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Sample records for zatlers issues ultimatum

  1. Zatlers issues ultimatum to government / Kate McIntosh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    McIntosh, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Läti president Valdis Zatlers teatas, et kui valitsus ei likvideeri tekkinud probleeme seoses valitsuse reorganiseerimisega, valimisseaduse muudatuste sisseviimisega ja riigi majandusliku arengu tagamisega, saadab ta parlamendi 31. märtsiks laiali.

  2. Zatlers takes over presidency / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule

    2007-01-01

    Läti uus president Valdis Zatlers võttis ametist lahkunud riigipealt Vaira Vike-Freibergalt ametivolitused üle. Vaira Vike-Freiberga lahkumiskõnest. Korruptsioonisüüdistused seni kirurgina töötanud Valdis Zatlersi aadressil

  3. Clown prince Lembergs lashes out at Zatlers

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Läti kaubandus-tööstuskoja endine esimees Zaneta Jaunzeme-Grende liitus poliitilise ühendusega „Kõik Läti heaks”, et saaks Lätis valitseva oligarhiaga võidelda. Läti president Valdis Zatlers osales Viinis toimunud ülemaailmsel majandusfoorumil, kus räägiti ka korruptsiooni teemadel. 8. juunil Riias toimunud oligarhidevastasest meeleavaldusest

  4. Adamkus, Zatlers : new nuclear plant a common Baltic goal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Leedu president Valdas Adamkus kinnitas ajakirjanikele, et nelja riigi koostööl ehitatav tuumaelektrijaam tuleb kindlasti. Läti president Zatlers rõhutas uute tehnoloogiate turvalisuse vajalikkust

  5. Zatlers reneges on threat to dissolve parliament / Kate McIntosh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    McIntosh, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Kuigi Läti president Valdis Zatlers esitas jaanuaris ultimaatumi parlament laiali saata, arvab president nüüd, et riigile pole tarvis poliitilist kriisi ning tuleb lahendada olemasolevaid probleeme

  6. Zatlers appeals to Latvians to save more, minister warns of 15 percent inflation

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Läti president Valdis Zatlers pöördus teleesinemises rahva poole palvega rohkem hoiustada ja vähem kulutada, et ohjeldada inflatsiooni. Regionaalarenguminister Aigars Stokenbergs hoiatas tarbijahinna indeksi tõusu eest 15 protsendini

  7. Zatlers discusses energy issues in Lithuania / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2011-01-01

    10. veebruaril alanud Läti presidendi Valdis Zatlersi Leedu riigivisiidist, mille käigus ta kohtus ka Leedu presidendi Dalia Grybauskaitega. Kohtumisel räägiti energeetika teemadel ja rõhutati, et riikidevahelised suhted on jätkuvalt head

  8. Persuasion in experimental ultimatum games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Galizzi, Matteo M.; Hoppe, Tim

    2010-01-01

    We study persuasion effects in experimental ultimatum games and find that Proposers' payoffs significantly increase if, along with offers, they can send messages which Responders read before deciding. Higher payoffs are driven by both lower offers and higher acceptance rates.......We study persuasion effects in experimental ultimatum games and find that Proposers' payoffs significantly increase if, along with offers, they can send messages which Responders read before deciding. Higher payoffs are driven by both lower offers and higher acceptance rates....

  9. USA-Balti harta 10. aastapäev / Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Valdis Zatlers, Valdas Adamkus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2008-01-01

    Ingl. k. ilmunud: Eesti Elu 18. jaan. 2008, lk. 11, pealk.: Joint statement of the Presidents of the Baltic States; Vaba Eesti Sõna 24. jaan. 2008, lk. 12 ja 27. märts 2008, lk. 12, pealk.: Joint statement 10th anniversary of the U.S.-Baltic Charter. 1998. aasta 16. jaanuaril Valges Majas toimunud tseremoonial allkirjastasid Ameerika Ühendriikide, Leedu, Läti ja Eesti presidendid USA-Balti partnerlusharta. Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Läti president Valdis Zatlers ja Leedu president Valdas Adamkus meenutavad oma avalduses seda dokumenti ajaloolise poliitilise teetähisena riikide suhetes

  10. Persuasion in Experimental Ultimatum Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Galizzi, Matteo; Hoppe, Tim

    2008-01-01

     This paper experimentally studies persuasion effects in ultimatum games and finds that Proposers' payoffs significantly increase if, along with offers, they can send messages which Responders read before their acceptance decision. Higher payoffs are due to higher acceptance rates as well as more...

  11. Stakes Matter in Ultimatum Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Ertaç, Seda; Gneezy, Uri

    2011-01-01

    One of the most robust findings in experimental economics is that individuals in one-shot ultimatum games reject unfair offers. Puzzlingly, rejections have been found robust to substantial increases in stakes. By using a novel experimental design that elicits frequent low offers and uses much...... larger stakes than in the literature, we are able to examine stakes' effects over ranges of data that are heretofore unexplored. Our main result is that proportionally equivalent offers are less likely to be rejected with high stakes. In fact, our paper is the first to present evidence that as stakes...

  12. Economic Rationality in the Ultimatum Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Fiala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rigorous application of experimental methodology to the interdisciplinary research of economic decision making is the main purpose of our work. In this paper, we introduce the main decisionmaking theories and outline economic rationality. We explain why we find it useful to discriminate between the “irrational” and “non-rational” components of decision making. We offer an oriented interdisciplinary point of view on economic rationality. In the applied section, we describe the main features of the Ultimatum game and summarize the up-to-date theories explaining the non-rational course of the game. We discuss in detail the reported relations between the nominal value of the stakes and the distribution of the offers and responses. We introduce the blinded, randomized Ultimatum game experiment that we conducted in our laboratory. We stress the importance of anonymity of the study subjects and the difference in salience of a factual reward against a  hypothetical reward. We present the results of our study, showing that a  duly chosen non-monetary reward, directly inconvertible into money, leads to a different offer distribution in the Ultimatum game without the necessity to invest excessive sums of money in the rewards. We compare our results to research published by other authors. According to our theory, the rational, non-rational and irrational components contribute to the decision making in Ultimatum differently depending on the different reward stakes.

  13. High-testosterone men reject low ultimatum game offers

    OpenAIRE

    Burnham, Terence C

    2007-01-01

    The ultimatum game is a simple negotiation with the interesting property that people frequently reject offers of ‘free’ money. These rejections contradict the standard view of economic rationality. This divergence between economic theory and human behaviour is important and has no broadly accepted cause. This study examines the relationship between ultimatum game rejections and testosterone. In a variety of species, testosterone is associated with male seeking dominance. If low ultimatum game...

  14. The ultimatum game: Discrete vs. continuous offers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam; Berkovits, Richard

    2014-09-01

    In many experimental setups in social-sciences, psychology and economy the subjects are requested to accept or dispense monetary compensation which is usually given in discrete units. Using computer and mathematical modeling we show that in the framework of studying the dynamics of acceptance of proposals in the ultimatum game, the long time dynamics of acceptance of offers in the game are completely different for discrete vs. continuous offers. For discrete values the dynamics follow an exponential behavior. However, for continuous offers the dynamics are described by a power-law. This is shown using an agent based computer simulation as well as by utilizing an analytical solution of a mean-field equation describing the model. These findings have implications to the design and interpretation of socio-economical experiments beyond the ultimatum game.

  15. Deception and Retribution in Repeated Ultimatum Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles; Croson; Murnighan

    2000-11-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of deception and retribution in repeated ultimatum bargaining. Anonymous dyads exchanged messages and offers in a series of four ultimatum bargaining games that had prospects for relatively large monetary outcomes. Variations in each party's knowledge of the other's resources and alternatives created opportunities for deception. Revelation of prior unknowns exposed deceptions and created opportunities for retribution in subsequent interactions. Results showed that although proposers and responders chose deceptive strategies almost equally, proposers told more outright lies. Both were more deceptive when their private information was never revealed, and proposers were most deceptive when their potential profits were largest. Revelation of proposers' lies had little effect on their subsequent behavior even though responders rejected their offers more than similar offers from truthful proposers or proposers whose prior deceit was never revealed. The discussion and conclusions address the dynamics of deception and retribution in repeated bargaining interactions. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  16. Social learning in the ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Boyu

    2013-01-01

    In the ultimatum game, two players divide a sum of money. The proposer suggests how to split and the responder can accept or reject. If the suggestion is rejected, both players get nothing. The rational solution is that the responder accepts even the smallest offer but humans prefer fair share. In this paper, we study the ultimatum game by a learning-mutation process based on quantal response equilibrium, where players are assumed boundedly rational and make mistakes when estimating the payoffs of strategies. Social learning is never stabilized at the fair outcome or the rational outcome, but leads to oscillations from offering 40 percent to 50 percent. To be precise, there is a clear tendency to increase the mean offer if it is lower than 40 percent, but will decrease when it reaches the fair offer. If mutations occur rarely, fair behavior is favored in the limit of local mutation. If mutation rate is sufficiently high, fairness can evolve for both local mutation and global mutation.

  17. Effects of Some Topological Ingredients on the Evolutionary Ultimatum Game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Lili; Zhang Jianxiong; Tang Wansheng; Zhang Wei

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at figuring out the crucial topological ingredients which affect the outcomes of the ultimatum game located on different networks, encompassing the regular network, the random network, the small-world network, and the scale-free network. With the aid of random interchanging algorithm, we investigate the relations between the outcomes of the ultimatum game and some topological ingredients, including the average range, the clustering coefficient and the heterogeneity, and so forth. It is found that for the regular, random and small-work networks, the average range and the clustering coefficient have evident impacts on the ultimatum game, while for the scale-free network, the original degree heterogeneity and the underlying rich-club characterizations are the mainly important topological ingredients that influence the outcomes of ultimatum game substantially.

  18. High-testosterone men reject low ultimatum game offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Terence C

    2007-09-22

    The ultimatum game is a simple negotiation with the interesting property that people frequently reject offers of 'free' money. These rejections contradict the standard view of economic rationality. This divergence between economic theory and human behaviour is important and has no broadly accepted cause. This study examines the relationship between ultimatum game rejections and testosterone. In a variety of species, testosterone is associated with male seeking dominance. If low ultimatum game offers are interpreted as challenges, then high-testosterone men may be more likely to reject such offers. In this experiment, men who reject low offers ($5 out of $40) have significantly higher testosterone levels than those who accept. In addition, high testosterone levels are associated with higher ultimatum game offers, but this second finding is not statistically significant.

  19. Kinship, Family, and Gender Effects in the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlan, Shane J; Quinlan, Robert J

    2008-09-01

    Kinship and reciprocity are two main predictors of altruism. The ultimatum game has been used to study altruism in many small-scale societies. We used the ultimatum game to examine effects of individuals' family and kin relations on altruistic behavior in a kin-based horticultural community in rural Dominica. Results show sex-specific effects of kin on ultimatum game play. Average coefficient of relatedness to the village was negatively associated with women's ultimatum game proposals and had little effect on men's proposals. Number of brothers in the village was positively associated with men's ultimatum game proposals and negatively associated with women's proposals. Similarly, presence of father in the village was associated with higher proposals by men and lower proposals by women. We interpret the effect of brothers on men's proposals as a consequence of local competition among brothers. We speculate that daughter-biased parental care in this community creates a sense of entitlement among women with brothers, which may explain the inverse relation between number of brothers and women's ultimatum game proposals. The pattern of results may be consistent with how matrifocality affects cultural models of fairness differently along gender and family lines.

  20. The Ultimatum Game in complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinatra, R; Gómez-Gardeñes, J; Latora, V; Iranzo, J; Floría, L M; Moreno, Y

    2009-01-01

    We address the problem of how cooperative (altruistic-like) behavior arises in natural and social systems by analyzing an Ultimatum Game in complex networks. Specifically, players of three types are considered: (a) empathetic, whose aspiration levels, and offers, are equal, (b) pragmatic, who do not distinguish between the different roles and aim to obtain the same benefit, and (c) agents whose aspiration levels, and offers, are independent. We analyze the asymptotic behavior of pure populations with different topologies using two kinds of strategic update rules: natural selection, which relies on replicator dynamics, and social penalty, inspired by the Bak–Sneppen dynamics, in which players are subject to a social selection rule penalizing not only the less fit individuals, but also their first neighbors. We discuss the emergence of fairness in the different settings and network topologies

  1. Emotions and Strategic Behaviour: The Case of the Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Human behaviour in economic interactions has attracted an increasing amount of attention over the last decades. The economic assumption that people would behave focusing on their own material self-interest was proved incomplete, once the empirical evidence consistently showed that many other motives may influence such behaviour. Therefore, models that can incorporate rational decision process as well as other intervening factors are a key issue to both understand the observations from economic experiments and to apply the lessons learned from them. In this paper, we incorporate the influence of emotions to the utility function in an explicit manner, using the Ultimatum Game as a case study. Our model is amenable to analytical study, and is connected with the Circumplex model of emotions and with Kahneman’s two-system theory. The simplicity of the model allows to obtain predictions for the offers and acceptance thresholds. We study two specific examples, when the model parameters are distributed uniformly or normally, and show that in the latter case the results are already qualitatively correct. Although this work can be considered as a first approach, it includes what we believe are the main stylized facts, is able to qualitatively reproduce experimental results in a very simple manner, and can be straightforwardly extended to other games. PMID:27385254

  2. Emotions and Strategic Behaviour: The Case of the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarit, Ignacio; Sánchez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Human behaviour in economic interactions has attracted an increasing amount of attention over the last decades. The economic assumption that people would behave focusing on their own material self-interest was proved incomplete, once the empirical evidence consistently showed that many other motives may influence such behaviour. Therefore, models that can incorporate rational decision process as well as other intervening factors are a key issue to both understand the observations from economic experiments and to apply the lessons learned from them. In this paper, we incorporate the influence of emotions to the utility function in an explicit manner, using the Ultimatum Game as a case study. Our model is amenable to analytical study, and is connected with the Circumplex model of emotions and with Kahneman's two-system theory. The simplicity of the model allows to obtain predictions for the offers and acceptance thresholds. We study two specific examples, when the model parameters are distributed uniformly or normally, and show that in the latter case the results are already qualitatively correct. Although this work can be considered as a first approach, it includes what we believe are the main stylized facts, is able to qualitatively reproduce experimental results in a very simple manner, and can be straightforwardly extended to other games.

  3. Affective state and decision-making in the Ultimatum Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wout, M. van 't; Kahn, R.S.; Sanfey, A.G.; Aleman, A.

    2006-01-01

    The emerging field of neuroeconomics has provided evidence that emotional as well as cognitive processes may contribute to economic decision-making. Indeed, activation of the anterior insula, a brain area involved in emotional processing, has been shown to predict decision-making in the Ultimatum

  4. Affective state and decision-making in the Ultimatum Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van't Wout, M; Kahn, RS; Sanfey, AG; Aleman, A

    The emerging field of neuroeconomics has provided evidence that emotional as well as cognitive processes may contribute to economic decision-making. Indeed, activation of the anterior insula, a brain area involved in emotional processing, has been shown to predict decision-making in the Ultimatum

  5. Zatlers addresses Harvard audience

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Läti presidendi Valdis Zatlersi Harvardi ülikoolis peetud kõnest, milles ta märgib, et üks tema jaoks tähtsamatest küsimustest on, kes võiks Läti uue peaministrina riigi praegust majanduskurssi jätkata, ja leiab, et Läti kuulub oma rahvaarvu arvestades Afganistani enam panustavate riikide hulka

  6. Randomness and arbitrary coordination in the reactive ultimatum game

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Roberto; Valverde, Pablo; Lamb, Luis C.

    2016-07-01

    Darwin's theory of evolution - as introduced in game theory by Maynard Smith - is not the only important evolutionary aspect in an evolutionary dynamics, since complex interdependencies, competition, and growth should be modeled by, for example, reactive aspects. In the ultimatum game, the reciprocity and the fifty-fifty partition seems to be a deviation from rational behavior of the players under the light of Nash equilibrium. Such equilibrium emerges, for example, from the punishment of the responder who generally tends to refuse unfair proposals. In the iterated version of the game, the proposers are able to improve their proposals by adding a value thus making fairer proposals. Such evolutionary aspects are not properly Darwinian-motivated, but they are endowed with a fundamental aspect: they reflect their actions according to value of the offers. Recently, a reactive version of the ultimatum game where acceptance occurs with fixed probability was proposed. In this paper, we aim at exploring this reactive version of the ultimatum game where the acceptance by players depends on the offer. In order to do so, we analyze two situations: (i) mean field and (ii) we consider players inserted within the networks with arbitrary coordination. We then show that the reactive aspect, here studied, thus far not analyzed in the evolutionary game theory literature can unveil an essential feature for the convergence to fifty-fifty split. Moreover we also analyze populations under four different polices ranging from a highly conservative to a moderate one, with respect to the decision in changing the proposal based on acceptances. We show that the idea of gaining less more times added to the reciprocity of the players is highly relevant to the concept of ;healthy; societies population bargaining.

  7. A network growth model based on the evolutionary ultimatum game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, L L; Zhou, G G; Cai, J H; Wang, C; Tang, W S

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a network growth model with incorporation into the ultimatum game dynamics. The network grows on the basis of the payoff-oriented preferential attachment mechanism, where a new node is added into the network and attached preferentially to nodes with higher payoffs. The interplay between the network growth and the game dynamics gives rise to quite interesting dynamical behaviors. Simulation results show the emergence of altruistic behaviors in the ultimatum game, which is affected by the growing network structure. Compared with the static counterpart case, the levels of altruistic behaviors are promoted. The corresponding strategy distributions and wealth distributions are also presented to further demonstrate the strategy evolutionary dynamics. Subsequently, we turn to the topological properties of the evolved network, by virtue of some statistics. The most studied characteristic path length and the clustering coefficient of the network are shown to indicate their small-world effect. Then the degree distributions are analyzed to clarify the interplay of structure and evolutionary dynamics. In particular, the difference between our growth network and the static counterpart is revealed. To explain clearly the evolved networks, the rich-club ordering and the assortative mixing coefficient are exploited to reveal the degree correlation. (paper)

  8. Evolution of Fairness in the Not Quite Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Genki; Sayama, Hiroki

    2014-05-01

    The Ultimatum Game (UG) is an economic game where two players (proposer and responder) decide how to split a certain amount of money. While traditional economic theories based on rational decision making predict that the proposer should make a minimal offer and the responder should accept it, human subjects tend to behave more fairly in UG. Previous studies suggested that extra information such as reputation, empathy, or spatial structure is needed for fairness to evolve in UG. Here we show that fairness can evolve without additional information if players make decisions probabilistically and may continue interactions when the offer is rejected, which we call the Not Quite Ultimatum Game (NQUG). Evolutionary simulations of NQUG showed that the probabilistic decision making contributes to the increase of proposers' offer amounts to avoid rejection, while the repetition of the game works to responders' advantage because they can wait until a good offer comes. These simple extensions greatly promote evolution of fairness in both proposers' offers and responders' acceptance thresholds.

  9. Power and fairness in a generalized ultimatum game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Luca Ciampaglia

    Full Text Available Power is the ability to influence others towards the attainment of specific goals, and it is a fundamental force that shapes behavior at all levels of human existence. Several theories on the nature of power in social life exist, especially in the context of social influence. Yet, in bargaining situations, surprisingly little is known about its role in shaping social preferences. Such preferences are considered to be the main explanation for observed behavior in a wide range of experimental settings. In this work, we set out to understand the role of bargaining power in the stylized environment of a Generalized Ultimatum Game (GUG. We modify the payoff structure of the standard Ultimatum Game (UG to investigate three situations: two in which the power balance is either against the proposer or against the responder, and a balanced situation. We find that other-regarding preferences, as measured by the amount of money donated by participants, do not change with the amount of power, but power changes the offers and acceptance rates systematically. Notably, unusually high acceptance rates for lower offers were observed. This finding suggests that social preferences may be invariant to the balance of power and confirms that the role of power on human behavior deserves more attention.

  10. Counterfactual comparison modulates fairness consideration in the mini-ultimatum game: an event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiafeng; Lin, Huiyan; Xiang, Jing; Wu, Hao; Li, Xu; Liang, Hongyu; Zheng, Xue

    2015-04-01

    Existing literature on the mini-ultimatum game indicates that counterfactual comparison between chosen and unchosen alternatives is of great importance for individual's fairness consideration. However, it is still unclear how counterfactual comparison influences the electrophysiological responses to unfair chosen offers. In conjunction with event-related potentials' (ERPs) technique, the current study aimed to explore the issue by employing a modified version of the mini-ultimatum game where a fixed set of two alternatives (unfair offer vs. fair alternative, unfair vs. hyperfair alternative, unfair offer vs. hyperunfair alternative) was presented before the chosen offer. The behavioral results showed that participants were more likely to accept unfair chosen offers when the unchosen alternative was hyperunfair than when the unchosen alternative was fair or hyperfair. The ERPs results showed that the feedback-related negativity (FRN) elicited by unfair chosen offers was insensitive to the type of unchosen alternative when correcting for possible overlap with other components. In contrast, unfair chosen offers elicited larger P300 amplitudes when the unchosen alternative was hyperunfair than when the unchosen alternative was fair or hyperfair. These findings suggest that counterfactual comparison may take effect at later stages of fairness consideration as reflected by the P300. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Theory of mind and the Ultimatum Game in healthy adult aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Alessandra; Sala, Sergio Della; MacPherson, Sarah E

    2018-01-01

    The Ultimatum Game assesses decision-making involved in cooperative interactions with others. However, little is known about the role that the ability to understand other people's intentions plays in these interactions. This study examined performance on the Ultimatum Game and theory of mind (ToM) tasks in younger and older adults. Age differences were not found on the ToM tasks, and a lack of variability in performance prevented analyses of the relationships between performance on the Ultimatum Game and ToM. However, age differences were found on the Ultimatum Game, with older adults accepting more unfair offers. Yet, the two age groups did not differ in their appreciation of fairness, as assessed using subjective fairness ratings. These findings suggest that older adults are more rational in their behavior, accepting unfair offers even when they know they are unfair, as it is in their self-interest to accept small monetary values rather than nothing at all.

  12. Understanding customer reactions to brokered ultimatums: applying negotiation and justice theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Stephen E; Ellis, Aleksander P J; Conlon, Donald E; Tinsley, Catherine H

    2004-06-01

    There has been little research examining customer reactions to brokered ultimatum game (BUG) contexts (i.e. exchanges in which 1 party offers an ultimatum price for a resource through an intermediary, and the ultimatum offer is accepted or rejected by the other party). In this study, the authors incorporated rational decision-making theory and justice theory to examine how customers' bids, recommendations, and repatronage behavior are affected by characteristics of BUG contexts (changing from an ultimatum to negotiation transaction, response timeliness, and offer acceptance or rejection). Results indicated that customers attempt to be economically efficient with their bidding behavior. However, negotiation structures, long waits for a response, and rejected bids create injustice perceptions (particularly informational and distributive injustice), negatively influencing customers' recommendations to others and their repatronage. The authors then discuss the practical and theoretical implications of their results. (c) 2004 APA

  13. Rejection of unfair offers in the ultimatum game is no evidence of strong reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Toshio; Horita, Yutaka; Mifune, Nobuhiro; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Li, Yang; Shinada, Mizuho; Miura, Arisa; Inukai, Keigo; Takagishi, Haruto; Simunovic, Dora

    2012-01-01

    The strong reciprocity model of the evolution of human cooperation has gained some acceptance, partly on the basis of support from experimental findings. The observation that unfair offers in the ultimatum game are frequently rejected constitutes an important piece of the experimental evidence for strong reciprocity. In the present study, we have challenged the idea that the rejection response in the ultimatum game provides evidence of the assumption held by strong reciprocity theorists that negative reciprocity observed in the ultimatum game is inseparably related to positive reciprocity as the two sides of a preference for fairness. The prediction of an inseparable relationship between positive and negative reciprocity was rejected on the basis of the results of a series of experiments that we conducted using the ultimatum game, the dictator game, the trust game, and the prisoner’s dilemma game. We did not find any correlation between the participants’ tendencies to reject unfair offers in the ultimatum game and their tendencies to exhibit various prosocial behaviors in the other games, including their inclinations to positively reciprocate in the trust game. The participants’ responses to postexperimental questions add support to the view that the rejection of unfair offers in the ultimatum game is a tacit strategy for avoiding the imposition of an inferior status. PMID:23188801

  14. Rejection of unfair offers in the ultimatum game is no evidence of strong reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Toshio; Horita, Yutaka; Mifune, Nobuhiro; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Li, Yang; Shinada, Mizuho; Miura, Arisa; Inukai, Keigo; Takagishi, Haruto; Simunovic, Dora

    2012-12-11

    The strong reciprocity model of the evolution of human cooperation has gained some acceptance, partly on the basis of support from experimental findings. The observation that unfair offers in the ultimatum game are frequently rejected constitutes an important piece of the experimental evidence for strong reciprocity. In the present study, we have challenged the idea that the rejection response in the ultimatum game provides evidence of the assumption held by strong reciprocity theorists that negative reciprocity observed in the ultimatum game is inseparably related to positive reciprocity as the two sides of a preference for fairness. The prediction of an inseparable relationship between positive and negative reciprocity was rejected on the basis of the results of a series of experiments that we conducted using the ultimatum game, the dictator game, the trust game, and the prisoner's dilemma game. We did not find any correlation between the participants' tendencies to reject unfair offers in the ultimatum game and their tendencies to exhibit various prosocial behaviors in the other games, including their inclinations to positively reciprocate in the trust game. The participants' responses to postexperimental questions add support to the view that the rejection of unfair offers in the ultimatum game is a tacit strategy for avoiding the imposition of an inferior status.

  15. The Evolution of Generosity in the Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Arend; Hertwig, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    When humans fail to make optimal decisions in strategic games and economic gambles, researchers typically try to explain why that behaviour is biased. To this end, they search for mechanisms that cause human behaviour to deviate from what seems to be the rational optimum. But perhaps human behaviour is not biased; perhaps research assumptions about the optimality of strategies are incomplete. In the one-shot anonymous symmetric ultimatum game (UG), humans fail to play optimally as defined by the Nash equilibrium. However, the distinction between kin and non-kin—with kin detection being a key evolutionary adaption—is often neglected when deriving the “optimal” strategy. We computationally evolved strategies in the UG that were equipped with an evolvable probability to discern kin from non-kin. When an opponent was not kin, agents evolved strategies that were similar to those used by humans. We therefore conclude that the strategy humans play is not irrational. The deviation between behaviour and the Nash equilibrium may rather be attributable to key evolutionary adaptations, such as kin detection. Our findings further suggest that social preference models are likely to capture mechanisms that permit people to play optimally in an evolutionary context. Once this context is taken into account, human behaviour no longer appears irrational. PMID:27677330

  16. Equal status in Ultimatum Games promotes rational sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Cao, Shinan; Bao, Jian-Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu; Zhang, Boyu; Gao, Zi-You; Sánchez, Angel

    2018-01-19

    Experiments on the Ultimatum Game (UG) repeatedly show that people's behaviour is far from rational. In UG experiments, a subject proposes how to divide a pot and the other can accept or reject the proposal, in which case both lose everything. While rational people would offer and accept the minimum possible amount, in experiments low offers are often rejected and offers are typically larger than the minimum, and even fair. Several theoretical works have proposed that these results may arise evolutionarily when subjects act in both roles and there is a fixed interaction structure in the population specifying who plays with whom. We report the first experiments on structured UG with subjects playing simultaneously both roles. We observe that acceptance levels of responders approach rationality and proposers accommodate their offers to their environment. More precisely, subjects keep low acceptance levels all the time, but as proposers they follow a best-response-like approach to choose their offers. We thus find that status equality promotes rational sharing while the influence of structure leads to fairer offers compared to well-mixed populations. Our results are far from what is observed in single-role UG experiments and largely different from available predictions based on evolutionary game theory.

  17. Preschoolers' group bias in punishing selfishness in the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen; Gao, Xiaohe

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that both adults and children tend to favor members of their own group and expect reciprocity of such in-group privilege. If a person is treated unfairly by an in-group member, a conflict arises between the tendency of in-group favoritism and the desire to punish violators of in-group norms. How do children solve the conflict at different points in development? We compared how preschoolers punished in-group and out-group members (marked by color preference) for selfishness in the Ultimatum Game. We found that (a) 3- to 6-year-old Chinese children rejected selfish allocations more often than fair ones, showing a robust preference for fairness; (b) 3- and 4-year-olds showed no group differences in their punishment behavior, suggesting that second-party punishment of selfishness is not biased during early childhood; (c) 5- and 6-year-old girls were more likely to punish selfishness of in-groups than of out-groups, illuminating an early sign of maintaining group-based fairness norms even at a personal cost; and (d) 5- and 6-year-old boys, however, punished in-groups and out-groups equally often and punished out-groups more often than did girls. These age and gender differences in children's punishment imply that socialization may play an important role in showing group bias when enforcing fairness norms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Testosterone administration decreases generosity in the ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Paul J; Kurzban, Robert; Ahmadi, Sheila; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Park, Jang; Efremidze, Levan; Redwine, Karen; Morgan, Karla; Matzner, William

    2009-12-16

    How do human beings decide when to be selfish or selfless? In this study, we gave testosterone to 25 men to establish its impact on prosocial behaviors in a double-blind within-subjects design. We also confirmed participants' testosterone levels before and after treatment through blood draws. Using the Ultimatum Game from behavioral economics, we find that men with artificially raised T, compared to themselves on placebo, were 27% less generous towards strangers with money they controlled (95% CI placebo: (1.70, 2.72); 95% CI T: (.98, 2.30)). This effect scales with a man's level of total-, free-, and dihydro-testosterone (DHT). Men in the lowest decile of DHT were 560% more generous than men in the highest decile of DHT. We also found that men with elevated testosterone were more likely to use their own money punish those who were ungenerous toward them. Our results continue to hold after controlling for altruism. We conclude that elevated testosterone causes men to behave antisocially.

  19. The Evolution of Generosity in the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Arend; Hertwig, Ralph

    2016-09-28

    When humans fail to make optimal decisions in strategic games and economic gambles, researchers typically try to explain why that behaviour is biased. To this end, they search for mechanisms that cause human behaviour to deviate from what seems to be the rational optimum. But perhaps human behaviour is not biased; perhaps research assumptions about the optimality of strategies are incomplete. In the one-shot anonymous symmetric ultimatum game (UG), humans fail to play optimally as defined by the Nash equilibrium. However, the distinction between kin and non-kin-with kin detection being a key evolutionary adaption-is often neglected when deriving the "optimal" strategy. We computationally evolved strategies in the UG that were equipped with an evolvable probability to discern kin from non-kin. When an opponent was not kin, agents evolved strategies that were similar to those used by humans. We therefore conclude that the strategy humans play is not irrational. The deviation between behaviour and the Nash equilibrium may rather be attributable to key evolutionary adaptations, such as kin detection. Our findings further suggest that social preference models are likely to capture mechanisms that permit people to play optimally in an evolutionary context. Once this context is taken into account, human behaviour no longer appears irrational.

  20. Neural mechanisms underlying social conformity in an ultimatum game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu eWei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When individuals’ actions are incongruent with those of the group they belong to, they may change their initial behavior in order to conform to the group norm. This phenomenon is known as social conformity. In the present study, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate brain activity in response to group opinion during an ultimatum game. Results showed that participants changed their choices when these choices conflicted with the normative opinion of the group they were members of, especially in conditions of unfair treatment. The fMRI data revealed that a conflict with group norms activated the brain regions involved in norm violations and behavioral adjustment. Furthermore, in the reject-unfair condition, we observed that a conflict with group norms activated the medial frontal gyrus. These findings contribute to recent research examining neural mechanisms involved in detecting violations of social norms, and provide information regarding the neural representation of conformity behavior in an economic game.

  1. Framing the ultimatum game: the contribution of simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasino, Barbara; Lotto, Lorella; Sarlo, Michela; Civai, Claudia; Rumiati, Rino; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2013-01-01

    It has now become widely accepted that economic decisions are influenced by cognitive and emotional processes. In the present study, we aimed at disentangling the neural mechanisms associated with the way in which the information is formulated, i.e., framing effect, in terms of gain or loss, which influences people's decisions. Participants played a fMRI version of the Ultimatum Game (UG) where we manipulated bids through two different frames: the expression "I give you" (gain) focusing on money the respondent would receive if she/he agreed with the proponent, and the expression "I take" (loss) focusing on the money that would be removed from the respondent in the event that she/he accepted the offer. Neuroimaging data revealed a frame by response interaction, showing an increase of neural activity in the right rolandic operculum/insular cortex, the anterior cingulate, among other regions, for accepting the frame "I take" vs. rejecting, as compared to accepting the frame "I give you" vs. rejecting. In addition, the left occipito-temporal junction was activated for "I take" vs. "I give you" for offer 5, corresponding to the equal offer made unpleasant by the presence of the frame "I take," where is the proposer that takes the money. Our data extend the current understanding of the neural substrates of social decision making, by disentangling the structures sensitive to the way in which the information is formulated (i.e., framing effect), in terms of gain or loss.

  2. Framing the Ultimatum Game: The contribution of simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eTomasino

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It has now become widely accepted that economic decisions are influenced by cognitive and emotional processes. In the present study, we aimed at disentangling the neural mechanisms associated with the way in which the information is formulated, i.e., framing effect, in terms of gain or loss, which influences people’s decisions. Participants played a fMRI version of the Ultimatum Game where we manipulated bids through two different frames: the expression "I give you" (gain focusing on money the respondent would receive if she/he agreed with the proponent, and the expression "I take" (loss focusing on the money that would be removed from the respondent in the event that she/he accepted the offer. Neuroimaging data revealed a frame by response interaction, showing an increase of neural activity in the right rolandic operculum/insular cortex, the anterior cingulate, among other regions, for accepting the frame I take vs. rejecting, as compared to accepting the frame I give you vs. rejecting. In addition, the left occipito-temporal junction was activated for ‘I take vs. I give you for offer 5, corresponding to the equal offer made unpleasant by the presence of the frame I take, where is the proposer that takes the money. Our data extend the current understanding of the neural substrates of social decision making, by disentangling the structures sensitive to the way in which the information is formulated (i.e., framing effect, in terms of gain or loss.

  3. Social distance decreases responders' sensitivity to fairness in the ultimatum game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunji Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies using the Ultimatum Game have shown that participants reject unfair offers extended by another person although this incurs a financial cost. Previous research suggests that one possible explanation for this apparently self-defeating response is that unfair offers involve strong negative responses that decrease the chances of responders accepting offers that would objectively constitute a net profit. We tested the hypothesis that one way of reducing responders' rejections of unfair offers is through increased psychological distance, so that participants move away from the concrete feeling of being unfairly treated. Social distance was manipulated by having participants play the Ultimatum Game either for themselves, or for another person. Compared to deciding for one's self or a close social contact, participants showed less sensitivity to fairness when deciding for a stranger, as indicated by fewer rejected unfair offers. We suggest that social distance helps people move beyond immediate fairness concerns in the Ultimatum Game.

  4. Testosterone administration does not affect men's rejections of low ultimatum game offers or aggressive mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R Edward; Spencer, Tom J; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Correlative evidence suggests that testosterone promotes dominance and aggression. However, causal evidence is scarce and offers mixed results. To investigate this relationship, we administered testosterone for 48h to 41 healthy young adult men in a within-subjects, double-blind placebo-controlled balanced crossover design. Subjects played the role of responders in an ultimatum game, where rejecting a low offer is costly, but serves to destroy the proposer's profit. Such action can hence be interpreted as non-physical aggression in response to social provocation. In addition, subjects completed a self-assessed mood questionnaire. As expected, self-reported aggressiveness was a key predictor of ultimatum game rejections. However, while testosterone affected subjective ratings of feeling energetic and interested, our evidence strongly suggests that testosterone had no effect on ultimatum game rejections or on aggressive mood. Our findings illustrate the importance of using causal interventions to assess correlative evidence. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Anterior insula signals inequalities in a modified Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xuemei; Zheng, Li; Li, Lin; Zheng, Yijie; Guo, Xiuyan; Yang, Guang

    2017-04-21

    Studies employing the Ultimatum Game (UG) which involves two parties (i.e., proposers and responders) splitting some money have suggested the role that anterior insula (AI) plays in detecting fairness norm violation, i.e., violation of the responder's expectation of receiving equal splits from the proposer. In this study, we explored how AI would respond when there existed simultaneously another expectation of being treated equivalently as others. Participants acted as responders and would be informed about both the offers they received and the average amount of money the same proposer offered to others. Hence we introduced different conditions where participants were treated equivalently or not equivalently as other responders in UG. Participants could decide to accept or reject the offer with acceptance leading to the suggested split and rejection leaving both parties nothing. Behavioral results showed that participants rejected more unfair offers and reacted more slowly during acceptance (vs. rejection) of offers when they were offered less than others. At the neural level, stronger AI activation was observed when participants received unfair relative to fair offers, as well as when they received unequal relative to equal offers. Moreover, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex/dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dmPFC/dACC) exhibited greater activity during receiving unequal (vs. equal) offers and during acceptance (vs. rejection) of offers which were less than others'. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that the treatment of others modulated both behavioral responses to unfairness and neural correlates of the fairness-related decision-making process, and that AI played a general role in detecting norm violations. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Framing the ultimatum game: the contribution of simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasino, Barbara; Lotto, Lorella; Sarlo, Michela; Civai, Claudia; Rumiati, Rino; Rumiati, Raffaella I.

