Sample records for zaria northern nigeria

  1. Settlement in Zaria, Northern Nigeria

    Determinants of Place of Delivery among Women in a Semi-Urban. Settlement in ... Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria ... child education, income generating activities and training of TBAs could reduce the high rate of home .... pregnancy, on the choice between home and hospital.

  2. Knowledge and attitude towards child adoption among women in Zaria, northern Nigeria

    Solomon Avidime


    Full Text Available Background: The success of marriages has largely been premeditated on child bearing in most African society and oftentimes women are at the receiving end of childlessness with possible psychological and physical torture. Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitude of women of reproductive age towards child adoption in Zaria, Northern Nigeria. Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive study, structured closed and open ended questionnaires was administered to 200 consenting consecutive women aged 15-49years to obtain information on socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive profile, knowledge and attitude towards child adoption. Data was analysed using SPSS V17 with p value set at 0.05. Results: The majority 89.4% of respondents have heard and are aware of child adoption and 77% agreed it is a good practice. The most prevalent source of information is the Mass media in 35.0% of respondents. The female gender is preferred by majority 64.2% of respondent if they will adopt. There is a strong association between numbers of living children and willingness to consider child adoption with P value < 0.05. Conclusion: There is a high level of knowledge and acceptability of child adoption practices in our environment. Child adoption institutions should therefore be supported to meet the need of the infertile couples.

  3. Zoonotic gastrointestinal parasite burden of local dogs in Zaria, Northern Nigeria: Implications for human health

    Christopher I. Ogbaje


    Full Text Available Background: Zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites of dogs are of the global problem particularly in the developing countries. Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide and have been reported to be hosts of many intestinal parasites of zoonotic importance globally. In Nigeria, gastrointestinal helminthes of dogs is currently endemic in 20 of the 36 states. Aim: In general, dogs are the closest animals to humans and for that reason we decided to carry out a survey study to check the incidence of these parasites in dogs and to ascertain the level of environmental contamination in the study area. Materials and Methods: Fecal samples were collected from dog patients presented to small animal clinic of Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, dog’s fecal droppings from the streets, and residential Quarters of the University and gastrointestinal tracts (GIT of dogs from dogs slaughtering house at Basawa Barrack, Zaria. Three methods were used in the analysis of the samples; simple flotation, sedimentation, and GIT processing methods within 48 h of collection. Results: Out of 224 samples analyzed 76(33.9% were positive of at least one of the parasites. Of the 101 samples from streets and residential quarters of ABU, Zaria, Isospora spp. 12(11.9% recorded the highest prevalence rate followed by Taenia spp. 6(5.9%, then Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, and Dipylidium caninum were 5.0%, 4.0%, and 1.0%, respectively. Isospora spp. (19.0% recorded the highest prevalence rate for the 100 samples collected from small animal clinic. Other parasites encountered were T. canis (8.0%, A. caninum (8.0% and Taenia spp. (5.0%. Parasites observed from the 23 gastrointestinal contents from “dog slaughtered houses” were T. canis (17.3%, Isospora spp.(13.1% and A. caninum (4.3. Conclusion: The study revealed that zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites of dogs are endemic in Zaria and the general public in the

  4. Temperature Variability and Outbreak of Meningitis and Measles in Zaria, Northern Nigeria

    B.A. Sawa


    Full Text Available Monthly maximum and minimum temperature records and reported cases of Meningitis and Measles in Zaria, Kaduna State for 10 years (1999-2008 were used to determine the influence of temperature on the outbreak of these two diseases. The results show that the reported cases of Meningitis and Measles are highest between March and April when the temperatures are also high. Results of the correlation analysis indicate that the reported cases of these two diseases have positive and significant relationship with temperature. Regression analyses show that about 78.4 and 84.5% of the variations in the occurrence of Meningitis and Measles respectively are accounted for by variations in temperature. The study revealed that the cases of Meningitis and Measles would increase by 6 and 19 persons, respectively for every 1ºC increase in temperature. It was found out that the traditional architectural setting of Zaria city also aggravates the effect of temperature in that part of Zaria.

