of MSR in young dolphins occurs in parallel with their advanced sensorimotor development, complex and reciprocal social interactions, and growing social awareness. Both dolphins passed subsequent mark tests at ages comparable with children. Thus, our findings indicate that dolphins exhibit self-awareness at a mirror at a younger age than previously reported for children or other species tested.

  17. The Dolphin in the Mirror - A Familiar Face?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibble, Dianna Samuelson; Van Alstyne, Kaitlin Katie; Rohr, Jim; Ridgway, Sam

    2017-01-01

    We suggest how a basic physics problem becomes much richer when researchers of various disciplines converse. Our discussion explores Snell's window from the perspective of what a dolphin might see. An aperture, Snell's window, allows light to travel through the air-water interface. Outside this window, there is total reflection from under the water-air interface. Dolphins see through the aperture to follow our movements above the water's surface. When dolphins look outside the window, can they see their own reflections from under the water-air interface?

  18. GoM Estuarine Bottlenose Dolphin Photo-identification studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of small vessel based studies of bottlenose dolphins that reside within Mississippi Sound and nearshore coastal waters. The...

  19. Shark predation on Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins TUTSiops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-10-24

    Oct 24, 1988 ... Four species of shark, the Zambesi (Carcharhinus leucas), the tiger (Galeocerdo ... level of shark predation on bottlenose dolphins was unknown it appeared to ..... possible examples of these adaptations. Acknowledgments.

  20. Matching-to-sample by an echolocating dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roitblat, H L; Penner, R H; Nachtigall, P E

    1990-01-01

    An adult male dolphin was trained to perform a three-alternative delayed matching-to-sample task while wearing eyecups to occlude its vision. Sample and comparison stimuli consisted of a small and a large PVC plastic tube, a water-filled stainless steel sphere, and a solid aluminum cone. Stimuli were presented under water and the dolphin was allowed to identify the stimuli through echolocation. The echolocation clicks emitted by the dolphin to each sample and each comparison stimulus were recorded and analyzed. Over 48 sessions of testing, choice accuracy averaged 94.5% correct. This high level of accuracy was apparently achieved by varying the number of echolocation clicks emitted to various stimuli. Performance appeared to reflect a preexperimental stereotyped search pattern that dictated the order in which comparison items were examined and a complex sequential-sampling decision process. A model for the dolphin's decision-making processes is described.

  1. How does Australia's largest dolphin-watching industry affect the behaviour of a small and resident population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckenreuter, Andre; Möller, Luciana; Harcourt, Robert

    2012-04-30

    The small, genetically distinct population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Port Stephens, New South Wales (NSW), is the target of the largest dolphin-watching industry in Australia and is located within the Port Stephens - Great Lakes Marine Park that was created in 2005. The effects of this industry have been identified as of significant management importance by the Marine Parks Authority NSW. Accordingly, the impact of commercial dolphin-watching boats was investigated from boat-based surveys from August 2008 to August 2009. Presence of dolphin-watching boats altered both the dolphins' behavioural states and activity budgets. Dolphins spent 66.5% less time feeding and 44.2% less time socialising, spent four times more milling, and were never observed to rest in the presence of dolphin-watching boats. Moreover, dolphin groups were more cohesive during dolphin-watching boat encounters and dolphins tended to avoid tour boats. These effects were exacerbated as the number of boats increased and the distance from boats decreased. The rate of approach was high with boats approaching each dolphin group three times per day in winter and six times in summer. Moreover, groups of dolphins with newborns were approached closer than state regulated minimum approach distances in nine out of ten encounters. Globally, dolphin-watching industries frequent small resident groups of coastal dolphins and effects are likely to be similar. We suggest that existing controls are inadequate and that these together with additional regulations be enforced by a regular presence of authorities. We suggest no more than one dolphin-watching boat within 50 m of a group of dolphins, or 100 m if calves are present. Operating times of dolphin-watching boats should be restricted in numbers after 1 pm, i.e., during preferred foraging times for dolphins. Additionally, exclusion zones should be considered to reduce pressure on dolphins undertaking critical activities such as

  2. Behaviour of Spinner Dolphin at Sha\\'ab Samadai, Marsa Alam, Red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Samadai, Marsa Alam, Red Sea. The data were collected from October 2005 until. September 2006 using surface observations. Four objectives were studied: arrival and departure time of dolphins, distribution of dolphin movements within the ...

  3. The environment as a driver of immune and endocrine responses in dolphins (Tursiops truncatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A Fair

    Full Text Available Immune and endocrine responses play a critical role in allowing animals to adjust to environmental perturbations. We measured immune and endocrine related markers in multiple samples from individuals from two managed-care care dolphin groups (n = 82 samples from 17 dolphins and single samples collected from two wild dolphin populations: Indian River Lagoon, (IRL FL (n = 26; and Charleston, (CHS SC (n = 19. The immune systems of wild dolphins were more upregulated than those of managed-care-dolphins as shown by higher concentrations of IgG and increases in lysozyme, NK cell function, pathogen antibody titers and leukocyte cytokine transcript levels. Collectively, managed-care care dolphins had significantly lower levels of transcripts encoding pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF, anti-viral MX1 and INFα and regulatory IL-10. IL-2Rα and CD69, markers of lymphocyte activation, were both lower in managed-care care dolphins. IL-4, a cytokine associated with TH2 activity, was lower in managed-care care dolphins compared to the free-ranging dolphins. Differences in immune parameters appear to reflect the environmental conditions under which these four dolphin populations live which vary widely in temperature, nutrition, veterinary care, pathogen/contaminant exposures, etc. Many of the differences found were consistent with reduced pathogenic antigenic stimulation in managed-care care dolphins compared to wild dolphins. Managed-care care dolphins had relatively low TH2 lymphocyte activity and fewer circulating eosinophils compared to wild dolphins. Both of these immunologic parameters are associated with exposure to helminth parasites which is uncommon in managed-care care dolphins. Less consistent trends were observed in a suite of hormones but significant differences were found for cortisol, ACTH, total T4, free T3, and epinephrine. While the underlying mechanisms are likely multiple and complex, the marked differences observed in the immune and endocrine

  4. Vocal copying of individually distinctive signature whistles in bottlenose dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephanie L.; Sayigh, Laela S.; Wells, Randall S.; Fellner, Wendi; Janik, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocal learning is relatively common in birds but less so in mammals. Sexual selection and individual or group recognition have been identified as major forces in its evolution. While important in the development of vocal displays, vocal learning also allows signal copying in social interactions. Such copying can function in addressing or labelling selected conspecifics. Most examples of addressing in non-humans come from bird song, where matching occurs in an aggressive context. However, in other animals, addressing with learned signals is very much an affiliative signal. We studied the function of vocal copying in a mammal that shows vocal learning as well as complex cognitive and social behaviour, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Copying occurred almost exclusively between close associates such as mother–calf pairs and male alliances during separation and was not followed by aggression. All copies were clearly recognizable as such because copiers consistently modified some acoustic parameters of a signal when copying it. We found no evidence for the use of copying in aggression or deception. This use of vocal copying is similar to its use in human language, where the maintenance of social bonds appears to be more important than the immediate defence of resources. PMID:23427174

  5. Differences in the whistle characteristics and repertoire of Bottlenose and Spinner Dolphins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazúa-Durán Carmen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several methods have been used to compare the whistles produced by dolphins. The two methods used in this study are: (1 a classification of whistle contours in six categories (i.e. constant frequency, upsweep, downsweep, concave, convex, and sine and (2 the extraction of frequency and time parameters from each whistle contour. Bottlenose Dolphin Tursiops truncatus whistles are described in the same way when comparing whistle contour distributions in each of the six categories and whistle frequency and time parameters using Discriminant Function Analysis. For Spinner Dolphin Stenella longirostris whistles, each method describes whistles differently. Several facts may explain these differences in describing dolphin whistles, such as a greater fluidity of Spinner Dolphin groups when compared to Bottlenose Dolphin groups, greater geographic variation in the whistles of Bottlenose Dolphins than in those of Spinner Dolphins, an average beginning frequency 16% lower than the average ending frequency in Spinner Dolphin whistles compared to a varied relationship for Bottlenose Dolphins, and stricter criteria used to define whistle contour categories in the study of Spinner Dolphin whistles than in the Bottlenose Dolphin whistle study.

  6. Dolphin Therapy: The Playful Way to Work toward the Next Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermer, Maaike

    2008-01-01

    More than 400 children with a physical and/or mental challenge visit the Curacao Dolphin Therapy and Research Center (CDTC) for dolphin-assisted therapy every year. Dolphin therapy appears to be the right approach for many children. With the help of these special and very social animals, it is easier to make contact with the children. It motivates…

  7. A kinematic study on (unintentional imitation in bottlenose dolphins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of observing other’s movements on subsequent performance in bottlenose dolphins. The imitative ability of non-human animals has intrigued a number of researchers. So far, however, studies in dolphins have been confined to intentional imitation concerned with the explicit request to imitate other agents. In the absence of instruction to imitate, do dolphins (unintentionally replicate other’s movement features? To test this, dolphins were filmed while reaching and touching a stimulus before and after observing another dolphin (i.e., model performing the same action. All videos were reviewed and segmented in order to extract the relevant movements. A marker was inserted post-hoc via software on the videos upon the anatomical landmark of interest (i.e. rostrum and was tracked throughout the time course of the movement sequence. The movement was analyzed using an in-house software developed to perform two-dimensional (2D post-hoc kinematic analysis. The results indicate that dolphins’ kinematics is sensitive to other’s movement features. Movements performed for the ‘visuomotor priming’ condition were characterized by a kinematic pattern similar to that performed by the observed dolphin (i.e., model. Addressing the issue of spontaneous imitation in bottlenose dolphins might allow ascertaining whether the potential or impulse to produce an imitative action is generated, not just when they intend to imitate, but whenever they watch another conspecific’s behavior. In closing, this will clarify whether motor representational capacity is a by-product of factors specific to humans or whether more general characteristics such as processes of associative learning prompted by high level of encephalization could help to explain the evolution of this ability.

  8. Evaluation of potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in bottlenose dolphins:feeding and activity patterns of dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Randall S.; McHugh, Katherine A.; Douglas, David C.; Shippee, Steve; McCabe, Elizabeth Berens; Barros, Nélio B.; Phillips, Goldie T.

    2014-01-01

    Free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) living in Sarasota Bay, Florida appear to have a lower risk of developing insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome compared to a group of dolphins managed under human care. Similar to humans, differences in diet and activity cycles between these groups may explain why Sarasota dolphins have lower insulin, glucose, and lipids. To identify potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome, existing and new data were incorporated to describe feeding and activity patterns of the Sarasota Bay wild dolphin community. Sarasota dolphins eat a wide variety of live fish and spend 10–20% of daylight hours foraging and feeding. Feeding occurs throughout the day, with the dolphins eating small proportions of their total daily intake in brief bouts. The natural pattern of wild dolphins is to feed as necessary and possible at any time of the day or night. Wild dolphins rarely eat dead fish or consume large amounts of prey in concentrated time periods. Wild dolphins are active throughout the day and night; they may engage in bouts of each key activity category at any time during daytime. Dive patterns of radio-tagged dolphins varied only slightly with time of day. Travel rates may be slightly lower at night, suggesting a diurnal rhythm, albeit not one involving complete, extended rest. In comparison, the managed dolphins are older; often fed a smaller variety of frozen-thawed fish types; fed fish species not in their natural diet; feedings and engaged activities are often during the day; and they are fed larger but fewer meals. In summary, potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in dolphins may include young age, activity, and small meals fed throughout the day and night, and specific fish nutrients. These protective factors against insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are similar to those reported in humans. Further studies may benefit humans and dolphins.

  9. Evaluation of potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in bottlenose dolphins: feeding and activity patterns of dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall eWells

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus living in Sarasota Bay, Florida appear to have a lower risk of developing insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome compared to a group of dolphins managed under human care. Similar to humans, differences in diet and activity cycles between these groups may explain why Sarasota dolphins have lower insulin, glucose, and lipids. To identify potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome, existing and new data were incorporated to describe feeding and activity patterns of the Sarasota Bay wild dolphin community. Sarasota dolphins eat a wide variety of live fish and spend 10-20% of daylight hours foraging and feeding. Feeding occurs throughout the day, with the dolphins eating small proportions of their total daily intake in brief bouts. The natural pattern of wild dolphins is to feed as necessary and possible at any time of the day or night. Wild dolphins rarely eat dead fish or consume large amounts of prey in concentrated time periods. Wild dolphins are active throughout the day and night; they may engage in bouts of each key activity category at any time during daytime. Dive patterns of radio-tagged dolphins varied only slightly with time of day. Travel rates may be slightly lower at night, suggesting a diurnal rhythm, albeit not one involving complete, extended rest. In comparison, the managed dolphins are older; often fed a smaller variety of frozen-thawed fish types; fed fish species not in their natural diet; feedings and engaged activities are often during the day; and they are fed larger but fewer meals. In summary, potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in dolphins may include young age, activity and small meals fed throughout the day and night, and specific fish nutrients. These protective factors against insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are similar to those reported in humans. Further studies may benefit humans and dolphins.

  10. New Zealand; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper conducts a comparative analysis of the main determinants of GDP per capita growth in New Zealand and in other OECD countries to assess the relative importance of macroeconomic factors, institutional settings, and geographical location in New Zealand’s growth performance during the last 30 years. The estimation results find strong support for the view that geographical isolation has significantly hampered growth in New Zealand. The paper also reviews the internationa...

  11. Fishery gear interactions from stranded bottlenose dolphins, Florida manatees and sea turtles in Florida, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimey, Nicole M; Hudak, Christine A; Powell, Jessica R; Bassos-Hull, Kim; Foley, Allen; Farmer, Nicholas A; White, Linda; Minch, Karrie

    2014-04-15

    Documenting the extent of fishery gear interactions is critical to wildlife conservation efforts, especially for reducing entanglements and ingestion. This study summarizes fishery gear interactions involving common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus truncatus), Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and sea turtles: loggerhead (Caretta caretta), green turtle (Chelonia mydas), leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) stranding in Florida waters during 1997-2009. Fishery gear interactions for all species combined were 75.3% hook and line, 18.2% trap pot gear, 4.8% fishing nets, and 1.7% in multiple gears. Total reported fishery gear cases increased over time for dolphins (pgear interaction hotspots were identified and generalized linear regression modeling was conducted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Chemical residues in Dolphins from the US Atlantic coast including atlantic bottlenose obtained during the 1987/88 mass mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehl, D.W.; Haebler, R.; Potter, C.

    1991-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) collected during the 1987/88 mass mortality event along the Atlantic coast of the United States have been analyzed for anthropogenic chemical contaminants. Average contaminant concentrations in adult males were higher than the average concentrations measured in adult females. Females could be divided into two groups by contaminant concentrations, one with low concentrations, and another with concentrations 4.4 times (PCBs) to 8.9 times (p,p'-DDE) greater. Contaminant concentrations in bottlenose were generally greater than the concentrations measured in either common (Delphinus delphis) or white-sided (Lagernorhynchus acutus) dolphins from the western North Atlantic Ocean. A subset of animals screened for unusual chemical contaminants showed that numerous polybrominated chemicals were present, including polybrominated biphenyls and diphenyl ethers not previously found in marine mammals from U.S. coastal waters.

  13. Humpback Dolphin (Genus Sousa) Behavioural Responses to Human Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwetz, Sarah; Lundquist, David; Würsig, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) use shallow, near-shore waters throughout their range. This coastal distribution makes them vulnerable to recreational and commercial disturbances, especially near heavily populated and industrialized areas. Most research focusing on Sousa and human activities has emphasized direct impacts and threats, involving injury and death, with relatively little focus on indirect effects on dolphins, such as changes in behaviour that may lead to deleterious effects. Understanding behaviour is important in resolving human-wildlife conflict and is an important component of conservation. This chapter gives an overview of animal behavioural responses to human activity with examples from diverse taxa; reviews the scientific literature on behavioural responses of humpback dolphins to human activity throughout their range, including marine vessel traffic, dolphin tourism, cetacean-fishery interactions, noise pollution, and habitat alteration; and highlights information and data gaps for future humpback dolphin research to better inform behaviour-based management decisions that contribute to conservation efforts. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  14. Midwifery in New Zealand 1904-1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Jane

    2008-10-01

    Childbirth for European women in early twentieth century New Zealand was family centred. The majority of births took place in the home, accepted as a difficult but natural part of a woman's role in life. Midwives were mostly married women who worked autonomously and had usually borne children themselves. By the 1970s this picture had dramatically changed. Virtually all births took place in hospital and were under the control of medical men and women. When legislation was passed (the Nurses Act 1971) that removed the right of New Zealand midwives to practice autonomously, New Zealand midwifery had largely been subsumed by nursing, controlled by medicine and displaced from a community based profession into a hospital based workforce. This article examines how the trends of medicalisation, hospitalisation, and nursification changed the New Zealand maternity services from 1900 to 1971, outlining the effect those changes had on the midwifery profession. The changes described here were also common to other western societies; examining how they occurred provides a context for understanding the history of midwifery in New Zealand.

  15. The ontogenetic changes in the thermal properties of blubber from Atlantic bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkin, Robin C; McLellan, William A; Blum, James E; Pabst, D Ann

    2005-04-01

    In Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus, both the thickness and lipid content of blubber vary across ontogeny and across individuals of differing reproductive and nutritional status. This study investigates how these changes in blubber morphology and composition influence its thermal properties. Thermal conductivity (W m(-1) deg.(-1), where deg. is degrees C) and thermal insulation (m(2) deg. W(-1)) of dolphin blubber were measured in individuals across an ontogenetic series (fetus through adult, N=36), pregnant females (N=4) and emaciated animals (N=5). These thermal properties were determined by the simultaneous use of two common experimental approaches, the heat flux disc method and the standard material method. Thickness, lipid and water content were measured for each blubber sample. Thermal conductivity and insulation varied significantly across ontogeny. Blubber from fetuses through sub-adults was less conductive (range=0.11-0.13+/-0.02 W m(-1) deg.(-1)) than that of adults (mean=0.18 W m(-1) deg.(-1)). The conductivity of blubber from pregnant females was similar to non-adult categories, while that of emaciated animals was significantly higher (0.24 +/- 0.04 W m deg.(-1)) than all other categories. Blubber from sub-adults and pregnant females had the highest insulation values while fetuses and emaciated animals had the lowest. In nutritionally dependent life history categories, changes in blubber's thermal insulation were characterized by stable blubber quality (i.e. conductivity) and increased blubber quantity (i.e. thickness). In nutritionally independent animals, blubber quantity remained stable while blubber quality varied. A final, unexpected observation was that heat flux measurements at the deep blubber surface were significantly higher than that at the superficial surface, a pattern not observed in control materials. This apparent ability to absorb heat, coupled with blubber's fatty acid composition, suggest that dolphin integument may

  16. Tuna and dolphin associations in the North-east Atlantic: Evidence of different ecological niches from stable isotope and heavy metal measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, K.; Lepoint, G.; Loizeau, V.; Debacker, V.; Dauby, P.; Bouquegneau, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Associations of tunas and dolphins in the wild are quite frequent events and the question arises how predators requiring similar diet in the same habitat share their environmental resources. As isotopic composition of an animal is related to that of its preys, stable isotope ( 13 C/ 12 C and 15 N/ 14 N) analyses were performed in three predator species from the North-east Atlantic: the striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba, the common dolphin Delphinus delphis and the albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, and compared to their previously described stomach content. Heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cu and Fe) are mainly transferred through the diet and so, have been determined in the tissues of the animals. Tuna muscles display higher δ 15 N than in common and striped dolphins (mean: 11.4 vs. 10.3%o and 10.4%o, respectively) which reflects their higher trophic level nutrition. Higher δ 13 C are found in common (-18.4%o) and striped dolphin (-18.1%o) muscles than in albacore tuna (-19.3%o) probably in relation with its migratory pattern. The most striking feature is the presence of two levels of cadmium concentrations in the livers of the tunas (32 mg kg -1 dry weight (DW) vs. 5 mg kg -1 DW). These two groups also differ by their iron concentrations and their δ 15 N and δ 13 C liver values. These results suggest that in the Biscay Bay, tunas occupy two different ecological niches probably based on different squid inputs in their diet

  17. Dolphin natures, human virtues: MacIntyre and ethical naturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glackin, Shane Nicholas

    2008-09-01

    Can biological facts explain human morality? Aristotelian 'virtue' ethics has traditionally assumed so. In recent years Alasdair MacIntyre has reintroduced a form of Aristotle's 'metaphysical biology' into his ethics. He argues that the ethological study of dependence and rationality in other species--dolphins in particular--sheds light on how those same traits in the typical lives of humans give rise to the moral virtues. However, some goal-oriented dolphin behaviour appears both dependent and rational in the precise manner which impresses MacIntyre, yet anything but ethically 'virtuous'. More damningly, dolphin ethologists consistently refuse to evaluate such behaviour in the manner MacIntyre claims is appropriate to moral judgement. In light of this, I argue that virtues--insofar as they name a biological or ethological category--do not name a morally significant one.

  18. Effects of tour boats on dolphin activity examined with sensitivity analysis of Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dans, Silvana Laura; Degrati, Mariana; Pedraza, Susana Noemí; Crespo, Enrique Alberto

    2012-08-01

    In Patagonia, Argentina, watching dolphins, especially dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus), is a new tourist activity. Feeding time decreases and time to return to feeding after feeding is abandoned and time it takes a group of dolphins to feed increase in the presence of boats. Such effects on feeding behavior may exert energetic costs on dolphins and thus reduce an individual's survival and reproductive capacity or maybe associated with shifts in distribution. We sought to predict which behavioral changes modify the activity pattern of dolphins the most. We modeled behavioral sequences of dusky dolphins with Markov chains. We calculated transition probabilities from one activity to another and arranged them in a stochastic matrix model. The proportion of time dolphins dedicated to a given activity (activity budget) and the time it took a dolphin to resume that activity after it had been abandoned (recurrence time) were calculated. We used a sensitivity analysis of Markov chains to calculate the sensitivity of the time budget and the activity-resumption time to changes in behavioral transition probabilities. Feeding-time budget was most sensitive to changes in the probability of dolphins switching from traveling to feeding behavior and of maintaining feeding behavior. Thus, an increase in these probabilities would be associated with the largest reduction in the time dedicated to feeding. A reduction in the probability of changing from traveling to feeding would also be associated with the largest increases in the time it takes dolphins to resume feeding. To approach dolphins when they are traveling would not affect behavior less because presence of the boat may keep dolphins from returning to feeding. Our results may help operators of dolphin-watching vessels minimize negative effects on dolphins. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Why Dolphins are not Aquatic Apes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Barrett

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Social Brain (or Social Intelligence hypothesis is a very influential theory that ties brain size and, by extension, cognitive ability to the demands of obligate and intense sociality. Initially developed to explain primate brain size evolution, the Social Brain hypothesis has since been applied to a diverse array of other social taxa, both mammalian and avian; its origins as a primate-based hypothesis (especially as articulated by Humphrey, 1976, however, mean that it retains a heavily anthropocentric tinge. This colors the way in which other species are viewed, and their cognitive abilities tested, despite fundamental differences in many aspects of bodily morphology, brain anatomy and behavior. The delphinids are a case in point and, in this review, we demonstrate how the anthropocentric origins of the Social Brain hypothesis have pushed us toward a view of the delphinids as a species of ‗aquatic ape‘. We suggest that a more ecological, embodied/embedded, view of dolphin behavior and psychology undercuts such a view, and will provide a more satisfactory assessment of the natural intelligence the delphinids display.

  20. Acute Poisoning with Methadone (Dolphin (Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy A. Livanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most publications report on the use of methadone as a medication, however an increase of the illegal use of methadone has been demonstrated worldwide over the recent years, thus increasing the number of hospitalizations due to acute poisoning with this synthetic opioid. The aim of the present review was to summarize current data on the mechanisms of toxicity, selective toxicity, toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of methadone (Dolphin. The involvement of CNS, respiratory, cardiovascular and urinary systems in acute poisoning with methadone was dis- cussed. The practice of use of methadone in many countries as a medicine for the replacement therapy for opiate addicts was analyzed. In addition, it was suggested that the results of the use of naloxone antidote therapy in acute opioid poisoning do not always clearly demonstrate its sufficient efficacy. Ways to improve of the intensive therapy of severe acute poisoning by methadone were substantiated; in addition to general critical care methods, treatment with a complex metabolic antihypoxant cytoflavin should be considered. 

  1. Learning in human-dolphin interactions at zoological facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Diane L.

    This research aimed to better understand learning in zoological settings, particularly learning about marine mammals, by investigating the research question, what do people learn through interacting with dolphins in zoological facilities? Sociocultural situated learning theory, specifically a Community of Practice (CoP) model of learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991), was the theoretical framework. The CoP model allowed for diversity of knowledge, interest, motivations, and goals that existed among the community of animal enthusiasts at three commercial zoological facilities, and also for peripheral to more central types of participation. I collected data through interviews of spectators, visitors, and trainers (n=51), observations (n=16), and an online questionnaire of past-visitors (n=933). Data were coded, categorized, and analyzed based on the National Science Foundation's (Friedman, 2008) and the National Research Council's (2009) frameworks for informal science education. Five principal findings answered the research question. First, all participants gained new knowledge within three broad categories: (a) dolphin physiology and natural history, (b) care and training of dolphins, and (c) conservation. Second, all participants constructed personal meanings by connecting the activity to experiences, beliefs, and practices outside the interaction context. Almost all participants made associations with conservation. Third, most participants shifted their attitudes and gained a sense of personal agency about beginning or increasing stewardship actions. Fourth, visitors learned interspecies etiquette skills; trainers learned skills in dolphin training and management, people management, and teaching. Fifth, visitors had long-lasting memories of the experience that occurred eight months to 18 years in the past. Popular cultural ideas about dolphins and the ways the dolphins were represented influenced visitors' expectations and the types of learning. Potential physical

  2. STRATEGI KOMUNIKASI PEMASARAN EKOWISATA PADA DESTINASI WISATA DOLPHIN HUNTING LOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Agustini Karta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to find the right marketing communications strategy for Ecotourism’s Destinations, (Dolphin Hunting Lovina, to be sustainable. Design methodology used is a marketing communication approach by adopting the concept of basic elements of the theory of marketing communication, the shift towards integrated marketing approach marketing communications, and public organizational challenges in creating brand awareness. Qualitative research and in-depth interviews carried out to some competent resource. The findings generated that image creation and brand awareness of Dolphin Hunting Lovina is determined by the  organization’s marketing communications and internal audiences

  3. Modeling how shark and dolphin skin patterns control transitional wall-turbulence vorticity patterns using spatiotemporal phase reset mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R; Hellum, Aren M

    2014-10-23

    Many slow-moving biological systems like seashells and zebrafish that do not contend with wall turbulence have somewhat organized pigmentation patterns flush with their outer surfaces that are formed by underlying autonomous reaction-diffusion (RD) mechanisms. In contrast, sharks and dolphins contend with wall turbulence, are fast swimmers, and have more organized skin patterns that are proud and sometimes vibrate. A nonlinear spatiotemporal analytical model is not available that explains the mechanism underlying control of flow with such proud patterns, despite the fact that shark and dolphin skins are major targets of reverse engineering mechanisms of drag and noise reduction. Comparable to RD, a minimal self-regulation model is given for wall turbulence regeneration in the transitional regime--laterally coupled, diffusively--which, although restricted to pre-breakdown durations and to a plane close and parallel to the wall, correctly reproduces many experimentally observed spatiotemporal organizations of vorticity in both laminar-to-turbulence transitioning and very low Reynolds number but turbulent regions. We further show that the onset of vorticity disorganization is delayed if the skin organization is treated as a spatiotemporal template of olivo-cerebellar phase reset mechanism. The model shows that the adaptation mechanisms of sharks and dolphins to their fluid environment have much in common.

  4. Estimates of DNA strand breakage in bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus leukocytes measured with the Comet and DNA diffusion assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Díaz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of DNA damage by mean of Comet or single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE assay has been commonly used to assess genotoxic impact in aquatic animals being able to detect exposure to low concentrations of contaminants in a wide range of species. The aims of this work were 1 to evaluate the usefulness of the Comet to detect DNA strand breakage in dolphin leukocytes, 2 to use the DNA diffusion assay to determine the amount of DNA strand breakage associated with apoptosis or necrosis, and 3 to determine the proportion of DNA strand breakage that was unrelated to apoptosis and necrosis. Significant intra-individual variation was observed in all of the estimates of DNA damage. DNA strand breakage was overestimated because a considerable amount (~29% of the DNA damage was derived from apoptosis and necrosis. The remaining DNA damage in dolphin leukocytes was caused by factors unrelated to apoptosis and necrosis. These results indicate that the DNA diffusion assay is a complementary tool that can be used together with the Comet assay to assess DNA damage in bottlenose dolphins.

  5. Echolocation in sympatric Peale's dolphins (Lagenorhynchus australis) and Commerson's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) producing narrow-bandhigh-frequency clicks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Line Anker; Jensen, Frants Havmand; Beedholm, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    -element hydrophone array from wild Peale's (Lagenorhynchus australis) and Commerson's (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) dolphins off the Falkland Islands. The centroid frequency was different between Commerson's (133±2kHz) and Peale's (129±3kHz) dolphins. The r.m.s. bandwidth was 12±3kHz for both species. The source...... level was higher for Peale's dolphin (185±6dB re 1 uPa p.-p.) than for Commerson's(177±5 dB re 1 uPa p.-p.). The mean directivity indexes were 25dB for both species. The relatively low source levels in combination with the high directivity index may be an adaptation to reduce clutter when foraging...

  6. The Use of Carcasses for the Analysis of Cetacean Population Genetic Structure: A Comparative Study in Two Dolphin Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgmann, Kerstin; Möller, Luciana M.; Harcourt, Robert G.; Kemper, Catherine M.; Beheregaray, Luciano B.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in molecular techniques have enabled the study of genetic diversity and population structure in many different contexts. Studies that assess the genetic structure of cetacean populations often use biopsy samples from free-ranging individuals and tissue samples from stranded animals or individuals that became entangled in fishery or aquaculture equipment. This leads to the question of how representative the location of a stranded or entangled animal is with respect to its natural range, and whether similar results would be obtained when comparing carcass samples with samples from free-ranging individuals in studies of population structure. Here we use tissue samples from carcasses of dolphins that stranded or died as a result of bycatch in South Australia to investigate spatial population structure in two species: coastal bottlenose (Tursiops sp.) and short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis). We compare these results with those previously obtained from biopsy sampled free-ranging dolphins in the same area to test whether carcass samples yield similar patterns of genetic variability and population structure. Data from dolphin carcasses were gathered using seven microsatellite markers and a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Analyses based on carcass samples alone failed to detect genetic structure in Tursiops sp., a species previously shown to exhibit restricted dispersal and moderate genetic differentiation across a small spatial scale in this region. However, genetic structure was correctly inferred in D. delphis, a species previously shown to have reduced genetic structure over a similar geographic area. We propose that in the absence of corroborating data, and when population structure is assessed over relatively small spatial scales, the sole use of carcasses may lead to an underestimate of genetic differentiation. This can lead to a failure in identifying management units for conservation. Therefore, this risk should be carefully

  7. The North Zealand CAP Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Minna; Ravn, Pernille; Notander Clausen, Lise

    with CAP. We started with 34 audit variables. Through repeated cycles of testing, feedback and discussions, we reduced the number of indicators to 22 and time per audit from 20 to 10 minutes. Strategy for change To link the monitoring system with our patient pathway for CAP we established an improvement...... Designing a database Designing and testing a dashboard to present indicators in a balanced way Messages for others Auditing patients with a common disease as CAP is useful to identify areas for improvement for a large group of patients. The baseline audit can serve as a basis for a monitoring system......Contect We describe how we developed a monitoring system for community acquired pneumonia (CAP) at North Zealand Regional hospital. We serve 310.000 inhabitants and annually around 3200 patients with CAP are admitted. As part of a program of clinical pathways for common conditions, a pathway...

  8. Sequence analysis of dolphin ferritin H and L subunits and possible iron-dependent translational control of dolphin ferritin gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki Yukako

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron-storage protein, ferritin plays a central role in iron metabolism. Ferritin has dual function to store iron and segregate iron for protection of iron-catalyzed reactive oxygen species. Tissue ferritin is composed of two kinds of subunits (H: heavy chain or heart-type subunit; L: light chain or liver-type subunit. Ferritin gene expression is controlled at translational level in iron-dependent manner or at transcriptional level in iron-independent manner. However, sequencing analysis of marine mammalian ferritin subunits has not yet been performed fully. The purpose of this study is to reveal cDNA-derived amino acid sequences of cetacean ferritin H and L subunits, and demonstrate the possibility of expression of these subunits, especially H subunit, by iron. Methods Sequence analyses of cetacean ferritin H and L subunits were performed by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR fragments from cDNAs generated via reverse transcription-PCR of leukocyte total RNA prepared from blood samples of six different dolphin species (Pseudorca crassidens, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens, Grampus griseus, Globicephala macrorhynchus, Tursiops truncatus, and Delphinapterus leucas. The putative iron-responsive element sequence in the 5'-untranslated region of the six different dolphin species was revealed by direct sequencing of PCR fragments obtained using leukocyte genomic DNA. Results Dolphin H and L subunits consist of 182 and 174 amino acids, respectively, and amino acid sequence identities of ferritin subunits among these dolphins are highly conserved (H: 99–100%, (99→98 ; L: 98–100%. The conserved 28 bp IRE sequence was located -144 bp upstream from the initiation codon in the six different dolphin species. Conclusion These results indicate that six different dolphin species have conserved ferritin sequences, and suggest that these genes are iron-dependently expressed.

  9. Increased Dietary Intake of Saturated Fatty Acid Heptadecanoic Acid (C17:0 Associated with Decreasing Ferritin and Alleviated Metabolic Syndrome in Dolphins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K Venn-Watson

    Full Text Available Similar to humans, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus can develop metabolic syndrome and associated high ferritin. While fish and fish-based fatty acids may protect against metabolic syndrome in humans, findings have been inconsistent. To assess potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome related to fish diets, fatty acids were compared between two dolphin populations with higher (n = 30, Group A and lower (n = 19, Group B mean insulin (11 ± 12 and 2 ± 5 μIU/ml, respectively; P < 0.0001 and their dietary fish. In addition to higher insulin, triglycerides, and ferritin, Group A had lower percent serum heptadecanoic acid (C17:0 compared to Group B (0.3 ± 0.1 and 1.3 ± 0.4%, respectively; P < 0.0001. Using multivariate stepwise regression, higher percent serum C17:0, a saturated fat found in dairy fat, rye, and some fish, was an independent predictor of lower insulin in dolphins. Capelin, a common dietary fish for Group A, had no detectable C17:0, while pinfish and mullet, common in Group B's diet, had C17:0 (41 and 67 mg/100g, respectively. When a modified diet adding 25% pinfish and/or mullet was fed to six Group A dolphins over 24 weeks (increasing the average daily dietary C17:0 intake from 400 to 1700 mg, C17:0 serum levels increased, high ferritin decreased, and blood-based metabolic syndrome indices normalized toward reference levels. These effects were not found in four reference dolphins. Further, higher total serum C17:0 was an independent and linear predictor of lower ferritin in dolphins in Group B dolphins. Among off the shelf dairy products tested, butter had the highest C17:0 (423mg/100g; nonfat dairy products had no detectable C17:0. We hypothesize that humans' movement away from diets with potentially beneficial saturated fatty acid C17:0, including whole fat dairy products, could be a contributor to widespread low C17:0 levels, higher ferritin, and metabolic syndrome.

  10. Long-term responses of Burrunan dolphins (Tursiops australis to swim-with dolphin tourism in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia: A population at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Filby

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated Burrunan dolphin responses to dolphin-swim tour vessels across two time periods: 1998–2000 and 2011–2013. A total of 211 dolphin sightings were documented across 306 surveys. Sighting success rate and mean encounter time with dolphins decreased significantly by 12.8% and 8.2 min, respectively, between periods. Approaches that did not contravene regulations elicited highest approach responses by dolphins towards tour vessels, whereas dolphins’ responded to illegal approaches most frequently with avoidance. Small groups responded to tour vessels with avoidance significantly more than large groups. Initial dolphin behaviour had a strong effect on dolphin’s responses to tour vessels, with resting groups the most likely to exhibit avoidance. Calves were significantly more likely to be present during swims in 2011–2013. Dolphin’s responses to tour vessels changed across time, with effect responses (avoidance and approach increasing significantly as dolphins gained cumulative experience. These dolphins are forced to expend a greater level of time and energy avoiding or approaching boats, shifting from a non-effect response to an effect response. Consequences of this include possible decrease in biological fitness by detracting from core biological activities such as foraging and resting. Combined with a decrease in sighting success between periods, the results imply that this population of dolphins, which is endemic to Australia and listed as threatened under the Victorian Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988, may not be well suited to the dolphin-swim industry. The management implications of these results warrant a shift from passive to active management in Port Phillip Bay. The importance of long-term research is highlighted, given behavioural responses detected herein would be undetected in short-term studies. Keywords: Burrunan dolphin (Tursiops australis, Avoidance, Behaviour, Compliance, Management

  11. Phylogeography and population dynamics of the white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) in the North Atlantic

    KAUST Repository

    Banguera-Hinestroza, E.; Evans, P. G H; Mirimin, L.; Reid, R. J.; Mikkelsen, B.; Couperus, A. S.; Deaville, R.; Rogan, E.; Hoelzel, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Highly mobile species in the marine environment may be expected to show little differentiation at the population level, but this is often not the case. Instead cryptic population structure is common, and effective conservation will require an understanding of how these patterns evolve. Here we present an assessment from both sides of the North Atlantic of differentiation among populations of a dolphin species that inhabits mainly pelagic waters, the Atlantic white-sided dolphin. We compare eleven putative populations in the western and eastern North Atlantic at mtDNA and microsatellite DNA loci and find reduced nucleotide diversity and signals for historical bottlenecks and post-bottleneck expansions in all regions. We calculate expansion times to have occurred during the early Holocene, following the last glacial maximum (LGM). We find evidence for connectivity among populations from either side of the North Atlantic, and differentiation between putative populations in the far northeast compared with all other areas sampled. Some data suggest the possibility of separate refugia during the LGM explaining this pattern, although ongoing ecological processes may also be a factor. We discuss the implications for developing effective programs of conservation and management in the context of ongoing anthropogenic impact. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  12. Phylogeography and population dynamics of the white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) in the North Atlantic

    KAUST Repository

    Banguera-Hinestroza, E.

    2014-02-27

    Highly mobile species in the marine environment may be expected to show little differentiation at the population level, but this is often not the case. Instead cryptic population structure is common, and effective conservation will require an understanding of how these patterns evolve. Here we present an assessment from both sides of the North Atlantic of differentiation among populations of a dolphin species that inhabits mainly pelagic waters, the Atlantic white-sided dolphin. We compare eleven putative populations in the western and eastern North Atlantic at mtDNA and microsatellite DNA loci and find reduced nucleotide diversity and signals for historical bottlenecks and post-bottleneck expansions in all regions. We calculate expansion times to have occurred during the early Holocene, following the last glacial maximum (LGM). We find evidence for connectivity among populations from either side of the North Atlantic, and differentiation between putative populations in the far northeast compared with all other areas sampled. Some data suggest the possibility of separate refugia during the LGM explaining this pattern, although ongoing ecological processes may also be a factor. We discuss the implications for developing effective programs of conservation and management in the context of ongoing anthropogenic impact. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  13. The span of correlations in dolphin whistle sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon; McCowan, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Long-range correlations are found in symbolic sequences from human language, music and DNA. Determining the span of correlations in dolphin whistle sequences is crucial for shedding light on their communicative complexity. Dolphin whistles share various statistical properties with human words, i.e. Zipf's law for word frequencies (namely that the probability of the ith most frequent word of a text is about i −α ) and a parallel of the tendency of more frequent words to have more meanings. The finding of Zipf's law for word frequencies in dolphin whistles has been the topic of an intense debate on its implications. One of the major arguments against the relevance of Zipf's law in dolphin whistles is that it is not possible to distinguish the outcome of a die-rolling experiment from that of a linguistic or communicative source producing Zipf's law for word frequencies. Here we show that statistically significant whistle–whistle correlations extend back to the second previous whistle in the sequence, using a global randomization test, and to the fourth previous whistle, using a local randomization test. None of these correlations are expected by a die-rolling experiment and other simple explanations of Zipf's law for word frequencies, such as Simon's model, that produce sequences of unpredictable elements

  14. Development of specific cytokine and Chemokine ELISAs for Bottlenose Dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier detection of changes in the health status of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) is expected to further improve their medical care. Cytokines and chemokines are critical mediators of the cellular immune response, and studies have suggested that these molecules may serve as important bio...

  15. Epidermal growth in the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, B.D.; St Aubin, D.J.; Geraci, J.R.; Brown, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Epidermal growth in two mature female bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, was investigated by following the movement of a cohort of tritiated thymidine-labeled epidermal cells for 59 days. The majority of the cells migrated in a cluster which was estimated to reach the skin surface in 73 days. The authors calculate that the outermost cell layer is sloughed 12 times per day. Turnover time and sloughing rate are estimated to be 1.7 times longer and 8.5 times faster than the respective values for epidermal cell kinetics in humans. This apparent inconsistency of slow transit time and rapid sloughing rate is reconciled by the convoluted structure of the stratum germinativum in the dolphin which results in a ratio of germinatival to superficial cells of 876:1. The stratum germinativum of dolphin epidermis appears to lack morphologically distinct, spatially segregated subpopulations of anchoring and stem cells. Dolphin epidermis has a large capacity for cell population, relatively long turnover time, and rapid sloughing rate. The adaptive advantages of these characteristics are discussed

  16. Dusky dolphins Lagenorhynchus obscurus and Cape fur seals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fatty acid composition of the blubber of five dusky dolphins Lagenorhynchus obscurus and five Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus from the northern Benguela ecosystem (South-East Atlantic) and their main prey was determined. Differences in fatty acid composition of the inner and outer blubber layer of the ...

  17. First confirmed records of Clymene dolphin, Stenella clymene (Gray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clymene dolphins, Stenella clymene, are endemic to the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean, where their occurrence is documented from fewer than 200 records. The species is particularly poorly known in the eastern Atlantic off the coast of Africa where only 12 verified records exist, predominantly comprising dead ...

  18. Bioaccumulation of platinum group metals in dolphins, Stenella sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Platinum group metals (PGMs) concentrations were measured in the tissues= of dolphins (Stenella sp.) caught along the Ghanaian coastline. Tissues from specimens caught by fishermen from Dixcove, western Ghana, were analysed in 2006 for palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt) and rhodium (Rh) using the Neutron Activation ...

  19. Movement patterns of coastal bottlenose dolphins in the presence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence and movement of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins Tursiops aduncus were investigated using shore-based observations made during a humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae migration survey at Cape Vidal, South Africa, undertaken between June and October 1988–1991. Occurrence was analysed as ...

  20. First record of a vagrant Commerson's dolphin, Cephalorhynchus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commerson's Dolphins Cephalorhynchus commersonii are distributed in two disjunct populations, one around southern South America and the other around the sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Islands. These populations have been shown to be morphologically and genetically distinct and movement between the two populations ...

  1. Atlantic humpback dolphins Sousa teuszii in the Saloum Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During October and November 2015, the first systematic survey of Sousa teuszii was carried out in the Saloum Delta (Senegal, West Africa), comprising 1 617.5 km of boat-based survey coverage. Thirty sightings were recorded in the Saloum and Diomboss rivers, and along the southern coastline. Dolphins were also ...

  2. Placentation in dolphins from the Amazon River Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Vera M F; Carter, Anthony M; Ambrosio, Carlos E

    2007-01-01

    A recent reassessment of the phylogenetic affinities of cetaceans makes it timely to compare their placentation with that of the artiodactyls. We studied the placentae of two sympatric species of dolphin from the Amazon River Basin, representing two distinct families. The umbilical cord branched ...

  3. Epidermal growth in the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, B.D.; St. Aubin, D.J.; Geraci, J.R.; Brown, W.R.

    1985-07-01

    Epidermal growth in two mature female bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, was investigated by following the movement of a cohort of tritiated thymidine-labeled epidermal cells for 59 days. The majority of the cells migrated in a cluster which was estimated to reach the skin surface in 73 days. The authors calculate that the outermost cell layer is sloughed 12 times per day. Turnover time and sloughing rate are estimated to be 1.7 times longer and 8.5 times faster than the respective values for epidermal cell kinetics in humans. This apparent inconsistency of slow transit time and rapid sloughing rate is reconciled by the convoluted structure of the stratum germinativum in the dolphin which results in a ratio of germinatival to superficial cells of 876:1. The stratum germinativum of dolphin epidermis appears to lack morphologically distinct, spatially segregated subpopulations of anchoring and stem cells. Dolphin epidermis has a large capacity for cell population, relatively long turnover time, and rapid sloughing rate. The adaptive advantages of these characteristics are discussed.

  4. Neural network modeling of a dolphin's sonar discrimination capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Nonboe; René Rasmussen, A; Au, WWL

    1994-01-01

    The capability of an echo-locating dolphin to discriminate differences in the wall thickness of cylinders was previously modeled by a counterpropagation neural network using only spectral information of the echoes [W. W. L. Au, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 2728–2735 (1994)]. In this study, both time a...

  5. Home range and diving behaviour of Heaviside's dolphins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three Heaviside's dolphins Cephalorhynchus heavisidii were fitted with satellite depth recorders off the west coast of South Africa during February–April 1997 and monitored for 51, 73 and 130 days, respectively. In total, 345 locations were received from the three animals, but only 27 from one male. Using α -local convex ...

  6. Bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus group dynamics, site fidelity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ecology in these waters. Photo-identification undertaken during systematic, non-systematic and opportunistic surveys conducted between 2001 and 2012 was used to assess group dynamics, site fidelity, residency and movement patterns of bottlenose dolphins in the archipelago. Three different patterns of residency were ...

  7. Dolphins Who Blow Bubbles: Anthropological Machines and Native Informants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lord, C.

    2011-01-01

    "Dolphins Who Blow Bubbles: Anthropological Machines and Native Informants" engages a reading between an Oscar winning and now ‘cult’ activist film The Cove (Louise Psihoyos 2009) and classical texts on the human-animal threshold. Giorgio Agamben’s The Open (2002) and Jacques Derrida’s "The Animal

  8. First record of a white rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) off West Africa including notes on rough-toothed dolphin surface behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de M.N.

    2010-01-01

    In June 2009, a white rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) calf was photographed in a group of at least 50 dolphins in the southern Gulf of Guinea, 95 nauticol miles off the Gabon coast (01°45'S 007°29'E), West Africa. Reports of unusually pigmented cetaceans are infrequent and this record

  9. A mini review of dolphin carbohydrate metabolism and suggestions for future research using exhaled air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam eRidgway

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 1960s, I explored some aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in healthy bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus. Their physiological picture resembled what had been described for hyperthyroid diabetics. Dolphins have elevated thyroid hormone turnover, and fasting dolphins maintain a relatively high level of plasma glucose. After dolphins ingest glucose, plasma levels remain high for many hours. Interestingly, plasma glucose must exceed 300 mg/dL (about twice as high as the human threshold before glucose appears in urine. Due to their diabetes-like states, trainability, and unique natural respiratory anatomy and physiology, dolphins may offer useful clues to metabolites in the breath that may be used to non-invasively monitor diabetes in humans. Dolphins take very rapid and deep breaths that are four or five times as deep as humans and other terrestrial mammals, making them ideal for physiological assessment using non-invasive exhaled air. Avenues for successfully identifying breath-based markers for metabolic disease and physiology in dolphins can be done with both modern technology and the evolutionarily advantageous canine nose. This review summarizes aspects of dolphin metabolism previously learned and offers new directions for diabetes research that may benefit both dolphin and human health.