    2013-01-01

    It has now become widely accepted that economic decisions are influenced by cognitive and emotional processes. In the present study, we aimed at disentangling the neural mechanisms associated with the way in which the information is formulated, i.e., framing effect, in terms of gain or loss, which influences people's decisions. Participants played a fMRI version of the Ultimatum Game (UG) where we manipulated bids through two different frames: the expression “I give you” (gain) focusing on money the respondent would receive if she/he agreed with the proponent, and the expression “I take” (loss) focusing on the money that would be removed from the respondent in the event that she/he accepted the offer. Neuroimaging data revealed a frame by response interaction, showing an increase of neural activity in the right rolandic operculum/insular cortex, the anterior cingulate, among other regions, for accepting the frame “I take” vs. rejecting, as compared to accepting the frame “I give you” vs. rejecting. In addition, the left occipito-temporal junction was activated for “I take” vs. “I give you” for offer 5, corresponding to the equal offer made unpleasant by the presence of the frame “I take,” where is the proposer that takes the money. Our data extend the current understanding of the neural substrates of social decision making, by disentangling the structures sensitive to the way in which the information is formulated (i.e., framing effect), in terms of gain or loss. PMID:23847507

  7. Framing the ultimatum game: gender differences and autonomic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlo, Michela; Lotto, Lorella; Palomba, Daniela; Scozzari, Simona; Rumiati, Rino

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating whether the way offers are framed in the Ultimatum Game (UG) affects behavioral and autonomic responses in men and women. The "I give you" and "I take" expressions were used as gain and loss frames, respectively. Skin conductance and heart rate were recorded as indices of autonomic activation in response to unfair, mid-value, and fair offers. Acceptance rates were higher in men than in women under the gain frame. Moreover, men showed higher acceptance rates under the gain than under the loss frame with mid-value offers, whereas women's choices were not affected by frame. On the physiological level, men produced differential autonomic response patterns during decision-making when offers were presented under gain and loss framing. The "I take" frame, by acting as a loss frame, elicited in men the characteristic defensive response pattern that is evoked by aversive stimulation, in which increases in skin conductance are coupled with increases in heart rate. On the other hand, the "I give you" frame, by acting as a gain frame, elicited in men increases in skin conductance associated with prevailing heart rate deceleratory responses, reflecting a state of enhanced attention and orienting. In contrast, women's autonomic reactivity was not affected by frame, consistent with behavioral results. Phasic changes in heart rate were crucial in revealing differential functional significance of skin conductance responses under different frames in men, thus questioning the assumption that this autonomic measure can be used as an index of negative emotional arousal in the UG.

  8. When culture does not matter: Experimental evidence from coalition formation ultimatum games in Austria and Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okada, A.; Riedl, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cross-country comparison between Austria andJapan for an experimental 3-personcoalition formation ultimatum game. The experimental design allows thecomparison with respect to three decisions. (i)The coalition decision, (ii) proposers' demand behavior in 2- and

  9. The ultimatum game as measurement tool for anthropomorphism in human-robot interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torta, E.; Dijk, van E.T.; Ruijten, P.A.M.; Cuijpers, R.H.; Herrmann, G.; Pearson, M.J.; Lenz, A.; et al., xx

    2013-01-01

    Anthropomorphism is the tendency to attribute human characteristics to non–human entities. This paper presents exploratory work to evaluate how human responses during the ultimatum game vary according to the level of anthropomorphism of the opponent, which was either a human, a humanoid robot or a

  10. The neural basis of economic decision-making in the ultimatum game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanfey, A.G.; Rilling, J.K.; Aronson, J.A.; Nystrom, L.E.; Cohen, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    The nascent field of neuroeconomics seeks to ground economic decision-making in the biological substrate of the brain. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging of Ultimatum Game players to investigate neural substrates of cognitive and emotional processes involved in economic decision-making.

  11. Preference and strategy in proposer's prosocial giving in the ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Misato; Inoue, Yumi; Akutsu, Satoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2018-01-01

    The accumulation of findings that most responders in the ultimatum game reject unfair offers provides evidence that humans are driven by social preferences such as preferences for fairness and prosociality. On the other hand, if and how the proposer's behavior is affected by social preferences remains unelucidated. We addressed this question for the first time by manipulating the knowledge that the proposer had about the responder's belief concerning the intentionality of the proposer. In a new game called the "ultimatum game with ambiguous intentions of the proposer (UGAMB)," we made the intentionality of the proposer ambiguous to the recipient. We expected and found that the proposer would make more unfair offers in this new game than in the standard ultimatum game. This expectation can be derived from either the preference-based model or the strategy model of the proposer's giving decision. The additional finding that more unfair giving in the UGAMB was not mediated by the proposer's expectation that the recipient would be more willing to accept unfair offers provided support for the preference-based model. Using a psychological measure of cognitive control, the preference-based model received additional support through a conceptual replication of the previous finding that cognitive control of intuitive drive for prosociality in the dictator game, rather than mind reading in the ultimatum game, is responsible for the difference in giving between the two games.

  12. Altered economic decision-making in abstinent heroin addicts: Evidence from the ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yu; Zhao, Liyan; Yao, Qi; Ding, Lixiang

    2016-08-03

    The development and persistence of drug addiction has been suggested to involve decision-making deficits. The Ultimatum Game is a widely used economic decision-making paradigm that illustrates the tension between financial self-interest and fairness motives. The behavior of responders in the Ultimatum Game has been associated with emotional reactions and cognitive control abilities, both of which are dysregulated in drug addicts. In this study, we investigated whether this economic decision-making process that involves considerations of social norms is affected by heroin addiction. Heroin addicts (n=17) and demographically matched healthy control subjects (n=18) were recruited to play the part of responders in the Ultimatum Game, during which they decided to accept or reject the monetary offers proposed by strangers. The offers were manipulated by varying the stake sizes and fairness scales. The rejection rates of all of the offer categories, response times, fairness judgments, and impulsivity were compared between heroin addicts and healthy controls. Compared with healthy subjects, the rejection rates of most unfair offers in the Ultimatum Game were significantly higher under low-offer-size conditions among heroin addicts. In contrast, the most unfair offers were more likely to be accepted by heroin addicts in the high-offer-size condition than by healthy subjects. The ratings of unfairness were equal in both conditions although the rejection rates were different. Heroin addicts had higher scores on BIS attentional/cognitive impulsivity and non-planning impulsivity, but not in motor impulsivity. Rejection rates to most unfair offers under low-offer-size conditions significantly correlated with score on BIS non-planning impulsivity and total score of impulsivity. Heroin addicts differentially responded under different stake-level conditions in the Ultimatum Game, with emotional impulses in low-offer-size conditions and selfish motives in the face of high monetary

  13. On feelings as a heuristic for making offers in ultimatum negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Andrew T; Pham, Michel Tuan

    2008-10-01

    This research examined how reliance on emotional feelings as a heuristic influences how offers are made. Results from three experiments using the ultimatum game show that, compared with proposers who do not rely on their feelings, proposers who rely on their feelings make less generous offers in the standard ultimatum game, more generous offers in a variant of the game allowing responders to make counteroffers, and less generous offers in a dictator game in which no responses are allowed. Reliance on feelings triggers a more literal form of play, whereby proposers focus more on how they feel toward the content of the offers than on how they feel toward the possible outcomes of those offers, as if the offers were the final outcomes. Proposers who rely on their feelings also tend to focus on gist-based construals of the negotiation that capture only the essential aspects of the situation.

  14. Partner Selection and the Division of Surplus: Evidence from Ultimatum and Dictator Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyodorshi Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study ultimatum and dictator environments with one-way, unenforceable pre-play communication from the proposer to the recipient, semantically framed as a promise. After observing this promise regarding how much the proposer will offer if selected, in our treatment conditions, recipients choose whether or not to select a particular proposer. We find that offers can increase in the ultimatum game both with non-competitive selection with a single potential proposer, and more so with competition, where the recipient chooses one of two potential proposers, as compared to the no selection baseline. Furthermore, the offer is rejected with higher probability if the promisemade by the selected proposer is higher than the eventual offer. Our dictator environment does not give the power to reject offers, thus selection power carries no benefits in the dictator game. Finally, independent of the game institution or proposer selection mechanism, promises provide credible signals for offers.

  15. The Dynamics of the Discrete Ultimatum Game and the Role of the Expectation Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied evolutionary ultimatum game with spatially arranged players, who have choice between the two kinds of strategies (named greedy and altruist. The strategies in the ultimatum game here are described by p(i and a(i, that is, the probability of offering i to himself and the accepting probability when receiving i. By using computer simulations with C++ builder, we have provided the dynamics of the greedy and altruistic strategies and found that the proportion evolution of the “greedy” strategy for different initial cases is approximately 60%. Furthermore, the explanations for the interesting phenomenon are presented from different aspects. In addition, we illustrate that the factor of the expectation level (aspiration level in the updating rule plays an important role in the promotion of altruistic behaviors.

  16. Effect of network topology on the evolutionary ultimatum game based on the net-profit decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shun-Qiang; Wang, Lu; Jones, Michael C.; Ye, Ye; Wang, Meng; Xie, Neng-Gang

    2016-04-01

    The ubiquity of altruist behavior amongst humans has long been a significant puzzle in the social sciences. Ultimatum game has proved to be a useful tool for explaining altruistic behavior among selfish individuals. In an ultimatum game where alternating roles exist, we suppose that players make their decisions based on the net profit of their own. In this paper, we specify a player's strategy with two parameters: offer level α ∈ [ 0,1) and net profit acceptance level β ∈ [ - 1,1). By Monte Carlo simulation, we analyze separately the effect of the size of the neighborhood, the small-world property and the heterogeneity of the degree distributions of the networks. Results show that compared with results observed for homogeneous networks, heterogeneous networks lead to more rational outcomes. Moreover, network structure has no effect on the evolution of kindness level, so moderate kindness is adaptable to any social groups and organizations.

  17. Overcoming selfishness: reciprocity, inhibition, and cardiac autonomic control in the ultimatum game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eSütterlin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The processes underlying decision-making in response to unfair offers in the ultimatum game (UG have recently been discussed in light of models of reciprocity and fairness-related behavior. It has been suggested that behavior following norm-oriented, internalized expectations of reciprocity requires overcoming economic self-interest. In this study we investigated both, behavioral and peripheral-physiological indicators of inhibitory capacity related to neuronal networks that are likely to be involved in the behavioral response to unfair offers. Both heart-rate variability as an index of inhibitory capacity, and performance in a motor response inhibition task predicted rejection of unfair offers in an ultimatum game, suggesting an important role of inhibitory processes in overcoming economic temptations and regulating behavior conforming to social norms of reciprocity and fairness. The role of parasympathetic activity as a physiological trait-marker predicting inter-individual differences in the rejection of unfair offers is discussed.

  18. Social information and economic decision-making in the ultimatum game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia eGaertig

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested how social information about the proposer biases responders’ choices of accepting or rejecting real monetary offers in a classic ultimatum game and whether this impact is heightened by the uncertainty of the context. Participants in our study conducted a one-shot ultimatum game in which their responses had direct consequences on how much money they earned. We used trait-valenced words to provide information about the proposers’ personal characteristics. The results show higher acceptance rates for offers preceded by positive words than for those preceded by negative words. In addition, the impact of this information was higher in the uncertain than in the certain context. This suggests that when deciding whether or not to take money from someone, people take into account what they know about the person they are interacting with. Such non-rational bias is stronger in an uncertain context.

  19. Theoretical Models of Decision-Making in the Ultimatum Game: Fairness vs. Reason

    OpenAIRE

    Guy Tatiana V.; Kárný Miroslav; Lintas Alessandra; Villa Alessandro E.P.

    2016-01-01

    According to game theory a human subject playing the ultimatum game should choose more for oneself and offer the least amount possible for co players (assumption of selfish rationality) (Rubinstein in J Econ Behav Organ 3(4):367–388 [1]). However economy sociology and neurology communities repeatedly claim non rationality of the human behaviour (Werner et al. in Theory of Games and Economic Behavior. Princeton University Press Princeton [2]) following the observation that responders reject of...

  20. The Responders’ Gender Stereotypes Modulate the Strategic Decision-Making of Proposers playing the Ultimatum Game

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, Eve Floriane; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wealth of studies investigating factors affecting decisions, not much is known about the impact of stereotypical beliefs on strategic economic decision-making. In the present study, we used the ultimatum game paradigm to investigate how participants playing as proposer modulate their strategic economic behavior, according to their game counterparts’ stereotypical identity (i.e., responders). The latter were introduced to the participants using occupational role nouns stereotypical...

  1. Interoception Drives Increased Rational Decision-Making in Meditators Playing the Ultimatum Game

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, Ulrich; Downar, Jonathan; Montague, P. Read

    2011-01-01

    Human decision-making is often conceptualized as a competition between cognitive and emotional processes in the brain. Deviations from rational processes are believed to derive from inclusion of emotional factors in decision-making. Here, we investigate whether experienced Buddhist meditators are better equipped to regulate emotional processes compared with controls during economic decision-making in the Ultimatum Game. We show that meditators accept unfair offers on more than half of the tri...

  2. Proportion offered in the Dictator and Ultimatum Games decreases with amount and social distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechler, Christopher; Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel

    2015-06-01

    Behavior in both the Dictator Game and the Ultimatum Game is of special interest because proposers often violate the predictions of normative economic theory: On average, offers in both games are higher than what would be considered income-maximizing. In the present study, the initial amount provided to the proposer and the social distance between the proposer and the respondent were both varied across a wide range, and the effects of these manipulations on offers in the Dictator Game and the Ultimatum Game were examined in a broad sample of participants recruited via MTurk. Although the amount offered was consistently higher in the Ultimatum Game, the proportion of the amount offered decreased as the size of the initial amount increased in both games. Moreover, the proportion offered also decreased as a function of the social distance between the proposer and the responder. The present results extend our knowledge of the determinants of proposers' behavior in two-person economic games and emphasize the importance of social distance and the amount of money at stake as factors that affect people's economic decisions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Theory of Mind and General Intelligence in Dictator and Ultimatum Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Lang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing social sensitivity (i.e., the ability of a person to perceive, understand, and respect the feelings and viewpoints of others, has been shown to facilitate selfish behavior. This is not only true for exogenous changes in social sensitivity, but also for social sensitivity influenced by someone’s social cognition. In this analysis, we examined one measure of social cognition, namely a person’s Theory of Mind (ToM, to examine differences in decision-making in standard non-strategic and strategic environments (dictator and ultimatum games. We found that participants with higher ToM gave a greater share in the non-strategic environment. In the ultimatum game, however, ToM showed no correlation with the offers of the ultimators. Instead, we found that general intelligence scores—measured by the Wonderlic test—shared a negative, albeit weak, correlation with the amount offered in the ultimatum game. Thus, we find that lower social cognition is an important explanatory variable for selfish behavior in a non-strategic environment, while general intelligence shares some correlation in a strategic environment. Similar to the change in social sensitivity created by a specific game design, social sensitivity influenced by individual personality traits can influence behavior in non-strategic environments.

  4. Evolution of fairness and coalition formation in three-person ultimatum games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Okada, Akira; Shirata, Yasuhiro

    2017-05-07

    We consider the evolution of fairness and coalition formation in a three-person ultimatum game in which the coalition value depends on its size. Traditional game theory, which assumes selfish and rational players, predicts the largest and efficient coalition with a proposer exploiting most of the total value. In a stochastic evolutionary model (the frequency-dependent Moran process with mutations) where players make errors in estimating the payoffs and strategies of others, evolutionary selection favors the formation of a two-person subcoalition under weak selection and in the low mutation limit if and only if its coalition value exceeds a high proportion (0.7) of that of the largest coalition. Proposers offer 30-35% of the subcoalition value to a coalition member, excluding a non-member. Multilateral bargaining is critically different from the bilateral one. Coalition-forming behavior may cause economic inefficiency and social exclusion. Stochastic evolutionary game theory thus provides theoretical support to explain the behavior of human subjects in economic experiments of a three-person ultimatum game. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interoception drives increased rational decision-making in meditators playing the ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Ulrich; Downar, Jonathan; Montague, P Read

    2011-01-01

    Human decision-making is often conceptualized as a competition between cognitive and emotional processes in the brain. Deviations from rational processes are believed to derive from inclusion of emotional factors in decision-making. Here, we investigate whether experienced Buddhist meditators are better equipped to regulate emotional processes compared with controls during economic decision-making in the Ultimatum Game. We show that meditators accept unfair offers on more than half of the trials, whereas controls only accept unfair offers on one-quarter of the trials. By applying fMRI we show that controls recruit the anterior insula during unfair offers. Such responses are powerful predictors of rejecting offers in social interaction. By contrast, meditators display attenuated activity in high-level emotional representations of the anterior insula and increased activity in the low-level interoceptive representations of the posterior insula. In addition we show that a subset of control participants who play rationally (i.e., accepts >85% unfair offers) recruits the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex presumably reflecting increased cognitive demands, whereas rational meditators by contrast display elevated activity in the somatosensory cortex and posterior superior temporal cortex. In summary, when assessing unfairness in the Ultimatum Game, meditators activate a different network of brain areas compared with controls enabling them to uncouple negative emotional reactions from their behavior. These findings highlight the clinically and socially important possibility that sustained training in mindfulness meditation may impact distinct domains of human decision-making.

  6. Cognitive control and individual differences in economic ultimatum decision-making.

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    Wim De Neys

    Full Text Available Much publicity has been given to the fact that people's economic decisions often deviate from the rational predictions of standard economic models. In the classic ultimatum game, for example, most people turn down financial gains by rejecting unequal monetary splits. The present study points to neglected individual differences in this debate. After participants played the ultimatum game we tested for individual differences in cognitive control capacity of the most and least economic responders. The key finding was that people who were higher in cognitive control, as measured by behavioral (Go/No-Go performance and neural (No-Go N2 amplitude markers, did tend to behave more in line with the standard models and showed increased acceptance of unequal splits. Hence, the cognitively highest scoring decision-makers were more likely to maximize their monetary payoffs and adhere to the standard economic predictions. Findings question popular claims with respect to the rejection of standard economic models and the irrationality of human economic decision-making.

  7. Rational Constraints and the Evolution of Fairness in the Ultimatum Game.

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    Tomlin, Damon

    2015-01-01

    Behavior in the Ultimatum Game has been well-studied experimentally, and provides a marked contrast between the theoretical model of a self-interested economic agent and that of an actual human concerned with social norms such as fairness. How did such norms evolve, when punishing unfair behavior can be costly to the punishing agent? The work described here simulated a series of Ultimatum Games, in which populations of agents earned resources based on their preferences for proposing and accepting (or rejecting) offers of various sizes. Two different systems governing the acceptance or rejection of offers were implemented. Under one system, the probability that an agent accepted an offer of a given size was independent of the probabilities of accepting the other possible offers. Under the other system, a simple, ordinal constraint was placed on the acceptance probabilities such that a given offer was at least as likely to be accepted as a smaller offer. For simulations under either system, agents' preferences and their corresponding behavior evolved over multiple generations. Populations without the ordinal constraint came to emulate maximizing economic agents, while populations with the constraint came to resemble the behavior of human players.

  8. Proposal Allocation Ratio as a Moderator of Interpersonal Responsibility Effects on Hostile Decision-Making in the Ultimatum Game

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    Xinyu Gong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal responsibility is an indigenous Chinese personality construct, which is regarded to have positive social functions. Two studies were designed to explore the relationship among interpersonal responsibility, proposal allocation ratio, and responders’ hostile decisions in an ultimatum game. Study 1 was a scenario study using a hypothetical ultimatum game with a valid sample of 551 high school students. Study 2 was an experimental study which recruited 54 undergraduate students to play the incentivized ultimatum game online. The results of the two studies showed a significantly negative correlation between interpersonal responsibility and responders’ rejection responses only when the proposal allocation ratio was 3:7. In addition, in Study 2, interpersonal responsibility had negative effects on responders’ rejection responses under the offer of 3:7, even after controlling for the Big Five personality traits. Taken together, proposal allocation ratio might moderate the effects of interpersonal responsibility on hostile decision-making in the ultimatum game. The social function of interpersonal responsibility might be beyond the Big Five.

  9. Are Irrational Reactions to Unfairness Truly Emotionally-Driven? Dissociated Behavioural and Emotional Responses in the Ultimatum Game Task

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    Civai, Claudia; Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Gamer, Matthias; Rumiati, Raffaella I.

    2010-01-01

    The "irrational" rejections of unfair offers by people playing the Ultimatum Game (UG), a widely used laboratory model of economical decision-making, have traditionally been associated with negative emotions, such as frustration, elicited by unfairness ([Sanfey et al., 2003] and [van't Wout et al., 2006]). We recorded skin conductance responses as…

  10. Proposal Allocation Ratio as a Moderator of Interpersonal Responsibility Effects on Hostile Decision-Making in the Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xinyu; Xia, Ling-Xiang; Sun, Yanlin; Guo, Lei; Carpenter, Vanessa C.; Fang, Yuan; Chen, Yunli

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal responsibility is an indigenous Chinese personality construct, which is regarded to have positive social functions. Two studies were designed to explore the relationship among interpersonal responsibility, proposal allocation ratio, and responders’ hostile decisions in an ultimatum game. Study 1 was a scenario study using a hypothetical ultimatum game with a valid sample of 551 high school students. Study 2 was an experimental study which recruited 54 undergraduate students to play the incentivized ultimatum game online. The results of the two studies showed a significantly negative correlation between interpersonal responsibility and responders’ rejection responses only when the proposal allocation ratio was 3:7. In addition, in Study 2, interpersonal responsibility had negative effects on responders’ rejection responses under the offer of 3:7, even after controlling for the Big Five personality traits. Taken together, proposal allocation ratio might moderate the effects of interpersonal responsibility on hostile decision-making in the ultimatum game. The social function of interpersonal responsibility might be beyond the Big Five. PMID:29184518

  11. Is it all about the self? The effect of self-control depletion on ultimatum game proposers

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    Halali, Eliran; Bereby-Meyer, Yoella; Ockenfels, Axel

    2013-01-01

    In the ultimatum-game, as in many real-life social exchange situations, the selfish motive to maximize own gains conflicts with fairness preferences. In the present study we manipulated the availability of cognitive-control resources for ultimatum-game proposers to test whether preference for fairness is a deliberative cognitive-controlled act or an automatic act. In two experiments we found that a shortage of cognitive control (ego depletion) led proposers in the ultimatum game (UG) to propose significantly more equal split offers than non-depleted proposers. These results can be interpreted as resulting from an automatic concern for fairness, or from a greater fear of rejection, which would be in line with a purely self-interested response. To separate these competing explanations, in Experiment 2 we conducted a dictator-game in which the responder cannot reject the offer. In contrast to the increased fairness behavior demonstrated by depleted ultimatum-game proposers, we found that depleted dictator-game allocators chose the equal split significantly less often than non-depleted allocators. These results indicate that fairness preferences are automatically driven among UG proposers. The automatic fair behavior, however, at least partially reflects concern about self-interest gain. We discuss different explanations for these results. PMID:23781182

  12. The role of cognitive and emotional perspective taking in economic decision making in the ultimatum game.

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    Takagishi, Haruto; Koizumi, Michiko; Fujii, Takayuki; Schug, Joanna; Kameshima, Shinya; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a simple resource allocation game known as the ultimatum game (UG) with preschoolers to examine the role of cognitive and emotional perspective-taking ability on allocation and rejection behavior. A total of 146 preschoolers played the UG and completed a false belief task and an emotional perspective-taking test. Results showed that cognitive perspective taking ability had a significant positive effect on the proposer's offer and a negative effect on the responder's rejection behavior, whereas emotional perspective taking ability did not impact either the proposer's or responder's behavior. These results imply that the ability to anticipate the responder's beliefs, but not their emotional state, plays an important role in the proposer's choice of a fair allocation in an UG, and that children who have not acquired theory of mind still reject unfair offers.

  13. The role of cognitive and emotional perspective taking in economic decision making in the ultimatum game.

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    Haruto Takagishi

    Full Text Available We conducted a simple resource allocation game known as the ultimatum game (UG with preschoolers to examine the role of cognitive and emotional perspective-taking ability on allocation and rejection behavior. A total of 146 preschoolers played the UG and completed a false belief task and an emotional perspective-taking test. Results showed that cognitive perspective taking ability had a significant positive effect on the proposer's offer and a negative effect on the responder's rejection behavior, whereas emotional perspective taking ability did not impact either the proposer's or responder's behavior. These results imply that the ability to anticipate the responder's beliefs, but not their emotional state, plays an important role in the proposer's choice of a fair allocation in an UG, and that children who have not acquired theory of mind still reject unfair offers.

  14. The Neural Basis of Economic Decision-Making in the Ultimatum Game

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    Sanfey, Alan G.; Rilling, James K.; Aronson, Jessica A.; Nystrom, Leigh E.; Cohen, Jonathan D.

    2003-06-01

    The nascent field of neuroeconomics seeks to ground economic decision- making in the biological substrate of the brain. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging of Ultimatum Game players to investigate neural substrates of cognitive and emotional processes involved in economic decision-making. In this game, two players split a sum of money; one player proposes a division and the other can accept or reject this. We scanned players as they responded to fair and unfair proposals. Unfair offers elicited activity in brain areas related to both emotion (anterior insula) and cognition (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Further, significantly heightened activity in anterior insula for rejected unfair offers suggests an important role for emotions in decision-making.

  15. Overcoming selfishness: reciprocity, inhibition, and cardiac-autonomic control in the ultimatum game.

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    Sütterlin, Stefan; Herbert, Cornelia; Schmitt, Michael; Kübler, Andrea; Vögele, Claus

    2011-01-01

    The processes underlying decision-making in response to unfair offers in the ultimatum game (UG) have recently been discussed in light of models of reciprocity and fairness-related behavior. It has been suggested that behavior following norm-oriented, internalized expectations of reciprocity requires overcoming economic self-interest. In this study we investigated both, behavioral and peripheral-physiological indicators of inhibitory capacity related to neuronal networks that are likely to be involved in the behavioral response to unfair offers. Both heart-rate variability as an index of inhibitory capacity, and performance in a motor response inhibition task predicted rejection of unfair offers in an UG, suggesting an important role of inhibitory processes in overcoming economic temptations and regulating behavior conforming to social norms of reciprocity and fairness. The role of parasympathetic activity as a physiological trait-marker predicting inter-individual differences in the rejection of unfair offers is discussed.

  16. Social information and economic decision-making in the ultimatum game.

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    Gaertig, Celia; Moser, Anna; Alguacil, Sonia; Ruz, María

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested how social information about the proposer biases responders' choices of accepting or rejecting real monetary offers in a classic ultimatum game (UG) and whether this impact is heightened by the uncertainty of the context. Participants in our study conducted a one-shot UG in which their responses had direct consequences on how much money they earned. We used trait-valenced words to provide information about the proposers' personal characteristics. The results show higher acceptance rates for offers preceded by positive words than for those preceded by negative words. In addition, the impact of this information was higher in the uncertain than in the certain context. This suggests that when deciding whether or not to take money from someone, people take into account what they know about the person they are interacting with. Such non-rational bias is stronger in an uncertain context.

  17. Beliefs and social behavior in a multi-period ultimatum game

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    Azar, Ofer H.; Lahav, Yaron; Voslinsky, Alisa

    2015-01-01

    We conduct a multi-period ultimatum game in which we elicit players' beliefs. Responders do not predict accurately the amount that will be offered to them, and do not get better in their predictions over time. At the individual level we see some effect of the mistake in expectations in the previous period on the responder's expectation about the offer in the current period, but this effect is relatively small. The proposers' beliefs about the minimum amount that responders will accept is significantly higher than the minimum amount responders believe will be accepted by other responders. The proposer's belief about the minimal acceptable offer does not change following a rejection. Nevertheless, the proposer's offer in the next period does increase following a rejection. The probability of rejection increases when the responder has higher expectations about the amount that will be offered to him or higher beliefs about the minimal amount that other responders will accept. PMID:25762909

  18. Neural substrates underlying the tendency to accept anger-infused ultimatum offers during dynamic social interactions.

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    Gilam, Gadi; Lin, Tamar; Raz, Gal; Azrielant, Shir; Fruchter, Eyal; Ariely, Dan; Hendler, Talma

    2015-10-15

    In managing our way through interpersonal conflict, anger might be crucial in determining whether the dispute escalates to aggressive behaviors or resolves cooperatively. The Ultimatum Game (UG) is a social decision-making paradigm that provides a framework for studying interpersonal conflict over division of monetary resources. Unfair monetary UG-offers elicit anger and while accepting them engages regulatory processes, rejecting them is regarded as an aggressive retribution. Ventro-medial prefrontal-cortex (vmPFC) activity has been shown to relate to idiosyncratic tendencies in accepting unfair offers possibly through its role in emotion regulation. Nevertheless, standard UG paradigms lack fundamental aspects of real-life social interactions in which one reacts to other people in a response contingent fashion. To uncover the neural substrates underlying the tendency to accept anger-infused ultimatum offers during dynamic social interactions, we incorporated on-line verbal negotiations with an obnoxious partner in a repeated-UG during fMRI scanning. We hypothesized that vmPFC activity will differentiate between individuals with high or low monetary gains accumulated throughout the game and reflect a divergence in the associated emotional experience. We found that as individuals gained more money, they reported less anger but also more positive feelings and had slower sympathetic response. In addition, high-gain individuals had increased vmPFC activity, but also decreased brainstem activity, which possibly reflected the locus coeruleus. During the more angering unfair offers, these individuals had increased dorsal-posterior Insula (dpI) activity which functionally coupled to the medial-thalamus (mT). Finally, both vmPFC activity and dpI-mT connectivity contributed to increased gain, possibly by modulating the ongoing subjective emotional experience. These ecologically valid findings point towards a neural mechanism that might nurture pro-social interactions by

  19. Responder Feelings in a Three-Player Three-Option Ultimatum Game: Affective Determinants of Rejection Behavior

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    Hans-Rüdiger Pfister

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the role of affect and emotions in shaping the behavior of responders in the ultimatum game. A huge amount of research shows that players do not behave in an economically rational way in the ultimatum game, and emotional mechanisms have been proposed as a possible explanation. In particular, feelings of fairness, anger and envy are likely candidates as affective determinants. We introduce a three-player ultimatum game with three-options, which permits the responder to either penalize the proposer or to penalize a third party by rejecting offers. This allows for partially distinguishing rejections due to a retaliation motive driven by anger towards the proposer from rejections due to inequity aversion driven by feelings of envy towards a third party. Results from two experiments suggest that responders experience feelings of dissatisfaction and unfairness if their share is small in comparison to the proposer���s share; anger, then, may trigger rejections towards the proposer. Responders also experience dissatisfaction and envy when third party shares exceed their own shares; however, in contrast to anger, envy does not trigger rejections and is dissociated from the decision to accept or reject an offer. We conclude that acting upon anger is socially acceptable, whereas envy is not acceptable as a reason for action. Furthermore, we find that responders generally feel better after rejections, suggesting that rejections serve to regulate one’s affective state.

  20. Social exclusion modulates fairness consideration in the ultimatum game: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chen; Wang, Yuru; Huang, Yunyun

    2013-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has identified brain regions activated when people's fairness consideration changes under conditions of social exclusion. The current study used EEG data to examine the temporal process of changes in fairness consideration under social exclusion. In this study, a Cyberball game was administered to manipulate participants' social exclusion or inclusion. Then, in the following Ultimatum game (UG), participants' brain potentials were recorded while they received fair/unfair offers from someone who previously excluded them, someone who previously included them, or a stranger. Results showed that feedback-related negativity (FRN) after onset of distribution outcome was more pronounced for unfair offers compared to fair offers. Moreover, the FRN was more negative-going in response to unfair offers from people who previously excluded them than from the includer and the stranger. Fair offers elicited a larger P300 than unfair offers. In addition, P300 was more positive-going for unfair offers from the stranger than from the excluder and the includer. This study reveals a temporal process in which the effects of social exclusion on fair consideration are reflected in FRN in the early stage of outcome evaluation. These data also suggest that the FRN is modulated by the subjective evaluation of outcome events in a social context.

  1. Strategic Motives Drive Proposers to Offer Fairly in Ultimatum Games: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin-Hua; Chen, Ying-Chun; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Kan, Kamhon; Yang, C C; Yen, Nai-Shing

    2017-04-03

    The hypothesis of strategic motives postulates that offering fairly in the Ultimatum Game (UG) is to avoid rejection and receive money. In this fMRI study, we used a modified UG to elucidate how proposers reached decisions of offering fairly and to what extent they considered offering selfishly with different stakes. We had proposers choose between a fair and a selfish offer with different degrees of selfishness and stake sizes. Proposers were less likely and spent more time choosing the fair offer over a slightly-selfish offer than a very selfish offer independent of stakes. Such choices evoked greater activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortices that typically involve in allocation of cognitive control for cost/benefit decision making. Choosing a fair offer in higher stakes evoked greater activation in the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACCg) and the areas that previously have been implicated in reward and theory of mind. Furthermore, choosing a slightly selfish offer over a fair offer evoked greater activation in the anterior cingulate sulcus, ACCg, ventral tegmental area (or substantia nigra) and anterior insular cortex signalling the higher gain and implying higher rejection risk. In conclusion, our findings favoured the hypothesis that proposers offer fairly based on the strategic motives.

  2. Empathy emerges spontaneously in the ultimatum game: small groups and networks.

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    Jaime Iranzo

    Full Text Available The Ultimatum game, in which one subject proposes how to share a pot and the other has veto power on the proposal, in which case both lose everything, is a paradigmatic scenario to probe the degree of cooperation and altruism in human subjects. It has been shown that if individuals are empathic, i.e., they play the game having in mind how their opponent will react by offering an amount that they themselves would accept, then non-rational large offers well above the smallest possible ones are evolutionarily selected. We here show that empathy itself may be selected and need not be exogenously imposed provided that interactions take place only with a fraction of the total population, and that the role of proposer or responder is randomly changed from round to round. These empathic agents, that displace agents with independent (uncorrelated offers and proposals, behave far from what is expected rationally, offering and accepting sizable fractions of the amount to be shared. Specific values for the typical offer depend on the details of the interacion network and on the existence of hubs, but they are almost always significantly larger than zero, indicating that the mechanism at work here is quite general and could explain the emergence of empathy in very many different contexts.

  3. Cooperative Behavior in the Ultimatum Game and Prisoner’s Dilemma Depends on Players’ Contributions

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    Amy R. Bland

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic games such as the Ultimatum Game (UG and Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD are widely used paradigms for studying fairness and cooperation. Monetary versions of these games involve two players splitting an arbitrary sum of money. In real life, however, people’s propensity to engage in cooperative behavior depends on their effort and contribution; factors that are well known to affect perceptions of fairness. We therefore sought to explore the impact of relative monetary contributions by players in the UG and PD. Adapted computerized UG and PD games, in which relative contributions from each player were manipulated, were administered to 200 participants aged 18–50 years old (50% female. We found that players’ contribution had large effects on cooperative behavior. Specifically, cooperation was greater amongst participants when their opponent had contributed more to joint earnings. This was manifested as higher acceptance rates and higher offers in the UG; and fewer defects in the PD compared to when the participant contributed more. Interestingly, equal contributions elicited the greatest sensitivity to fairness in the UG, and least frequent defection in the PD. Acceptance rates correlated positively with anxiety and sex differences were found in defection behavior. This study highlights the feasibility of computerized games to assess cooperative behavior and the importance of considering cooperation within the context of effortful contribution.

  4. Agency matters! Social preferences in the three-person ultimatum game.

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    Alexopoulos, Johanna; Pfabigan, Daniela M; Göschl, Florian; Bauer, Herbert; Fischmeister, Florian Ph S

    2013-01-01

    In the present study EEG was recorded simultaneously while two participants were playing the three-person ultimatum game (UG). Both participants received different offers from changing proposers about how to split up a certain amount of money between the three players. One of the participants had no say, whereas the other, the responder, was able to harm the payoff of all other players. The aim of the study was to investigate how the outcomes of the respective other are evaluated by participants who were treated fairly or unfairly themselves and to what extent agency influences concerns for fairness. Analyses were focused on the medial frontal negativity (MFN) as an early index for subjective value assignment. Recipients with veto-power exhibited enhanced, more negative-going, MFN amplitudes following proposals that comprised a low share for both recipients, suggesting that responders favored offers with a fair amount to at least one of the two players. Though, the powerless players cared about the amount assigned to the responder, MFN amplitudes were larger following fair compared to unfair offers assigned to the responder. Similarly, concerns for fairness which determined the amplitude of the MFN, suggested that the powerless players exhibited negative and conversely the responders, positive social preferences.