  5. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium species in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Harvested from two lakes and artificial ponds in Zaria, Northern Nigeria

    Joy Cecilia Atawodi; Armayau Hamisu Bichi


    Objective: To determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium species in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) harvested from two lakes and ponds in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.Methods:Catfish samples (n=200) from two lakes and (n=200) from two private fish ponds were collected and their gills and gastrointestinal tract samples were analysed for Cryptosporidium oocysts using modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique was used, followed by microscopy. Results: Oocysts of Cryptosporidium species were found in all the sampling sites with an overall positivity rate of 49.75%. A comparison between the lakes and ponds as sampling sites revealed a statistically significant (P<0.05) higher percentage of occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocyst from the lakes (39.25%) than from the ponds (10.50%). Conclusions: These findings document for the first time the natural occurrence ofCryptosporidium sp. in catfish intended for human consumption and therefore, underlines the need for public enlightenment to guard against any possible zoonotic transmission.

  6. Child Labour in Zaria, Nigeria

    is the direct victim of the low purchasing power of his/her parents. ... educational and socio-economic conséquences of child labour in a Northern ... economic factors influencing child labour, impact on health status and school attendance and.


    Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zana, Nigeria. Reprint requests to: Dr. S. S. Adebisi, Department of Human Anatomy, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria,. Nigeria. ..... Physiology review. 1943; 23: ...

  8. Evidence of Cryptococcosis in cattle in Zaria Kaduna state, Nigeria

    Emmanuella N. Akange


    Full Text Available Aim: Cryptococcosis is azoonotic infection caused by fungal of the Cryptococcus neoformans complex comprising of C. neoformans and C. gattii.The disease affects humans and animals worldwide causing morbidity and mortality. This work was carried out to determine the occurrence of cryptococcal antigens and factors associated with presence of antigens in cattle in Zaria, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and ninety (390 serum samples from cattle of various ages were collected from 11 farms in Zaria, Nigeria. The samples were analysed using alatex agglutination test and lateral flow assay kit which detectsthe polysaccharide capsular antigens of Cryptococcus species. Results:Out of the 390 samples tested 28 (7.17% were found to be positive using the latex agglutination test while only of these 22 (5.64% were positive using the lateral flow assay. There was a strong correlation (r=0.939, p=0.0002 between the results of the latex agglutination test and the lateral flow assay. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.005 in positivity for cryptococcal antigens between sex, age and sex, though, there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 in positivity between management systems i.e. semi-intensive and intensive farming systems. Conclusions: The epidemiological value of this report lies in its demonstration that the risk of cattle and humans infection with cryptococcosis exist in farms in Zaria. The presence of this pathogen among these cattle poses an economic threat to the livestock industry due to the mastitis it causes. It also poses a significant public health threat because of its zoonotic nature and the increasing population of immunocompromised individuals. Large scale studies to determine specific risk factors and the role of the environment and experimental studies to determine what governs the transition from nasal colonisation to infection are recommended. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 64-67

  9. A ten-year study of prostate cancer specimens at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (A.B.U.T.H, Zaria, Nigeria

    O.P. Oluwole


    Conclusion: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in Zaria, Northern Nigeria. Most of the patients presented late. The peak age at diagnosis in this review was the seventh decade and two patients aged 30 and 32 years were found to have prostate cancer.

  10. Assessment of some heavy elements in Galma dam, Zaria, Nigeria

    Butu, A.W


    Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess the levels of concentration and distribution of Pb, Cr, Fe, Cd, Co, Ni, Zn and Cu in Galma dam, Zaria, Nigeria which spanned to 35Km. The main source of data was the surface water from the lower and the upper regions of the dam. The samples were collected and prepared in the laboratory according to standard method, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS technique was used to analyze the data. The results showed concentration of Pb, Cr, Fe, Cd, Co, Zn and Cu at various levels and the concentration of Ni below detectable level. The results also showed the distribution of these elements at lower and upper regions of Galma dam. The enrichment of these heavy elements in the dam could be explained by the loading of the dam with debris and effluents produced by various human activities within the dam catchment area through overland and base flows and the release of elements from geologic processes. The concentration of Pb, Cr and Fe were observed to be slightly above NIS and WHO standards for drinking water. To minimize pollution of the reserviour, it is strongly recommended that there should be reduction in levels of some unhealthy practices such as indiscriminate discharge of effluents like, engine oil, lubricants, used batteries, electric bulbs/fluorescent tubes, electronic and electrical appliances and high level use of chemicals on the farms are recommended to be discouraged.