  10. New Zealand's boiling kettles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkowski, H

    1955-04-01

    The Wairakei Valley is covered with mud pots, geysers, and steam vents. Aggressive exploitation of the geothermal resources in this area is underway. The geothermal development experience gained in Italy, where the soil is cold and compact, cannot be applied in New Zealand, as the soil is hot and the rock is porous. Drilling in New Zealand must be accompanied by a constant input of cooling emulsion. Special techniques have been developed for cementing the high-temperature boreholes. Test drillings have been made as deep as 1000 m and pressures on the order of 30 kg/cm/sup 2/ have been encountered. As even higher pressures are expected, valves have been designed to support up to 70 kg/cm/sup 2/. A 70 MW pilot-plant, supplied by 27 wells, was expected to be on-line in 1955.

  11. Humpback Dolphins: A Brief Introduction to the Genus Sousa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Thomas A; Curry, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    The delphinid genus Sousa has recently undergone a major revision, and currently contains four species, the Atlantic humpback (Sousa teuszii), Indian Ocean humpback (Sousa plumbea), Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis), and Australian humpback (Sousa sahulensis) dolphins. Recent molecular evidence suggests that humpback dolphins in the Bay of Bengal may comprise a fifth species. These moderate-sized dolphin species are found in shallow (eastern Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific oceans. Abundance and trends have only been studied in a few areas, mostly in eastern Africa, China, and northern Australia. No global, empirically derived abundance estimates exist for any of the four species, but none appear to number more than about 20,000 individuals. Humpback dolphins feed mostly on small fishes, and sometimes shrimps; occur for the most part in small groups (mostly 12 or less); have limited nearshore movements; and in most parts of their range exhibit a fission/fusion type of social organization. Major threats that affect all the species are entanglement in fishing gear, and habitat degradation/destruction from various forms of coastal development. Impacts from vessel traffic (including behavioural disturbance and displacement, as well as mortality and morbidity from collisions with vessels) appear to be significant in most areas. Several other threats are apparently significant only in particular parts of the range of some species (e.g. high levels of organochlorine contaminants affecting Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins in Hong Kong). Direct hunting only occurs in limited areas and primarily on a small scale. Conservation actions so far have been limited, with most populations receiving little study and almost no management attention. Much more work is needed on humpback dolphin population status, threats, and how the major threats can be reduced or eliminated. Extinction risks for the four species and some populations are preliminarily re-assessed using the

  12. Sarcoptes scabiei on hedgehogs in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriechbaum, Caroline; Pomroy, William; Gedye, Kristene

    2018-03-01

    European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) were introduced into New Zealand from Britain during the period from 1869 to the early 1900s. The only mite found on New Zealand hedgehogs in early studies was Caparinia tripilis, with Sarcoptes scabiei first being reported in 1996. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Sarcoptes infestation on hedgehogs in New Zealand, the number of mites found and the degree of mange observed. Dead hedgehogs were collected from veterinary clinics, rescue centres, members of the public and from road-kill. Twenty-one (55.3%) of the animals examined had visible skin lesions. Both Caparinia and Sarcoptes mites were identified on microscopic examination with Sarcoptes the most common, being found on over 70% of animals examined (n = 38). The numbers of mites recovered after brushing the head and body ranged from 1 to 5659 (median = 341 mites) with only six animals (22.2%) having fewer than 10 Sarcoptes mites found. Caparinia mites were seen on fewer animals and generally in very low numbers. These findings indicate a change in the mite populations on hedgehogs in New Zealand and that infected animals develop the debilitating hyperkeratotic form of sarcoptic mange without an accompanying hypersensitivity response limiting numbers of mites. Analysis of the cox 1 gene of Sarcoptes from two hedgehogs showed close alignment to sequences derived from a pig with one and from a dog with the second. More work needs to be undertaken to identify the source(s) of the Sarcoptes found on hedgehogs in New Zealand and whether other mammalian hosts may be infected from contact with hedgehogs.

  13. Differential effects of human activity on Hawaiian spinner dolphins in their resting bays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Heenehan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hawaiian spinner dolphins display predictable daily behavior, using shallow bays to rest during the daytime, bays that are also frequented by humans. All previous research on the potential response of Hawaiian spinner dolphins to human activity has been conducted visually, at the surface. In this study we take a different approach by using passive acoustic monitoring to analyze dolphin behavior and assess whether human activity affects the behavior of the animals. We used days (n=99 and hours (n=641 when dolphins were confirmed present in visual surveys between January 9, 2011 and August 15, 2012 and metrics generated from concomitant 30-second sound recordings (n=9615. Previous research found that the dolphins were predictably silent during rest and that acoustic activity matched general activity of the dolphins with higher acoustic activity before and after rest, and silence during rest. The daily pattern of dolphin whistle activity in Bay 2 and 4 (Kealakekua and Kauhako matched what would be expected from this earlier work. However, in Bay 1 and 3 (Makako and Honaunau there was no drop in dolphin whistle activity during rest. After assessing the relationship between time of day and dolphin acoustic activity, data on human presence were used to determine how variability in the dolphins’ acoustic activity might be explained by human activity (i.e. the number of vessels, kayaks and swimmer snorkelers present. Bay 2, the bay with the most human activity, showed no relationship between dolphin whistle activity and human presence (either vessels, kayaks, or swimmer/snorkelers. Although the relationships were weak, Bay 1 displayed a positive relationship between dolphin whistle activity and the number of vessels and swimmer/snorkelers present in the bay. Bay 4 also showed a positive relationship between dolphin whistle activity and the number of swimmer snorkelers. We also documented less sound being added to the soundscape with each additional

  14. Habitat use by a freshwater dolphin in the low-water season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braulik, Gill T.; Reichert, Albert P.; Ehsan, Tahir; Khan, Samiullah; Northridge, Simon P.; Alexander, Jason S.; Garstang, Richard

    2012-01-01

    1. Many river dolphin populations are most vulnerable during the low-water season when habitat is limited. Indus River dolphin habitat selection in the dry season was investigated using Generalized Linear Models of dolphin distribution and abundance in relation to physical features of river geomorphology and channel geometry in cross-section. 2. Dolphins selected locations in the river with significantly greater mean depth, maximum depth, cross-sectional area, and hydraulic radius, and significantly narrower river width and a lower degree of braiding than areas where dolphins were absent. They were also recorded with higher frequency at river constrictions and at confluences. 3. Channel cross-sectional area was the most important factor affecting dolphin presence and abundance, with the area of water below 1 m in depth exerting the greatest influence. Indus dolphins avoided channels with small cross-sectional area (2), presumably owing to the risk of entrapment and reduced foraging opportunities. 4. Channel geometry had a greater ability to explain dolphin distribution than river geomorphology; however, both analyses indicated similar types of habitat selection. The dolphin–habitat relationships identified in the river geomorphology analysis were scale-dependent, indicating that dolphin distribution is driven by the occurrence of discrete small-scale features, such as confluences and constrictions, as well as by broader-scale habitat complexes. 5. There are numerous plans to impound or extract more water from the Indus River system. If low-water season flows are allowed to decrease further, the amount of deeper habitat will decline, there may be insufficient patches of suitable habitat to support the dolphin population through the low-water season, and dolphins may become isolated within deeper river sections, unable or unwilling to traverse through shallows between favourable patches of habitat.

  15. 50 CFR 216.92 - Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna... MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.92 Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels. (a) U.S...

  16. Stomach Content of a Juvenile Bolivian River Dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis) from the Upper Madeira Basin, Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliaga-Rossel, E.; Beerman, A.S.; Sarmiento, J.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents a study about the stomach content of a juvenile Bolivian river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis), an endemic subspecies of the Amazon River dolphin, found in the upper Madeira River basin in Bolivia. The study finds that the stomach of Bolivian river dolphin contained a

  17. Acoustic Behaviour of Bottlenose Dolphins and Pilot Whales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frants Havmand

    2011-01-01

    and review for the topics addressed in the subsequent chapters, with discussions of these chapters where appropriate. In this thesis, I have undertaken a series of acoustic studies on two species of toothed whales, the bottlenose dolphin and the short-finned pilot whale. The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops sp.......) is one of the best known toothed whales due to studies in captivity over the last 50 years. In contrast, the short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) is a larger, deep-diving toothed whale that has been studied rather little, in part because their deep-diving ecology regularly takes them out...... their vocal behaviour and sound production to their different ecological niches and habitats. Toothed whales find and capture prey using a sophisticated biosonar system. Little is known about how toothed whales use their biosonar during a complex three-dimensional task of locating and capturing prey...

  18. Stress Hormones and their Regulation in a Captive Dolphin Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    out-of- water stress protocol. The observed response to the stress protocol was similar to that of ACTH administrations (see Parent Project for...CD, Booth R, Wasser S, Cotte L, Jensen E, Crocker D, Houser D (2013). The progestin megestrol acetate suppresses the HPA axis in bottlenose dolphin...Kellar, N.M., Cockrem, J., Romano, T., Booth, R.K. and Wasser , S.K. (2015) Natural variation in stress hormones, comparisons across matrices, and

  19. First record of an anomalously colored franciscana dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTA J. CREMER

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available On October 2011, a newborn franciscana dolphin with an anomalously coloration was sighted in Babitonga Bay, southern Brazil. The calf was totally white. Besides the potential mother and newborn, the group also had the presence of another adult, who always was swimming behind the pair. Both adults had the typical coloration of the species, with the back in grayish brown. The group, composed by the white franciscana calf, his pontential mother and one more adult, was reported in five occasions. The group was always in the same area where it was first recorded and showed the same position during swimming. Between first and last sighting of the white calf (113 days the color has not changed. This is the first case of a white franciscana dolphin. This coloration has never been reported despite the high number of dead franciscanas recovered each year along the distribution of the species, resulting from accidental capture in fishing nets. This fact leads us to believe that this is a very rare characteristic for this species. We considered the possibility that this franciscana could be an albino dolphin.

  20. Shared Reproductive State Enhances Female Associations in Dolphins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moller, L.M.; Harcourt, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Female bottle nose dolphins (genus Tursiops) usually associate at moderate level with other females within social clusters called bands or cliques. It has been suggested that reproductive state may play the predominant role in determining associations within female T. truncatus bands. Here, we test the hypothesis that reproductive state correlates with associations of female Indo-Pacific bottle nose dolphins (T. aduncus). We found that females in similar reproductive state, which included females from late pregnancy to the first year of their calves' life or females from early pregnancy to their calves' newborn period, had higher-association coefficients with each other than they did with females in different reproductive states (females with older calves or without calves). This was observed both within and across social clusters suggesting that reproductive state, at least for pregnant females and those with young calves, plays an important role in determining who to associate with. However, a female's most frequent associate was not always with another in similar reproductive state. We suggest that several factors, including reproductive state, may be of importance in determining associations of female bottle nose dolphins

  1. Shared Reproductive State Enhances Female Associations in Dolphins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana M. Möller

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Female bottlenose dolphins (genus Tursiops usually associate at moderate level with other females within social clusters called bands or cliques. It has been suggested that reproductive state may play the predominant role in determining associations within female T. truncatus bands. Here, we test the hypothesis that reproductive state correlates with associations of female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (T. aduncus. We found that females in similar reproductive state, which included females from late pregnancy to the first year of their calves' life or females from early pregnancy to their calves' newborn period, had higher-association coefficients with each other than they did with females in different reproductive states (females with older calves or without calves. This was observed both within and across social clusters suggesting that reproductive state, at least for pregnant females and those with young calves, plays an important role in determining who to associate with. However, a female's most frequent associate was not always with another in similar reproductive state. We suggest that several factors, including reproductive state, may be of importance in determining associations of female bottlenose dolphins.

  2. Are white-beaked dolphins Lagenorhynchus albirostris food specialst? Their diet in the southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, O.E.; Leopold, M.F.; Meesters, H.W.G.; Smeenk, C.

    2010-01-01

    The white-beaked dolphin Lagenorhynchus albirostris is the most numerous cetacean after the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena in the North Sea, including Dutch coastal waters. In this study, the diet of 45 white-beaked dolphins stranded on the Dutch coast between 1968 and 2005 was determined by

  3. 78 FR 25530 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLUE DOLPHIN; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2013-0049] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLUE DOLPHIN; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... DOLPHIN is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Skippered daysailing in Puget Sound and San Juan Islands...

  4. Predictive Modeling of Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Resting Habitat in the Main Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Lesley H.; Johnston, David W.; Urban, Dean L.; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W.; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H.; Deakos, Mark H.; Mobley, Joseph R.; Pack, Adam A.; Chapla Hill, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood. PMID:22937022

  5. First record of Fraser's dolphin Lagenodelphis hosei for the Dutch Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, R.H.; Buurt, van G.; Debrot, A.O.; Bermudez-Villapol, L.A.; Simal, F.

    2012-01-01

    A dead dolphin found on Bonaire in August 2011 is identified as adult Fraser's dolphin Lagenodelphis hosei, a new species for the Dutch Caribbean. A first closer examination showed a collapsed lung, stomach parasite infection and abundant mouth ulceration as indications of its health status. The

  6. Longitudinal monitoring of bottlenose dolphin leukocyte cytokine mRNA responsiveness by qPCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both veterinarians caring for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in managed populations and researchers monitoring wild populations use blood-based diagnostics to monitor bottlenose dolphin health. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be used to assess cytokine expression patterns of peripheral blood m...

  7. Dolphin-Assisted Therapy for Children with Special Needs: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilts, Rachel; Trompisch, Norbert; Bergquist, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Dolphin-assisted therapy (DAT), as a part of animal-assisted therapy and complementary and alternative medicine, yields several positive results. This study intended to add to DAT effectiveness research while using a standardized assessment. In the Ukraine, a DAT program called DolphinSwim agreed to take part in research with 37 voluntary…

  8. Preliminary estimates of the abundance and fidelity of dolphins associating with a demersal trawl fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Simon J; Pollock, Kenneth H; Bouchet, Phil J; Kobryn, Halina T; McElligott, Deirdre B; Nicholson, Krista E; Smith, Joshua N; Loneragan, Neil R

    2017-07-10

    The incidental capture of wildlife in fishing gear presents a global conservation challenge. As a baseline to inform assessments of the impact of bycatch on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) interacting with an Australian trawl fishery, we conducted an aerial survey to estimate dolphin abundance across the fishery. Concurrently, we carried out boat-based dolphin photo-identification to assess short-term fidelity to foraging around trawlers, and used photographic and genetic data to infer longer-term fidelity to the fishery. We estimated abundance at ≈ 2,300 dolphins (95% CI = 1,247-4,214) over the ≈ 25,880-km 2 fishery. Mark-recapture estimates yielded 226 (SE = 38.5) dolphins associating with one trawler and some individuals photographed up to seven times over 12 capture periods. Moreover, photographic and genetic re-sampling over three years confirmed that some individuals show long-term fidelity to trawler-associated foraging. Our study presents the first abundance estimate for any Australian pelagic dolphin community and documents individuals associating with trawlers over days, months and years. Without trend data or correction factors for dolphin availability, the impact of bycatch on this dolphin population's conservation status remains unknown. These results should be taken into account by management agencies assessing the impact of fisheries-related mortality on this protected species.

  9. Dolphin Morbillivirus in a Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) in Denmark, 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jo, Wendy K.; Grilo, Miguel L.; Wohlsein, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We studied the etiology of encephalitis in a fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) that stranded in 2016 on the coast of Denmark. Dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) was detected in the brain and other organs. Phylogenetics showed close relation to DMV isolated from a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba...

  10. Mediterranean Fin Whales (Balaenoptera physalus) Threatened by Dolphin MorbilliVirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzariol, Sandro; Centelleghe, Cinzia; Beffagna, Giorgia; Povinelli, Michele; Terracciano, Giuliana; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Pintore, Antonio; Denurra, Daniele; Casalone, Cristina; Pautasso, Alessandra; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Di Guardo, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    During 2011-2013, dolphin morbillivirus was molecularly identified in 4 stranded fin whales from the Mediterranean Sea. Nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, and hemagglutinin gene sequences of the identified strain were highly homologous with those of a morbillivirus that caused a 2006-2007 epidemic in the Mediterranean. Dolphin morbillivirus represents a serious threat for fin whales.

  11. Human listeners provide insights into echo features used by dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to discriminate among objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delong, Caroline M; Au, Whitlow W L; Harley, Heidi E; Roitblat, Herbert L; Pytka, Lisa

    2007-08-01

    Echolocating bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) discriminate between objects on the basis of the echoes reflected by the objects. However, it is not clear which echo features are important for object discrimination. To gain insight into the salient features, the authors had a dolphin perform a match-to-sample task and then presented human listeners with echoes from the same objects used in the dolphin's task. In 2 experiments, human listeners performed as well or better than the dolphin at discriminating objects, and they reported the salient acoustic cues. The error patterns of the humans and the dolphin were compared to determine which acoustic features were likely to have been used by the dolphin. The results indicate that the dolphin did not appear to use overall echo amplitude, but that it attended to the pattern of changes in the echoes across different object orientations. Human listeners can quickly identify salient combinations of echo features that permit object discrimination, which can be used to generate hypotheses that can be tested using dolphins as subjects.

  12. Dolphin-Assisted Therapy as a Verbal Operant Condition for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrasi, Renee Marie

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Dolphin-Assisted Therapy (DAT) as a reinforcer for verbal operant production in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Three children who attended a dolphin therapy program participated in this single subject research study. Baseline data was collected for each child via a video tape provided by parents and…

  13. Organohalogen compounds in blubber of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) and spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) from Zanzibar, Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mwevura, Haji, E-mail: mwevura@yahoo.co [Department of Chemistry, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Amir, Omar A., E-mail: omar.amir@zoologi.su.s [Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam, P O Box 668, Zanzibar (Tanzania, United Republic of); Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Kishimba, Michael, E-mail: kishimba@chem.udsm.ac.t [Department of Chemistry, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Berggren, Per, E-mail: per.berggren@zoologi.su.s [Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Kylin, Henrik, E-mail: henrik.kylin@vatten.slu.s [Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P O Box 7050, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Norwegian Institute of Air Research, Polar Environmental Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway)

    2010-06-15

    Blubber samples of Indo-Pacific bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and spinner (Stenella longirostris) dolphins from Zanzibar, East Africa, were analyzed for a wide range of organohalogen compounds. Methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs), presumably biogenic, were found at higher concentrations than anthropogenic organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Only traces of industrial pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, were detected. The OCP levels found off Zanzibar were lower than those reported from other regions while MeO-BDE levels were higher. The relative composition of the OCPs indicated recent use of lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) and aged residues of DDT and technical HCH. Placental transfer was estimated to 2.5% and 0.5% of the total burden of OCPs and MeO-BDEs, respectively. Overall transfer from mother to calf in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins was estimated to 72% and 85% for the OCPs and MeO-BDEs burdens, respectively. Health effects of MeO-BDEs are not known, but structural similarities with well-known environmental toxins are cause for concern. - Biogenic brominated organic compounds were found at higher concentrations than anthropogenic organochlorine pesticides in dolphins off Zanzibar.

  14. Organohalogen compounds in blubber of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) and spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) from Zanzibar, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwevura, Haji; Amir, Omar A.; Kishimba, Michael; Berggren, Per; Kylin, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Blubber samples of Indo-Pacific bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and spinner (Stenella longirostris) dolphins from Zanzibar, East Africa, were analyzed for a wide range of organohalogen compounds. Methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs), presumably biogenic, were found at higher concentrations than anthropogenic organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Only traces of industrial pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, were detected. The OCP levels found off Zanzibar were lower than those reported from other regions while MeO-BDE levels were higher. The relative composition of the OCPs indicated recent use of lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane) and aged residues of DDT and technical HCH. Placental transfer was estimated to 2.5% and 0.5% of the total burden of OCPs and MeO-BDEs, respectively. Overall transfer from mother to calf in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins was estimated to 72% and 85% for the OCPs and MeO-BDEs burdens, respectively. Health effects of MeO-BDEs are not known, but structural similarities with well-known environmental toxins are cause for concern. - Biogenic brominated organic compounds were found at higher concentrations than anthropogenic organochlorine pesticides in dolphins off Zanzibar.

  15. A Quantitative Analysis of Pulsed Signals Emitted by Wild Bottlenose Dolphins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Luís

    Full Text Available Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus, produce a wide variety of vocal emissions for communication and echolocation, of which the pulsed repertoire has been the most difficult to categorize. Packets of high repetition, broadband pulses are still largely reported under a general designation of burst-pulses, and traditional attempts to classify these emissions rely mainly in their aural characteristics and in graphical aspects of spectrograms. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of pulsed signals emitted by wild bottlenose dolphins, in the Sado estuary, Portugal (2011-2014, and test the reliability of a traditional classification approach. Acoustic parameters (minimum frequency, maximum frequency, peak frequency, duration, repetition rate and inter-click-interval were extracted from 930 pulsed signals, previously categorized using a traditional approach. Discriminant function analysis revealed a high reliability of the traditional classification approach (93.5% of pulsed signals were consistently assigned to their aurally based categories. According to the discriminant function analysis (Wilk's Λ = 0.11, F3, 2.41 = 282.75, P < 0.001, repetition rate is the feature that best enables the discrimination of different pulsed signals (structure coefficient = 0.98. Classification using hierarchical cluster analysis led to a similar categorization pattern: two main signal types with distinct magnitudes of repetition rate were clustered into five groups. The pulsed signals, here described, present significant differences in their time-frequency features, especially repetition rate (P < 0.001, inter-click-interval (P < 0.001 and duration (P < 0.001. We document the occurrence of a distinct signal type-short burst-pulses, and highlight the existence of a diverse repertoire of pulsed vocalizations emitted in graded sequences. The use of quantitative analysis of pulsed signals is essential to improve classifications and to better assess the

  16. The New Zealand Food Composition Database: A useful tool for assessing New Zealanders' nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumaran, Subathira; Huffman, Lee; Sivakumaran, Sivalingam

    2018-01-01

    A country-specific food composition databases is useful for assessing nutrient intake reliably in national nutrition surveys, research studies and clinical practice. The New Zealand Food Composition Database (NZFCDB) programme seeks to maintain relevant and up-to-date food records that reflect the composition of foods commonly consumed in New Zealand following Food Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations/International Network of Food Data Systems (FAO/INFOODS) guidelines. Food composition data (FCD) of up to 87 core components for approximately 600 foods have been added to NZFCDB since 2010. These foods include those identified as providing key nutrients in a 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Nutrient data obtained by analysis of composite samples or are calculated from analytical data. Currently >2500 foods in 22 food groups are freely available in various NZFCDB output products on the website: www.foodcomposition.co.nz. NZFCDB is the main source of FCD for estimating nutrient intake in New Zealand nutrition surveys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Spatial distribution of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inferred from stable isotopes and priority organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Rachel Marie; Kucklick, John R.; Balmer, Brian C.; Wells, Randall S.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Nowacek, Douglas P.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in priority organic pollutants (POPs), analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and stable isotope ratios (δ 13 C, δ 34 S, and δ 15 N; analyzed by isotope ratio-mass spectrometry), divide 77 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Florida Gulf Coast into three distinct groups. POP levels reflect human population and historical contamination along the coast. In the least disturbed site, concentrations of ΣPOP in male dolphins were 18,000 ng g −1 ± 6000 (95% confidence interval here and throughout); in the intermediate bay, males had ΣPOP concentrations of 19,000 ng g −1 ± 10,000. St Andrews Bay was home to dolphins with the highest ΣPOP concentrations: 44,000 ng g −1 ± 10,300. δ 34 S and δ 15 N, differed significantly between St. George Sound dolphins and those frequenting each of the other two bays, but not between St. Andrews and St. Joseph Bays. ΣPOP concentrations were statistically higher in dolphins frequenting St. Andrews Bay, but were not significantly different between dolphins occupying St. Joseph Bay and St. George Sound. Thus, using either POP or isotope values alone, we would only be able to identify two dolphin groups, but when POP and isotope data are viewed cumulatively, the results clearly define three distinct communities occupying this region. - Highlights: ► We compare isotopes and POP levels in dolphins occupying three embayments. ► POP levels varied significantly among two embayments separated by < 50 km. ► Differentiation correlated with historical contamination from a SuperFund site. ► Cumulatively, isotopes and POP levels indicate 3 distinct dolphin communities. ► This data provides the first assessment of dolphin POP contamination in the region.

  18. Spatial distribution of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inferred from stable isotopes and priority organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Rachel Marie, E-mail: ryounge@ocean.fsu.edu [Department of EOAS-Oceanography, Florida State University, 117 North Woodward Avenue, Tallahassee, Florida, 32306 (United States); Kucklick, John R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, Charleston, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, South Carolina 29412 (United States); Balmer, Brian C.; Wells, Randall S. [Chicago Zoological Society c/o Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway Sarasota, FL, 34236 (United States); Chanton, Jeffrey P. [Department of EOAS-Oceanography, Florida State University, 117 North Woodward Avenue, Tallahassee, Florida, 32306 (United States); Nowacek, Douglas P. [Nicholas School of the Environment and Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University - Marine Laboratory, 135 Duke Marine Lab Rd., Beaufort, NC 28516 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Differences in priority organic pollutants (POPs), analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and stable isotope ratios ({delta}{sup 13}C, {delta}{sup 34}S, and {delta}{sup 15}N; analyzed by isotope ratio-mass spectrometry), divide 77 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Florida Gulf Coast into three distinct groups. POP levels reflect human population and historical contamination along the coast. In the least disturbed site, concentrations of {Sigma}POP in male dolphins were 18,000 ng g{sup -1} {+-} 6000 (95% confidence interval here and throughout); in the intermediate bay, males had {Sigma}POP concentrations of 19,000 ng g{sup -1} {+-} 10,000. St Andrews Bay was home to dolphins with the highest {Sigma}POP concentrations: 44,000 ng g{sup -1} {+-} 10,300. {delta}{sup 34}S and {delta}{sup 15}N, differed significantly between St. George Sound dolphins and those frequenting each of the other two bays, but not between St. Andrews and St. Joseph Bays. {Sigma}POP concentrations were statistically higher in dolphins frequenting St. Andrews Bay, but were not significantly different between dolphins occupying St. Joseph Bay and St. George Sound. Thus, using either POP or isotope values alone, we would only be able to identify two dolphin groups, but when POP and isotope data are viewed cumulatively, the results clearly define three distinct communities occupying this region. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compare isotopes and POP levels in dolphins occupying three embayments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer POP levels varied significantly among two embayments separated by < 50 km. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation correlated with historical contamination from a SuperFund site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cumulatively, isotopes and POP levels indicate 3 distinct dolphin communities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This data provides the first assessment of dolphin POP contamination in the region.

  19. A retrospective study of pathologic findings in the Amazon and Orinoco river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Christopher J; Boede, Ernesto O; Hartmann, Manuel García; Lowenstein-Whaley, Joanne; Mujica-Jorquera, Esmeralda; Parish, Scott V; Parish, James V; Garner, Michael M; Stadler, Cynthia K

    2007-06-01

    River dolphins are especially susceptible to negative human impacts. For their conservation, attempts of relocation or procreation ex situ may become important in the future to avoid their extinction. Additional knowledge and medical experiences of river dolphin management in captivity may aid such conservation efforts. The medical records and necropsy and histopathology reports on 123 captive Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) were re-viewed. Of these 123 animals, 105 were necropsied and 70 necropsies were supported with histopathology. Eighteen animals were not necropsied. Among wild-born animals, mortality was highest in the first 2 mo immediately postcapture and transport, accounting for 32 of 123 deaths. Pneumonia and skin lesions (cutaneous and subcutaneous ulcerations and abscesses) were the most common findings, found in 44 of 105 (42%) and 38 of 105 (36%) of gross diagnoses, respectively. At least 10 of 44 cases of pneumonia diagnosed grossly included a verminous component. Cachexia, from a variety of causes, was a major gross finding in 21 animals. Fifteen animals had histologic evidence of significant renal pathology, and this was the primary cause of death in 13 cases. Hepatic pathology was found in 18 cases, and bacterial sepsis was confirmed via histology in 16 cases. Based on these findings, it may be concluded that keys to successful maintenance of this species include 1) prophylactic anthelminthic and antibiotic therapy immediately post-capture; 2) maintenance of animals in larger enclosures than in past attempts, in compatible groups, and in facilities capable of separating aggressive animals; 3) maintenance in microbiologically hygienic water quality at all times; and 4) a proactive program of preventive medicine during the immediate postcapture, quarantine, and maintenance period of captivity.

  20. Definite records of Sperm Whale Physeter catodon (Linnaeus, Spinner Dolphin Stenella longirostris (Gray and Bottlenose Dolphin Tursiops truncatus (Montagu (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla in the Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pande

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Definite records of five Sperm Whales Physeter catodon (Liinaeus, 58 Spinner Dolphins Stenella longirostris (Gray and 12 Bottlenose Dolphins Tursiops truncatus (Montagu in the Arabian Sea, encountered during Ela Foundation’s Pelagic Birds Survey and ornithological expedition to Lakshadweep Archipelago from 12 to 16 March 2006, are presented along with notes on behaviour, key identification features, four photographs and the conservation status of each species.

  1. Novel Atlantic bottlenose dolphin parainfluenza virus TtPIV-1 clusters with bovine PIV-3 genotype B strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Kirsten C; Neill, John D; Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; McGill, Jodi L; Sacco, Randy E

    2015-10-01

    Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV-3) is a common viral infection not only in humans, but also in many other species. Serological evidence suggests that nearly 100 % of children in the United States have been infected with PIV-3 by 5 years of age. Similarly, in cattle, PIV-3 is commonly associated with bovine respiratory disease complex. A novel dolphin PIV-3 (TtPIV-1) was described by Nollens et al. in 2008 from a dolphin that was diagnosed with an unknown respiratory illness. At that time, TtPIV-1 was found to be most similar to, but distinct from, bovine PIV-3 (BPIV-3). In the present study, similar viral growth kinetics and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, and CXCL8) production were seen between BPIV-3 and TtPIV-1 in BEAS-2B, MDBK, and Vero cell lines. Initial nomenclature of TtPIV-1 was based on partial sequence of the fusion and RNA polymerase genes. Based on the similarities we saw with the in vitro work, it was important to examine the TtPIV-1 genome in more detail. Full genome sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that all six viral genes of TtPIV-1 clustered within the recently described BPIV-3 genotype B strains, and it is proposed that TtPIV-1 be re-classified with BPIV-3 genotype B strains.

  2. The claustrum of the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus (Montagu 1821

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eCozzi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian claustrum is involved in processing sensory information from the environment. The claustrum is reciprocally connected to the visual cortex and these projections, at least in carnivores, display a clear retinotopic distribution. The visual cortex of dolphins occupies a position strikingly different from that of land mammals. Whether the reshaping of the functional areas of the cortex of cetaceans involves also modifications of the claustral projections remains hitherto unanswered.The present topographic and immunohistochemical study is based on the brains of 8 bottlenose dolphins and a wide array of antisera against: calcium-binding proteins (CBPs parvalbumin (PV, calretinin (CR, and calbindin (CB; somatostatin (SOM; neuropeptide Y (NPY; and the potential claustral marker Gng2.Our observations confirmed the general topography of the mammalian claustrum also in the bottlenose dolphin, although a the reduction of the piriform lobe modifies the ventral relationships of the claustrum with the cortex, and b the rotation of the telencephalon along the transverse axis, accompanied by the reduction of the antero-posterior length of the brain, apparently moves the claustrum more rostrally. We observed a strong presence of CR-immunoreactive (-ir neurons and fibers, a diffuse but weak expression of CB-ir elements and virtually no PV immunostaining. This latter finding agrees with studies that report that PV-ir elements are rare in the visual cortex of the same species. NPY- and somatostatin-containing neurons were evident, while the potential claustral markers Gng2 was not identified in the sections, but no explanation for its absence is currently available.Although no data are available on the projections to and from the claustrum in cetaceans, our results suggest that its neurochemical organization is compatible with the presence of noteworthy cortical inputs and outputs and a persistent role in the general processing of the relative

  3. Biosonar, diving and movements of two tagged white-beaked dolphin in Icelandic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marianne H.; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Teilmann, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    For the first time bio-logging tags were attached to free-ranging white-beaked dolphins, Lagenorhynchus albirostris. A satellite tag was attached to one animal while an acoustic A-tag, a time-depth recorder and a VHF transmitter complex was attached to a second dolphin with a suction cup....... The satellite tag transmitted for 201 days, during which time the dolphin stayed in the coastal waters of western Iceland. The acoustic tag complex was on the second animal for 13 hours and 40 minutes and provided the first insight in echolocation behaviour of a free-ranging white-beaked dolphin. The tag...... registered 162 dives. The dolphin dove to a maximum depth of 45 m, which is about the depth of the bay in which the dolphin was swimming. Two basic types of dives were identified; U-shaped and V-shaped dives. The dolphin used more time in U-shaped dives, more clicks and sonar signals with shorter click...

  4. Experimental measurement of dolphin thrust generated during a tail stand using DPIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Timothy; Fish, Frank; Williams, Terrie; Wu, Vicki; Sherman, Erica; Misfeldt, Mitchel; Ringenberg, Hunter; Rogers, Dylan

    2016-11-01

    The thrust generated by dolphins doing tail stands was measured using DPIV. The technique entailed measuring vortex strength associated with the tail motion and correlating it to above water video sequences showing the amount of the dolphin's body that was being lifted out of the water. The underlying drivers for this research included: i) understanding the physiology, hydrodynamics and efficiency of dolphin locomotion, ii) developing non-invasive measurement techniques for studying marine swimming and iii) quantifying the actual propulsive capabilities of these animals. Two different bottlenose dolphins at the Long Marine Lab at UC-Santa Cruz were used as test subjects. Application of the Kutta-Joukowski Theorem on measured vortex circulations yielded thrust values that were well correlated with estimates of dolphin body weight being supported above water. This demonstrates that the tail motion can be interpreted as a flapping hydrofoil that can generate a sustained thrust roughly equal to the dolphin's weight. Videos of DPIV measurements overlaid with the dolphins will be presented along with thrust/weight data.

  5. Humpback Dolphins of Western Australia: A Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations for Future Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Daniella M; Hunt, Tim; Parra, Guido J

    2016-01-01

    Among the many cetacean species that occupy Australian coastal waters, Australian humpback dolphins, Sousa sahulensis, are one of the most vulnerable to extirpation due to human activities. This review summarises the existing knowledge, presently occurring and planned research projects, and current conservation measures for humpback dolphins in Western Australia (WA). Rapid and wide-scale coastal development along the northern WA coastline has occurred despite a lack of baseline data for inshore dolphins and, therefore, without a precautionary approach to their conservation. The distribution, abundance, habitat use, and population structure of humpback dolphins remain poorly understood. Less than 1% of their inferred distribution has so far been studied to understand local population demography. The sparse data available suggest that WA humpback dolphins occur as localised populations in low numbers within a range of inshore habitats, including both clear and turbid coastal waters. Marine protected areas cover a third of their inferred distribution in WA, but the efficacy of these reserves in protecting local cetacean populations is unknown. There is a pressing need for coordination and collaboration among scientists, government agencies, industry bodies, Traditional Owners, and local community groups to fill in the gaps of information on humpback dolphins in WA. The recently developed strategies and sampling guidelines developed by state and federal governments should serve as a best practise standard for collection of data aimed at assessing the conservation status of humpback dolphins in WA and Australia. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tidal and seasonal influences in dolphin habitat use in a southern Brazilian estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Lopes Paitach

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we describe how franciscana and Guiana dolphin habitat use is influenced by tidal cycles and seasonality in Babitonga Bay. The franciscanas use a greater area in winter and a smaller area in summer, but the extent of the area used did not vary with the tide. Guiana dolphins did not change the extent of the area used within seasons or tides. Franciscanas remained closer to the mouth of the bay and the islands during ebb tide, moving to the inner bay areas and closer to the mainland coast during flood tide. Guiana dolphin used areas closer to the mainland coast during the flood tide. Guiana dolphin patterns of movement do not seem to be related to the tidal current. Franciscanas used sandier areas while Guiana dolphins preferred muddy areas, with some seasonal variation. We suggest that these dolphins modify their distributions based on habitat accessibility and prey availability. This study enhances our knowledge of critical habitat characteristics for franciscana and Guiana dolphins, and these factors should be considered when planning local human activities targeting species conservation.

  7. Vertebral column anomalies in Indo-Pacific and Atlantic humpback dolphins Sousa spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Caroline R; Wang, John Y

    2016-08-09

    Conspicuous vertebral column abnormalities in humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) were documented for the first time during 3 photo-identification field studies of small populations in Taiwan, Senegal and Angola. Seven Taiwanese humpback dolphins S. chinensis taiwanensis with vertebral column anomalies (lordosis, kyphosis or scoliosis) were identified, along with 2 possible cases of vertebral osteomyelitis. There was evidence from several individuals photographed over consecutive years that the anomalies became more pronounced with age. Three Atlantic humpback dolphins S. teuszii were observed with axial deviations of the vertebral column (lordosis and kyphosis). Another possible case was identified in a calf, and 2 further animals were photographed with dorsal indents potentially indicative of anomalies. Vertebral column anomalies of humpback dolphins were predominantly evident in the lumbo-caudal region, but one Atlantic humpback dolphin had an anomaly in the cervico-thoracic region. Lordosis and kyphosis occurred simultaneously in several individuals. Apart from the described anomalies, all dolphins appeared in good health and were not obviously underweight or noticeably compromised in swim speed. This study presents the first descriptions of vertebral column anomalies in the genus Sousa. The causative factors for the anomalies were unknown in every case and are potentially diverse. Whether these anomalies result in reduced fitness of individuals or populations merits attention, as both the Taiwanese and Atlantic humpback dolphin are species of high conservation concern.

  8. Human listening studies reveal insights into object features extracted by echolocating dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delong, Caroline M.; Au, Whitlow W. L.; Roitblat, Herbert L.

    2004-05-01

    Echolocating dolphins extract object feature information from the acoustic parameters of object echoes. However, little is known about which object features are salient to dolphins or how they extract those features. To gain insight into how dolphins might be extracting feature information, human listeners were presented with echoes from objects used in a dolphin echoic-visual cross-modal matching task. Human participants performed a task similar to the one the dolphin had performed; however, echoic samples consisting of 23-echo trains were presented via headphones. The participants listened to the echoic sample and then visually selected the correct object from among three alternatives. The participants performed as well as or better than the dolphin (M=88.0% correct), and reported using a combination of acoustic cues to extract object features (e.g., loudness, pitch, timbre). Participants frequently reported using the pattern of aural changes in the echoes across the echo train to identify the shape and structure of the objects (e.g., peaks in loudness or pitch). It is likely that dolphins also attend to the pattern of changes across echoes as objects are echolocated from different angles.

  9. Concept of navigation and automatic steering of the measuring dolphin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majohr, J.; Buch, T.; Korte, C. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Automatisierungstechnik

    2000-07-01

    The Catamaran - Measuring Dolphin (MESSIN) is an unmanned and independently operated craft having been designed for carrying out multiple measuring tasks in the field of marine research and water monitoring especially in shallow waters. An introduction to the navigation, steering and safety systems is given. Furthermore the main components of the track control system and the electronic chart system used here are shown. Results of manoeuvring tests of the MESSIN are represented. This paper gives a contribution to the field of research ''autonomous and full automated vehicle''. (orig.)

  10. Diet of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus from the Gulf of Cadiz: Insights from stomach content and stable isotope analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Giménez

    Full Text Available The ecological role of species can vary among populations depending on local and regional differences in diet. This is particularly true for top predators such as the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus, which exhibits a highly varied diet throughout its distribution range. Local dietary assessments are therefore critical to fully understand the role of this species within marine ecosystems, as well as its interaction with important ecosystem services such as fisheries. Here, we combined stomach content analyses (SCA and stable isotope analyses (SIA to describe bottlenose dolphins diet in the Gulf of Cadiz (North Atlantic Ocean. Prey items identified using SCA included European conger (Conger conger and European hake (Merluccius merluccius as the most important ingested prey. However, mass-balance isotopic mixing model (MixSIAR, using δ13C and δ15N, indicated that the assimilated diet consisted mainly on Sparidae species (e.g. seabream, Diplodus annularis and D. bellottii, rubberlip grunt, Plectorhinchus mediterraneus, and common pandora, Pagellus erythrinus and a mixture of other species including European hake, mackerels (Scomber colias, S. japonicus and S. scombrus, European conger, red bandfish (Cepola macrophthalma and European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus. These contrasting results highlight differences in the temporal and taxonomic resolution of each approach, but also point to potential differences between ingested (SCA and assimilated (SIA diets. Both approaches provide different insights, e.g. determination of consumed fish biomass for the management of fish stocks (SCA or identification of important assimilated prey species to the consumer (SIA.

  11. A new tropical Oligocene dolphin from Montañita/Olón, Santa Elena, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Abella, Juan; Aguirre-Fernández, Gabriel; Gregori, Maria; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2017-01-01

    A new small probable Oligocene dolphin from Ecuador represents a new genus and species, Urkudelphis chawpipacha. The new taxon is known from a single juvenile skull and earbones; it differs from other archaic dolphins in features including widely exposed frontals at the vertex, a dorsally wide open vomer at the mesorostral groove, and a strongly projected and pointed lateral tuberosity of the periotic. Phylogenetic analysis places it toward the base of the largely-extinct clade Platanistoidea. The fossil is one of a few records of tropical fossil dolphins.

  12. A new tropical Oligocene dolphin from Montañita/Olón, Santa Elena, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Juan; Aguirre-Fernández, Gabriel; Gregori, Maria; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2017-01-01

    A new small probable Oligocene dolphin from Ecuador represents a new genus and species, Urkudelphis chawpipacha. The new taxon is known from a single juvenile skull and earbones; it differs from other archaic dolphins in features including widely exposed frontals at the vertex, a dorsally wide open vomer at the mesorostral groove, and a strongly projected and pointed lateral tuberosity of the periotic. Phylogenetic analysis places it toward the base of the largely-extinct clade Platanistoidea. The fossil is one of a few records of tropical fossil dolphins. PMID:29261688

  13. Recognition of aspect-dependent three-dimensional objects by an echolocating Atlantic bottlenose dolphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helweg, D A; Roitblat, H L; Nachtigall, P E; Hautus, M J

    1996-01-01

    We examined the ability of a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) to recognize aspect-dependent objects using echolocation. An aspect-dependent object such as a cube produces acoustically different echoes at different angles relative to the echolocation signal. The dolphin recognized the objects even though the objects were free to rotate and sway. A linear discriminant analysis and nearest centroid classifier could classify the objects using average amplitude, center frequency, and bandwidth of object echoes. The results show that dolphins can use varying acoustic properties to recognize constant objects and suggest that aspect-independent representations may be formed by combining information gleaned from multiple echoes.

  14. Structure and phylogeography of two tropical predators, spinner (Stenella longirostris) and pantropical spotted (S. attenuata) dolphins, from SNP data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Phillip A.

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about global patterns of genetic connectivity in pelagic dolphins, including how circumtropical pelagic dolphins spread globally following the rapid and recent radiation of the subfamily delphininae. In this study, we tested phylogeographic hypotheses for two circumtropical species, the spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) and the pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata), using more than 3000 nuclear DNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in each species. Analyses for population structure indicated significant genetic differentiation between almost all subspecies and populations in both species. Bayesian phylogeographic analyses of spinner dolphins showed deep divergence between Indo-Pacific, Atlantic and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (ETP) lineages. Despite high morphological variation, our results show very close relationships between endemic ETP spinner subspecies in relation to global diversity. The dwarf spinner dolphin is a monophyletic subspecies nested within a major clade of pantropical spinner dolphins from the Indian and western Pacific Ocean populations. Population-level division among the dwarf spinner dolphins was detected—with the northern Australia population being very different from that in Indonesia. In contrast to spinner dolphins, the major boundary for spotted dolphins is between offshore and coastal habitats in the ETP, supporting the current subspecies-level taxonomy. Comparing these species underscores the different scale at which population structure can arise, even in species that are similar in habitat (i.e. pelagic) and distribution. PMID:29765639

  15. OpenDolphin: presentation models for compelling user interfaces

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Shared applications run on the server. They still need a display, though, be it on the web or on the desktop. OpenDolphin introduces a shared presentation model to clearly differentiate between "what" to display and "how" to display. The "what" is managed on the server and is independent of the UI technology whereas the "how" can fully exploit the UI capabilities like the ubiquity of the web or the power of the desktop in terms of interactivity, animations, effects, 3D worlds, and local devices. If you run a server-centric architecture and still seek to provide the best possible user experience, then this talk is for you. About the speaker Dierk König (JavaOne Rock Star) works as a fellow for Canoo Engineering AG, Basel, Switzerland. He is a committer to many open-source projects including OpenDolphin, Groovy, Grails, GPars and GroovyFX. He is lead author of the "Groovy in Action" book, which is among ...

  16. Prey consumed by Guiana dolphin Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea, Delphinidae and franciscana dolphin Pontoporia blainvillei (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae in an estuarine environment in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta J. Cremer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides information about the diet of sympatric populations of small cetaceans in the Babitonga Bay estuary. This is the first study on the diet of these species in direct sympatry. The stomach contents of seven Guiana dolphins Sotalia guianensis and eight franciscanas Pontoporia blainvillei were analyzed. The prey of both cetaceans was mostly teleost fishes, followed by cephalopods. We identified 13 teleost fishes as part of the diet of the franciscanas, and 20 as part of the diet of Guiana dolphins. Lolliguncula brevis was the only cephalopod recorded, and was the most important prey for both cetaceans. Stellifer rastrifer and Gobionellus oceanicus were also important for franciscana, so as Mugil curema and Micropogonias furnieri were important for Guiana dolphins. Stellifer rastrifer and Cetengraulis edentulus were the fishes with the highest frequency of occurrence for franciscana (50%, while Achirus lineatus, C. edentulus, S. brasiliensis, Cynoscion leiarchus, M. furnieri, M. curema, Diapterus rhombeus, Eugerres brasilianus and G. oceanicus showed 28.6% of frequency of occurrence for Guiana dolphins. Franciscanas captured greater cephalopods than the Guiana dolphins in both total length (z= -3.38; n= 40; p< 0.05 and biomass (z = -2.46; n = 40; p<0.05. All of the prey species identified occur inside the estuary, which represents a safe habitat against predators and food availability, reinforcing the importance of the Babitonga Bay for these cetacean populations.

  17. Development and application of specific cytokine assays in tissue samples from a bottlenose dolphin with hyperinsulinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in humans. Postmortem hepatic and splenic tissue from a 46-year old geriatric male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with insulin resistance (chronic hyperinsulinemia with hyperglycemia) , chronic = inflamma...

  18. GoM Estuarine Bottlenose Dolphin Photo-identification studies - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of small vessel based studies of bottlenose dolphins that reside within Barataria Bay, LA, Mississippi Sound, MS and nearshore...

  19. SWFSC/MMTD/ETP: Dolphin-Tuna Tracking Studies (DTTS) 1992-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research was designed to better understand the nature of the dolphin-tuna bond in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. In this study, researchers attempted to...

  20. Bottlenose dolphin age structure and growth in the Mississippi Sound region of the Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Teeth were collected from bottlenose dolphins that stranded within the north-central Gulf of Mexico between 1986-2003. These teeth were sectioned and growth rings...

  1. Observations on inshore and pelagic Dolphins on the South-Eastern Cape coast of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S Saayman

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence, size and seaward distribution of schools of inshore and pelagic dolphins is described for three study areas on the south-eastern Cape coast (Algoa Bay; the Tsitsikama Coastal National Park and Plettenberg Bay. Inshore dolphins {Tursiops and Sousa sp. frequented the coastline in relatively small schools whereas pelagic dolphins {Delphinus delphis and Stenella caeruleoalba occurred in very large schools far out to sea. Different ecological zones were used by Sousa for feeding and for social behaviour and maintenance activities. The frequency of occurrence of Sousa at Plettenberg Bay was not affected by seasonal fluctuations in sea surface temperatures. The role of dolphins as predators and their implication in the regulation of the ecosystem of the Tsitsikama Coastal National Park is discussed.