  5. Are patients with schizophrenia rational maximizers? Evidence from an ultimatum game study.

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    Csukly, Gábor; Polgár, Patrícia; Tombor, László; Réthelyi, János; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2011-05-15

    Schizophrenia is associated with impaired social cognition and community functioning. Social decision-making strategies of healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia were compared by using the ultimatum game (UG). In this game two players have to split a sum of money. The proposer offers a portion to the responder, who decides to either accept or reject the offer. Rejection results in no income to either of the parties. Unfair proposals are frequently rejected by nonclinical individuals, a phenomenon described as altruistic punishment. Patients and controls participated in a series of UG interactions as responders in a computerized test setting. We also tested the effect of the proposer's facial expression on decision-making. Our results indicate that patients with schizophrenia accepted unfair offers at a significantly higher rate than did healthy controls. In contrast, at fair proposals, the acceptance rate was lower in patients compared with controls. At higher offers, the proposer's facial expression (positive/negative) significantly influenced the acceptance rate (positive facial expression increased the likelihood of acceptance) in the control group. This effect was not observed in the patient group. These results suggest that schizophrenia patients are impaired in socioeconomic interactions requiring emotion recognition and decision-making, which may result in unstable behavioral strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Responders' Gender Stereotypes Modulate the Strategic Decision-Making of Proposers Playing the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Eve F; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wealth of studies investigating factors affecting decisions, not much is known about the impact of stereotypical beliefs on strategic economic decision-making. In the present study, we used the ultimatum game paradigm to investigate how participants playing as proposer modulate their strategic economic behavior, according to their game counterparts' stereotypical identity (i.e., responders). The latter were introduced to the participants using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender paired with feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., linguist-Anna; economist-David; economist-Cristina; linguist-Leonardo). When playing with male-stereotyped responders, proposers quickly applied the equity rule, behaving fairly, while they adopted a strategic behavior with responders characterized by female stereotypes. They were also longer to make their offers to female than to male responders but both kinds of responders received comparable offers, suggesting a greater cognitive effort to treat females as equally as males. The present study explicitly demonstrates that gender stereotypical information affect strategic economic decision-making and highlights a possible evolution of gender discrimination into a more insidious discrimination toward individuals with female characteristics.

  7. The Responders’ Gender Stereotypes Modulate the Strategic Decision-Making of Proposers playing the Ultimatum Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Florianne Fabre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wealth of studies investigating factors affecting decisions, not much is known about the impact of stereotypical beliefs on strategic economic decision-making. In the present study, we used the ultimatum game paradigm to investigate how participants playing as proposer modulate their strategic economic behavior, according to their game counterparts’ stereotypical identity (i.e., responders. The latter were introduced to the participants using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender paired with feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., linguist-Anna; economist-David; economist-Cristina; linguist-Leonardo. When playing with male-stereotyped responders, proposers quickly applied the equity rule, behaving fairly, while they adopted a strategic behavior with responders characterized by female stereotypes. They were also longer to make their offers to female than to male responders but both kinds of responders received comparable offers, suggesting a greater cognitive effort to treat females as equally as males. The present study explicitly demonstrates that gender stereotypical information affect strategic economic decision-making and highlights a possible evolution of gender discrimination into a more insidious discrimination toward individuals with female characteristics.

  8. A New Solution Concept for the Ultimatum Game leading to the Golden Ratio.

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    Schuster, Stefan

    2017-07-17

    The Ultimatum Game is a paradigmatic two-player game. A proposer can offer a certain fraction of some valuable good. A responder can accept the offer or reject it, implying that the two players receive nothing. The only subgame-perfect Nash equilibrium is to only offer an infinitesimal amount and to accept this. However, this equilibrium is not in agreement with experimental observations, which show varying accepted offers around 40%. While some authors suggest that the fairest split of 50% vs. 50% would be explainable on theoretical grounds or by computer simulation, a few authors (including myself) have recently suggested that the Golden Ratio, about 0.618 vs. about 0.382, would be the solution, in striking agreement with observations. Here we propose a solution concept, based on an optimality approach and epistemic arguments, leading to that suggested solution. The optimality principle is explained both in an axiomatic way and by bargaining arguments, and the relation to Fibonacci numbers is outlined. Our presentation complements the Economic Harmony theory proposed by R. Suleiman and is based on infinite continued fractions. The results are likely to be important for the theory of fair salaries, justice theory and the predictive value of game theory.

  9. Social exclusion modulates fairness consideration in the ultimatum game: an ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen eQu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging research has identified brain regions activated when people’s fairness consideration changes under conditions of social exclusion. The current study used EEG data to examine the temporal process of changes in fairness consideration under social exclusion. In this study, a Cyberball game was administered to manipulate participants’ social exclusion or inclusion. Then, in the following Ultimatum game, participants’ brain potentials were recorded while they received fair/unfair offers from someone who previously excluded them, someone who previously included them, or a stranger. Results showed that feedback related negativity (FRN after onset of distribution outcome was more pronounced for unfair offers compared to fair offers. Moreover, the FRN was more negative-going in response to unfair offers from people who previously excluded them than from the includer and the stranger. Fair offers ¬¬¬elicited a larger P300 than unfair offers. In addition, P300 was more positive-going for unfair offers from the stranger than from the excluder and the includer. This study reveals a temporal process in which the effects of social exclusion on fair consideration are reflected in FRN in the early stage of outcome evaluation. These data also suggest that the FRN is modulated by the subjective evaluation of outcome events in a social context.

  10. The Responders’ Gender Stereotypes Modulate the Strategic Decision-Making of Proposers Playing the Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Eve F.; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wealth of studies investigating factors affecting decisions, not much is known about the impact of stereotypical beliefs on strategic economic decision-making. In the present study, we used the ultimatum game paradigm to investigate how participants playing as proposer modulate their strategic economic behavior, according to their game counterparts’ stereotypical identity (i.e., responders). The latter were introduced to the participants using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender paired with feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., linguist-Anna; economist-David; economist-Cristina; linguist-Leonardo). When playing with male-stereotyped responders, proposers quickly applied the equity rule, behaving fairly, while they adopted a strategic behavior with responders characterized by female stereotypes. They were also longer to make their offers to female than to male responders but both kinds of responders received comparable offers, suggesting a greater cognitive effort to treat females as equally as males. The present study explicitly demonstrates that gender stereotypical information affect strategic economic decision-making and highlights a possible evolution of gender discrimination into a more insidious discrimination toward individuals with female characteristics. PMID:26834684

  11. Social Decision Making in Adolescents and Young Adults: Evidence From the Ultimatum Game and Cognitive Biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Antonella; Baglio, Francesca; Castelli, Ilaria; Griffanti, Ludovica; Nemni, Raffaello; Rossetto, Federica; Valle, Annalisa; Zanette, Michela; Massaro, Davide

    2018-01-01

    During adolescence and early adulthood, individuals deal with important developmental changes, especially in the context of complex social interactions. Previous studies demonstrated that those changes have a significant impact on the social decision making process, in terms of a progressive increase of intentionality comprehension of others, of the sensitivity to fairness, and of the impermeability to decisional biases. However, neither adolescents nor adults reach the ideal level of maximization and of rationality of the homo economicus proposed by classical economics theory, thus remaining more close to the model of the "bounded rationality" proposed by cognitive psychology. In the present study, we analyzed two aspects of decision making in 110 participants from early adolescence to young adulthood: the sensitivity to fairness and the permeability to decisional biases (Outcome Bias and Hindsight Bias). To address these questions, we adopted a modified version of the Ultimatum Game task, where participants faced fair, unfair, and hyperfair offers from proposers described as generous, selfish, or neutral. We also administered two behavioral tasks testing the influence of the Outcome Bias and of the Hindsight Bias in the evaluation of the decision. Our behavioral results highlighted that the participants are still partially consequentialist, as the decisional process is influenced by a complex balance between the outcome and the psychological description of the proposer. As regards cognitive biases, the Outcome Bias and the Hindsight Bias are present in the whole sample, with no relevant age differences.

  12. Effect of self-esteem on social interactions during the Ultimatum Game.

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    Paz, V; Nicolaisen-Sobesky, E; Collado, E; Horta, S; Rey, C; Rivero, M; Berriolo, P; Díaz, M; Otón, M; Pérez, A; Fernández-Theoduloz, G; Cabana, Á; Gradin, V B

    2017-06-01

    Self-esteem is an attitude formed by self-evaluation based on positive and negative aspects of oneself. Low self-esteem is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders and is especially associated with social difficulties. Recently, behavioral economics has allowed the quantitative study of social interactions. We investigated the association between self-esteem and interpersonal problems and whether self-esteem modulates behavior and emotions during an economic task, the Ultimatum Game (UG). In this task participants accept or reject fair/unfair monetary offers from others. Low (LSE, n=40) and high (HSE, n=45) self-esteem participants were assessed in their interpersonal problems and psychiatric symptoms using self-reported questionnaires, and were compared on their decision making and emotional response during the UG. LSE was associated with depression and anxiety symptoms. In addition, LSE was associated with interpersonal problems, especially in the domains of socially inhibited, nonassertive, overly accommodating, self-sacrificing and cold/distant. During the UG, LSE women reported more anger towards unfair offers than HSE women. Our findings suggest that low self-esteem individuals experience high distress by interpersonal problems in several domains. Importantly, low self-esteem in women seems to be associated with an accentuated emotional response to unfair social exchanges. These results may contribute to treat social difficulties in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Music-induced Mood Biases Decision Strategies during the Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hwanjun; Lee, Eun Jung; Jung, You Jin; Kim, Sang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Recently, an increasing attempt has been made to understand the influence of mood on socioeconomic decision-making. We tested in this study whether an unpleasant mood would lead to unfavorable decisions more frequently than a pleasant mood, and whether decisions under different moods can be explained in different ways. Healthy volunteers were assigned to either a pleasant or unpleasant mood group and listened to musical excerpts to induce pleasant or unpleasant mood. Both groups completed the ultimatum game as a responder with an unacquainted partner who was actually a confederate. The proposer’s offers were made in six different ratios of split (1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4) in a preprogramed manner unbeknownst to the participants. After the completion of the task as a responder, the participant rated subjectively perceived fairness and emotional feelings about each split of offer. The statistical results showed that the unpleasant mood group rejected unfair offers more often compared to the pleasant mood group. Self-reported ratings of perceived fairness and emotional feelings did not statistically differ between the two groups. Interestingly, however, only in the unpleasant mood group, rejection rates of unfair offers were negatively correlated with perceived fairness. Both the pleasant and unpleasant mood groups showed a negative correlation between rejection rates of unfair offers and self-reported happiness. These results suggest a possibility that different decision strategies operate under different mood during a socioeconomic exchange. PMID:27065921

  14. Reappraising the ultimatum: an fMRI study of emotion regulation and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Van't Wout, Mascha; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G

    2013-02-01

    Emotion regulation strategies provide a means by which to modulate our social behavior. In this study, we investigated the effect of using reappraisal to both up- and downregulate social decision making. After being instructed on how to use reappraisal, participants played the Ultimatum Game while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging and applied the strategies of upregulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as more negative), down-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as less negative), as well as a baseline "look" condition. As hypothesized, when reappraising, decision acceptance rates were altered, with a greater number of unfair offers accepted while down-regulating and a greater number of unfair offers rejected while upregulating, both relative to the baseline condition. At the neural level, during reappraisal, significant activations were observed in the inferior and middle frontal gyrus (MFG), in addition to the medial prefrontal cortex and cingulate gyrus for unfair offers only. Regulated decisions involved left inferior frontal gyrus for upregulation and MFG for down-regulation strategies, respectively. Importantly, the effects of emotion modulation were evident in posterior insula, with less activation for down-regulation and more activation for upregulation in these areas. Notably, we show for the first time that top-down strategies such as reappraisal strongly affect our socioeconomic decisions.

  15. Interoception drives increased rational decision-making in meditators playing the Ultimatum Game.

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    Ulrich eKirk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Human decision-making is often framed as a competition between cognitive and emotional processes in the brain. Deviations from rational processes are believed to derive from inclusion of emotional factors in decision-making. Here, we investigate whether a group of experienced Buddhist meditators are better equipped to regulate emotional processes compared with controls during economic decision-making in the Ultimatum Game. We show that meditators accept unfair offers on more than half of the trials, whereas controls only accept unfair offers on one-quarter of the trials. By applying fMRI we show that controls recruit the anterior insula during unfair offers. Such responses are powerful predictors of rejecting offers in social interaction. By contrast, meditators display attenuated activity in high-level emotional representations of the anterior insula and increased activity in the lower-level interoceptive representations of the posterior insula. In addition we show that a subset of control participants who play rationally (i.e. accepts >85% unfair offers recruits the DLPFC reflecting increased cognitive demands to accept unfairness, whereas rational meditators by contrast activates the somatosensory cortex and posterior superior temporal cortex (pSTC. In summary, when assessing unfairness, meditators activate a different network of brain areas compared with controls enabling them to uncouple negative emotional reactions from their behavior. These findings highlight the clinically and socially important possibility that sustained training in mindfulness meditation may impact distinct domains of human decision-making.

  16. Music-induced mood biases decision strategies during the ultimatum game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwanjun eChung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an increasing attempt has been made to understand the influence of mood on socioeconomic decision-making. We tested in this study whether an unpleasant mood would lead to unfavorable decisions more frequently than a pleasant mood, and whether decisions under different moods can be explained in different ways. Healthy volunteers were assigned to either a pleasant or unpleasant mood group and listened to musical excerpts to induce pleasant or unpleasant mood. Both groups completed the ultimatum game as a responder with an unacquainted partner who was actually a confederate. The proposer’s offers were made in six different ratios of split (1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4 in a preprogramed manner unbeknownst to the participants. After the completion of the task as a responder, the participant rated subjectively perceived fairness and emotional feelings about each split of offer. The statistical results showed that the unpleasant mood group rejected unfair offers more often compared to the pleasant mood group. Self-reported ratings of perceived fairness and emotional feelings did not statistically differ between the two groups. Interestingly, however, only in the unpleasant mood group, rejection rates of unfair offers were negatively correlated with perceived fairness. Both the pleasant and unpleasant mood groups showed a negative correlation between rejection rates of unfair offers and self-reported happiness. These results suggest a possibility that different decision strategies operate under different mood during a socioeconomic exchange.

  17. Smart Grid Charging of Electric Vehicles: EV-Owner Response to Scheduling and Pricing under Myopic Loss Aversion in an Ultimatum Two-Player Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Kaplan, Sigal; Sebald, Alexander Christopher

    2015-01-01

    at the neglected psychological dynamics of EV-owners facing charging decisions and interacting with the supplier. This study represents these dynamics by proposing a behavioral framework of utility maximization under myopic loss aversion within an ultimatum two-player game framework. The EV......, but are affected by myopic loss aversion resulting from monetary considerations as well as the ultimatum game with the supplier; (ii) EV-owners are open towards centralized smart-grid strategies optimizing the load on the grid from a system optimum perspective; (iii) the frequency of charging decisions (daily...

  18. Limbic justice--amygdala involvement in immediate rejection in the Ultimatum Game.

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    Katarina Gospic

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Imaging studies have revealed a putative neural account of emotional bias in decision making. However, it has been difficult in previous studies to identify the causal role of the different sub-regions involved in decision making. The Ultimatum Game (UG is a game to study the punishment of norm-violating behavior. In a previous influential paper on UG it was suggested that frontal insular cortex has a pivotal role in the rejection response. This view has not been reconciled with a vast literature that attributes a crucial role in emotional decision making to a subcortical structure (i.e., amygdala. In this study we propose an anatomy-informed model that may join these views. We also present a design that detects the functional anatomical response to unfair proposals in a subcortical network that mediates rapid reactive responses. We used a functional MRI paradigm to study the early components of decision making and challenged our paradigm with the introduction of a pharmacological intervention to perturb the elicited behavioral and neural response. Benzodiazepine treatment decreased the rejection rate (from 37.6% to 19.0% concomitantly with a diminished amygdala response to unfair proposals, and this in spite of an unchanged feeling of unfairness and unchanged insular response. In the control group, rejection was directly linked to an increase in amygdala activity. These results allow a functional anatomical detection of the early neural components of rejection associated with the initial reactive emotional response. Thus, the act of immediate rejection seems to be mediated by the limbic system and is not solely driven by cortical processes, as previously suggested. Our results also prompt an ethical discussion as we demonstrated that a commonly used drug influences core functions in the human brain that underlie individual autonomy and economic decision making.

  19. The anger-infused Ultimatum Game: A reliable and valid paradigm to induce and assess anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilam, Gadi; Abend, Rany; Shani, Hagai; Ben-Zion, Ziv; Hendler, Talma

    2018-03-22

    The Ultimatum Game (UG) is a canonical social decision-making task whereby a proposer divides a sum of money between himself and a responder who accepts or rejects the offer. Studies consistently demonstrate that unfair offers induce anger, and that rejecting such offers relates to aggression. Nevertheless, the UG is limited in interpersonal provocations common to real-life experiences of anger. Moreover, the psychometric properties of the UG as an anger-induction paradigm have yet to be evaluated. Here, to induce a more intense and genuine anger experience, we implemented a modified UG whereby short written provocations congruent with unfairness levels accompanied each offer. We aimed to test whether this anger-infused UG led to more anger and aggressive responses relative to the standard UG and to establish the reliability and validity of both versions. Participants performed either the anger-infused UG or a standard version, repeated twice, a week apart. They also performed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm, a reactive aggression paradigm, and completed emotion ratings and a trait anger inventory. Results indicate similar decreases in acceptance rates with increase in offer unfairness, and increases in reported anger, across both UG versions. Both versions demonstrated strong test-retest reliability. However, the anger-infused UG led to significantly stronger relations with reactive aggression and trait anger compared to the standard UG, providing evidence for better validity. The development of the anger-infused UG as a reliable and valid paradigm is pivotal for the induction and assessment of interpersonal anger and its aggressive expression in basic and clinical research settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Beauty matters: social preferences in a three-person ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Hu, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Preference for beauty is human nature, as previous behavior studies have supported the notion of "beauty premium" in which attractive people were more easily to get promoted and receive higher salaries. In the present study, 29 males were recruited to participate in a three-person ultimatum game (UG) including a proposer, a responder and a powerless third player. Each subject, playing as the responder, had to decide whether to accept an offer from the allocator both for himself and a female third person. We aimed to elucidate how the facial attractiveness of the female subject affected the male subjects' fairness and decision-making in social exchanges. Frontal feedback-related negativity (FRN) in response to four offers in an attractive-face condition revealed no significant differences between offers; however, when the companion was an unattractive female, an "unfair/fair" offer, which assigned a lower share to the responder and a fair share to the third player, elicited the largest FRN. Furthermore, when the third player was offered the smallest amount ("fair/unfair" offer), a larger FRN was generated in an attractive-face condition than unattractive-face condition. In the "unfair/fair" offer condition in which subjects received a smaller allocation than the third person, the beauty of their female counterparts attenuated subjects' aversion to inequality, resulting in a less negative FRN in the frontal region and an increased acceptance ratio. However, the influence of the third player's facial attractiveness only affected the early evaluation stage: late P300 was found to be immune to the "beauty premium". Under the two face conditions, P300 was smallest following an "unfair/fair" offer, whereas the amplitudes in the other three offer conditions exhibited no significant differences. In addition, the differentiated neural features of processing facial attractiveness were also determined and indexed by four event-related potentials (ERP) components: N170, frontal

  1. Emotional Expression in Simple Line Drawings of a Robot's Face Leads to Higher Offers in the Ultimatum Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Terada

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated whether expressing emotional states using a simple line drawing to represent a robot's face can serve to elicit altruistic behavior from humans. An experimental investigation was conducted in which human participants interacted with a humanoid robot whose facial expression was shown on an LCD monitor that was mounted as its head (Study 1. Participants were asked to play the ultimatum game, which is usually used to measure human altruistic behavior. All participants were assigned to be the proposer and were instructed to decide their offer within 1 min by controlling a slider bar. The corners of the robot's mouth, as indicated by the line drawing, simply moved upward, or downward depending on the position of the slider bar. The results suggest that the change in the facial expression depicted by a simple line drawing of a face significantly affected the participant's final offer in the ultimatum game. The offers were increased by 13% when subjects were shown contingent changes of facial expression. The results were compared with an experiment in a teleoperation setting in which participants interacted with another person through a computer display showing the same line drawings used in Study 1 (Study 2. The results showed that offers were 15% higher if participants were shown a contingent facial expression change. Together, Studies 1 and 2 indicate that emotional expression in simple line drawings of a robot's face elicits the same higher offer from humans as a human telepresence does.

  2. Emotional Expression in Simple Line Drawings of a Robot's Face Leads to Higher Offers in the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Kazunori; Takeuchi, Chikara

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether expressing emotional states using a simple line drawing to represent a robot's face can serve to elicit altruistic behavior from humans. An experimental investigation was conducted in which human participants interacted with a humanoid robot whose facial expression was shown on an LCD monitor that was mounted as its head (Study 1). Participants were asked to play the ultimatum game, which is usually used to measure human altruistic behavior. All participants were assigned to be the proposer and were instructed to decide their offer within 1 min by controlling a slider bar. The corners of the robot's mouth, as indicated by the line drawing, simply moved upward, or downward depending on the position of the slider bar. The results suggest that the change in the facial expression depicted by a simple line drawing of a face significantly affected the participant's final offer in the ultimatum game. The offers were increased by 13% when subjects were shown contingent changes of facial expression. The results were compared with an experiment in a teleoperation setting in which participants interacted with another person through a computer display showing the same line drawings used in Study 1 (Study 2). The results showed that offers were 15% higher if participants were shown a contingent facial expression change. Together, Studies 1 and 2 indicate that emotional expression in simple line drawings of a robot's face elicits the same higher offer from humans as a human telepresence does.

  3. Ethics and Economics in International Business Education: A Comparison of Kuwaiti and U.S. Students Using an Ultimatum Game Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmer, Dennis; Al-Kazemi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    In the past 20 years a body of research in behavioral and experimental economics has challenged classical economic theory. Yet, this body of research seems relatively unknown in business education. One behavioral test with implications for international business education has been the use of ultimatum games, which has more recently expanded to…

  4. Are irrational reactions to unfairness truly emotionally-driven? Dissociated behavioural and emotional responses in the Ultimatum Game task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civai, Claudia; Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Gamer, Matthias; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2010-01-01

    The "irrational" rejections of unfair offers by people playing the Ultimatum Game (UG), a widely used laboratory model of economical decision-making, have traditionally been associated with negative emotions, such as frustration, elicited by unfairness (Sanfey, Rilling, Aronson, Nystrom, & Cohen, 2003; van't Wout, Kahn, Sanfey, & Aleman, 2006). We recorded skin conductance responses as a measure of emotional activation while participants performed a modified version of the UG, in which they were asked to play both for themselves and on behalf of a third-party. Our findings show that even unfair offers are rejected when participants' payoff is not affected (third-party condition); however, they show an increase in the emotional activation specifically when they are rejecting offers directed towards themselves (myself condition). These results suggest that theories emphasizing negative emotions as the critical factor of "irrational" rejections (Pillutla & Murninghan, 1996) should be re-discussed. Psychological mechanisms other than emotions might be better candidates for explaining this behaviour.

  5. Is costly punishment altruistic? Exploring rejection of unfair offers in the Ultimatum Game in real-world altruists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brethel-Haurwitz, Kristin M; Stoycos, Sarah A; Cardinale, Elise M; Huebner, Bryce; Marsh, Abigail A

    2016-01-07

    In the Ultimatum Game (UG), incurring a cost to punish inequity is commonly termed altruistic punishment. This behaviour is thought to benefit others if the defector becomes more equitable in future interactions. However, clear connections between punishment in the UG and altruistic behaviours outside the laboratory are lacking. We tested the altruistic punishment hypothesis in a sample of extraordinarily altruistic adults, predicting that if punishing inequity is predictive of altruism more broadly, extraordinary altruists should punish more frequently. Results showed that punishment was not more prevalent in extraordinary altruists than controls. However, a self-reported altruism measure previously linked to peer evaluations but not behaviour, and on which extraordinary altruists and controls did not differ, did predict punishment. These findings support suggestions that altruistic punishment in the UG is better termed costly punishment and may be motivated by social, but not necessarily prosocial, concerns. Results also support prior suggestions that self-reported altruism may not reliably predict altruistic behaviour.

  6. Influences of State and Trait Affect on Behavior, Feedback-Related Negativity, and P3b in the Ultimatum Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbinian Riepl

    Full Text Available The present study investigates how different emotions can alter social bargaining behavior. An important paradigm to study social bargaining is the Ultimatum Game. There, a proposer gets a pot of money and has to offer part of it to a responder. If the responder accepts, both players get the money as proposed by the proposer. If he rejects, none of the players gets anything. Rational choice models would predict that responders accept all offers above 0. However, evidence shows that responders typically reject a large proportion of all unfair offers. We analyzed participants' behavior when they played the Ultimatum Game as responders and simultaneously collected electroencephalogram data in order to quantify the feedback-related negativity and P3b components. We induced state affect (momentarily emotions unrelated to the task via short movie clips and measured trait affect (longer-lasting emotional dispositions via questionnaires. State happiness led to increased acceptance rates of very unfair offers. Regarding neurophysiology, we found that unfair offers elicited larger feedback-related negativity amplitudes than fair offers. Additionally, an interaction of state and trait affect occurred: high trait negative affect (subsuming a variety of aversive mood states led to increased feedback-related negativity amplitudes when participants were in an angry mood, but not if they currently experienced fear or happiness. We discuss that increased rumination might be responsible for this result, which might not occur, however, when people experience happiness or fear. Apart from that, we found that fair offers elicited larger P3b components than unfair offers, which might reflect increased pleasure in response to fair offers. Moreover, high trait negative affect was associated with decreased P3b amplitudes, potentially reflecting decreased motivation to engage in activities. We discuss implications of our results in the light of theories and research on

  7. Influences of State and Trait Affect on Behavior, Feedback-Related Negativity, and P3b in the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riepl, Korbinian; Mussel, Patrick; Osinsky, Roman; Hewig, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates how different emotions can alter social bargaining behavior. An important paradigm to study social bargaining is the Ultimatum Game. There, a proposer gets a pot of money and has to offer part of it to a responder. If the responder accepts, both players get the money as proposed by the proposer. If he rejects, none of the players gets anything. Rational choice models would predict that responders accept all offers above 0. However, evidence shows that responders typically reject a large proportion of all unfair offers. We analyzed participants' behavior when they played the Ultimatum Game as responders and simultaneously collected electroencephalogram data in order to quantify the feedback-related negativity and P3b components. We induced state affect (momentarily emotions unrelated to the task) via short movie clips and measured trait affect (longer-lasting emotional dispositions) via questionnaires. State happiness led to increased acceptance rates of very unfair offers. Regarding neurophysiology, we found that unfair offers elicited larger feedback-related negativity amplitudes than fair offers. Additionally, an interaction of state and trait affect occurred: high trait negative affect (subsuming a variety of aversive mood states) led to increased feedback-related negativity amplitudes when participants were in an angry mood, but not if they currently experienced fear or happiness. We discuss that increased rumination might be responsible for this result, which might not occur, however, when people experience happiness or fear. Apart from that, we found that fair offers elicited larger P3b components than unfair offers, which might reflect increased pleasure in response to fair offers. Moreover, high trait negative affect was associated with decreased P3b amplitudes, potentially reflecting decreased motivation to engage in activities. We discuss implications of our results in the light of theories and research on depression and

  8. How much is our fairness worth? The effect of raising stakes on offers by Proposers and minimum acceptable offers in Dictator and Ultimatum Games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Novakova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine whether people respond differently to low and high stakes in Dictator and Ultimatum Games. We assumed that if we raised the stakes high enough, we would observe more self-orientated behavior because fairness would become too costly, in spite of a possible risk of a higher punishment. METHODS: A questionnaire was completed by a sample of 524 university students of biology. A mixed linear model was used to test the relation between the amount at stake (CZK 20, 200, 2,000, 20,000 and 200,000, i.e., approximately $1-$10,000 and the shares, as well as the subjects' gender and the design of the study (single vs. multiple games for different amounts. RESULTS: We have discovered a significant relationship between the amount at stake and the minimum acceptable offer in the Ultimatum Game and the proposed shares in both Ultimatum and Dictator Games (p = 0.001, p<0.001, p = 0.0034. The difference between playing a single game or more games with several amounts at stake did not influence the relation between the stakes and the offered and minimum acceptable shares. Women proved significantly more generous than men in their offers in the Dictator Game (p = 0.007. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that people's behavior in the Dictator and Ultimatum Games depends on the amount at stake. The players tended to lower their relative proposed shares, as well as their relative minimum acceptable offers. We propose that the Responders' sense of equity and fair play depends on the stakes because of the costs of maintaining fairness. However, our results also suggest that the price of fairness is very high and that it is very difficult, probably even impossible, to buy the transition of Homo sociologicus into Homo economicus.

  9. Cardiac responses predict decisions: an investigation of the relation between orienting response and decisions in the ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumi, Takahiro; Ohira, Hideki

    2009-10-01

    Emotion-based behaviors in humans cannot be fully explained by economic rationality. Particularly, in the ultimatum game, which incorporates conflict between self-interest and fairness, negative emotions evoked by an unfair offer seem to promote an economically irrational decision. In accordance with this suggestion, the previous studies have reported that physiological arousal is associated with rejecting unfair offers. In the present study, we investigated electrocardiogram and electrodermal activities in individuals which received fair, advantageously unfair, and disadvantageously unfair offers to specify the relations of the orienting and the defensive responses with these offers and with the decisions to accept and reject them. The results indicated that when an offer that would be rejected was presented, heart rate initially decelerated more than when an offer that would be accepted was presented. Additionally, there was a linear relationship between the deceleration and unfairness of offers. On the other hand, such different patterns were not seen in late cardiac acceleration or electrodermal response. The results suggest that because of perception of disadvantage and unpleasantness in a social context, the orienting response is evoked when an offer will be rejected. In addition, these results are discussed regarding the effect of the autonomic activity in decision-making.

  10. More fair play in an ultimatum game after resettlement in Zimbabwe: a field experiment and a structural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Zimbabwean villagers of distinct background have resettled in government-organized land reforms for more than three decades. Against this backdrop, I assess the level of social cohesion in some of the newly established communities by estimating the average preferences for fairness in a structural model of bounded rationality. The estimations are based on behavioral data from an ultimatum game field experiment played by 234 randomly selected households in 6 traditional and 14 resettled villages almost two decades after resettlement. Equal or higher degrees of fairness are estimated in all resettlement schemes. In one, or arguably two, out of three distinct resettlement schemes studied, the resettled villagers exhibit significantly higher degrees of fairness (p ≤ 0.11) and rationality (p ≤ 0.04) than those who live in traditional villages. Overall, villagers appear similarly rational, but the attitude toward fairness is significantly stronger in resettled communities (p ≤ 0.01). These findings are consistent with the idea of an increased need for cooperation required in recommencement.

  11. Fairness norms and theory of mind in an ultimatum game: judgments, offers, and decisions in school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Castelli

    Full Text Available The sensitivity to fairness undergoes relevant changes across development. Whether such changes depend on primary inequity aversion or on sensitivity to a social norm of fairness is still debated. Using a modified version of the Ultimatum Game that creates informational asymmetries between Proposer and Responder, a previous study showed that both perceptions of fairness and fair behavior depend upon normative expectations, i.e., beliefs about what others expect one should do in a specific situation. Individuals tend to comply with the norm when risking sanctions, but disregard the norm when violations are undetectable. Using the same methodology with children aged 8-10 years, the present study shows that children's beliefs and behaviors differ from what is observed in adults. Playing as Proposers, children show a self-serving bias only when there is a clear informational asymmetry. Playing as Responders, they show a remarkable discrepancy between their normative judgment about fair procedures (a coin toss to determine the offer and their behavior (rejection of an unfair offer derived from the coin toss, supporting the existence of an outcome bias effect. Finally, our results reveal no influence of theory of mind on children's decision-making behavior.

  12. Fairness Norms and Theory of Mind in an Ultimatum Game: Judgments, Offers, and Decisions in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Davide; Bicchieri, Cristina; Chavez, Alex; Marchetti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity to fairness undergoes relevant changes across development. Whether such changes depend on primary inequity aversion or on sensitivity to a social norm of fairness is still debated. Using a modified version of the Ultimatum Game that creates informational asymmetries between Proposer and Responder, a previous study showed that both perceptions of fairness and fair behavior depend upon normative expectations, i.e., beliefs about what others expect one should do in a specific situation. Individuals tend to comply with the norm when risking sanctions, but disregard the norm when violations are undetectable. Using the same methodology with children aged 8–10 years, the present study shows that children's beliefs and behaviors differ from what is observed in adults. Playing as Proposers, children show a self-serving bias only when there is a clear informational asymmetry. Playing as Responders, they show a remarkable discrepancy between their normative judgment about fair procedures (a coin toss to determine the offer) and their behavior (rejection of an unfair offer derived from the coin toss), supporting the existence of an outcome bias effect. Finally, our results reveal no influence of theory of mind on children's decision-making behavior. PMID:25118863

  13. Taking it easy when playing ultimatum game with a Down syndrome proposer: Effects on behavior and medial frontal negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rêgo, Gabriel Gaudencio; Campanhã, Camila; do Egito, Julia Horta Tabosa; Boggio, Paulo Sérgio

    2017-10-01

    The ultimatum game (UG) is an endowment sharing game in which a proposer suggests a division of an asset to a recipient, who must accept or reject it. Economic studies showed that despite recipients usually rejecting unfair offers, perception and reaction to unfairness are highly dependent on who is the proposer. Event-related potentials (ERPs) commonly detected in UG games are the medial frontal negativity (MFN), a component detected in recipients facing unfair offers, and the P300, a component related to attentional and memory processes. Given this, we aimed to investigate the behavioral and ERP responses of healthy people playing the UG game with Down syndrome (DS) and typical development (TD) proposers. Nineteen subjects participated in this study. The UG behavioral data were similar to previous studies. ERP analysis showed no MFN in participants facing unfair offers. A higher P300 amplitude was detected when participants faced fair offers from TD compared to DS fair offers. We also found a positive correlation between P300 amplitude for TD offers and self-esteem scale score. Together these findings indicate that insertion of an atypical player in the UG led to changes in participants' perception and expectancy of the game.

  14. Emergent dynamics of fairness in the spatial coevolution of proposer and responder species in the ultimatum game.

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    Reiji Suzuki

    Full Text Available While spatially local interactions are ubiquitous between coevolving species sharing recourses (e.g., plant-insect interactions, their effects on such coevolution processes of strategies involving the share of a resource are still not clearly understood. We construct a two-dimensional spatial model of the coevolution of the proposer and responder species in the ultimatum game (UG, in which a pair of proposer and responder individuals at each site plays the UG. We investigate the effects of the locality of interactions and the intensity of selection on the emergence of fairness between these species. We show that the lower intensity of selection favors fair strategies in general, and there are no significant differences in the evolution of fairness between the cases with local and global interactions when the intensity of selection is low. However, as the intensity of selection becomes higher, the spatially local interactions contribute to the evolution of fairer strategies more than the global interactions, even though fair strategies become more difficult to evolve. This positive effect of spatial interactions is expected to be due to the mutual benefit of fairness for both proposer and responder species in future generations, which brings about a dynamic evolution process of fairness.