  2. Acoustic occurrence detection of a newly recorded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin population in waters southwest of Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lijun; Liu, Mingming; Dong, Jianchen; Li, Songhai

    2017-11-01

    In 2014, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins were recorded for the first time in waters southwest of Hainan Island, China. In this paper, the temporal occurrence of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins in this region was detected by stationary passive acoustic monitoring. During the 130-day observation period (from January to July 2016), 1969 click trains produced by Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins were identified, and 262 ten-minute recording bins contained echolocation click trains of dolphins, of which 70.9% were at night and 29.1% were during the day. A diurnal rhythm with a nighttime peak in acoustic detections was found. Passive acoustic detections indicated that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins frequently occurred in this area and were detected mainly at night. This information may be relevant to conservation efforts for these dolphins in the near future.

  3. Pacemaker Use in New Zealand - Data From the New Zealand Implanted Cardiac Device Registry (ANZACS-QI 15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, P D; Kerr, A J; Hood, M; Harding, S A; Hooks, D; Heaven, D; Lever, N A; Sinclair, S; Boddington, D; Tang, E W; Swampillai, J; Stiles, M K

    2017-03-01

    The New Zealand Cardiac Implanted Device Registry (Device) has recently been developed under the auspices of the New Zealand Branch of the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. This study describes the initial Device registry cohort of patients receiving a new pacemaker, their indications for pacing and their perioperative complications. The Device Registry was used to audit patients receiving a first pacemaker between 1 st January 2014 and 1 st June 2015. We examined 1611 patients undergoing first pacemaker implantation. Patients were predominantly male (59%), and had a median age of 70 years. The most common symptom for pacemaker implantation was syncope (39%), followed by dizziness (30%) and dyspnoea (12%). The most common aetiology for a pacemaker was a conduction tissue disorder (35%), followed by sinus node dysfunction (22%). Atrioventricular (AV) block was the most common ECG abnormality, present in 44%. Dual chamber pacemakers were most common (62%), followed by single chamber ventricular pacemakers (34%), and cardiac resynchronisation therapy - pacemakers (CRT-P) (2%). Complications within 24hours of the implant procedure were reported in 64 patients (3.9%), none of which were fatal. The most common complication was the need for reoperation to manipulate a lead, occurring in 23 patients (1.4%). This is the first description of data entered into the Device registry. Patients receiving a pacemaker were younger than in European registries, and there was a low use of CRT-P devices compared to international rates. Complications rates were low and compare favourably to available international data. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ovarian Follicular Dynamics During the Luteinizing Hormone Surge in the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Muraco, Holley; Clough, Pat; Teets, Valerie; Arn, Dennis; Muraco, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing the relationship between ovarian follicular dynamics and the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) requires detailed daily monitoring due to the transitory nature of LH and ovulation. Utilizing conditioned dolphins and non-invasive sampling techniques, such as urine collection and trans-abdominal ultrasound exams, provides the means to accurately monitor these fleeting processes. Urine samples and ultrasound exams used in this study were ...

  5. Captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus spontaneously using water flow to manipulate objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisato Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Several terrestrial animals and delphinids manipulate objects in a tactile manner, using parts of their bodies, such as their mouths or hands. In this paper, we report that bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus manipulate objects not by direct bodily contact, but by spontaneous water flow. Three of four dolphins at Suma Aqualife Park performed object manipulation with food. The typical sequence of object manipulation consisted of a three step procedure. First, the dolphins released the object from the sides of their mouths while assuming a head-down posture near the floor. They then manipulated the object around their mouths and caught it. Finally, they ceased to engage in their head-down posture and started to swim. When the dolphins moved the object, they used the water current in the pool or moved their head. These results showed that dolphins manipulate objects using movements that do not directly involve contact between a body part and the object. In the event the dolphins dropped the object on the floor, they lifted it by making water flow in one of three methods: opening and closing their mouths repeatedly, moving their heads lengthwise, or making circular head motions. This result suggests that bottlenose dolphins spontaneously change their environment to manipulate objects. The reason why aquatic animals like dolphins do object manipulation by changing their environment but terrestrial animals do not may be that the viscosity of the aquatic environment is much higher than it is in terrestrial environments. This is the first report thus far of any non-human mammal engaging in object manipulation using several methods to change their environment.

  6. A Phylogenetic Synthesis for Oceanic Dolphins: Total Evidence, Cytonuclear Discordance, and Possible Introgressive Hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Haisten, David

    2016-01-01

    Introgressive hybridization is increasingly being detected in vertebrate taxa but was thought to be rare in mammals. Recent evidence suggests that this view might not correct and cetaceans may be pre-disposed for the capacity to hybridize. Numerous instances of cetacean (dolphins, whales, and porpoises) hybridization have been reported both in captivity and in the wild, many of which occurred in oceanic dolphins: family Delphinidae. The rapid radiation of Delphinidae commenced during the Mio...

  7. Suicide in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Shahtahmasebi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores and questions some of the notions associated with suicide including mental illness. On average, about two-thirds of suicide cases do not come into contact with mental health services, therefore, we have no objective assessment of their mental status or their life events. One method of improving our objective understanding of suicide would be to use data mining techniques in order to build life event histories on all deaths due to suicide. Although such an exercise would require major funding, partial case histories became publicly available from a coroner's inquest on cases of suicide during a period of three months in Christchurch, New Zealand. The case histories were accompanied by a newspaper article reporting comments from some of the families involved. A straightforward contextual analysis of this information suggests that (i only five cases had contact with mental health services, in two of the cases this was due to a previous suicide attempt and in the other three it was due to drug and alcohol dependency; (ii mental illness as the cause of suicide is fixed in the public mindset, (iii this in turn makes psychological autopsy type studies that seek information from families and friends questionable; (iv proportionally more females attempt, but more men tend to complete suicide; and (v not only is the mental health-suicide relationship tenuous, but suicide also appears to be a process outcome. It is hoped that this will stimulate debate and the collaboration of international experts regardless of their school of thought.

  8. White-beaked dolphins trapped in the ice and eaten by polar bears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Aars

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Polar bears (Ursus maritimus depend on sea ice, where they hunt ice-associated seals. However, they are opportunistic predators and scavengers with a long list of known prey species. Here we report from a small fjord in Svalbard, Norwegian High Arctic, a sighting of an adult male polar bear preying on two white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris on 23 April 2014. This is the first record of this species as polar bear prey. White-beaked dolphins are frequent visitors to Svalbard waters in summer, but have not previously been reported this far north in early spring. We suggest they were trapped in the ice after strong northerly winds the days before, and possibly killed when forced to surface for air at a small opening in the ice. The bear had consumed most parts of one dolphin. When observed he was in the process of covering the mostly intact second dolphin with snow. Such caching behaviour is generally considered untypical of polar bears. During the following ice-free summer and autumn, at least seven different white-beaked dolphin carcasses were observed in or near the same area. We suggest, based on the area and the degree to which these dolphins had decayed, that they were likely from the same pod and also suffered death due to entrapment in the ice in April. At least six different polar bears were seen scavenging on the carcasses.

  9. Trophic relationships of the spinner dolphin at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, SW Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martins Silva-Jr

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview of predator-prey and other trophic relationships of spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris around Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, off northeastern Brazil, with use of original data and a brief review of data published elsewhere. Records were made while snorkelling among the dolphins in daytime. Individual fish pursuit and coordinated school herding were the two hunting tactics recorded. Three small prey types (oceanic squids, fishes, and prawns were recovered from vomits collected in situ and from stomachs of two stranded dolphins. In their turn, spinners were preyed on by the cookiecutter sharks (Dalatiidae as evidenced by round and crater-like wounds and circular scars. Additionally, the dolphins were preyed on by large sharks (Lamnidae, Carcharhinidae, as evidenced by crescent-shaped wounds and scars. Unidentified fishes bit fin pieces, as evidenced by variably-shaped marks. On the other hand, dolphins’ particulate faeces, vomits and live roundworms were eaten by plankton-feeding fishes. Thus, the trophic role of the spinner dolphins of Fernando de Noronha may be summarised as that of : 1 a predator of small oceanic squids, fishes, and prawns; 2 a prey for the small, piece-eating cookiecutter sharks and other unidentified fishes; 3 a prey for large sharks able to kill a dolphin; and 4 a particulate food supplier for plankton-eating fishes.

  10. Preliminary investigation of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) for hfe gene-related hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Brianne E; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Archer, Linda L; Nollens, Hendrik H; Wellehan, James F X

    2014-10-01

    Hemochromatosis (iron storage disease) has been reported in diverse mammals including bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). The primary cause of excessive iron storage in humans is hereditary hemochromatosis. Most human hereditary hemochromatosis cases (up to 90%) are caused by a point mutation in the hfe gene, resulting in a C282Y substitution leading to iron accumulation. To evaluate the possibility of a hereditary hemochromatosis-like genetic predisposition in dolphins, we sequenced the bottlenose dolphin hfe gene, using reverse transcriptase-PCR and hfe primers designed from the dolphin genome, from liver of affected and healthy control dolphins. Sample size included two case animals and five control animals. Although isotype diversity was evident, no coding differences were identified in the hfe gene between any of the animals examined. Because our sample size was small, we cannot exclude the possibility that hemochromatosis in dolphins is due to a coding mutation in the hfe gene. Other potential causes of hemochromatosis, including mutations in different genes, diet, primary liver disease, and insulin resistance, should be evaluated.

  11. Sex Difference in Bottlenose Dolphin Sightings during a Long-term Bridge Construction Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Weaver

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Almost nothing is known about the effect of long-term bridge construction on free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus. The species’ natural history predicts that there should be sex differences in reaction to construction because bottlenose dolphins show sex differences in most of their behaviors. A 5-year bridge construction project over a narrow but important dolphin corridor at John’s Pass tidal inlet, St. Petersburg FL, brought chronic environmental changes. The purpose of this 8-year study was to determine if bridge construction was associated with changes in dolphin sightings. The sex difference hypothesis was tested with a comparison of sighting probabilities before, during and after bridge construction. Sighting probabilities were generated for 68 adults seen n = 6504 times during N = 951 small-boat surveys of the 6.5-mile estuarine study area, documented with photo identification June 2005-December 2012. The sex difference hypothesis was supported with a significant interaction between construction and gender. Female sightings showed a significant linear decline across construction. Male sightings did not change across construction. The main conclusion is that adult males and females may react differently to habitat changes associated with anthropogenic activities. Sex differences in environmental monitoring and vigilance associated with maternal behavior may have played a role. This is the first report on John’s Pass dolphins that evaluates changes in their behavior during a major construction project across a narrow but important dolphin corridor.

  12. Pectoral fin contact as a mechanism for social bonding among dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzinski, Kathleen; Ribic, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins are large-brained social mammals residing in a fission-fusion society with relationships that are established and maintained over decades. We examined a decade-long data set of inter-individual pectoral fin contact exchanges to better understand how dolphins share information via tactile contact. Sex and age are significant factors in pectoral fin contact within non-kin dolphin dyads. Adult females shared more pectoral fin contacts with other adult females, while younger females showed no pattern of contact. Males shared more pectoral fin contacts with other males as juveniles and as adults, but showed no difference in the number of touches versus rubs as pectoral fin contacts with other males. Whether in the role of initiator as rubber or initiator as rubbee, male dolphins again preferred other males. These results support the notion that dolphins, especially male dolphins, might use pectoral fin contact as one tool in their repertoire for social bonding to establish, maintain and manage their inter-individual relationships. Additionally, it is also likely that the exchange of pectoral fin contact is developed and refined as individuals age, mature socially, and establish their place within a fission-fusion society.

  13. Effects of oral megestrol acetate administration on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of male bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Dorian S; Champagne, Cory D; Jensen, Eric D; Smith, Cynthia R; Cotte, Lara S; Meegan, Jenny M; Booth, Rebecca K; Wasser, Samuel K

    2017-07-15

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of oral megestrol acetate (MA) administration on adrenal function in male bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). DESIGN Serial cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 8 adult male dolphins, all of which were receiving MA at various daily doses (range, 0 to 60 mg, PO) for the control of reproductive behavior. PROCEDURES Blood samples were collected every 2 weeks for 1 year from dolphins trained to voluntarily provide them. Cortisol, ACTH, and other hormone concentrations were measured in serum or plasma via radioimmunoassay or ELISA. Fecal samples, also provided by dolphins voluntarily, were assayed for glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations. Effects of daily MA dose on hormone concentrations were evaluated. RESULTS Daily MA doses as low as 10 mg strongly suppressed cortisol secretion in nearly all dolphins, and except for a single measurement, no dolphin had measurable serum concentrations at doses ≥ 20 mg. Variations in serum cortisol concentration were unrelated to season but were directly related to ACTH concentrations, suggesting primary effects upstream of the adrenal gland. Cessation of MA administration resulted in almost immediate restoration of measurable serum cortisol concentrations, although concentrations continued to rise in a few dolphins over the following weeks to months. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Caution should be exercised when administering MA to control reproductive behavior in male dolphins. Because the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis appeared to be sensitive to even small doses of MA in dolphins, duration of treatment may be the most critical consideration.

  14. Geographic variations in the whistles of spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) of the Main Hawai‵ian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazúa-Durán, Carmen; Au, Whitlow W. L.

    2004-12-01

    Geographic variations in the whistles of Hawai‵ian spinner dolphins are discussed by comparing 27 spinner dolphin pods recorded in waters off the Islands of Kaua‵i, O‵ahu, Lana‵i, and Hawai‵i. Three different behavioral states, the number of dolphins observed in each pod, and ten parameters extracted from each whistle contour were considered by using clustering and discriminant function analyses. The results suggest that spinner dolphin pods in the Main Hawai‵ian Islands share characteristics in approximately 48% of their whistles. Spinner dolphin pods had similar whistle parameters regardless of the island, location, and date when they were sampled and the dolphins' behavioral state and pod size. The term ‵‵whistle-specific subgroup'' (WSS) was used to designate whistle groups with similar whistles parameters (which could have been produced in part by the same dolphins). The emission rate of whistles was higher when spinner dolphins were socializing than when they were traveling or resting, suggesting that whistles are mainly used during close-range interactions. Spinner dolphins also seem to vary whistle duration according to their general behavioral state. Whistle duration and the number of turns and steps of a whistle may be more important in delivering information at the individual level than whistle frequency parameters. .

  15. [Distribution and environmental conditions related to the behavior in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) (Cetacea: Delphinidae) in Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero-Pardo, Priscilla

    2007-06-01

    Habitat characteristics influencing behavior in animal species vary locally. The influence that a particular environmental characteristic can have on a species depends not only on other variables, but on morphological, physiological and social conditions of that species. In this study, developed from June 1996 to July 1997, I studied whether specific behaviors are related to particular distribution areas and environmental factors in the bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). The study area was covered along oblicuous linear transects, and the behavior of single groups was observed from 15 min to 5 h. Environmental factors such as depth, temperature, salinity and distance from shore, among others, were considered. For the bottlenose dolphin, foraging/feeding activities showed exclusive coincidence with river mouths, coral reef and mangrove areas, while social and milling activities where seen close to feeding areas. Traveling occurred along different points parallel to the coast, with a low percentage of cases across the gulf (16.56 %), suggesting that the bottlenose rarely crosses from one side to the other. In the spotted dolphin, several behaviors were observed simultaneously in the schools and it was not possible to associate areas with particular behaviors. The lack of significant relationships among activities and particular environmental variables (ANOVA tests) is attributed to three aspects: (a) transitions among activities generally occurred into a low variable area, (b) dolphins often traveled along large areas without changing activities and (c) environmental conditions in Golfo Dulce are homogeneous. In the two species the highest average in the number of individuals per group corresponded to the category of active socializing, followed by traveling, passive socializing and feeding. In the case of the bottlenose dolphin, the smallest group size was associated with feeding activities (ANOVA, F= 2.624, p=0.037, n=156

  16. Energy scenarios for New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, G. S.; Ellis, M. J.; Scott, G. C.; Wood, J. R.

    1977-10-15

    Three energy scenarios have been formulated for New Zealand. They concentrate on those aspects of society which have a direct bearing on energy, emphasizing three important issues: major shifts in society's values in relation to material wealth, pollution, and resources. The scenarios make assumptions that certain overall social conditions would prevail so that all decisions of government, the private sector, and individuals would be governed by the requirement to conform to the scenario theme in a way not possible under existing social and political conditions. The 3 scenarios are known as Continuation, Low New Zealand Pollution, and Limited Growth.

  17. Performing Manaaki and New Zealand Refugee Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazou, Rand T.

    2018-01-01

    In September 2015, and in response to the Syrian refugee crisis, there were widespread calls in New Zealand urging the Government to raise its annual Refugee Quota. Maori Party co-leader Marama Fox argued that New Zealand could afford to take on more refugees as part of its global citizenship and suggested that New Zealand's policy might be shaped…

  18. Liability for medical malpractice--recent New Zealand developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladden, Nicola; Graydon, Sarah

    2009-03-01

    Over the last 30 years in New Zealand, civil liability for personal injury including "medical malpractice" has been most notable for its absence. The system of accident compensation and the corresponding bar on personal injury claims has been an interesting contrast to the development of tort law claims for personal injury in other jurisdictions. The Health and Disability Commissioner was appointed in 1994 to protect and promote the rights of health and disability consumers as set out in the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumers' Rights. An important right in the Code, in terms of an equivalent to the common law duty to take reasonable care, is that patients have the right to services of an appropriate standard. Several case studies from the Commissioner's Office are used to illustrate New Zealand's unique medico-legal system and demonstrate how the traditional common law obligation of reasonable care and skill is applied. From an international perspective, the most interesting aspect of liability for medical malpractice in New Zealand is its relative absence - in a tortious sense anyway. This paper will give some general background on the New Zealand legal landscape and discuss recent case studies of interest.

  19. The ''Dolphin'' power laser installation for spherical thermonuclear target heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basov, N.G.; Bykovskij, N.E.; Danilov, A.E.

    1978-01-01

    12-channel laser installation the ''Dolphin'' for thermonuclear target heating in the radiation spheric geometry has been developed to carry out series of physical investigations of laser-thermonuclear plasma system, optimization of target heating conditions and obtaining a comparatively large value of thermonuclear output in ratio to the energy of absorbed light radiation in the target. The description of installation main elements, consisting of the following components, is given: 1)neodymium laser with the maximum permissible radiation energy of 10kJ, with light pulse duration of 10 -10 /10 -9 c and radiation divergence of approximately 5x10 -4 rad; 2)vacuum chamber, where laser radiation interaction with plasma takes place; 3)diagnostic means of laser and plasma parameters and 4)focus system. The focus system provides a high degree of target spherical radiation symmetry at current maximum density on its surface of approximately 10 15 W/cm 2

  20. Early social networks predict survival in wild bottlenose dolphins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A Stanton

    Full Text Available A fundamental question concerning group-living species is what factors influence the evolution of sociality. Although several studies link adult social bonds to fitness, social patterns and relationships are often formed early in life and are also likely to have fitness consequences, particularly in species with lengthy developmental periods, extensive social learning, and early social bond-formation. In a longitudinal study of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp., calf social network structure, specifically the metric eigenvector centrality, predicted juvenile survival in males. Additionally, male calves that died post-weaning had stronger ties to juvenile males than surviving male calves, suggesting that juvenile males impose fitness costs on their younger counterparts. Our study indicates that selection is acting on social traits early in life and highlights the need to examine the costs and benefits of social bonds during formative life history stages.

  1. Dental pathology in dolphins (Cetacea: Delphinidae) from the southern coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Carolina; Grando, Liliane J; Kieser, Jules A; Simões-Lopes, Paulo C

    2011-05-09

    Pathological processes observed in the stomatognathic systems of mammalian species are a useful source of information about the habits, evolution and general health of such animals. Studies of pathological conditions on teeth are common in humans and other primates, but rare in wild animals in general and marine mammals in particular. For cetaceans, previous studies provided scanty records of dental anomalies in a few species. This is the first broad and systematic inventory of dental pathology in dolphins. Specimens stored at scientific collections from the southern coast of Brazil were visually inspected under a stereoscopic microscope using a dental explorer. Diagnosis of lesions and anomalies followed literature descriptions. Abnormalities such as caries-like lesions, mineralized calculus deposits, dental erosion, enamel anomalies (hypoplasia and exogenous pigmentation), root resorption, germination and other shape anomalies, were diagnosed in the delphinids Sotalia guianensis, Delphinus capensis, Stenella frontalis, Stenella coeruleoalba, Lagenodelphis hosei, Pseudorca crassidens, Orcinus orca, Steno bredanensis and Tursiops truncatus. Endogenous causes may be related to the occurrence of certain conditions, but the aetiology of caries-like lesions and calculus accumulation is still unknown for cetaceans. The diagnosis of alveolar anomalies and other bone lesions in specimens with dental pathology lead us to believe these lesions modify the integrity of the periodontal ligament and bony tissues, adding to the burden of morbidity of affected animals.

  2. Seven new dolphin mitochondrial genomes and a time-calibrated phylogeny of whales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Kaiya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylogeny of Cetacea (whales is not fully resolved with substantial support. The ambiguous and conflicting results of multiple phylogenetic studies may be the result of the use of too little data, phylogenetic methods that do not adequately capture the complex nature of DNA evolution, or both. In addition, there is also evidence that the generic taxonomy of Delphinidae (dolphins underestimates its diversity. To remedy these problems, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of seven dolphins and analyzed these data with partitioned Bayesian analyses. Moreover, we incorporate a newly-developed "relaxed" molecular clock to model heterogenous rates of evolution among cetacean lineages. Results The "deep" phylogenetic relationships are well supported including the monophyly of Cetacea and Odontoceti. However, there is ambiguity in the phylogenetic affinities of two of the river dolphin clades Platanistidae (Indian River dolphins and Lipotidae (Yangtze River dolphins. The phylogenetic analyses support a sister relationship between Delphinidae and Monodontidae + Phocoenidae. Additionally, there is statistically significant support for the paraphyly of Tursiops (bottlenose dolphins and Stenella (spotted dolphins. Conclusion Our phylogenetic analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes using recently developed models of rate autocorrelation resolved the phylogenetic relationships of the major Cetacean lineages with a high degree of confidence. Our results indicate that a rapid radiation of lineages explains the lack of support the placement of Platanistidae and Lipotidae. Moreover, our estimation of molecular divergence dates indicates that these radiations occurred in the Middle to Late Oligocene and Middle Miocene, respectively. Furthermore, by collecting and analyzing seven new mitochondrial genomes, we provide strong evidence that the delphinid genera Tursiops and Stenella are not monophyletic, and the current taxonomy

  3. Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba skin biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casini Silvia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Odontocete cetaceans occupy the top position of the marine food-web and are particularly sensitive to the bioaccumulation of lipophilic contaminants. The effects of environmental pollution on these species are highly debated and various ecotoxicological studies have addressed the impact of xenobiotic compounds on marine mammals, raising conservational concerns. Despite its sensitivity, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR has never been used to quantify gene induction caused by exposure of cetaceans to contaminants. A limitation for the application of qRT-PCR is the need for appropriate reference genes which allow the correct quantification of gene expression. A systematic evaluation of potential reference genes in cetacean skin biopsies is presented, in order to validate future qRT-PCR studies aiming at using the expression of selected genes as non-lethal biomarkers. Results Ten commonly used housekeeping genes (HKGs were partially sequenced in the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba and, for each gene, PCR primer pairs were specifically designed and tested in qRT-PCR assays. The expression of these potential control genes was examined in 30 striped dolphin skin biopsy samples, obtained from specimens sampled in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. The stability of selected control genes was determined using three different specific VBA applets (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper which produce highly comparable results. Glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase (GAPDH and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (YWHAZ always rank as the two most stably expressed HKGs according to the analysis with geNorm and Normfinder, and are defined as optimal control genes by BestKepeer. Ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4 and S18 (RPS18 also exhibit a remarkable stability of their expression levels. On the other hand, transferrin receptor (TFRC, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1, hypoxanthine ribosyltransferase (HPRT1 and β-2-microglobin (B2M show variable expression

  4. Immunotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the Leukocytes of Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Ta; Chang, Hui-Wen; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Lo, Chieh; Wang, Lei-Ya; Pang, Victor Fei; Chen, Meng-Hsien; Jeng, Chian-Ren

    2018-04-04

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively used and are considered as an emerging contaminant in the ocean. The environmental contamination of AgNPs is expected to increase greatly over time, and cetaceans, as the top ocean predators, will suffer the negative impacts of AgNPs. In the present study, we investigate the immunotoxicity of AgNPs on the leukocytes of cetaceans using several methods, including cytomorphology, cytotoxicity, and functional activity assays. The results reveal that 20 nm Citrate-AgNPs (C-AgNP 20 ) induce different cytomorphological alterations and intracellular distributions in cetacean polymorphonuclear cells (cPMNs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (cPBMCs). At high concentrations of C-AgNP 20 (10 and 50 μg/ml), the time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity in cPMNs and cPBMCs involving apoptosis is demonstrated. C-AgNP 20 at sub-lethal doses (0.1 and 1 μg/ml) negatively affect the functional activities of cPMNs (phagocytosis and respiratory burst) and cPBMCs (proliferative activity). The current study presents the first evidence of the cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of AgNPs on the leukocytes of cetaceans and improves our understanding of environmental safety concerning AgNPs. The dose-response data of AgNPs on the leukocytes of cetaceans are invaluable for evaluating the adverse health effects in cetaceans and for proposing a conservation plan for marine mammals.

  5. 50 CFR 216.46 - U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation Program. 216.46 Section 216.46 Wildlife and Fisheries....46 U.S. citizens on foreign flag vessels operating under the International Dolphin Conservation...

  6. The bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus foraging around a fish farm: Effects of prey abundance on dolphins’ behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Díaz LÓPEZ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which prey abundance influences both bottlenose dolphin foraging behavior and group size in the presence of human activities has not previously been studied. The primary aim of this study was to identify and quantify how wild bottlenose dolphins respond, individually and as groups, to the relative abundance of prey around a fish farm. Detailed views of dolphins’ behavior were obtained by focal following individual animals whilst simultaneously collecting surface and underwater behavioral data. A total of 2150 dive intervals were analyzed, corresponding to 342 focal samples, lasting over 34 hours. Bottlenose dolphins remained submerged for a mean duration of 46.4 seconds and a maximum of 249 seconds. This study provides the first quantified data on bottlenose dolphin diving behavior in a marine fin-fish farm area. This study’s results indicate that within a fish farm area used intensively by bottlenose dolphins for feeding, dolphins did not modify dive duration. Additionally, underwater observations confirmed that dolphins find it easier to exploit a concentrated food source and it appears that hunting tactic and not group size plays an important role during feeding activities. Thus, bottlenose dolphins appear capable of modifying their hunting tactics according to the abundance of prey. When top predators display behavioral responses to activities not directed at them, the task of studying all possible effects of human activities can become even more challenging [Current Zoology 55(4: 243–248, 2009].

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  8. Effect of resinite on the combustion of New Zealand subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benfell, K.E.; Beamish, B.B.; Rodgers, K.A. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Geology

    1997-09-01

    This paper shows that Oligocene resin from New Zealand`s Rotowaro coalfield displays DTA and DTG traces similar to those of other fossil resins. It modifies the thermal behaviour of low rank coal raising the peak combustion temperature and lowering its rate of combustion; this behaviour may be common among liptinite macerals. The effect is not additive and unlike other coal constituents the resinite component does not deteriorate with time.

  9. Some prehistory of New Zealand intensive care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubuhovich, R V

    2009-07-01

    In taking 1960 as the foundation year for the practice of intensive care medicine in New Zealand, this paper briefly looks into the previous two centuries for some interventions in life-threatening conditions. With the help of descriptions in early 19th century journals and books by perceptive observers, the author focuses on some beliefs and practices of the Maori people during pre-European and later times, as well as aspects of medical treatment in New Zealand for early settlers and their descendents. Dr Laurie Gluckman's book Tangiwai has proved a valuable resource for New Zealand's medical history prior to 1860, while the recent publication of his findings from the examination of coroners' records for Auckland, 1841 to 1864, has been helpful. Drowning is highlighted as a common cause of accidental death, and consideration is given to alcohol as a factor. Following the 1893 foundation of the New Zealand Medical Journal, a limited number of its papers which are historically relevant to today's intensive care are explored: topics include tetanus, laryngeal diphtheria, direct cardiac massage, traumatic shock, thiopentone management for fitting and the ventilatory failure due to poliomyelitis.

  10. Underwater recordings of the whistles of bottlenose dolphins in Fremantle Inner Harbour, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Sarah A.; Erbe, Christine; Kent, Chandra P. Salgado

    2017-09-01

    Dolphins use frequency-modulated whistles for a variety of social functions. Whistles vary in their characteristics according to context, such as activity state, group size, group composition, geographic location, and ambient noise levels. Therefore, comparison of whistle characteristics can be used to address numerous research questions regarding dolphin populations and behaviour. However, logistical and economic constraints on dolphin research have resulted in data collection biases, inconsistent analytical approaches, and knowledge gaps. This Data Descriptor presents an acoustic dataset of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) whistles recorded in the Fremantle Inner Harbour, Western Australia. Data were collected using an autonomous recorder and analysed using a range of acoustic measurements. Acoustic data review identified 336 whistles, which were subsequently measured for six key characteristics using Raven Pro software. Of these, 164 'high-quality' whistles were manually measured to provide an additional five acoustic characteristics. Digital files of individual whistles and corresponding measurements make this dataset available to researchers to address future questions regarding variations within and between dolphin communities.

  11. The acoustic repertoire of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazua-Duran, Carmen

    2005-04-01

    Bottlenose dolphins live in a variety of habitats of the world's oceans using their acoustic repertoire to communicate and inspect their environment. This work investigates the acoustic repertoire of bottlenose dolphins that inhabit a coastal lagoon of the southern Gulf of Mexico, the Laguna de Terminos and how it may relate to the dolphins' general behavioral state and herd size, and to the general characteristics of the habitat, such as visibility, depth, and sea state. Preliminary results show that bottlenose dolphins produce by far more clicks than whistles in all behavioral states (feeding, resting, social, and travel) and herd sizes, which may correlate with the decreased visibility and shallow depth of the Laguna de Terminos. Additionally, silence was found during all behavioral states, but very seldom in herds of large size. These preliminary results suggest that bottlenose dolphins are choosing when and where to produce their phonations. Therefore, more detailed studies are needed to understand how these animals are using their acoustic sense to communicate and inspect their environment. [Work supported by CONACyT-Gobierno Edo. de Campeche and PAPIIT, UNAM.

  12. Vocal reporting of echolocation targets: dolphins often report before click trains end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, S H; Elsberry, W R; Blackwood, D J; Kamolnick, T; Todd, M; Carder, D A; Chaplin, Monica; Cranford, T W

    2012-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) wore opaque suction cups over their eyes while stationing behind an acoustically opaque door. This put the dolphins in a known position and orientation. When the door opened, the dolphin clicked to detect targets. Trainers specified that Dolphin S emit a whistle if the target was a 7.5 cm water filled sphere, or a pulse burst if the target was a rock. S remained quiet if there was no target. Dolphin B whistled for the sphere. She remained quiet for rock and for no target. Thus, S had to choose between three different responses, whistle, pulse burst, or remain quiet. B had to choose between two different responses, whistle or remain quiet. S gave correct vocal responses averaging 114 ms after her last echolocation click (range 182 ms before and 219 ms after the last click). Average response for B was 21 ms before her last echolocation click (range 250 ms before and 95 ms after the last click in the train). More often than not, B began her whistle response before her echolocation train ended. The findings suggest separate neural pathways for generation of response vocalizations as opposed to echolocation clicks. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.

  13. A comparison of pectoral fin contact between two different wild dolphin populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzinski, K.M.; Gregg, J.D.; Ribic, C.A.; Kuczaj, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Contact behaviour involving the pectoral fin has been documented in a number of dolphin species, and various explanations about its function have been offered. Pectoral fin contact can take a variety of forms, and involves a number of body parts and movements, likely differing depending upon social or ecological context. For this study, we compare the pectoral fin contact behaviour of two species of wild dolphins: Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) from around Mikura Island, Japan, and Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) from The Bahamas. The two study populations exhibit surprising similarity in the ways in which pectoral fin contacts are used, despite differences in species and environmental conditions at the two sites. Differences in contact rates for calves between the two sites suggest that calf-focused aggression from adult dolphins is more prevalent at Mikura than in The Bahamas. Our results suggest that pectoral fin contact behaviour seems to be driven primarily by social pressures, and may be similar in function to allogrooming described in primates. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Role of Crassicauda sp. in natural mortality of pantropical spotted dolphins Stenella attenuata: a reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Simpkin, Andrew

    2014-02-04

    Evaluating the effect of parasites on population size is essential for designing management and conservation plans of wild animal populations. Although knowledge in this area is scarce in cetaceans, current evidence suggests that species of the nematode genus Crassicauda may play an important regulatory role in some populations. In the present study, a semiparametric regression technique was applied to a previously published dataset to re-examine the role of Crassicauda sp. in natural mortality of pantropical spotted dolphins Stenella attenuata. The resulting model indicated parasite-induced mortality at ages between 6.5 and 9 yr and at roughly 12 yr. The maximum mortality estimates obtained could represent 2 to 4% of natural mortality in dolphins 6 to 8 yr old. This estimate is substantially smaller than previously published values, but in contrast with previous research, our model provides clear statistical evidence for parasite-induced mortality because the bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals of the estimated mortality rates excluded the 0 value. We also evaluated, through simulations, how potential sampling biases of infected dolphins could overestimate parasite-induced mortality. Small differences in sampling selectivity between infected and uninfected animals could substantially reduce the mortality estimates. However, the simulated models also supported the notion of statistically significant mortality in juvenile dolphins. Given that dolphins older than 16 yr were poorly represented in the dataset, further research is needed to establish whether Crassicauda sp. causes meaningful mortality for population dynamics among adult individuals.

  15. Whistle rates of wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): influences of group size and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Nicola J; Janik, Vincent M

    2008-08-01

    In large social groups acoustic communication signals are prone to signal masking by conspecific sounds. Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) use highly distinctive signature whistles that counter masking effects. However, they can be found in very large groups where masking by conspecific sounds may become unavoidable. In this study we used passive acoustic localization to investigate how whistle rates of wild bottlenose dolphins change in relation to group size and behavioral context. We found that individual whistle rates decreased when group sizes got larger. Dolphins displayed higher whistle rates in contexts when group members were more dispersed as in socializing and in nonpolarized movement than during coordinated surface travel. Using acoustic localization showed that many whistles were produced by groups nearby and not by our focal group. Thus, previous studies based on single hydrophone recordings may have been overestimating whistle rates. Our results show that although bottlenose dolphins whistle more in social situations they also decrease vocal output in large groups where the potential for signal masking by other dolphin whistles increases.

  16. The Trophic Significance of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis, in Western Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ching-Wen; Chen, Meng-Hsien; Chou, Lien-Siang; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) have attracted considerable attention due to their critically endangered status and related conservation issues, but their trophic relationships and ecological significance in coastal ecosystems are poorly understood. For instance, this species is noticeably more abundant in the Xin-Huwei River Estuary (Ex) of Western Taiwan than in the nearby Zhuoshui River Estuary (Ez), though it is unclear why the distribution shows such partitioning. To explore this topic, we conducted field surveys seasonally for two years from 2012 to 2013 and constructed Ecopath models of Ex, Ez, and an offshore site (Dm) to compare energy flow within the food webs. Model comparisons showed that the availability of food resources was the main factor influencing the biomass of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. Specifically, its more frequent occurrence in Ex can be attributed to greater phytoplankton production and greater biomasses of macroinvertebrates and prey fish than in the other two areas. An increase in fishing activity might decrease the food availability and, consequently, the biomass of the dolphins. Although the decline in the dolphin population would increase the biomass of some prey fish species, local fishermen might not necessarily benefit from the decline due to the concurrent decrease of highly valued crabs and shrimp. Collectively, our work suggests that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is a keystone species in tropical coastal waters of Taiwan, and thereby exhibit a disproportional large ecological impact given their relatively low abundance.

  17. The Trophic Significance of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis, in Western Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Wen Pan

    Full Text Available Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis have attracted considerable attention due to their critically endangered status and related conservation issues, but their trophic relationships and ecological significance in coastal ecosystems are poorly understood. For instance, this species is noticeably more abundant in the Xin-Huwei River Estuary (Ex of Western Taiwan than in the nearby Zhuoshui River Estuary (Ez, though it is unclear why the distribution shows such partitioning. To explore this topic, we conducted field surveys seasonally for two years from 2012 to 2013 and constructed Ecopath models of Ex, Ez, and an offshore site (Dm to compare energy flow within the food webs. Model comparisons showed that the availability of food resources was the main factor influencing the biomass of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. Specifically, its more frequent occurrence in Ex can be attributed to greater phytoplankton production and greater biomasses of macroinvertebrates and prey fish than in the other two areas. An increase in fishing activity might decrease the food availability and, consequently, the biomass of the dolphins. Although the decline in the dolphin population would increase the biomass of some prey fish species, local fishermen might not necessarily benefit from the decline due to the concurrent decrease of highly valued crabs and shrimp. Collectively, our work suggests that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is a keystone species in tropical coastal waters of Taiwan, and thereby exhibit a disproportional large ecological impact given their relatively low abundance.

  18. Fatal Asphyxiation in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus from the Indian River Lagoon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Stolen

    Full Text Available Multiple single case reports of asphyxiation in dolphins caused by fish lodged in the esophagus exist. However, the significance of this cause of mortality in a single population has not been documented. We performed a retrospective evaluation of pathology records from stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus from the Indian River Lagoon to evaluate the impact of this cause of death on this population. From 1997 to 2011, asphyxiation due to choking was identified as the cause of death in 14 of 350 cases (4%. Sampling of an unrelated but adjacent population over this same period yielded 186 necropsy cases of bottlenose dolphins with no cases of asphyxiation. Asphyxiated animals presented with a fish lodged in the cranial esophagus associated with a dislocated and obstructed or compressed larynx. There was no clear sex predilection. Affected animals included 12 adults and two juveniles. The fish species involved included sheepshead, black chin tilapia and striped mojarra. In five cases, recreational fishing gear was also present. Cetacean choking is related to selection of prey fish species with strong dorsal spines and may be secondarily associated with fish attached to fishing gear. Prey abundance and dolphin behavior may influence these selections. Environmental alterations leading to changes in prey availability or increased interactions with fishing gear may change the significance of fatal choking in dolphin populations.

  19. How can dolphins recognize fish according to their echoes? A statistical analysis of fish echoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossi Yovel

    Full Text Available Echo-based object classification is a fundamental task of animals that use a biosonar system. Dolphins and porpoises should be able to rely on echoes to discriminate a predator from a prey or to select a desired prey from an undesired object. Many studies have shown that dolphins and porpoises can discriminate between objects according to their echoes. All of these studies however, used unnatural objects that can be easily characterized in human terminologies (e.g., metallic spheres, disks, cylinders. In this work, we collected real fish echoes from many angles of acquisition using a sonar system that mimics the emission properties of dolphins and porpoises. We then tested two alternative statistical approaches in classifying these echoes. Our results suggest that fish species can be classified according to echoes returning from porpoise- and dolphin-like signals. These results suggest how dolphins and porpoises can classify fish based on their echoes and provide some insight as to which features might enable the classification.

  20. Monitoring dolphins in an urban marine system: total and effective population size estimates of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins in Moreton Bay, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina C Ansmann

    Full Text Available Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia is an area of high biodiversity and conservation value and home to two sympatric sub-populations of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus. These dolphins live in close proximity to major urban developments. Successful management requires information regarding their abundance. Here, we estimate total and effective population sizes of bottlenose dolphins in Moreton Bay using photo-identification and genetic data collected during boat-based surveys in 2008-2010. Abundance (N was estimated using open population mark-recapture models based on sighting histories of distinctive individuals. Effective population size (Ne was estimated using the linkage disequilibrium method based on nuclear genetic data at 20 microsatellite markers in skin samples, and corrected for bias caused by overlapping generations (Ne c. A total of 174 sightings of dolphin groups were recorded and 365 different individuals identified. Over the whole of Moreton Bay, a population size N of 554 ± 22.2 (SE (95% CI: 510-598 was estimated. The southern bay sub-population was small at an estimated N = 193 ± 6.4 (SE (95% CI: 181-207, while the North sub-population was more numerous, with 446 ± 56 (SE (95% CI: 336-556 individuals. The small estimated effective population size of the southern sub-population (Ne c = 56, 95% CI: 33-128 raises conservation concerns. A power analysis suggested that to reliably detect small (5% declines in size of this population would require substantial survey effort (>4 years of annual mark-recapture surveys at the precision levels achieved here. To ensure that ecological as well as genetic diversity within this population of bottlenose dolphins is preserved, we consider that North and South sub-populations should be treated as separate management units. Systematic surveys over smaller areas holding locally-adapted sub-populations are suggested as an alternative method for increasing ability to detect

  1. Hydrochemistry of New Zealand's aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    Groundwater chemistry on a national scale has never been studied in New Zealand apart from a few studies on nitrate concentrations and pesticides. These studies are covered in Chapter 8 of this book. However general studies of groundwater chemistry, groundwater-rock interaction and regional characteristics of water quality have not been previously addressed in much detail. This is partly because New Zealand aquifers are relatively small on a world scale and are geologically and tectonically diverse (see Chapter 3). But New Zealand has also recently lacked a centralised agency responsible for groundwater quality, and therefore, no national assessments have been undertaken. In recent years, the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences has managed a programme of collecting and analysing the groundwater chemistry of key New Zealand aquifers. This programme is called the National Groundwater Monitoring Programme (NGMP) and is funded by the New Zealand Public Good Science Fund. The programme started in 1990 using only 22 wells, with four regional authorities of the country participating. The NGMP now includes all 15 regional and unitary authorities that use groundwater and over 100 monitoring sites. The NGMP is considered a nationally significant database by the New Zealand Foundation for Research Science and Technology. The NGMP allows a national comparison of aquifer chemistries because the samples are all analysed at one laboratory in a consistent manner and undergo stringent quality control checks. Poor quality analyses are thus minimised. In addition, samples are collected quarterly so that long-term seasonal trends in water quality can be analysed, and the effects of changes in land use and the vulnerability of aquifers to contaminant leaching can be assessed. This chapter summarises the water quality data collected for the NGMP over the past 10 years. Some records are much shorter than others, but most are greater than three years. Additional information is

  2. Seismic isolation in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, R.I.; Robinson, W.H.; McVerry, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Bridges, buildings, and industrial equipment can be given increased protection from earthquake damage by limiting the earthquake attack through seismic isolation. A broad summary of the seismic responses of base-isolated structures is of considerable assistance for their preliminary design. Seismic isolation as already used in New Zealand consists of a flexible base or support combined with some form of energy-dissipating device, usually involving the hysteretic working of steel or lead. This paper presents examples of the New Zealand experience, where seismic isolation has been used for 42 bridges, 3 buildings, a tall chimney, and high-voltage capacitor banks. Additional seismic response factors, which may be important for nuclear power plants, are also discussed briefly

  3. New Zealand faces energy problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    New Zealand's known reserves of petroleum are rapidly depleting and yet, with an expanding economy, overall energy demand is expected to grow by 1.4 per cent per annum over the next 30 years. The difficulties centre on New Zealand's dependence on natural gas. Built up over the last 15-20 years, gas has become a key component in electricity generation, transport fuels (both as compressed natural gas and the synthesis of gasoline), and in the manufacture of petrochemicals as well as its use as a domestic and industrial fuel. But known reserves are limited. Latest assessments of economically recoverable reserves, albeit conservative, suggest that indigenous gas supply will last until about 2016. Competition among the major users is expected to begin to push up market prices by 2005, and at higher prices some of the current applications will simply stop. It is suggested, for instance, that the synfuels and petrochemical plants are unlikely to operate after 2008. Other gas customers will continue by becoming more energy efficient and some, depending on environmental pressures, will shift to coal, fuel oil and alternative sources like geothermal power. But perhaps the most interesting outcome -particularly for gas rich countries like Australia - is the possibility of New Zealand importing natural gas during the first decades of the new century in the form of liquefied natural gas. (author)

  4. Pulmonary and systemic fungal infections in an Atlantic spotted dolphin and a Bryde's whale, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groch, Kátia R; Díaz-Delgado, Josué; Sacristán, Carlos; Oliveira, Denyiélim E; Souza, Gabriela; Sánchez-Sarmiento, Angélica M; Costa-Silva, Samira; Marigo, Juliana; Castilho, Pedro V; Cremer, Marta J; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline; Esperón, Fernando; Catão-Dias, José L

    2018-03-22

    We report the gross and microscopic findings and molecular identification of 2 cases of hyphate fungal infection in cetaceans from Brazil. The first case involved an adult male Atlantic spotted dolphin Stenella frontalis with localized pulmonary disease characterized by pyogranulomatous and necrotizing bronchopneumonia with intralesional hyphae. The second case involved an adult male Bryde's whale Balaenoptera edeni with orchitis, periorchitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis and pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia with intralesional hyphae. PCR analysis from the dolphin's lung yielded Aspergillus fumigatus, and the fungus from the whale's mesenteric lymph node showed the greatest identity to Nanniziopsis obscura and Stagonosporopsis cucurbitacearum These cases represent the first reports of pulmonary aspergillosis by A. fumigatus in an Atlantic spotted dolphin and systemic mycosis by a possibly novel Onygenales in marine mammals.

  5. Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) hearing threshold for brief broadband signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Whitlow W L; Lemonds, David W; Vlachos, Stephanie; Nachtigall, Paul E; Roitblat, Herbert L

    2002-06-01

    The hearing sensitivity of an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) to both pure tones and broadband signals simulating echoes from a 7.62-cm water-filled sphere was measured. Pure tones with frequencies between 40 and 140 kHz in increments of 20 kHz were measured along with broadband thresholds using a stimulus with a center frequency of 97.3 kHz and 88.2 kHz. The pure-tone thresholds were compared with the broadband thresholds by converting the pure-tone threshold intensity to energy flux density. The results indicated that dolphins can detect broadband signals slightly better than a pure-tone signal. The broadband results suggest that an echolocating bottlenose dolphin should be able to detect a 7.62-cm diameter water-filled sphere out to a range of 178 m in a quiet environment.

  6. Object representation in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): integration of visual and echoic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, H E; Roitblat, H L; Nachtigall, P E

    1996-04-01

    A dolphin performed a 3-alternative matching-to-sample task in different modality conditions (visual/echoic, both vision and echolocation: visual, vision only; echoic, echolocation only). In Experiment 1, training occurred in the dual-modality (visual/echoic) condition. Choice accuracy in tests of all conditions was above chance without further training. In Experiment 2, unfamiliar objects with complementary similarity relations in vision and echolocation were presented in single-modality conditions until accuracy was about 70%. When tested in the visual/echoic condition, accuracy immediately rose (95%), suggesting integration across modalities. In Experiment 3, conditions varied between presentation of sample and alternatives. The dolphin successfully matched familiar objects in the cross-modal conditions. These data suggest that the dolphin has an object-based representational system.

  7. Demographic collapse and low genetic diversity of the Irrawaddy dolphin population inhabiting the Mekong River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krützen, Michael; Beasley, Isabel; Ackermann, Corinne Y; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Ludwig, Arne; Ryan, Gerard E; Bejder, Lars; Parra, Guido J; Wolfensberger, Rebekka; Spencer, Peter B S

    2018-01-01

    In threatened wildlife populations, it is important to determine whether observed low genetic diversity may be due to recent anthropogenic pressure or the consequence of historic events. Historical size of the Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) population inhabiting the Mekong River is unknown and there is significant concern for long-term survival of the remaining population as a result of low abundance, slow reproduction rate, high neonatal mortality, and continuing anthropogenic threats. We investigated population structure and reconstructed the demographic history based on 60 Irrawaddy dolphins samples collected between 2001 and 2009. The phylogenetic analysis indicated reciprocal monophyly of Mekong River Orcaella haplotypes with respect to haplotypes from other populations, suggesting long-standing isolation of the Mekong dolphin population from other Orcaella populations. We found that at least 85% of all individuals in the two main study areas: Kratie and Stung Treng, bore the same mitochondrial haplotype. Out of the 21 microsatellite loci tested, only ten were polymorphic and exhibited very low levels of genetic diversity. Both individual and frequency-based approaches suggest very low and non-significant genetic differentiation of the Mekong dolphin population. Evidence for recent bottlenecks was equivocal. Some results suggested a recent exponential decline in the Mekong dolphin population, with the current size being only 5.2% of the ancestral population. In order for the Mekong dolphin population to have any potential for long-term survival, it is imperative that management priorities focus on preventing any further population fragmentation or genetic loss, reducing or eliminating anthropogenic threats, and promoting connectivity between all subpopulations.

  8. Monitoring bottlenose dolphin leukocyte cytokine mRNA responsiveness by qPCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Kirsten C.; Venn-Watson, Stephanie K.; Jensen, Eric D.; Porter, Tracy J.; Waters, Theresa E.; Sacco, Randy E.

    2017-01-01

    Both veterinarians caring for dolphins in managed populations and researchers monitoring wild populations use blood-based diagnostics to monitor bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) health. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be used to assess cytokine transcription patterns of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). This can supplement currently available blood tests with information on immune status. Full realization of this potential requires establishment of normal ranges of cytokine gene transcription levels in bottlenose dolphins. We surveyed four dolphins over the span of seven months by serial bleeds. PBMC were stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (1, 5, and 10 μg/mL) and concanavalin A (1 μg/mL) for 48 H in vitro. RNA from these cultures was probed by qPCR using Tursiops truncatus-specific primers (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-13, IL-18, IFN-γ and TNF-α). Two blood samples from an additional bottlenose dolphin diagnosed with acute pulmonary disease add further perspective to the data. We observed that mitogen choice made a significant difference in the magnitude of gene transcription observed. On the other hand, most cytokines tested exhibited limited intra-animal variation. However, IL-6 and IL-12p40 differed between older and younger dolphins. Furthermore, the magnitude of mitogenic response clusters the tested cytokines into three groups. The data provide a reference for the selection of target cytokine mRNAs and their expected range of mitogen-stimulated cytokine gene transcription for future studies. PMID:29272269

  9. Monitoring bottlenose dolphin leukocyte cytokine mRNA responsiveness by qPCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Ruth Hofstetter

    Full Text Available Both veterinarians caring for dolphins in managed populations and researchers monitoring wild populations use blood-based diagnostics to monitor bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus health. Quantitative PCR (qPCR can be used to assess cytokine transcription patterns of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. This can supplement currently available blood tests with information on immune status. Full realization of this potential requires establishment of normal ranges of cytokine gene transcription levels in bottlenose dolphins. We surveyed four dolphins over the span of seven months by serial bleeds. PBMC were stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (1, 5, and 10 μg/mL and concanavalin A (1 μg/mL for 48 H in vitro. RNA from these cultures was probed by qPCR using Tursiops truncatus-specific primers (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-13, IL-18, IFN-γ and TNF-α. Two blood samples from an additional bottlenose dolphin diagnosed with acute pulmonary disease add further perspective to the data. We observed that mitogen choice made a significant difference in the magnitude of gene transcription observed. On the other hand, most cytokines tested exhibited limited intra-animal variation. However, IL-6 and IL-12p40 differed between older and younger dolphins. Furthermore, the magnitude of mitogenic response clusters the tested cytokines into three groups. The data provide a reference for the selection of target cytokine mRNAs and their expected range of mitogen-stimulated cytokine gene transcription for future studies.

  10. Health information technology adoption in New Zealand optometric practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarian, Ahmadali; Mason, David

    2013-11-01

    Health information technology (HIT) has the potential to fundamentally change the practice of optometry and the relationship between optometrists and patients and to improve clinical outcomes. This paper aims to provide data on how health information technology is currently being used in New Zealand optometric practices. Also this paper aims to explore the potential benefits and barriers to the future adoption of health information technology in New Zealand. One hundred and six New Zealand optometrists were surveyed about their current use of health information technology and about potential benefits and barriers. In addition, 12 semi-structured interviews were carried out with leaders of health information technology in New Zealand optometry. The areas of interest were the current and intended use of HIT, the potential benefits of and barriers to using HIT in optometric offices and the level of investment in health information technology. Nearly all optometrists (98.7 per cent) in New Zealand use computers in their practices and 93.4 per cent of them use a computer in their consulting room. The most commonly used clinical assessment technology in optometric practices in New Zealand was automated perimeter (97.1 per cent), followed by a digital fundus/retinal camera (82.6 per cent) and automated lensometer (62.9 per cent). The pachymeter is the technology that most respondents intended to purchase in the next one to five years (42.6 per cent), followed by a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (36.8 per cent) and corneal topographer (32.9 per cent). The main benefits of using health information technology in optometric practices were improving patient perceptions of ‘state of the art’ practice and providing patients with information and digital images to explain the results of assessment. Barriers to the adoption of HIT included the need for frequent technology upgrades, cost, lack of time for implementation, and training. New Zealand optometrists are using HIT

  11. Personal Data Protection in New Zealand: Lessons for South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Roos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 the European Union adopted a Directive on data protection. Article 25 of this Directive compels all EU member countries to adopt data protection legislation and to prevent the transfer of personal data to non-EU member countries ('third countries' that do not provide an adequate level of data protection. Article 25 results in the Directive having extra-territorial effect and exerting an influence in countries outside the EU. Like South Africa, New Zealand is a 'third' country in terms of the EU Directive on data protection. New Zealand recognised the need for data protection and adopted a data protection Act over 15 years ago. The focus of this article is on the data protection provisions in New Zealand law with a view to establishing whether South Africa can learn any lessons from them. In general, it can be said that although New Zealand law does not expressly recognise a right to privacy, it has a data protection regime that functions well and that goes a long way to providing adequate data protection as required by the EU Directive on data protection. Nevertheless, the EU has not made a finding to that effect as yet. The New Zealand data protection act requires a couple of amendments before New Zealand might be adjudged ‘adequate’. South Africa’s protection of the right to privacy and identity is better developed and more extensive than that of New Zealand. Privacy is recognised and protected in the law of delict and by the South African Constitution. Despite South Africa’s apparently high regard for the individual’s right to privacy and identity and our well-developed common and constitutional law of privacy, South Africa does not meet the adequacy requirement of the EU Directive, because we do not have a data protection Act. This means that South African participants in the information technology arena are at a constant disadvantage. It is argued that South Africa should follow New Zealand’s example and adopt a data

  12. The Order of the Dolphin: Origins of SETI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temming, Maria; Crider, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    In 1961, the National Academy of Sciences organized a meeting on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, West Virginia. The ten scientists who attended, including future SETI icons such as Frank Drake and Carl Sagan, represented a variety of scientific fields. At the conclusion of the meeting, the attendees adopted the moniker "The Order of the Dolphin," in honor of participant John Lilly's work on interspecies communication. Since this seminal meeting, researchers in each of the attendees' fields have contributed in some way to the search for intelligent life. This study investigates the circumstances that led to each attendee's invitation to Green Bank and explores SETI as the legacy of this meeting. We will focus in this talk on the SETI connections of two attendees, astronomer Otto Struve and physicist Philip Morrison, both in regards to their personal contributions to SETI and the influence of their work on subsequent SETI research. Specifically, we will examine proposals by Otto Struve for exoplanet discovery methods, and Philip Morrison for radio searches that laid the groundwork for modern SETI.

  13. Bilateral Directional Asymmetry of the Appendicular Skeleton of the White-Beaked Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galatius, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Bilateral directional asymmetry of the lengths and diameters of the scapula, humerus, radius, and ulna were analyzed on a sample of 38 white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) from Danish waters. The levels of asymmetry were consistent between the sexes and between physically mature...... of lateralized use of the flippers in the white-beaked dolphin and possibly other delphinid and cetacean species. Although some evidence exists for flipper preference in the baleen humpback whale (Megaptera novaengliae) and turning preferences in other species, this needs to be confirmed through further...

  14. Vector vortex beam generation with dolphin-shaped cell meta-surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhuo; Kuang, Deng-Feng; Cheng, Fang

    2017-09-18

    We present a dolphin-shaped cell meta-surface, which is a combination of dolphin-shaped metallic cells and dielectric substrate, for vector vortex beam generation with the illumination of linearly polarized light. Surface plasmon polaritons are excited at the boundary of the metallic cells, then guided by the metallic structures, and finally squeezed to the tips to form highly localized strong electromagnetic fields, which generate the intensity of vector vortex beams at z component. Synchronously, the abrupt phase change produced by the meta-surface is utilized to explain the vortex phase generated by elements. The new kind of structure can be utilized for communication, bioscience, and materiality.

  15. Pulmonary fungal infection caused by Neoscytalidium dimidiatum in a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elad, Daniel; Morick, Danny; David, Dan; Scheinin, Aviad; Yamin, Gilad; Blum, Shlomo; Goffman, Oz

    2011-05-01

    Neoscytalidium dimidiatum was isolated from two 12-18 cm abscesses in the lung and the mediastinal lymph nodes of a stranded Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). Histopathologic examination of samples of these organs revealed the presence of hyphae and sclerotic body-like fungal elements. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae was recovered from the dolphin's organs which also were found to contain numerous Monorygma grimaldii cysts. No histopathological signs of morbillivirus infection were seen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of N. dimidiatum infection in a sea mammal.

  16. In defiance of nuclear deterrence: anti-nuclear New Zealand after two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzig, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    In 1984, nuclear-armed and nuclear-powered vessels were banned from New Zealand to express the country's rejection of the nuclear deterrence concept. This led to a disagreement with the United States. Today, the ban on nuclear-powered ships is the only element of the nuclear-free legislation that still strains US-New Zealand relations. This article presents the reasons for the ban on nuclear-powered ships, which include scientific safety concerns, a symbolic rejection of the nuclear deterrence posture, and patriotic factors such as a nuclear-free national identity. The military and economic consequences of the ban are also examined. Since the ban on nuclear-powered vessels appears to be neither widely known abroad nor commonly recognised as a supportive disarmament measure outside New Zealand, it is concluded that whatever the future of this ban will be, New Zealand's anti-nuclear image will remain known internationally through the ban on nuclear arms.

  17. [Occurrence and behavioral patterns of the spotted coastal dolphin Stenella attenuata (Cetacea: delphinidae) in the Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Collado, Laura; Ramírez, Alvaro Morales

    2005-01-01

    Dolphins are characterized by a significant behavioral versatility, which allows them to respond to environmental seasonality. Seasonal variation in dolphin behavior in tropical waters is not well known. Stenella attenuata graffmani is a resident dolphin in the clearly defined seasonal Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica, and we studied if dolphin group size, occurrence and behavioral patterns were associated with season and time of day in the gulf. Using strip transects we surveyed two locations for three consecutive years. School size ranged from 1 to 50 individuals, mean group size was 10.16 (SD = 9.61) individuals. Overall, foraging activities were the most frequent, followed by social interactions and travel. From 6:00 AM to 9:00 AM we mostly observed social interactions, followed by feeding-socializing (9:00 AM-12:00 PM) and feeding exclusively (12:00 PM-3:00 PM). Social activities intensified afterwards (3:00 PM-6:00 PM). Behavior and gulf seasonality were associated (chi2 = 90.52, gl = 6, psocializing was more frequent in the early rainy season (May-July). Larger groups (mean 12 dolphins) forage actively; smaller groups (mean 6 dolphins 6.51 +/- 5.12) foraged more passively. Seasonal variation in dolphin activities are likely to be associated with food availability, as observed in the high number of groups involved in foraging behaviors, and a high investment in foraging activities during the dry season.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Three Brevetoxin-Associated Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Mortality Events in the Florida Panhandle Region (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twiner, Michael J.; Flewelling, Leanne J.; Fire, Spencer E.; Bowen-Stevens, Sabrina R.; Gaydos, Joseph K.; Johnson, Christine K.; Landsberg, Jan H.; Leighfield, Tod A.; Mase-Guthrie, Blair; Schwacke, Lori; Van Dolah, Frances M.; Wang, Zhihong; Rowles, Teresa K.

    2012-01-01

    In the Florida Panhandle region, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have been highly susceptible to large-scale unusual mortality events (UMEs) that may have been the result of exposure to blooms of the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and its neurotoxin, brevetoxin (PbTx). Between 1999 and 2006, three bottlenose dolphin UMEs occurred in the Florida Panhandle region. The primary objective of this study was to determine if these mortality events were due to brevetoxicosis. Analysis of over 850 samples from 105 bottlenose dolphins and associated prey items were analyzed for algal toxins and have provided details on tissue distribution, pathways of trophic transfer, and spatial-temporal trends for each mortality event. In 1999/2000, 152 dolphins died following extensive K. brevis blooms and brevetoxin was detected in 52% of animals tested at concentrations up to 500 ng/g. In 2004, 105 bottlenose dolphins died in the absence of an identifiable K. brevis bloom; however, 100% of the tested animals were positive for brevetoxin at concentrations up to 29,126 ng/mL. Dolphin stomach contents frequently consisted of brevetoxin-contaminated menhaden. In addition, another potentially toxigenic algal species, Pseudo-nitzschia, was present and low levels of the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA) were detected in nearly all tested animals (89%). In 2005/2006, 90 bottlenose dolphins died that were initially coincident with high densities of K. brevis. Most (93%) of the tested animals were positive for brevetoxin at concentrations up to 2,724 ng/mL. No DA was detected in these animals despite the presence of an intense DA-producing Pseudo-nitzschia bloom. In contrast to the absence or very low levels of brevetoxins measured in live dolphins, and those stranding in the absence of a K. brevis bloom, these data, taken together with the absence of any other obvious pathology, provide strong evidence that brevetoxin was the causative agent involved in these bottlenose dolphin mortality

  19. Comparative analysis of three brevetoxin-associated bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus mortality events in the Florida Panhandle region (USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Twiner

    Full Text Available In the Florida Panhandle region, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus have been highly susceptible to large-scale unusual mortality events (UMEs that may have been the result of exposure to blooms of the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and its neurotoxin, brevetoxin (PbTx. Between 1999 and 2006, three bottlenose dolphin UMEs occurred in the Florida Panhandle region. The primary objective of this study was to determine if these mortality events were due to brevetoxicosis. Analysis of over 850 samples from 105 bottlenose dolphins and associated prey items were analyzed for algal toxins and have provided details on tissue distribution, pathways of trophic transfer, and spatial-temporal trends for each mortality event. In 1999/2000, 152 dolphins died following extensive K. brevis blooms and brevetoxin was detected in 52% of animals tested at concentrations up to 500 ng/g. In 2004, 105 bottlenose dolphins died in the absence of an identifiable K. brevis bloom; however, 100% of the tested animals were positive for brevetoxin at concentrations up to 29,126 ng/mL. Dolphin stomach contents frequently consisted of brevetoxin-contaminated menhaden. In addition, another potentially toxigenic algal species, Pseudo-nitzschia, was present and low levels of the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA were detected in nearly all tested animals (89%. In 2005/2006, 90 bottlenose dolphins died that were initially coincident with high densities of K. brevis. Most (93% of the tested animals were positive for brevetoxin at concentrations up to 2,724 ng/mL. No DA was detected in these animals despite the presence of an intense DA-producing Pseudo-nitzschia bloom. In contrast to the absence or very low levels of brevetoxins measured in live dolphins, and those stranding in the absence of a K. brevis bloom, these data, taken together with the absence of any other obvious pathology, provide strong evidence that brevetoxin was the causative agent involved in these bottlenose dolphin

  20. Adventure tourism and adventure sports injury: the New Zealand experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Tim A; Page, Stephen J; Macky, Keith A

    2007-11-01

    The primary aims of this study were to establish a client injury baseline for the New Zealand adventure tourism and adventure sport sector, and to examine patterns and trends in claims for injury during participation in adventure activities. Content analysis of narrative text data for compensated injuries occurring in a place for recreation and sport over a 12-month period produced over 15,000 cases involving adventure tourism and adventure sport. As found in previous studies in New Zealand, highest claim counts were observed for activities that are often undertaken independently, rather than commercially. Horse riding, tramping, surfing and mountain biking were found to have highest claim counts, while hang gliding/paragliding/parasailing and jet boating injuries had highest claim costs, suggesting greatest injury severity. Highest claim incidence was observed for horse riding, with female claimants over-represented for this activity. Younger male claimants comprised the largest proportion of adventure injuries, and falls were the most common injury mechanism.

  1. Oxalates in oca (New Zealand yam) (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A B; Savage, G P; Martin, R J; Vanhanen, L

    1999-12-01

    Oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.) or New Zealand yam, in common with other members of this genus, contains oxalate, an antinutritive factor. Twelve South American and two New Zealand cultivars of oca were analyzed for total and soluble oxalate contents of the tubers. The range of total oxalate levels was 92-221 mg/100 g of fresh weight. Levels of soluble and total oxalate extracted from the tubers were not significantly different, suggesting that no calcium oxalate is formed in the tubers. The oxalate concentrations obtained in this study for oca suggest that previously reported values are too low and that oca is a moderately high oxalate-containing food. This is the first report of a tuber crop containing moderate to high levels of soluble oxalates in the tubers and no insoluble oxalates.

  2. Economics of alternative energy supply in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B. V.

    1977-10-15

    Alternative means of supplying the main categories of energy demand in New Zealand are examined, using a common economic basis. In this context alternative means are defined to include those not presently in significant large-scale use in New Zealand but which have been demonstrated to be broadly technically feasible. Energy demand is conveniently divided into four categories each corresponding to a grade of energy required and each including all relevant demand in households, commerce, and industry. These categories are called low-grade heat, process heat, transport, and high-grade energy. The high-grade energy market is largely satisfied only by electricity and alternative means of supplying electricity are considered by other authors. The remaining categories are discussed. The comparison of alternatives includes a brief examination of how the comparative economics are affected by the economic criteria used and particularly the cash flow discount rate. The results obtained are of scoping accuracy only but some policy implications are suggested.

  3. Adaptive evolution of the Hox gene family for development in bats and dolphins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liang

    Full Text Available Bats and cetaceans (i.e., whales, dolphins, porpoises are two kinds of mammals with unique locomotive styles and occupy novel niches. Bats are the only mammals capable of sustained flight in the sky, while cetaceans have returned to the aquatic environment and are specialized for swimming. Associated with these novel adaptations to their environment, various development changes have occurred to their body plans and associated structures. Given the importance of Hox genes in many aspects of embryonic development, we conducted an analysis of the coding regions of all Hox gene family members from bats (represented by Pteropus vampyrus, Pteropus alecto, Myotis lucifugus and Myotis davidii and cetaceans (represented by Tursiops truncatus for adaptive evolution using the available draft genome sequences. Differences in the selective pressures acting on many Hox genes in bats and cetaceans were found compared to other mammals. Positive selection, however, was not found to act on any of the Hox genes in the common ancestor of bats and only upon Hoxb9 in cetaceans. PCR amplification data from additional bat and cetacean species, and application of the branch-site test 2, showed that the Hoxb2 gene within bats had significant evidence of positive selection. Thus, our study, with genomic and newly sequenced Hox genes, identifies two candidate Hox genes that may be closely linked with developmental changes in bats and cetaceans, such as those associated with the pancreatic, neuronal, thymus shape and forelimb. In addition, the difference in our results from the genome-wide scan and newly sequenced data reveals that great care must be taken in interpreting results from draft genome data from a limited number of species, and deep genetic sampling of a particular clade is a powerful tool for generating complementary data to address this limitation.

  4. Feeding associations between Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénèden, 1864) and seabirds in the Lagamar estuary, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M C O; Oshima, J E F; Pacífico, E S; Silva, E

    2010-02-01

    The main objective of the present study was to describe the characteristics regarding interactions between Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis and seabirds in feeding associations in two distinct areas of the Lagamar estuary, Brazil. Boat-based surveys directed towards photo-identification studies of S. guianensis were conducted in the Cananéia Estuary (CE) (25 degrees 01' S and 47 degrees 55' W) from July 2004 to March 2008, as well as in the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC) (25 degrees 24' S and 48 degrees 24' W) from April 2006 to February 2008. On all occasions when seabirds were observed engaging in multi-species feeding associations with S. guianensis, data on species involved and their numbers were gathered. From 435 observed groups of S. guianensis in the CE, 38 (8.7%) involved interactions with seabirds. In the PEC, from the 286 observed groups, 32 (11.2%) involved the mentioned interactions. The following seabirds were observed in feeding associations with S. guianensis: Fregata magnificens, Sula leucogaster, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, and Sterna sp. In the CE, S. leucogaster was more commonly observed in feeding associations with Guiana dolphins (chi2 = 22.84; d.f. = 3, p Lagamar estuary.

  5. Comparison of Temporal Parameters of Swimming Rescue Elements When Performed Using Dolphin and Flutter Kick with Fins - Didactical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejman, Marek; Wiesner, Wojciech; Silakiewicz, Piotr; Klarowicz, Andrzej; Abraldes, J. Arturo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was an analysis of the time required to swim to a victim and tow them back to shore, while perfoming the flutter-kick and the dolphin-kick using fins. It has been hypothesized that using fins while using the dolphin-kick when swimming leads to reduced rescue time. Sixteen lifeguards took part in the study. The main tasks performed by them, were to approach and tow (double armpit) a dummy a distance of 50m while applying either the flutter-kick, or the dolphin-kick with fins. The analysis of the temporal parameters of both techniques of kicking demonstrates that, during the approach to the victim, neither the dolphin (tmean = 32.9s) or the flutter kick (tmean = 33.0s) were significantly faster than the other. However, when used for towing a victim the flutter kick (tmean = 47.1s) was significantly faster when compared to the dolphin-kick (tmean = 52.8s). An assessment of the level of technical skills in competitive swimming, and in approaching and towing the victim, were also conducted. Towing time was significantly correlated with the parameter that linked the temporal and technical dimensions of towing and swimming (difference between flutter kick towing time and dolphin-kick towing time, 100m medley time and the four swimming strokes evaluation). No similar interdependency has been discovered in flutter kick towing time. These findings suggest that the dolphin-kick is a more difficult skill to perform when towing the victim than the flutter-kick. Since the hypothesis stated was not confirmed, postulates were formulated on how to improve dolphin-kick technique with fins, in order to reduce swimming rescue time. Key points The source of reduction of swimming rescue time was researched. Time required to approach and to tow the victim while doing the flutter kick and the dolphin-kick with fins was analyzed. The propulsion generated by dolphin-kick did not make the approach and tow faster than the flutter kick. More difficult skill to realize of

  6. Likely Age-Related Hearing Loss (Presbycusis) in a Stranded Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songhai; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong; Hoffmann-Kuhnt, Matthias; Fernando, Nimal; Taylor, Elizabeth A; Lin, Wenzhi; Chen, Jialin; Ng, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The hearing of a stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in Zhuhai, China, was measured. The age of this animal was estimated to be ~40 years. The animal's hearing was measured using a noninvasive auditory evoked potential (AEP) method. The results showed that the high-frequency hearing cutoff frequency of the studied dolphin was ~30-40 kHz lower than that of a conspecific younger individual ~13 year old. The lower high-frequency hearing range in the older dolphin was explained as a likely result of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis).

  7. New Zealand's Clyde power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatton, J W; Black, J C; Foster, P F

    1987-12-01

    A 100 m-high mass concrete gravity dam, for the generation of 432 MW of power, is under construction at Clyde on the Clutha River in the South Island of New Zealand. A feature of the dam is the provision of a slip joint to allow up to 2 m of movement on the plane of a fault passing through the dam foundation. Details of the dam foundations, seismic design, river channel fault and slip joint, mass concrete, spillway and sluice, powerhouse, and landslide hazard at the site are given. 3 refs.

  8. New Zealand Police and Restorative Justice Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, L. Thomas, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    In New Zealand, selected sworn police officers called youth aid officers participate in discussions and deliberations concerning the actions required to restore the sense of community balance upset by the actions of juvenile offenders. The author explores a representative sample of all sworn police officers serving in the New Zealand Police,…

  9. Feeding and growth in a captive-born bottlenose dolphin Tursiops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding and growth of a captive-born bottlenose dolphin Tursiops trunatus calf were studied for 30 months post partum. Changes in the behaviours associated with suckling were monitored and suggested that the mammary glands need tactile stimulation before the calf can feed. The calf exhibited no teat preference ...

  10. Rehabilitation of Platanista gangetica (Lebeck, 1801) as the valid scientific name of the Ganges dolphin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinze, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    The Dutch scientist Heinrich Julius Lebeck’s description of the Ganges dolphin is, based on a deduced latest date of publication 24 August 1801, given priority over William Roxburgh’s account of the same species, for which no precise date could be established. Although very similar to the work of

  11. Hearing abilities and sound reception of broadband sounds in an adult Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, T Aran; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Yu, Hsin-Yi; Ketten, Darlene R; Jen, I-Fan

    2015-08-01

    While odontocetes do not have an external pinna that guides sound to the middle ear, they are considered to receive sound through specialized regions of the head and lower jaw. Yet odontocetes differ in the shape of the lower jaw suggesting that hearing pathways may vary between species, potentially influencing hearing directionality and noise impacts. This work measured the audiogram and received sensitivity of a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) in an effort to comparatively examine how this species receives sound. Jaw hearing thresholds were lowest (most sensitive) at two locations along the anterior, midline region of the lower jaw (the lower jaw tip and anterior part of the throat). Responses were similarly low along a more posterior region of the lower mandible, considered the area of best hearing in bottlenose dolphins. Left- and right-side differences were also noted suggesting possible left-right asymmetries in sound reception or differences in ear sensitivities. The results indicate best hearing pathways may vary between the Risso's dolphin and other odontocetes measured. This animal received sound well, supporting a proposed throat pathway. For Risso's dolphins in particular, good ventral hearing would support their acoustic ecology by facilitating echo-detection from their proposed downward oriented echolocation beam.

  12. Comparative genomics reveals conservation of filaggrin and loss of caspase-14 in dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Bettina; Mlitz, Veronika; Fischer, Heinz; Tschachler, Erwin; Eckhart, Leopold

    2015-05-01

    The expression of filaggrin and its stepwise proteolytic degradation are critical events in the terminal differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes and in the formation of the skin barrier to the environment. Here, we investigated whether the evolutionary transition from a terrestrial to a fully aquatic lifestyle of cetaceans, that is dolphins and whales, has been associated with changes in genes encoding filaggrin and proteins involved in the processing of filaggrin. We used comparative genomics, PCRs and re-sequencing of gene segments to screen for the presence and integrity of genes coding for filaggrin and proteases implicated in the maturation of (pro)filaggrin. Filaggrin has been conserved in dolphins (bottlenose dolphin, orca and baiji) but has been lost in whales (sperm whale and minke whale). All other S100 fused-type genes have been lost in cetaceans. Among filaggrin-processing proteases, aspartic peptidase retroviral-like 1 (ASPRV1), also known as saspase, has been conserved, whereas caspase-14 has been lost in all cetaceans investigated. In conclusion, our results suggest that filaggrin is dispensable for the acquisition of fully aquatic lifestyles of whales, whereas it appears to confer an evolutionary advantage to dolphins. The discordant evolution of filaggrin, saspase and caspase-14 in cetaceans indicates that the biological roles of these proteins are not strictly interdependent. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Dermatology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Conflicts between river dolphins (Cetacea: Odontoceti and fisheries in the Central Amazon: a path toward tragedy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cláudio Pinto de Sá Alves

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dolphin interactions with fishermen have increased significantly and pose potential risks to the boto, Inia geoffrensis (Blainville, 1817, and the tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais & Deville, 1853. The main objective of the present paper was to describe the existing conflicts between river dolphins and fishermen in the municipality of Manacapuru region. Sixteen fishermen were interviewed in Manacapuru, state of Amazonas, Brazil who described a situation of ongoing conflict that may be unsustainable. Two merchants from Manacapuru made unconfirmed reports on a boto carcass trade. Data collection for this study occurred between April 20th and April 25th, 2009, but the first author had been conducting research on river dolphins and fisheries in Manacapuru and nearby cities since the beginning of 2008, in order to gain the trust of the fishermen interviewed. The hunting and deliberate killing of the species is probably more threatening to botos than their incidental capture in fishing gears in the Manacapuru region. This practice may result from the fact that dolphins are prone to damaging fishing equipment, and stealing (and possibly damaging fish from the nets. They are portrayed negatively in numerous myths and superstitions of traditional Amazonian folklore, making them extremely undesired or even hated, seen as pests, and used in the piracatinga, Calophysus macropterus (Lichtenstein, 1819 fishery as bait. For tucuxis, incidental capture still represents the major threat to their conservation in the region evaluated here.

  14. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Western North Atlantic: A Guide to Their Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, Stephen; And Others

    This field guide is designed to permit observers to identify the cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) they see in western North Atlantic, including the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the coastal waters of the United States and Canada. The animals described are not grouped by scientific relationships but by similarities in appearance…

  15. Occurrence of triclosan in plasma of wild Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and in their environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, Patricia A., E-mail: pat.fair@noaa.go [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Services, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, 219 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412-9110 (United States); Lee, H -B [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Adams, Jeff [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Services, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, 219 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412-9110 (United States); Darling, Colin; Pacepavicius, Grazina; Alaee, Mehran [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Bossart, Gregory D [Center for Coastal Research, Marine Mammal Research and Conservation Program, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute at Florida Atlantic University, 5600 U.S. 1 North, Ft. Pierce, FL 34946 (United States); Henry, Natasha [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Services, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, 219 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412-9110 (United States); Muir, Derek [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    The presence of triclosan, a widely-used antibacterial chemical, is currently unknown in higher trophic-level species such as marine mammals. Blood plasma collected from wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Charleston, SC (CHS) (n = 13) and Indian River Lagoon, FL (IRL) (n = 13) in 2005 was analyzed for triclosan. Plasma concentrations in CHS dolphins ranged from 0.12 to 0.27 ng/g wet weight (mean 0.18 ng/g), with 31% of the sampled individuals having detectable triclosan. The mean IRL dolphin plasma concentrations were 0.072 ng/g wet weight (range 0.025-0.11 ng/g); 23% of the samples having detectable triclosan. In the CHS area, triclosan effluent values from two WWTP were both 190 ng/L and primary influents were 2800 ng/L and 3400 ng/L. Triclosan values in CHS estuarine surface water samples averaged 7.5 ng/L (n = 18) ranging from 4.9 to 14 ng/L. This is the first study to report bioaccumulation of anthropogenic triclosan in a marine mammal highlighting the need for further monitoring and assessment. - Triclosan in bottlenose dolphin plasma and their environment.

  16. Occurrence of triclosan in plasma of wild Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and in their environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fair, Patricia A.; Lee, H.-B.; Adams, Jeff; Darling, Colin; Pacepavicius, Grazina; Alaee, Mehran; Bossart, Gregory D.; Henry, Natasha; Muir, Derek

    2009-01-01

    The presence of triclosan, a widely-used antibacterial chemical, is currently unknown in higher trophic-level species such as marine mammals. Blood plasma collected from wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Charleston, SC (CHS) (n = 13) and Indian River Lagoon, FL (IRL) (n = 13) in 2005 was analyzed for triclosan. Plasma concentrations in CHS dolphins ranged from 0.12 to 0.27 ng/g wet weight (mean 0.18 ng/g), with 31% of the sampled individuals having detectable triclosan. The mean IRL dolphin plasma concentrations were 0.072 ng/g wet weight (range 0.025-0.11 ng/g); 23% of the samples having detectable triclosan. In the CHS area, triclosan effluent values from two WWTP were both 190 ng/L and primary influents were 2800 ng/L and 3400 ng/L. Triclosan values in CHS estuarine surface water samples averaged 7.5 ng/L (n = 18) ranging from 4.9 to 14 ng/L. This is the first study to report bioaccumulation of anthropogenic triclosan in a marine mammal highlighting the need for further monitoring and assessment. - Triclosan in bottlenose dolphin plasma and their environment.

  17. Isolation of a virus with rhabdovirus morphology from a white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); H.W.J. Broeders; K.S. Teppema; T. Kuiken (Thijs); J.A. House; H.W. Vos (Helma); I.K.G. Visser (Ilona)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractA virus with rhabdovirus morphology which proved to be antigenically distinct from rabies virus and vesicular stomatitis virus was isolated from a dolphin that had beached on the Dutch coast. Neutralizing antibodies to this virus were found in several European marine mammal species.

  18. Records of Dusky Dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obscurus (Gray, 1828) in the eastern South Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waerebeek, van Koen

    1992-01-01

    Fourty-seven authenticated locality records of the dusky dolphin along the west coast of South America are presented, based on original data, museum specimens and the literature. Confirmed distribution limits are Chimbote (09°05’S) in north—central Peru and Isla Treble (55°07’S 71°02’W), Magallanes,

  19. Fine scale distribution constrains cadmium accumulation rates in two geographical groups of Franciscana dolphin from Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polizzi, P.S.; Chiodi Boudet, L.N.; Romero, M.B.; Denuncio, P.E.; Rodríguez, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Fine scale distribution of two Argentine stocks constrains the Cd accumulation rates. • Cadmium levels and accumulation patterns were different between geographic groups. • Marine diet has a major influence than the impact degree of origin environment. • Engraulis anchoita is the main Cd vector species in Argentine shelf for Franciscana. • Information is valuable for the conservation of Franciscana, a vulnerable species. -- Abstract: Franciscana dolphin is an endemic cetacean in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean and is classified as Vulnerable A3d by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Cadmium accumulation was assessed in two geographic groups from Argentina; one inhabits the La Plata River estuary, a high anthropogenic impacted environment, and the other is distributed in marine coastal, with negligible pollution. Despite the environment, marine dolphins showed an increase of renal Cd concentrations since trophic independence; while in estuarine dolphins was from 6 years. This is associated with dietary Argentine anchovy which was absent in the diet of estuarine dolphins, being a trophic vector of cadmium in shelf waters of Argentina. Cluster analysis also showed high levels of cd in association with the presence of anchovy in the stomach. The difference in the fine scale distribution of species influences dietary exposure to Cd and, along with other data, indicates two stocks in Argentina

  20. 77 FR 45268 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Bottlenose Dolphin Take...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ..., continuing research to better understand bottlenose dolphin stock structure and determine if/ how fishing... agrees and is updating the BDTRP as proposed. NMFS will continue stock structure and gear research.... In the proposed rule, NMFS corrected the boundary for the North Carolina/South Carolina border as...

  1. Cetacean morbillivirus in coastal Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nahiid; Duignan, Pádraig J; Wang, Jianning; Bingham, John; Finn, Hugh; Bejder, Lars; Patterson, Anthony P; Holyoake, Carly

    2014-04-01

    Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) has caused several epizootics in multiple species of cetaceans globally and is an emerging disease among cetaceans in Australia. We detected CeMV in 2 stranded coastal Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Western Australia. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that this virus variant is divergent from known strains.

  2. Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) habitat preference in a heterogeneous, urban, coastal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Nardi; Miller, Cara; Seuront, Laurent

    2013-02-01

    Limited information is available regarding the habitat preference of the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) in South Australian estuarine environments. The need to overcome this paucity of information is crucial for management and conservation initiatives. This preliminary study investigates the space-time patterns of habitat preference by the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin in the Port Adelaide River-Barker Inlet estuary, a South Australian, urbanised, coastal environment. More specifically, the study aim was to identify a potential preference between bare sand substrate and seagrass beds, the two habitat types present in this environment, through the resighting frequency of recognisable individual dolphins. Photo-identification surveys covering the 118 km2 sanctuary area were conducted over 2 survey periods May to August 2006 and from March 2009 to February 2010. Sighting frequency of recognisable individual Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins established a significant preference for the bare sand habitat. More specifically, 72 and 18% of the individuals sighted at least on two occasions were observed in the bare sand and seagrass habitats respectively. This trend was consistently observed at both seasonal and annual scales, suggesting a consistency in the distinct use of these two habitats. It is anticipated that these results will benefit the further development of management and conservation strategies.

  3. Cetacean Morbillivirus in Coastal Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphins, Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Nahiid; Duignan, Pádraig J.; Wang, Jianning; Bingham, John; Finn, Hugh; Bejder, Lars; Patterson, Anthony P.; Holyoake, Carly

    2014-01-01

    Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) has caused several epizootics in multiple species of cetaceans globally and is an emerging disease among cetaceans in Australia. We detected CeMV in 2 stranded coastal Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Western Australia. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that this virus variant is divergent from known strains.

  4. Cetacean Morbillivirus in Coastal Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphins, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duignan, Pádraig J.; Wang, Jianning; Bingham, John; Finn, Hugh; Bejder, Lars; Patterson, Anthony P.; Holyoake, Carly

    2014-01-01

    Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) has caused several epizootics in multiple species of cetaceans globally and is an emerging disease among cetaceans in Australia. We detected CeMV in 2 stranded coastal Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Western Australia. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that this virus variant is divergent from known strains. PMID:24656203

  5. Feeding and growth in a captive-born bottlenose dolphin Tursiops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-06-12

    Jun 12, 1991 ... The feeding and growth of a captive-born bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus calf were studied for 30 months post ..... was made between suckling from the left or right in further analyses. .... possibly more important function is that this tail position .... Institute of Brain Anatomy, University of Berne, Berne,.

  6. New polymorphic tetranucleotide microsatellites improve scoring accuracy in the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops aduncus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nater, Alexander; Kopps, Anna M.; Kruetzen, Michael

    We isolated and characterized 19 novel tetranucleotide microsatellite markers in the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) in order to improve genotyping accuracy in applications like large-scale population-wide paternity and relatedness assessments. One hundred T. aduncus from Shark

  7. Records of Fraser\\'s dolphin Lagenodelphis hosei Fraser 1956 from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although Fraser's dolphins Lagenodelphis hosei are considered to inhabit deep tropical waters worldwide, their occurrence in the tropical eastern Atlantic Ocean from the Gulf of Guinea southwards to Angola is only represented by two specimen records from Ghana. During cetacean surveys carried out concurrently with ...

  8. How to Make a Dolphin: Molecular Signature of Positive Selection in Cetacean Genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana F Nery

    Full Text Available Cetaceans are unique in being the only mammals completely adapted to an aquatic environment. This adaptation has required complex changes and sometimes a complete restructuring of physiology, behavior and morphology. Identifying genes that have been subjected to selection pressure during cetacean evolution would greatly enhance our knowledge of the ways in which genetic variation in this mammalian order has been shaped by natural selection. Here, we performed a genome-wide scan for positive selection in the dolphin lineage. We employed models of codon substitution that account for variation of selective pressure over branches on the tree and across sites in a sequence. We analyzed 7,859 nuclear-coding ortholog genes and using a series of likelihood ratio tests (LRTs, we identified 376 genes (4.8% with molecular signatures of positive selection in the dolphin lineage. We used the cow as the sister group and compared estimates of selection in the cetacean genome to this using the same methods. This allowed us to define which genes have been exclusively under positive selection in the dolphin lineage. The enrichment analysis found that the identified positively selected genes are significantly over-represented for three exclusive functional categories only in the dolphin lineage: segment specification, mesoderm development and system development. Of particular interest for cetacean adaptation to an aquatic life are the following GeneOntology targets under positive selection: genes related to kidney, heart, lung, eye, ear and nervous system development.

  9. Population Structure of Island-Associated Dolphins: Evidence from Photo-Identification of Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Main Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    individuals show fidelity to the areas. A Bayesian analysis designed to determine what range of dispersal rates are consistent with our photo...few hundred meters. What is known is that the waters surrounding the Hawaiian Islands are oligotrophic, and productivity is higher immediately around...to thank Whale Quest Kapalua, UFO Chuting, Central Pacific Ma- rine, and Atlantic Submarine for support. We would like to thank Alison Stimpert

  10. Abundance and survival rates of the Hawai'i Island associated spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris stock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian A Tyne

    Full Text Available Reliable population estimates are critical to implement effective management strategies. The Hawai'i Island spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris is a genetically distinct stock that displays a rigid daily behavioural pattern, foraging offshore at night and resting in sheltered bays during the day. Consequently, they are exposed to frequent human interactions and disturbance. We estimated population parameters of this spinner dolphin stock using a systematic sampling design and capture-recapture models. From September 2010 to August 2011, boat-based photo-identification surveys were undertaken monthly over 132 days (>1,150 hours of effort; >100,000 dorsal fin images in the four main resting bays along the Kona Coast, Hawai'i Island. All images were graded according to photographic quality and distinctiveness. Over 32,000 images were included in the analyses, from which 607 distinctive individuals were catalogued and 214 were highly distinctive. Two independent estimates of the proportion of highly distinctive individuals in the population were not significantly different (p = 0.68. Individual heterogeneity and time variation in capture probabilities were strongly indicated for these data; therefore capture-recapture models allowing for these variations were used. The estimated annual apparent survival rate (product of true survival and permanent emigration was 0.97 SE ± 0.05. Open and closed capture-recapture models for the highly distinctive individuals photographed at least once each month produced similar abundance estimates. An estimate of 221 ± 4.3 SE highly distinctive spinner dolphins, resulted in a total abundance of 631 ± 60.1 SE, (95% CI 524-761 spinner dolphins in the Hawai'i Island stock, which is lower than previous estimates. When this abundance estimate is considered alongside the rigid daily behavioural pattern, genetic distinctiveness, and the ease of human access to spinner dolphins in their preferred resting habitats, this

  11. The Gross Morphology and Histochemistry of Respiratory Muscles in Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops truncatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, Pamela B.; Piscitelli, Marina A.; McLellan, William A.; Rommel, Sentiel A.; Dearolf, Jennifer L.; Pabst, D. Ann

    2011-01-01

    Most mammals possess stamina because their locomotor and respiratory (i.e., ventilatory) systems are mechanically coupled. These systems are decoupled, however, in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) as they swim on a breath-hold. Locomotion and ventilation are coupled only during their brief surfacing event, when they respire explosively (up to 90% of total lung volume in approximately 0.3s) (Ridgway et al., 1969). The predominantly slow-twitch fiber profile of their diaphragm (Dearolf, 2003) suggests that this muscle does not likely power their rapid ventilatory event. Based upon Bramble's (1989) biomechanical model of locomotor-respiratory coupling in galloping mammals, it was hypothesized that locomotor muscles function to power ventilation in bottlenose dolphins. It was further hypothesized that these muscles would be composed predominantly of fast-twitch fibers to facilitate the bottlenose dolphin's rapid ventilation. The gross morphology of cranio-cervical (scalenus, sternocephalicus, sternohyoid), thoracic (intercostals, transverse thoracis), and lumbo-pelvic (hypaxialis, rectus abdominis, abdominal obliques) muscles (n=7) and the fiber-type profiles (n=6) of selected muscles (scalenus, sternocephalicus, sternohyoid, rectus abdominis) of bottlenose dolphins were investigated. Physical manipulations of excised thoracic units were carried out to investigate potential actions of these muscles. Results suggest that the cranio-cervical muscles act to draw the sternum and associated ribs cranio-dorsally, which flares the ribs laterally, and increases the thoracic cavity volume required for inspiration. The lumbo-pelvic muscles act to draw the sternum and caudal ribs caudally, which decreases the volumes of the thoracic and abdominal cavities required for expiration. All muscles investigated were composed predominantly of fast-twitch fibers (range 61-88% by area) and appear histochemically poised for rapid contraction. These combined results suggest that

  12. The Behavioural Ecology of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würsig, Bernd; Parsons, E C M; Piwetz, Sarah; Porter, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    Fewer than 200 Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) occur in Hong Kong waters (though these are part of a much larger population in the Pearl River Estuary), with a decrease in the past about 10 years. They have partially overlapping individual ranges (mean=100km(2)), and two partially overlapping communities. Seasonal occurrence is higher in June-November than December-May, approximate wet and dry monsoon seasons, respectively. Group sizes tend to average three dolphins, a decrease from the past decade. Feeding often occurs in abruptly changing water depths and off rocky natural shores. The area immediately north of Hong Kong International Airport is largely used for travelling between locations to the west, east and further north. The area around Lung Kwu Chau Island in northwest Hong Kong is a "hot spot" for foraging and socializing. The area off Fan Lau, southwest Lantau Island, is largely used for foraging. A former foraging "hot spot" was located around the Brothers Islands east of the airport, now reduced, possibly due to increases in high-speed ferries (HSFs) and other activities. Sound recordings of dolphins from bottom-mounted hydrophones suggest that northwestern Hong Kong waters are used more at night than in daytime. Sexual activity and calving occur throughout the year, with a peak in late spring to autumn (wet monsoon season). Humpback dolphins communicate acoustically with each other and probably passively listen to prey in murky waters, and anthropogenic noises may be masking communication and affecting prey location. Increasing sounds of shipping, HSFs and industrial activities are likely to alter dolphin habitat use patterns and overall behaviours beyond the present already affected status. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Line transect estimates of Irrawaddy dolphin abundance along the eastern Gulf Coast of Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen eHines

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective conservation of coastal marine mammals is largely dependent on reliable knowledge of their abundance, as well as the ecological and human factors driving their distribution. In developing countries, lack of resources and capacity frequently impedes research needed to estimate abundance and to determine the ecological requirements of coastal marine mammals and the impact of threats related to coastal development and fisheries. Over the course of five years, we developed practical research methods and trained local scientists in Thailand to use accepted line transect distance sampling methods for abundance assessment. The study focused on a little-known coastal and freshwater species found throughout Southeast Asia, namely the Irrawaddy dolphin, which has been sighted regularly along the coast of the eastern Gulf of Thailand. During five years of line transect boat surveys in Trat Province, the eastern-most province in Thailand, we found an average of 423 dolphins distributed within 12km of the coast. Compared to other abundance estimates of coastal Irrawaddy dolphins in Southeast Asia, this is a relatively large number. This population could extend into the northern coast of Cambodia, where surveys are currently being planned. The Thai government has begun talks with Cambodia about a transboundary marine protected area that would include areas in both countries where coastal Irrawaddy dolphins are found. Other analyses include photo-identification, modeling environmental factors that determine presence, determination of fresh vs. salt water foraging using stable isotopes, and an assessment of threats. Collaboration between scientists in Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam is further needed to determine dolphin movement and habitat use across borders.

  14. A simulation of temperature influence on echolocation click beams of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhongchang; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xianyan; Wei, Chong

    2017-10-01

    A finite element method was used to investigate the temperature influence on sound beams of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin. The numerical models of a dolphin, which originated from previous computed tomography (CT) scanning and physical measurement results, were used to investigate sound beam patterns of the dolphin in temperatures from 21 °C to 39 °C, in increments of 2 °C. The -3 dB beam widths across the temperatures ranged from 9.3° to 12.6°, and main beam angle ranged from 4.7° to 7.2° for these temperatures. The subsequent simulation suggested that the dolphin's sound beam patterns, side lobes in particular, were influenced by temperature.

  15. Corporate Governance Compliance and Discretionary Accruals: New Zealand Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Borhan Uddin Bhuiyan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of better compliance with corporate governance regulation on managerial accruals (discretionary accruals in New Zealand listed companies. Unlike previous research of earnings management, Jones model ( Jones 1991, Modified Jones model (Dechow, Sloan, & Sweeney, 1995 and Performance Matched Accruals Model (Kothari, Leone, & Wasley, 2005 this research focuses on free cash flow as a measure of discretionary accruals instead of cash flow from operating activities. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was done on 70 New Zealand listed firms over the period of 2000 - 2007 (inclusive. Results found that better compliance with corporate governance reduces discretionary accruals implying lower managerial opportunistic behaviour. Consistent with existing theoriesand models of discretionary accruals, this research documents that free cash flow increase managerial discretion by comparing with commonly used accruals model such as Jones Model, Modified Jones Model and Performance Matched Accruals Model. This study provides insights to regulators in developing corporate governance and financial reporting guidelines. It suggests that ‘Comply or Explain’ form of soft regulation reduces managerial discretion with stock exchange listing. This research uses a comparative analysis of traditional discretionary accrual measure with free cash flow approach of discretionary accruals. Moreover, an integration approach of discretionary accrual measure was never previously done in New Zealand.