  15. Hello handsome! Male's facial attractiveness gives rise to female's fairness bias in Ultimatum Game scenarios-An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Qian, Da; Hu, Linfeng; Wang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The current study delineated how male proposers' facial attractiveness affect female responders' fairness considerations and their subsequent decision outcome during the Ultimatum Game (UG). Event Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 17 female subjects, who played the role as responders and had to decide whether to accept offers from either attractive or unattractive male proposers. Behavioral data (Acceptance Ratio and Response time) revealed that, more offers were accepted from attractive-face conditions; subjects typically responded quicker to unfair offers from unattractive proposers as compared with slower to unfair offers from attractive proposers. The ERP data demonstrated similar N2 amplitudes elicited by both attractive and unattractive faces, and a larger early frontal LPP elicited by the attractive faces compared with unattractive ones, but no significant differences of both late posterior LPP and typical parietal LPP amplitudes were observed between these two face conditions, which was different from our previous study with similar paradigm but male participants. The results suggest that, in comparison to males, females might not experience the potential attention bias towards unattractive opposite-sex faces and are less likely to possess an enhanced processing and evaluation of those faces. This phenomenon might be explained by endogenous gender differences in mate preference. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 responses during an offer presentation were further measured in both attractive-face and unattractive-face conditions and the results demonstrated that the amplitudes elicited by fair and unfair offers were not statistically different in the former condition, but were different in the latter condition. More specifically, unfair offers generated larger FRN and smaller P300 than fair ones in the unattractive-face condition. Findings suggest that, although females tend to possess less salient evaluation of male's facial

  16. Fast to forgive, slow to retaliate: intuitive responses in the ultimatum game depend on the degree of unfairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Maltby, John; Bibby, Peter A; Lawrence, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary accounts have difficulty explaining why people cooperate with anonymous strangers they will never meet. Recently models, focusing on emotional processing, have been proposed as a potential explanation, with attention focusing on a dual systems approach based on system 1 (fast, intuitive, automatic, effortless, and emotional) and system 2 (slow, reflective, effortful, proactive and unemotional). Evidence shows that when cooperation is salient, people are fast (system 1) to cooperate, but with longer delays (system 2) they show greed. This is interpreted within the framework of the social heuristic hypothesis (SHH), whereby people overgeneralize potentially advantageous intuitively learnt and internalization social norms to 'atypical' situations. We extend this to explore intuitive reactions to unfairness by integrating the SHH with the 'fast to forgive, slow to anger' (FFSA) heuristic. This suggests that it is advantageous to be prosocial when facing uncertainty. We propose that whether or not someone intuitively shows prosociality (cooperation) or retaliation is moderated by the degree (certainty) of unfairness. People should intuitively cooperate when facing mild levels of unfairness (fast to forgive) but when given longer to decide about another's mild level of unfairness should retaliate (slow to anger). However, when facing severe levels of unfairness, the intuitive response is always retaliation. We test this using a series of one-shot ultimatum games and manipulate level of offer unfairness (50:50 60:40, 70:30, 80:20, 90:10) and enforced time delays prior to responding (1s, 2s, 8s, 15s). We also measure decision times to make responses after the time delays. The results show that when facing mildly unfair offers (60:40) people are fast (intuitive) to cooperate but with longer delays reject these mildly unfair offers: 'fast to forgive, and slow to retaliate'. However, for severely unfair offers (90:10) the intuitive and fast response is to always

  17. Fast to forgive, slow to retaliate: intuitive responses in the ultimatum game depend on the degree of unfairness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamonn Ferguson

    Full Text Available Evolutionary accounts have difficulty explaining why people cooperate with anonymous strangers they will never meet. Recently models, focusing on emotional processing, have been proposed as a potential explanation, with attention focusing on a dual systems approach based on system 1 (fast, intuitive, automatic, effortless, and emotional and system 2 (slow, reflective, effortful, proactive and unemotional. Evidence shows that when cooperation is salient, people are fast (system 1 to cooperate, but with longer delays (system 2 they show greed. This is interpreted within the framework of the social heuristic hypothesis (SHH, whereby people overgeneralize potentially advantageous intuitively learnt and internalization social norms to 'atypical' situations. We extend this to explore intuitive reactions to unfairness by integrating the SHH with the 'fast to forgive, slow to anger' (FFSA heuristic. This suggests that it is advantageous to be prosocial when facing uncertainty. We propose that whether or not someone intuitively shows prosociality (cooperation or retaliation is moderated by the degree (certainty of unfairness. People should intuitively cooperate when facing mild levels of unfairness (fast to forgive but when given longer to decide about another's mild level of unfairness should retaliate (slow to anger. However, when facing severe levels of unfairness, the intuitive response is always retaliation. We test this using a series of one-shot ultimatum games and manipulate level of offer unfairness (50:50 60:40, 70:30, 80:20, 90:10 and enforced time delays prior to responding (1s, 2s, 8s, 15s. We also measure decision times to make responses after the time delays. The results show that when facing mildly unfair offers (60:40 people are fast (intuitive to cooperate but with longer delays reject these mildly unfair offers: 'fast to forgive, and slow to retaliate'. However, for severely unfair offers (90:10 the intuitive and fast response is to

  18. Do we care about the powerless third? An ERP study of the three-person ultimatum game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna eAlexopoulos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have provided increasing insights into the factors affecting economic decision making. Little is known about how these factors influence decisions that also bear consequences for other people. We examined whether decisions that also affected a third, passive player modulate the behavioral and neural responses to monetary offers in a modified version of the three-person ultimatum game. We aimed to elucidate to what extent social preferences affect early neuronal processing when subjects were evaluating offers that were fair or unfair to themselves, to the third player, or to both. As an event-related potential index for early evaluation processes in economic decision making, we recorded the medial frontal negativity (MFN component in response to such offers. Unfair offers were rejected more often than equitable ones, in particular when negatively affecting the subject. While the MFN amplitude was higher following unfair as compared to fair offers to the subject, MFN amplitude was not modulated by the shares assigned to the third, passive player. Furthermore, rejection rates and MFN amplitudes following fair offers were positively correlated, as subjects showing lower MFN amplitudes following fair offers tended to reject unfair offers more often – but only if those offers negatively affected their own payoff. Altogether, the rejection behavior suggests that humans mainly care about a powerless third when they are confronted with inequality as well. The correlation between rejection rates and the MFN amplitude supports the notion that this ERP component is also modulated by positive events and highlights how our expectations concerning other humans’ behavior guide our own decisions. However, social preferences like inequality aversion and concern for the well-being of others are not reflected in this early neuronal response, but seem to result from later, deliberate and higher-order cognitive processes.

  19. Radical framing effects in the ultimatum game: the impact of explicit culturally transmitted frames on economic decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightner, Aaron D; Barclay, Pat; Hagen, Edward H

    2017-12-01

    Many studies have documented framing effects in economic games. These studies, however, have tended to use minimal framing cues (e.g. a single sentence labelling the frame), and the frames did not involve unambiguous offer expectations. Results often did not differ substantially from those in the unframed games. Here we test the hypothesis that, in contrast to the modal offer in the unframed ultimatum game (UG) (e.g. 60% to the proposer and 40% to the responder), offers in a UG explicitly framed either as a currency exchange or a windfall will closely conform to expectations for the frame and diverge substantially from the modal offer. Participants recruited from MTurk were randomized into one of two conditions. In the control condition, participants played a standard UG. In the treatment conditions, players were provided a vignette explicitly describing the frame with their roles: some were customers and bankers in a currency exchange, and others were in a windfall scenario. We predicted (i) that modal offers in the currency exchange would involve an asymmetric split where greater than 80% went to customers and less than 20% went to bankers, and (ii) that variation in windfall offers would converge onto a 50-50 split with significantly less variation than the control condition. Our first prediction was confirmed with substantial effect sizes ( d  = 1.09 and d  = -2.04), whereas we found no evidence for our second prediction. The first result provides further evidence that it is difficult to draw firm conclusions about economic decision-making from decontextualized games.

  20. The Undermining Effect of Facial Attractiveness on Brain Responses to Fairness in Ultimatum Game: An ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo eMa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the time course of the neural processing of facial attractiveness and its influence on fairness consideration during social interactions, event-related potentials (ERP were recorded from 21 male subjects performing a two-person Ultimatum Game (UG. During this bargaining game, the male subjects played responders who decided whether to accept offers from female proposers, whose facial images (grouped as attractive and unattractive were presented prior to the offer presentation. The behavioral data demonstrated that the acceptance ratio increased with the fairness level of the offers and, more importantly, the subjects were more likely to accept unfair offers when presented with the attractive-face condition compared with the unattractive-face condition. The reaction times (RTs for five offers (1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6 and 5:5 in the unattractive-face condition were not significantly different. In contrast, the subjects reacted slower to the attractive proposers’ unfair offers and quicker to fair offers. The ERP analysis of the face presentation demonstrated a decreased early negativity (N2 and enhanced late positive potentials (LPPs elicited by the attractive faces compared with the unattractive faces. In addition, the feedback-related negativity (FRN in response to an offer presentation was not significantly different for the unfair (1:9 and 2:8 and fair (4:6 and 5:5 offers in the attractive-face condition. However, the unfair offers generated larger FRNs compared with the fair offers in the unattractive-face condition (consistent with prior studies. A similar effect was identified for P300. The present study demonstrated an undermining effect of proposer facial attractiveness on responder consideration of offer fairness during the UG.

  1. Rejection of unfair offers can be driven by negative emotions, evidence from modified ultimatum games with anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Li, Nan; He, Xiao-Song; Sun, De-Lin; Zhang, Xiaochu; Zhang, Da-Ren

    2012-01-01

    The rejection of unfair offers can be affected by both negative emotions (e.g. anger and moral disgust) and deliberate cognitive processing of behavioral consequences (e.g. concerns of maintaining social fairness and protecting personal reputation). However, whether negative emotions are sufficient to motivate this behavior is still controversial. With modified ultimatum games, a recent study (Yamagishi T, et al. (2009) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:11520-11523) found that people reject unfair offers even when this behavior increases inequity, and even when they could not communicate to the proposers. Yamagishi suggested that rejection of unfair offers could occur without people's concerning of maintaining social fairness, and could be driven by negative emotions. However, as anonymity was not sufficiently guaranteed in Yamagishi's study, the rejection rates in their experiments may have been influenced by people's concerns of protecting personal reputation (reputational concerns) in addition to negative emotions; thus, it was unclear whether the rejection was driven by negative emotions, or by reputational concerns, or both. In the present study, with specific methods to ensure anonymity, the effect of reputational concerns was successfully ruled out. We found that in a private situation in which rejection could not be driven by reputational concerns, the rejection rates of unfair offers were significantly larger than zero, and in public situations in which rejection rates could be influenced by both negative emotions and reputational concerns, rejection rates were significantly higher than that in the private situation. These results, together with Yamagishi's findings, provided more complete evidence suggesting (a) that the rejection of unfair offers can be driven by negative emotions and (b) that deliberate cognitive processing of the consequences of the behavior can increase the rejection rate, which may benefit social cooperation.

  2. Differences in Social Decision-Making between Proposers and Responders during the Ultimatum Game: An EEG Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle K. Horat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ultimatum Game (UG is a typical paradigm to investigate social decision-making. Although the behavior of humans in this task is already well established, the underlying brain processes remain poorly understood. Previous investigations using event-related potentials (ERPs revealed three major components related to cognitive processes in participants engaged in the responder condition, the early ERP component P2, the feedback-related negativity (FRN and a late positive wave (late positive component, LPC. However, the comparison of the ERP waveforms between the responder and proposer conditions has never been studied. Therefore, to investigate condition-related electrophysiological changes, we applied the UG paradigm and compared parameters of the P2, LPC and FRN components in twenty healthy participants. For the responder condition, we found a significantly decreased amplitude and delayed latency for the P2 component, whereas the mean amplitudes of the LPC and FRN increased compared to the proposer condition. Additionally, the proposer condition elicited an early component consisting of a negative deflection around 190 ms, in the upward slope of the P2, probably as a result of early conflict-related processing. Using independent component analysis (ICA, we extracted one functional component time-locked to this deflection, and with source reconstruction (LAURA we found the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC as one of the underlying sources. Overall, our findings indicate that intensity and time-course of neuronal systems engaged in the decision-making processes diverge between both UG conditions, suggesting differential cognitive processes. Understanding the electrophysiological bases of decision-making and social interactions in controls could be useful to further detect which steps are impaired in psychiatric patients in their ability to attribute mental states (such as beliefs, intents, or desires to oneself and others. This ability is called

  3. Smiling faces, sometimes they don't tell the truth: facial expression in the ultimatum game impacts decision making and event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussel, Patrick; Hewig, Johannes; Allen, John J B; Coles, Michael G H; Miltner, Wolfgang

    2014-04-01

    Facial expressions are an important aspect of social interaction, conveying not only information regarding emotional states, but also regarding intentions, personality, and complex social characteristics. The present research investigates how a smiling, compared to a nonsmiling, expression impacts decision making and underlying cognitive and emotional processes in economic bargaining. Our results using the ultimatum game show that facial expressions have an impact on decision making as well as the feedback-related negativity following the offer. Furthermore, a moderating effect of sex on decision making was observed, with differential effects of facial expressions from male compared to female proposers. It is concluded that predictions of bargaining behavior must account for aspects of social interactions as well as sex effects to obtain more precise estimates of behavior. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  4. Ultimatum to Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch Ayguadé, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    Aquest TFG consisteix en la creació de les bases d'un videojoc per a dispositiu mòbil. Més concretament, per al nou sistema operatiu de Microsoft: Windows Phone 7 Este TFG consiste en la creación de las bases de un videojuego para dispositivo móvil. Más concretamente, para el nuevo sistema operativo de Microsoft: Windows Phone 7. This Bachelor thesis develops the basis of a video game for mobile devices. More specifically, for the new Microsoft operating system: Windows Phone 7.

  5. Family Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... es Autismo? Family Issues Home / Living with Autism / Family Issues Stress Siblings A child’s autism diagnosis affects every member of the family in different ways. Parents/caregivers must now place their ... may put stress on their marriage, other children, work, finances, and ...

  6. Global Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, J.L.

    2001-10-15

    Global Issues is an introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. This new edition of this text has been fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. Fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. An introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. Covers a range of perspectives on a variety of societies, developed and developing. Extensively illustrated with diagrams and photographs, contains guides to further reading, media, and internet resources, and includes suggestions for discussion and studying the material. (author)

  7. Workforce Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996

    This document consists of four papers presented during a symposium on work force issues moderated by Jan DeJong at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Rethinking the Ties that Bind: An Exploratory Study of Employee Development in Utilities in Canada and the United States" (Michael Aherne, David…

  8. Sanskrit Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barbara Stoler, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    This issue of "Mahfil" is devoted to Sanskrit literature and contains a note on Sanskrit pronunciation and selections of Sanskrit literature. It also contains articles analyzing and discussing various aspects of the literature, including "Sanskrit Rhetoric and Poetic,""The Creative Role of the Goddess Vac in the…

  9. Bond Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Rachel H.

    2000-01-01

    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  10. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  11. Transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.; Wilson, L.; Thon, S.; Millar, N.

    2005-01-01

    This session on transmission issues focused on the role that transmission plays in electricity markets and the importance of getting the market structure right in terms of generation divestiture with buy back contracts, demand side responsive programs, transmission upgrades and long term contracts. The difficulties of distinguishing between market power and scarcity were examined along with some of the complications that ensue if transmission experiences congestion, as exemplified by the August 2003 blackout in eastern North America. The presentations described the best ways to handle transmission issues, and debated whether transmission should be deregulated or follow market forces. Issues of interconnections and reliability of connections were also debated along with the attempt to integrate renewables into the grid. Some presentations identified what new transmission must be built and what must be done to ensure that transmission gets built. The challenges and business opportunities for transmission in Alberta were discussed with reference to plans to invest in new infrastructure, where it is going outside of the province and how it works with other jurisdictions. Manitoba's Conawapa Hydro Project and its 2000 MW tie line to Ontario was also discussed. Some examples of non-optimal use of interconnections in Europe were also discussed in an effort to learn from these mistakes and avoid them in Canada. tabs., figs

  12. Miscellaneous issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee has examined several issues regarding the restructuring of the province's electricity sector. This report presents issues that require guidance for implementation, with particular focus on options available for their resolutions. The issues include: (1) rate principles for stranded offer service (SOS) supply, (2) the ability of contestable customers to return to SOS after having left it, (3) whether loads embedded in distribution systems are eligible to participate in the bilateral contract market, (4) whether generators or suppliers can offer capacity and energy to SOS suppliers in competition with the SOS supplier, and (5) details for the balancing market, including pricing, bidding protocols, settlements and how intermittent power sources can participate in the market. A section on pricing for SOS explains pricing principles, the use of export profits, pricing for SOS capacity, and time of use pricing. The Committee has made recommendations for the electricity system in the province to have an energy imbalance service that can move towards a market in order to develop an efficient and effective service. This report also explains pricing in the balancing market, penalties, and settlements. 7 refs

  13. Liability Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Donoghue, K.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear liability conventions try to provide a set of rules to govern third party liability. Not all States are parties to one of the existing liability conventions. There are a number of reasons why individual States may choose not to join one of the existing conventions. These include limits of compensation, jurisdiction issues, complexity, cost and definition of damage among others. This paper looks at the existing conventions and identifies some of the main issues in the existing conventions which prevent some States from signing them. The paper attempts to tease out some of the perceived gaps in the existing conventions and give a brief description of the reasons why non-Contracting Parties have difficulty with the provisions of the conventions. The paper recognizes that there has been work done in this area previously by the International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX) and others to try to develop the existing frameworks to enhance global adherence by nuclear and non-nuclear States to an effective nuclear liability regime. (author)

  14. Licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.P.; Desell, L.J.; Birch, M.L.; Berkowitz, L.; Bader, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    To provide guidance for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a draft regulatory guide on the Format and Content for the License Application for the High-Level Waste Repository (FCRG). To facilitate the development of the FCRG, NRC suggested that DOE use the draft guide as the basis for preparing an annotated outline for a license application. DOE is doing so using an iterative process called the Annotated Outline Initiative. DOE;s use of the Initiative will assist in achieving the desired incorporation of actual experience in the FCRG, contribute to the development of shared interpretation and understanding of NRC regulations, and provide other important programmatic benefits described in this paper

  15. Transitional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This discussion paper, the fifth in the series developed at the IPPSO Market Design Conference, addressed the issue of the need to prevent Ontario Hydro from taking unfair advantage of independent producers and other stakeholders through activities and investments in new power generating capacity in the transitional period leading up to deregulation. The need for controls is predicated on the assumption that the short-term actions and investments of Ontario Hydro could seriously compromise the position of independent generators, and that without such controls the level playing field essential to the operation of a competitive market, does not exist. Various actual and potential actions of Ontario Hydro were discussed, all of which point to the need for strict controls over Ontario Hydro exercising its dominant market power in an unfair way. It was recommended that as a minimum, the provincial government should no longer provide guarantees for Ontario Hydro capital projects, and that Ontario Hydro be instructed to defer any investment on new or returning generating capacity until the new market is in place. Limits could also be placed on Ontario Hydro's marketing efforts to enter into contracts during the transition period, and Ontario Hydro and municipal utilities should be required to keep separate accounts of their commercial preparation, and to settle such accounts separate from ratepayer revenue

  16. Key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Successful modeling of the thermo-mechanical and hydrochemical behavior of radioactive waste repositories in hard rock is possible in principle. Because such predictions lie outside the realm of experience, their adequacy depends entirely upon a thorough understanding of three fundamental questions: an understanding of the chemical and physical processess that determine the behavior of rock and all its complexities; accurate and realistic numerical models of the geologic media within which a repository may be built; and sufficient in-situ data covering the entire geologic region affected by, or effecting the behavior of a repository. At present sufficient is known to be able to identify most of those areas which require further attention. These areas extend all the way from a complete understanding of the chemical and physical processes determining the behavior of rock through to the exploration mapping and testing that must be done during the development of any potential repository. Many of the techniques, laboratory equipment, field instrumentation, and numerical methods needed to accomplish this do not exist at present. Therefore it is necessary to accept that a major investment in scientific research is required to generate this information over the next few years. The spectrum of scientific and engineering activities is wide extending from laboratory measurements through the development of numerical models to the measurement of data in-situ, but there is every prospect that sufficient can be done to resolve these key issues. However, to do so requires overt recognition of the many gaps which exist in our knowledge and abilities today, and of the need to bridge these gaps and of the significant costs involved in doing so

  17. Personality and birth order in monozygotic twins adopted apart: a test of Sulloway's theory; Research Reviews: twin births and cancer risk in mothers, male sexual dysfunction, twin study of ultimatum game behavior; Human Interest: 'The Land of Twins', twin-like reunion-I, twin-like reunion-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2008-02-01

    A brief overview of Sulloway's (1996) theory of birth order and personality is presented. A reared apart twin approach for testing his personality findings regarding openness to experience and conscientiousness in first borns and later borns is described. This is followed by summaries of three recent twin studies. The topics include cancer risk in mother of twins, sexual dysfunction in males and responder behavior during ultimatum games. This article concludes with a discussion of twinning rates and rituals among the Yoruba of western Nigeria, and descriptions of two unusual reunions between siblings and twins.

  18. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... Near-fault earthquake issue is almost a new issue in earthquake engineering. ... although those countries had advanced regulations for seismic design of ... allocating the plastic joints according to development guideline and ...

  19. Future accelerators: physics issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1977-11-01

    High energy physics of the future using future accelerators is discussed. The proposed machines and instruments, physics issues and opportunities including brief sketches of outstanding recent results, and the way the proposed machines address these issues are considered. 42 references

  20. Medical Issues: Orthopedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > orthopedics Orthopedics In SMA, muscle weakness can cause ...

  1. Medical Issues: Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > equipment Equipment Individuals with SMA often require a ...

  2. Health Issues and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Health Issues & Treatments Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... people with spina bifida are exactly alike. Health issues and treatments for people with spina bifida will ...

  3. Medical Issues: Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > breathing Breathing Breathing problems are the most common ...

  4. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  5. Seven Issues, Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, Jim; De Bra, Paul; Grønbæk, Kaj; Larsen, Deena; Legget, John; schraefel, monica m.c.

    2002-01-01

    It has been 15 years since the original presentation by Frank Halasz at Hypertext'87 on seven issues for the next generation of hypertext systems. These issues are: Search and Query Composites Virtual Structures Computation in/over hypertext network Versioning Collaborative Work Extensibility and Tailorability Since that time, these issues have formed the nucleus of multiple research agendas within the Hypertext community. Befitting this direction-setting role, the issues have been revisited ...

  6. Uranium and nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This seminar focussed on the major issues affecting the future of the entire nuclear fuel cycle. In particular it covered issues bearing on the formation of public policy in relation to the use of uranium as an energy source: economic risk, industrial risks, health effects, site selection, environmental issues, and public acceptance

  7. Issues in Data Labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowie, Roddy; Cox, Cate; Martin, Jeam-Claude; Batliner, Anton; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Karpouzis, Kostas; Cowie, Roddy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Petta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Labelling emotion databases is not a purely technical matter. It is bound up with theoretical issues. Different issues affect labelling of emotional content, labelling of the signs that convey emotion, and labelling of the relevant context. Linked to these are representational issues, involving time

  8. An Ultimatum Game Approach to Billet Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed , and completing and reviewing this...treatments are needed for this investigation. To conserve the subject pool and meet the budget, we elected to pursue treatments that covered salient...across billets can be partially offset through compensating wages ( hedonic wages) and/or the potential of future superior assignments. In the

  9. Integration of generic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, D.

    1989-01-01

    The NRC has recognized the need to integrate generic issues (GIs). The GI process includes a number of phases, all of which should recognize the potential for overlap and conflict among related issues. In addition to the issues themselves, other related NRC and industry programs and activities need to be factored into the GI process. Integration has taken place, or is taking place, for a number of GIs. Each case of integration involves a specific set of circumstances and, as a result, the way in which integration proceeds can vary. This paper discusses the integration of issues in the generic issue process and provides a number of examples

  10. Current issues and actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed.

  11. Current issues and actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed

  12. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  13. Environmental issues and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitamura, Hisayoshi; Banba, Tsunetaka; Maeda, Toshikatsu; Ishiyama, Takashi

    1999-08-01

    All countries in the world are concerned about environmental issues because of their global effects. Developed industrial nations are also confronted with waste issues accompanied by mass production, mass consumption, and mass dump. We have reviewed books and reports to obtain a preliminary knowledge and to understand the trend of technology development before we start R and D for 'environmental monitoring, and environmental remediation and protection'. We lay great emphasis on municipal and industrial wastes in environmental issues and summarize the history of the earth, innovative environmental approaches in advanced nations, waste issues in Japan, and examples of technology development for environmental remediation and protection. (author)

  14. Navigating "Thorny" Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Kashema; Gilbert, Aderinsola; Malyukova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In their article "Mindfulness and discussing 'thorny' issues in the classroom" Konstantinos Alexakos et al. ("Cult Stud Sci Educ," 2016. doi: 10.1007/s11422-015-9718-0) describe "thorny" issues as "difficult topics to discuss because they are more personal to some perhaps even cause pain and violence." As…

  15. Poverty + Hunger = Global Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Geography teachers can use mathematics to teach fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students about critical global issues. Five sample problems concerning population, poverty, waste, the arms race, and hunger are presented. The global issue related to each problem is discussed, and the solution and mathematical skill are provided. (RM)

  16. Nuclear safety - Topical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The following topical issues related to nuclear safety are discussed: steam generators; maintenance strategies; control rod drive nozzle cracks; core shrouds cracks; sump strainer blockage; fire protection; computer software important for safety; safety during shutdown; operational safety experience; external hazards and other site related issues. 5 figs, 5 tabs

  17. 19 (Special Issue)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mwakagugu

    19 (Special Issue). Tanzania Dental Journal 2017. 1. PRESIDENTS SPEECH AT THE OPENING CEREMONY OF THE TANZANIA DENTAL. ASSOCIATION 31ST SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE AND .... awareness on oral health issues, high tooth decay, gum diseases and predominant tooth extraction as consistently reported ...

  18. Volume 8 Issue 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Nelson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This issue is our third Students, Transitions, Achievement, Retention and Success (STARS Conference special issue held in July this year in Adelaide, Australia.   As is customary, this issue of the journal publishes the top research papers selected via a peer review process and the top Emerging Initiatives selected by the Conference Committee.    We are delighted to feature in this special  issue —Reflections on Student Persistence—prepared by Advisory Board member Professor Vincent Tinto, Distinguished University Professor Emeritus at Syracuse University, USA.  Vincent is a long-time friend and supporter of STARS and its predecessor FYHE Conferences and Journal.   In his article, Vincent explores the case for motivation to be considered as a significant aspect of the tertiary student psyche by drawing on theoretical frameworks, research and practical experiences related to the issue.

  19. Special Issue to publish

    OpenAIRE

    Kllogjeri, Pellumb

    2015-01-01

    SciencePG has offered an email poster to help collect papers for our Special Issue and I have uploaded it for you. Please visit http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/specialissue/149002  to see our Special Issue announcement. Now, you can do the followings to personally contribute and promote our Special Issue:1. Submit your paper related to the topics of interest 2. Upload it to your personal websites.3. Upload it to the public websites of some universities and academic institutions...

  20. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table ... turn Javascript on. What is a High-Risk Pregnancy? All pregnancies involve a certain degree of risk ...

  1. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  2. Medical Issues: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

  3. Strategic Issues for Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, David, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Contains precis of 18 articles on strategic management issues, including management development, on-the-job training, corporate scholarship, educational technology, coaching, investing in intellectual capital, and knowledge management. (SK)

  4. Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Pregnancy Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues Tahirah Diagnosed in 2003 Pregnancy ... in control groups without the disease. Effects of pregnancy on MS Before 1950, most women with MS ...

  5. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-05-16

    May 16, 2018 ... This paper discusses the issues and challenges faced during .... provision of this AELF's office is costly and need permission from the university's management. .... This is to deduct weeks for the assignment and tests because ...

  6. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... One of the important issues in the field of human education is the method of ... Encouragement and punishment method in Islamic management has been ... Concept of education refers to the cultivating human talent, this.

  7. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-22

    Mar 22, 2018 ... rameter of computation time and convergence rate. The two scheme have shown ... matrix and its inversion repeatedly for every iteration. This issue causes long ..... Some New Findings on Gauss-Seidel. Technique for Load ...

  8. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-02-01

    Feb 1, 2018 ... The main goal of this article is to analyze methodological issues in .... methodology and theory and historiology (theory of historic process) whose goal is to .... internal branches of sociology and interdisciplinary links of ...

  9. Respiratory Issues in OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory Issues in Osteogenesis Imperfecta \\ Introduction The respiratory system’s job is to bring oxygen into the body and remove carbon dioxide, the waste product of breathing. Because oxygen is the fuel ...

  10. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-04-16

    Apr 16, 2018 ... The dimensions to business process strategy factors are .... Investigation pains directed at further exploring these issues are very ... relationship management, material flow management, corporate culture in SMEs' Customer.

  11. Common Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  12. Fusion Canada issue 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-06-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on operation at Tokamak de Varennes, CRITIC irradiations at AECL, Tritium systems at TFTR, physics contribution at ITER. 4 figs.

  13. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... 1Faculty of Sports Science and Coaching, Universiti Pendidikan ... face obesity issues because of several factors such as changes in diet intake, lifestyle, physical ...... and its implications for policy and intervention strategies.

  14. Fusion Canada issue 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue TdeV tokamak updates, fusion research in Korea, CCFM program review, TdeV divertor plasma, and CFFTP program review. 4 figs.

  15. Sleep Issues and Sundowning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  16. Fusion Canada issue 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue ITER reactor siting, a major upgrade for TdeV tokamak, Ceramic Breeders: new tritium mapping technique and Joint Fusion Symposium. 2 figs

  17. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... Research Article. Special Issue ... In myriad studies implemented, the quality of life has been defined in different ways among which the .... service and trading users in living area. ... market, bakery, barber shop, restaurant, etc.

  18. Environmental Compliance Issue Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    An order to establish the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for coordination of significant environmental compliance issues to ensure timely development and consistent application of Departmental environmental policy and guidance

  19. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  20. Issues in Electronic Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadow, Charles T.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses issues related to electronic publishing. Topics include writing; reading; production, distribution, and commerce; copyright and ownership of intellectual property; archival storage; technical obsolescence; control of content; equality of access; and cultural changes. (Author/LRW)

  1. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... Assistant professor, Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran ... Discussing the issue of knowledge leads inevitably to the problem of beliefs because .... the level of definition from truth at the level of examples.

  2. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-22

    Mar 22, 2018 ... Voltage decay is an important issue in the power system community. ... of voltage profile, the total real power loss in the system is also determined to ..... Kumar A. Optimal placement of DG in radial distribution systems based.

  3. Male Fertility Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertility issues are common in boys and men getting cancer treatment. Fertility preservation options include sperm banking, testicular shielding, testicular sperm extraction (TESE), and testicular tissue freezing. Support and clinical trials are listed.

  4. Fusion Canada issue 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue TdeV tokamak updates, fusion research in Korea, CCFM program review, TdeV divertor plasma, and CFFTP program review. 4 figs

  5. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-02-24

    Feb 24, 2018 ... ABSTRACT. Electronic Records and Information Management (e-RIM) framework is paramount for ..... RIM issues and problems that led to information crisis. On the other .... Malaysia: A case study in one government agency”.

  6. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... investigated and analyzed from various library and documentary ... It is therefore evident that applied research on issues related to ...... [29] Cutter-SL., Burton-CG., Emrich-CT., Disaster resilience indicators for benchmarking.

  7. Fusion Canada issue 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Fusion Materials Research, ITER physics research, fusion performance record at JET, and design options for reactor building. 4 figs

  8. Fusion Canada issue 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a funding report for CFFTP, a technical update for Tokamak de Varennes and a network for university research by the National Fusion Program. 4 figs

  9. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-04-18

    Apr 18, 2018 ... selectivity of possible lead compounds prior to clinical trials and ... These computational algorithms had resolved previous issues and .... In similarity with the spatial space degree of the universe, these descriptors are running ...

  10. Current Issues in Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Shi; Martinez, Larry R.; Hubert, Van Hoof; Tews, Michael; Torres, Leonardo; Farfán, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Ram (2015 Ram, Y. (2015). Hostility or hospitality? A review on violence, bullying and sexual harassment in the tourism and hospitality industry. Current Issues in Tourism. doi:10.1080/13683500.2015.1064364 [Taylor & Francis Online], [Google Scholar] . Hostility or hospitality? A review on violence, bullying and sexual harassment in the tourism and hospitality industry. Current Issues in Tourism. doi:10.1080/13683500.2015.1064364) posits that violence and harassment are areas of concern...

  11. Definition of containment issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Public Law 96-567 Nuclear Safety Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1980, directed the US Department of Energy (DOE) to provide an accelerated and coordinated program for developing practical generic improvements that would enhance the capability for safe, reliable and economical operation of Light Water Nuclear Reactor Power Stations. The DOE approach to defining such a program will consist of two phases, (1) definition of program requirements and (2) implementation of the program plan. This paper summarizes the results of the program definition phase for the containment integrity function. The definition phase effort was carried out by two groups of knowledgeable technical experts from the nuclear industry, one of which addressed containment integrity. Tabulated in the paper are the issues identified by the working groups and their associated priorities. Also tabulated are those high priority issues for which ongoing programs do not appear to provide sufficient information to resolve the issue. The results of this review show that existing programs to a great extent address existing issues in a manner such that the issues should be resolved by the programs

  12. The railroad perspective: Issues behind the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furber, C.P.; Brobst, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Rail transportation is a vital segment of DOE's spent fuel program. Most of the shipments from reactors to a repository or to a Monitored Retrievable Storage facility will be by rail, and essentially all of the shipments from an MRS to a repository. Casks must move economically and efficiently, while at the same time providing adequate safety to the public and transport workers, and meeting the legal/institutional constraints. Shippers are faced with the problem of procuring transportation services in a safe manner at a reasonable cost, trying to balance freight charges against cask inventory costs. Carriers are cautious about accepting potentially high hazard materials in routine service, and are worried about uninsured losses in case of accidents. Both shippers and carriers operate under different scheduling and operational criteria. Technical and institutional constraints add to the complexity of the operation. Standardization of shipping casks and rail car design will ease the resolution of the complex problems now existent. This paper discusses the economic, safety, operational, and legal issues surrounding rail transportation

  13. Regulatory and legal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisler, K.M.; Gregory, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered

  14. Year 2000 commercial issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratz, M.P.J.; Booth, R.T. [Bennett Jones, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers` obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs.

  15. Energy and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skea, Jim

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current energy-environmental issues. Firstly, the environmental problems associated with energy production and use are briefly described. Secondly, the paper reviews the availability of technological solutions to environmental problems, focussing particularly on atmospheric emission control. Finally, it moves on to look at recent policy developments in some parts of the world. Since the paper is written from the perspective of an industrialized country, emerging policy issues in Europe, Japan, and North America receive the greatest attention, with a particular focus on Europe where greenhouse gases and the proposed carbon tax have received a particularly high priority. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the issues arising from the 1992 UNCED (UN Conference on Environment and Development) and implications for the diffusion of cleaner technologies from North to South. (author). 36 refs

  16. Year 2000 commercial issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratz, M.P.J.; Booth, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers' obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs

  17. Volume 5, Issue 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Nelson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Feature in this issue is a conversation with Richard James, a highly respected Australian academic with extensive experience in research and policy development on the First Year Experience. Richard discusses the inevitability of universal participation in tertiary education and its impact on the style of participation, student diversity, the shifting focus of decision-making on standards and credentialism; and addresses the challenges posed by these and related issues for universities and the First Year Experience, along with possible solutions.

  18. Dips spacecraft integration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determan, W.R.; Harty, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy, in cooperation with the Department of Defense, has recently initiated the dynamic isotope power system (DIPS) demonstration program. DIPS is designed to provide 1 to 10 kW of electrical power for future military spacecraft. One of the near-term missions considered as a potential application for DIPS was the boost surveillance and tracking system (BSTS). A brief review and summary of the reasons behind a selection of DIPS for BSTS-type missions is presented. Many of these are directly related to spacecraft integration issues; these issues will be reviewed in the areas of system safety, operations, survivability, reliability, and autonomy

  19. Legal and institutional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Leaving aside the natural desire to avoid the difficulties imposed by the enormously complex siting and certification process, a utility might decide to forego adding new capacity because of a variety of legal and institutional disincentives. Some of these are discussed in this chapter. The addition of new lines to support a competitive generating market also raises unique institutional issues. Perhaps the most important of these is the question of who should pay for the necessary capital expenditures. This issue also is discussed in this section

  20. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-02-01

    Feb 1, 2018 ... the Russian philosophical and sociological thought. The thoughts of the Russian scientist ... Research Article. Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. Libraries Resource Directory. We are ...

  1. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... Research Article. Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. ... innovation is defined as: accepting ideas or behaviors in the organization that are novel and unfamiliar. Innovation can be in form ...

  2. Fusion Canada issue 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the ITER agreement signed with the EDA, the robotic maintenance for NET, the CFFTP Fusion Pilot Study, the new IEA joint programs on environment, safety and economic aspects of fusion power, and a review by the CCFM advisory committee. 3 figs.

  3. PKI Scalability Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Slagell, Adam J; Bonilla, Rafael

    2004-01-01

    This report surveys different PKI technologies such as PKIX and SPKI and the issues of PKI that affect scalability. Much focus is spent on certificate revocation methodologies and status verification systems such as CRLs, Delta-CRLs, CRS, Certificate Revocation Trees, Windowed Certificate Revocation, OCSP, SCVP and DVCS.

  4. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... Perak, Malaysia was observed under ral waste in powder and xtract generated optimum produce highest length of fectively improved shoot ed faster effect on C. ed positive result for the shed light on how the Z. C. nutans. This study ld application. pagation; Zea mays stem. Research Article. Special Issue ...

  5. Career Issues in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on career issues in organizations. "Learning During Downsizing: Stories from the Survivors" (Sharon J. Confessore) describes a study to demonstrate that survivors of corporate downsizings undertake learning activities and use many resources to accomplish the learning tasks.…

  6. Fusion Canada issue 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs

  7. Fusion Canada issue 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs

  8. Fusion Canada issue 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs

  9. Fusion Canada issue 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the 1996 IAEA Fusion Conference site, operations at the Tokamak de Varennes including divertor pumping of impurities and pumping of carbon monoxide and methane, a discussion of the CFFTP and it's role. 1 fig

  10. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-15

    Jan 15, 2018 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Scienc. ISSN 1112-9867 ... (0.9623, 0.3857) and (0.9975, ity, temperature, CO, UVB and. 10 concentration. In by using ANN or Fit model. Research Article. Special Issue .... The EM algorithm is a simple computational implementation to find the posterior mode. Fig.

  11. Fusion Canada issue 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the ITER agreement signed with the EDA, the robotic maintenance for NET, the CFFTP Fusion Pilot Study, the new IEA joint programs on environment, safety and economic aspects of fusion power, and a review by the CCFM advisory committee. 3 figs

  12. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... nology Management and Technopreneurship, Universiti Teknikal Mal .... development of SMEs which are recession, global sourcing, lack of ..... issues act as barriers to export which are product quality, logistics and shipping, ... may influenced on the supply chain of payment and the operation cost itself.

  13. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... ources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan ZainalAbidin, 22200 Besut, ... ty problem has become a major issue in Malaysia for the past two decade ... pollution can be defined as contamination of the indoor or outdoor ...

  14. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... twice in Iran (Department of Housing and Urban Development,2008,4). Thus, in recent years, ..... For example study of 1200 schoolchildren from four education regions in Tehran Showed that after ... In this case It is expected that be ... In a communication network issue Hierarchy, access and. Sidewalks are ...

  15. Research Issues in VDSL

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Research Issues in VDSL. How to cancel cross-talk? How to remove alien noise? Alien Noise is the crosstalk typically from non-VDSL users, using the same bundle. How to allocate power across different tones, also called Optimal Spectrum Balancing ...

  16. Introduction: The Transparency Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teurlings, J.; Stauff, M.

    2014-01-01

    Besides giving an overview on the individual contributions, this introduction to the special issue on transparency delineates a conceptual context for a critical analysis of the contemporary discourse on transparency and the media mechanisms related to it. It focuses on three ambivalences inherent

  17. Automated conflict resolution issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  18. Fusion Canada issue 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada`s participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs.

  19. Fusion Canada issue 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs.

  20. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... in the development of more up-to-date urban space. ... The goal of this paper is to analyze the issues of the organization of urban environment in ... The model of transport less micro-district Nebo (ACADEMIA gallery), the ...