  16. The Importance of Considering Context in the Assessment of Personality Characteristics: Evidence from Ratings of Dolphin Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Kuczaj II, Stan A.; Highfill, Lauren; Byerly, Holli

    2012-01-01

    One of the tenets of personality is that an individual’s distinguishing behavioral characteristics arerelatively stable over time and across contexts. Both humans and animals demonstrate suchconsistency, at least for certain personality traits. However, the relative extent to which personality isstable is rarely addressed in studies of animal personality, the focus typically being on stability ratherthan its absence. Here we present data on dolphin personality that suggest dolphin behavior (a...

  17. Mercury and selenium in stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins and implications for their trophic transfer in food chains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Gui

    Full Text Available As top predators in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE of China, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis are bioindicators for examining regional trends of environmental contaminants in the PRE. We examined samples from stranded S. chinensis in the PRE, collected since 2004, to study the distribution and fate of total mercury (THg, methylmercury (MeHg and selenium (Se in the major tissues, in individuals at different ages and their prey fishes from the PRE. This study also investigated the potential protective effects of Se against the toxicities of accumulated THg. Dolphin livers contained the highest concentrations of THg (32.34±58.98 µg g(-1 dw and Se (15.16±3.66 µg g(-1 dw, which were significantly different from those found in kidneys and muscles, whereas the highest residue of MeHg (1.02±1.11 µg g(-1 dw was found in dolphin muscles. Concentrations of both THg and MeHg in the liver, kidney and muscle of dolphins showed a significantly positive correlation with age. The biomagnification factors (BMFs of inorganic mercury (Hginorg in dolphin livers (350× and MeHg in muscles (18.7× through the prey fishes were the highest among all three dolphin tissues, whereas the BMFs of Se were much lower in all dolphin tissues. The lower proportion of MeHg in THg and higher Se/THg ratios in tissues were demonstrated. Our studies suggested that S. chinensis might have the potential to detoxify Hg via the demethylation of MeHg and the formation of tiemannite (HgSe in the liver and kidney. The lower threshold of hepatic THg concentrations for the equimolar accumulation of Se and Hg in S. chinensis suggests that this species has a greater sensitivity to THg concentrations than is found in striped dolphins and Dall's porpoises.

  18. Mercury and Selenium in Stranded Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins and Implications for Their Trophic Transfer in Food Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Duan; Yu, Ri-Qing; Sun, Yong; Chen, Laiguo; Tu, Qin; Mo, Hui; Wu, Yuping

    2014-01-01

    As top predators in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) of China, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) are bioindicators for examining regional trends of environmental contaminants in the PRE. We examined samples from stranded S. chinensis in the PRE, collected since 2004, to study the distribution and fate of total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg) and selenium (Se) in the major tissues, in individuals at different ages and their prey fishes from the PRE. This study also investigated the potential protective effects of Se against the toxicities of accumulated THg. Dolphin livers contained the highest concentrations of THg (32.34±58.98 µg g−1 dw) and Se (15.16±3.66 µg g−1 dw), which were significantly different from those found in kidneys and muscles, whereas the highest residue of MeHg (1.02±1.11 µg g−1 dw) was found in dolphin muscles. Concentrations of both THg and MeHg in the liver, kidney and muscle of dolphins showed a significantly positive correlation with age. The biomagnification factors (BMFs) of inorganic mercury (Hginorg) in dolphin livers (350×) and MeHg in muscles (18.7×) through the prey fishes were the highest among all three dolphin tissues, whereas the BMFs of Se were much lower in all dolphin tissues. The lower proportion of MeHg in THg and higher Se/THg ratios in tissues were demonstrated. Our studies suggested that S. chinensis might have the potential to detoxify Hg via the demethylation of MeHg and the formation of tiemannite (HgSe) in the liver and kidney. The lower threshold of hepatic THg concentrations for the equimolar accumulation of Se and Hg in S. chinensis suggests that this species has a greater sensitivity to THg concentrations than is found in striped dolphins and Dall’s porpoises. PMID:25310100

  19. Radioactive waste disposal : policies and practices in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste and its ultimate dispoal have been a significant problem for the nuclear industry. A lot of resources have been devoted to developing management and dispoal systems. As well as being one of the major technical problems, it has been a very significant public relations issue. Public concern about risks associated with disposal of radioactive waste has been on a global scle. It has focused on local issues in some countries, but generl attitudes have been common worldwide. Great differences exist between countries in the scale and aspects of nuclear technoloy in use. In particular the presence or absence of a nuclear power programme, and to a lesser extent of any nuclear reactors, greatly influence the magnitude of the waste disposal problem. Nevertheless, public perceptions of the problem are to some degree independent of these differences. What radioactive wastes are there in New Zealand? Is there a hazard to the New Zealand public or the New Zealand environment from current radioactive waste disposal practices? What policies are in place to control these practices? This report seeks to provide some information on these questions. It also brings together in one document the waste disposal policies followed by the National Radiation Laboratory for different uses of radioactive mateials. Except for some small quantities which are exempt from most controls, radioactive material can be used in New Zealand only under the control of a person holding a licence under the Radiation Protection Act 1965. All requirements of the Radiation Protection Regulations 1982 must also be observed. More detailed safety advice and further mandatory requirements are contained in codes of safe practice. Compliance with one of these is a condition on most licencees. These provisions are administered by the National Radiation Laboratory (NRL) of the Ministry of Health. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  20. Health and Environmental Risk Assessment Project for bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the southeastern USA. I. Infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossart, Gregory D; Fair, Patricia; Schaefer, Adam M; Reif, John S

    2017-07-24

    From 2003 to 2015, 360 free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL, n = 246), Florida, and coastal waters of Charleston (CHS, n = 114), South Carolina, USA, were captured, given comprehensive health examinations, and released as part of a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional study of individual and population health. The aim of this review is to summarize the substantial health data generated by this study and to examine morbidity between capture sites and over time. The IRL and CHS dolphin populations are affected by complex infectious and neoplastic diseases often associated with immunologic disturbances. We found evidence of infection with cetacean morbillivirus, dolphin papilloma and herpes viruses, Chlamydiaceae, a novel uncultivated strain of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (recently identified as the causal agent of dolphin lobomycosis/lacaziasis), and other pathogens. This is the first long-term study documenting the various types, progression, seroprevalence, and pathologic interrelationships of infectious diseases in dolphins from the southeastern USA. Additionally, the study has demonstrated that the bottlenose dolphin is a valuable sentinel animal that may reflect environmental health concerns and parallel emerging public health issues.

  1. Timing and context of dolphin clicks during and after mine simulator detection and marking in the open ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam H. Ridgway

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Two dolphins carrying cameras swam in the ocean as they searched for and marked mine simulators – buried, proud or moored. As the animals swam ahead of a boat they searched the ocean. Cameras on their harness recorded continuous sound and video. Once a target was detected, the dolphins received a marker to take to the simulator's location. During search and detection, dolphins made almost continuous trains of varying interval clicks. During the marking phase, shorter click trains were interrupted by periods of silence. As the dolphins marked simulators, they often produced victory squeals – pulse bursts that vary in duration, peak frequency and amplitude. Victory squeals were produced on 72% of marks. Sometimes after marking, or at other times during their long swims, the dolphins produced click packets. Packets typically consisted of two to 10 clicks with inter-click intervals of 7-117 ms followed by a silence of 223-983 ms. Click packets appeared unrelated with searching or marking. We suggest that the packets were used to improve signal to noise ratios for locating a boat or other distant object. Victory squeals produced when marking the targets suggest to us that the dolphins know when they have succeeded in this multipart task.

  2. Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin occurrence north of Lantau Island, Hong Kong, based on year-round passive acoustic monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Lisa; Lammers, Marc O; Cifuentes, Mattie; Würsig, Bernd; Jefferson, Thomas A; Hung, Samuel K

    2016-10-01

    Long-term passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) was conducted to study Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins, Sousa chinensis, as part of environmental impact assessments for several major coastal development projects in Hong Kong waters north of Lantau Island. Ecological acoustic recorders obtained 2711 days of recording at 13 sites from December 2012 to December 2014. Humpback dolphin sounds were manually detected on more than half of days with recordings at 12 sites, 8 of which were within proposed reclamation areas. Dolphin detection rates were greatest at Lung Kwu Chau, with other high-occurrence locations northeast of the Hong Kong International Airport and within the Lung Kwu Tan and Siu Ho Wan regions. Dolphin detection rates were greatest in summer and autumn (June-November) and were significantly reduced in spring (March-May) compared to other times of year. Click detection rates were significantly higher at night than during daylight hours. These findings suggest high use of many of the proposed reclamation/development areas by humpback dolphins, particularly at night, and demonstrate the value of long-term PAM for documenting spatial and temporal patterns in dolphin occurrence to help inform management decisions.

  3. Potential impacts of shipping noise on Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins and implications for regulation and mitigation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songhai; Liu, Mingming; Dong, Lijun; Dong, Jianchen; Wang, Ding

    2018-01-09

    Shipping noise is a widespread and relatively loud sound source among human-induced underwater sounds. The impacts of shipping noise are of special concern for Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis), as they inhabit shallow and nearshore habitats and are highly dependent on sound for survival. This study synthesizes our current understanding of the potential impacts of shipping noise on Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins combined with knowledge on sound production and hearing of these animals and the impacts of noise on other whales and dolphins. For further protection and management of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins and their habitats, shipping noise should be regulated and mitigated to modify sound from ships, to reduce overall noise levels, and to set more marine protected areas (MPAs) covering most Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin habitats with seasonal and geographical restrictions to avoid ensonification of shipping noise. The emphasis for future research should be on obtaining more baseline information about the population distribution, sound production, hearing capabilities at the population level, behavior, and stress hormones of the humpback dolphins under different noise conditions or under different noise-producing activities, and/or in high-noise areas compared with relatively quiet areas, and the noise characteristics of ships of different types, sizes, and speeds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro assessment of environmental stress of persistent organic pollutants on the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Kuntong; Ding, Liang; Zhang, Lingli; Zhang, Mei; Yi, Meisheng; Wu, Yuping

    2015-12-25

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are detected ubiquitously and are linked to range of adverse health effects. The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin inhabited the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), China, where high concentrations of POPs have been reported. This study evaluated the threats posed by POPs in the environment to the dolphin using an in vitro system. We selected BNF(β-naphthoflavone) and four POPs (DDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes), CHLs(chlorides), HCHs(hexachlorocyclohexanes) and HCB(hexachlorobenzene)) which had been accumulated in the dolphin with high concentrations to treat the cultured skin fibroblast cells (ScSF cells) of the dolphin, and investigated the expression patterns of the ecological stress biomarkers CYP1A1, AHR and HSP70 in the cell line. The results showed that CYP1A1 was up-regulated after being exposed to different concentrations of BNF, DDTs and HCHs. CHLs, HCHs and HCB promoted AHR expression. HSP70 expression was increased by high concentrations of BNF and DDTs. Moreover, comet assay experiments revealed that DDTs produced higher degree of DNA damage to ScSF cells than other POPs, implying that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin in the PRE has been threatened by POPs accumulated in the body, especially by DDTs. Our results provided important information to assess the risk of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin raised by environmental POPs in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Echolocation signals of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Sanniang Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Liang; Li, Songhai; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Zhitao; Shi, Wenjing; Wang, Ding

    2015-09-01

    While the low-frequency communication sounds of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) have been reported in a number of papers, the high-frequency echolocation signals of Sousa chinensis, especially those living in the wild, have been less studied. In the current study, echolocation signals of humpback dolphins were recorded in Sanniang Bay, Guangxi Province, China, using a cross-type hydrophone array with five elements. In total, 77 candidate on-axis clicks from 77 scans were selected for analysis. The results showed that the varied peak-to-peak source levels ranged from 177.1 to 207.3 dB, with an average of 187.7 dB re: 1 μPa. The mean peak frequency was 109.0 kHz with a -3-dB bandwidth of 50.3 kHz and 95% energy duration of 22 μs. The -3-dB bandwidth was much broader than the root mean square bandwidth and exhibited a bimodal distribution. The center frequency exhibited a positive relationship with the peak-to-peak source level. The clicks of the wild Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins were short-duration, broadband, ultrasonic pulses, similar to those produced by other whistling dolphins of similar body size. However, the click source levels of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin appear to be lower than those of other whistling dolphins.

  6. Hyperomma of New Zealand (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Paederinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schomann, Andrea Maria

    In this project a classical taxonomical revision of the New Zealand species of Hyperomma was conducted, as well as a broader molecular phylogenetic study revolving around this flightless genus, which occurs in Australia and New Zealand only. Seventeen new species were described, two new synonymies....... Additionally, the extinct Cretaceous staphylinid genus Apticax was described connected with a short review on fossil Paederinae and closely related fossils....... found, 8 known species re-described after contemporary standards, and a species inventory with keys to those 25 species and the paederine genera occurring in New Zealand was produced. The genus was placed in the phylogenetic context of its subfamily, Paederinae, for which a robust phylogenetic...

  7. Determinants of nomination committee: New Zealand evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Borhan Uddin Bhuiyan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A sizable volume of corporate governance literature documents that an independent and competent board of directors matter for organizational success. In order to function effectively, board comprises of different sub-committees and the three most common sub-committees are audit committees, compensation committees and nomination committees. Surprisingly, there is a paucity of research in understanding the determinants of nomination committee notwithstanding the importance of an independent nomination committee in board selection process. We contribute to the nomination committee literature by investigating the factors associated with the determination of nomination committees in New Zealand. We find that cross-sectional variation in the firm-specific characteristics affect the existence of nomination committees. This finding casts doubt on the „one-size-fits all‟ approach of corporate governance. Our logistic regression of the nomination committee determinants indicates that firm size, governance regulation and busy directors are positively associated with the existence of nomination committees, whereas firm leverage, controlling shareholders, and director independence are negatively related to the formation of nomination committees.

  8. Dolphin Watching in the Southern Tañon Strait Protected Seascape, Philippines: Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemnuel V. Aragones

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dolphin watching is a growing economic activity in the southern Tañon Strait Protected Seascape (TSPS, the Philippines, an area that is also heavily exploited by fisheries. In order to examine the issues and challenges in this growing industry, we monitored relevant information regarding cetacean watching, conducted focus group discussions (FGDs and educational seminar-workshops for various local stakeholders from 2004 to 2006, and followed these up from 2008-2012. From 9 May to 16 August 2004, we conducted structured interviews to determine the perceptions of cetacean-watching tourists (CWTs and assess the level of local knowledge of f ishers and non-fishers (NFs regarding marine mammals and environmental management in this area. Ninety f ive (95 CWTs, 100 local fishers, and 64 NFs were interviewed. Sixty seven percent (n=64 of the CWTs believed that the overall quality of tours was impressive primarily because they were able to watch, at reasonable costs, large groups of dolphins in close proximity and in an almost pristine environment. The majority of CWTs (~91% felt that there is a need to develop a ‘Special Management Plan’ (SMP for the southern TSPS focusing on cetaceans and their habitats. The increasing number of dolphin watching boats, heavy exploitation of f ishing ground, misperception of local f ishers that cetaceans are competitors with f isheries, and lack of a SMP or a Management Plan per se for TSPS warranted the facilitation of a participatory management process to protect the cetaceans and their habitats.This study has shown that even with only preliminary results, survey interviews of key stakeholders in combination with FGDs and seminar-workshop could be critical in facilitating a participatory management process. In the case of the TSPS, this par ticipatory approach led to the formation of the Tañon Strait Association of Dolphin and Whale Watching Operators, Inc. (TaSADoWWI, and eventual development of cetacean

  9. Volcanic hazards of North Island, New Zealand-overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibble, R. R.; Nairn, I. A.; Neall, V. E.

    1985-10-01

    In October 1980, a National Civil Defence Planning Committee on Volcanic Hazards was formed in New Zealand, and solicited reports on the likely areas and types of future eruptions, the risk to public safety, and the need for special precautions. Reports for eight volcanic centres were received, and made available to the authors. This paper summarises and quantifies the type and frequency of hazard, the public risk, and the possibilities for mitigation at the 7 main volcanic centres: Northland, Auckland, White Island, Okataina, Taupo, Tongariro, and Egmont. On the basis of Recent tephrostratigraphy, eruption probabilities up to 20% per century (but commonly 5%), and tephra volumes up to 100 km 3 are credible.

  10. [Current situation of acupuncture in New Zealand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoji; Hu, Youping

    2017-04-12

    The beginning of TCM acupuncture in New Zealand dates back to the middle of 19th century. After self-improvement for more than 100 years, TCM acupuncture has gained a considerable development. From the perspective of history and current situation, the development of acupuncture in New Zealand was elaborated in this article; in addition, the sustainable development of acupuncture was discussed from the perspective of education and training. In New Zealand, the TCM acupuncture and dry needling have played a dominant role in acupuncture treatments, which are practiced by TCM practitioners and physical therapists. The TCM acupuncture is widely applied in department of internal medicine, surgery, gynecology, and pediatrics, etc., while the dry needling is li-mited for traumatology and pain disorder. Therefore, including TCM acupuncture into the public medical and educational system in New Zealand should be an essential policy of Ministry of Health to provide welfare for the people.

  11. International migration and New Zealand labour markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, R S

    1986-06-01

    "This paper seeks to assess the value of the overseas-born members of the labour force in ensuring a flexible labour supply in New Zealand since the beginning of the 1970s. Three main issues are considered: first, the role of the labour market in New Zealand's immigration policy; second, international migration trends and the labour market; and third, the evidence on migration and labour market segmentation in New Zealand." Data used are from official external migration statistics, quinquennial censuses, and recent research. The author notes that "in New Zealand immigration measures are currently being taken that emphasize that immigration continues to add to the flexibility of the labour market while uncontrolled emigration is a major cause of labour market instability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  12. February 2011 Christchurch, New Zealand Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The South Island, New Zealand earthquake occurred as part of the aftershock sequence of the M 7.0 September 3, 2010 Darfield, NZ earthquake. It involved...

  13. New Zealand code for nuclear powered shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    This report recommends guidelines for the safety precautions and procedures to be implemented when New Zealand ports and approaches are used by nuclear powered merchant ships and nuclear powered naval ships

  14. Radioactivity in New Zealand meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Full text: New Zealand has no nuclear power programme of radioactive waste disposal programme. The only artificial radioactivity detectable in the New Zealand environment is global fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted mainly in the northern hemisphere before 1964. This fallout in New Zealand is currently at its lowest level since environmental monitoring began in 1960. The total beta activity deposited in rain during 1985, for example, averaged 76 MBQ/km 2 , with most of that being due to naturally occurring radionuclides, principally lead-210/Bismuth-210. Levels of artificial radioactivity in New Zealand dairy products reflect this very low deposition rate. During 1985, for example, Strontium-90 and Caesium-137 levels in cow's milk averaged 0.035 BG/GCA and 0.27BQ/QK respectively. Those levels were similar to, or less than, levels reported in northern hemisphere countries during 1985. No change in environmental contamination levels has been recorded in New Zealand during 1985. The very low deposition rate and milk contamination levels indicate that fallout contamination levels generally are insignificant in New Zealand and monitoring of other foodstuffs such as meat products is not warranted. (author)

  15. Radioactivity in New Zealand meat products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-07-01

    Full text: New Zealand has no nuclear power programme of radioactive waste disposal programme. The only artificial radioactivity detectable in the New Zealand environment is global fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted mainly in the northern hemisphere before 1964. This fallout in New Zealand is currently at its lowest level since environmental monitoring began in 1960. The total beta activity deposited in rain during 1985, for example, averaged 76 MBQ/km{sup 2}, with most of that being due to naturally occurring radionuclides, principally lead-210/Bismuth-210. Levels of artificial radioactivity in New Zealand dairy products reflect this very low deposition rate. During 1985, for example, Strontium-90 and Caesium-137 levels in cow's milk averaged 0.035 BG/GCA and 0.27BQ/QK respectively. Those levels were similar to, or less than, levels reported in northern hemisphere countries during 1985. No change in environmental contamination levels has been recorded in New Zealand during 1985. The very low deposition rate and milk contamination levels indicate that fallout contamination levels generally are insignificant in New Zealand and monitoring of other foodstuffs such as meat products is not warranted. (author)

  16. Kelp and dolphin gulls cause perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) at Guafo Island, Chilean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguel, Mauricio; Muñoz, Francisco; Montalva, Felipe; Perez-Venegas, Diego; Pavés, Héctor; Gottdenker, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    During five reproductive seasons, we documented the presence, extent and origin of perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups ( Arctocephalus australis ) on Guafo Island, Northern Chilean Patagonia. The seasonal prevalence of perineal wounds ranged from 5 to 9%, and new cases were more common at the end of the breeding season (February), when pups were on average two months old and were actively expelling hookworms ( Uncinaria sp). Histologically, wounds corresponded to marked ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic dermatitis with granulation tissue and mixed bacterial colonies. In 2015 and 2017, kelp gulls ( Larus dominicanus ) and dolphin gulls ( Leucophaeus scoresbii ) were observed picking and wounding the perineal area of marked pups. This behaviour occurred more frequently after the pups' defecation, when sea gulls engaged in consumption of pups' faeces. The affected pups usually had moderate to marked hookworm infections along with bloody diarrhoea and anaemia. Pups with severe wounds (23% of affected animals) had swollen perineal areas and signs of secondary systemic bacterial infection. We propose that seagulls on Guafo Island have learned to consume remains of blood and parasites in the faeces of pups affected by hookworm infection, causing perineal wounds during this process. We conclude that this perineal wounding is an unintentional, occasional negative effect of an otherwise commensal gull-fur seal relationship.

  17. Explorations into Becoming New, Radical, and Quite Possibly Dangerously Progressive within an Aotearoa New Zealand Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Nicola; Owen, Hazel; Heta-Lensen, Yo

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on an initiative where we experienced being new, radical, and, from some viewpoints, dangerously progressive at Unitec--a Polytechnic/Institute of Technology in Aotearoa, New Zealand. The initiative was driven by a need to improve student experiences of interdisciplinary learning and teaching, and to develop a common semester for…

  18. Interaction in Classes at a New Zealand University: Some International Students' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Colleen

    1997-01-01

    Data from 5 Indonesian, 5 Thai, 21 Singaporean, and 85 Malaysian students in a New Zealand college were obtained through interviews, surveys, and observations. Differences in level and style of teacher-student interaction, difficulties learning English, perceptions of local students, lack of a common experience, and acculturation were the issues…

  19. Young Peoples' Opinions about the Causes of, and Solutions to, New Zealand's High Youth Suicide Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heled, Edna; Read, John

    2005-01-01

    In response to an open-ended question about the causes of New Zealand's high youth suicide rate, 384 young adults most commonly cited pressure to conform and perform, followed by financial worries, abuse and neglect, problems with alcohol or drugs, and boredom. Depression was cited by 5 percent and mental illness by only 1 percent. Recommended…

  20. Unwanted pregnancy: The outer boundary of "treatment injury" in the New Zealand accident compensation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Rosemary

    2015-09-01

    The New Zealand accident compensation scheme has undergone many changes over the years and these changes are reflected in the way unwanted pregnancy claims have been dealt with under the regime. The New Zealand Supreme Court has now confirmed that pregnancy as a result of medical misadventure can be classified as a personal injury under the scheme with the result that the woman patient is entitled to the benefits of the scheme and may not pursue a common law claim against the medical practitioner. This article analyses two recent decisions in the context of consideration of the changing fortunes of the unwanted pregnancy claims.

  1. A Review of the Status of the Indian Ocean Humpback Dolphin (Sousa plumbea) in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Muhammad Shoaib; Van Waerebeek, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Limited historical and new information on Indian Ocean humpback dolphins, Sousa plumbea, in Pakistan are reviewed. Although present along most of the coast, S. plumbea concentrates in the mangrove-lined creek system of the Indus Delta (Sindh), Miani Hor (Sonmiani Bay), Kalmat Lagoon, Gwadar and the Dasht River estuary (Gwater Bay, Jiwani). Other areas of distribution comprise the Karachi coast, Kund Malir, Ormara and Pasni. In the Indus Delta, 46 small-boat surveys conducted monthly (minus July and October) in 2005-2009, documented 112 sightings (439 individuals) in major creeks, smaller channels and nearshore waters. Group sizes ranged from 1-35 animals (mean=3.92±4.60). Groups of 1-10 animals composed 91% of total (27.9% single animals). An encounter rate of 0.07-0.17 dolphins km(-1) lacked a significant trend across survey years. A discovery curve remained steep after 87 dolphins were photo-identified, suggesting the population is vastly larger. In Sonmiani Bay, Balochistan, during 9 survey days in 2011-2012, group sizes ranged from 1-68 animals (mean=11.9±13.59; n=36), totalling 428 dolphins. Incidental entanglements, primarily in gillnets, pollution (especially around Karachi), overfishing and the ship breaking industry in Gaddani, pose major threats. Incidental catches occur along the entire Pakistani coast. Of 106 stranded cetaceans, 24.5% were S. plumbea. Directed takes in Balochistan, driven by demand for bait in shark fisheries, have reportedly declined following dwindling shark stocks. Habitat degradation threats include depletion of prey and increased maritime traffic. Domestic sewage and solid waste pollution are predominant on the Balochistan coast, especially at Miani Hor, Kund Malir, Ormara, Kalmat Lagoon, Pasni, Gwadar and Jiwani. An exhaustive habitat assessment combined with appropriate fishery management is the only way to safeguard the future of S. plumbea in Pakistan. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  2. Altrenogest and progesterone therapy during pregnancy in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with progesterone insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, Todd R; Gill, Claudia; Doescher, Bethany M; Sweeney, Jay; De Laender, Piet; Van Elk, Cornelis E; O'Brien, Justine K

    2012-06-01

    Progesterone production is essential for growth and development of the conceptus during pregnancy. Abnormal development of the corpus luteum (CL) after conception can result in early embryonic loss or fetal abortion. Routine monitoring of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) pregnancy after artificial insemination or natural conception with ultrasonography and serum progesterone determination has allowed for the establishment of expected fetal growth rates and hormone concentrations. Using these monitoring techniques, we revealed four pregnant dolphins (12-24 yr old) with abnormally low progesterone production indicative of luteal insufficiency. Once diagnosed, animals were placed on altrenogest (0.044-0.088 mg/kg once daily) alone or with oral progesterone (50-200 mg twice daily). Doses of hormone were increased or decreased in each animal based on how fetal skull biparietal and thoracic growth rates compared with published normal values. Hormones were withdrawn starting from day 358 of gestation in animals 1 and 2, with labor occurring 6 and 7 days after withdrawal and at 376 and 373 days of gestation, respectively. Both deliveries were dystocic, with each calf requiring manual extraction and fetotomy for calf 1. The fetuses in animals 3 and 4 died at 348 and 390 days of gestation, respectively. Induction of labor was attempted in both animals, after fetal death, by using a combination of rapid progesterone withdrawal and steroid and prostaglandin F2alpha administration. The calf of animal 4 had to be removed with manual cervical dilation and fetotomy All adult females survived the procedures. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that the CL is the primary source of progesterone throughout pregnancy in the bottlenose dolphin. Until further characterization of hormones required during pregnancy and at parturition has been accomplished, the exogenous progestagen supplementation protocol described here cannot be recommended for treatment of progesterone

  3. Epidemiological investigation of tattoo-like skin lesions among bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sarah N; Wallen, Megan M; Bansal, Shweta; Mann, Janet

    2018-07-15

    Bottlenose dolphins are excellent bioindicators of ocean ecosystem health for three reasons: (a) as long-lived apex predators they accumulate biotoxins and contaminants; (b) they are visible, routinely appearing at the water's surface in coastal areas, often coming into close contact with humans; and, (c) they exhibit a range of pathogenic lesions attributable to environmental degradation. In this study, we analyzed tattoo-like skin lesions in a population of Tursiops aduncus studied for 30+years in Shark Bay, Australia, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. We provide important baseline data by documenting epidemiological patterns of tattoo-like skin lesions in a healthy, free-ranging population that builds on the previous data of tattoo skin disease (TSD) derived from free ranging, stranded, and dead dolphins. Individual dolphins were classified as symptomatic with tattoo-like skin disease if at least one photograph showed a lesion similar to TSD. The average age of infection was 26.6months (±34.8months) with the symptomatic period lasting 137±29.8days. Overall prevalence of tattoo-like skin disease in the population was 19.4%. Age, but not sex, was significant, with yearlings (1-2years) exhibiting tattoo-like lesions more than younger and older calves. Tattoo-like lesions were rare among juvenile and adult dolphins (N=68 calves, 4 juveniles, and 3 adults). We hypothesize that the lower prevalence in youngest calves (2years) have infection-acquired immunity, as reported for other small cetaceans. The low prevalence of tattoo-like lesions in Shark Bay compared to other populations with poxvirus is consistent with reproductive and demographic viability analyses. Furthermore, by documenting the demography of the disease, we can monitor changes in the prevalence of tattoo-like lesions as a sentinel indicator of ecosystem health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of mercury contamination in live and dead dolphins from a newly described species, Tursiops australis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa Monk

    Full Text Available Globally it is estimated that up to 37% of all marine mammals are at a risk of extinction, due in particular to human impacts, including coastal pollution. Dolphins are known to be at risk from anthropogenic contaminants due to their longevity and high trophic position. While it is known that beach-cast animals are often high in contaminants, it has not been possible to determine whether levels may also be high in live animals from the same populations. In this paper we quantitatively assess mercury contamination in the two main populations of a newly described dolphin species from south eastern Australia, Tursiops australis. This species appear to be limited to coastal waters in close proximity to a major urban centre, and as such is likely to be vulnerable to anthropogenic pollution. For the first time, we were able to compare blubber mercury concentrations from biopsy samples of live individuals and necropsies of beach-cast animals and show that beach-cast animals were highly contaminated with mercury, at almost three times the levels found in live animals. Levels in live animals were also high, and are attributable to chronic low dose exposure to mercury from the dolphin's diet. Measurable levels of mercury were found in a number of important prey fish species. This illustrates the potential for low dose toxins in the environment to pass through marine food webs and potentially contribute to marine mammal deaths. This study demonstrates the potential use of blubber from biopsy samples to make inferences about the health of dolphins exposed to mercury.

  5. Comparison of mercury contamination in live and dead dolphins from a newly described species, Tursiops australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Alissa; Charlton-Robb, Kate; Buddhadasa, Saman; Thompson, Ross M

    2014-01-01

    Globally it is estimated that up to 37% of all marine mammals are at a risk of extinction, due in particular to human impacts, including coastal pollution. Dolphins are known to be at risk from anthropogenic contaminants due to their longevity and high trophic position. While it is known that beach-cast animals are often high in contaminants, it has not been possible to determine whether levels may also be high in live animals from the same populations. In this paper we quantitatively assess mercury contamination in the two main populations of a newly described dolphin species from south eastern Australia, Tursiops australis. This species appear to be limited to coastal waters in close proximity to a major urban centre, and as such is likely to be vulnerable to anthropogenic pollution. For the first time, we were able to compare blubber mercury concentrations from biopsy samples of live individuals and necropsies of beach-cast animals and show that beach-cast animals were highly contaminated with mercury, at almost three times the levels found in live animals. Levels in live animals were also high, and are attributable to chronic low dose exposure to mercury from the dolphin's diet. Measurable levels of mercury were found in a number of important prey fish species. This illustrates the potential for low dose toxins in the environment to pass through marine food webs and potentially contribute to marine mammal deaths. This study demonstrates the potential use of blubber from biopsy samples to make inferences about the health of dolphins exposed to mercury.

  6. Discrimination of Cylinders with Different Wall Thicknesses using Neural Networks and Simulated Dolphin Sonar Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Nonboe; Au, Whitlow; Larsen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a method integrating neural networks into a system for recognizing underwater objects. The system is based on a combination of simulated dolphin sonar signals, simulated auditory filters and artificial neural networks. The system is tested on a cylinder wall thickness...... difference experiment and demonstrates high accuracy for small wall thickness differences. Results from the experiment are compared with results obtained by a false killer whale (pseudorca crassidens)....

  7. Comparison of Mercury Contamination in Live and Dead Dolphins from a Newly Described Species, Tursiops australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Alissa; Charlton-Robb, Kate; Buddhadasa, Saman; Thompson, Ross M.

    2014-01-01

    Globally it is estimated that up to 37% of all marine mammals are at a risk of extinction, due in particular to human impacts, including coastal pollution. Dolphins are known to be at risk from anthropogenic contaminants due to their longevity and high trophic position. While it is known that beach-cast animals are often high in contaminants, it has not been possible to determine whether levels may also be high in live animals from the same populations. In this paper we quantitatively assess mercury contamination in the two main populations of a newly described dolphin species from south eastern Australia, Tursiops australis. This species appear to be limited to coastal waters in close proximity to a major urban centre, and as such is likely to be vulnerable to anthropogenic pollution. For the first time, we were able to compare blubber mercury concentrations from biopsy samples of live individuals and necropsies of beach-cast animals and show that beach-cast animals were highly contaminated with mercury, at almost three times the levels found in live animals. Levels in live animals were also high, and are attributable to chronic low dose exposure to mercury from the dolphin's diet. Measurable levels of mercury were found in a number of important prey fish species. This illustrates the potential for low dose toxins in the environment to pass through marine food webs and potentially contribute to marine mammal deaths. This study demonstrates the potential use of blubber from biopsy samples to make inferences about the health of dolphins exposed to mercury. PMID:25137255

  8. Ecology and Conservation Status of Indian Ocean Humpback Dolphins (Sousa plumbea) in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerchio, Salvatore; Andrianarivelo, Norbert; Andrianantenaina, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The Indian Ocean humpback dolphin (Sousa plumbea) has been studied in several range states in the Southwest Indian Ocean, however little information exists on populations in Madagascar. Here, we review available literature and describe a study on S. plumbea conducted between 2004 and 2013 on the west coast of Madagascar, involving boat-based field surveys in the southwest and northwest regions, and interview surveys with local fishers from villages along most of the west coast. Field surveys in the southwest region of Anakao/St. Augustine Bay revealed low encounter rates and mean group size, and markedly declining trends in both from 1999 to 2013. Conversely, in the northwest region around Nosy Be and Nosy Iranja, encounter rates were higher, as were mean group sizes, suggesting an apparently more abundant and less impacted population. Interview surveys revealed by-catch of coastal dolphins along the entire west coast, including S. plumbea, as well as other species. Directed hunting, including drive hunts of groups of dolphins, was reported primarily in the southern regions, in the range of the Vezo Malagasy ethnicity; however, there was evidence of hunting starting in one area in the northwest, where hunting dolphins is normally considered taboo for the predominant Sakalava ethnicity. Thus, the conservation status of S. plumbea in Madagascar appears to be spatially heterogeneous, with some areas where the local population is apparently more impacted than others. Conservation measures are recommended to mitigate further decline in the southwest of Madagascar, while protecting habitat and ensuring resilience in the northwest. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  9. Spontaneous ejaculation in a wild Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadamichi Morisaka

    Full Text Available Spontaneous ejaculation, which is defined as the release of seminal fluids without apparent sexual stimulation, has been documented in boreoeutherian mammals. Here we report spontaneous ejaculation in a wild Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus, and present a video of this rare behavior. This is the first report of spontaneous ejaculation by an aquatic mammal, and the first video of this behavior in animals to be published in a scientific journal.

  10. PCB and PBDE levels in a highly threatened dolphin species from the Southeastern Brazilian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavandier, Ricardo; Arêas, Jennifer; Quinete, Natalia; Moura, Jailson F. de; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda; Siciliano, Salvatore; Moreira, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    In the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State is located the major urban centers of the oil and gas industry of Brazil. The intense urbanization in recent decades caused an increase in human use of the coastal areas, which is constantly impacted by agricultural, industrial and wastewater discharges. Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) is a small cetacean that inhabits coastal regions down to a 30 m depth. This species is considered the most threatened cetacean in the Western South Atlantic Ocean. This study investigated the levels of 52 PCB congeners and 9 PBDE congeners in liver of nine individuals found stranded or accidentally caught between 2011 and 2012 in the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro. PCB mean levels ranged from 208 to 5543 ng g"−"1 lw and PBDEs mean concentrations varied between 13.84 and 36.94 ng g"−"1 lw. Contamination patterns suggest the previous use of Aroclor 1254, 1260 and penta-BDE mixtures in Brazil. While still few studies have assessed the organic contamination in cetaceans from the Southern Hemisphere, including Brazil, the levels found in this study could represent a health risk to these endangered species. - Highlights: • PCBs and PBDEs were measured in liver samples from Franciscana dolphins. • BDE 47, 99 and 100 were found in all individuals samples. • PCB-153, 138 and 180 were the major PCB congeners detected. • Results suggest the existence of PCBs and PBDEs contamination sources in Brazil. • PCBs and PDBEs levels could represent a risk to these endangered dolphin species. - PCB and PBDE concentrations found in Franciscana dolphins suggest the presence of contamination sources in Southeastern Brazil and could represent a high health risk to these endangered species.

  11. Detection of cyanotoxins (microcystins/nodularins) in livers from estuarine and coastal bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Northeast Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amber; Foss, Amanda; Miller, Melissa A; Gibson, Quincy

    2018-06-01

    Microcystins/Nodularins (MCs/NODs) are potent hepatotoxic cyanotoxins produced by harmful algal blooms (HABs) that occur frequently in the upper basin of the St. Johns River (SJR), Jacksonville, FL, USA. Areas downstream of bloom locations provide critical habitat for an estuarine population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Since 2010, approximately 30 of these dolphins have stranded and died within this impaired watershed; the cause of death was inconclusive for a majority of these individuals. For the current study, environmental exposure to MCs/NODs was investigated as a potential cause of dolphin mortality. Stranded dolphins from 2013 to 2017 were categorized into estuarine (n = 17) and coastal (n = 10) populations. Because estuarine dolphins inhabit areas with frequent or recurring cyanoblooms, they were considered as a comparatively high-risk group for cyanotoxin exposure in relation to coastal animals. All available liver samples from estuarine dolphins were tested regardless of stranding date, and samples from coastal individuals that stranded outside of the known cyanotoxin bloom season were assessed as controls. The MMPB (2-methyl-3-methoxy-4-phenylbutiric acid) technique was used to determine total (bound and free) concentrations of MCs/NODS in liver tissues. Free MCs/NODs extractions were conducted and analyzed using ELISA and LC-MS/MS on MMPB-positive samples to compare test results. MMPB testing resulted in low-level total MCs/NODs detection in some specimens. The Adda ELISA produced high test values that were not supported by concurrent LC-MS/MS analyses, indicative of false positives. Our results indicate that both estuarine and coastal dolphins are exposed to MCs/NODs, with potential toxic and immune health impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Habitat fragmentation and species extirpation in freshwater ecosystems; causes of range decline of the Indus river dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braulik, Gill T; Arshad, Masood; Noureen, Uzma; Northridge, Simon P

    2014-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation of freshwater ecosystems is increasing rapidly, however the understanding of extinction debt and species decline in riverine habitat fragments lags behind that in other ecosystems. The mighty rivers that drain the Himalaya - the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mekong and Yangtze - are amongst the world's most biodiverse freshwater ecosystems. Many hundreds of dams have been constructed, are under construction, or are planned on these rivers and large hydrological changes and losses of biodiversity have occurred and are expected to continue. This study examines the causes of range decline of the Indus dolphin, which inhabits one of the world's most modified rivers, to demonstrate how we may expect other vertebrate populations to respond as planned dams and water developments come into operation. The historical range of the Indus dolphin has been fragmented into 17 river sections by diversion dams; dolphin sighting and interview surveys show that river dolphins have been extirpated from ten river sections, they persist in 6, and are of unknown status in one section. Seven potential factors influencing the temporal and spatial pattern of decline were considered in three regression model sets. Low dry-season river discharge, due to water abstraction at irrigation barrages, was the principal factor that explained the dolphin's range decline, influencing 1) the spatial pattern of persistence, 2) the temporal pattern of subpopulation extirpation, and 3) the speed of extirpation after habitat fragmentation. Dolphins were more likely to persist in the core of the former range because water diversions are concentrated near the range periphery. Habitat fragmentation and degradation of the habitat were inextricably intertwined and in combination caused the catastrophic decline of the Indus dolphin.

  13. Vocal activities reflect the temporal distribution of bottlenose dolphin social and non-social activity in a zoological park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Alice; Lemasson, Alban; Boye, Martin; Hausberger, Martine

    2017-12-01

    Under natural conditions bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) spend their time mostly feeding and then travelling, socializing, or resting. These activities are not randomly distributed, with feeding being higher in early morning and late afternoon. Social activities and vocal behavior seem to be very important in dolphin daily activity. This study aimed to describe the activity time-budget and its relation to vocal behavior for dolphins in a zoological park. We recorded behaviors and vocalizations of six dolphins over 2 months. All subjects performed more non-agonistic social interactions and play in the morning than in the afternoon. The different categories of vocalizations were distributed non-randomly throughout the day, with more chirps in the afternoon, when the animals were "less social." The most striking result was the strong correlation between activities and the categories of vocalizations produced. The results confirm the association between burst pulses and whistles with social activities, but also reveal that both are also associated with solitary play. More chirps were produced when dolphins were engaged in socio-sexual behaviors, emphasizing the need for further questioning about the function of this vocal category. This study reveals that: (i) in a group kept in zoological management, social activities are mostly present in the morning; and (ii) the acoustic signals produced by dolphins may give a reliable representation of their current activities. While more studies on the context of signal production are needed, our findings provide a useful tool for understanding free ranging dolphin behavior when they are not visible. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Clicking in shallow rivers: short-range echolocation of Irrawaddy and Ganges River dolphins in a shallow, acoustically complex habitat.

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    Frants H Jensen

    Full Text Available Toothed whales (Cetacea, odontoceti use biosonar to navigate their environment and to find and catch prey. All studied toothed whale species have evolved highly directional, high-amplitude ultrasonic clicks suited for long-range echolocation of prey in open water. Little is known about the biosonar signals of toothed whale species inhabiting freshwater habitats such as endangered river dolphins. To address the evolutionary pressures shaping the echolocation signal parameters of non-marine toothed whales, we investigated the biosonar source parameters of Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica and Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris within the river systems of the Sundarban mangrove forest. Both Ganges and Irrawaddy dolphins produced echolocation clicks with a high repetition rate and low source level compared to marine species. Irrawaddy dolphins, inhabiting coastal and riverine habitats, produced a mean source level of 195 dB (max 203 dB re 1 µPapp whereas Ganges river dolphins, living exclusively upriver, produced a mean source level of 184 dB (max 191 re 1 µPapp. These source levels are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those of similar sized marine delphinids and may reflect an adaptation to a shallow, acoustically complex freshwater habitat with high reverberation and acoustic clutter. The centroid frequency of Ganges river dolphin clicks are an octave lower than predicted from scaling, but with an estimated beamwidth comparable to that of porpoises. The unique bony maxillary crests found in the Platanista forehead may help achieve a higher directionality than expected using clicks nearly an octave lower than similar sized odontocetes.

  15. Habitat fragmentation and species extirpation in freshwater ecosystems; causes of range decline of the Indus river dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill T Braulik

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation of freshwater ecosystems is increasing rapidly, however the understanding of extinction debt and species decline in riverine habitat fragments lags behind that in other ecosystems. The mighty rivers that drain the Himalaya - the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mekong and Yangtze - are amongst the world's most biodiverse freshwater ecosystems. Many hundreds of dams have been constructed, are under construction, or are planned on these rivers and large hydrological changes and losses of biodiversity have occurred and are expected to continue. This study examines the causes of range decline of the Indus dolphin, which inhabits one of the world's most modified rivers, to demonstrate how we may expect other vertebrate populations to respond as planned dams and water developments come into operation. The historical range of the Indus dolphin has been fragmented into 17 river sections by diversion dams; dolphin sighting and interview surveys show that river dolphins have been extirpated from ten river sections, they persist in 6, and are of unknown status in one section. Seven potential factors influencing the temporal and spatial pattern of decline were considered in three regression model sets. Low dry-season river discharge, due to water abstraction at irrigation barrages, was the principal factor that explained the dolphin's range decline, influencing 1 the spatial pattern of persistence, 2 the temporal pattern of subpopulation extirpation, and 3 the speed of extirpation after habitat fragmentation. Dolphins were more likely to persist in the core of the former range because water diversions are concentrated near the range periphery. Habitat fragmentation and degradation of the habitat were inextricably intertwined and in combination caused the catastrophic decline of the Indus dolphin.

  16. Health promotion funding, workforce recruitment and turnover in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Sarah A; Egan, Richard; Robertson, Lindsay; Hicks, Karen

    2015-06-01

    Almost a decade on from the New Zealand Primary Health Care Strategy and amidst concerns about funding of health promotion, we undertook a nationwide survey of health promotion providers. To identify trends in recruitment and turnover in New Zealand's health promotion workforce. Surveys were sent to 160 organisations identified as having a health focus and employing one or more health promoter. Respondents, primarily health promotion managers, were asked to report budget, retention and hiring data for 1 July 2009 through 1 July 2010. Responses were received from 53% of organisations. Among respondents, government funding for health promotion declined by 6.3% in the year ended July 2010 and health promoter positions decreased by 7.5% (equalling 36.6 full-time equivalent positions). Among staff who left their roles, 79% also left the field of health promotion. Forty-two organisations (52%) reported employing health promoters on time-limited contracts of three years or less; this employment arrangement was particularly common in public health units (80%) and primary health organisations (57%). Among new hires, 46% (n=55) were identified as Maori. Low retention of health promoters may reflect the common use of limited-term employment contracts, which allow employers to alter staffing levels as funding changes. More than half the surveyed primary health organisations reported using fixed-term employment contracts. This may compromise health promotion understanding, culture and institutional memory in these organisations. New Zealand's commitment to addressing ethnic inequalities in health outcomes was evident in the high proportion of Maori who made up new hires.

  17. Surface Patterning: Controlling Fluid Flow Through Dolphin and Shark Skin Biomimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Lawren; Lang, Amy; Bradshaw, Michael; McVay, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Dolphin skin is characterized by circumferential ridges, perpendicular to fluid flow, present from the crest of the head until the tail fluke. When observing a cross section of skin, the ridges have a sinusoidal pattern. Sinusoidal grooves have been proven to induce vortices in the cavities that can help control flow separation which can reduce pressure drag. Shark skin, however, is patterned with flexible scales that bristle up to 50 degrees with reversed flow. Both dolphin ridges and shark scales are thought to help control fluid flow and increase swimming efficiency by delaying the separation of the boundary layer. This study investigates how flow characteristics can be altered with bio-inspired surface patterning. A NACA 4412 hydrofoil was entirely patterned with transverse sinusoidal grooves, inspired by dolphin skin but scaled so the cavities on the model have the same Reynolds number as the cavities on a swimming shark. Static tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of approximately 100,000 and at varying angles of attack. The results were compared to the smooth hydrofoil case. The flow data was quantified using Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). The results of this study demonstrated that the patterned hydrofoil experienced greater separation than the smooth hydrofoil. It is hypothesize that this could be remediated if the pattern was placed only after the maximum thickness of the hydrofoil. Funding through NSF REU grant 1062611 is gratefully acknowledged.