  1. Fusion Canada issue 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs

  2. Fusion Canada issue 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the 1996 IAEA Fusion Conference site, operations at the Tokamak de Varennes including divertor pumping of impurities and pumping of carbon monoxide and methane, a discussion of the CFFTP and it`s role. 1 fig.

  3. Accelerating News Issue 5

    CERN Document Server

    Szeberenyi, A

    2013-01-01

    In this spring issue, we look at developments towards higher luminosity and higher energy colliders. We report on the technology developed for the remote powering of the LHC magnets and studies of diagnostics based on higher order mode port signals. We also inform you about the main outcome of the TIARA survey on market needs for accelerator scientists.

  4. Fusion Canada issue 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue the Canada - US fusion meeting in Montreal, fusion breeder work in Chile, new management at CFFTP, fast electrons in tokamaks: new data from TdeV, a program review of CCFM and Velikhov to address Montreal fusion meeting. 1 fig

  5. Fusion Canada issue 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Ontario Hydro`s contract for tritium supply from Germany, a CCFM update on plasma biasing, divertor operation, radiofrequency plasma current drive and the plasma heating system for the Tokamak de Varennes, and an agreement for ITER engineering design activities. 5 figs.

  6. Fusion Canada issue 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs.

  7. Fusion Canada issue 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs.

  8. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... technological innovations and the spread of knowledge. ... In this paper, we propose a conceptual model to search relevant scientific ... The digital libraries are becoming a source for discovering new research trends ... Text mining techniques are used to solve some particular business issues, so it is called.

  9. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... ethical issues behind the retrieval of organs (commitment to ... The article reviews the practices of European countries and attitude of the EU citizens to the .... knowledge that the purchase and sale of donor organs is prohibited ...

  10. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... stability is a very good issue of the power systems resilience to the high disturbances. In this paper, a mirror-fuzzy controller scaled by PSO has been proposed ... In many system analysis, the researchers have configured the ...

  11. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... you …? and passive form of a verb. In the Tatar language the verb kuru with gerund is used. In English for strengthening the auxiliary verb do, a modal verb must, a modal construction to be to are used. 6. DISCUSSIONS. The issue touched in this research is object of steady and long interest from domestic ...

  12. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. ISSN 1112-9867. Available online at http://www.jfas.info. Research Article. Special Issue .... of use. Three critical success factors of e-learning (instructor characteristics, student characteristics .... Total of 95 questionnaires were used for further data analysis.

  13. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative ... 1. Faculty of Engineering, Civil Engineering Department, Urmia Branch, ..... Table 4. Sections of the main components of 16 stories building ..... International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative ... Issue 1, January 2013.

  14. Fusion Canada issue 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue an economic impact study of the Canadian site for ITER, Harvey Skarsgard: fusion pioneer retires, NFP: Phillips and Holtslander exchange roles, Europe's fusion funding proposals and an update of CCFM/TdeV. 1 fig

  15. Overview of Special Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Harman, Donna; Allan, James; Kelly, Diane; Belkin, Nicholas J.; Bennet, Paul; Callan, Jamie; Clarke, Charles; Diaz, Fernando; Dumais, Susan; Ferro, Nicola; Harman, Donna; Ruthven, Ian; Sakai, Tetsuya; Smucker, Mark D.; Zobel, Justin

    2017-01-01

    This special issue of SIGIR Forum marks the 40th anniversary of the ACM SIGIR Conference by showcasing papers selected for the ACM SIGIR Test of Time Award from the years 1978-2001. These papers document the history and evolution of IR research and practice, and illustrate the intellectual impact

  16. Special Issue Editorial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While this special issue focuses on work in the South African context, ... practice) with youth addresses the key imperatives of (un)employment, age, ... patterns of male control over sexual encounters and women's sexuality are emergent ... in the paper by Ngabaza, Bojarczuk, Masuku and Roelfse, titled, 'Empowering young.

  17. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... Labor deployment issues play an important role in analyzing their use at the country or regional level .... The growth of employment in the service sector since the 50s, as a result of the rapid ... Hotels and restaurants. 23,0 ..... for the better, its number decreases and the quality of labor resources deteriorates.

  18. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... FEDERAL UNIVERSITY (FROM EMOTIONAL EDUCATION TO GLOBAL. THINKING ... ANNOTATION. The article highlights the topical issues of human education of the future humanistic- ... conditions (continuous self-education, updating and integration of educational resources on the basis of the ...

  19. Fusion Canada issue 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada's participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs

  20. Fusion Canada issue 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs.

  1. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... culture of Mamak frequenting restaurants in Malaysia, several issue has risen in relation to the .... employment of one group quasi experimental design was noted to be lacked in internal ... Food safety and quality division: ... self-reported practices of food service staff regarding food hygiene in Edirne, Turkey ...

  2. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... presented in the form of a matrix in which processing of vectors is conducted by a conveyor way. ... The modularity of structure of the product systemand standardization of basic operations allow to create ... Thus, the actual issue of modern CT is the organization and hardware support of parallel production.

  3. Fusion Canada issue 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue tritium supply for Japanese research, Canada to host the 1995 IAEA Conference on Tritium, studies on the tokamak divertor and edge plasma studies, a tritium field release study, erosion studies on plasma facing materials, G. Pacher returns to CCFM and an update on CCFM/TdeV

  4. Fusion Canada issue 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a technical update on Tokamak de Varennes, a report on the Beatrix II Breeding Materials Test Program, the Tritium glovebox system for UPM, Saudi Arabia, a broad update of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project is also included. 1 fig

  5. Issues of HRD. Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on issues of human resource development (HRD). "The Complex Roots of Human Resource Development" (Monica Lee) discusses the roots of HRD within the framework of the following views of management: (1) classic (the view that managers must be able to create appropriate rules and…

  6. Career Issues in HRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on career issues in human resource development (HRD). "Are Careers What They Used To Be: A Factor Analysis of Schein's Career Orientations Inventory" (Gerri Mukri, Sharon Confessore) is a statistical analysis of Schein's Career Orientations Inventory that finds the inventory to be a…

  7. Ethical issues in neurogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Wendy R; Roberts, J Scott

    2018-01-01

    Many neurogenetic conditions are inherited and therefore diagnosis of a patient will have implications for the patient's relatives and can raise ethical issues. Predictive genetic testing offers asymptomatic relatives the opportunity to determine their risk status for a neurogenetic condition, and professional guidelines emphasize patients' autonomy and informed, voluntary decision making. Beneficence and nonmaleficence both need to be considered when making decisions about disclosure and nondisclosure of genetic information and test results. There can be disclosure concerns and challenges in determining whose autonomy to prioritize when a patient makes a genetic testing decision that can reveal the genetic status of a relative (e.g., testing an adult child when the at-risk parent has not been tested). Ethical issues are prominent when genetic testing for neurogenetic conditions is requested prenatally, on minors, adoptees, adult children at 25% risk, and for individuals with psychiatric issues or cognitive impairment. Neurogenetic conditions can result in cognitive decline which can affect decisional capacity and lead to ethical challenges with decision making, informed consent, and determining the patient's ability to comprehend test results. The ethical implications of genetic testing and emerging issues, including direct-to-consumer genetic testing, disclosure of secondary findings from genomic sequencing, and use of apolipoprotein E testing in clinical and research settings, are also discussed. Resources for information about genetic testing practice guidelines, insurance laws, and directories of genetics clinics are included. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fusion Canada issue 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Darlington`s Tritium Removal Facility, work at universities on Deuterium Diffusivity in Beryllium, Fusion Studies, confinement research and the operation of divertors at Tokamak de Varennes. 5 figs.

  9. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... The issues of information placement are considered on the website of the educational ... At present, a considerable attention is paid to the automation of educational ... schedule from any device quickly, since the system is the WEB service, which allows ... the system adaptation for its use on mobile devices.

  10. International Issues in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Kai; Diaz, Carmen; Kelley, Karl; Papousek, Ilona; Dempster, Martin; Hanna, Donncha

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety, negative attitudes, and attrition are all issues presented in the teaching of statistics to undergraduates in research-based degrees regardless of location. Previous works have looked at these obstacles, but none have consolidated a multilingual, multinational effort using a consistent method. Over 400 Spanish-, English-, and…

  11. Ethical issues for librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Rasche

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It approaches the librarian ethics comprehending the Librarianship constitution from a systemic view. In this way, with the objective to raise issues to discuss professional ethics, it places the librarian in the work world and points approaches between exertion and relation context of the professionals themselves with the human rights and alteration ethics.

  12. Fusion Canada issue 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs.

  13. Fusion Canada issue 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a technical update on Tokamak de Varennes, a report on the Beatrix II Breeding Materials Test Program, the Tritium glovebox system for UPM, Saudi Arabia, a broad update of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project is also included. 1 fig.

  14. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. In megacities, exposure to high concentrations of air pollution, as a major concern on public health, is being felt worldwide problem. The issue of particulate matter especially the PM2.5 has become extremely crucial in Tehran, due to industrialization and population growth. Therefore, it.

  15. Fusion Canada issue 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the IAEA Plasma Biasing Meeting, the new IEA program -Nuclear Technology of Fusion reactors, TFTR tritium purification system, an update by CCFM on machine additions and modifications, and news of a new compact Toroid injector at the University of Saskatchewan. 1 fig

  16. Fusion Canada issue 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs

  17. Fusion Canada issue 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on a fusion cooperation agreement between Japan and Canada, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on plasma biasing experiments and boronization tests and a collaboration between Canada and the U.S. on a compact toroid fuelling gun. 4 figs

  18. Fusion Canada issue 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Darlington's Tritium Removal Facility, work at universities on Deuterium Diffusivity in Beryllium, Fusion Studies, confinement research and the operation of divertors at Tokamak de Varennes. 5 figs

  19. Fusion Canada issue 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Ontario Hydro's contract for tritium supply from Germany, a CCFM update on plasma biasing, divertor operation, radiofrequency plasma current drive and the plasma heating system for the Tokamak de Varennes, and an agreement for ITER engineering design activities. 5 figs

  20. Fusion Canada issue 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue the opening of the Garching ITER site, a CCFM/TdeV update,a tritium release field test, measuring radial profile of plasma current density on TdeV, power supplies for TdeV, 5th International Tritium Technology conference, and 1994 basic tritium course. 4 figs

  1. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-05

    Jun 5, 2016 ... because Amir al- Mu'minin's(peace be upon him) name is related to human perfection and. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. ISSN 1112-9867. Available online at http://www.jfas.info. Research Article. Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative ...

  2. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... We are listed under Research Associations. D THAT USES A ... Clinical Engineering, Toin University of Yokohama, Yokohama, Aoba ... Special Issue ..... advisable to run the prognosis results at least one hundred times with the Euclidean and ... They are some of the topics left for future research. 5.

  3. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    This topical issue of Physica Scripta collects selected peer-reviewed contributions based on invited and contributed talks and posters presented at the 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) which took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu, cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community of the workshop, we thank the referees for their careful reading and useful suggestions which helped to improve all of the submitted papers. A brief description of CEWQO The Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics is a series of conferences started informally in Budapest in 1992. Sometimes small events transform into important conferences, as in the case of CEWQO. Professor Jozsef Janszky, from the Research Institute of Solid State Physics and Optics, is the founder of this series. Margarita Man'ko obtained the following information from Jozsef Janszky during her visit to Budapest, within the framework of cooperation between the Russian and Hungarian Academies of Sciences in 2005. He organized a small workshop on quantum optics in Budapest in 1992 with John Klauder as a main speaker. Then, bearing in mind that a year before Janszky himself was invited by Vladimir Buzek to give a seminar on the same topic in Bratislava, he decided to assign the name 'Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics', considering the seminar in Bratislava to be the first workshop and the one in Budapest the second. The third formal workshop took place in Bratislava in 1993 organized by Vladimir Buzek, then in 1994 (Budapest, by Jozsef Janszky), 1995 and 1996 (Budmerice, Slovakia, by Vladimir Buzek), 1997 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 1999 (Olomouc, Czech Republic, by Zdenek Hradil), 2000 (Balatonfüred, Hungary, by Jozsef Janszky ), 2001 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 2002 (Szeged, Hungary, by Mihaly Benedict), 2003 (Rostock,Germany, by Werner Vogel and

  4. Canada's domestic nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Interfaith Program for Public Awareness of Nuclear Issues (IPPANI) is a committee of representatives of religious groups in Toronto, a group of people concerned about the moral and ethical implications of the operation of Canada's nuclear industry and of its exports to other countries. The faith groups represented are the Anglican Diocese of Toronto, the Baha'i Community of Canada, the Jewish Community of Toronto, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toronto and the United Church of Canada Toronto Conference. Wishing to encourage the Canadian government to enquire into this broad question, the faith groups established IPPANI and assigned to it the task of enhancing their knowledge of the nuclear industry. IPPANI was to develop an effective set of questions to be placed before governments and to promote public discussion so that governments might become more responsive to these issues

  5. Transmission issues in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levson, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlined the major issues and concerns facing users of the transmission system in Alberta. They include congestion management issues that make investors uncertain about power generation. It is necessary to know the difference between which transmission price signals will be faced by low cost cogeneration at Fort McMurray and Cold Lake coal-fired generation near Edmonton compared to combined cycle gas generation near Calgary. Import and export policy tariffs are another concern. Most new generation opportunities in Alberta require access to export markets, but transmission facilities for export need policy support and appropriate tariffs. It was noted that the past actions of Alberta's Transmission Administrator and balancing pool may be distorting market signals for ancillary service markets, and that loss studies and calculations need upgrading

  6. Drilling contract issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, G.B.; Worden, D.R.; Borbridge, G.K.D.

    1997-01-01

    Some selected issues which are facing both operators and contractors in drilling for oil and gas, such as the allocation of risk by contract and by statute and the implementation of new technologies, were discussed. There are three varieties of written drilling contracts used in Canada: (1) day work and meterage contracts, (2) master drilling agreements, and (3) contracts that are used in construction projects that do not specifically relate to drilling. Issues relevant to the contractual allocation of risk, to implementing new drilling technologies, to reconciling contract and statute liability, and the formation of strategic alliances for mutual benefit, and the factors contributing to the success of such alliances were explored. 12 refs

  7. Teaching nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is based on the assumption that the nuclear debate, both globally and within Britain, is one of critical importance in the late twentieth century and that it should therefore, at some juncture, be explored as part of the school curriculum. An essential part of 'good education' in a democratic society is to teach young people how to think about such an issue, but not what to think about it. This paper attempts to set out some of the key issues and dilemmas in relation to what we may call 'nuclear education'. It perhaps asks more questions than it gives answers, but they are all essential questions which teachers must ask themselves if they are to teach sensitively about these matters. Some of these questions are given as examples. (author)

  8. CULTURAL ISSUES IN ECONOMICS

    OpenAIRE

    Maciej Meyer

    2012-01-01

    This article has been written with the purpose of attracting attention to the cultural issues, or rather lack of them, in economics. This topic has not been taken frequently into theoretical considerations due to some difficulties, although its practical implications are of great importance. The meaning of institutions which are a part of cultures has been given more coverage in the literature. The following hypothesis is proposed: culture is an important but underestimated component of the e...

  9. Uruguay; 2011 Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    This 2011 Article IV Consultation—Selected Issues paper focuses on estimating potential output and the output gap and spillovers from agriculture in the case of Uruguay. It introduces additional economic information and theory to estimate potential output, shedding some light on the discussion of current monetary and fiscal policies. The objective is to take advantage of economic data to disentangle the most recent economic performance by introducing multivariate techniques. The paper also pr...

  10. Product Category Management Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Żukowska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present the issues related to category management. It includes the overview of category management definitions and the correct process of exercising it. Moreover, attention is paid to the advantages of brand management, the benefits the supplier and retailer may obtain in this way. The risk element related to this topics is also presented herein. Joanna Żukowska

  11. Malaysia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Malaysia highlights quantitative assessment of additional measures required during the medium term to achieve fiscal targets. The authorities aim to lower the budget deficit to about 3 percent of GDP by 2015, down from 4.0 percent in 2013, and to balance the budget by 2020. It suggests that ranking fiscal instruments under different fiscal policy goals can help policymakers identify the composition of fiscal adjustment based on their preferences. By combining ran...

  12. Medico legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Geraldine; Carter, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * An awareness of the legal issues involved in health informatics * The need for the privacy and security of the patient record * The legal consequences of a breach of the security of the patient record * The concept of privacy law and what precautions ought to be taken to minimize legal liability for a breach of privacy and/or confidentiality.

  13. Nanotechnology and accounting issues

    OpenAIRE

    Abedalqader Rababah

    2017-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a new advanced technology used in the industry. This study conducted an investigation on the literature and highlighted the accounting issues which related to the implement of nanotechnology, especially the change of cost structure and expected solutions for the increasing of indirect costs which need more accurate allocation to the unit of products. Also, this study investigated on the future expected accounting risks for using nanotechnology. Finally, this study will open ...

  14. Introduction to pricing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of pricing issues the proper pricing of transmission services is essential to efficient operation of the grid. Wheeling rights have little meaning if capacity on existing lines is scarce and there is no incentive to build new lines. Depending on the type of transmission pricing policies FERC adopts, the Commission may be able to encourage more voluntary wheeling service, and to influence decisions to build or upgrade the supply of facilities

  15. Wireless ATM : handover issues

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Fan; Käkölä, Timo

    1998-01-01

    Basic aspects of cellular systems and the ATM transmission technology are introduced. Wireless ATM is presented as a combination of radio ATM and mobile ATM. Radio ATM is a wireless extension of an ATM connection while mobile ATM contains the necessary extensions to ATM to support mobility. Because the current ATM technology does not support mobility, handover becomes one of the most important research issues for wireless ATM. Wireless ATM handover requirements are thus analysed. A handover s...

  16. Gender issues in translation

    OpenAIRE

    ERGASHEVA G.I.

    2015-01-01

    The following research is done regarding gender in translation dealing specifically with the issue of the translators’ gender identity and its effect on their translations, as well as on how gender itself is translated and produced. We will try to clarify what gender is, how gender manifests itself in the system of language, and what problems translators encounter when translating or producing gender-related materials

  17. Accelerating News Issue 3

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K; Tanguy, C; Wildner, E

    2012-01-01

    This summer saw CERN announce to a worldwide audience the discovery of a Higgs-like boson, so this issue takes a look at the machine behind the discovery, the LHC, as well as future plans for a possible Higgs factory in the form of LEP3. Looking ahead too are European strategies for particle physics and accelerator-based neutrino physics. In addition, taking stock of the work so far, HiLumi LHC and EuCARD showcase their latest results.

  18. JPRS Report, Environmental Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-06

    Fusion Technology Applied in Pollution Control [XINHUA 15 NovJ 27 Pollution-Free Chemical Fertilizer Enterprise Built [XINHUA 19 NovJ 27 EAST...INTER-AMERICAN AFFAIRS Nicaraguans Discover Illegal Lumbering by Costa Rican Companies [Managua LA PRENSA 31 Oct] 44 ARGENTINA Rally Protests...Nov] 74 New Rules for Operating Nuclear Plants Issued [Moscow Radio 14 Nov] 74 Expansion, Saftey of Bilibino Nuclear Power Station Discussed

  19. New Zealand; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper conducts a comparative analysis of the main determinants of GDP per capita growth in New Zealand and in other OECD countries to assess the relative importance of macroeconomic factors, institutional settings, and geographical location in New Zealand’s growth performance during the last 30 years. The estimation results find strong support for the view that geographical isolation has significantly hampered growth in New Zealand. The paper also reviews the internationa...

  20. Norway; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes inflation in Norway with a view to shedding light on this surprising development and the possible near-term course of inflation, using statistical and econometric analyses. The paper reviews recent developments of monetary policy and inflation in Norway, applies statistical and econometric tools to identify factors influencing inflation, and describes the implications of the analysis for policymaking. Using data for six advanced small open economies explici...

  1. Fusion Canada issue 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Canada's plans to participate in the Engineering Design Activities (EDA), bilateral meetings with Canada and the U.S., committee meeting with Canada-Europe, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on Plasma Biasing experiments and boronized graphite tests, fusion materials research at the University of Toronto using a dual beam accelerator and a review of the CFFTP and the CCFM. 2 figs

  2. Issues in waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Lennart; Robertson, Kerstin; Tullin, Claes [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Sundquist, Lena; Wrangensten, Lars [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Blom, Elisabet [AaF-Processdesign AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    The main purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art on research and development issues related to waste combustion with relevance for Swedish conditions. The review focuses on co-combustion in grate and fluidised bed furnaces. It is primarily literature searches in relevant databases of scientific publications with to material published after 1995. As a complement, findings published in different report series, have also been included. Since the area covered by this report is very wide, we do not claim to cover the issues included completely and it has not been possitile to evaluate the referred studies in depth. Basic knowledge about combustion issues is not included since such information can be found elsewhere in the literature. Rather, this review should be viewed as an overview of research and development in the waste-to-energy area and as such we hope that it will inspire scientists and others to further work in relevant areas.

  3. Editorial, Volume 5, Issue 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy L. Archuleta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to Volume 5, Issue 1 of the Journal of Financial Therapy! In this issue, four scholarly papers are presented along with two profiles and a book review. These four papers address very important issues, such as mental health therapists’ competency in working with financial issues, financial stress of college students, parental messages about money, and financial advice media.

  4. In This Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Coda This issue of the Journal, the last to be produced by the editorial staff in Austin, is remarkable only in the sense that each issue of this Journal is remarkable. In it teachers of chemistry share information, advice, and ideas that encompass a range as wide as chemistry itself. The Journal has always been a venue where the only important thread of commonalty was the goal of helping teachers--providing a "living textbook of chemistry", as it was dubbed by its founders. This textbook is different, however--it is written by its own readers and it has a new "edition" each month. This month's edition typifies the range of topics and issues found important by our readers (and authors): information about new ideas and research advances, new ways to look at and present the information we have, experiments and demonstrations to give students a first-hand exposure to chemistry, computer exercises to introduce those things that cannot be (or are too dangerous to be) presented first-hand, and ideas for better teaching techniques and classroom organization. With such a purview, it is no wonder that the articles in this issue range from the second law of thermodynamics (Frohlich, page 716) to building a Tesla coil from a car coil (Hall and Battino, page 817) and touch on such consequential topics as mimicking nature (Dennison and Harrowven, page 697) and the search for a silicon-based LED (Swisher, Richmond, and Sercel, page 738). New information about research is represented by part III of the series on electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (Hop and Bakhtiar, page A162). Senozan and Devore (page 767) look at data already long known about carbon monoxide poisoning and present a more subtle and complex explanation of the process than is usually seen in introductory texts. A really new way of looking at what we already know is the unique approach that Ginebreda (page 708) takes to waste recovery, applying the formalisms of thermodynamics to economic considerations

  5. The World energy issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2011-01-01

    This Power Point document proposes figures and data about the current world energy consumption, the various energy sources, the share of primary energy consumption by different sectors, and the levels of energy reserves. It addresses the issue of global warming (evolution of temperature, regional anomalies, the challenge of limitation of temperature, the greenhouse gas emissions), the strategic role of electricity (energy mix, heat production with electricity), energy savings, electricity production (key data on solar, wind, solar and biomass energy, possibilities of carbon capture, nuclear energy, costs of these different energies)

  6. Reliability issues in PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Ricky K.; Chan, Kelby K.; Stewart, Brent K.; Weinberg, Wolfram S.

    1991-07-01

    Reliability is an increasing concern when moving PACS from the experimental laboratory to the clinical environment. Any system downtime may seriously affect patient care. The authors report on the several classes of errors encountered during the pre-clinical release of the PACS during the past several months and present the solutions implemented to handle them. The reliability issues discussed include: (1) environmental precautions, (2) database backups, (3) monitor routines of critical resources and processes, (4) hardware redundancy (networks, archives), and (5) development of a PACS quality control program.

  7. Saudi Arabia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Saudi Arabia assesses Saudi Arabia’s role in the oil market and global economy. Saudi Arabia, the world’s largest producer and exporter of oil, has long played a systemically important role in the global oil market. Short-term fluctuations in Saudi Arabia’s oil production have partially reflected attempts to stabilize the global oil market. Saudi Arabia has on several occasions used its systemic role to raise production to fill global demand gaps created by large...

  8. Vacuum systems - thermal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The new high-energy synchrotron light sources currently under construction and the B-factories that are still in the planning stage present new challenges in the management of synchrotron radiation thermal loading. With particle energies from 6 to 9 GeV and currents from 0.3 to 2.5 mA, the total power and the power density of the resulting synchrotron radiation each present unique problems. The design issues involved in managing these new power levels are presented, as well as a survey of some of the proposed design solutions

  9. The money issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Dave; Haugh, Richard

    2003-06-01

    Volume is rising at a healthy pact. Technology is improving patient care. Many organizations have, out of necessity, strengthened business fundamentals, controlled costs and refined their focus. Yet not-for-profit hospitals are squeezed by a cash crunch that has balance sheets under pressure and credit downgrades outpacing upgrades--the result of shrinking investment income, rising pension obligations, low government reimbursement and other threats to operational stability. N&HN looks at the challenges, including recent fallout from the most pressing issues, how some systems have responded, and the pros and cons of borrowing now.

  10. Authoring Issues beyond Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierling, Ulrike; Szilas, Nicolas

    Authoring is still considered a bottleneck in successful Interactive Storytelling and Drama. The claim for intuitive authoring tools is high, especially for tools that allow storytellers and artists to define dynamic content that can be run with an AI-based story engine. We explored two concrete authoring processes in depth, using various Interactive Storytelling prototypes, and have provided feedback from the practical steps. The result is a presentation of general issues in authoring Interactive Storytelling, rather than of particular problems with a specific system that could be overcome by 'simply' designing the right interface. Priorities for future developments are also outlined.

  11. Turbine Replacement Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  12. Maintenance simulation: Software issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luk, C.H.; Jette, M.A.

    1995-07-01

    The maintenance of a distributed software system in a production environment involves: (1) maintaining software integrity, (2) maintaining and database integrity, (3) adding new features, and (4) adding new systems. These issues will be discussed in general: what they are and how they are handled. This paper will present our experience with a distributed resource management system that accounts for resources consumed, in real-time, on a network of heterogenous computers. The simulated environments to maintain this system will be presented relate to the four maintenance areas.

  13. Environmental issues in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, P.S.

    1991-10-01

    Global concern about the environment is increasing, and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is not immune from such concerns. The Chinese face issues similar to those of many other developing nations. The US Department of Energy is particularly interested in national and world pollution issues, especially those that may infringe on other countries' economic growth and development. The DOE is also interested in any opportunities that might exist for US technical assistance and equipment in combating environmental problems. Our studies of articles in the China Daily, and English-language daily newspaper published by the Chinese government, show that population, pollution, and energy are major concerns of the Chinese Communist Party. Thus this report emphasizes the official Chinese government view. Supporting data were also obtained from other sources. Regardless of the severity of their various environmental problems, the Chinese will only try to remedy those problems with the greatest negative effects on its developing economy. They will be looking for foreign assistance, financial and informational, to help implement solutions. With the Chinese government seeking assistance, the United States has an opportunity to export basic technical information, especially in the areas of pollution control and monitoring, oil exploration methods, oil drilling technology, water and sewage treatment procedures, hazardous waste and nuclear waste handling techniques, and nuclear power plant safety procedures. In those areas the US has expertise and extensive technical experience, and by exporting the technologies the US would benefit both economically and politically. 59 refs., 3 figs.

  14. CLOUD COMPUTING SECURITY ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin OGIGAU-NEAMTIU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “cloud computing” has been in the spotlights of IT specialists the last years because of its potential to transform this industry. The promised benefits have determined companies to invest great sums of money in researching and developing this domain and great steps have been made towards implementing this technology. Managers have traditionally viewed IT as difficult and expensive and the promise of cloud computing leads many to think that IT will now be easy and cheap. The reality is that cloud computing has simplified some technical aspects of building computer systems, but the myriad challenges facing IT environment still remain. Organizations which consider adopting cloud based services must also understand the many major problems of information policy, including issues of privacy, security, reliability, access, and regulation. The goal of this article is to identify the main security issues and to draw the attention of both decision makers and users to the potential risks of moving data into “the cloud”.

  15. Ethics issues in retrievability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.; Larsson, C.M.; Norden, M.

    2000-01-01

    We can isolate some issues, which should not be unresolved for a longer period of time. Disputes over well-defined waste management options fall in this category. The concept of retrievability has a possibility to invoke a series of questions in the minds of both specialists and non-specialists. It is intrinsically vague, in that it may refer to different phases in the repository's life, and to both open and closed repositories in the long time frame. Requirements for retrievability opens a series of issues, including open-ended philosophical question, which may give the impressions that things are not properly taken care of, since the experts differ in opinion. If such disputes cannot be resolved by consulting the existing legal framework, efforts should be made to put them to trial in the proper forum, i.e. parliament and national or local government or authorities, depending on the problem. In contrast, the value of institutional controls can easily be seen as an ethical value, whether included in the regulation of not. It has the potential to deter human intrusion and to allow remedial action by carrying information about a repository. (author)

  16. Energy issues in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhandi, M.

    1991-01-01

    The topic of the energy sector-and the petroleum sector in particular-in sub-Saharan Africa might well be considered an insignificant issue compared with many of the energy concerns which now command international attention. However, the World Bank believes that it is important for all those in international energy not to forget about the crucial problems facing Africa. They should become informed and concerned about these problems, and, hopefully, work together to bring about a satisfactory solution for an ongoing development dilemma. Simply put, the cost of imported energy to the African economy is exorbitantly high, sapping the resources needed to produce economic growth and social progress. This paper reports that, to address this issue, the World Bank is about to undertake a major initiative-two ground-breaking studies in the field of energy for sub-Saharan Africa. Both of these proposed studies are designed to find ways to reduce the burden of the cost of energy imports, mainly petroleum products, to this continent. One study will examine the design (and, subsequently, the implementation) of a rationalization scheme for the supply and distribution of petroleum products throughout sub-Saharan Africa. The other will consider the feasibility of transporting Nigeria's natural gas to neighbors to the west, all of which presently are importers of energy

  17. Technical issues for WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, T.O.

    1979-01-01

    Emplacement of wastes in the WIPP will include experiments on various waste types which will provide essential data on waste-rock interaction and repository response. These experiments will include evolution of the synergistic effects of both heat production, radiation, and actual waste forms. While these studies will provide essential data on the validity of waste isolation in bedded salt, they will be preceded by a broad-based experimental program which will resolve many of the current technical issues providing not only an assessment of the safety of performing such experiments but also the technical basis for assurance that the appropriate experiments are performed. Data and predictive modeling techniques, which are currently available, can bound the consequences associated with these technical issues. Predictions of the impact on public safety based on these analyses indicate that safe waste disposal in WIPP salt beds is achievable; however, a major use of WIPP will be to conduct realistic experiments with HLW forms to address some of the unresolved details of these waste/salt interactions

  18. Bituminous sands : tax issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examined some of the tax issues associated with the production of bitumen or synthetic crude oil from oil sands. The oil sands deposits in Alberta are gaining more attention as the supplies of conventional oil in Canada decline. The oil sands reserves located in the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River areas contain about 2.5 trillion barrels of highly viscous hydrocarbons called bitumen, of which nearly 315 billion barrels are recoverable with current technology. The extraction method varies for each geographic area, and even within zones and reservoirs. The two most common extraction methods are surface mining and in-situ extraction such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS); low pressure steam flood; pressure cycle steam drive; steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD); hot water flooding; and, fire flood. This paper also discussed the following general tax issues: bituminous sands definition; bituminous sands leases and Canadian development expense versus Canadian oil and gas property expense (COGPE); Canadian exploration expense (CEE) for surface mining versus in-situ methods; additional capital cost allowance; and, scientific research and experimental development (SR and ED). 15 refs

  19. Ethical issues in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Thomas

    2006-11-01

    The study gives an overview of ethical questions raised by the progress of neuroscience in identifying and intervening in neural correlates of the mind. Ethical problems resulting from brain research have induced the emergence of a new discipline termed neuroethics. Critical questions concern issues, such as prediction of disease, psychopharmacological enhancement of attention, memory or mood, and technologies such as psychosurgery, deep-brain stimulation or brain implants. Such techniques are capable of affecting the individual's sense of privacy, autonomy and identity. Moreover, reductionist interpretations of neuroscientific results challenge notions of free will, responsibility, personhood and the self which are essential for western culture and society. They may also gradually change psychiatric concepts of mental health and illness. These tendencies call for thorough, philosophically informed analyses of research findings and critical evaluation of their underlying conceptions of humans. Advances in neuroscience raise ethical, social and legal issues in relation to the human person and the brain. Potential benefits of applying neuroimaging, psychopharmacology and neurotechnology to mentally ill and healthy persons have to be carefully weighed against their potential harm. Questions concerning underlying concepts of humans should be actively dealt with by interdisciplinary and public debate.

  20. Environmental issues in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, P.S.

    1991-10-01

    Global concern about the environment is increasing, and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is not immune from such concerns. The Chinese face issues similar to those of many other developing nations. The US Department of Energy is particularly interested in national and world pollution issues, especially those that may infringe on other countries' economic growth and development. The DOE is also interested in any opportunities that might exist for US technical assistance and equipment in combating environmental problems. Our studies of articles in the China Daily, and English-language daily newspaper published by the Chinese government, show that population, pollution, and energy are major concerns of the Chinese Communist Party. Thus this report emphasizes the official Chinese government view. Supporting data were also obtained from other sources. Regardless of the severity of their various environmental problems, the Chinese will only try to remedy those problems with the greatest negative effects on its developing economy. They will be looking for foreign assistance, financial and informational, to help implement solutions. With the Chinese government seeking assistance, the United States has an opportunity to export basic technical information, especially in the areas of pollution control and monitoring, oil exploration methods, oil drilling technology, water and sewage treatment procedures, hazardous waste and nuclear waste handling techniques, and nuclear power plant safety procedures. In those areas the US has expertise and extensive technical experience, and by exporting the technologies the US would benefit both economically and politically. 59 refs., 3 figs

  1. Broadband network selection issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimer, Michael E.

    1996-01-01

    Selecting the best network for a given cable or telephone company provider is not as obvious as it appears. The cost and performance trades between Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC), Fiber to the Curb (FTTC) and Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line networks lead to very different choices based on the existing plant and the expected interactive subscriber usage model. This paper presents some of the issues and trades that drive network selection. The majority of the Interactive Television trials currently underway or planned are based on HFC networks. As a throw away market trial or a short term strategic incursion into a cable market, HFC may make sense. In the long run, if interactive services see high demand, HFC costs per node and an ever shrinking neighborhood node size to service large numbers of subscribers make FTTC appear attractive. For example, thirty-three 64-QAM modulators are required to fill the 550 MHz to 750 MHz spectrum with compressed video streams in 6 MHz channels. This large amount of hardware at each node drives not only initial build-out costs, but operations and maintenance costs as well. FTTC, with its potential for digitally switching large amounts of bandwidth to an given home, offers the potential to grow with the interactive subscriber base with less downstream cost. Integrated telephony on these networks is an issue that appears to be an afterthought for most of the networks being selected at the present time. The major players seem to be videocentric and include telephony as a simple add-on later. This may be a reasonable view point for the telephone companies that plan to leave their existing phone networks untouched. However, a phone company planning a network upgrade or a cable company jumping into the telephony business needs to carefully weigh the cost and performance issues of the various network choices. Each network type provides varying capability in both upstream and downstream bandwidth for voice channels. The noise characteristics

  2. Hydrogen peroxide safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.

    1993-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted to review the safety issues involved in handling hydrogen peroxide solutions. Most of the information found in the literature is not directly applicable to conditions at the Rocky Flats Plant, but one report describes experimental work conducted previously at Rocky Flats to determine decomposition reaction-rate constants for hydrogen peroxide solutions. Data from this report were used to calculate decomposition half-life times for hydrogen peroxide in solutions containing several decomposition catalysts. The information developed from this survey indicates that hydrogen peroxide will undergo both homogeneous and heterogeneous decomposition. The rate of decomposition is affected by temperature and the presence of catalytic agents. Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is catalyzed by alkalies, strong acids, platinum group and transition metals, and dissolved salts of transition metals. Depending upon conditions, the consequence of a hydrogen peroxide decomposition can range from slow evolution of oxygen gas to a vapor, phase detonation of hydrogen peroxide vapors

  3. Current issues in asteroseismology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazot, Michael; Monteiro, Mario J P F G; Straka, Christian W [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2008-10-15

    In this contribution we briefly review some of the current issues and promises for the future by asteroseismology. We are entering a new phase in this field driven by the wealth of data that has been collected and data that will soon be available for asteroseismology across the HR Diagram. Major difficulties in the descriptions of stellar interiors that arose in the second half of the 20th century may now be in part addressed and solved (this is the expectation{exclamation_point}) by asteroseismology with unprecedented precision. In this contribution we list some of the key open questions in stellar physics, the seismic data we expect to collect in the near future, and some techniques that will provide the tools to connect data and models.