  18. Conservation Status of the Australian Humpback Dolphin (Sousa sahulensis) Using the IUCN Red List Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Guido J; Cagnazzi, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Australian humpback dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) were recently described as a new species endemic to northern Australia and potentially southern New Guinea. We assessed the species conservation status against IUCN Red List Criteria using available information on their biology, ecology and threatening processes. Knowledge of population sizes and trends across the species range is lacking. Recent genetic studies indicate Australian humpback dolphins live in small and relatively isolated populations with limited gene flow among them. The available abundance estimates range from 14 to 207 individuals and no population studied to date is estimated to contain more than 104 mature individuals. The Potential Biological Removal method indicates populations are vulnerable to even low rates of anthropogenic mortality. Habitat degradation and loss is ongoing and expected to increase across the species range in Australia, and a continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is anticipated. Considering the available evidence and following a precautionary approach, we considered this species as Vulnerable under IUCN criterion C2a(i) because the total number of mature individuals is plausibly fewer than 10,000, an inferred continuing decline due to cumulative impacts, and each of the populations studied to date is estimated to contain fewer than 1000 mature individuals. Ongoing research efforts and recently developed research strategies and priorities will provide valuable information towards the future conservation and management of Australian humpback dolphins. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Maturation of Skulls in Postnatal Risso’s Dolphins (Grampus griseus from Taiwanese Waters

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    Ing Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The degree of fusion between bones is a useful indicator of skeletal and sexual maturity for cetacean specimens preserved in museum collections. The aim of this study was twofold: first, to examine the degree of fusion between bony elements in skulls of Risso’s dolphins (Grampus griseus Cuvier, 1812 from Taiwanese waters; and second, to analyze the relationship between skull maturity, body length, sexual maturity, and estimated age, with the aim of determining a useful skull predictor for maturity in Risso’s dolphins. The stage of fusion of 20 superficial sutures or joints between selected skull bones was examined on 33 clean, dry skulls, which were salvaged from stranded or bycaught dead Risso’s dolphins in Taiwanese waters during the years of 1994 – 2001. The bones of the caudoventral braincase fused early in development (basioccipital-exoccipital synchondrosis, supraoccipital- exoccipital suture, whereas fusion along the nuchal crest (fronto-interparietal and fronto-parietal sutures occurred later. Some sutures remained open in some adult specimens (lacrimal/maxilla-frontal, squamosal-parietal, squamosal-exoccipital sutures, and the intermandibular symphysis. Bilateral asymmetry of the fusion process was not detected. Advanced fusion occurred in the fronto-interparietal suture along the medial aspect of the nuchal crest, and in the rostral nasal-frontal and distal maxilla-incisive sutures at total body length > 250 cm, and may be useful skull indicators of sexual maturity.

  20. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity in densities of the Taiwanese humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis taiwanensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dares, Lauren E.; Araújo-Wang, Claryana; Yang, Shih Chu; Wang, John Y.

    2017-03-01

    The inshore, estuarine distribution of Taiwanese humpback dolphins (THD) along the west coast of Taiwan puts them in direct conflict with many anthropogenic activities. We investigated the influence of environmental factors (depth, sea surface temperature (SST), salinity and distance to the nearest freshwater source) and coastal developments on THD density. Clear heterogeneity in density was found across the range of the THD, and there was significant spatial and temporal variation in mean densities. Density was not directly related to any environmental factors examined, which may be due to temporal variability and hydrological and oceanographic conditions that create, in effect, a continuous river delta along the central west coast of Taiwan rather than isolated, separate river estuaries. A high abundance of dolphins per unit of survey effort (DPUE) and mother-calf pairs per unit of survey effort (MCPUE) were found in waters adjacent to major coastal developments in which shallow waters had been filled to create new land (reclamation areas), but neither distance to reclamation area nor distance to the nearest river were found to be significant predictors of density. Most reclamation projects in THD habitat are situated near the mouths of major rivers or result in the creation of artificial confluences of smaller rivers, streams and other freshwater outlets, such as waste outflows. Thus, dolphins appear to use these areas in the absence of high quality natural habitat that has been lost to large-scale coastal reclamation throughout their range.

  1. The Rough-Toothed Dolphin, Steno bredanensis, in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: A Relict Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerem, D; Goffman, O; Elasar, M; Hadar, N; Scheinin, A; Lewis, T

    Only recently included among the cetacean species thought to regularly occur in the Mediterranean, the rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) is an obscure and enigmatic member of this ensemble. Preliminary genetic evidence strongly indicates an Atlantic origin, yet the Mediterranean distribution for this species is conspicuously detached from the Atlantic, with all authenticated records during the last three decades being east of the Sicilian Channel and most within the bounds of the Levantine Basin. These dolphins are apparently a small, relict population, probably the remnant of a larger one, contiguous with that in the Atlantic and nowadays entrapped in the easternmost and warmest province. Abundance data are lacking for the species in the Mediterranean. Configuring acoustic detection software to recognise the apparently idiosyncratic vocalisations of rough-toothed dolphins in past and future acoustic recordings may prove useful for potential acoustic monitoring. Evidence accumulated so far, though scant, points to seasonal occupation of shallow coastal waters. Vulnerability to entanglement in gill-nets, contaminants in the region, and the occurrence of mass strandings (possibly in response to anthropogenic noise), are major conservation concerns for the population in the Mediterranean Sea. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-Term Monitoring of Dolphin Biosonar Activity in Deep Pelagic Waters of the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Francesco; Alonge, Giuseppe; Bellia, Giorgio; De Domenico, Emilio; Grammauta, Rosario; Larosa, Giuseppina; Mazzola, Salvatore; Riccobene, Giorgio; Pavan, Gianni; Papale, Elena; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Sciacca, Virginia; Simeone, Francesco; Speziale, Fabrizio; Viola, Salvatore; Buscaino, Giuseppa

    2017-06-28

    Dolphins emit short ultrasonic pulses (clicks) to acquire information about the surrounding environment, prey and habitat features. We investigated Delphinidae activity over multiple temporal scales through the detection of their echolocation clicks, using long-term Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM). The Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare operates multidisciplinary seafloor observatories in a deep area of the Central Mediterranean Sea. The Ocean noise Detection Experiment collected data offshore the Gulf of Catania from January 2005 to November 2006, allowing the study of temporal patterns of dolphin activity in this deep pelagic zone for the first time. Nearly 5,500 five-minute recordings acquired over two years were examined using spectrogram analysis and through development and testing of an automatic detection algorithm. Echolocation activity of dolphins was mostly confined to nighttime and crepuscular hours, in contrast with communicative signals (whistles). Seasonal variation, with a peak number of clicks in August, was also evident, but no effect of lunar cycle was observed. Temporal trends in echolocation corresponded to environmental and trophic variability known in the deep pelagic waters of the Ionian Sea. Long-term PAM and the continued development of automatic analysis techniques are essential to advancing the study of pelagic marine mammal distribution and behaviour patterns.

  3. Effects of a dolphin interaction program on children with autism spectrum disorders – an exploratory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salgueiro Emílio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interaction programs involving dolphins and patients with various pathologies or developmental disorders (e.g., cerebral palsy, intellectual impairment, autism, atopic dermatitis, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression have stimulated interest in their beneficial effects and therapeutic potential. However, the true effects observed in different clinical and psycho-educational setups are still controversial. Results An evaluation protocol consisting of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS, Psychoeducational Profile-Revised (PEP-R, Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC, Theory of Mind Tasks (ToM Tasks and a custom-made Interaction Evaluation Grid (IEG to evaluate behavioural complexity during in-pool interactions was applied to 10 children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The ATEC, ToM Tasks and CARS results show no benefits of the dolphin interaction program. Interestingly, the PEP-R suggests some statistically significant effects on ‘Overall development score’, as well as on their ‘Fine motor development’, ‘Cognitive performance’ and ‘Cognitive verbal development’. Also, a significant evolution in behavioural complexity was shown by the IEG. Conclusions This study does not support significant developmental progress resulting from the dolphin interaction program.

  4. Cryptic lineage differentiation among Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in the northwest Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, H W I; Nishida, S; Welch, A J; Moura, A E; Tanabe, S; Kiani, M S; Culloch, R; Möller, L; Natoli, A; Ponnampalam, L S; Minton, G; Gore, M; Collins, T; Willson, A; Baldwin, R; Hoelzel, A R

    2018-05-01

    Phylogeography can provide insight into the potential for speciation and identify geographic regions and evolutionary processes associated with species richness and evolutionary endemism. In the marine environment, highly mobile species sometimes show structured patterns of diversity, but the processes isolating populations and promoting differentiation are often unclear. The Delphinidae (oceanic dolphins) are a striking case in point and, in particular, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.). Understanding the radiation of species in this genus is likely to provide broader inference about the processes that determine patterns of biogeography and speciation, because both fine-scale structure over a range of kilometers and relative panmixia over an oceanic range are known for Tursiops populations. In our study, novel Tursiops spp. sequences from the northwest Indian Ocean (including mitogenomes and two nuDNA loci) are included in a worldwide Tursiops spp. phylogeographic analysis. We discover a new 'aduncus' type lineage in the Arabian Sea (off India, Pakistan and Oman) that diverged from the Australasian lineage ∼261 Ka. Effective management of coastal dolphins in the region will need to consider this new lineage as an evolutionarily significant unit. We propose that the establishment of this lineage could have been in response to climate change during the Pleistocene and show data supporting hypotheses for multiple divergence events, including vicariance across the Indo-Pacific barrier and in the northwest Indian Ocean. These data provide valuable transferable inference on the potential mechanisms for population and species differentiation across this geographic range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The echolocation transmission beam of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Liang; Wu, Yuping; Wang, Kexiong; Pine, Matthew K; Wang, Ding; Li, Songhai

    2017-08-01

    While the transmission beam of odontocetes has been described in a number of studies, the majority of them that have measured the transmission beam in two dimensions were focused on captive animals. Within the current study, a dedicated cross hydrophone array with nine elements was used to investigate the echolocation transmission beam of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. A total of 265 on-axis clicks were analyzed, from which the apparent peak to peak source levels ranged between 168 to 207 dB (mean 184.5 dB ± 6.6 dB). The 3-dB beam width along the horizontal and vertical plane was 9.6° and 7.4°, respectively. Measured separately, the directivity index of the horizontal and vertical plane was 12.6 and 13.5 dB, respectively, and the overall directivity index (both planes combined) was 29.5 dB. The beam shape was slightly asymmetrical along the horizontal and vertical axis. Compared to other species, the characteristics of the transmitting beam of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins were relatively close to the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), likely due to the similarity in the peak frequency and waveform of echolocation clicks and comparable body sizes of the two species.

  6. Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins in Borneo: A Review of Current Knowledge with Emphasis on Sarawak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Gianna; Zulkifli Poh, Anna Norliza; Peter, Cindy; Porter, Lindsay; Kreb, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) are documented from various locations along Borneo's coast, including three sites in Sarawak, Malaysia, three sites in Sabah, Malaysia, three locations in Kalimantan, Indonesia and the limited coastal waters of the Sultanate of Brunei. Observations in all these areas indicate a similar external morphology, which seems to fall somewhere between that documented for Chinese populations known as S. chinensis, and that of Sousa sahulensis in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Sightings occur in shallow nearshore waters, often near estuaries and river mouths, and associations with Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) are frequently documented. Population estimates exist for only two locations and sightings information throughout Borneo indicates that frequency of occurrence is rare and group size is usually small. Threats from fisheries by-catch and coastal development are present in many locations and there are concerns over the ability of these small and fragmented populations to survive. The conservation and taxonomic status of humpback dolphins in Borneo remain unclear, and there are intriguing questions as to where these populations fit in our evolving understanding of the taxonomy of the genus. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence of Brucella strain ST27 in bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetnić, Željko; Duvnjak, Sanja; Đuras, Martina; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Reil, Irena; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Špičić, Silvio

    2016-11-30

    Marine mammal brucellosis has been known for more than 20 years, but recent work suggests it is more widespread than originally thought. Brucella (B.) pinnipedialis has been isolated from pinnipeds, while B. ceti strains have been associated with cetaceans. Here we report a Brucella strain isolated from multiple lymph nodes of one bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) during routine examination of dolphin carcasses found in the Croatian part of the northern Adriatic Sea during the summer of 2015. Classical bacteriological biotyping, PCR-based techniques (single, multiplex, PCR-RFLP) and 16S rRNA DNA sequencing were used to identify Brucella spp. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of 16 loci and multilocus sequence typing of 9 loci were used for genotyping and species determination. The combination of bacteriological, molecular and genotyping techniques identified our strain as ST27, previously identified as a human pathogen. This report provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence of ST27 in the Adriatic Sea in particular and in European waters in general. The zoonotic nature of the strain and its presence in the Adriatic, which is inhabited by bottlenose dolphins, suggest that the strain may pose a significant threat to human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biology and Conservation of the Taiwanese Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis taiwanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John Y; Riehl, Kimberly N; Klein, Michelle N; Javdan, Shiva; Hoffman, Jordan M; Dungan, Sarah Z; Dares, Lauren E; Araújo-Wang, Claryana

    2016-01-01

    The humpback dolphins of the eastern Taiwan Strait were first discovered scientifically in 2002 and since then have received much research attention. We reviewed all information published in peer-reviewed scientific journals on these dolphins and where appropriate and available, peer-reviewed scientific workshop reports and graduate theses were also examined. Recent evidence demonstrated that this population warranted recognition as a subspecies, Sousa chinensis taiwanensis. It is found in a highly restricted and linear strip of coastal waters along central western Taiwan. Numbering fewer than 80 individuals and declining, five main threats (fisheries interactions, habitat loss and degradation, loss of freshwater to estuaries within their habitat, air and water pollution, and noise) threaten the future existence of this subspecies. These dolphins have cultural and religious importance and boast the highest level of legal protection for wildlife in Taiwan. However, despite enormous efforts by local and international non-governmental groups urging immediate conservation actions, there have been no real government efforts to mitigate any existing threats; instead, some of these threats have worsened. Based on recent studies, we suggest the IUCN Red List status be revised to Critically Endangered CR 2a(ii); D for the subspecies. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hearing sensation levels of emitted biosonar clicks in an echolocating Atlantic bottlenose dolphin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhai Li

    Full Text Available Emitted biosonar clicks and auditory evoked potential (AEP responses triggered by the clicks were synchronously recorded during echolocation in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus trained to wear suction-cup EEG electrodes and to detect targets by echolocation. Three targets with target strengths of -34, -28, and -22 dB were used at distances of 2 to 6.5 m for each target. The AEP responses were sorted according to the corresponding emitted click source levels in 5-dB bins and averaged within each bin to extract biosonar click-related AEPs from noise. The AEP amplitudes were measured peak-to-peak and plotted as a function of click source levels for each target type, distance, and target-present or target-absent condition. Hearing sensation levels of the biosonar clicks were evaluated by comparing the functions of the biosonar click-related AEP amplitude-versus-click source level to a function of external (in free field click-related AEP amplitude-versus-click sound pressure level. The results indicated that the dolphin's hearing sensation levels to her own biosonar clicks were equal to that of external clicks with sound pressure levels 16 to 36 dB lower than the biosonar click source levels, varying with target type, distance, and condition. These data may be assumed to indicate that the bottlenose dolphin possesses effective protection mechanisms to isolate the self-produced intense biosonar beam from the animal's ears during echolocation.

  10. Sex, Age, and Individual Differences in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in Response to Environmental Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holli C. Eskelinen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Application of environmental enrichment, as a means to successfully decrease undesired behaviors (e.g., stereotypic and improve animal welfare, has been documented in a variety of zoological species. However, a dearth of empirical evidence exists concerning age, sex, and individual differences in response to various types of enrichment tools and activities in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus. This study involved a comparative assessment of enrichment participation of three resident, bottlenose dolphin populations, over the course of 17 months, with respect to sex and age class (calf, sub-adult, adult. Enrichment sessions were randomly assigned, conducted, and categorically assessed based on participation during seven, broad based enrichment classes (Object, Ingestible, Human, or a combination of the three. Overall, the proportion of participation in enrichment sessions was high (≥ 0.74, with individual differences in participation noted among the three populations. Sessions involving Humans and/or Ingestible items resulted in a significantly higher mean proportion of participation. Sub-adult and adult males were significantly more likely to participate in enrichment sessions, as well as engage in Human Interaction/Object sessions. Calves participated significantly more than adults or sub-adults across all enrichment classes with no noted differences between males and females. These data can serve as a tool to better understand the intricacies of bottlenose dolphin responses to enrichment in an effort to develop strategic enrichment plans with the goal of improving animal well-being and welfare.

  11. Two Cases of Lacaziosis in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in Japan

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    Keiichi Ueda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lacaziosis, formerly called lobomycosis, caused by Lacazia loboi, is a zoonotic mycosis found in humans and dolphins and is endemic in the countries on the Atlantic Ocean. Although the Japanese coast is not considered an endemic area, photographic records of lacaziosis-like skin lesions were found in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus that were migrating in the Goto Islands (Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. We diagnosed 2 cases of lacaziosis in bottlenose dolphins captured simultaneously at the same coast within Japanese territory on the basis of clinical characteristics, cytology, histopathology, immunological tests, and detection of partial sequences of a 43 kDa glycoprotein coding gene (gp43 with a nested-PCR system. The granulomatous skin lesions from the present cases were similar to those found in animals from endemic areas, containing multiple budding and chains of round yeast cells and positive in the immune-staining with anti-Paracoccidioides brasiliensis serum which is a fungal species related to L. loboi; however, the gp43 gene sequences derived from the present cases showed 94.1% homology to P. brasiliensis and 84.1% to L. loboi. We confirmed that the causative agent at the present cases was different genotype of L. loboi from Amazon area.

  12. Toxic heritage: Maternal transfer of pyrethroid insecticides and sunscreen agents in dolphins from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Mariana B.; Feo, Maria Luisa; Corcellas, Cayo; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Bertozzi, Carolina P.; Marigo, Juliana; Flach, Leonardo; Meirelles, Ana Carolina O.; Carvalho, Vitor L.; Azevedo, Alexandre F.; Torres, João Paulo M.

    2015-01-01

    Pyrethroids (PYR) and UV filters (UVF) were investigated in tissues of paired mother-fetus dolphins from Brazilian coast in order to investigate the possibility of maternal transfer of these emerging contaminants. Comparison of PYR and UVF concentrations in maternal and fetal blubber revealed Franciscana transferred efficiently both contaminants to fetuses (F/M > 1) and Guiana dolphin transferred efficiently PYR to fetuses (F/M > 1) different than UVF (F/M < 1). PYR and UVF concentrations in fetuses were the highest-ever reported in biota (up to 6640 and 11,530 ng/g lw, respectively). Muscle was the organ with the highest PYR and UVF concentrations (p < 0.001), suggesting that these two classes of emerging contaminants may have more affinity for proteins than for lipids. The high PYR and UVF concentrations found in fetuses demonstrate these compounds are efficiently transferred through placenta. This study is the first to report maternal transfer of pyrethroids and UV filters in marine mammals. - Highlights: • First time maternal transfer of pyrethroids and UV filters in mammals was reported. • Pollutants in fetus tissues characterize their transplacental transfer. • Fetuses had pyrethroid and UV filter levels 10 times higher than their mothers. • Muscle was the organ presented with the highest concentrations of PYR and UVF. - Pyrethroids and UV filter concentrations in fetus and mother dolphin tissues demonstrated placenta and milk transfer in marine mammals.

  13. Mechanics and Hydrodynamics of Acrobatics and Aquabatics by Whales and Dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Frank

    2017-11-01

    Cetaceans (whales, dolphins) are extremely energetic, fast swimming, and highly maneuverable in both water and air. Behaviors that cross the interface include breaching, porpoising, tail stands, and spin-leaps. The mechanics of breaching and porpoising entails propulsive movements of the caudal flukes to accelerate the animal vertically through the water surface to become airborne. Porpoising is beneficial to reduce the energetic cost of swimming at high speeds. Tail stands have a vertically oriented dolphin with half or more of its body out of the water. Bubble DPIV was used to quantify the propulsive force matching the weight of the animal supported above the water surface. The propulsive movements produced a jet flow and associated vorticity directed downward. Spin-leaps require a rapid vertical ascend from underwater by a rolling dolphin. Out of the water, the spin rate increases due to conservation of angular momentum and an imbalance between driving and resistive torques. The spin rate is associated with the moment of inertia of the animal's morphology. The physics of these high-energy maneuvers have engineering application for understanding ballistic performance across the air/water interface. Funded from ONR-MURI Grant N0001141410533.

  14. Post-flood status of the Endangered Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica (Cetartiodactyla: Platanistidae in the Koshi River, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Khatri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The breach of the eastern embankment of the Koshi Barrage at Paschim Kusaha Village of Sunsari District on 18 August 2008, created havoc for wildlife and their habitats, as well as people’s livelihood and welfare. The Koshi River flowed through the breach for five months. Following the breach, a population assessment survey of the Endangered Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica was made between March and November 2009 in the Koshi River main channel starting from Chatara to 2km south of Koshi Barrage to ascertain their status. A direct count survey was conducted by two teams of researchers simultaneously searching for animals by boat from Chatara to the Koshi Barrage including the Triyuga River and on foot along the river banks downstream of Koshi Barrage and along the Mariya River. Standard protocols were followed to record the number of sighted dolphins. A total of 11 dolphins were recorded in the entire 49-km river stretch with an encounter rate of 0.23 dolphins per km. The current result showed an encouraging population of dolphins in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and its buffer zone but the threats for conservation still remain challenging. Close monitoring of dolphins and their habitats involving local communities are required for long term conservation of the river dolphins in Nepal. The breach of the eastern embankment of the Koshi Barrage at Paschim Kusaha Village of Sunsari District on 18 August 2008, created havoc for wildlife and their habitats, as well as people’s livelihood and welfare. The Koshi River flowed through the breach for five months. Following the breach, a population assessment survey of the Endangered Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica was made between March and November 2009 in the Koshi River main channel starting from Chatara to 2km south of Koshi Barrage to ascertain their status. A direct count survey was conducted by two teams of researchers simultaneously searching for

  15. New Zealand Prostitutes’ Collective—An Example of a Successful Policy Actor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Radačić

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The New Zealand Prostitutes’ Collective (NZPC is a unique example of a sex workers’ rights organisation which is an important actor in prostitution policy. The NZPC has had a significant impact on prostitution laws, managing to achieve the decriminalisation of sex work in New Zealand, which distinguishes it from many other studied organisations. Indeed, the literature on sex workers’ rights organisations notes their relative failure in terms of their impact on prostitution law and policy, identifying the following hurdles: the lack of a common identity and solidarity among sex workers, their stigmatisation, problems with organisational leadership and membership, lack of resources and challenging relationships with allies. This article analyses the role of the NZPC in prostitution policy in New Zealand, particularly in the adoption of the decriminalisation model, and examines the key factors for its success in light of the literature on sex workers’ rights organisations.

  16. Elevated sister chromatid exchange frequencies in New Zealand Vietnam War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, R E; Edwards, L A; Podd, J V

    2007-01-01

    From July 1965 until November 1971, New Zealand Defence Force Personnel fought in the Vietnam War. During this time more than 76,500,000 litres of phenoxylic herbicides were sprayed over parts of Southern Vietnam and Laos, the most common being known as 'Agent Orange'. The current study aimed to ascertain whether or not New Zealand Vietnam War veterans show evidence of genetic disturbance arising as a consequence of their now confirmed exposure to these defoliants. A sample group of 24 New Zealand Vietnam War veterans and 23 control volunteers were compared using an SCE (sister chromatid exchange) analysis. The results from the SCE study show a highly significant difference (P Vietnam War veterans studied here were exposed to a clastogenic substance(s) which continues to exert an observable genetic effect today, and suggest that this is attributable to their service in Vietnam. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins in North-Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, Alexander M.; Kopps, Anna M.; Allen, Simon J.; Bejder, Lars; Littleford-Colquhoun, Bethan; Parra, Guido J.; Cagnazzi, Daniele; Thiele, Deborah; Palmer, Carol; Frere, Celine H.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins ('snubfin' and 'humpback dolphins', hereafter) of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as 'near threatened' by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous

  18. High-Speed Vessel Noises in West Hong Kong Waters and Their Contributions Relative to Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Q. Sims

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The waters of West Hong Kong are home to a population of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis that use a variety of sounds to communicate. This area is also dominated by intense vessel traffic that is believed to be behaviorally and acoustically disruptive to dolphins. While behavioral changes have been documented, acoustic disturbance has yet to be shown. We compared the relative sound contributions of various high-speed vessels to nearby ambient noise and dolphin social sounds. Ambient noise levels were also compared between areas of high and low traffic. We found large differences in sound pressure levels between high traffic and no traffic areas, suggesting that vessels are the main contributors to these discrepancies. Vessel sounds were well within the audible range of dolphins, with sounds from 315–45,000 Hz. Additionally, vessel sounds at distances ≥100 m exceeded those of dolphin sounds at closer distances. Our results reaffirm earlier studies that vessels have large sound contributions to dolphin habitats, and we suspect that they may be inducing masking effects of dolphin sounds at close distances. Further research on dolphin behavior and acoustics in relation to vessels is needed to clarify impacts.

  19. Whales and dolphins (Mammalia, Cetacea) of the Cape Verde Islands, with special reference to the Humpback Whale Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski, 1781)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazevoet, Cornelis J.; Wenzel, Frederick W.

    2000-01-01

    Observations of whales and dolphins in the Cape Verde Islands obtained in 1995 and 1996 are reported and data on the occurrence of 14 taxa are given, including four not previously reported from the region, viz. Bryde’s Whale Balaenoptera edeni, Killer Whale Orcinus orca, Rough-toothed Dolphin Steno

  20. Comparison of Dolphins' Body and Brain Measurements with Four Other Groups of Cetaceans Reveals Great Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Sam H; Carlin, Kevin P; Van Alstyne, Kaitlin R; Hanson, Alicia C; Tarpley, Raymond J

    2016-01-01

    We compared mature dolphins with 4 other groupings of mature cetaceans. With a large data set, we found great brain diversity among 5 different taxonomic groupings. The dolphins in our data set ranged in body mass from about 40 to 6,750 kg and in brain mass from 0.4 to 9.3 kg. Dolphin body length ranged from 1.3 to 7.6 m. In our combined data set from the 4 other groups of cetaceans, body mass ranged from about 20 to 120,000 kg and brain mass from about 0.2 to 9.2 kg, while body length varied from 1.21 to 26.8 m. Not all cetaceans have large brains relative to their body size. A few dolphins near human body size have human-sized brains. On the other hand, the absolute brain mass of some other cetaceans is only one-sixth as large. We found that brain volume relative to body mass decreases from Delphinidae to a group of Phocoenidae and Monodontidae, to a group of other odontocetes, to Balaenopteroidea, and finally to Balaenidae. We also found the same general trend when we compared brain volume relative to body length, except that the Delphinidae and Phocoenidae-Monodontidae groups do not differ significantly. The Balaenidae have the smallest relative brain mass and the lowest cerebral cortex surface area. Brain parts also vary. Relative to body mass and to body length, dolphins also have the largest cerebellums. Cortex surface area is isometric with brain size when we exclude the Balaenidae. Our data show that the brains of Balaenidae are less convoluted than those of the other cetaceans measured. Large vascular networks inside the cranial vault may help to maintain brain temperature, and these nonbrain tissues increase in volume with body mass and with body length ranging from 8 to 65% of the endocranial volume. Because endocranial vascular networks and other adnexa, such as the tentorium cerebelli, vary so much in different species, brain size measures from endocasts of some extinct cetaceans may be overestimates. Our regression of body length on endocranial

  1. Comprehensive endocrine response to acute stress in the bottlenose dolphin from serum, blubber, and feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Cory D; Kellar, Nicholas M; Trego, Marisa L; Delehanty, Brendan; Boonstra, Rudy; Wasser, Samuel K; Booth, Rebecca K; Crocker, Daniel E; Houser, Dorian S

    2018-05-29

    Several hormones are potential indicators of stress in free-ranging animals and provide information on animal health in managed-care settings. In response to stress, glucocorticoids (GC, e.g. cortisol) first appear in circulation but are later incorporated into other tissues (e.g. adipose) or excreted in feces or urine. These alternative matrices can be sampled remotely, or by less invasive means, than required for blood collection and are especially valuable in highly mobile species, like marine mammals. We characterized the timing and magnitude of several hormones in response to a stressor in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and the subsequent incorporation of cortisol into blubber, and its metabolites excreted in feces. We evaluated the endocrine response to an acute stressor in bottlenose dolphins under managed care. We used a standardized stress protocol where dolphins voluntarily beached onto a padded platform and remained out of water for two hours; during the stress test blood samples were collected every 15 min and blubber biopsies were collected every hour (0, 60, and 120 min). Each subject was studied over five days: voluntary blood samples were collected on each of two days prior to the stress test; 1 and 2 h after the conclusion of the out-of-water stress test; and on the following two days after the stress test. Fecal samples were collected daily, each afternoon. The acute stressor resulted in increases in circulating ACTH, cortisol, and aldosterone during the stress test, and each returned to baseline levels within 2 h of the dolphin's return to water. Both cortisol and aldosterone concentrations were correlated with ACTH, suggesting both corticosteroids are at least partly regulated by ACTH. Thyroid hormone concentrations were generally unaffected by the acute stressor. Blubber cortisol increased during the stress test, and fecal GC excretion was elevated on the day of the stress test. We found that GCs in bottlenose dolphins can

  2. Ethnoecology of small cetaceans: interactions between an artisanal fishery and dolphins in northern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Madeira Di Beneditto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies in northern Rio de Janeiro indicate there are interactions between fisheries and cetaceans, but there are no studies that focus on the knowledge fishermen have about these animals. This study describes the interactions between cetaceans and a fishery through the perception of fishermen from Atafona (RJ. Between February and March 2010, 20 fishermen were selected using the “snowball” technique. An ethnographic questionnaire was given to each fisherman. Each participant described more than one species of dolphin, which explains why the sample size of the responses (N=34 is greater than the number of respondents (N=20. Based on the reports, three species and one genus were identified: Sotalia guianensis (N=15; 75%, Pontoporia blainvillei (N=9; 45%, Steno bredanensis (N=6; 30% and Stenella (N=4; 20%. The answer “collision with artifacts” was the only one given for the question about the occurrence of accidents between the fishery and dolphins (N=24; 71%; gillnets are responsible for the entanglement of the animals. The carcasses of dolphins killed by accidental capture are discarded into the sea and/or the muscle and blubber is used as bait to fish for elasmobranchs. The dolphin species identified by the fishermen corresponded to the four main species reported in the literature for the area. All interviewees said that bycatch is caused by dolphins and affects fishing.

  3. Broadband ship noise and its potential impacts on Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins: Implications for conservation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingming; Dong, Lijun; Lin, Mingli; Li, Songhai

    2017-11-01

    Ship noise pollution has raised considerable concerns among regulatory agencies and cetacean researchers worldwide. There is an urgent need to quantify ship noise in coastal areas and assess its potential biological impacts. In this study, underwater broadband noise from commercial ships in a critical habitat of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins was recorded and analyzed. Data analysis indicated that the ship noise caused by the investigated commercial ships with an average length of 134 ± 81 m, traveling at 18.8 ± 2.5 km/h [mean ± standard deviation (SD), n = 21] comprises mid-to-high components with frequencies approaching and exceeding 100 kHz, and the ship noise could be sensed auditorily by Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins within most of their sensitive frequency range. The contributions of ship noise to ambient noise were highest in two third-octave bands with center frequencies of 8 and 50 kHz, which are within the sensitive hearing range of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins and overlap the frequency of sounds that are biologically significant to the dolphins. It is estimated that ship noise in these third-octave bands can be auditorily sensed by and potentially affect the dolphins within 2290 ± 1172 m and 848 ± 358 m (mean ± SD, n = 21), respectively.

  4. Spatiotemporal Trends of Heavy Metals in Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from the Western Pearl River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Duan; Yu, Ri-Qing; Karczmarski, Leszek; Ding, Yulong; Zhang, Haifei; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Mei; Wu, Yuping

    2017-02-07

    We assessed the spatiotemporal trends of the concentrations of 11 heavy metals (HMs) in the liver and kidney of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from western Pearl River Estuary (PRE) during 2004-2015. The hepatic levels of Cr, As, and Cu in these dolphins were among the highest reported for cetaceans globally, and the levels of Zn, Cu, and Hg were sufficiently high to cause toxicological effects in some of the animals. Between same age-sex groups, dolphins from Lingdingyang were significantly more contaminated with Hg, Se, and V than those from the West-four region, while the opposite was true for Cd. Generalized additive mixed models showed that most metals had significant but dissimilar temporal trends over a 10-year period. The concentrations of Cu and Zn increased significantly in recent years, corresponding to the high input of these metals in the region. Body-length-adjusted Cd levels peaked in 2012, accompanied by the highest annual number of dolphin stranding events. In contrast to the significant decrease in HM levels in the dolphins in Hong Kong waters (the eastern reaches of the PRE), the elevated metal exposure in the western PRE raises serious concerns.

  5. Bioaccumulation of organic pollutants in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin: A review on current knowledge and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanganyado, Edmond; Rajput, Imran Rashid; Liu, Wenhua

    2018-06-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) are chronically exposed to organic pollutants since they inhabit shallow coastal waters that are often impacted by anthropogenic activities. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing knowledge on the occurrence of organic pollutants in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins, identify knowledge gaps, and offer recommendations for future research directions. We discussed the trends in the bioaccumulation of organic pollutants in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins focusing on sources, physicochemical properties, and usage patterns. Furthermore, we examined factors that influence bioaccumulation such as gender, age, dietary intake and tissue-specific distribution. Studies on bioaccumulation in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin remain scarce, despite high concentrations above 13,000 ng/g lw we previously detected for PFOS, ∑PBDE and chlorinated paraffins. The maximum concentration of organochlorines detected was 157,000 ng/g wt. Furthermore, variations in bioaccumulation were shown to be caused by factors such as usage patterns and physicochemical properties of the pollutant. However, restrictions in sampling inhibit investigations on exposure pathway and toxicity of organic pollutants in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin. We proposed the use of biopsy sampling, predictive bioaccumulation and toxicity modeling, and monitoring other emerging contaminants such as microplastics and pharmaceuticals for future health risk assessment on this critically endangered marine mammal species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gotta Go, Mom’s Calling: Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus Mothers Use Individually Distinctive Acoustic Signals To Call Their Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan A. Kuczaj II

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dolphin calves often wander away from their mothers, which can compromise their safety and survival. Mothers can retrieve their calves by actively pursuing them or by signaling their wandering calves to return. However, little is known about the retrieval techniques employed by mothers in specific calf recall contexts. We experimentally investigated maternal calf retrieval methods by assessing behavioral and acoustic strategies employed by three Atlantic bottlenose dolphin mothers to elicit their calf’s return in a controlled, non-threatening setting. Three mothers were asked to retrieve their calves on cue in this setting, and could do so however they chose. Mothers were much more likely to use energetically less costly acoustic signals than physical retrievals. Each mother produced individually distinctive calls that incorporated the mother’s signature whistle but often also involved additional whistles and clicks. The dolphin mothers’ use of individually distinctive calls to request a calf’s return is consistent with the notion that other dolphins can distinguish such calls and provides additional support for the notion that dolphin communication is flexible rather than fixed.

  7. Stereo Pair: Wellington, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand, is located on the shores of Port Nicholson, a natural harbor at the south end of North Island. The city was founded in 1840 by British emigrants and now has a regional population of more than 400,000 residents. As seen here, the natural terrain imposes strong control over the urban growth pattern (urban features generally appear gray or white in this view). Rugged hills generally rising to 300 meters (1,000 feet) help protect the city and harbor from strong winter windsNew Zealand is seismically active and faults are readily seen in the topography. The Wellington Fault forms the straight northwestern (left) shoreline of the harbor. Toward the southwest (down) the fault crosses through the city, then forms linear canyons in the hills before continuing offshore at the bottom. Toward the northeast (upper right) the fault forms the sharp mountain front along the northern edge of the heavily populated Hutt Valley.This stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced true color Landsat7 satellite image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30 meter (99 foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and will provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.Elevation data used in this image

  8. Patterns of Colorectal Cancer Care in Europe, Australia, and New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Chawla, Neetu; Butler, Eboneé N.; Lund, Jennifer; Warren, Joan L.; Harlan, Linda C.; Yabroff, K. Robin

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in women and the third most common in men worldwide. In this study, we used MEDLINE to conduct a systematic review of existing literature published in English between 2000 and 2010 on patterns of colorectal cancer care. Specifically, this review examined 66 studies conducted in Europe, Australia, and New Zealand to assess patterns of initial care, post-diagnostic surveillance, and end-of-life care for colorectal cancer. The majority of studie...

  9. Safety in New Zealand's adventure tourism industry: the client accident experience of adventure tourism operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley , T A; Page, S J; Laird, I S

    2000-01-01

    Injuries and fatalities among participants of adventure tourism activities have the potential to seriously impact on New Zealand's tourism industry. However, the absence of statistics for tourist accidents in New Zealand, and the lack of detailed academic research into adventure tourism safety, means the extent of the problem is unknown. The aims of the present study were to determine the incidence of client injuries across a range of adventure tourism activity sectors, and to identify common accident events and contributory risk factors. A postal questionnaire survey of New Zealand adventure tourism operators was used. Operators were asked to provide information related to their business; the number of recorded client injuries during the preceding 12 month period, January to December 1998; common accident and injury events associated with their activity; and perceived risk factors for accidents in their sector of the adventure tourism industry. The survey was responded to by 142 New Zealand adventure tourism operators. The operators' reported client injury experience suggests the incidence of serious client injuries is very low. Highest client injury incidence rates were found for activities that involved the risk of falling from a moving vehicle or animal (e.g., cycle tours, quad biking, horse riding, and white-water rafting). Slips, trips, and falls on the level were common accident events across most sectors of the industry. Perceived accident/incident causes were most commonly related to the client, and in particular, failure to attend to and follow instructions. The prevalence of client injuries in activity sectors not presently covered by government regulation, suggests policy makers should look again at extending codes of practice to a wider range of adventure tourism activities. Further research considering adventure tourism involvement in overseas visitor hospitalized injuries in New Zealand, is currently in progress. This will provide supporting evidence

  10. On doing two things at once: dolphin brain and nose coordinate sonar clicks, buzzes and emotional squeals with social sounds during fish capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Sam; Samuelson Dibble, Dianna; Van Alstyne, Kaitlin; Price, DruAnn

    2015-12-01

    Dolphins fishing alone in open waters may whistle without interrupting their sonar clicks as they find and eat or reject fish. Our study is the first to match sound and video from the dolphin with sound and video from near the fish. During search and capture of fish, free-swimming dolphins carried cameras to record video and sound. A hydrophone in the far field near the fish also recorded sound. From these two perspectives, we studied the time course of dolphin sound production during fish capture. Our observations identify the instant of fish capture. There are three consistent acoustic phases: sonar clicks locate the fish; about 0.4 s before capture, the dolphin clicks become more rapid to form a second phase, the terminal buzz; at or just before capture, the buzz turns to an emotional squeal (the victory squeal), which may last 0.2 to 20 s after capture. The squeals are pulse bursts that vary in duration, peak frequency and amplitude. The victory squeal may be a reflection of emotion triggered by brain dopamine release. It may also affect prey to ease capture and/or it may be a way to communicate the presence of food to other dolphins. Dolphins also use whistles as communication or social sounds. Whistling during sonar clicking suggests that dolphins may be adept at doing two things at once. We know that dolphin brain hemispheres may sleep independently. Our results suggest that the two dolphin brain hemispheres may also act independently in communication. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  12. QCI Common

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  13. Electroconvulsive Therapy Practice in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mark Wilkinson; Morrison, John; Jones, Paul Anthony

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the contemporary practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in New Zealand. A 53-item questionnaire was sent to all services providing ECT as of December 2015. Electroconvulsive therapy was provided by 16 services covering 15 district health boards funded by the New Zealand government. No private facilities provided ECT. All services providing ECT responded to an online survey questionnaire. Rates of ECT utilization were low relative to similar countries. Survey results indicated ECT was practiced to an overall good standard. Several resource and logistical issues potentially contributing to low ECT utilization were identified. Electroconvulsive therapy in New Zealand is provided using modern equipment and practices. However, overall rates of utilization remain low, perhaps as a result of controversy surrounding ECT and some resourcing issues.

  14. Development of sperm sexing and associated assisted reproductive technology for sex preselection of captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J K; Robeck, T R

    2006-01-01

    Research was conducted to develop sperm sorting and novel sperm preservation methodologies for sex predetermination in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) using artificial insemination. In Study 1, the effect of seminal plasma (SP), sperm concentration and freezing rate (FR) on in vitro sperm quality of liquid-stored, non-sorted spermatozoa was examined. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of prefreeze SP addition on post-thaw quality (progressive motility, kinetic rating, sperm motility index (SMI), viability and acrosome integrity). Post-thaw motility parameters and viability were higher (P insemination of three dolphins with sorted, frozen-thawed X-bearing spermatozoa resulted in one conception and the birth of a female calf. High-purity sorting of dolphin spermatozoa, derived from liquid-stored semen, can be achieved with minimal loss of in vitro sperm quality and samples are functional in vivo.

  15. ANESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF AN INDO-PACIFIC BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN (TURSIOPS ADUNCUS) REQUIRING SURGICAL DEBRIDEMENT OF A TAIL ABSCESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Jun; Yanagisawa, Makio; Endo, Yusuke; Ueda, Keiichi; Koga, Haruka; Izumisawa, Yasuharu; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2017-03-01

    This report describes the anesthetic management of a 14-yr-old, 160-kg, female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops aduncus ) that underwent surgical debridement for a refractory subcutaneous abscess twice within a 6-mo interval. The animal was otherwise in good physical condition at each anesthetic procedure. Following premedication with intramuscular midazolam and butorphanol, anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with sevoflurane by intubation. During surgery ventilation was controlled. Blood pressure was indirectly estimated using either oscillometric or pulse oximetry. Presumed hypotension was managed by adjusting the sevoflurane concentration and infusion of dopamine. During recovery, the dolphin regained adequate spontaneous respiration following intravenous administration of flumazenil and doxapram. The dolphin was extubated at 85 min and 53 min after the first and second surgeries, respectively. Successful weaning from the ventilator and initiation of spontaneous respiration was the most important complication encountered. Establishment of a reliable blood pressure measurement technique is critical to success for anesthesia in this species.

  16. Sightings and behavioral observations of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins Sousa chinensis (Osbeck, 1765 along Chennai coast, Bay of Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muralidharan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Boat-based surveys were used to investigate the presence of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins Sousa chinensis along the coast of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Notes were collected on behavior, group size, coloration patterns and group composition on sighting cetaceans during the surveys. Four groups of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins were sighted near-shore in the month of February 2011, between 10-25 m depth with an average group size of 20 individuals of which 10 individuals were photo-identifiable. Dominant group behavior was aerial display, feeding and traveling. This study gives a basic idea of presence, threats and habitat use of Humpback Dolphin areas along Chennai coast.

  17. Measuring Economic Growth in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Mawson

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines New Zealand’s ranking in the OECD based on real GDP per capita. The fall in ranking experienced by New Zealand implies that real GDP per capita growth in New Zealand has been relatively poor in comparison to other OECD countries. The paper examines the history of New Zealand’s growth rate and explores the differences between various techniques for measuring average growth rates. The approaches are all shown to be variants of the average annual growth rate but differ in ter...

  18. Marine biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Dennis P; Beaumont, Jennifer; MacDiarmid, Alison; Robertson, Donald A; Ahyong, Shane T

    2010-08-02

    The marine-biodiversity assessment of New Zealand (Aotearoa as known to Māori) is confined to the 200 nautical-mile boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which, at 4.2 million km(2), is one of the largest in the world. It spans 30 degrees of latitude and includes a high diversity of seafloor relief, including a trench 10 km deep. Much of this region remains unexplored biologically, especially the 50% of the EEZ deeper than 2,000 m. Knowledge of the marine biota is based on more than 200 years of marine exploration in the region. The major oceanographic data repository is the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), which is involved in several Census of Marine Life field projects and is the location of the Southwestern Pacific Regional OBIS Node; NIWA is also data manager and custodian for fisheries research data owned by the Ministry of Fisheries. Related data sources cover alien species, environmental measures, and historical information. Museum collections in New Zealand hold more than 800,000 registered lots representing several million specimens. During the past decade, 220 taxonomic specialists (85 marine) from 18 countries have been engaged in a project to review New Zealand's entire biodiversity. The above-mentioned marine information sources, published literature, and reports were scrutinized to give the results summarized here for the first time (current to 2010), including data on endemism and invasive species. There are 17,135 living species in the EEZ. This diversity includes 4,315 known undescribed species in collections. Species diversity for the most intensively studied phylum-level taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Kinorhyncha, Echinodermata, Chordata) is more or less equivalent to that in the ERMS (European Register of Marine Species) region, which is 5.5 times larger in area than the New Zealand EEZ. The implication is that, when all other New Zealand phyla are equally well studied, total marine

  19. Eosinophilia and biotoxin exposure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from a coastal area impacted by repeated mortality events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwacke, Lori H.; Twiner, Michael J.; De Guise, Sylvain; Balmer, Brian C.; Wells, Randall S.; Townsend, Forrest I.; Rotstein, David C.; Varela, Rene A.; Hansen, Larry J.; Zolman, Eric S.; Spradlin, Trevor R.

    2010-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting coastal waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico have been impacted by recurrent unusual mortality events over the past few decades. Several of these mortality events along the Florida panhandle have been tentatively attributed to poisoning from brevetoxin produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. While dolphins in other regions of the Florida coast are often exposed to K. brevis blooms, large-scale dolphin mortality events are relatively rare and the frequency and magnitude of die-offs along the Panhandle raise concern for the apparent vulnerability of dolphins in this region. We report results from dolphin health assessments conducted near St. Joseph Bay, Florida, an area impacted by 3 unusual die-offs within a 7-year time span. An eosinophilia syndrome, manifested as an elevated blood eosinophil count without obvious cause, was observed in 23% of sampled dolphins. Elevated eosinophil counts were associated with decreased T-lymphocyte proliferation and increased neutrophil phagocytosis. In addition, indication of chronic low-level exposure to another algal toxin, domoic acid produced by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp., was determined. Previous studies of other marine mammal populations exposed recurrently to Pseudo-nitzschia blooms have suggested a possible link between the eosinophilia and domoic acid exposure. While the chronic eosinophilia syndrome could over the long-term produce organ damage and alter immunological status and thereby increase vulnerability to other challenges, the significance of the high prevalence of the syndrome to the observed mortality events in the St. Joseph Bay area is unclear. Nonetheless, the unusual immunological findings and concurrent evidence of domoic acid exposure in this sentinel marine species suggest a need for further investigation to elucidate potential links between chronic, low-level exposure to algal toxins and immune health.

  20. An assessment of the effectiveness of high definition cameras as remote monitoring tools for dolphin ecology studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estênio Guimarães Paiva

    Full Text Available Research involving marine mammals often requires costly field programs. This paper assessed whether the benefits of using cameras outweighs the implications of having personnel performing marine mammal detection in the field. The efficacy of video and still cameras to detect Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus in the Fremantle Harbour (Western Australia was evaluated, with consideration on how environmental conditions affect detectability. The cameras were set on a tower in the Fremantle Port channel and videos were perused at 1.75 times the normal speed. Images from the cameras were used to estimate position of dolphins at the water's surface. Dolphin detections ranged from 5.6 m to 463.3 m for the video camera, and from 10.8 m to 347.8 m for the still camera. Detection range showed to be satisfactory when compared to distances at which dolphins would be detected by field observers. The relative effect of environmental conditions on detectability was considered by fitting a Generalised Estimation Equations (GEEs model with Beaufort, level of glare and their interactions as predictors and a temporal auto-correlation structure. The best fit model indicated level of glare had an effect, with more intense periods of glare corresponding to lower occurrences of observed dolphins. However this effect was not large (-0.264 and the parameter estimate was associated with a large standard error (0.113. The limited field of view was the main restraint in that cameras can be only applied to detections of animals observed rather than counts of individuals. However, the use of cameras was effective for long term monitoring of occurrence of dolphins, outweighing the costs and reducing the health and safety risks to field personal. This study showed that cameras could be effectively implemented onshore for research such as studying changes in habitat use in response to development and construction activities.

  1. Eosinophilia and biotoxin exposure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from a coastal area impacted by repeated mortality events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwacke, Lori H., E-mail: Lori.Schwacke@noaa.gov [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Center for Human Health Risks, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States); Twiner, Michael J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, 219 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States); De Guise, Sylvain [University of Connecticut, Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, 61 North Eagleville Road, U-89, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Balmer, Brian C.; Wells, Randall S. [Chicago Zoological Society, c/o Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236 (United States); Townsend, Forrest I. [Bayside Hospital for Animals, 251 N.E. Racetrack Road, Fort Walton Beach, FL 32547 (United States); Rotstein, David C. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources, Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program, 1315 East West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Varela, Rene A. [Ocean Embassy Inc, 6433 Pinecastle Blvd, Ste 2, Orlando, FL 32809 (United States); Hansen, Larry J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service Southeast Fisheries Science Center,101 Pivers Island Road, Beaufort, NC 28516 (United States); Zolman, Eric S. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, 219 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States); Spradlin, Trevor R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources, Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program, 1315 East West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); and others

    2010-08-15

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting coastal waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico have been impacted by recurrent unusual mortality events over the past few decades. Several of these mortality events along the Florida panhandle have been tentatively attributed to poisoning from brevetoxin produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. While dolphins in other regions of the Florida coast are often exposed to K. brevis blooms, large-scale dolphin mortality events are relatively rare and the frequency and magnitude of die-offs along the Panhandle raise concern for the apparent vulnerability of dolphins in this region. We report results from dolphin health assessments conducted near St. Joseph Bay, Florida, an area impacted by 3 unusual die-offs within a 7-year time span. An eosinophilia syndrome, manifested as an elevated blood eosinophil count without obvious cause, was observed in 23% of sampled dolphins. Elevated eosinophil counts were associated with decreased T-lymphocyte proliferation and increased neutrophil phagocytosis. In addition, indication of chronic low-level exposure to another algal toxin, domoic acid produced by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp., was determined. Previous studies of other marine mammal populations exposed recurrently to Pseudo-nitzschia blooms have suggested a possible link between the eosinophilia and domoic acid exposure. While the chronic eosinophilia syndrome could over the long-term produce organ damage and alter immunological status and thereby increase vulnerability to other challenges, the significance of the high prevalence of the syndrome to the observed mortality events in the St. Joseph Bay area is unclear. Nonetheless, the unusual immunological findings and concurrent evidence of domoic acid exposure in this sentinel marine species suggest a need for further investigation to elucidate potential links between chronic, low-level exposure to algal toxins and immune health.

  2. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  3. Science commons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  4. Contrasted accumulation patterns of persistent organic pollutants and mercury in sympatric tropical dolphins from the south-western Indian Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirtu, Alin C.; Malarvannan, Govindan; Das, Krishna; Dulau-Drouot, Violaine; Kiszka, Jeremy J.; Lepoint, Gilles; Mongin, Philippe; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Due to their high trophic position and long life span, small cetaceans are considered as suitable bioindicators to monitor the presence of contaminants in marine ecosystems. Here, we document the contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and total mercury (T-Hg) of spinner (Stenella longirostris, n =21) and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus, n=32) sampled from the coastal waters of La Réunion (south-western Indian Ocean). In addition, seven co-occurring teleost fish species were sampled and analyzed as well. Blubber samples from living dolphins and muscle from teleosts were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and metabolites (DDTs), chlordanes (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), reported as having a natural origin, were also analyzed. T-Hg levels were measured in blubber and skin biopsies of the two dolphin species. Stable isotopes δ 13 C and δ 15 N values were determined in skin of the dolphins and in the muscle of teleosts. For PCBs, HCHs and T-Hg, concentrations were significantly higher in T. aduncus than in S. longirostris. For other POP levels, intra-species variability was high. MeO-PBDEs were the dominant compounds (55% of the total POPs) in S. longirostris, while PCBs dominated (50% contribution) in T. aduncus. Other contaminants showed similar profiles between the two species. Given the different patterns of POPs and T-Hg contamination and the δ 15 N values observed among analyzed teleosts, dietary and foraging habitat preferences most likely explain the contrasted contaminant profiles observed in the two dolphin species. Levels of each class of contaminants were significantly higher in males than females. Despite their spatial and temporal overlap in the waters of La Réunion, S. longirostris and T. aduncus are differently exposed to contaminant accumulation. - Highlights: • POPs and total Hg were

  5. Contrasted accumulation patterns of persistent organic pollutants and mercury in sympatric tropical dolphins from the south-western Indian Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirtu, Alin C. [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Department of Chemistry, “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Malarvannan, Govindan [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Das, Krishna [University of Liege, MARE Center, Laboratory for Oceanology, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Dulau-Drouot, Violaine [Groupe Local d’Observation et d’Identification des Cétacés (GLOBICE), 30 Chemin Parc Cabris, Grand Bois, 97410 Saint Pierre, La Réunion (France); Kiszka, Jeremy J. [Marine Sciences Program, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, 3000 NE 151st, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States); Lepoint, Gilles [University of Liege, MARE Center, Laboratory for Oceanology, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Mongin, Philippe [Brigade Nature Océan Indien (BNOI)/ONCFS, 12 Allée de la Foret – Parc de la Providence, 97400 Saint Denis, La Réunion (France); Covaci, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.covaci@uantwerpen.be [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2016-04-15

    Due to their high trophic position and long life span, small cetaceans are considered as suitable bioindicators to monitor the presence of contaminants in marine ecosystems. Here, we document the contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and total mercury (T-Hg) of spinner (Stenella longirostris, n =21) and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus, n=32) sampled from the coastal waters of La Réunion (south-western Indian Ocean). In addition, seven co-occurring teleost fish species were sampled and analyzed as well. Blubber samples from living dolphins and muscle from teleosts were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and metabolites (DDTs), chlordanes (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), reported as having a natural origin, were also analyzed. T-Hg levels were measured in blubber and skin biopsies of the two dolphin species. Stable isotopes δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values were determined in skin of the dolphins and in the muscle of teleosts. For PCBs, HCHs and T-Hg, concentrations were significantly higher in T. aduncus than in S. longirostris. For other POP levels, intra-species variability was high. MeO-PBDEs were the dominant compounds (55% of the total POPs) in S. longirostris, while PCBs dominated (50% contribution) in T. aduncus. Other contaminants showed similar profiles between the two species. Given the different patterns of POPs and T-Hg contamination and the δ{sup 15}N values observed among analyzed teleosts, dietary and foraging habitat preferences most likely explain the contrasted contaminant profiles observed in the two dolphin species. Levels of each class of contaminants were significantly higher in males than females. Despite their spatial and temporal overlap in the waters of La Réunion, S. longirostris and T. aduncus are differently exposed to contaminant accumulation. - Highlights: • POPs and total

  6. Site-specific assessments of the abundance of three inshore dolphin species to inform conservation and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mark Brown

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the abundance of wildlife populations is essential to their effective conservation and management. Concerns have been raised over the vulnerability of tropical inshore dolphins in waters off northern Australia to anthropogenic impacts on local populations, yet a lack of abundance data precludes assessment of their conservation status and the management of threats. Using small vessels as cost-effective research platforms, photo-identification surveys and capture-recapture models were applied to provide the first quantitative abundance data for Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni, Australian humpback (Sousa sahulensis, and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus at five sites in the Kimberley region of north-western Australia. The abundance of each species was highly variable between different sites, likely reflecting species-specific habitat preferences. Within the c. 130 km2 study sites, the estimated abundance of most species was ≤ 60 individuals (excluding calves, and fewer than 20 humpback dolphins were identified at each site in any one 3-5 week sampling period. However, larger estimates of c. 130 snubfin and c. 160 bottlenose dolphins were obtained at two different sites. Several local populations showed evidence of site fidelity, particularly snubfin dolphins. By implementing a standardized, multi-site approach, data on local populations were provided within a broader, regional context, and indicated that each species is patchily distributed in the region. This highlights the need for site-specific baseline data collection using appropriate survey techniques to quantitatively assess the potential impacts of threatening activities to local populations. These findings further illustrate the need to gain a greater understanding of known and potential threats to inshore dolphin populations, their relative impacts, and to mitigate where necessary. In particular, the level of interactions with inshore gillnet fisheries

  7. Radiation and the New Zealand community : a scientific overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This book is intended to give information and perspective on the risks associated with the widespread use of radiations of different types in modern society. Chapter 1 introduces the radiations that are discussed. It raises questions, which the book seeks to answer about risks and benefits of radiation applications, and discusses the meaning of the oft-quoted expression n uclear free . Chapter 2 briefly describes the nature of radioactivity and the types of radioactive decay processes and emitted radiations most commonly observed. Chapter 3 traces from the perspective of historical developments the use of x-rays and radioactive materials in medical practice. Chapter 4 outlines the wide range of applications of radioactive materials in x-ray equipment in industry with particular emphasis on applications in New Zealand. Chapter 5 is devoted to a description of food irradiation. Chapter 6 is devoted to non-ionizing radiation applications, with separate sections on ultraviolet radiation, visible radiation, lasers, infrared radiation, microwave and radiofrequency radiation ,with some particular reference to cellular phone systems, extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields and ultrasound. Chapter 7 concludes with an outline of the system of controls on ionizing radiation sources in New Zealand. (author). 7 appendices

  8. Common approach to common interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In referring to issues confronting the energy field in this region and options to be exercised in the future, I would like to mention the fundamental condition of the utmost importance. That can be summed up as follows: any subject in energy area can never be solved by one country alone, given the geographical and geopolitical characteristics intrinsically possessed by energy. So, a regional approach is needed and it is especially necessary for the main players in the region to jointly address problems common to them. Though it may be a matter to be pursued in the distant future, I am personally dreaming a 'Common Energy Market for Northeast Asia,' in which member countries' interests are adjusted so that the market can be integrated and the region can become a most economically efficient market, thus formulating an effective power to encounter the outside. It should be noted that Europe needed forty years to integrate its market as the unified common market. It is necessary for us to follow a number of steps over the period to eventually materialize our common market concept, too. Now is the time for us to take a first step to lay the foundation for our descendants to enjoy prosperity from such a common market.

  9. The last deglaciation in New Zealand ; revisiting the Misery moraines at Arthur's Pass in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, David; Rother, Henrik; Woodward, Craig; Shulmeister, James; Wilcken, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Recent debate on mid-latitude New Zealand glaciation has focused on reconstructing paleo-climate conditions leading into the (global) Last Glacial Maximum and subsequent deglaciation dynamics during the last termination. Paleo-environmental evidence coupled with reliable glacial chronologies supporting a Southern Hemisphere glacial readvance commensurate with Younger Dryas timing ( 11.5-12.5 ka) showing similar cooling as observed in the Northern Hemisphere has also been hotly debated. Many New Zealand lake and pollen records suggest a minor cooling or hiatus in warming during the period from 14.5 - 12.0 ka which pre-dates YD onset and is more commonly associated with the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR) (14.7 - 13.0 ka). Achieving the required sub-millennial temporal differentiation using in-situ cosmogenic exposure dating comes with numerous difficulties. The Arthur's Pass Moraine complex, deposited by an alpine glacier advancing out of the Otira Gorge splaying east and westward over the divide of the Southern Alps in New Zealand ( 950 masl), exhibits a full post-LGM glacial chronology. The moraines consist of multiple cross-valley terminal, lobate and discontinuous latero-terminal moraines up to 3 kilometres down valley from the proximal Misery moraines at the outlet of Otira Gorge. Within the gorge towards the headwall only 1 km up-valley from the Misery sequence, no other moraines are evident. We have determined paired 10-Be and 26-Al exposure ages from 58 greywacke samples taken from all major moraines, including repeat sampling from the Misery moraines. The new exposure ages show that the Arthur's Pass moraine system spans a period of 19.5 ka to 12.0 ka (Putnam local NZ production rate) with mean recessional moraine ages in chrono-stratigraphic sequence. The overall timing of deglaciation after peak LGM conditions is similar to that observed at down-valley terminal positions of the larger outlet river systems of the Rakaia, Waimakariri and Rangitata Valleys

  10. Teaching Gender Geography in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    In New Zealand universities, gender is still not a substantial part of the curriculum in most geography departments. Although at the University of Waikato, the situation is different. Its specific history of radical scholarship has enabled feminist academics in a variety of disciplines including geography to have had a stronger voice than in other…

  11. Forests, energy and the New Zealand home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, J B

    1976-02-25

    Any increase in output of electrical energy in New Zealand is in the face of mounting capital requirements and increasingly intractable social costs. However, a peculiarity of New Zealand overall energy distribution is the large proportion of electricity (47%) devoted to domestic heat production. Alternative developments in the use of combustion for this purpose are considered and the unique potential of fuelwood in New Zealand highlighted. Logging wastes and thinnings in existing exotic forests could in theory supply more than current calorific requirements. Inconvenience and inefficiency arising from partial combustion, rather than the low calorific value, have eliminated consideration of fuelwood as a serious fuel option. The actual retail price, on a heat value basis, is at present only about one-fifth that of fuel oil and could become much less. Complete combustion of fuelwood is a realisable possibility. A suitable domestic unit might embody controllable forced draught, countercurrent heating of incoming air, and heat-shielding of combustion zone; all heating applications would use the driven steam of effluent gases. One such device is outlined tentatively. Successful development and widespread adoption of such a unit would have considerable material and social benefits for New Zealand. Research costs would be trivial in relation to potential return.

  12. Ethics Education in New Zealand Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, John; Malpas, Phillipa; Walker, Simon; Jonas, Monique

    2018-07-01

    This article describes the well-developed and long-standing medical ethics teaching programs in both of New Zealand's medical schools at the University of Otago and the University of Auckland. The programs reflect the awareness that has been increasing as to the important role that ethics education plays in contributing to the "professionalism" and "professional development" in medical curricula.

  13. Ten Ideas Worth Stealing from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarchow, Elaine

    1992-01-01

    New Zealand educators have some ideas worth stealing, including morning tea-time, the lie-flat manifold duplicate book for recording classroom observation comments, school uniforms, collegial planning and grading of college assignments, good meeting etiquette, a whole-child orientation, portable primary architecture, group employment interviews…

  14. Iron from Zealandic bog iron ore -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    og geologiske materiale, metallurgiske analyser og eksperimentel arkæologiske forsøg - konturerne af en jernproduktion med udgangspunkt i den sjællandske myremalm. The frequent application by archaeologists of Werner Christensen’s distribution map for the occurrence of bog iron ore in Denmark (1966...... are sketched of iron production based on bog iron ore from Zealand....

  15. Humpback Dolphins in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta: Status, Threats and Conservation Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczmarski, Leszek; Huang, Shiang-Lin; Or, Carmen K M; Gui, Duan; Chan, Stephen C Y; Lin, Wenzhi; Porter, Lindsay; Wong, Wai-Ho; Zheng, Ruiqiang; Ho, Yuen-Wa; Chui, Scott Y S; Tiongson, Angelico Jose C; Mo, Yaqian; Chang, Wei-Lun; Kwok, John H W; Tang, Ricky W K; Lee, Andy T L; Yiu, Sze-Wing; Keith, Mark; Gailey, Glenn; Wu, Yuping

    2016-01-01

    In coastal waters of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) is thought to number approximately 2500 individuals. Given these figures, the putative PRD population may appear strong enough to resist demographic stochasticity and environmental pressures. However, living in close proximity to the world's busiest seaport/airport and several densely populated urban centres with major coastal infrastructural developments comes with challenges to the long-term survival of these animals. There are few other small cetacean populations that face the range and intensity of human-induced pressures as those present in the PRD and current protection measures are severely inadequate. Recent mark-recapture analyses of the animals in Hong Kong waters indicate that in the past two decades the population parameters have not been well understood, and spatial analyses show that only a very small proportion of the dolphins' key habitats are given any form of protection. All current marine protected areas within the PRD fail to meet a minimum habitat requirement that could facilitate the population's long-term persistence. Demographic models indicate a continuous decline of 2.5% per annum, a rate at which the population is likely to drop below the demographic threshold within two generations and lose 74% of the current numbers within the lifespan of three generations. In Hong Kong, the case of humpback dolphins represents a particularly explicit example of inadequate management where a complete revision of the fundamental approach to conservation management is urgently needed. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  16. River dolphins can act as population trend indicators in degraded freshwater systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel T Turvey

    Full Text Available Conservation attention on charismatic large vertebrates such as dolphins is often supported by the suggestion that these species represent surrogates for wider biodiversity, or act as indicators of ecosystem health. However, their capacity to act as indicators of patterns or trends in regional biodiversity has rarely been tested. An extensive new dataset of >300 last-sighting records for the Yangtze River dolphin or baiji and two formerly economically important fishes, the Yangtze paddlefish and Reeves' shad, all of which are probably now extinct in the Yangtze, was collected during an interview survey of fishing communities across the middle-lower Yangtze drainage. Untransformed last-sighting date frequency distributions for these species show similar decline curves over time, and the linear gradients of transformed last-sighting date series are not significantly different from each other, demonstrating that these species experienced correlated population declines in both timing and rate of decline. Whereas species may be expected to respond differently at the population level even in highly degraded ecosystems, highly vulnerable (e.g. migratory species can therefore display very similar responses to extrinsic threats, even if they represent otherwise very different taxonomic, biological and ecological groupings. Monitoring the status of river dolphins or other megafauna therefore has the potential to provide wider information on the status of other threatened components of sympatric freshwater biotas, and so represents a potentially important monitoring tool for conservation management. We also show that interview surveys can provide robust quantitative data on relative population dynamics of different species.

  17. The traveling-wave amplifier model of the cochlea adapted to dolphins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Nonboe; Au, W.W.L.

    1999-01-01

    The traveling-wave amplifier (TWA) model of the cochlea [A. Hubbard, Science 259, 68–71 (1993)] has been shown to produce outputs that compare quite well with experimental data. A TWA model with parameters adjusted to fit the physiological properties of the dolphin cochlea was used as part...... of a sonar signal discrimination system. The system was tested on a cylinder wall thickness discrimination problem. Broadband echoes from cylinders with different wall thicknesses were aligned using a matched filter and envelope detection. The aligned signals were used as inputs to the TWA model and energy...

  18. Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) use a high-frequency short-range biosonar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, Michael; Jensen, Frants Havmand; de Freitas, Mafalda

    2015-01-01

    to interpret in acoustically complex habitats, echolocation clicks of wild Amazon river dolphins were recorded using a vertical seven-hydrophone array. We identified 404 on-axis biosonar clicks having a mean SLpp of 190.3±6.1 dB re. 1 μPa, mean SLEFD of 132.1±6.0 dB re. 1 μPa2s, mean Fc of 101.2±10.5 kHz, mean...

  19. Mercury species, selenium, metallothioneins and glutathione in two dolphins from the southeastern Brazilian coast: Mercury detoxification and physiological differences in diving capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehrig, Helena A.; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A.; Seixas, Tercia G.; Pinheiro, Ana Beatriz; Di Beneditto, Ana Paula M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the concentration of trace elements, total mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) and mercury forms (MeHg, Hg inorg and HgSe) in the vulnerable coastal dolphins Pontoporia blainvillei and Sotalia guianensis were appraised and compared, using metallothioneins (MT) and glutathione (GSH) as biomarkers for trace element exposure. The trace element concentrations varied between muscle and liver tissues, with liver of all dolphin specimens showing higher Hg and Se concentrations than those found in muscle. Hg, MeHg and Hg inorg molar concentrations showed a clear increase with Se molar concentrations in the liver of both dolphins, and Se concentrations were higher than those of Hg on a molar basis. Se plays a relevant role in the detoxification of MeHg in the hepatic tissue of both dolphins, forming Hg-Se amorphous crystals in liver. In contrast, MT were involved in the detoxification process of Hg inorg in liver. GSH levels in P. blainvillei and S. guianensis muscle tissue suggest that these dolphins have different diving capacities. Muscle Hg concentrations were associated to this tripeptide, which protects dolphin cells against Hg stress. - Highlights: • Se aids in MeHg detoxification in dolphin liver, forming Hg-Se amorphous crystals. • MT was involved in liver Hg inorg detoxification and GSH was associated to muscle Hg. • Feeding habits seem to influence muscle GSH, suggesting different diving capacities. • MT, GSH and Se and Hg in different forms were investigated in two dolphin species. • Hepatic Hg, MeHg and Hg inorg increased with higher Se concentrations. - “Coastal dolphins showed Se-mediated detoxification of MeHg and MT-mediated detoxification of Hg inorg , while GSH suggests different diving capacities”.

  20. Stereology of the thyroid gland in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus in comparison with human (Homo sapiens: quantitative and functional implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Chin Wing Kot

    Full Text Available The mammalian thyroid gland maintains basal metabolism in tissues for optimal function. Determining thyroid volume is important in assessing growth and involution. Volume estimation is also important in stereological studies. Direct measurements of colloid volume and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of the follicular cells may provide important information about thyroid gland function such as hormone storage and secretion, which helps understand the changes at morphological and functional levels. The present study determined the colloid volume using simple stereological principle and the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of 4 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins and 2 human thyroid glands. In both dolphin and human thyroid glands, the size of the follicles tended to be quite variable. The distribution of large and small follicles within the thyroid gland was also found to be random in both the dolphin and human thyroid gland; however, the size of follicles appeared to decrease as a function of increasing age in the dolphin thyroid gland. The mean colloid volume of the dolphin thyroid gland and human thyroid gland was 1.22×10(5 µm(3 and 7.02×10(5 µm(3 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean colloid volume. The mean N/C ratio of the dolphin thyroid follicular epithelia and human follicular epithelia was 0.50 and 0.64 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean N/C ratio. This information contributes to understanding dolphin thyroid physiology and its structural adaptations to meet the physical demands of the aquatic environment, and aids with ultrasonography and corrective therapy in live subjects.

  1. New directions in New Zealand local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McKinlay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a ‘work in progress’ report on some initiatives emerging from local government practice in New Zealand which should help us consider how we think about the role of local government in a world which is undergoing dramatic change. The starting point is work which the writer undertook with the support of Local Government New Zealand (the national association and a number of New Zealand councils considering the ‘proper role’ of local government. The context is an ongoing public debate driven substantially by the New Zealand business community from a perspective that this ‘proper role’ should be restricted to the delivery of local public goods, narrowly defined. This has included argument that local governments themselves should be structured substantially to promote the efficient delivery of services generally within the now well understood prescriptions of the ‘new public management’. One implication which the business sector in particular drew in looking at the workings of local government was that there should be economies of scale through further amalgamation of councils (the local government sector having been through a major amalgamation process in 1989 which eliminated a large number of special purpose authorities and reduced the number of territorial local authorities from more than 200 to 73. Debate continues, with the latest manifestation being the National Party led government's proposals for the restructuring of local government within the Auckland region, New Zealand's major metropolitan area. The initiatives discussed in this paper are partly a response, but more significantly a result of selected local authorities reflecting on the nature of their role, and the opportunities for being proactive in using their statutory privileges in ways that could produce benefits for their communities without any associated increase in the cost of local government itself.

  2. Blubber cortisol: a potential tool for assessing stress response in free-ranging dolphins without effects due to sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Kellar

    Full Text Available When paired with dart biopsying, quantifying cortisol in blubber tissue may provide an index of relative stress levels (i.e., activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in free-ranging cetacean populations while minimizing the effects of the act of sampling. To validate this approach, cortisol was extracted from blubber samples collected from beach-stranded and bycaught short-beaked common dolphins using a modified blubber steroid isolation technique and measured via commercially available enzyme immunoassays. The measurements exhibited appropriate quality characteristics when analyzed via a bootstraped stepwise parallelism analysis (observed/expected = 1.03, 95%CI: 99.6 - 1.08 and showed no evidence of matrix interference with increasing sample size across typical biopsy tissue masses (75-150 mg; r(2 = 0.012, p = 0.78, slope = 0.022 ng(cortisol deviation/ul(tissue extract added. The relationships between blubber cortisol and eight potential cofactors namely, 1 fatality type (e.g., stranded or bycaught, 2 specimen condition (state of decomposition, 3 total body length, 4 sex, 5 sexual maturity state, 6 pregnancy status, 7 lactation state, and 8 adrenal mass, were assessed using a Bayesian generalized linear model averaging technique. Fatality type was the only factor correlated with blubber cortisol, and the magnitude of the effect size was substantial: beach-stranded individuals had on average 6.1-fold higher cortisol levels than those of bycaught individuals. Because of the difference in conditions surrounding these two fatality types, we interpret this relationship as evidence that blubber cortisol is indicative of stress response. We found no evidence of seasonal variation or a relationship between cortisol and the remaining cofactors.

  3. Making the Common Good Common

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  4. A case of stranded Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) with lobomycosis-like skin lesions in Kinko-wan, Kagoshima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Yuko; Sasaki, Kyoko; Kashiwagi, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Tadasu K

    2015-08-01

    Lobomycosis is a chronic fungal disease caused by the etiologic agent, Lacazia loboi, in the skin and subcutaneous tissues in humans and dolphins in tropical and transitional tropical climates. An Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) stranded in Kagoshima, Japan, had severe skin lesions characterized by granulomatous reactions and hyperkeratosis that were similar to those of the lobomycosis, but no fungal organism was observed in the skin lesion. In this paper, we report a stranded Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin with lobomycosis-like lesions based on pathological examinations in Japan.

  5. A case of stranded Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) with lobomycosis-like skin lesions in Kinko-wan, Kagoshima, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAJIMA, Yuko; SASAKI, Kyoko; KASHIWAGI, Nobuyuki; YAMADA, Tadasu K.

    2015-01-01

    Lobomycosis is a chronic fungal disease caused by the etiologic agent, Lacazia loboi, in the skin and subcutaneous tissues in humans and dolphins in tropical and transitional tropical climates. An Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) stranded in Kagoshima, Japan, had severe skin lesions characterized by granulomatous reactions and hyperkeratosis that were similar to those of the lobomycosis, but no fungal organism was observed in the skin lesion. In this paper, we report a stranded Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin with lobomycosis-like lesions based on pathological examinations in Japan. PMID:25866402

  6. Causes of New Zealand finance company collapses: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Yahanpath

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2006 - 2010, 49 finance companies, in New Zealand, collapsed or entered moratoriums, owing investors in excess of $8 billion, and the fingers of blame continue to point in circles. The blame for this tremendous financial crisis is extensive and a consolidation of arguments is essential for the wider understanding of the topic and to put responsibilities into perspective. A part of this paper is to recognize who can and is being held legally responsible for investors’ sake, and also identify parties who have failed their responsibilities. We have highlighted the major issues created by corporate governance being the most direct cause of finance company failure in NZ. We believe in some way these findings will help avoid a similar crisis in the future and resolve a still commonly blurred line in public opinion.

  7. Trans fats in New Zealand: time for labelling regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladding, Patrick; Benatar, Jocelyne R

    2007-11-09

    Trans fats (trans fatty acids) are commonly used for deep frying in restaurants and in the fast food, snack food, fried food, and baked goods industries, often to extend the shelf life of foods. However they are widely considered to be harmful to health. Trans fats were banned in New York City restaurants from 1 July 2007, and there is growing vocal opposition to trans fats in the European Union. Denmark became the first country, in March 2003, to introduce laws regulating the content of trans fats in food (maximum of 2% of edible fats and oils). What are trans fats, what harm do they cause, and should New Zealand also consider imposing mandatory regulations on their use in food? This article explores the issues.

  8. Differences in the response of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and a harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) to an acoustic alarm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Jennings, N.; Verboom, W.C.; Haan, D.de; Schooneman, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Small cetacean bycatch in gillnet fisheries may be reduced by deterring odontocetes from nets acoustically. However, different odontocete species may respond differently to acoustic signals from alarms. Therefore, in this study a striped dolphin and a harbour porpoise were subjected simultaneously

  9. Fatal Sarcocystis canis-like hepatitis in an Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlike most species in the genus Sarcocystis, Sarcocystis canis has a broad intermediate host range. Its life cycle is incompletely known and most reports are from the USA. Here we report fatal hepatitis in a 4 year old male Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) from Hong Kong associate...

  10. On the Behaviour, abundance, habitat use and potential threats of the Gangetic Dolphin Platanista gangetica in southern West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahua Roy Chowdhury

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ganga River Dolphin Platanista gangetica Roxburgh, 1801 is a globally endangered cetacean found in the River system of Ganga, Brahmaputra and Meghna in Bangladesh and India.  A survey and research were conducted from 2012–2014 to explore the behaviour, abundance, habitat use and potential threats of the Dolphin in the lower, middle and upper stretches of the river Ganga and its tributaries in southern West Bengal.  The study recorded different types of surfacing patterns with respect to their age class as well as on diurnal activity pattern of the individual. The adults and sub-adults were found to have different types of surfacing during different hours of the day.  The morning and afternoon were observed to be feeding hours of the Dolphin.  Multiple potential threats were encountered during the present study such as destructive fishing gears, dumping of solid and municipal waste, industrial effluents, agricultural run-off, construction of water structures, water extraction and reduction of river depth attributed to siltation.  These factors contributed to the present study of the river dolphins in the Ganga, which are localised at certain pockets in good number.  

  11. Successful treatment of azole-resistant invasive aspergillosis in a bottlenose dolphin with high-dose posaconazole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E. Bunskoek (Paulien); S. Seyedmousavi (Seyedmojtaba); S. Gans (Steven); van Vierzen, P.B.J. (Peter B.J.); W.J. Melchers (Willem); C.E. van Elk; J.W. Mouton (Johan); P.E. Verweij (Paul)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractInvasive aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus is difficult to manage. We describe a case of azole-resistant invasive aspergillosis in a female bottlenose dolphin, who failed to respond to voriconazole and posaconazole therapy. As intravenous therapy was precluded,

  12. Differences in the response of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and a harbour popoise (Phocoena phocoena) to an acoustic alarm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Jennings, N.; Verboom, W.C.; Haan, de D.; Schooneman, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Small cetacean bycatch in gillnet fisheries may be reduced by deterring odontocetes from nets acoustically. However, different odontocete species may respond differently to acoustic signals from alarms. Therefore, in this study a striped dolphin and a harbour porpoise were subjected simultaneously

  13. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Eastern North Pacific and Adjacent Arctic Waters: A Guide to Their Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, Stephen; And Others

    This field guide is designed to permit observers to identify the cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) they see in the waters of the eastern North Pacific, including the Gulf of California, Hawaii, and the western Arctic of North America. The animals described are grouped not by scientific relationships but by similarities in appearance in…

  14. 78 FR 40997 - Enhanced Document Requirements To Support Use of the Dolphin Safe Label on Tuna Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... authorized under section 1385(f). This regulatory authority exists, regardless of whether the motivation for... dolphins were rare events. Comment 14: NMFS should ensure observers are able to talk with and provide...) and which have been approved by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under control numbers 0648...

  15. Passive acoustic monitoring of bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise, in Cardigan Bay, Wales, with implications for habitat use and partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Malene Juul; Nuuttila, Hanna; Reyes-Zamudio, Mercedes M

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge about harbour porpoise and bottlenose dolphin occurrence in Cardigan Bay Special Area of Conservation (SAC), Wales, is limited to daylight hours during summer, when conditions are suitable for traditional visual surveys. T-PODs are autonomous instruments programmed to log time-cues of s...

  16. Conservation Status of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Northern Beibu Gulf, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingyao; Xu, Xinrong; Jefferson, Thomas A; Olson, Paula A; Qin, Qiurong; Zhang, Hongke; He, Liwen; Yang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    There has been very little previous research on Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in the Beibu Gulf of southern China. Here, we report on the population size, habitat and ecology, threats, and overall conservation status of this putative population. 'Population size' was estimated based on photo-identification mark/recapture analysis. It was estimated to number a total of 398-444 individuals (95% CI: 393-506), with two apparently distinct groups in the Dafengjiang-Nanliujiang Estuary and at Shatian-Caotan. Movements of dolphins in the Beibu Gulf appear to be limited, with high site fidelity. These dolphins were found to occur mainly in shallow coastal waters near estuaries. The main threats are fisheries interactions (including by-catch), vessel traffic, mariculture operations, dolphin-watching tourism, and habitat degradation (including marine construction activities and large-scale land reclamation). Although the conservation status of this putative population has been considered to be better than that of other populations of the species in more northern areas of China, there is still reason for strong concern about its future, and several management recommendations are made. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Anthropogenic contaminants in Indo-Pacific humpback and Australian snubfin dolphins from the central and southern Great Barrier Reef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagnazzi, Daniele; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Parra, Guido J.; Harrison, Peter L.; Maltese, Silvia; Coppola, Daniele; Soccodato, Alice; Bent, Michael; Marsili, Letizia

    2013-01-01

    We present the first evidence of accumulation of organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs, HCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Indo-Pacific humpback and Australian snubfin dolphins from the central and southern Great Barrier Reef. These dolphins are considered by the Great Barrier Marine Park Authority to be high priority species for management. Analyses of biopsy samples, collected from free ranging individuals, showed PAHs levels comparable to those reported from highly industrialized countries. DDTs and HCB were found at low levels, while in some individuals, PCBs were above thresholds over which immunosuppression and reproductive anomalies occur. These results highlight the need for ongoing monitoring of these and other contaminants, and their potential adverse effects on dolphins and other marine fauna. This is particularly important given the current strategic assessment of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area being undertaken by the Australian Government and the Queensland Government. -- Potentially hazardous levels of some coastal contaminants were found in two species of dolphins inhabiting the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park coastal region

  18. Cultural transmission of tool use by Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) provides access to a novel foraging niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krützen, Michael; Kreicker, Sina; MacLeod, Colin D.; Learmonth, Jennifer; Kopps, Anna M.; Walsham, Pamela; Allen, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    Culturally transmitted tool use has important ecological and evolutionary consequences and has been proposed as a significant driver of human evolution. Such evidence is still scarce in other animals. In cetaceans, tool use has been inferred using indirect evidence in one population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.), where particular dolphins (‘spongers’) use marine sponges during foraging. To date, evidence of whether this foraging tactic actually provides access to novel food items is lacking. We used fatty acid (FA) signature analysis to identify dietary differences between spongers and non-spongers, analysing data from 11 spongers and 27 non-spongers from two different study sites. Both univariate and multivariate analyses revealed significant differences in FA profiles between spongers and non-spongers between and within study sites. Moreover, FA profiles differed significantly between spongers and non-spongers foraging within the same deep channel habitat, whereas the profiles of non-spongers from deep channel and shallow habitats at this site could not be distinguished. Our results indicate that sponge use by bottlenose dolphins is linked to significant differences in diet. It appears that cultural transmission of tool use in dolphins, as in humans, allows the exploitation of an otherwise unused niche. PMID:24759862

  19. Comparison of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) whistles from two areas of western Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jordan M; Ponnampalam, Louisa S; Araújo, Claryana C; Wang, John Y; Kuit, Sui Hyang; Hung, Samuel K

    2015-11-01

    Differences in the acoustic variables of whistles emitted by Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from two coastal locations along western Peninsular Malaysia were investigated. Duration, frequency, and frequency modulation variables were extracted from and used to characterize recordings of free-ranging humpback dolphins that were made using a broadband towed hydrophone. A total of 960 whistles from Matang Mangroves and 823 whistles from Langkawi Island were used in analyses. The whistles of Malaysian humpback dolphins covered frequencies from 1231 to 27 120 Hz with durations from 0.010-1.575 s. Significant multivariate differences were found in whistles emitted between locations. Significant differences were also found between dolphins of the two locations in their whistle duration, frequency modulation, and all frequency variables except for minimum frequency, which is likely under morphological constraints. The differences in whistles may be related to adaptations to the local acoustic habitat or unique whistles may have developed due to social interactions within each location, or broader scale differences resulting from geographic separation between the locations.

  20. A Permanent Automated Real-Time Passive Acoustic Monitoring System for Bottlenose Dolphin Conservation in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Brunoldi

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the EU Life+ project named LIFE09 NAT/IT/000190 ARION, a permanent automated real-time passive acoustic monitoring system for the improvement of the conservation status of the transient and resident population of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus has been implemented and installed in the Portofino Marine Protected Area (MPA, Ligurian Sea. The system is able to detect the simultaneous presence of dolphins and boats in the area and to give their position in real time. This information is used to prevent collisions by diffusing warning messages to all the categories involved (tourists, professional fishermen and so on. The system consists of two gps-synchronized acoustic units, based on a particular type of marine buoy (elastic beacon, deployed about 1 km off the Portofino headland. Each one is equipped with a four-hydrophone array and an onboard acquisition system which can record the typical social communication whistles emitted by the dolphins and the sound emitted by boat engines. Signals are pre-filtered, digitized and then broadcast to the ground station via wi-fi. The raw data are elaborated to get the direction of the acoustic target to each unit, and hence the position of dolphins and boats in real time by triangulation.

  1. Evolution and the pathology of deep diving in the Bottlenosed Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821) (Notes on Cetacea, Delphinoidea V)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purves, P.E.; Bree, van P.J.H.

    1972-01-01

    Cadenat (1959) and Rancurel (1964) produced strong indirect evidence that off the west coast of Africa, the Bottle-nosed Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, is in the habit of diving very deeply, possibly down to 600 m. Examination of the skulls of fully adult specimens of Tursiops taken off Dakar and St.

  2. Cultural transmission of tool use combined with habitat specializations leads to fine-scale genetic structure in bottlenose dolphins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopps, Anna M.; Ackermann, Corinne Y.; Sherwin, William B.; Allen, Simon J.; Bejder, Lars; Kruetzen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Socially learned behaviours leading to genetic population structure have rarely been described outside humans. Here, we provide evidence of fine-scale genetic structure that has probably arisen based on socially transmitted behaviours in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in western Shark Bay,

  3. Lateralized visual behavior in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) performing audio-visual tasks: the right visual field advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfour, F; Marten, K

    2006-01-10

    Analyzing cerebral asymmetries in various species helps in understanding brain organization. The left and right sides of the brain (lateralization) are involved in different cognitive and sensory functions. This study focuses on dolphin visual lateralization as expressed by spontaneous eye preference when performing a complex cognitive task; we examine lateralization when processing different visual stimuli displayed on an underwater touch-screen (two-dimensional figures, three-dimensional figures and dolphin/human video sequences). Three female bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were submitted to a 2-, 3- or 4-, choice visual/auditory discrimination problem, without any food reward: the subjects had to correctly match visual and acoustic stimuli together. In order to visualize and to touch the underwater target, the dolphins had to come close to the touch-screen and to position themselves using monocular vision (left or right eye) and/or binocular naso-ventral vision. The results showed an ability to associate simple visual forms and auditory information using an underwater touch-screen. Moreover, the subjects showed a spontaneous tendency to use monocular vision. Contrary to previous findings, our results did not clearly demonstrate right eye preference in spontaneous choice. However, the individuals' scores of correct answers were correlated with right eye vision, demonstrating the advantage of this visual field in visual information processing and suggesting a left hemispheric dominance. We also demonstrated that the nature of the presented visual stimulus does not seem to have any influence on the animals' monocular vision choice.

  4. HMGCR-associated myositis: a New Zealand case series and estimate of incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, N; Keating, P; O'Donnell, J

    2016-05-01

    Statins are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in New Zealand, with 525 772 or 16.5% of the adult New Zealand population prescribed a statin between June 2013 and July 2014. While generally well-tolerated, statins are known to cause a range of muscle-related side effects, ranging from myalgia to life-threatening rhabdomyolysis. Recently, it has been recognised that in rare instances, statins can induce an immune-mediated necrotising myositis with antibodies against 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), the enzymatic target of statins. In 2014, anti-HMGCR antibody testing was introduced to Canterbury Health Laboratories (CHL), with this being the only laboratory in New Zealand performing this test during the period of this case series. This article describes an index case and characterises the clinical features of a subsequent 12-month series. From this series, we estimated the yearly incidence of HMGCR-associated myositis at 1.7/million/year or ~1/90 000 New Zealand statin users. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinus spp.) Grown in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhanen, Leo P; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2013-04-03

    Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine ( Pinus armandii Franch), Swiss stone pine ( Pinus cembra L.), Mexican pinyon ( Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little), Coulter pine ( Pinus coulteri D. Don), Johann's pine ( Pinus johannis M.F. Robert), Italian stone pine ( Pinus pinea L.) and Torrey pine ( Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière), was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn) were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day) while they supplied between 39%-89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals.

  6. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations in the New Zealand diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Andrew J; Gaw, Sally; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Glover, Chris N

    2016-01-01

    To support New Zealand's food safety monitoring regime, a survey was undertaken to establish radionuclide activity concentrations across the New Zealand diet. This survey was undertaken to better understand the radioactivity content of the modern diet and also to assess the suitability of the current use of milk as a sentinel for dietary radionuclide trends. Thirteen radionuclides were analysed in 40 common food commodities, including animal products, fruits, vegetables, cereal grains and seafood. Activity was detected for (137)Caesium, (90)Strontium and (131)Iodine. No other anthropogenic radionuclides were detected. Activity concentrations of the three natural radionuclides of Uranium and the daughter radionuclide (210)Polonium were detected in the majority of food sampled, with a large variation in magnitude. The maximum activity concentrations were detected in shellfish for all these radionuclides. Based on the established activity concentrations and ranges, the New Zealand diet contains activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides far below the Codex Alimentarius guideline levels. Activity concentrations obtained for milk support its continued use as a sentinel for monitoring fallout radionuclides in terrestrial agriculture. The significant levels of natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations detected in finfish and molluscs support undertaking further research to identify a suitable sentinel for New Zealand seafood monitoring. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Updating the New Zealand Glacier Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, S. C.; Anderson, B.; Mackintosh, A.; Lorrey, A.; Chinn, T.; Collier, C.; Rack, W.; Purdie, H.

    2017-12-01

    The last complete glacier inventory of New Zealand dates from the year 1978 (North Island 1988) and was manually constructed from oblique aerial photographs and geodetic maps (Chinn 2001). The inventory has been partly updated by Gjermundsen et al. (2011) for the year 2002 (40% of total area) and by Sirguey & More (2010) for the year 2009 (32% of total area), both using ASTER satellite imagery. We used Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS satellite data from February/March 2016 to map the total glaciated area. Clean and debris-covered ice were mapped semi-automatically. The band ratio approach was used for clean ice (ratio: red/SWIR). We mapped debris-covered ice using a supervised classification (maximum likelihood). Manual post processing was necessary due to misclassifications (e.g. lakes, clouds) or mapping in shadowed areas. It was also necessary to manually combine the clean and debris-covered parts into single glaciers. Additional input data for the post processing were Sentinel 2 images from the same time period, orthophotos from Land Information New Zealand (resolution: 0.75 m, date: Nov 2014), and the 1978/88 outlines from the GLIMS database (http://www.glims.org/). As the Sentinel 2 data were more heavily cloud covered compared to the Landsat 8 images, they were only used for post processing and not for the classification itself. Initial results show that New Zealand glaciers covered an area of about 1050 km² in 2016, a reduction of 16% since 1978. Approximately 17% of glacier area was covered in surface debris. The glaciers in the central Southern Alps around Mt Cook reduced in area by 24%. Glaciers in the North Island of New Zealand reduced by 71% since 1988, and only 2 km² of ice cover remained in 2016. Chinn, TJH (2001). "Distribution of the glacial water resources of New Zealand." Journal of Hydrology (NZ) 40(2): 139-187 Gjermundsen, EF, Mathieu, R, Kääb, A, Chinn, TJH, Fitzharris, B & Hagen, JO (2011). "Assessment of multispectral glacier mapping methods and

  8. Conservation of the Eastern Taiwan Strait Chinese White Dolphin (Sousa chinensis: Fishers' Perspectives and Management Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Kang Liu

    Full Text Available The abundance of the eastern Taiwan Strait (ETS population of the Chinese white dolphin (Sousa chinensis has been estimated to be less than 100 individuals. It is categorized as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Thus, immediate measures of conservation should be taken to protect it from extinction. Currently, the Taiwanese government plans to designate its habitat as a Major Wildlife Habitat (MWH, a type of marine protected area (MPA for conservation of wildlife species. Although the designation allows continuing the current exploitation, however, it may cause conflicts among multiple stakeholders with competing interests. The study is to explore the attitude and opinions among the stakeholders in order to better manage the MPA. This study employs a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire survey of local fishers. Results from interviews indicated that the subsistence of fishers remains a major problem. It was found that stakeholders have different perceptions of the fishers' attitude towards conservation and also thought that the fishery-related law enforcement could be difficult. Quantitative survey showed that fishers are generally positive towards the conservation of the Chinese white dolphin but are less willing to participate in the planning process. Most fishers considered temporary fishing closure as feasible for conservation. The results of this study provide recommendations for future efforts towards the goal of better conservation for this endangered species.

  9. John Lilly, The Mind of the Dolphin, and Communication Out of Bounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Clarke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I develop a systems-theoretical observation of John Lilly’s cybernetics of communication in his 1967 work The Mind of the Dolphin. The eight-year-old project that The Mind of the Dolphin recounts for public consumption details his aspiration to achieve an unprecedented breakthrough beyond companionate communion to fully abstract linguistic communication across species boundaries. Between 1959 and 1968 Lilly wagered and lost his mainstream scientific career largely over this audacious, ultimately inconclusive bid to establish and document for scientific validation “communication with a nonhuman mind.” In that effort, however, he mobilized the best available tools, a cutting-edge array of cybernetic concepts. He leaned heavily on the information theory bound up with first-order cybernetics and operated with heuristic computational metaphors alongside the actual computers of his era. As I will elicit through some close readings of his texts, in that process Lilly also homed in on crucial epistemological renovations with a constructivist redescription of cognition that may have influenced and motivated his colleague Heinz von Foerster’s more renowned formulations, arriving in the early 1970s, of a second-order cybernetics.

  10. Environmental predictors of habitat suitability and biogeographical range of Franciscana dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan J. Gomez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use species distribution models to estimate the effects of environmental variables on the habitat suitability of river dolphins Pontoporia blainvillei (franciscanas along their overall biogeographical distribution. Based on the literature, we selected six environmental variables to be included in the models; four climatic factors (surface sea temperature, salinity, turbidity and productivity and two biotic factors (prey availability and fishing effort. We determined that the biographic range is under the following limits: temperature less than 19°C, a salinity of 36 psu and a minimal probability of the occurrence of fish C. guatucupa of 0.297. In the discussion, we postulate hypotheses on the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that cause these associations between environmental predictors and Franciscanas distribution. There was a good fit between the distribution predicted by the species distribution model and the one proposed by the experts of the International Union for Conservation of Nature; however, our analysis failed to highlight the fundamental role of bycatch as the main threat to this dolphin species.

  11. Behavioral responses by Icelandic White-Beaked Dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) to playback sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marianne H.; Atem, Ana; Miller, Lee A.

    2016-01-01

    AbstractThe aim of this study was to investigate how wild white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris)respond to the playback of novel, anthropogenic sounds. We used amplitude-modulated tones and synthetic pulse-bursts. (Some authors in the literature use the term “burst pulse” meaning a bu...... a response and a change in the natural behavior of a marine mammal—in this case, wild white-beaked dolphins........ The estimated received levels for tonal signals were from 110 to 160 dB and for pulse-bursts were 153 to 166 dB re 1 μPa (peak-to-peak). Playback of a file with no signal served as a no sound control in all experiments. The animals responded to all acoustic signals with nine different behavioral responses: (1......) circling the array, (2) turning around and approaching the camera, (3)underwater tail slapping, (4)emitting bubbles, (5)turning their belly towards the set-up, (6) emitting pulse-bursts towards the loudspeaker, (7) an increase in swim speed, (8) a change in swim direction, and (9) jumping. A total of 157...

  12. Ontogenetic development and sexual dimorphism of franciscana dolphin skull: A 3D geometric morphometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Castillo, Daniela L; Flores, David A; Cappozzo, Humberto L

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the postnatal ontogenetic development of Pontoporia blainvillei skull, identifying major changes on shape, and relating them to relevant factors in the life history of the species. We analyzed a complete ontogenetic series (73♂, 83♀) with three-dimensional geometric morphometric techniques. Immature dolphins showed a very well-developed braincase and a poorly developed rostrum, and the principal postnatal changes affected the rostrum and the temporal fossa, both structures implied functionally to the feeding apparatus, thus suggesting a specialized mode for catch fast prey in P. blainvillei. Osseous elements associated with sound production were already well developed on immature dolphins, suggesting the importance of this apparatus since the beginning of postnatal life. Sexual dimorphism was detected on both shape and size variables. Females were bigger than males, in accordance with previous studies. Shape differences between sexes were found on the posterior part of premaxillaries and external bony nares (P < 0.01), suggesting that this sexual dimorphism is related to differences on vocalization capabilities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul D.; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L.; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Davison, Nicholas J.; Ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D.; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L.; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W.; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB “hotspots” for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas.