  4. Nuclear fusion: The issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    The taming of fusion energy, has proved one of the most elusive quests of modern science. For four decades, the United States has doggedly pursued energy's holy grail, pumping more than $9 billion into research and reactor prototypes. This year, the federal government is slated to spend $339 million on fusion, more than the combined amount the government will spend for research on oil, natural gas, solar power, wind power, geothermal energy, biofuels and conservation. This article summarizes the technical, political in terms of international cooperation, economic, planning, etc. issues surrounding the continued development of fusion as a possible power source for the next century. Brief descriptions of how fusion works and of the design of a tokamak fusion machine are included

  5. Emotion, philosophical issues about.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonna, Julien; Tappolet, Christine; Teroni, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    We start this overview by discussing the place of emotions within the broader affective domain-how different are emotions from moods, sensations, and affective dispositions? Next, we examine the way emotions relate to their objects, emphasizing in the process their intimate relations to values. We move from this inquiry into the nature of emotion to an inquiry into their epistemology. Do they provide reasons for evaluative judgments and, more generally, do they contribute to our knowledge of values? We then address the question of the social dimension of emotions, explaining how the traditional nature versus nurture contrast applies to them. We finish by exploring the relations between emotions, motivation and action, concluding this overview with a more specific focus on how these relations bear on some central ethical issues. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Utility customer issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Customer issues affected by the restructuring of the $250 billion US electric power industry were discussed. In the past the industry's vertically integrated utilities conducted their business in protected geographic markets. With deregulation and greater competition, that industry structure will change. This presentation highlighted the strategies that Unicom is using to react to the restructuring of the electric power industry. The underlying principle is for the utility to reinvent itself to change its market orientation and focus on customer services, such as reliability, responsiveness, custom tailored solutions, and guaranteed savings over time. Attempting to become total energy providers and delivering integrated solutions to meet the needs of large industrial and commercial consumers, intensive market research, improved service and installation, and sophisticated customer retention initiatives will also have to be high on the agenda

  7. Feminist issues in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antrobus, P

    1987-01-01

    The United Nations Decade for the Advancement of Women, from 1975 to 1985, leaves a legacy of a deeper understanding of the issues, and the emergence of new networks with the experience and commitment to work for further changes. However, the role and status of women did not improve. There is a new commitment to struggle for the ending of all oppression, injustice and violence of all kinds at all levels. Feminism is a consciousness of all forms of women's oppression and a commitment to work against them. Feminist critiques illuminate the larger structures that oppress both women and men. New development theories embracing feminism are necessary to understand how patriarchy and economic systems propogate oppression. The production-oriented approach to rural development is flawed n failing to address women's lack of access to land, credit, training and new technologies. Overwhelming household tasks, cultural norms, and traditional attitudes limit women's involvement in training programs and other development activities. The basic needs approach to rural development provides access to vital services to meet a family's basic needs for nutrition, housing and clothing, and allows people's participation in decision making. However, women have little actual role in decision making so their needs, concerns and perspectives are not taken into account. Women are treated as instruments to achieve goals without appreciating their perspective. Project-based approached emphasize short term goals rather than laying the foundation for longterm changes. Few projects address structural issues or empower women. Projects must include education to increase personal growth and self reliance. Development planning can be enormously enhanced by taking gender differences into account and recognizing that people, specially poor women, can promote their own devleopment. Longterm strategies that challenge existing structures, address the existing economic order, and, most of all, recognize

  8. Issues in energy finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokher, Zeigham Islam

    As opposed to the well developed and understood equity markets, the energy markets are still in their infancy. The explosion of contracts, of both the primary and derivative types, are testament both to the existing size and the untapped growth potential of this exciting industry. However, because of its relative youth many basic issues in the energy markets remain unresolved. This thesis introduces some interesting questions and provides insights into these issues. Thematically, the chapters of this thesis are linked by an emphasis on valuation and risk management decisions. A contribution of this thesis is to show that subtle differences between the endogenous price process in our general equilibrium setting and the exogenous processes considered in earlier papers can generate significant differences in both financial and real option values. In addition to these valuation concerns there has been much debate about the corporate risk management function. Finance theory suggests that a value maximizing corporation should either be indifferent to hedging or, in the presence of certain imperfections, it should completely hedge all exposures. Both these extremes contradict empirical evidence. We show that existing corporate hedging behaviour is best explained in light of both physical market imperfections and directional predictions on future prices. While these speculative motives may arise from corporate hubris or genuine informational advantages, we argue that it would be difficult to implement private information in the absence of noise traders. Related to the risk management decision is the existence of futures risk premia. These premia have been thought to be cause by covariance with priced factors or due to the hedging demands of consumers and producers. This thesis argues that inventories serve as a signal of available quantity, which coupled with consumers fears regarding stockouts can induce a positive relationship between premia and inventories. In

  9. Drug Abuse on College Campuses: Emerging Issues. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This "Issues in Prevention" focuses on emerging issues concerning drug abuse on college campuses. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Drug Abuse Trends; (2) Q&A With Jim Lange; (3) Bath Salts; (4) Refuse to Abuse; (5) Related Federal Resource; and (6) Higher Education Center Resources.

  10. REGIONAL ISSUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and decision-making on a broad range of environmental ... systems seek changes in awareness, knDwledge. attitudes ... "infusion method" whereby environmental issues are dealt ... teachers on energy, water and population issues that will ...

  11. Medical and Dental Patient Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A RadiationAnswers.org Ask the Experts Medical and Dental Patient Issues What's My Risk? The risks of ... developed by our topic editors for this category: Dental-Patient Issues Medical CT Reference Books and Articles ...

  12. Recent regulatory issues in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, J.; Tiipana, P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents general regulatory issues from Finland since the last WWER Regulators Forum meeting in Odessa 11-13 October 2000. More specific issues concerning Loviisa NPP are described in the Annex of this paper. (author)

  13. Stock Issues in Aristotle's Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpine, Bill

    1977-01-01

    Defines "stock issue" by the manner in which they function in Aristotle's theory, reviews examples of modern theories of stock issues, examines previous investigations of the "Rhetoric," and analyzes Aristotle's approach to this aspect of argumentation. (MH)

  14. Acknowledgment - Issue 60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Executive Editor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Biblios wish to acknowledge the support of the following professionals who participated in the review process of submissions for our issue 60.ReviewersAndré Ancona Lopez (Universidade de Brasília - UnB, BrasilGildenir Carolino Santos (Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP, BrasilJacira Gil Bernardes (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, BrasilRodrigo Donoso Vegas (Universidad de Chile - UCHILE, ChileSaúl Hiram Souto Fuentes (Universidad de Monterrey - UDEM, MéxicoReviewers invitedAlejandro Uribe Tirado (Universidad de Antioquia - UDEA, ColombiaFernanda Passini Moreno (Universidade de Brasília - UnB, BrasilJosé Bernal Rivas Fernández (Universidad de Costa Rica - UCR, Costa RicaMarta Lígia Pomim Valentim (Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP, BrasilOrlando Corzo Cauracurí (Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos - UNMSM, PerúTerezinha Elisabeth da Silva (Universidade Estadual de Londrina - UEL, BrasilZaira Regina Zafalon (Universidade Federal de São Carlos - UFSCAR, BrasilIn the same way our acknowledge to University Library System (University of Pittsburgh - PITTS, USA by constant technical support and advice for our journal.

  15. Reagan issues mineral policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  16. Sex: a sensitive issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Health care workers and educators may need to improve their skills in discussing sensitive issues in order to elicit and understand what influences people's attitudes toward sex. While the health worker may be bent upon preventing HIV infection, advising on family planning, or teaching youth about sexual relationships, his or her audience may have other priorities. A good counselor/teacher must learn what people's concerns are and discuss sexual health within that context. It can be difficult talking about sex because sex is a private concern and many people are embarrassed discussing it. Even sex partners often find it difficult to talk to each other about sex. Appropriate communication techniques vary depending upon the situation. It depends upon whether one is addressing people on an individual basis or in groups, which people are being addressed, which organization one is representing, and what one's role is. Good communication is a two-way sharing of information. The different stages of life, common beliefs and myths, culture and religion, relationships between men and women, reasons for having sex, and sex practices are discussed.

  17. Issues of environmental (irresponsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Dundelová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author reflects the questions of humans’ relationship to the environment and of their ecological behaviour that becomes together with the development of modern technologies increasingly relevant just as the question whether humans are able to affect fundamentally the environment on the Earth by their activities. According to some authors (e.g. Ehrlich, 1968; Gore, 2006; Wilson, 1995; Winter, Koger, 2009; Šmajs, 2005 human survival is directly connected with people’s relationship to the nature; but other influential authors have contradictory opinions or they are at least afraid of overestimation of ecological activities that can lead to neglecting of other important problems (e.g. Simon, 1981; Goklany, 2007; Lomborg, 2007; Klaus, 2007, 2009.These issues are dealt in this article mainly from the perspective of psychological theories and concepts – the Freud’s concept of unconsciousness is discussed as well as groupthink, theory of dissonance, contingency trap, Milgram’s theory of autonomous and agentic state of consciousness, group and intergroup behaviour, social dilemma – tragedy of the commons. Achieving a sustainable way of life depends on the equilibrium between consumption of individuals and regenerative abilities of the natural environment. However, people still behave as if they were separated from the nature. The linking axis of this article is the question of psychic powers causing individual and collective ecological (irresponsibility and the resulting consequences.

  18. Year 2000 disclosure issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, N.; Kratz, M.P.J. [Bennett Jones, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The legal dilemma that the year 2000 (Y2K) problem presents with regard to disclosure requirements is examined. In particular, this paper reviews the complexities involved for customers, suppliers and business partners to communicate about Y2K issues. The review prominently features the many levels of statutory, regulatory and legal overlay that must be considered before any communication takes place . One of the major barriers to disclosure is the threat that any statements made by one company or individual to another may give rise to various forms of liability, including limitation, defamation, misrepresentation, detrimental reliance, collateral contracts and warranties or representations. The paper also describes recent Canadian and U.S. Y2K disclosure requirements for public companies. While the legislation is intended to promote the voluntary sharing of Y2K information, it also sets out conditions limiting the extent to which Y2K statements can be used as the basis for liability. Canadian regulatory bodies also have several policies in effect that compel issuers of new securities to emphasize uncertainties which are likely to be factors in Y2K, and public companies to discuss and analyze risks, events and uncertainties within the management discussion and analysis section of their annual reports that would cause reported financial information to be not necessarily indicative of future operating results or conditions, should those uncertainties materialize. 8 refs.

  19. In This Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Composing the Curriculum For your summer reading pleasure this month's issue provides a wide range of subjects and activities. Our lead article is a tribute to a chemist-composer, Lejaren A. Hiller, Jr., as well as an examination of the interesting relationship between chemistry (and science) and music. Like Hiller, Wamser and Wamser (page 601) love both chemistry and music, and this comes through loud and clear in their historical perspective on Hiller's work. Much of the rest of the issue impinges on the chemistry curriculum in one form or another. Rettich, Bailey, Frank, and Frick (page 638) describe an integrated first- and second-year curriculum being developed at Illinois Wesleyan University that includes all subdisciplines of chemistry. They describe ways to teach topics such as acids and bases so that the perspectives of (for example) organic and inorganic chemistry are integrated and contemporaneous. Those contemplating a popular reform, group work or cooperative learning, will be interested in Birk and Kurtz's program (page 615) for training teaching assistants using cooperative learning. Surely TAs who have participated in cooperative groups to develop their own techniques for handling discussion and lab sessions will be able to use group learning to better advantage. Several years ago the ACS Division of Chemical Education set up a Task Force on the General Chemistry Curriculum. With support from the National Science Foundation and others, the task force has been quite active. In addition to the summative reports published here (pages 617-636) on four areas in which general chemistry teaching can be improved, they have contributed many Forum columns in earlier issues of the Journal and have published much of their work in New Directions for General Chemistry: A Resource for Curricular Change; Baird W. Lloyd, ed. Our current approach to teaching electron configurations of the atoms is largely based on quantum theory Because of the mathematics required

  20. Radioactive waste storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state's boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected

  1. Year 2000 disclosure issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, N.; Kratz, M.P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The legal dilemma that the year 2000 (Y2K) problem presents with regard to disclosure requirements is examined. In particular, this paper reviews the complexities involved for customers, suppliers and business partners to communicate about Y2K issues. The review prominently features the many levels of statutory, regulatory and legal overlay that must be considered before any communication takes place . One of the major barriers to disclosure is the threat that any statements made by one company or individual to another may give rise to various forms of liability, including limitation, defamation, misrepresentation, detrimental reliance, collateral contracts and warranties or representations. The paper also describes recent Canadian and U.S. Y2K disclosure requirements for public companies. While the legislation is intended to promote the voluntary sharing of Y2K information, it also sets out conditions limiting the extent to which Y2K statements can be used as the basis for liability. Canadian regulatory bodies also have several policies in effect that compel issuers of new securities to emphasize uncertainties which are likely to be factors in Y2K, and public companies to discuss and analyze risks, events and uncertainties within the management discussion and analysis section of their annual reports that would cause reported financial information to be not necessarily indicative of future operating results or conditions, should those uncertainties materialize. 8 refs

  2. Issues in Forecasting CMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, V. J.

    2017-12-01

    I will present my view of the current status of space weather forecasting abilities related to CMEs. This talk will address the large-scale aspects, but specifically not energetic particle phenomena. A key point is that all models, whether sophisticated numerical contraptions or quasi-empirical ones, are only as good as the data you feed them. Hence the emphasis will be on observations and analysis methods. First I will review where we stand with regard to the near-Sun quantitative data needed to drive any model, no matter how complex or simple-minded, and I will discuss technological roadblocks that suggest it may be some time before we see any meaningful improvements beyond what we have today. Then I cover issues related to characterizing CME propagation out through the corona and into interplanetary space, as well as to observational limitations in the vicinity of 1 AU. Since none of these observational constraints are likely to be resolved anytime soon, the real challenge is to make more informed use of what is available. Thus, this talk will focus on how we may identify and pursue the most profitable approaches, for both forecast and research applications. The discussion will highlight a number of promising leads, including those related to inclusion of solar backside information, joint magnetograph observations from L5 and Earth, how to use (not just run) ensembles, more rational use of HI observations, and suggestions for using cube-sats for deep space observations of CMEs and MCs.

  3. Year 2000 compliance issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    This month, we continue our coverage of the year 2000 (Y2K) problem as it affects healthcare facilities and the professionals who work in them. We present the following articles: "Checking PCs for Y2K Compliance"--In this article, we describe the probable sources of Y2K-related errors in PCs and present simple procedures for testing the Y2K compliance of PCs and application software. "Y2K Assessment Equipment Expectations"--In this article, we review the Y2K compliance data from a small sampling of hospitals to help answer the question "What percentage of medical equipment will likely be susceptible to Y2K problems?" "Y2K Labeling of Medical Devices"--In this article, we discuss the pros and cons of instituting a program to label each medical device with its Y2K status. Also in this section, we present an updated list of organizations that support ECRI's Position Statement on the testing of medical devices for Y2K compliance, which we published in the December 1998 issue of Health Devices (27[12]). And we remind readers of the services ECRI can offer to help healthcare institutions cope with the Y2K problem.

  4. Hunger and Development [Issue Packet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Freedom from Hunger Foundation, Washington, DC.

    A variety of informational materials is compiled in this issue packet concentrating on hunger and development. They have been assembled to understand the issues associated with the facts of world hunger and to try to invent new forms of action and thought necessary to find the possibilities hidden in the hunger issue. Items include: (1) a fact and…

  5. Children's Literature: An Issues Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Masha Kabakow

    Meant as a reference and guide to critical evaluation of the way issues are treated in children's books, each of the nine chapters in this book can be used independently. Each chapter contains a discussion of an issue, a section that relates how particular books handle that issue, at least two suggestions for activities that teachers can use to…

  6. Education Studies: Issues & Critical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Derek; Mufti, Emmanuel; Robinson, John

    2006-01-01

    This major text for Education Studies students provides a critical account of key issues in education today. The text features: (1) A critical analysis of key issues in Education Studies to encourage students' thinking about education in the broadest terms; (2) Themed sections with introductions to link the issues discussed in each chapter; (3)…

  7. Fusion Canada issue 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Canada-Europe Accords: 5 year R and D collaboration for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) AECL is designated to arrange and implement the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) while EUROTAM is responsible for operating Europe's Fusion R and D programs plus MOU and EDA. The MOU includes tokamaks, plasma physics, fusion technology, fusion fuels and other approaches to fusion energy (as alternatives to tokamaks). STOR-M Tokamak was restarted at the University of Saskatchewan following upgrades to the plasma chamber to accommodate the Compact Toroid (CT) injector. The CT injector has a flexible attachment thus allowing for injection angle adjustments. Real-time video images of a single plasma discharge on TdeV showing that as the plasma density increases, in a linear ramp divertor, the plasma contact with the horizontal plate decreases while contact increases with the oblique plate. Damage-resistant diffractive optical elements (DOE) have been developed for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research by Gentac Inc. and the National Optics Institute, laser beam homogeniser and laser harmonic separator DOE can also be made using the same technology. Studies using TdeV indicate that a divertor will be able to pump helium from the tokamak with a detached-plasma divertor but helium extraction performance must first be improved, presently the deuterium:helium retention radio-indicates that in order to pump enough helium through a fusion reactor, too much deuterium-tritium fuel would be pumped out. 2 fig

  8. Mars Surface Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John

    2002-01-01

    Planetary exploration by astronauts will require extended periods of habitation on a planet's surface, under the influence of environmental factors that are different from those of Earth and the spacecraft that delivered the crew to the planet. Human exploration of Mars, a possible near-term planetary objective, can be considered a challenging scenario. Mission scenarios currently under consideration call for surface habitation periods of from 1 to 18 months on even the earliest expeditions. Methods: Environmental issues associated with Mars exploration have been investigated by NASA and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) as part of the Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap Project (see http ://criticalpath.jsc.nasa.gov). Results: Arrival on Mars will immediately expose the crew to gravity only 38% of that at Earth's surface in possibly the first prolonged exposure to gravity other than the 1G of Earth's surface and the zero G of weightless space flight, with yet unknown effects on crew physiology. The radiation at Mars' surface is not well documented, although the planet's bulk and even its thin atmosphere may moderate the influx of galactic cosmic radiation and energetic protons from solar flares. Secondary radiation from activated components of the soil must also be considered. Ultrafine and larger respirable and nonrespirable particles in Martian dust introduced into the habitat after surface excursions may induce pulmonary inflammation exacerbated by the additive reactive and oxidizing nature of the dust. Stringent decontamination cannot eliminate mechanical and corrosive effects of the dust on pressure suits and exposed machinery. The biohazard potential of putative indigenous Martian microorganisms may be assessed by comparison with analog environments on Earth. Even in their absence, human microorganisms, if not properly controlled, can be a threat to the crew's health. Conclusions: Mars' surface offers a substantial challenge to the

  9. Ethical issues in haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMichele, D; Chuansumrit, A; London, A J; Thompson, A R; Cooper, C G; Killian, R M; Ross, L F; Lillicrap, D; Kimmelman, J

    2006-07-01

    Ethical issues surrounding both the lack of global access to care as well as the implementation of advancing technologies, continue to challenge the international haemophilia community. Haemophilia is not given the priority it deserves in most developing countries. Given the heavy burdens of sickness and disease and severe resource constraints, it may not be possible to provide effective treatment to all who suffer from the various 'orphan' diseases. Nevertheless, through joint efforts, some package of effective interventions can be deployed for a significant number of those who are afflicted with 'orphan' diseases. With cost-effective utilization of limited resources, a national standard of care is possible and affordable. Gene-based diagnosis carries attendant ethical concerns whether for clinical testing or for research purposes, even as the list of its potential benefits to the haemophilia community grows rapidly. As large-scale genetic sequencing becomes quicker and cheaper, moving from the research to the clinic, we will face decisions about the implementation of prenatal, neonatal and other screening programs. Such debates will require input from not just the health care professionals but from all stakeholders in the haemophilia community. Finally, long-term therapeutic success gene transfer in small and large animal models raises the question of when and in which patient population the novel therapeutic approach should first be studied in humans with haemophilia. Although gene therapy represents a worthy goal, the central question for the haemophilia community should be whether it wishes to volunteer itself as a model for a much broader set of innovations.

  10. Issues in focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The issues worldwide that deserve attention pertain to international migration, the education of women, family planning, missing female children, and prevention and control of AIDS cases. Migration outside country borders has been increasing due to economic and social disparities, and uncounted and unrecognized refugees are fleeing environmental disasters. The educational status of women has increased over the past 30 years. For example, female illiteracy has declined among women aged 20-24 years from 19% to 8% in Latin America, from 38% to 12% in eastern and western Asia, and from 80% to 49% in Africa. These improvements are significant, but the problem remains, where, for instance in Africa, there is still extensive illiteracy (75% of females aged under 25 years). A 1993 Population Action International Report states that low female educational levels and weak family planning and health programs are related to large family size and high child death rates. During the 1980s family planning was linked with ecological concerns. Progress has been made in the increase in contraceptive users in developing countries from 14% to 53% during 1965-70. Fertility has declined from 6.1 children per woman in the 1950s to 3.7. Kenya is a good example of a country with high fertility that reduced fertility through its emphasis on family planning. Obstacles to increased prevalence of contraception still remain. In Mexico more than 50% of public birth control services are provided to women in secret due to fear of their husband's abuse. Population pressure can result in the loss of girl children through higher mortality, better nutrition, neglect, or gender preference in the early fetal stages. The challenge of AIDS will be in caring for the sick and adjusting to social changes due to the expected increases in orphaned children.

  11. The transportation issue management system: A tool for issue resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, K.M.; Boryczka, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    During the last decade, issue management programs have been developed and used by a number of large corporations in the United States. These systems have generally been designed to help senior program managers identify issues, develop strategic plans, and resolve issues. These systems involve scanning and abstracting literature to create a database that is then used for 1) issue identification, 2) issue analysis, 3) priority assessment, 4) development of corporate position/strategic options, and 5) action planning and implementation. Most of the existing systems rely on staff to identify trends in the computerized output, analyze the importance of the issue to the company, and assist in developing corporate responses. The Department of Energy has recently developed an issue management system for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management's (OCRWM) transportation program. This system is designed to help DOE identify institutional issues related to radioactive waste transportation, analyze the issues, and resolve them in a manner that is responsive to interested parties. The system will contain pertinent information from DOE technical reports, other federal documents, correspondence, professional journals, popular literature, newsclips, legislation and testimony. The program is designed around a number of institutional issues including: prenotification, physical protection procedures; highway, rail, and barge routing; inspections and enforcement of shipments; emergency response; liability, cask design and testing; overweight trucks; rail service; modal mix; infrastructure improvements; training standards, and operational procedures

  12. In This Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Advanced Instrumentation in the Educational Laboratory The instruments that chemists use in their research have changed dramatically in the past decades. The explosion in new techniques and their instrumental counterparts has been made possible by two significant advances. The rapid propagation of computer chips and circuitry provides opportunities to collect more specialized and refined data than ever before. Computer-controlled instruments can detect events that a human researcher would never perceive and can record hundreds of data points in the time that a person could only observe one or two. Coupled with these advances in technology are advances in theory that allow more sophisticated interpretation of data. A hundred years ago a sophisticated instrument was a balance that could weigh minute quantities. Today a sophisticated instrument is one that can identify the composition of that minute sample, determine its molecular weight, or reveal a great deal about its energy states and bonding. This bonanza of new instruments is wonderful for the research chemist but a curricular headache for the chemistry teacher. It takes more time to learn how to run an NMR than to use a balance, and more sophistication on the part of the student is needed to interpret the data. And yet many courses that only a generation ago sported an expensive analytical balance as its prize instrument now require students to understand and operate a whole panoply of complex tools. Teachers faced with accommodating these curricular changes will find several articles in this issue helpful--either providing information on new techniques or descriptions of how to incorporate them into the classroom. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is one of the newest tools that has been added to the analytical arsenal. It is an extension of mass spectrometry that overcomes the old barrier that allowed only analysis of low molecular weight, volatile compounds. It is now possible to use MS for

  13. Prioritization of generic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrit, R.; Minners, W.; VanderMolen, H.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents the priority rankings for generic safety issues related to nuclear power plants. The purpose of these rankings is to assist in the timely and efficient allocation of NRC resources for the resolution of those safety issues that have a significant potential for reducing risk. The report focuses on the prioritization of generic safety issues. Issues primarily concerned with the licensing process or environmental protection and not directly related to safety have been excluded from prioritization. The prioritized issues include: TMI Action Plan items under development; previously proposed issues covered by Task Action Plans, except issues designated at Unresolved Safety Issues (USIs) which had already been assigned high priority; and newly-proposed issues. Future supplements to this report will include the prioritization of additional issues. The safety priority rankings are HIGH, MEDIUM, LOW, and DROP and have been assigned on the basis of risk significance estimates, the ratio of risk to costs and other impacts estimated to result if resolutions of the safety issues were implemented, and the consideration of uncertainties and other quantitative or qualitative factors. To the extent practical, estimates are quantitative

  14. Ethical issues in neuroprosthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glannon, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Neuroprosthetics are artificial devices or systems designed to generate, restore or modulate a range of neurally mediated functions. These include sensorimotor, visual, auditory, cognitive affective and volitional functions that have been impaired or lost from congenital anomalies, traumatic brain injury, infection, amputation or neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Cochlear implants, visual prosthetics, deep brain stimulation, brain-computer interfaces, brain-to-brain interfaces and hippocampal prosthetics can bypass, replace or compensate for dysfunctional neural circuits, brain injury and limb loss. They can enable people with these conditions to gain or regain varying degrees of control of thought and behavior. These direct and indirect interventions in the brain raise general ethical questions about weighing the potential benefit of altering neural circuits against the potential harm from neurophysiological and psychological sequelae. Other ethical questions are more specific to the therapeutic goals of particular neuroprosthetics and the conditions for which they are indicated. These include informed consent, agency, autonomy (free will) and identity. Approach. This review is an analysis and discussion of these questions. It also includes consideration of social justice issues such as how to establish and implement fair selection criteria in providing access to neuroprosthetic research and balancing technological innovation with patients’ best interests. Main results. Neuroprosthetics can restore or improve motor and mental functions in bypassing areas of injury or modulating dysregulation in neural circuits. As enabling devices that integrate with these circuits, neuroprosthetics can restore varying degrees of autonomous agency for people affected by neurological and psychiatric disorders. They can also re-establish the connectedness and continuity of the psychological properties they had before injury or disease onset and thereby

  15. The hydrogen issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-01-17

    Hydrogen is often proposed as the fuel of the future, but the transformation from the present fossil fuel economy to a hydrogen economy will need the solution of numerous complex scientific and technological issues, which will require several decades to be accomplished. Hydrogen is not an alternative fuel, but an energy carrier that has to be produced by using energy, starting from hydrogen-rich compounds. Production from gasoline or natural gas does not offer any advantage over the direct use of such fuels. Production from coal by gasification techniques with capture and sequestration of CO₂ could be an interim solution. Water splitting by artificial photosynthesis, photobiological methods based on algae, and high temperatures obtained by nuclear or concentrated solar power plants are promising approaches, but still far from practical applications. In the next decades, the development of the hydrogen economy will most likely rely on water electrolysis by using enormous amounts of electric power, which in its turn has to be generated. Producing electricity by burning fossil fuels, of course, cannot be a rational solution. Hydroelectric power can give but a very modest contribution. Therefore, it will be necessary to generate large amounts of electric power by nuclear energy of by renewable energies. A hydrogen economy based on nuclear electricity would imply the construction of thousands of fission reactors, thereby magnifying all the problems related to the use of nuclear energy (e.g., safe disposal of radioactive waste, nuclear proliferation, plant decommissioning, uranium shortage). In principle, wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power have the potential to produce enormous amounts of electric power, but, except for wind, such technologies are too underdeveloped and expensive to tackle such a big task in a short period of time. A full development of a hydrogen economy needs also improvement in hydrogen storage, transportation and distribution

  16. Employee Assistance Program Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettleman, Alan G.; McGuire, William

    1999-01-01

    Employee Assistance Program (EAP) officers, as well as personnel in other disciplines from eight NASA Centers, attended this breakout session. Ms. Brenda Blair, MA, CEAP, a guest speaker at the conference, also attended as a consultant. Representatives from the NASA Centers introduced themselves and spoke briefly about their programs. In a discussion related to the conference theme on benchmarking, quality control issues within the EAP community and adequate documentation of cases were addressed. Disposition and provision for quality assurance checks for EAP providers in single person offices were also discussed. Ms. Blair presented methods for consulting with other NASA personnel in single person EAP offices as a quality control measure. EAP intervention in critical incidents was discussed. The question of whether EAP assistance is an asset or a potential liability in those situations was addressed. Suggestions were made of topics for future EAP video-teleconference topics. A program on EAP ethics was planned for a September video teleconference. Each person was asked to provide intake forms they use to Mr. Gettleman or Ms. Blair. Ms. Blair said she would review the forms to ensure that adequate notification is provided to the client for confidentiality. She would also review them to ensure they have adequate limits of confidentiality--a topic for future video teleconferencing. Mr. Gettleman described the NASA initiative to reduce stresses in the workplace, and the activities of an ad-hoc EAP group that will make recommendations to NASA senior management. Alternative training methods were discussed for reaching target audiences such as employees at risk, supervisors, and others. Pfc. David A. Pendleton, Victim Assistance Coordinator, U.S. Capitol Police. U.S. House of Representatives made a special presentation. Pfc. Pendleton was on duty during the tragic shooting of two Federal guards at the U.S. Capitol. He related the events immediately after the incident. He

  17. In This Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Organic Chemistry--New Challenges Perhaps more than any other of the chemical subdisciplines, the scope and focus of organic chemistry has been changed by modern technology and theoretical advances, and these changes have had an equally striking effect on the undergraduate curriculum. The main challenge in organic chemistry classes has shifted, in less than a generation, from memorizing all the groups, naming conventions, and classes of reactions to understanding complex interactions at the structural and electronic orbital level. As biochemistry and polymer chemistry have grown from being the purview of a few specialists to full-blown disciplines of their own, they have also migrated from interesting, but optional, chapters at the back of the book to separate courses in the curriculum. The availability of inexpensive instrumentation means undergraduates routinely use NMR and mass spec instead of melting points to identify their products. And the changes are continuing: segments of biochemistry are metamorphizing into molecular biology and polymer chemistry is finding interconnections with materials science. In fact, as our understanding of chemical reactions at molecular and electronic levels expands, it becomes more and more difficult to decide on demarcations between the subdisciplines. Organic chemistry is an organizational construct that once was useful for segregating certain topics into a coherent two-semester introductory course. Today, it covers so much territory that no one who is an "organic chemist" can know even a small fraction of the territory and faces unique challenges when designing and teaching undergraduate courses. In a wide spectrum of articles in this issue that fall under the "organic" umbrella--from environmental chemistry to new polymer products--teachers share their specific experiences and creative solutions to these challenges, providing their colleagues with new ideas, processes, and pedagogic approaches. To start off, we can examine

  18. Issues in environmental survey design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iachan, R.

    1989-01-01

    Several environmental survey design issues are discussed and illustrated with surveys designed by Research Triangle Institute statisticians. Issues related to sampling and nonsampling errors are illustrated for indoor air quality surveys, radon surveys, pesticide surveys, and occupational and personal exposure surveys. Sample design issues include the use of auxiliary information (e.g. for stratification), and sampling in time. We also discuss the reduction and estimation of nonsampling errors, including nonresponse and measurement bias

  19. Strategic pricing of equity issues

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Ritzberger; Frank Milne

    2002-01-01

    Consider a general equilibrium model where agents may behave strategically. Specifically, suppose some firm issues new shares. If the primary market price is controlled by the issuing institution and investors' expectations on future equity prices are constant in their share purchases, the share price on the primary market cannot exceed the secondary market share price. In certain cases this may imply strict underpricing of newly issued shares. If investors perceive an influence on future sha...

  20. Policy issues in modern cartography

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, DRF

    1998-01-01

    Policy Issues in Modern Cartography contains the views of national mapping agencies, legal scholars, the library community, the private sector and academia on these and many other important issues. The book begins with perspectives from national mapping agencies in Britain, Canada and the United States followed by a survey of the situation in Asia. The next three chapters deal primarily with legal issues such as copyright and intellectual property from both North American and European perspectives. Chapter 8 presents an important perspective on the key issues by a representative of the privat

  1. Nuclear reactors safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Francois; Seiler, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Since the seventies, economic incentives have led the utilities to drive a permanent evolution of the light water reactor (LWR). The evolution deals with the reactor designs as well as the way to operate them in a more flexible manner. It is for instance related to the fuel technologies and management. On the one hand, the technologies are in continuous evolution, such as the fuel pellets (MOX, Gd fuel, or Cr doped fuels..) as well as advanced cladding materials (M5 TM , MDA or ZIRLO). On the other hand, the fuel management is also subject to continuous evolution in particular in terms of increasing the level of burn-up, the reactor (core) power, the enrichment, as well as the duration of reactor cycles. For instance, in a few years in France, the burn-up has raised beyond the value of 39 GWj/t, initially authorized up to 52 GWj/t for the UO 2 fuel. In the near future, utilities foreseen to reach fuel burn-up of 60 GWj/t for MOX fuel and 70 GWj/t for UO 2 fuel. Furthermore, the future reactor of fourth generation will use new fuels of advanced conception. Furthermore with the objective of improving the safety margins, methods and calculation tools used by the utilities in the elaboration of their safety demonstrations submitted to the Safety Authority, are in movement. The margin evaluation methodologies often consist of a calculation chain of best-estimate multi-field simulations (e.g. various codes being coupled to simulate in a realistic way the evolution of the thermohydraulic, neutronic and mechanic state of the reactor). The statistical methods are more and more sophisticated and the computer codes are integrating ever-complex physical models (e.g. three-dimensional at fine scale). Following this evolution, the Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), whose one of the roles is to examine the safety records and to rend a technical expertise, considers the necessity of reevaluating the safety issues for advanced

  2. Current Issues in Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbour, J B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester (United States)

    2007-02-07

    These colloquium proceedings will be valuable, the blurb says, for graduate students and researchers in cosmology and theoretical astrophysics. Specifically, the book 'looks at both the strengths and weaknesses of the current big bang model in explaining certain puzzling data' and gives a 'comprehensive coverage of the expanding field of cosmology'. The reality is rather different. Conference proceedings rarely compare in value with a solid monograph or good review articles, and Current Issues in Cosmology is no exception. The colloquium was convened by the two editors, who have both long harboured doubts about the big bang, and was held in Paris in June 2004. The proceedings contain 19 presented papers and relatively brief summary comments by four panel speakers. The questions and answers at the end of each talk and a general discussion at the end were recorded and transcribed but contain little of interest. The nature of the colloquium is indicated by panellist Francesco Bertola's comment: 'While in the 1950s it was possible to speak of rival theories in cosmology, now the big-bang picture has no strong rivals. This is confirmed by the fact that out of 1500 members of the IAU Division VIII (Galaxies and the Universe) only a dozen, although bright people, devote their time to the heterodox views.' This was largely a platform for them to give their views. At least half of the dozen, all the 'usual suspects', were present: Geoffery and Margaret Burbidge, Jayant Narlikar, Halton Arp, Chandra Wickramasinghe and, in spirit only but playing a role somewhat like the ghost of Hamlet's father, the late Fred Hoyle. Doubters presented 12 of the 19 papers. Orthodoxy should certainly be challenged and the sociology of science questioned, but I found two main problems with this book. The papers putting the orthodox view are too short, even perfunctory. The most that a serious graduate student would get out of them is a reference

  3. Current Issues in Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbour, J B

    2007-01-01

    These colloquium proceedings will be valuable, the blurb says, for graduate students and researchers in cosmology and theoretical astrophysics. Specifically, the book 'looks at both the strengths and weaknesses of the current big bang model in explaining certain puzzling data' and gives a 'comprehensive coverage of the expanding field of cosmology'. The reality is rather different. Conference proceedings rarely compare in value with a solid monograph or good review articles, and Current Issues in Cosmology is no exception. The colloquium was convened by the two editors, who have both long harboured doubts about the big bang, and was held in Paris in June 2004. The proceedings contain 19 presented papers and relatively brief summary comments by four panel speakers. The questions and answers at the end of each talk and a general discussion at the end were recorded and transcribed but contain little of interest. The nature of the colloquium is indicated by panellist Francesco Bertola's comment: 'While in the 1950s it was possible to speak of rival theories in cosmology, now the big-bang picture has no strong rivals. This is confirmed by the fact that out of 1500 members of the IAU Division VIII (Galaxies and the Universe) only a dozen, although bright people, devote their time to the heterodox views.' This was largely a platform for them to give their views. At least half of the dozen, all the 'usual suspects', were present: Geoffery and Margaret Burbidge, Jayant Narlikar, Halton Arp, Chandra Wickramasinghe and, in spirit only but playing a role somewhat like the ghost of Hamlet's father, the late Fred Hoyle. Doubters presented 12 of the 19 papers. Orthodoxy should certainly be challenged and the sociology of science questioned, but I found two main problems with this book. The papers putting the orthodox view are too short, even perfunctory. The most that a serious graduate student would get out of them is a reference to a far better review article or book on modern

  4. Theme Issue on Mass Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anapol, Malthon M., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Focusing on issues in mass communication, the six articles in this journal issue cover many facets and approaches to the topics. The first article offers a review of recent developments in the field and some comments about its future. The second article reviews feminism in comedies from the 1930s and in a current film, and the third analyzes the…

  5. Research Issues in Information Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molholt, Pat

    1989-01-01

    Discusses traditional library approaches to access to information and the possible impact of information technologies, library automation, and artificial intelligence. Access issues raised by these technologies are identified and a research agenda to explore these issues is outlined. (31 references) (CLB)

  6. Special Issue: Candida and Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniel E. Nett

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This special issue highlights emerging topics related to Candida, the most prevalent fungal pathogen in the hospital setting. The advantages and limitations of new, non-culture based diagnostic techniques are discussed. The issue reviews mammalian and non-mammalian infection models. The manuscripts present updates on several molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity, including filamentation, biofilm formation, and phospholipid production.

  7. Ethical Issues in Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bill; Simpson, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Teaching at a distance raises ethical issues particular to the distance context. When distance teaching is also online teaching, the situation is even more complex. Online teaching environments amplify the ethical issues faced by instructors and students. Online sites support complex discourses and multiple relationships; they cross physical,…

  8. NST Quarterly. January 1996 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in nuclear medicine, healthcare products sterilization, industrial irradiation dosimetry and heavy metals determination in food. The Malaysian standard for food irradiation was discussed in this issue

  9. Professional Emergence on Transnational Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    Addressing complex transnational problems requires coordination from different professionals. The emergence of new actors and issues has been addressed by those interested in studies of organizations through concepts and methods that highlight the importance of communities, fields, and networks...... they are conceptually linked by actors and organizations. A linked ecologies approach asks us to displace locating known actors within structures and instead pays attention to professional interactions on how ‘issue distinctions’ are made, the relationship between issue distinctions and professional tasks, and who...

  10. Psychosocial Issues in Geriatric Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo M

    2017-11-01

    Geriatric patients present multiple age-related challenges and needs that must be taken into account during the rehabilitation process to achieve expected goals. This article examines the importance of identifying and managing psychosocial issues commonly observed in older adults and presents strategies to optimize their rehabilitation process. Depression, anxiety, fear of falling, adjustment issues, neurocognitive disorders, and caregiver support are discussed as a selection of factors that are relevant for geriatric patients undergoing rehabilitation. An argument is made for the importance of comprehensive geriatric assessment in older adults to identify salient issues that may impact rehabilitation and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tribal-FERST Environmental Issue Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides links to the 45 issue profiles for Tribal-FERST users, organized with tabs to show issues related to pollutants, environmental media, health effects, other community issues, and all issues.

  12. C-FERST Environmental Issue Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides links to the 45 issue profiles for C-FERST users, organized with tabs to show issues related to pollutants, environmental media, health effects, other community issues, and all issues.

  13. SAT project introduction: management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazennov, A.Yu.

    1998-01-01

    Management issues of introducing SAT Project include main objectives and expectations; SAT goal and management; major phases of SAT implementation; project quality assurance; SAT based training system and procedures; role of the project team qualifications

  14. Special Issue: Engineering Digital Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio J. Garcia-Sabater

    2018-04-01

    We gratefully acknowledge the authors and particularly the reviewers, whose valuable comments have improved the quality of the selected papers, which were extended (and again reviewed by pairs after the conference in order to be published in this Special Issue.

  15. NST Quarterly. July 1996 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in in-vitro mutagenesis of ornamental plants, soil erosion studies and animal feed production from agricultural waste

  16. Atomic physics issues in fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Atomic physics issues have played a large role in controlled fusion research. A general introduction to the present role of atomic processes in both inertial and magnetic controlled fusion work is presented. (Auth.)

  17. NST Quarterly - January 1998 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in proposal of national networking for biotechnology culture collection centre (NNBCCC)

  18. NST Quarterly. October 1996 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in latex vulcanization (first RVNRL-based rubber gloves produced in Malaysia), tank floor scanning system (TAFLOSS), incineration and radiotherapeutic agent

  19. Issues Management Process Course # 38401

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binion, Ula Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this training it to advise Issues Management Coordinators (IMCs) on the revised Contractor Assurance System (CAS) Issues Management (IM) process. Terminal Objectives: Understand the Laboratory’s IM process; Understand your role in the Laboratory’s IM process. Learning Objectives: Describe the IM process within the context of the CAS; Describe the importance of implementing an institutional IM process at LANL; Describe the process flow for the Laboratory’s IM process; Apply the definition of an issue; Use available resources to determine initial screening risk levels for issues; Describe the required major process steps for each risk level; Describe the personnel responsibilities for IM process implementation; Access available resources to support IM process implementation.

  20. Professional Issues In Software Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bott, Frank; Eaton, Jack; Rowland, Diane

    2000-01-01

    An comprehensive text covering all the issues that software engineers now have to take into account apart from the technical side of things. Includes information on the legal, professional and commercial context in which they work.

  1. Prescribed burning: a topical issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovio G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Prescribed burning is a promising technique for the prevention of forest fires in Italy. The research deepened several ecological and operative aspects. However, legal issues need to be thoroughly investigated.

  2. Issues related to geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesperance, G.O.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a number of potential barriers to geothermal development in Hawaii which have been overcome but some remain. Efforts continue to address issues relating to transmission, project economics, the regulatory process, resource verification, and public acceptance

  3. NST Quarterly - April 1998 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in ionizing radiation as an alternative method for sanitization of herbs and spices

  4. Business Ethics: Some Theoretical Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Lluka, Valon

    2010-01-01

    Ethics can be defined as a process of evaluating actions according to moral principal of values. Throughout the centuries people were trying to choose between profit and moral. Perhaps, some of them obtain both, but every time it could have roused ethical issues. Those issues concern fairness, justice, rightness or wrongness; as a result it can only be resolved according to ethical standards. Setting the ethical standards for the way of doing business in corporation is primarily task of m...

  5. Current Issues in Maritime Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagtmann, Maria Anne

    2008-01-01

     In the early part of 2008, Maria Anne Wagtmann had the opportunity to interview the former president of the International Maritime Health Association, Dr. Tim Carter, in London about a number of current maritime health issues. In this interview, Dr. Tim Carter, who is cur­rently employed...... as the Chief Medical Advisor for the British government's Department for Transport, gives his personal - and thus non-official - opinions on these issues....

  6. Gender issues of financial analysts

    OpenAIRE

    Jingwen Ge

    2013-01-01

    Increased attention has been drawn to the gender disparity in workplace. This dissertation is dedicated to provide sight to the gender issues in financial analysts. Profound literature reviews are conducted about gender issues and financial analysts, respectively in order to comprehend the existing gender concerns in the business world, and role and functions of financial analysts. Research proposals are described to answer the following question: whether women financial analysts are more lik...

  7. Editorial: Special issue on education

    OpenAIRE

    Masal Ercan; Önder İsmail; Çalışkan Hüseyin; Beşoluk Şenol; Demirhan Eda

    2017-01-01

    This special issue consists of selected proceedings presented in ERPA International Congresses on Education 2017 which was held in Budapest / Hungary, 18-21 May 2017. Studies are related to educational sciences, science and mathematics education, social sciences education, health and sports science education, music and fine arts education, computer education and instructional technology, language education and management of education. There are eighty valuable studies in this special issue. I...

  8. Editorial: Special issue on education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masal Ercan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue consists of selected proceedings presented in ERPA International Congresses on Education 2017 which was held in Budapest / Hungary, 18-21 May 2017. Studies are related to educational sciences, science and mathematics education, social sciences education, health and sports science education, music and fine arts education, computer education and instructional technology, language education and management of education. There are eighty valuable studies in this special issue. In sum the results of studies will contribute to the field.

  9. Australian uranium - the environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddler, H.

    1980-01-01

    The principal theme of this paper is the changing pattern of issues which have dominated the environmental debate over uranium mining in Australia. These issues include the safeguards policy, a domestic energy policy, nuclear waste, economic development, particular environmental problems of the Alligator Rivers region and the social impact of uranium mining on the Aborigines. The special administrative arrangements which the Government has established for environmental protection in the Alligator Rivers region are outlined

  10. Characterizing Sleep Issues Using Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, David J; Hawkins, Jared B; Chunara, Rumi; Chatterjee, Arnaub K; Bhandari, Aman; Fitzgerald, Timothy P; Jain, Sachin H; Brownstein, John S

    2015-06-08

    Sleep issues such as insomnia affect over 50 million Americans and can lead to serious health problems, including depression and obesity, and can increase risk of injury. Social media platforms such as Twitter offer exciting potential for their use in studying and identifying both diseases and social phenomenon. Our aim was to determine whether social media can be used as a method to conduct research focusing on sleep issues. Twitter posts were collected and curated to determine whether a user exhibited signs of sleep issues based on the presence of several keywords in tweets such as insomnia, "can't sleep", Ambien, and others. Users whose tweets contain any of the keywords were designated as having self-identified sleep issues (sleep group). Users who did not have self-identified sleep issues (non-sleep group) were selected from tweets that did not contain pre-defined words or phrases used as a proxy for sleep issues. User data such as number of tweets, friends, followers, and location were collected, as well as the time and date of tweets. Additionally, the sentiment of each tweet and average sentiment of each user were determined to investigate differences between non-sleep and sleep groups. It was found that sleep group users were significantly less active on Twitter (P=.04), had fewer friends (Pcost-effective, and customizable data to be gathered.

  11. Ethical issues in exercise psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauline, Jeffrey S; Pauline, Gina A; Johnson, Scott R; Gamble, Kelly M

    2006-01-01

    Exercise psychology encompasses the disciplines of psychiatry, clinical and counseling psychology, health promotion, and the movement sciences. This emerging field involves diverse mental health issues, theories, and general information related to physical activity and exercise. Numerous research investigations across the past 20 years have shown both physical and psychological benefits from physical activity and exercise. Exercise psychology offers many opportunities for growth while positively influencing the mental and physical health of individuals, communities, and society. However, the exercise psychology literature has not addressed ethical issues or dilemmas faced by mental health professionals providing exercise psychology services. This initial discussion of ethical issues in exercise psychology is an important step in continuing to move the field forward. Specifically, this article will address the emergence of exercise psychology and current health behaviors and offer an overview of ethics and ethical issues, education/training and professional competency, cultural and ethnic diversity, multiple-role relationships and conflicts of interest, dependency issues, confidentiality and recording keeping, and advertisement and self-promotion.

  12. Introduction to the special issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Elordieta

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past few years there has been an intense and increasing collaboration effort between researchers working on the Iberian languages, and this is particularly true in the realm of phonetics and phonology. The 'Journal of Portuguese Linguistics 'has played a role in contributing to stimulate such a collaborative research focusing on the Iberian languages: first with a Special Issue on 'Variation and Change in the Iberian Languages: the Peninsula and Beyond', and now with a Special Issue on the 'Prosody of Ibero-Romance and Related Languages'. In fact, to broaden its scope of coverage to the Iberian languages has become an explicit goal of the journal. As guest-editors of this issue, we are very pleased to be able to contribute to this objective, which we find an extremely fruitful one.

  13. Legal issues in radon affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise

  14. Legal issues in radon affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuelle, M.H. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1999-12-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of expertsand the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise.

  15. Workplace bullying: an emergent issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essen, S Donovan; Esquivel, Cynthia; Jha, Pankaj

    2014-09-01

    All companies, including dentists, rely on their staff to represent their firms in the most positive and effective manner. Today's managers face a multitude of issues, and as such, they must walk a fine line of fostering a productive, harmonious and safe working environment for their employees. Over the last several decades it is apparent that on the- job sexual harassment is no longer the leading issue of employee complaints. Rather, the organization issue which was investigated is workplace bullying, also commonly referred to as employee harassment. Risk management is no longer limited to avoiding malpractice issues but also preventing litigation created by poor organizational behavior. The primary purpose of this paper is to explore the background of workplace bullying and how it affects today's managers and their employees, customers and suppliers. In other words, the scope of this paper will feature research on past studies, results and conclusions. Since workplace bullying affects all levels of a corporation, it must be stated that the concern and focus of this paper is for today's manager to understand the background and history of workplace bullying, and what they can do to foster a safe working environment and prevent the bully from creating mental and physical harm to their employees. This paper details the history of workplace bullying and how management, employees and suppliers deal with and address the issue. Lastly, this treatise looks at risk management from a manger/dentist's perspective, the assessment/conclusion summarizes the implications for managers regarding how they must handle the issue or risk harm to the employee and/or serious legal ramifications.

  16. Census 2001: issues and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the Census of India for 2001 and gender issues such as the sex ratio, undercounts of girls, tribe and scheduled caste data, and the data users' conference. The April 1998 conference was attended by representatives of government planning and development departments, research institutions, and statisticians and researchers. Under consideration was a government Ministry of Welfare proposal to reintroduce, after a 60-year hiatus, data by scheduled caste and tribe. This issue is complicated by criteria that vary by state and includability. Quotas for backward classes in educational institutions, government jobs, and in decision-making bodies are the reason for designations by caste. Some groups are distressed because of lack of inclusion as backward classes. M.N. Srinivas strongly advises that counting by caste will create problems for enumerators and will result in lawsuits and violent disturbances. G. Shah argues that caste counts will not weaken the caste system nor expand their political power, but will intensify internal conflicts between the Dalit and Bahujan movements. One other issue is the reintroduction of the 1961 Household schedule which provides family composition by landholding size and household enterprise. Krishnaji advises that this data would help analyze sex ratio imbalances. In 1997, the Core Group examined gender equity issues and operational issues about increasing the scope without increasing costs. The Core Group recommended caste data at the district and sub-district level. Undercounting of the female work force is a continuing issue from the 1991 Census. Suggestions by the Core Group are indicated in brief.

  17. Reproductive issues in anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R; Zerwas, Stephanie C; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2011-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of menstrual irregularities, women with anorexia nervosa are becoming pregnant. The physical and psychological demands of pregnancy and motherhood can represent an immense challenge for women already struggling with the medical and psychological stress of an eating disorder. This article summarizes key issues related to reproduction in women with anorexia nervosa, highlighting the importance of preconception counseling, adequate gestational weight gain, and sufficient pre- and post-natal nutrition. Postpartum issues including eating disorder symptom relapse, weight loss, breastfeeding, and risk of perinatal depression and anxiety are also discussed. PMID:22003362

  18. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, L.

    1997-01-01

    In this note the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection and risk assessment/management, the authors review ethical thinking on five key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these five issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) Equity vs. Efficiency, (2) Health vs. Economics, (3) Individual Rights vs. Societal Benefits, (4) Due Process vs. Necessary Sacrifice, and (5) Stakeholder Consent vs. Management Decisions (authors)

  19. Liquid metal heat transfer issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, H.W.; Yoder, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    An alkali liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor coupled with an alkali metal Rankine cycle provides a practicable option for space systems/missions requiring power in the 1 to 100 MW(e) range. Thermal issues relative to the use of alkali liquid metals for this purpose are identified as these result from the nature of the alkali metal fluid itself, from uncertainties in the available heat transfer correlations, and from design and performance requirements for system components operating in the earth orbital microgravity environment. It is noted that, while these issues require further attention to achieve optimum system performance, none are of such magnitude as to invalidate this particular space power concept

  20. Issues in Canadian LLRW management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the issues which are of concern in Canada are similar to those being discussed in the US because Canadian low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) production is similar in quantity and characteristics to that which will be handled by some state compacts. This paper gives a Canadian viewpoint of: the choice between interim storage and permanent disposal; the importance of considering inadvertent intrusion; the role of waste categorization and stability; and the concerns in assessing disposal performance. The discussion is related to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's LLRW disposal program, and its approach to resolving these issues

  1. Environmental issues: I - Energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, I.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental issues and policies. Overall, the paper also examines several issues related to energy utilization, environment, sustainable development from both current and future perspectives, and energy use and its environmental impacts in the transportation sector. Finally, the conclusions and recommendations are presented in the form to be beneficial to energy scientists, engineers and energy policy makers. (author)

  2. Editorial Volume 6 Issue 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciorstan Smark

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This issue of AABFJ has several finance articles related to the Australian securities market. Segara, Das and Turner (2012 report results from the use of active extension strategies in the Australian equities market. Lee (2012 examines whether individual hedge funds and funds-of-hedge funds (FOHFs exhibit risk-return trade-off patterns. Finally, Aldamen, Duncan and Khan (2012 explore the impact of corporate governance on the demand for debt in the Australian market. Pickering (2012 explores the issue of whether public (ASX listed or partnership ownership of accounting firms is the more efficient form.

  3. Anxious ultimatums: How anxiety disorders affect socioeconomic behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grecucci, A.; Giorgetta, C.; Brambilla, P.; Zuanon, S.; Perini, L; Balestrieri, M.; Bonini, N.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Although the role of emotion in socioeconomic decision making is increasingly recognised, the impact of specific emotional disorders, such as anxiety disorders, on these decisions has been surprisingly neglected. Twenty anxious patients and twenty matched controls completed a commonly used

  4. CANCER – THE ULTIMATUM FROM OUR CHEMICAL BASED CIVILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative effect of regular consumption of low amount of a large number of synthetic chemicals may create ultimately an environment inside our body leading to gereration of several types of diseases. Moreover, either DNA molecule of some tissue may get irreversible genetic damage or mutations or some tissue may start to grow abnormally due to the effect of those chemicals, both of which can lead to cancer, slowly but inevitably. To live with lesser number of hazardous diseases and for a healthy future generation, we must have to be conscious about these dangerous aspects of our chemical based civilization

  5. Emergence Issues - not so simple

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetics Supplement: Emergence Issues - not so simple. S Afr Fam Pract 2014. Vol 56 No 2 Supplement 1. Introduction. Emergence from anaesthesia is by definition the process of return to baseline physiological function of all organ systems after cessation of administration of general anaesthesia and is the stage from ...

  6. Current issues in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1994-12-01

    This review talk discusses some issues of active research in perturbative QCD. The following topics are discussed: (1) current value of αs; (2) heavy quark production in hadron collisions; (3) production of Ψ and Υ in p anti p collisions; (4) prompt photon production; (5) small-x and related phenomena; and (6) particle multiplicity in heavy quark jets

  7. Low carbon development. Key issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Frauke; Nordensvaard, Johan (eds.)

    2013-03-07

    This comprehensive textbook addresses the interface between international development and climate change in a carbon constrained world. It discusses the key conceptual, empirical and policy-related issues of low carbon development and takes an international and interdisciplinary approach to the subject by drawing on insights from across the natural sciences and social sciences whilst embedding the discussion in a global context. The first part explores the concept of low carbon development and explains the need for low carbon development in a carbon constrained world. The book then discusses the key issues of socio-economic, political and technological nature for low carbon development, exploring topics such as the political economy, social justice, financing and carbon markets, and technologies and innovation for low carbon development. This is followed by key issues for low carbon development in policy and practice, which is presented based on cross-cutting issues such as low carbon energy, forestry, agriculture and transportation. Afterwards, practical case studies are discussed from low carbon development in low income countries in Africa, middle income countries in Asia and Latin America and high income countries in Europe and North America.

  8. Current Issues and Distributive Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosal, Lorenca Consuelo

    1992-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan on the issue of distributive justice, or fairness in the ways things are distributed among individuals and groups. Includes a student reading concerning a proposed guaranteed standard of living. Proposes an activity that calls for student discussion of a constitutional amendment that would offer such a guarantee. (SG)

  9. Materials issues in cask development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.L.; Sorensen, K.B.

    1987-01-01

    This paper identifies potential new materials as a function of their use in the cask. To the extent that identified materials are not yet qualified for their intended application, this paper identifies probable technical issues and development efforts that may be required to qualify the materials for use in transportation casks. 1 tab

  10. Classroom Issues with Series Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Jawad; Euler, Russell

    2005-01-01

    We find infinite series in calculus to be one of the most confusing topics our students encounter. In this note, we look at some issues that our students find difficult or ambiguous involving the Ratio Test, the Root Test, and also the Alternating Series Test. We offer some suggestions and some examples, which could be a supplement to the set of…

  11. Virtual Special Issue on Migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordan, Declan; Elhorst, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This editorial introduces a virtual special issue of Spatial Economic Analysis compiled to mark the keynote lecture at the 46th Annual Conference of the Regional Science Association InternationalBritish and Irish Section in Cornwall by Professor Jacques Poot of the National Institute of Demographic

  12. Scale issues in tourism development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinji Yang; Lori Pennington-Gray; Donald F. Holecek

    1998-01-01

    Proponents of Alternative Tourism overwhelmingly believe that alternative forms of tourism development need to be small in scale. Inasmuch as tourists' demand has great power to shape the market, the issues surrounding the tourism development scale deserve further consideration. This paper discusses the implications and effects of the tourism development scale on...

  13. Constitutional Issues: Separation of Powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Leslie; Burroughs, Wynell

    1987-01-01

    Using a copy of a February 1937 letter from the publisher of the Gannett newspapers as a discussion springboard, this article provides historical background and teaching suggestions for addressing the issue of the separation of powers through Franklin Roosevelt's attempt to 'pack' the Supreme Court. (JDH)

  14. Defamation Issues in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazluke, Francine Tilewick

    This monograph reviews the law applying to defamation issues, cites various judicial decisions that affect colleges and universities, and offers guidance for minimizing the risk of defamation liability. It defines the two subclasses of defamatory statements: first, libel, which is a recorded or printed statement, and second, slander, which is…

  15. CONTEMPORARY AFRICAN PHILOSOPHY: EMERGENT ISSUES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    another on meta-philosophical issues about African philosophy, their successors, in ... Key Words: African identity, hermeneutics and culture, ... Even the quest to overcome the hegemony of Western ..... African philosophers to rethink the principles, concepts, attitudes ... there is a certain openness to new possibilities at the.

  16. Ethical Issues in Media Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马慧

    2009-01-01

    Journalists are always confronted by ethical definitions on the daily basis during their media practice.In this article,some ethical issues happened in media practice are analyzed,and aspects of both news reporters and public opinion are deeply studied,and the balance between both professional and ethics is probed seriously as well.

  17. Ethical issues in animal cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Autumn

    2005-01-01

    The issue of human reproductive cloning has recently received a great deal attention in public discourse. Bioethicists, policy makers, and the media have been quick to identify the key ethical issues involved in human reproductive cloning and to argue, almost unanimously, for an international ban on such attempts. Meanwhile, scientists have proceeded with extensive research agendas in the cloning of animals. Despite this research, there has been little public discussion of the ethical issues raised by animal cloning projects. Polling data show that the public is decidedly against the cloning of animals. To understand the public's reaction and fill the void of reasoned debate about the issue, we need to review the possible objections to animal cloning and assess the merits of the anti-animal cloning stance. Some objections to animal cloning (e.g., the impact of cloning on the population of unwanted animals) can be easily addressed, while others (e.g., the health of cloned animals) require more serious attention by the public and policy makers.

  18. Preface. Current Issues in Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holy-Luczaj Magdalena

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This interdisciplinary volume consist of papers on various problems in contemporary ethics. It presents the following issues: equalizing the level of positive liberty, the phenomenon of human cooperation, ethical questions related to artificial intelligence, extending ethical obligations toward artifacts, and soteriological threads of alienation criticism of religion.

  19. Controversial Issues in Learning Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Selma C.

    The author discusses controversial issues in the field of learning disabilities (LD). Among topics addressed are conflicting definitions of LD and the impact of the operational definition accepted by the US Government; etiological questions concerning the separation of neurological, environmental, and emotional factors; approaches used in training…

  20. Overriding information issues. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Vibeke

    1998-04-01

    The Nordic project on overriding information issues focus on why an information project, how to inform about a difficult subject in a modern society, how to provide advance information, how to inform when the accident has occurred and how to inform about NKS and projects. (au)

  1. Issues for the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Edith; Brown, Arnold

    1986-01-01

    Discussed are the issues now emerging that seem likely to dominate thinking, planning, and decision-making in the United States and elsewhere during the next decade. These include campus unrest, China as a world economic force, controlling health-care, birth defects, role of the computer in education, and human language/computer language. (RM)

  2. Special issue of photosynthetic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okamura, M.; Wraight, C.A.; van Grondelle, R.

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue of Photosynthesis Research honors Louis M. N. Duysens, Roderick K. Clayton, and George Feher, three pioneering researchers whose work on bacterial photosynthesis laid much of the groundwork for our understanding of the role of the reaction center in photosynthetic light energy

  3. Psychosocial Issues in Pediatric Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial oncology, a relatively new discipline, is a multidisciplinary application of the behavioral and social sciences, and pediatric psychosocial oncology is an emerging subspecialty within the domain of psychosocial oncology. This review presents a brief overview of some of the major clinical issues surrounding pediatric psychosocial oncology. PMID:23049457

  4. Counseling Research: Ethics and Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sharon E.; Gross, Douglas R.

    1986-01-01

    Identifies three global areas for reserach study: (a) clinical studies, (b) counselor training investigation, and (c) evaluation. Issues such as competency, informed consent, confidentiality and privacy, cooptation and manipulation, no treatment controls, validity and generalizability of results, and authorship are discussed. (Author/BL)

  5. Environmental issues affecting CCT development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainman, B. [U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The author discusses her thoughts on prospects for an energy policy from this Congress. She doesn`t believe the country will see any big sweeping energy policy acts or even utility deregulation in the next two years. Education on the issues is necessary. The author discusses the impacts for clean coal technologies and recommends continued aggressive work on deployment.

  6. Issues in Coastal Zone Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Derrin

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the following issues relevant to coastal zone management: overcrowding, resource exploitation, pollution, agriculture, fisheries, industrial, and other uses. Describes conflicts and trade-offs in management typified by fragmented agency decision making. Discusses implications of the greenhouse effect, sustainable development, and the…

  7. Contemporary issues in evolutionary biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We are delighted to bring to the readers, a set of peer-reviewed papers on evolutionary biology, published as a special issue of the Journal of Genetics. These papers emanated from ruminations upon and discussions at the Foundations of. Evolutionary Theory: the Ongoing Synthesis meeting at Coorg, India, in February ...

  8. Addressing Transgender Issues in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Marian

    2016-01-01

    As mainstream media focus more attention on transgender issues, and as anti-discrimination laws evolve, a shift is taking place on campuses. Many schools now include gender identity and expression in their inclusivity work and seek to establish policies and procedures to support transgender students and their families. It's not an easy task. In…

  9. Editorial Volume 4 Issue 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciorstan J. Smark

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This issue of AABFJ presents papers from a range of approaches and research topics in keeping with thejournal’s broad focus on accounting, finance and business. This issue includes the examination of microstructurefinance in the context of real estate pricing and an analysis straddling financial analysis and the roleof accounting standards in decision-making. The policing paper in accounting employs a socialconstructionist approach to the study of the New Zealand public sector. Business education is represented ina study of students undertaking internships as part of their university degree in commerce. In the last issue,the editors flagged the move to broaden the scope of the journal to include shorter articles and book reviews.This issue presents the first book review. Readers will no doubt notice that the printable Research Onlineformat has returned to A4. In an environment of resource constraints, both financially and environmentally,the editors decided that the revised format is more appropriate. As usual, electronic media is the mostprevalent mode of delivery.This

  10. Family Issues in Multigenerational Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinauer, Leslie L; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Studied issues faced by multigenerational families and their implications for family therapy. Major factors in multigenerational households included dependency, sibling relationships, depression, and demanding and egocentric behavior. Factors to consider during family therapy include respite care, age, interdependence, dignity, provision of care,…

  11. Cybernetics and Education (Special Issue)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopstein, Felix F., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This is a special issue examining the potential of cybernetics in educational technology. Articles discuss: cybernetic methods, algorithms, feedback learning theory, a structural approach to behavioral objectives and criterion-referenced testing, task specifications and diagnosis, teacher-child interaction, educational development, teaching…

  12. Communication: an ophthalmic practice issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, S J

    1995-12-01

    In the 1990's communication becomes an ophthalmic practice issue. The present ophthalmic climate of cost containment, downsizing, budget cuts, and lack of appreciation of contributions, results in a low staff morale. Recognition of the effects of job satisfaction and productivity led one group to seek solutions. A communication task force was formed to identify problems and the appropriate interventions.

  13. Menopause: Salient Issues for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Marilyn M.; Lynch, Ann Q.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses issues surrounding menopause, with the idea that counselors are in an ideal position to help change attitudes toward viewing menopause as a time of positive change rather than a time of psychological distress. Reviews historical, sociological, psychological, and attitudinal factors that account for negative responses associated with…

  14. Preface. Current Issues in Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Holy-Luczaj Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    This interdisciplinary volume consist of papers on various problems in contemporary ethics. It presents the following issues: equalizing the level of positive liberty, the phenomenon of human cooperation, ethical questions related to artificial intelligence, extending ethical obligations toward artifacts, and soteriological threads of alienation criticism of religion.

  15. Introducing to the first issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Acleto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The presentation of the first issue of the REVISTA PERUANA DE BIOLOGíA, as official organ of dissemination of ASOCIACION DE BIOLOGOS DE LA UNIVERSIDAD DE SAN MARCOS, the reverse of the COVER is included with editorial information and BACK COVER with guidelines for authors and the reverse table with the CONTENS.

  16. Conventional shell model: some issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallieres, M.; Pan, X.W.; Feng, D.H.; Novoselsky, A.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss some important issues in shell-model calculations related to the effective interactions used in different regions of the periodic table; in particular the quality of different interactions is discussed, as well as the mass dependence of the interactions. Mention is made of the recently developed Drexel University shell-model (DUSM). (orig.)

  17. NST Quarterly - issue October 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it reviews GM technology and GMOs - genetically modified organisms. The topics discussed includes the implication of GM in practice, the controversy and the prospect of GM technology. Radioactive pig - something like a ball or plug which cleanses the inner walls of the pipeline, also briefly presented

  18. NST Quarterly - October 1997 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in scientific computer modelling and simulation. A report on 2-nd FAO/IAEA research coordination meeting (RCM) of the coordinated research programme (CRP) on public acceptance of the trade development in irradiated food in Asia and the Pacific (RPFI-IV) also presented

  19. Complicating Issues in Holocaust Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Confronting the Holocaust in a classroom setting involves a complex undertaking that demands careful planning as educators develop and present curricula on the subject to their students. This article explores another problematic factor involved in teaching the Shoah, that is, several issues that exist outside the content/pedagogical framework but…

  20. Resolving Ethical Issues at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninga, Jacques S.

    2013-01-01

    Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…

  1. Malaysian Serials: Issues and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Che Norma

    This paper analyzes the issues and problems while looking at the trends and developments of serials publishing in Malaysia. The first section provides background; topics addressed include the country and people of Malaysia, the history of serials publishing in Malaysia, categories and formats of serials publishing, academic publications,…

  2. Psychosocial Issues in Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Alice B.

    1983-01-01

    Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)

  3. Classroom Implementation. Issues in Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Patricia A., Ed.

    This booklet, second in a series on issues in assessment, seeks to describe an initiative supported by Finger Lakes Community College (New York) to use classroom assessment techniques (CATs) in different academic areas and to present an overview of some assessment approaches that have been used in the classroom. Papers include: (1) "Enhancing…

  4. Strategic Issues in University Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosendaal, Hans E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss developments in the field of scientific information with the aim to determine and analyse some of the pertinent strategic issues related to higher education (HE) as seen from the stakeholder perspective of the university and its management.

  5. Study of rural transportation issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    This report is in response to Section 6206 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (PL : 110-246), which directs the Secretaries of Agriculture and Transportation jointly to conduct a : study of rural transportation issues. The report revie...

  6. Ethical issues with cognitive enhancement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drugs, so this is discriminatory on the basis of economic inequality. There are other ethical issues. Methylphenidate is licensed to be prescribed for ADHD and narcolepsy. Prescribing it to improve academic performance in a normal subject is prescribing the drug “off-label” and not in the recommendations of the producers.

  7. NST Quarterly - April 2000 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in genetic engineering. The articles summarized the improvement of orchids and tulips through genetic engineering and generating new varieties for the floriculture industry. It also reported, MINT won gold and silver at the International Invention 2000, 12-16 April 2000, Geneva

  8. Using Online Databases in Corporate Issues Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Steven R.

    1995-01-01

    Finds that corporate public relations practitioners felt they were able, using online database and information services, to intercept issues earlier in the "issue cycle" and thus enable their organizations to develop more "proactionary" or "catalytic" issues management repose strategies. (SR)

  9. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Lars

    2000-03-01

    Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report

  10. Editorial, Volume 7, Issue 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy L Archuleta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This issue features four articles, two profiles, and one book review. Each article adds a new contribution to the field of financial therapy. First, Dr. Asebedo applies a conflict resolution framework to money arguments. Next, Drs. Rea, Zuiker, and Mendenhall explore financial management practices among emerging adult couples. In the third paper, Drs. Ann Woodyard and Cliff Robb help to add further description of financial satisfaction. Then, Dr. Russell James offers a unique theoretical analysis of mortality salience and financial decisions. This issue also features a practitioner profile of Beth Crittenden and a scholar profile of Sarah Asebedo. Finally, we conclude with a review by Neal VanZutphen about a book entitled, The Seven Principles for Making Marriage Work.

  11. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Lars (ed.)

    2000-03-15

    Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.

  12. Accounting-related transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, M.; Bjorn, P.; Pate, G.

    1999-01-01

    Various initiatives have been undertaken by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to deregulate wholesale electric energy markets. These initiatives have focused on restructuring the transmission systems in the US and recently have culminated in a proposal requiring formation of and participation in regional transmission organizations. The overall form of regulation selected to determine rates for transmission entities as well as underlying regulatory decisions reached on key issues will have profound implications for transmission entities. For example, traditional cost-based regulation would require one set of accounting and reporting rules, while incentive-based regulation may not be subject to those same rules. An overview of some of the major accounting and financial reporting issues that will need to be considered is presented

  13. Foreword: Biomonitoring Equivalents special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, M E; Sonawane, B; Becker, R A

    2008-08-01

    The challenge of interpreting results of biomonitoring for environmental chemicals in humans is highlighted in this Foreword to the Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) special issue of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. There is a pressing need to develop risk-based tools in order to empower scientists and health professionals to interpret and communicate the significance of human biomonitoring data. The BE approach, which integrates dosimetry and risk assessment methods, represents an important advancement on the path toward achieving this objective. The articles in this issue, developed as a result of an expert panel meeting, present guidelines for derivation of BEs, guidelines for communication using BEs and several case studies illustrating application of the BE approach for specific substances.

  14. Technical issues in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohatgi, V.K.; Vijayan, T.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the issues in fusion reactor technology are examined. Rapid progress in fusion technology research in recent years can be attributed to the advances in various technologies. The commercial generation of fusion power greatly depends on the evolution and improvements in these technologies. With better understanding of plasma physics, fusion reactor designs are becoming more and more realistic and comprehensive. It is now possible to compare various concepts within the framework of established technologies. The technological issues needing better understanding and solutions to problem areas are identified. Various instabilities and energy losses are major problem areas. Extensive developments in reactor-relevant advanced materials, compact and powerful superconducting magnets, high-power systems, and plasma heating drivers need to be undertaken and emphasized

  15. Reliability issues at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Gillies, James D

    2002-01-01

    The Lectures on reliability issues at the LHC will be focused on five main Modules on five days. Module 1: Basic Elements in Reliability Engineering Some basic terms, definitions and methods, from components up to the system and the plant, common cause failures and human factor issues. Module 2: Interrelations of Reliability & Safety (R&S) Reliability and risk informed approach, living models, risk monitoring. Module 3: The ideal R&S Process for Large Scale Systems From R&S goals via the implementation into the system to the proof of the compliance. Module 4: Some Applications of R&S on LHC Master logic, anatomy of risk, cause - consequence diagram, decomposition and aggregation of the system. Module 5: Lessons learned from R&S Application in various Technologies Success stories, pitfalls, constrains in data and methods, limitations per se, experienced in aviation, space, process, nuclear, offshore and transport systems and plants. The Lectures will reflect in summary the compromise in...

  16. YOUNG INVESTIGATOR SPECIAL ISSUE (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Eils

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the first Young Investigator Special Issue of the Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (JSSM. The JSSM family is proud to start this new service to the Sport Science community and to young researchers. The background in starting this issue was the observation that large amounts of high-quality research is conducted every year by students and young investigators, but often remains solely in local university libraries and never reaches the scientific community or databases. In addition, most international journals have a high threshold in accepting papers, and it is often hard to reach this level for junior scientists because of lack of experience, supervision or confidence. These are major reasons that delay or in some cases stop young researchers from publishing their valuable work. We all received help from senior colleagues in the beginning of our career. Now it is our turn to help youngsters. With this special issue, the JSSM is now serving young researchers as a channel for publishing their work. Our goal is to motivate young researchers to submit their work to JSSM, but we also aim to motivate supervisors and expert referees to be supportive and constructive towards these young scientists at the very beginning of their career. The Young Investigator Special Issue followed a normal peer-review process, except that there were no straight rejections in the first phase of review. We advised the reviewers of the Young Investigator Special Issue to proceed with constructive advice and remarks for all manuscripts. This offered a great opportunity for the Young Investigators to revise the manuscript, while at the same time contributing to the learning process. Thereafter, if the revisions were properly conducted according to the remarks from reviewers, the manuscripts were accepted for publication. We have received many manuscripts from young researchers with a lot of potential. There has been plenty of evidence of great talent

  17. Calculating utility prudency issue costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear industry, particularly utilities and their construction, engineering and vendor agents, is faced with a surging increase in prudency management audits. What started as primarily a nuclear project-oriented requirement has spread to encompass most significant utility capital construction projects. Such audits are often a precedent condition to commencement of rate hearings. The cost engineer, a primary major capital construction project participant, is required to develop or critique ''prudency issue'' costs as part of such audits. Although utility costs in the broadest sense are potentially at issue, this paper concentrates on the typical project/construction management costs. The costs of design, procurement and construction are all subject to the calculation process

  18. Sustainability issues in civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saride, Sireesh; Basha, B

    2017-01-01

    This compilation on sustainability issues in civil engineering comprises contributions from international experts who have been working in the area of sustainability in civil engineering. Many of the contributions have been presented as keynote lectures at the International Conference on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure (ICSCI) held in Hyderabad, India. The book has been divided into core themes of Sustainable Transportation Systems, Sustainable Geosystems, Sustainable Environmental and Water Resources and Sustainable Structural Systems. Use of sustainability principles in engineering has become an important component of the process of design and in this context, design and analysis approaches in civil engineering are being reexamined to incorporate the principles of sustainable designs and construction in practice. Developing economies are on the threshold of rapid infrastructure growth and there is a need to compile the developments in various branches of civil engineering and highlight the issues. It is th...