  14. Could relatedness help explain why individuals lead in bottlenose dolphin groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jennifer S; Wartzok, Douglas; Heithaus, Michael; Krützen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In many species, particular individuals consistently lead group travel. While benefits to followers often are relatively obvious, including access to resources, benefits to leaders are often less obvious. This is especially true for species that feed on patchy mobile resources where all group members may locate prey simultaneously and food intake likely decreases with increasing group size. Leaders in highly complex habitats, however, could provide access to foraging resources for less informed relatives, thereby gaining indirect benefits by helping kin. Recently, leadership has been documented in a population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) where direct benefits to leaders appear unlikely. To test whether leaders could benefit indirectly we examined relatedness between leader-follower pairs and compared these levels to pairs who associated but did not have leader-follower relationship (neither ever led the other). We found the average relatedness value for leader-follower pairs was greater than expected based on chance. The same was not found when examining non leader-follower pairs. Additionally, relatedness for leader-follower pairs was positively correlated with association index values, but no correlation was found for this measure in non leader-follower pairs. Interestingly, haplotypes were not frequently shared between leader-follower pairs (25%). Together, these results suggest that bottlenose dolphin leaders have the opportunity to gain indirect benefits by leading relatives. These findings provide a potential mechanism for the maintenance of leadership in a highly dynamic fission-fusion population with few obvious direct benefits to leaders.

  15. Could relatedness help explain why individuals lead in bottlenose dolphin groups?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Lewis

    Full Text Available In many species, particular individuals consistently lead group travel. While benefits to followers often are relatively obvious, including access to resources, benefits to leaders are often less obvious. This is especially true for species that feed on patchy mobile resources where all group members may locate prey simultaneously and food intake likely decreases with increasing group size. Leaders in highly complex habitats, however, could provide access to foraging resources for less informed relatives, thereby gaining indirect benefits by helping kin. Recently, leadership has been documented in a population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus where direct benefits to leaders appear unlikely. To test whether leaders could benefit indirectly we examined relatedness between leader-follower pairs and compared these levels to pairs who associated but did not have leader-follower relationship (neither ever led the other. We found the average relatedness value for leader-follower pairs was greater than expected based on chance. The same was not found when examining non leader-follower pairs. Additionally, relatedness for leader-follower pairs was positively correlated with association index values, but no correlation was found for this measure in non leader-follower pairs. Interestingly, haplotypes were not frequently shared between leader-follower pairs (25%. Together, these results suggest that bottlenose dolphin leaders have the opportunity to gain indirect benefits by leading relatives. These findings provide a potential mechanism for the maintenance of leadership in a highly dynamic fission-fusion population with few obvious direct benefits to leaders.

  16. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul D; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A; Davison, Nicholas J; Ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J

    2016-01-14

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB "hotspots" for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas.

  17. Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena; Barone, Grazia; Giacominelli-Stuffler, Roberto; Marcotrigiano, Giuseppe Onofrio

    2012-09-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including dioxin-like PCBs (non-ortho, PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169 and mono-ortho, PCB 105, PCB 118, and PCB 156) were measured in different organs and tissues (melon, blubber, liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea). The mean highest levels were in blubber and melon, followed by liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue. PCB profiles were similar in all tissues and organs being dominated by the higher chlorinated homologues (hexa-CBs, 55.8-62.1%; penta-CBs, 15.4-20.0%; and hepta-CB PCB 180, 12.7-16.5%). Major PCBs in all tissues were congeners 138 and 153 collectively accounting for 50.6-58.3% of the total PCB concentrations, followed by PCB 101, 105, 118, and 180 constituting from 27.0% to 31.0%. PCB levels were higher in adult males than in adult females. The estimated 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs were much higher than the threshold level above which adverse effects have been observed in other marine mammals species, suggesting that striped dolphins in this region are at risk for toxic effects.

  18. The interplay between social networks and culture: theoretically and among whales and dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Mauricio; Whitehead, Hal

    2013-05-19

    Culture is increasingly being understood as a driver of mammalian phenotypes. Defined as group-specific behaviour transmitted by social learning, culture is shaped by social structure. However, culture can itself affect social structure if individuals preferentially interact with others whose behaviour is similar, or cultural symbols are used to mark groups. Using network formalism, this interplay can be depicted by the coevolution of nodes and edges together with the coevolution of network topology and transmission patterns. We review attempts to model the links between the spread, persistence and diversity of culture and the network topology of non-human societies. We illustrate these processes using cetaceans. The spread of socially learned begging behaviour within a population of bottlenose dolphins followed the topology of the social network, as did the evolution of the song of the humpback whale between breeding areas. In three bottlenose dolphin populations, individuals preferentially associated with animals using the same socially learned foraging behaviour. Homogeneous behaviour within the tight, nearly permanent social structures of the large matrilineal whales seems to result from transmission bias, with cultural symbols marking social structures. We recommend the integration of studies of culture and society in species for which social learning is an important determinant of behaviour.

  19. Phenotypic variation in dorsal fin morphology of coastal bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus off Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Morteo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Geographic variation in external morphology is thought to reflect an interplay between genotype and the environment. Morphological variation has been well-described for a number of cetacean species, including the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus. In this study we analyzed dorsal fin morphometric variation in coastal bottlenose dolphins to search for geographic patterns at different spatial scales. A total of 533 dorsal fin images from 19 available photo-identification catalogs across the three Mexican oceanic regions (Pacific Ocean n = 6, Gulf of California n = 6 and, Gulf of Mexico n = 7 were used in the analysis. Eleven fin shape measurements were analyzed to evaluate fin polymorphism through multivariate tests. Principal Component Analysis on log-transformed standardized ratios explained 94% of the variance. Canonical Discriminant Function Analysis on factor scores showed separation among most study areas (p < 0.05 with exception of the Gulf of Mexico where a strong morphometric cline was found. Possible explanations for the observed differences are related to environmental, biological and evolutionary processes. Shape distinction between dorsal fins from the Pacific and those from the Gulf of California were consistent with previously reported differences in skull morphometrics and genetics. Although the functional advantages of dorsal fin shape remains to be assessed, it is not unlikely that over a wide range of environments, fin shape may represent a trade-off among thermoregulatory capacity, hydrodynamic performance and the swimming/hunting behavior of the species.

  20. Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus do also cast neutrophil extracellular traps against the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Villagra-Blanco

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs are web-like structures composed of nuclear DNA decorated with histones and cytoplasmic peptides which antiparasitic properties have not previously been investigated in cetaceans. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN were isolated from healthy bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus, and stimulated with Neospora caninum tachyzoites and the NETs-agonist zymosan. In vitro interactions of PMN with the tachyzoites resulted in rapid extrusion of NETs. For the demonstration and quantification of cetacean NETs, extracellular DNA was stained by using either Sytox Orange® or Pico Green®. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and fluorescence analyses demonstrated PMN-derived release of NETs upon exposure to tachyzoites of N. caninum. Co-localization studies of N. caninum induced cetacean NETs proved the presence of DNA adorned with histones (H1, H2A/H2B, H3, H4, neutrophil elastase (NE, myeloperoxidase (MPO and pentraxin (PTX confirming the molecular properties of mammalian NETosis. Dolphin-derived N. caninum-NETosis were efficiently suppressed by DNase I and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI treatments. Our results indicate that cetacean-derived NETs represent an ancient, conserved and relevant defense effector mechanism of the host innate immune system against N. caninum and probably other related neozoan parasites circulating in the marine environment. Keywords: Tursiops truncatus, cetaceans, Neutrophil extracellular traps, Innate immunity, Neospora caninum.

  1. Overfishing of small pelagic fishes increases trophic overlap between immature and mature striped dolphins in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Campos, Encarna; Borrell, Assumpció; Cardona, Luis; Forcada, Jaume; Aguilar, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The interactions among diet, ecology, physiology, and biochemistry affect N and C stable isotope signatures in animal tissues. Here, we examined if ecological segregation among animals in relation to sex and age existed by analyzing the signatures of δ(15)N and δ(13)C in the muscle of Western Mediterranean striped dolphins. Moreover, we used a Bayesian mixing model to study diet composition and investigated potential dietary changes over the last two decades in this population. For this, we compared isotope signatures in samples of stranded dolphins obtained during two epizootic events occurring in 1990 and 2007-2008. Mean δ(13)C values for females and males were not significantly different, but age-related variation indicated δ(13)C enrichment in both sexes, suggesting that females and males most likely fed in the same general areas, increasing their consumption of benthic prey with age. Enrichment of δ(15)N was only observed in females, suggesting a preference for larger or higher trophic level prey than males, which could reflect different nutritional requirements. δ(13)C values showed no temporal variation, although the mean δ(15)N signature decreased from 1990 to 2007-2008, which could indicate a dietary shift in the striped dolphin over the last two decades. The results of SIAR indicated that in 1990, hake and sardine together contributed to 60% on the diet of immature striped dolphins, and close to 90% for mature striped dolphins. Conversely, the diet of both groups in 2007-2008 was more diverse, as hake and sardine contributed to less than 40% of the entire diet. These results suggest a dietary change that was possibly related to changes in food availability, which is consistent with the depletion of sardine stocks by fishing.

  2. Estimating the cumulative effects of the nature-based tourism in a coastal dolphin population from southern Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jorge, Sergi; Louzao, Maite; Oro, Daniel; Pereira, Thalia; Corne, Chloe; Wijtten, Zeno; Gomes, Inês; Wambua, John; Christiansen, Fredrik

    2017-06-01

    Due to the growth of nature-based tourism worldwide, behavioural studies are needed to assess the impact of this industry on wildlife populations and understand their short-term effect. Tourism impact on dolphin populations remain poorly documented in developing countries. This study investigates the effects of nature-based tourism on the behaviour of the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in southern Kenya. We used Markov chain models to estimate transition probabilities between behavioural states in the presence and absence of tourist boats, and assess the overall behavioural budgets. Based on these data and the tourism intensity in the area, we quantified the potential tourist boat disturbance over the period 2006-2013. Our results demonstrated that tourist boat interactions affected dolphins' behavioural budgets, with a significant decrease in the overall amount of time travelling and an increase in diving. The average duration of travelling and resting decreased significantly in the presence of boats. Although the cumulative tourism exposure was not significant for the dolphin population at their current levels, these impacts should be taken into consideration with the potential tourism growth in the area. This is particularly important if tourism reaches periods of high intensity, as we have shown that these periods could have a significant impact for the species, particularly where home-range and core areas are highly overlap by this activity. Understanding the effect of human disturbance variations from previous years may help to predict the consequences on dolphin populations, towards achieving a more ecological and economic sustainability of the activity.

  3. Derivation and characterization of cell cultures from the skin of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin Sousa chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wei; Jia, Kuntong; Yang, Lili; Chen, Jialin; Wu, Yuping; Yi, Meisheng

    2013-06-01

    The marine mammalian Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, once widely lived in waters of the Indian to western Pacific oceans, has become an endangered species. The individual number of this dolphin has significantly declined in recent decades, which raises the concern of extinction. Direct concentration on laboratorial conservation of the genetic and cell resources should be paid to this marine species. Here, we report the successful derivation of cell lines form the skin of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin. The cell cultures displayed the characteristics of fibroblast in morphology and grew rapidly at early passages, but showed obvious growth arrest at higher passages. The karyotype of the cells consisted of 42 autosomes and sex chromosomes X and Y. The immortalized cell lines obtained by forced expression of the SV40 large T-antigen were capable of proliferation at high rate in long-term culture. Immortalization and long-term culture did not cause cytogenetically observable abnormality in the karyotype. The cell type of the primary cultures and immortalized cell lines were further characterized as fibroblasts by the specific expression of vimentin. Gene transfer experiments showed that exogenetic genes could be efficiently delivered into the cells by both plasmid transfection and lentivirus infection. The cells derived from the skin of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin may serve as a useful in vitro system for studies on the effects of environmental pollutants and pathogens in habitats on the dolphin animals. More importantly, because of their high proliferation rate and susceptibility to lentivirus, these cells are potential ideal materials for generation of induced pluripotent stem cells.

  4. Mercury bio magnification in the Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) food chain, using nitrogen stable isotope as an ecological tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehrig, Helena A; Baptista, Gilberto; Di Beneditto, Ana Paula M; Almeida, Marcelo G; Rezende, Carlos E; Siciliano, Salvatore; De Moura, Jailson F; Moreira, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    An assessment of mercury (Hg) concentrations and nitrogen stable isotope (δ"1"5N) was conducted in the food chain of the Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis), including phytoplankton, zooplankton, planktivorous fish and its major prey (predatory fish and a single species of cephalopod), that compose a tropical trophic chain of the Brazilian southeastern coast. Tissue concentrations of Hg in a voracious predator fish, the largehead hairtail (Trichiurus lepturus), one of the dolphin's prey, were 9.8 times lower than median concentrations found in dolphin tissues. δ"1"5N values in predatory fish were found to be lower to those of its predator the spotted dolphin. Isotopic data suggested significant differences for ? 15N along the trophic chain, with the top predator (dolphin) exhibiting heavier value, followed by the voracious predator fish and the benthonic carnivorous fish, the whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri). Phytoplankton displayed the lightest δ"1"5N, followed by zooplankton and the planktophagous fish, the lebranche mullet (Mugil liza). This fish species and the cephalopod showed the lowest median Hg concentration. All links of the entire trophic chain presented trophic transfer of Hg with a biomagnification factor higher than 1. A significant relationship was found between the log Hg concentration and trophic level (TL) of all evaluated species, with a positive slope (β= 0.87). The calculated trophic magnification factor (TMF7.44) indicates that Hg concentration increased per TL, and also that the entire coastal food chain from the South Atlantic Ocean presented a biomagnification power of Hg within a range previously reported for tropical coastal ecosystems. Key words: Marine mammal, coastal aquatic biota, toxic element, biotransference, ecological tracer

  5. Natural and anthropogenically-produced brominated compounds in endemic dolphins from Western South Atlantic: Another risk to a vulnerable species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Mariana B.; Eljarrat, Ethel; Gorga, Marina; Secchi, Eduardo R.; Bassoi, Manuela; Barbosa, Lupércio; Bertozzi, Carolina P.; Marigo, Juliana; Cremer, Marta; Domit, Camila; Azevedo, Alexandre F.; Dorneles, Paulo R.; Torres, João Paulo M.

    2012-01-01

    Liver samples from 53 Franciscana dolphins along the Brazilian coast were analyzed for organobrominated compounds. Target substances included the following anthropogenic pollutants: polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), hexabromobenzene (HBB), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), as well as the naturally-generated methoxylated-PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs). PBDE concentrations ranged from 6 to 1797 ng/g lw (mean 166 ± 298 ng/g lw) and were similar to those observed in cetaceans from Northern Hemisphere. PBBs were found in all sampling locations (< LOQ to 57 ng/g lw). DBDPE was detected in 42% of the dolphins from the most industrialized Brazilian state and the concentrations ranging from < LOQ to 352 ng/g lw. Franciscana dolphins from the tropical Brazilian shore presented the highest MeO-PBDE concentrations ever reported for coastal cetaceans (up to 14 μg/g lw). Eight MeO-PBDE congeners were detected and the present investigation constituted the first record of occurrence of six of them in marine mammal livers. - Highlights: ► PBDE, emerging BFR and MeO-PBDE levels in Franciscana dolphin from Brazil were reported. ► Six MeO-PBDEs were detected for the first time in marine mammals. ► PBDE contamination was similar than those from other industrialized areas around the world. ► MeO-PBDEs presented the higher concentrations found in coastal biota worldwide. - Concentrations and accumulation profiles of PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and emerging brominated compounds in livers of dolphins from South Atlantic.

  6. An Inventory of Peer-reviewed Articles on Killer Whales (Orcinus orca with a Comparison to Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M. Hill

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The welfare of killer whales (Orcinus orca has received worldwide attention recently. The purpose of this study was to sample the peer-reviewed scientific research on killer whales with a complementary comparison to Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus to ascertain the primary topics of research conducted with these two cetaceans. A second objective of the study was to assess the relationship between the research topic and the setting in which the research was conducted. From a database-driven search of peer-reviewed academic journal articles, 759 unique articles involving killer whales, 2,022 unique articles involving Atlantic bottlenose dolphins, and 38 additional articles that included both species were retained for analysis. Coders categorized each article by topic (Anthropogenic Response, Cognition, Distribution, Echolocation, Foraging/Predation, Health/Physiology, Interactions with Humans, Sociality, and Vocalization and research setting (Natural Habitat, Captivity, or Both. Most studies of killer whales involved animals in their natural habitat (90% and the majority of killer whale studies, regardless of setting, concentrated on health and physiology, such as contaminants and genetic variability (31%, foraging and predation behaviors (26%, and geographic distribution (20%. The majority of the studies (68% involving bottlenose dolphins were also conducted in their natural habitat, but there was significantly more research comparatively with captive animals and with greater diversity. The results suggested that research with killer whales has been dominated by a limited range of topics with relatively little research conducted on topics that directly address issues of welfare. Similar to killer whales, research with Atlantic bottlenose dolphins has been dominated by health and physiology (48.5% and distribution (17.6%. In contrast to killer whales, topics such as sociality (9.5% and cognition (5% were more prominent in research

  7. Abundance of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus (Cetacea: Delphinidae, inhabiting the Patos Lagoon estuary, southern Brazil: implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F Fruet

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A new mark-recapture abundance estimate and a photographic census were carried out to investigate the possible decline in the abundance of the bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821, in the Patos Lagoon estuary due to the high levels of bycatch mortality which occurred between 2002 and 2006 in oceanic coastal areas close to the estuary. Fourteen systematic boat surveys were conducted between August and early December 2005 to photo-identify the bottlenose dolphins. The estimated number of animals, with long-lasting marks, in the population obtained from Chapman's and Mth models were 51 (95% CI = 49-53 and 52 (95% CI = 51-60, respectively. Taking into account the proportion of dolphins with long-lasting marks in the population, the total estimated population size ranged between 84 (95% CI = 76-93 and 86 (95% CI = 78-95 individuals, respectively, which was very similar to the 84 individuals revealed by the population census. Our results did not differ from the abundance estimate carried out in 1998, prior to the high fishing-related mortality event, suggesting that the population is stable. Plausible argument to explain the stability of the population is that some carcasses found on the oceanic coastal beaches near Patos Lagoon estuary come from animals that do not belong to the estuary community. Future studies should investigate fine-scale habitat partition between estuarine and adjacent coastal dolphins. If the existence of different communities living in close proximity (estuarine and coastal areas near to the estuary is confirmed, a new abundance estimate is needed to access the conservation status of bottlenose dolphins in this region.

  8. Anaesthesia medical workforce in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S Y

    2006-04-01

    This survey was conducted in all 28 New Zealand District Health Boards with a response rate of 100%. The Clinical Directors of Departments of Anaesthesia were asked to quantify their current anaesthesia service delivery and to assess their workforce level. Over half of the District Health Boards reported understaffing, fifty percent occurring in hospitals of provincial cities or towns with an inability to attract specialist anaesthesia staff. Financial constraint was the other main reason for understaffing. With the information from the survey, an attempt was made to predict future New Zealand anaesthesia workforce requirements. A model for Australasia established by Baker in 1997 was used. In comparing this survey to previous studies, there is evidence that the nature and expectations of the anaesthesia workforce are changing as well as the work environment. Currently, there is no indication that anaesthesia specialist training numbers should be reduced. Close, ongoing monitoring and planning are essential to ensure future demands for anaesthesia services can be met.

  9. Thermogravimetric studies of New Zealand coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamish, B.B.; Rodgers, K.A.; Benfell, K.E.; Shaw, K.J. [University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology

    1997-12-31

    The thermal behaviour of New Zealand coals may be reliably characterised by a series of tightly constrained thermogravimetric (TG) procedures of high repeatability developed in the Department of Geology at The University of Auckland. Proximate, combustion and char reactivity analyses can be routinely obtained for run-of-mine samples. Volatile matter determination by TG produces an acceptable reproducible result compared with the ISO method, whereas further refinement of the technique is necessary to achieve the same level of precision for ash content of New Zealand low rank coals. Combining combustion and char reactivity analyses enables the performance of a coal to be assessed under differing operating conditions, and offers the opportunity to elucidate competing effects of major element geochemistry of the coal. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Firework related injury in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, J A; Langley, J D

    1994-10-26

    In March 1992 a private members Bill was introduced into parliament which sought to place tighter restrictions on the sale of fireworks. The primary purpose of this research was to document the nature and extent of firework related injury in New Zealand for the purpose of preparing a submission on this Bill. Firework related injuries were examined in relation to the legislative history of fireworks control in New Zealand to ascertain if existing regulations had been effective in reducing firework injuries and whether there was justification for greater control. Between 1979 and 1992 (inclusive) 237 persons were admitted to hospital for treatment of injuries related to fireworks. The overall incidence rate for this period was 0.52 per 100,000 persons per year. Eighty five percent of all events involved males. Children (fireworks (as is proposed in the Bill). The current legislation could well be supported though, by extending the ban on the types of fireworks publicly available to include skyrockets.

  11. The Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) as a Model to Understand Variation in Stress and Reproductive Hormone Measures in Relation to Sampling Matrix, Demographics, and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    energy metabolism, suppression of immune and inflammatory reactions and inhibition of bone and muscle growth. Studies of both captive and free- ranging...Anemia, hypothyroidism and immune suppression associated with polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Proc R

  12. Equity in statin use in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris P

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Preventive medications such as statins are used to reduce cardiovascular risk. There is some evidence to suggest that people of lower socioeconomic position are less likely to be prescribed statins. In New Zealand, Maori have higher rates of cardiovascular disease. AIM: This study aimed to investigate statin utilisation by socioeconomic position and ethnicity in a region of New Zealand. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which data were collected on all prescriptions dispensed from all pharmacies in one city during 2005/6. Linkage with national datasets provided information on patients' age, gender and ethnicity. Socioeconomic position was identified using the New Zealand Index of Socioeconomic Deprivation 2006. RESULTS: Statin use increased with age until around 75 years. Below age 65 years, those in the most deprived socioeconomic areas were most likely to receive statins. In the 55-64 age group, 22.3% of the most deprived population received a statin prescription (compared with 17.5% of the mid and 18.6% of the least deprived group. At ages up to 75 years, use was higher amongst Maori than non-Maori, particularly in middle age, where Maori have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. In the 45-54 age group, 11.6% of Maori received a statin prescription, compared with 8.7% of non-Maori. DISCUSSION: Statin use approximately matched the pattern of need, in contrast to other studies which found under-treatment of people of low socioeconomic position. A PHARMAC campaign to increase statin use may have increased use in high-risk groups in New Zealand.

  13. Towards integrated catchment management, Whaingaroa, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roon, M; Knight, S

    2001-01-01

    The paper examines progress towards integrated catchment management and sustainable agriculture at Whaingaroa (Raglan), New Zealand. Application of the Canadian "Atlantic Coastal Action Program" model (ACAP) has been only partially successful within New Zealand's bicultural setting. Even before the introduction of the ACAP process there existed strong motivation and leadership by various sectors of the community. A merging of resource management planning and implementation processes of the larger community and that of the Maori community has not occurred. Research carried out by Crown Research Institutes has clearly shown the actions required to make pastoral farming more sustainable. There are difficulties in the transference to, and uptake of, these techniques by farmers. An examination of the socio-economic context is required. There has been a requirement on local government bodies to tighten their focus as part of recent reform. This has occurred concurrently with a widening of vision towards integrated and sustainable forms of management. This (as well as a clear belief in empowerment of local communities) has lead to Council reliance on voluntary labour. There is a need to account for the dynamic interaction between social and political history and the geological and biophysical history of the area. As part of a re-examination of sustainable development, New Zealand needs to reconcile the earning of the bulk of its foreign income from primary production, with the accelerating ecological deficit that it creates. A sustainability strategy is required linking consumer demand, property rights and responsibilities.

  14. Imported malaria in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camburn, Anna E; Ingram, R Joan H; Holland, David; Read, Kerry; Taylor, Susan

    2012-11-09

    To describe the current malaria situation in Auckland, New Zealand. We collected data on all cases of malaria diagnosed in Auckland from 1st October 2008 to 30th September 2009. Enhanced surveillance was arranged with all hospital and community haematology laboratories in the region. Laboratories notified us when a diagnosis of malaria was made. After obtaining informed consent the patient was asked about their travel, prophylaxis taken and symptoms. Laboratory results were collected. There were 36 cases of malaria in 34 patients. Consent could not be obtained from two patients so data is from 34 cases in 32 patients. (One patient had P.falciparum then later P.vivax, the other had P.vivax and relapsed.) There were 24 males and 8 females with a median age of 21 years (range 6 months to 75 years). Eleven of the 32 were New Zealand residents. 8 of these 11 had travelled to visit friends or relatives (VFR) while 3 were missionaries. In this group 6 had P.falciparum, 4 P.vivax and one had both. Twenty-one of the 32 were new arrivals to New Zealand: 11 refugees and 10 migrants. Malaria in Auckland is seen in new arrivals and VFR travellers, not in tourist travellers.

  15. High genetic structure and low mitochondrial diversity in bottlenose dolphins of the Archipelago of Bocas del Toro, Panama: A population at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán-Barrera, Dalia C; May-Collado, Laura J; Tezanos-Pinto, Gabriela; Islas-Villanueva, Valentina; Correa-Cárdenas, Camilo A; Caballero, Susana

    2017-01-01

    The current conservation status of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) under the IUCN is 'least concern'. However, in the Caribbean, small and localized populations of the 'inshore form' may be at higher risk of extinction than the 'worldwide distributed form' due to a combination of factors including small population size, high site fidelity, genetic isolation, and range overlap with human activities. Here, we study the population genetic structure of bottlenose dolphins from the Archipelago of Bocas del Toro in Panama. This is a small population characterized by high site fidelity and is currently heavily-impacted by the local dolphin-watching industry. We collected skin tissue samples from 25 dolphins to study the genetic diversity and structure of this population. We amplified a portion of the mitochondrial Control Region (mtDNA-CR) and nine microsatellite loci. The mtDNA-CR analyses revealed that dolphins in Bocas del Toro belong to the 'inshore form', grouped with the Bahamas-Colombia-Cuba-Mexico population unit. They also possess a unique haplotype new for the Caribbean. The microsatellite data indicated that the Bocas del Toro dolphin population is highly structured, likely due to restricted movement patterns. Previous abundance estimates obtained with mark-recapture methods reported a small population of 80 dolphins (95% CI = 72-87), which is similar to the contemporary effective population size estimated in this study (Ne = 73 individuals; CI = 18.0 - ∞; 0.05). The combination of small population size, high degree of genetic isolation, and intense daily interactions with dolphin-watching boats puts the Bocas del Toro dolphin to at high risk of extinction. Despite national guidelines to regulate the dolphin-watching industry in Bocas del Toro and ongoing educational programs for tour operators, only in 2012 seven animals have died due to boat collisions. Our results suggest that the conservation status of bottlenose dolphins in Bocas del Toro

  16. High genetic structure and low mitochondrial diversity in bottlenose dolphins of the Archipelago of Bocas del Toro, Panama: A population at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia C Barragán-Barrera

    Full Text Available The current conservation status of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus under the IUCN is 'least concern'. However, in the Caribbean, small and localized populations of the 'inshore form' may be at higher risk of extinction than the 'worldwide distributed form' due to a combination of factors including small population size, high site fidelity, genetic isolation, and range overlap with human activities. Here, we study the population genetic structure of bottlenose dolphins from the Archipelago of Bocas del Toro in Panama. This is a small population characterized by high site fidelity and is currently heavily-impacted by the local dolphin-watching industry. We collected skin tissue samples from 25 dolphins to study the genetic diversity and structure of this population. We amplified a portion of the mitochondrial Control Region (mtDNA-CR and nine microsatellite loci. The mtDNA-CR analyses revealed that dolphins in Bocas del Toro belong to the 'inshore form', grouped with the Bahamas-Colombia-Cuba-Mexico population unit. They also possess a unique haplotype new for the Caribbean. The microsatellite data indicated that the Bocas del Toro dolphin population is highly structured, likely due to restricted movement patterns. Previous abundance estimates obtained with mark-recapture methods reported a small population of 80 dolphins (95% CI = 72-87, which is similar to the contemporary effective population size estimated in this study (Ne = 73 individuals; CI = 18.0 - ∞; 0.05. The combination of small population size, high degree of genetic isolation, and intense daily interactions with dolphin-watching boats puts the Bocas del Toro dolphin to at high risk of extinction. Despite national guidelines to regulate the dolphin-watching industry in Bocas del Toro and ongoing educational programs for tour operators, only in 2012 seven animals have died due to boat collisions. Our results suggest that the conservation status of bottlenose dolphins in

  17. Locating women in the New Zealand computing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Hunter, PhD

    Full Text Available It is well recognised that women are under-represented in computing occupations in many Western countries, but is the situation similar in New Zealand? This article presents a quantitative analysis of gendered employment patterns in New Zealand\\'s computing industry. Findings from analysis of 2001 and 2006 census employment data demonstrate that women are now well represented in some newer computing occupations in New Zealand, but they remain significantly under-represented in traditional computing roles such as programming and systems analysis. Furthermore, New Zealand women in computing do not have pay parity with men. On some occasions during the early days of computing in New Zealand women participated more equally in number but they have always experienced pay discrimination.

  18. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations in the New Zealand diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Andrew J.; Gaw, Sally; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Glover, Chris N.

    2016-01-01

    To support New Zealand's food safety monitoring regime, a survey was undertaken to establish radionuclide activity concentrations across the New Zealand diet. This survey was undertaken to better understand the radioactivity content of the modern diet and also to assess the suitability of the current use of milk as a sentinel for dietary radionuclide trends. Thirteen radionuclides were analysed in 40 common food commodities, including animal products, fruits, vegetables, cereal grains and seafood. Activity was detected for 137 Caesium, 90 Strontium and 131 Iodine. No other anthropogenic radionuclides were detected. Activity concentrations of the three natural radionuclides of Uranium and the daughter radionuclide 210 Polonium were detected in the majority of food sampled, with a large variation in magnitude. The maximum activity concentrations were detected in shellfish for all these radionuclides. Based on the established activity concentrations and ranges, the New Zealand diet contains activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides far below the Codex Alimentarius guideline levels. Activity concentrations obtained for milk support its continued use as a sentinel for monitoring fallout radionuclides in terrestrial agriculture. The significant levels of natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations detected in finfish and molluscs support undertaking further research to identify a suitable sentinel for New Zealand seafood monitoring. - Highlights: • A radionuclide monitoring program was undertaken across the New Zealand food supply. • 40 food types were analysed for 13 radionuclides. • 137 Cs was present in 15% of foods (range: 0.05–0.44Bq/kg). • Anthropogenic radionuclides displayed compliance with international limits. • 210 Po, 234 U and 238 U were present in most foods with large ranges of activities.

  19. Earthquake Hazard and Risk in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, E. V.; Nyst, M.; Fitzenz, D. D.; Molas, G.

    2014-12-01

    To quantify risk in New Zealand we examine the impact of updating the seismic hazard model. The previous RMS New Zealand hazard model is based on the 2002 probabilistic seismic hazard maps for New Zealand (Stirling et al., 2002). The 2015 RMS model, based on Stirling et al., (2012) will update several key source parameters. These updates include: implementation a new set of crustal faults including multi-segment ruptures, updating the subduction zone geometry and reccurrence rate and implementing new background rates and a robust methodology for modeling background earthquake sources. The number of crustal faults has increased by over 200 from the 2002 model, to the 2012 model which now includes over 500 individual fault sources. This includes the additions of many offshore faults in northern, east-central, and southwest regions. We also use the recent data to update the source geometry of the Hikurangi subduction zone (Wallace, 2009; Williams et al., 2013). We compare hazard changes in our updated model with those from the previous version. Changes between the two maps are discussed as well as the drivers for these changes. We examine the impact the hazard model changes have on New Zealand earthquake risk. Considered risk metrics include average annual loss, an annualized expected loss level used by insurers to determine the costs of earthquake insurance (and premium levels), and the loss exceedance probability curve used by insurers to address their solvency and manage their portfolio risk. We analyze risk profile changes in areas with large population density and for structures of economic and financial importance. New Zealand is interesting in that the city with the majority of the risk exposure in the country (Auckland) lies in the region of lowest hazard, where we don't have a lot of information about the location of faults and distributed seismicity is modeled by averaged Mw-frequency relationships on area sources. Thus small changes to the background rates

  20. International tourism and economic growth in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Jaforullah

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines whether the tourism-led growth hypothesis holds for the New Zealand economy. Using unit root tests, cointegration tests and vector error correction models, and annual data over the period 1972-2012 on international tourism expenditure, real gross domestic product (GDP) and the exchange rate for New Zealand, it finds that the tourism-led growth hypothesis holds for New Zealand. The long-run elasticity of real GDP with respect to international tourism expenditure is estimate...

  1. The Enduring Legacy of New Zealand's UNCLOS Investment (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, R.; Davy, B. W.; Herzer, R. H.; Barnes, P.; Barker, D. H.; Stagpoole, V.; Uruski, C.

    2013-12-01

    Data collected by surveys for New Zealand's extended continental shelf project have contributed to research into the tectonic history and resource potential of New Zealand. More than 20 scientific papers and a similar number of conference presentations and posters have used the data collected by these surveys. Data collected by these surveys have added significantly to national and international databases. Although the surveys were generally oriented to establish prolongation rather than to cross structural trends, the data have revealed the crustal, basement and sedimentary structure of many parts of the New Zealand region. In the area east of New Zealand, the data provide insight into the Cretaceous evolution of the New Zealand sector of Gondwana. Data collected southwest of New Zealand provided details about the relatively sudden transition from sea floor spreading between New Zealand and Australia in the Tasman Sea to orthogonal spreading in the Emerald Basin and the development of the modern Australian-Pacific plate boundary, including Late Tertiary motion on the Alpine Fault in the South Island, New Zealand. The data have been used to understand the formation of the New Caledonia Basin, the Norfolk Ridge and their associated structures, and they underpin the international collaboration between New Zealand, New Caledonia and Australia to promote resource exploration in the Tasman Sea. Data north of New Zealand have been used to understand the complex tectonic history of back arc spreading and island arc migration in the South Fiji Basin region. Seismic data collected along the axis of the New Caledonia Basin led to extensive hydrocarbon exploration surveys in the deepwater Taranaki region inside New Zealand's EEZ, and to an application for a hydrocarbon exploration licence in New Zealand's extended continental shelf.

  2. Survey of domestic food handling practices in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, S E; Whyte, R; Bayne, G; Paulin, S M; Lake, R J; van der Logt, P

    2007-07-15

    The purpose of this survey was to obtain information on the domestic meat and poultry handling practices of New Zealanders in order to support the development of quantitative risk models, as well as providing data to underpin food safety campaigns to consumers. A sample of 1000 New Zealand residents, over 18 years of age, were randomly selected from the electoral roll and asked to participate in a national postal food safety study during 2005. Three hundred and twenty six respondents completed and returned questionnaires containing usable answers, and most of these respondents 'always' prepared the main meal within the household. The majority of meat (84.6%) and poultry (62.9%) purchased by New Zealanders was fresh (rather than frozen), and most consumers (94.4%) claimed that the time taken from food selection to reaching their home was 1 h or less. The majority (approximately 64%) of fresh meat and poultry was frozen in the home and the most favoured method of thawing was at room temperature for up to 12 h. The most common time period for storing cooked or raw meat and poultry in domestic refrigerators was up to 2 days. Most survey respondents preferred their meat and poultry to be cooked either medium or well done. The most popular cooking method for chicken was roasting or baking, while most respondents preferred to pan-fry steak/beef cuts, minced beef or sausages/hamburgers. The potential for undercooking was greatest with pan-fried steak with 19.8% of respondents preferring to consume this meat raw or rare. In answer to questions relating to food handling hygiene practices, 52.2% of respondents selected a hand washing sequence that would help prevent cross contamination. However, it was estimated that 41% and 28% of respondents would use knives and kitchen surfaces respectively in a manner that could allow cross contamination. The data in this survey are self-reported and, particularly for the hygiene questions, respondents may report an answer that they

  3. A recent record of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin Sousa chinensis (Osbeck, 1765, (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla: Delphinidae from the western shores of Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanshi Kukadia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of six individuals of S.chinensis were observed near the Jakhau creek, which is the western part of Gulf of Kachchh. The GPS location of the sighting is 23°14’28.5” N and 68°35’54.0" E. The dolphins were spotted in the mid-high tide time on 03 December 2014 at 9.53 hrs (IST. These dolphins were found less than 10 m away from the shore at a depth of 1-10 m. The dolphins were observed for a time period of 20 minutes. The dolphins while leaping continuously, kept following the boat for sometime and approaching as close as five meters during certain occasions. These dolphins were also observed at the same time on the same location on the following day. A questionnaire survey with nearby fishermen had confirmed that these dolphins were seen in this part of Gujarat during winter. Therefore, it is assumed that weather condition and prey availability is favorable for this species during this period. This is the first record of S. chinensis in western shore of Kachchh district detailed study regarding the distribution of this species is required across the creek system of Western Kachchh.

  4. Possible age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) and corresponding change in echolocation parameters in a stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songhai; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong; Hoffmann-Kuhnt, Matthias; Fernando, Nimal; Taylor, Elizabeth A; Lin, Wenzhi; Chen, Jialin; Ng, Timothy

    2013-11-15

    The hearing and echolocation clicks of a stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in Zhuhai, China, were studied. This animal had been repeatedly observed in the wild before it was stranded and its age was estimated to be ~40 years. The animal's hearing was measured using a non-invasive auditory evoked potential (AEP) method. Echolocation clicks produced by the dolphin were recorded when the animal was freely swimming in a 7.5 m (width)×22 m (length)×4.8 m (structural depth) pool with a water depth of ~2.5 m. The hearing and echolocation clicks of the studied dolphin were compared with those of a conspecific younger individual, ~13 years of age. The results suggested that the cut-off frequency of the high-frequency hearing of the studied dolphin was ~30-40 kHz lower than that of the younger individual. The peak and centre frequencies of the clicks produced by the older dolphin were ~16 kHz lower than those of the clicks produced by the younger animal. Considering that the older dolphin was ~40 years old, its lower high-frequency hearing range with lower click peak and centre frequencies could probably be explained by age-related hearing loss (presbycusis).

  5. Recognition of Frequency Modulated Whistle-Like Sounds by a Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus and Humans with Transformations in Amplitude, Duration and Frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K Branstetter

    Full Text Available Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus use the frequency contour of whistles produced by conspecifics for individual recognition. Here we tested a bottlenose dolphin's (Tursiops truncatus ability to recognize frequency modulated whistle-like sounds using a three alternative matching-to-sample paradigm. The dolphin was first trained to select a specific object (object A in response to a specific sound (sound A for a total of three object-sound associations. The sounds were then transformed by amplitude, duration, or frequency transposition while still preserving the frequency contour of each sound. For comparison purposes, 30 human participants completed an identical task with the same sounds, objects, and training procedure. The dolphin's ability to correctly match objects to sounds was robust to changes in amplitude with only a minor decrement in performance for short durations. The dolphin failed to recognize sounds that were frequency transposed by plus or minus ½ octaves. Human participants demonstrated robust recognition with all acoustic transformations. The results indicate that this dolphin's acoustic recognition of whistle-like sounds was constrained by absolute pitch. Unlike human speech, which varies considerably in average frequency, signature whistles are relatively stable in frequency, which may have selected for a whistle recognition system invariant to frequency transposition.

  6. Living in an estuary: Commerson's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus commersonii (Lacépède, 1804, habitat use and behavioural pattern at the Santa Cruz River, Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Loizaga de Castro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Commerson's dolphins, Cephalorhynchus commersonii, suffer bycatch in fisheries and are target of dolphin-watching activities along Patagonia. Here we described dolphins' habitat use and behavioural pattern at the estuary of Santa Cruz River. Behavioural observations were made from vantage points using a spotting scope. Boat surveys were conducted randomly from Puerto Santa Cruz to the mouth of the river to analyze the habitat use. The survey area was divided into 1 km² cells and characterized with depth and benthic slope. The described behaviours for the Commerson's dolphin were: travelling, slow travelling, milling, resting, socializing, stationary swimming and diving. A new behavioural context was assigned to diving, a behaviour that showed a high frequency during downing tide, suggesting a benthic foraging strategy. Additionally, we found a strong influence of the tide on Commerson's dolphin behaviour. Habitat use models indicated that dolphins prefer shallow water inside the estuary. The knowledge of the behavioural patterns and the habitat use of these endemic species, in this unexplored area, provide tools for management and conservation purposes.

  7. Health economics and health policy: experiences from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    Health economics has had a significant impact on the New Zealand health system over the past 30 years. In this paper, I set out a framework for thinking about health economics, give some historical background to New Zealand and the New Zealand health system, and discuss examples of how health economics has influenced thinking about the organisation of the health sector and priority setting. I conclude the paper with overall observations about the role of health economics in health policy in New Zealand, also identifying where health economics has not made the contribution it could and where further influence might be beneficial.

  8. Attitudes Toward Cognitive Enhancer Use Among New Zealand Tertiary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Sanyogita Sanya; Hussainy, Safeera; Henning, Marcus; Stewart, Kay; Jensen, Maree; Russell, Bruce

    2017-09-19

    Cognitive enhancement is the use of prescription stimulant medicines by healthy individuals for nonmedical use in academic settings. Commonly used cognitive enhancers (CEs) include methylphenidate, amphetamines, and modafinil. To understand the motivation to use CEs, it is important to look beyond prevalence and explore the extent to which attitudes, beliefs, and intentions predict the decision to use CEs. The study aimed to investigate what factors explain the decision to use CEs among tertiary students in New Zealand, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Students from the Schools of Pharmacy, Nursing, Medicine, Law, and Accounting at a university in New Zealand were invited to complete a paper-based questionnaire. The questionnaire elicited students' attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control toward illicit use of CEs using TPB. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted. Response rate was 88.6% (442/499). Students who perceived CE use to be socially and ethically acceptable were more likely to use CEs (odds ratio, OR: 1.56, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI: 1.153-2.105, p = 0.004). Students who were concerned about the health impact of CE use were less likely to use CEs (OR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.492-0.826, p = 0.001). Students who believed that CE use was approved were more likely to use them (OR: 1.648, CI: 1.193-2.278, p = 0.002). This research supports the notion that the decision to use CEs is not just an autonomous choice that occurs in isolation. Attitudes on the ethical and social acceptability of CE use were more likely to drive the decision to use CEs. The study provides the impetus for an integrative discussion by health care professionals and academics on the impact of attitudes, social norms, and advocates on the decision to use CEs.

  9. Delineating advanced practice nursing in New Zealand: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carryer, J; Wilkinson, J; Towers, A; Gardner, G

    2018-03-01

    A variety of advanced practice nursing roles and titles have proliferated in response to the changing demands of a population characterized by increasing age and chronic illness. Whilst similarly identified as advanced practice roles, they do not share a common practice profile, educational requirements or legislative direction. The lack of clarity limits comparative research that can inform policy and health service planning. To identify advanced practice roles within nursing titles employed in New Zealand and practice differences between advanced practice and other roles. Replicating recent Australian research, 3255 registered nurses/nurse practitioners in New Zealand completed the amended Advanced Practice Delineation survey tool. The mean domain scores of the predominant advanced practice position were compared with those of other positions. Differences between groups were explored using one-way ANOVA and post hoc between group comparisons. Four nursing position bands were identified: nurse practitioner, clinical nurse specialist, domain-specific and registered nurse. Significant differences between the bands were found on many domain scores. The nurse practitioner and clinical nurse specialist bands had the most similar practice profiles, nurse practitioners being more involved in direct care and professional leadership. Similar to the position of clinical nurse consultant in Australia, those practicing as clinical nurse specialists were deemed to reflect the threshold for advanced practice nursing. The results identified different practice patterns for the identified bands and distinguish the advanced practice nursing roles. By replicating the Australian study of Gardener et al. (2016), this NZ paper extends the international data available to support more evidence-based nursing workforce planning and policy development. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  10. Sleep disorders among high school students in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando AT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adolescents are known to have high risk factors for sleep disorders, yet the youth rates of sleep disturbances are unknown. AIM: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sleep disorders among New Zealand high school students. METHODS: The Auckland Sleep Questionnaire (ASQ was administered to high school students at six schools in the North Island. Schools were chosen to reflect a range of ethnicities and school deciles, which identify the socioeconomic status of households in the school catchment area. RESULTS: A total of 1388 students completed the ASQ. The median age was 17 years (range 14-23 and females represented 43.5% (n=604 of the total group. A total of 37.2% of the students surveyed reported having significant sleep symptoms lasting longer than one month. Depression and anxiety were present in 51.7% and 44.8% of students reporting a sleep problem, respectively. A moderate correlation was observed between sleep problems and depression (r=0.34, p<0.01, and sleep problems and anxiety (r=0.31, p<0.01. Problem alcohol use and other substance use were more common in students with sleep symptoms (12.2% and 5.5% respectively. No difference was found in the rate of sleep problems reported by different ethnic groups. DISCUSSION: A considerable proportion of students surveyed reported significant sleep symptoms. This study has the potential to aid physicians within New Zealand in better appreciating the burden of sleep disorders faced by young people and in effectively assessing and managing different causes of sleep symptoms in this demographic.

  11. Integrating multiple lines of evidence to better understand the evolutionary divergence of humpback dolphins along their entire distribution range: a new dolphin species in Australian waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Martin; Jefferson, Thomas A; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Krützen, Michael; Parra, Guido J; Collins, Tim; Minton, Giana; Baldwin, Robert; Berggren, Per; Särnblad, Anna; Amir, Omar A; Peddemors, Vic M; Karczmarski, Leszek; Guissamulo, Almeida; Smith, Brian; Sutaria, Dipani; Amato, George; Rosenbaum, Howard C

    2013-12-01

    The conservation of humpback dolphins, distributed in coastal waters of the Indo-West Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans, has been hindered by a lack of understanding about the number of species in the genus (Sousa) and their population structure. To address this issue, we present a combined analysis of genetic and morphologic data collected from beach-cast, remote-biopsied and museum specimens from throughout the known Sousa range. We extracted genetic sequence data from 235 samples from extant populations and explored the mitochondrial control region and four nuclear introns through phylogenetic, population-level and population aggregation frameworks. In addition, 180 cranial specimens from the same geographical regions allowed comparisons of 24 morphological characters through multivariate analyses. The genetic and morphological data showed significant and concordant patterns of geographical segregation, which are typical for the kind of demographic isolation displayed by species units, across the Sousa genus distribution range. Based on our combined genetic and morphological analyses, there is convincing evidence for at least four species within the genus (S. teuszii in the Atlantic off West Africa, S. plumbea in the central and western Indian Ocean, S. chinensis in the eastern Indian and West Pacific Oceans, and a new as-yet-unnamed species off northern Australia). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Injury in elite New Zealand cricketers 2002-2008: descriptive epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Warren Leonard; Chalmers, David John

    2014-06-01

    To describe the incidence, prevalence, nature and severity of injury to elite New Zealand cricketers for the 2002/2003 to 2007/2008 seasons. Prospective cohort. Elite cricket in New Zealand. 248 elite male cricketers. Incidence and prevalence rates. The overall match injury incidence rate for the international competition (51.6 injuries per 10 000 player-hours; 95% CI 40.1 to 65.3) was almost twice that of the domestic competition (27.2; 23.5 to 31.4). The prevalence rate for the international competition (12%; 11.3% to 12.8%) was significantly higher than that for the domestic competition (9.7%; 9.4% to 10.1%). Overall, 79.5% of injuries occurred in matches and 48.7% of all injuries were sustained while bowling. The lower limb was the body region most commonly injured (43.5%), the most common specific diagnosis was hamstring strains/tears (11.1%) and the injuries contributing the highest proportion of match d