  19. Issues in recycling galvanized scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koros, P.J. [LTV Steel Co., Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Hellickson, D.A. [General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI (United States); Dudek, F.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-02-10

    The quality of the steel used for most galvanizing (and tinplate) applications makes scrap derived from their production and use a premier solid charge material for steelmaking. In 1989 the AISI created a Task Force to define the issues and to recommend technologically and economically sound approaches to assure continued, unhindered recyclability of the growing volume of galvanized scrap. The AISI program addressed the treatment of full-sized industrial bales of scrap. The current, on-going MRI (US)--Argonne National Laboratory program is focused on ``loose`` scrap from industrial and post-consumer sources. Results from these programs, issues of scrap management from source to steel melting, the choices for handling zinc in iron and steelmaking and the benefits/costs for removal of zinc (and lead) from scrap prior to melting in BOF and foundry operations are reviewed in this paper.

  20. Clearing and vegetation management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Clearing and continued management of incompatible plant species is critical to maintaining safe and reliable transmission and distribution lines at British Columbia Hydro. As part of a general review of policies regarding rights-of-way, the clearing of BC Hydro rights-of-way was studied by a task team in order to formulate a set of recommended policies and procedures to guide employees in all rights-of-way decisions, and to provide clear direction for resolution of all rights-of-way issues in a cost-effective manner. Issues reviewed were: clearing standards and line security standardization for transmission circuits; clearing rights for removal of trees or management of vegetation beyond the statutory right-of-way; clearing and vegetation management procedures; tree replacement; arboricultural techniques; periodic reviewing of clearing practices; compensation for tree removal; herbicide use; and heritage and wildlife trees. Justification for the recommendation is provided along with alternate options and costs of compliance

  1. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikee Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for"another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  2. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy “for” another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents. PMID:23293432

  3. [DEONTOLOGICAL ISSUES IN RAILWAY HYGIENE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptsov, V A

    2015-01-01

    There are presented the main ethical and deontological problems encountered in practice and research activities of the hygienist in transport. There is shown the importance of strict compliance with hygienic standards, disregard for the principle of "technical attainability", the necessity of continuous training, improvement of skills of sanitary-educational activity and readiness to solve emerging ethical issues in connection with the development of scientific and technical progress.

  4. NST Quarterly - January 1997 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in local heat shrinkable copolymer and electron beam technology for purification of flue gases. It announces an International Nuclear Conference themed ' a new era in nuclear science and technology - the challenge of the 21 century ' will be held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from 29 to 30 Sept 1997

  5. System issues for multichip packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Maurice G.; Hartley, Neil

    1991-04-01

    It is now generally recognised that the performance of an electronic system is governed by the choice of packaging technology. Never before have the technical and financial implications of a packaging technology choice been more critical and never before has technology interdependence or industry globalisation made the choice more difficult. This paper is aimed at examining the choices available and the system issues resulting from the move from single chip to multichip packaging.

  6. [Ethical issues in transfusion medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, J-D; Danic, B; Cabaud, J-J; Garraud, O

    2016-09-01

    Ethics is on the cross road of off values that are present along the ways of transfusion medicine. This is an important tool to afford opinions as well as debates that always emerge when discussing transfusion medicine. The wording is particularly important; this was one among several others that characterized the soul of Jean-Jacques Lefrère when he opened the doors of the ethical issues of transfusion medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Reproductive issues in anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R; Zerwas, Stephanie C; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2011-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of menstrual irregularities, women with anorexia nervosa are becoming pregnant. The physical and psychological demands of pregnancy and motherhood can represent an immense challenge for women already struggling with the medical and psychological stress of an eating disorder. This article summarizes key issues related to reproduction in women with anorexia nervosa, highlighting the importance of preconception counseling, adequate gestational weight gain, and sufficien...

  8. Key issues for passive safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The paper represents a summary of the introductory presentation made at this Advisory Group Meeting on the Technical Feasibility and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems. It was intended as an overview of our views on what are the key issues and what are the technical problems which might dominate any future developments of passive safety systems. It is, therefore, not a ''review paper'' as such and only record the highlights. (author)

  9. Preterm birth, an unresolved issue

    OpenAIRE

    Beliz?n, Jose M; Hofmeyr, Justus; Buekens, Pierre; Salaria, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Premature birth is the world?s leading cause of neonatal mortality with worldwide estimates indicating 11.1% of all live births were preterm in 2010. Preterm birth rates are increasing in most countries with continual differences in survival rates amongst rich and poor countries. Preterm birth is currently an important unresolved global issue with research efforts focusing on uterine quiescence and activation, the ?omics? approaches and implementation science in order to reduce the incidence ...

  10. Digital Storytelling – Special issue

    OpenAIRE

    Yngve Nordkvelle

    2010-01-01

    Since the inception of Seminar.net the phenomenon of Digital Storytelling has often been suggested as a promising genre for teaching and learning in a variety of areas. Academically, the genre has attracted interest from scholars in media studies, political science, social work, health and education. In this issue we have sought attention from a huge number of academically inclined persons who either use the genre to teach with media, for teaching and learning about media, or studying how thi...

  11. Scale issues in remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Qihao

    2014-01-01

    This book provides up-to-date developments, methods, and techniques in the field of GIS and remote sensing and features articles from internationally renowned authorities on three interrelated perspectives of scaling issues: scale in land surface properties, land surface patterns, and land surface processes. The book is ideal as a professional reference for practicing geographic information scientists and remote sensing engineers as well as a supplemental reading for graduate level students.

  12. Accelerator Availability and Reliability Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Suhring

    2003-05-01

    Maintaining reliable machine operations for existing machines as well as planning for future machines' operability present significant challenges to those responsible for system performance and improvement. Changes to machine requirements and beam specifications often reduce overall machine availability in an effort to meet user needs. Accelerator reliability issues from around the world will be presented, followed by a discussion of the major factors influencing machine availability.

  13. Surrogacy: ethical and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-10-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for" another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  14. Environmental issues affecting CCT development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidy, M. [U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    While no final legislative schedule has been set for the new Congress, two issues with strong environmental ramifications which are likely to affect the coal industry seem to top the list of closely watched debates in Washington -- the Environmental Protection Agency`s proposed new ozone and particulate matter standards and utility restructuring. The paper discusses the background of the proposed standards, public comment, the Congressional review of regulations, other legislative options, and utility restructuring.

  15. Ethical Issues in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Greenfield, Bruce H.; West, Charles Robert

    2012-01-01

    Ethical issues present a challenge for health care professionals working with athletes of sports teams. Health care professionals?including the team physician, the physical therapist, and the athletic trainer?are faced with the challenge of returning an athlete to competition as quickly as possible but as safely as possible. Conflicts of interest arise due to conflicting obligations of the team physician to the athlete and other members of the sports organization, including coaches and the te...

  16. NST Quarterly - Oct 2000 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights the bioremediation of soils, the use of biological agents to reclaim soils and water polluted by substances hazardous to human health and/or the environment. Integrated waste management and thermal oxidation plant also reported, the topics discussed includes the role of the integrated waste management system, plant description and equipment design

  17. Key issues for passive safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayns, M R [AEA Technology, Harwell, Didcot (United Kingdom). European Institutions; Hicken, E F [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The paper represents a summary of the introductory presentation made at this Advisory Group Meeting on the Technical Feasibility and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems. It was intended as an overview of our views on what are the key issues and what are the technical problems which might dominate any future developments of passive safety systems. It is, therefore, not a ``review paper`` as such and only record the highlights. (author).

  18. Nordic Regional Report; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper elaborates findings and discussions of 2013 Cluster Consultation Nordic Regional report. The countries have close economic and financial ties and face some common challenges and shared risks, such as large banking sectors and high household debt. The economic performance of the four continental Nordic economies (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden—Nordic-4) ranks among the advanced economic development circle. It is analyzed that the large Nordic banking systems su...

  19. Republic of Lithuania; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper reviews public expenditure in Lithuania with a view to identify areas for which deeper reforms may be warranted to improve spending efficiency and contain future spending pressures. The paper benchmarks spending levels and spending composition in Lithuania against those in other European countries. The 31 European countries covered in the benchmarking exercise include the EU-28 plus Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland. Reflecting the tendency for public spending to inc...

  20. Issues about Human Resources Recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Aurel Manolescu

    2008-01-01

    As to ensure its success or even for surviving, organizations must settle accordingly some issues regarding the human resources enlistment, presented in great details within the article, whose success settlement ensure, concomitantly, the success of the entire assurance process with personnel, process extremely important, if there are taken into consideration, especially, the effects of some possible errors or hire errors. Therefore, the human resources recruitment tends to become a complex a...

  1. Issues in Moroccan Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Lazrak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Historically, education has always been the springboard for socio-economic development of nations. Undoubtedly, education proved to be the catalyst of change and the front wagon that drives with it all the other wagons pertaining to other dynamic sectors. In effect, the role of education can be seen to provide pupils with the curriculum and hidden curriculum skills alike; teaching skills that will prepare them physically, mentally and socially for the world of work in later life. In Morocco, the country spends over 26% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP on education. Unfortunately, though this number is important, Moroccan education (primary, secondary and higher education alike still suffers from the mismatch between the state expenditures on education and the general product in reality. In this article, an attempt is made to touch on some relevant issues pertaining to higher education with special reference to Morocco. First, it provides some tentative definitions, mission and functions of university and higher education. Second, it gives a historical sketch of the major reforms that took place in Morocco as well as the major changes pertaining to these reforms respectively. Third, it provides a general overview of the history of higher education in Morocco, it also tackles an issue related to governance in higher education which is cost sharing. Fourth, it delves into the history of English Language Teaching (ELT, lists some characteristics of the English Departments in Morocco. Fifth, it discusses the issue of private vs. public higher education. Last, but not least, it tackles the issue of Brain Drain.

  2. Policy issues in interconnecting networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, Barry M.

    1989-01-01

    To support the activities of the Federal Research Coordinating Committee (FRICC) in creating an interconnected set of networks to serve the research community, two workshops were held to address the technical support of policy issues that arise when interconnecting such networks. The workshops addressed the required and feasible technologies and architectures that could be used to satisfy the desired policies for interconnection. The results of the workshop are documented.

  3. Nuclear economics: Issues and facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear economics has become on the more prominent topics related to nuclear power. Beyond the subjects of nuclear safety and waste disposal, questions and concerns of nuclear power economics have emerged with growing frequency in utility board rooms, in state and federal regulatory proceedings, and in the media. What has caused nuclear power economics to become such a popular topic? This paper addresses issues and facts related to historical nuclear plant costs, new nuclear plant projections, and warning signals for future plants

  4. Open Issues in Evolutionary Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernando; Duarte, Miguel; Correia, Luís; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-term goals in evolutionary robotics is to be able to automatically synthesize controllers for real autonomous robots based only on a task specification. While a number of studies have shown the applicability of evolutionary robotics techniques for the synthesis of behavioral control, researchers have consistently been faced with a number of issues preventing the widespread adoption of evolutionary robotics for engineering purposes. In this article, we review and discuss the open issues in evolutionary robotics. First, we analyze the benefits and challenges of simulation-based evolution and subsequent deployment of controllers versus evolution on real robotic hardware. Second, we discuss specific evolutionary computation issues that have plagued evolutionary robotics: (1) the bootstrap problem, (2) deception, and (3) the role of genomic encoding and genotype-phenotype mapping in the evolution of controllers for complex tasks. Finally, we address the absence of standard research practices in the field. We also discuss promising avenues of research. Our underlying motivation is the reduction of the current gap between evolutionary robotics and mainstream robotics, and the establishment of evolutionary robotics as a canonical approach for the engineering of autonomous robots.

  5. Issues of the '90s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, C.F.

    1990-01-01

    Milt Ward has asked me to say a few words on two issues which have been high on the AMC regulatory agenda for many years--access to the public lands and the environment. Both lie at the interface between mining, an essential industrial activity, and the protection and conservation of other resource values. The operation of the mining law of 1872 has been under public scrutiny for many years. Many in the mining industry have cooperated in the development of workable regulations, realizing that regulation could have the effect of ameliorating the pressure for additional withdrawals or legislation limiting access to the public lands for exploration. Thus by the 1980s, the activities of some explorers and miners which in an earlier day gave rise to justified concern, all but disappeared from Public Lands. There can be no doubt that environmental issues are the most pressing issues confronting the domestic mining and minerals processing industries. Leaders in government willing to take a position on the appropriate balance between measurable costs and presumed benefits of environmental regulations are rare. Thus those of us involved in the creation of wealth for the use and benefit of our fellow men must commit ourselves to the unending task of communicating the benefits of our activities to the public which enjoy those benefits. The mining industry is an industry essential to our way of life. That fact should give us the continuing confidence to demonstrate and to communicate that we are responsible guardians of the world's resources

  6. Cancer survivors. Work related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Pamela N; Beck, Martha L; Stava, Charles; Sellin, Rena V

    2002-05-01

    New and more effective treatments for cancer have resulted in individuals living longer with a better quality of life. Many more survivors are employed in the workplace. Cancer is no longer only an issue for survivors and their families; it has become an issue for the employer and the workplace. This article describes survey results of 4,364 long term cancer survivors in which they were asked to respond to items describing their ability to work, job discrimination, and quality of life. Thirty-five percent of survivors were working at the time they completed the survey, and 8.5% considered themselves unable to work. This research has shown that age, gender, ethnic group, and cancer type affected the working status of the survivors. Of survivors continuing to work, 7.3% indicated they had experienced job discrimination. The results indicate most cancer survivors do not perceive employment related problems, and are readily assimilated into the work force. Job discrimination and the ability to work is a quality of life issue.

  7. Scientific issues in fuel behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The current limits on discharge burnup in today's nuclear power stations have proven the fuel to be very reliable in its performance, with a negligibly small rate of failure. However, for reasons of economy, there are moves to increase the fuel enrichment in order to extend both the cycle time and the discharge burnup. But, longer periods of irradiation cause increased microstructural changes in the fuel and cladding, implying a larger degradation of physical and mechanical properties. This degradation may well limit the plant life, hence the NSC concluded that it is of importance to develop a predictive capability of fuel behaviour at extended burnup. This can only be achieved through an improved understanding of the basic underlying phenomena of fuel behaviour. The Task Force on Scientific Issues Related to Fuel Behaviour of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee has identified the most important scientific issues on the subject and has assigned priorities. Modelling aspects are listed in Appendix A and discussed in Part II. In addition, quality assurance process for performing and evaluating new integral experiments is considered of special importance. Main activities on fuel behaviour modelling, as carried out in OECD Member countries and international organisations, are listed in Part III. The aim is to identify common interests, to establish current coverage of selected issues, and to avoid any duplication of efforts between international agencies. (author). refs., figs., tabs

  8. Special issue on asteroids - Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaković, Bojan; Hsieh, Henry H.; Gronchi, Giovanni F.

    2018-04-01

    The articles in this special issue are devoted to asteroids, small solar system bodies that primarily populate a region between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, known as the asteroid belt, but can also be found throughout the Solar System. Asteroids are considered to be a key to understanding the formation and evolution of our planetary system. Their properties allow us to test current theoretical models and develop new theoretical concepts pertaining to evolutionary processes in the Solar System. There have been major advances in asteroid science in the last decade, and that trend continues. Eighteen papers accepted for this special issue cover a wide range of asteroid-related subjects, pushing the boundaries of our understanding of these intriguing objects even further. Here we provide the reader with a brief overview of these thrilling papers, with an invitation for interested scientists to read each work in detail for a better understanding of these recent cutting edge results. As many topics in asteroid science remain open challenges, we hope that this special issue will be an important reference point for future research on this compelling topic.

  9. Special issue on network coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Francisco A.; Burr, Alister; Chatzigeorgiou, Ioannis; Hollanti, Camilla; Krikidis, Ioannis; Seferoglu, Hulya; Skachek, Vitaly

    2017-12-01

    Future networks are expected to depart from traditional routing schemes in order to embrace network coding (NC)-based schemes. These have created a lot of interest both in academia and industry in recent years. Under the NC paradigm, symbols are transported through the network by combining several information streams originating from the same or different sources. This special issue contains thirteen papers, some dealing with design aspects of NC and related concepts (e.g., fountain codes) and some showcasing the application of NC to new services and technologies, such as data multi-view streaming of video or underwater sensor networks. One can find papers that show how NC turns data transmission more robust to packet losses, faster to decode, and more resilient to network changes, such as dynamic topologies and different user options, and how NC can improve the overall throughput. This issue also includes papers showing that NC principles can be used at different layers of the networks (including the physical layer) and how the same fundamental principles can lead to new distributed storage systems. Some of the papers in this issue have a theoretical nature, including code design, while others describe hardware testbeds and prototypes.

  10. Safety issues on advanced fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, H.; Krebs, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    In the recent years a general discussion has started whether unsolved safety issues are related to advanced fuel. Advanced fuel is in this context a summary of features like high burnup, improved clad materials, low leakage loading pattern with high peaking factors etc. The design basis accidents RIA and Loca are of special interest for this discussion. From the Siemens point of view RIA is not a safety issue. There are sufficient margins between the enthalpy rise calculated by modern 3D methods and the fuel failures which occurred in RIA simulation tests when the effect of pulse width is taken into account. The evaluation of possible uncertainties for the established Loca criteria (17% equivalent corrosion, 1200 C clad temperature) for high burnup makes sense. But fuel with high burnup has significantly lower peaking factors than fuel with lower burnup. This gives sufficient margin counterbalancing possible uncertainties. In contrast to the above incomplete control rod insertion at higher burnup is potentially a real safety issue. Although Siemens fuel was not affected by the reported incidents they addressed the problem and checked that they have sufficient design margin for their fuel. (orig.) [de

  11. Reliability issues : a Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konow, H.

    2004-01-01

    A Canadian perspective of power reliability issues was presented. Reliability depends on adequacy of supply and a framework for standards. The challenges facing the electric power industry include new demand, plant replacement and exports. It is expected that demand will by 670 TWh by 2020, with 205 TWh coming from new plants. Canada will require an investment of $150 billion to meet this demand and the need is comparable in the United States. As trade grows, the challenge becomes a continental issue and investment in the bi-national transmission grid will be essential. The 5 point plan of the Canadian Electricity Association is to: (1) establish an investment climate to ensure future electricity supply, (2) move government and industry towards smart and effective regulation, (3) work to ensure a sustainable future for the next generation, (4) foster innovation and accelerate skills development, and (5) build on the strengths of an integrated North American system to maximize opportunity for Canadians. The CEA's 7 measures that enhance North American reliability were listed with emphasis on its support for a self-governing international organization for developing and enforcing mandatory reliability standards. CEA also supports the creation of a binational Electric Reliability Organization (ERO) to identify and solve reliability issues in the context of a bi-national grid. tabs., figs

  12. Issue Mapping for an Ageing Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.; Sánchez-Querubín, N.; Kil, A.

    2015-01-01

    Issue Mapping for an Ageing Europe is a seminal guide to mapping social and political issues with digital methods. The issue at stake concerns the imminent crisis of an ageing Europe and its impact on the contemporary welfare state. The book brings together three leading approaches to issue mapping:

  13. 12 CFR 16.8 - Small issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small issues. 16.8 Section 16.8 Banks and....8 Small issues. (a) The OCC will deem offers and sales of bank issued securities that satisfy the requirements of Commission Regulation A (17 CFR part 230, Regulation A—Conditional Small Issues Exemption) to...

  14. 5 CFR 511.607 - Nonappealable issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonappealable issues. 511.607 Section 511... UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Classification Appeals § 511.607 Nonappealable issues. (a) The following issues are not appealable to the Office under this subpart. Such issues may be reviewed under...

  15. 20 CFR 410.646 - Consolidated issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consolidated issues. 410.646 Section 410.646..., Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.646 Consolidated issues. When one or more additional issues are raised by the Administrative Law Judge pursuant to § 410.637, such issues may, in the...

  16. Gender relations and economic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, D

    1993-10-01

    While most discussions of economic issues pay no explicit attention to gender relations, most economic policy is marked by male bias which provides women with an unequal access to resources. This situation exists because most economists, officials, and business managers lack the imagination to see the gender impact of economic issues and most women's groups and researchers lack the language to portray this connection. This article explores some aspects of this gap and aims to provide women with the ability to effectively discuss economic issues. After an introduction, the article considers the basic problem caused by the fact that the economy is defined primarily in terms of money-making activities. This leads to a male bias since much of women's work occurs outside of the monetary sphere. The next section looks at how a failure to understand the significance of gender relations will interfere with the fulfillment of policy objectives. This discussion is followed by a description of how cutbacks in government expenditures increase the burden on women who must replace the services. Problems with the option of the private-sector replacing government services, such as the fact that increasing disposable income in households does not guarantee that unpaid labor will be reduced and the fact that the private sector may fail to expand in a productive way, are covered. The article then touches on the new emphasis placed by some economists and policy makers on cooperative and interactive solutions to these problems and ends by mentioning three new initiatives which seek to build capacity for gender-aware economic analysis: the development of a training program at Manchester University in the UK, coordination of an international research workshop by the University of Utah in the US, and development of an international association for feminist economics based in the US.

  17. Preface JFDE Special Issue Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Knaack

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facade Design and Engineering is a multidisciplinary field that touches many other scientific disciplines. Glass is one of the key materials for building envelopes, and a strong scientific community has developed over the last decade. Designers love glass for its transparency. It is strong but brittle and very demanding in terms of engineering. We continuously see new innovative developments in terms of its climatic performance, structural possibilities, construction design and new applications. Reason enough to dedicate this special issue to the topic. The issue would not have been possible without the contribution of our special editors Jan Belis and Christian Louter, who contributed through their outstanding editorial work and network. Most of the papers in this issue were carefully selected from of a number of invited submissions and conference papers of the COST Action TU0905 Mid-Term Conference, April 17+18 2013, Porec, (CRC Press/Balkema, Leiden and subsequently subjected to the regular blind review process of the journal. Glass as a building material demonstrates the nature of the architectural discipline, where science and building practice are closely linked. Buildings are the live testing bed for scientific research and, at the same time, building practice formulates new research questions. We found that many articles sent to us deal with this relation. Therefore we decided to introduce the new category ’Applied Practice’ for certain journal paper contributions, which from now on can be found at the end of each issue. Although they do not need to be purely scientific, ’Applied Practice’ papers will always discuss new developments, will have a clear structure and are subjected to the strict JFDE review process. Façade Design and Engineering is a peer reviewed, open access journal, funded by The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research NWO (www.nwo.nl. We see ’open access’ as the future publishing model. But it

  18. Privately issued money reduces GDP.

    OpenAIRE

    Musgrave, Ralph S.

    2017-01-01

    The majority of the money supply is issued by private banks, not central banks. However a system that restricts money creation to central banks has been advocated for many years by leading economists. There is no reason interest rates would not be at some sort of genuine free market rate under the latter system. In contrast, when private bank money is allowed, those banks undercut the free market rate of interest because it costs them nothing to come by the money they lend out: they effective...

  19. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma-edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  20. NST Quarterly - January 1999 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in radioactive tracer technique and medical services. Special report on the sediment tracing technique to study the sedimentation pattern at the power stations was presented. The syopsis on two new book launched by MINT also were reviewed. The books are Research Highlights on the Use of Induced Mutations for Plant Improvement in Malaysia and Rice Agro-Ecosystem of the Muda Irrigation Scheme, Malaysia. In medical services, MINT has a group, provide medical physics services such as QA checks on the country's diagnostic radiology equipment and related services

  1. ISSUES OF FETUS DRUG SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Ostrovskaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the issue of fetus drug safety. Development of a child’s health depends both on hereditary information and environment factors. The reason for deviation from the process of normal prenatal development could be any xenobiotics, physical factors and some medications having a pathogenic effect during pregnancy on the embryo and fetus. Due to that, the physician’s preventive work based on the knowledge of embryogenesis processes and critical development periods. Key words: teratogenic action, medications, prenatal development, congenital malformation, newborns, children.(Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(1:25-28

  2. Message for the First Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Advances in Climate Change Research is a journal published by National Climate Centre of China Meteorological Administration.So far,it is the only comprehensive English journal in China,which focuses on climate change studies and covers both natural and social sciences related to climate change.This issue mainly presents the latest academic views and findings in climate change research both in China and overseas,and additionally it provides information about major activities regarding climate change both at home and abroad.

  3. Cloud Computing Security Issue: Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Shailza; Kaur, Rajpreet

    2011-12-01

    Cloud computing is the growing field in IT industry since 2007 proposed by IBM. Another company like Google, Amazon, and Microsoft provides further products to cloud computing. The cloud computing is the internet based computing that shared recourses, information on demand. It provides the services like SaaS, IaaS and PaaS. The services and recourses are shared by virtualization that run multiple operation applications on cloud computing. This discussion gives the survey on the challenges on security issues during cloud computing and describes some standards and protocols that presents how security can be managed.

  4. EDITORIAL: 50th anniversary issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddoe, Alun H.

    2006-07-01

    In July 1956, 50 years ago, the first issue of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) was published. It was subtitled The Journal of the Hospital Physicists' Association and published in association with the Philosophical Magazine by Taylor and Francis. Subscriptions were £1 per part or £3 10s for an annual subscription. The Editor, Professor J E Roberts, prefaced the first issue with a cautious editorial noting: The appearance of a new journal is usually greeted with mixed feelings by scientific workers, a common response being that there are far too many journals already. Justification for a new publication is only possible if there is a clearly defined gap in the publishing facilities available to workers in a particular scientific field.... Professor Roberts ended by seeking support from the scientific community for the new venture. He certainly got it! From a tentative few hundred pages in four issues a year for the first few years, the journal is now issued twice monthly with nearly 8000 pages expected in volume 51. In this anniversary issue we have invited some 28 senior authors to submit papers on a range of subjects spanning the discipline. We decided that to be an author one had to be old, but age was not to be the only criterion! Indeed readers will recognize all names as major contributors to both the development of medical physics and the success of PMB. Authors were not asked to write formal topical reviews of the state-of-the-art of the sub-disciplines which make up medical physics, but rather to present short historical reviews, didactic in style, perhaps highlighting the role of PMB in the development of their fields. Nevertheless, other than a page limit (which many subsequently ignored!) no formal format was imposed on authors, so what follows is a range of contributions from the almost conversational, personal statement to the more formal and familiar scientific paper. Whatever the writing style we are confident that readers will gain some

  5. Psychological issues in pediatric obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurvinder Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the growth and development of a child. The present review focuses on the role of developmental psychological factors in the pathogenesis of pediatric obesity and highlights the developmental factors that must be kept in mind when evaluating a case of pediatric obesity.

  6. Power quality issues current harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkili, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Power Quality Issues: Current Harmonics provides solutions for the mitigation of power quality problems related to harmonics. Focusing on active power filters (APFs) due to their excellent harmonic and reactive power compensation in two-wire (single phase), three-wire (three-phase without neutral), and four-wire (three-phase with neutral) AC power networks with nonlinear loads, the text:Introduces the APF technology, describing various APF configurations and offering guidelines for the selection of APFs for specific application considerationsCompares shunt active filter (SHAF) control strategi

  7. Metrological issues in molecular radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Arienzo, Marco; Capogni, Marco; Smyth, Vere; Cox, Maurice; Johansson, Lena; Bobin, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic effect from molecular radiation therapy (MRT), on both tumour and normal tissue, is determined by the radiation absorbed dose. Recent research indicates that as a consequence of biological variation across patients the absorbed dose can vary, for the same administered activity, by as much as two orders of magnitude. The international collaborative EURAMET-EMRP project Metrology for molecular radiotherapy (MetroMRT) is addressing this problem. The overall aim of the project is to develop methods of calibrating and verifying clinical dosimetry in MRT. In the present paper an overview of the metrological issues in molecular radiotherapy is provided. (authors)

  8. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  9. Special Issue on Intelligent Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genci Capi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The research on intelligent robots will produce robots that are able to operate in everyday life environments, to adapt their program according to environment changes, and to cooperate with other team members and humans. Operating in human environments, robots need to process, in real time, a large amount of sensory data—such as vision, laser, microphone—in order to determine the best action. Intelligent algorithms have been successfully applied to link complex sensory data to robot action. This editorial briefly summarizes recent findings in the field of intelligent robots as described in the articles published in this special issue.

  10. Issues about Human Resources Recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Manolescu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As to ensure its success or even for surviving, organizations must settle accordingly some issues regarding the human resources enlistment, presented in great details within the article, whose success settlement ensure, concomitantly, the success of the entire assurance process with personnel, process extremely important, if there are taken into consideration, especially, the effects of some possible errors or hire errors. Therefore, the human resources recruitment tends to become a complex and expensive activity and, concomitantly, an independent activity, sustained both through the necessary work volume as well as through its importance for the organization.

  11. Securities issues in reserves reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legg, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Securities issues in oil and gas reserves reporting were discussed. Alberta requires specific information regarding important oil and gas properties, plants, facilities and installations. When preparing the reserves report, the following elements are important to consider: (1) the author of the report must be a registered professional engineer or registered professional geologist, (2) the report itself must be an engineering document, (3) the content of the report must be extensive, (4) it should be prepared in accordance with petroleum engineering and evaluation practices, and must include a summary of estimated net reserves

  12. Special issue introduction: Ecological modernization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massa, Ilmo; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2000-01-01

    The contributions to this special issue of the Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning stem from an international conference on ecological modernization that took place at the Department of Social Policy of the University of Helsinki, Finland, in late 1998. They have been selected, among other...... reasons, for their possible contribution to conceptual understanding and clarification. While recent publications have explored the implications of ecological modernization in different settings (Mol & Sonnenfeld, 2000), here we try to put the concept under the microscope again, in the hope of clarifying...

  13. Approval plans issues and innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S

    2013-01-01

    How can you, as an acquisition librarians, keep current on the output of hundreds of publishers? The answer, of course, is that you cannot. For over 30 years, approval plans have been used by librarians to acquire current titles, save staff time, and build core collections. Even today, these reasons seem appropriate, as libraries try to maintain up-to-date collections and control personnel and operating budgets. However, as shown in Approval Plans: Issues and Innovations, the use of approval plans is not so simple and straightforward; their use is subject to complex procedures and policies--an

  14. Research of beryllium safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A.; Dolan, T.J.; Hankins, M.R.; Pawelko, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Beryllium has been identified as a leading contender for the plasma-facing material in ITER. Its use has some obvious advantages, but there are also a number of safety concerns associated with it. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has undertaken a number of studies to help resolve some of these issues. One issue is the response of beryllium to neutron irradiation. We have tested samples irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and are currently preparing to make measurements of the change in mechanical properties of beryllium samples irradiated at elevated temperatures in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) at the INEL. Mechanical tests will be conducted at the irradiation temperatures of 375-550 C. Other experiments address permeation and retention of implanted tritium in plasma-sprayed beryllium. In one test the porosity of the material allowed 0.12% of implanted ions and 0.17% of atoms from background gas pressure to pass through the foil with essentially no delay. For comparison, similar tests on fully dense hot-rolled, vacuum melted or sintered powder foils of high purity beryllium showed only 0.001% of implanting ions to pass through the foil, and then only after a delay of several hours. None of the molecular gas appeared to permeate these latter targets. An implication is that plasma-sprayed beryllium may substantially enhance recycling of tritium to the plasma provided it is affixed to a relatively impermeable substrate. (orig.)

  15. Virtual colonoscopy: issues in implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelson, R.; Ramsay, D.; Edwards, J.; Forbes, G.

    2005-01-01

    The following issues and requirements related to the implementation of a CT colonography (CTC) service are important: (i) policies are needed regarding the indications for CTC. Concomitant with this is the need for education of potential referrers and patients. Expectations of the procedure, particularly by general practitioners, may be unrealistic and indications for referral may otherwise be inappropriate. At present there is not general acceptance of CTC for screening asymptomatic persons; (ii) a flexible approach to CT protocols is useful, dependant on the indication for and clinical context of referral, the age and body habitus of the patient; (iii) attention to the issues related to the special skills required by the reporting radiologist. While there is a temptation to regard CTC interpretation as an extension of skills used in interpreting other cross-sectional images, there is a need to realise that there are skills required specific to CTC and there should be adequate provision for training; (iv) matters related to reporting, such as reporting format, and lesions that will be reported/not reported; and (v) informed consent from the patient. Information should be provided with regard to the limitations of CTC, the implications of a positive finding and radiation dosage. Copyright (2005) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  16. Introduction to the special issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Boehm

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available (from the introduction Intuition and affect have been neglected topics in the literature on human judgment and decision making for a long time. Judgmental processes involved in risk perception and decision making have traditionally been conceptualized as cognitive in nature, being based upon a rational and deliberate evaluation of the alternatives at hand. This picture started to change in the early 1980s when decision researchers looked beyond rational, deliberate, and cognitive processes and began to investigate intuitive --- as opposed to deliberate --- and emotional --- as opposed to cognitive --- aspects of decision making. In sum, decision research has seen a proliferation of approaches that look beyond rational, deliberate, and purely cognitive processes in decision making and investigate intuitive and emotional judgments in this area. This seemed like a good point in time to reflect the state of this emerging field in a special issue that addresses the question of how intuition and affect are related to each other and how they shape risk perception and decision making. This special issue is the result of a workshop that was held at the University of Bergen in November, 2006.

  17. Interjurisdictional trading rules and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keizer, C.

    2001-01-01

    Rules and issues regarding financial transmission rights were presented in this power point presentation which focused on access to the Ontario electricity grid. Power generators submit offers to the independent market operator (IMO) to participate in the IMO dispatch. This presentation covered uniform pricing issues in Ontario, the congestion pricing theory, congestion management, and how congestion pricing can apply to inter-regional trades. Inter-regional trading examples of buying and selling electricity in Ontario were also presented. IMOs have the power to auction transmission rights, which are the financial instrument that protects against exposure to changes in price differences. Initially, this would apply only to price differences between the uniform Ontario price and prices in each zone. The holders of financial transmission rights receive a portion of the congestion surplus collected through the IMO settlements as a result of congestion pricing on the entities. The problem is that this provides no incentive for transmitters. Another problem is that there are different trading regimes in Ontario, but it is preferable to have seamless trading across jurisdictions to promote inter-jurisdictional trading

  18. IMPAK - 1/2003 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    IMPAK is quarterly bulletin of the Department of Environment, Malaysia. In this issue, IMPAK's provide the details on Sub Regional Fire Fighting Arrangements (SRFAs) Fire and Haze Disaster Table Top Exercise, which was held on 29-30 July 2003 in Jakarta Indonesia. Four feature articles were reported in this issue - (I) Haze: What You Should Know What You Should Do, (II) Indoor Air Quality and the Environment explained the relation between indoor airs qualities is affected by outdoors environment, (III) Peatland: Use and Conservation - is an extensive research on maintaining peatland due to its importance in our ecosystem. To increase readers' knowledge on peatland, the fourth article is Peat Fire Outbreaks, more information to combating fire in peatland. In the ASEAN News section, three activities joined by DOE; ASEAN agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution (ASEAN Haze Agreement), the 13th Joint Meeting of the ASEAN Working Groups on Sub Regional Fire Fighting Arrangements (SRFAs) for Sumatera and Borneo, Jambi, Indonesia and Summary of the Asean Environment Ministers' Forum on Land and Forest Fire Hazards

  19. Assessment of basic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1996-01-01

    Work on the French-German common safety approach for future nuclear power plants continued in 1994 to allow for more detailed discussion of some major issues, taking into account the options provided by the industry for the EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor) project, as described in the document entitled 'Conceptual Safety Features Review File'. Seven meetings of a GPR/RSK advisory experts subgroup, six GPR/RSK plenary sessions and six meetings of the safety authorities (DFD) dealt with the following topics: design of the systems and use of probabilistic approaches, application of a 'break preclusion' approach to the main primary pipings, protection against external hazards (aircraft crashes, explosions, earthquakes), provisions with respect to accidents involving core melt and to containment design, radiological consequences of reference accidents and accidents involving core melt at low pressure. The important aspects of the joint policy are recalled in the presentation. The whole set of GPR/RSK recommendations were agreed by the French and German safety authorities during the DFD meetings of 1994 and early 1995. The utilities decided to begin the basic design phase in February, 1995. Work is now continuing to develop the common French-German approach for future nuclear power plants, in the same way as before. In 1995, this mainly covers the design of the containment and of the systems, but also new issues such as the protection against secondary side overpressurization, radiological protection of workers and radioactive wastes. (J.S.). 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. Used oil issues and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teintze, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    The authors have heard the distressing comparisons in the press: More used oil is illegally disposed of or dumped in the United States each year than the sum total of more than 35 Valdez crude spills in Alaska. 1 gallon of used oil alone has the potential to contaminate 1 million gallons of drinking water, if all used oil improperly disposed of by Do-it-Yourselfers were recycled, it could produce enough energy to power 360,000 homes each year or could provide 96 million quarts of high quality motor oil. This paper presents an overview of the used oil situation faced by the oil industry today. major issues such as the size of the problem, the current disposition of used oil, the role of the Do-it-Yourselfers, federal and state legislation, and used oil activities in foreign countries will be addressed. Likewise, the opportunities that the industry has to voluntarily and favorably respond to the used oil issues, in order to control and improve the impact on the environment, will be reviewed