  11. Cluster Analysis of Metal Concentrations in River Kubanni Zaria, Nigeria

    A.W. Butu


    Full Text Available The cluster analysis was used to assess the degree of association of the metal concentrations in river Kubanni Zaria, Nigeria. The main sources of data for the analysis were the sediment from four distinct locations along the long profile Kubanni River which were analyzed using Instrumental Nitrogen Activities Analysis (INAA techniques. The Nigerian Research Reactor-1(NIRR-1 which is Miniature Nitrogen Source Reactor (MNSR was used to analyze the data. The result of the laboratory analysis was subjected to cluster analysis. The analysis shows a stable clustering system where the metal concentrations in the four different locations were grouped into two main groups with one outlier. The level of concentration of elements that were sampled in the dry months were cluster in group I and those collected in the raining months were in group II. This strongly support that there is temporal variation in the levels of concentration of metal contaminants between wet and dry seasons in river Kubanni and also confirms the fact that the elements that were collected in the wet season are from the same source and those in the dry season are also from common source.

  12. Occurrence of Salmonella in retail beef and related meat products in Zaria, Nigeria

    Tafida, S.Y.; Kabir, J.; Kwaga, J.K.P.;


    . This is more likely where surveillance and regulatory control is weak. There is however limited information on the occurrence of these pathogens in foods in Nigeria. The extent of contamination of retail-beef and related meat products with Salmonellae in Zaria was evaluated. A total of 435 retailed beef...

  13. Pain relief in labor: a survey of awareness, attitude, and practice of health care providers in Zaria, Nigeria

    Ogboli-Nwasor E


    Full Text Available E Ogboli-Nwasor1, SE Adaji2, SB Bature2, OS Shittu21Department of Anesthesia, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, NigeriaBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess the attitudes of maternal health care providers to pain relief during labor in Zaria, Nigeria.Methods: This was a multicenter, collaborative, cross-sectional pilot study of provider perspectives concerning pain relief during labor. A structured, self-administered, questionnaire was completed by 95 consenting maternal health care providers at three high-volume facilities in Zaria, an ancient northern Nigerian city. Descriptive statistics was performed on the data.Results: Most respondents (94.8% agreed that pain relief is needed during labor. Only 2.1% of respondents were undecided about the provision of pain relief during labor and 3.2% were of the opinion that pain relief was not necessary during labor. Most respondents (93.7% had attended a woman in labor in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. Of these, 56.8% had counseled a parturient in labor. Most of the counseling (42.1% took place during labor. Less than half of the respondents (48.4% had administered pain relief in labor in the preceding 4 weeks and systemic opioids was the most commonly form of pain relief. Among the respondents who did not offer pain relief agents in labor, the majority (54.5% had no reason for not offering it. Unavailability of methods, inability to afford the cost of pain relief, lack of knowledge and skills, as well as lack of essential equipment to provide the procedure were also given by respondents as reasons for not offering pain relief.Conclusion: Even though maternal health care providers in this environment have a positive attitude to pain relief in labor, most women go through labor without the benefit of analgesia. There exists a gap between provider attitudes to pain relief in labor and practice of the same, with many providers

  14. Retrospective study of dog bite cases at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria and its environment

    Ajoke Modupeoluwa Ehimiyein


    Full Text Available Aim: A 10-year retrospective study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of dog bites reported to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH, Ahmadu Bello University (ABU, Zaria, and to implement measures to control rabies exposure in the environment. Materials and Methods: Data on dog bite cases, reported to the VTH of ABU, Zaria, Nigeria between January, 2002 and December, 2011, were retrieved and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17.0, Chicago, IL, USA. Result: A total of 236 dog bite-related cases was presented, of which 1.7% dogs died of rabies. The number of cases (59.7% increased through time with the highest number (32 recorded in 2011. Majority of the cases were recorded between June and October of each year. Of the biting dogs, 22.5% were puppies (1-6 months and 77.5% were adults (above 6 months. The human victims were 92.4%, while the dog victims were 7.6%. Eight of the dogs were stray dogs, while 228 (96.6% were owned dogs. Of the owned dogs, 71.2% were free-roaming. Only 22% of the owned dogs were vaccinated. The most common offending breeds included the Nigerian Indigenous local breeds (73.3%, cross breeds (24.6%, Alsatians (0.8%, Terriers (0.8%, and Bulldogs (0.4%. Conclusion: In conclusion, rabies is endemic in Zaria, Nigeria, and the incidence of dog bites is on the rise. Strict measures including vaccination of the dogs and the leash law should be adopted to prevent dog bites.

  15. A Study of Common Episodic Disaster Events in Zaria Urban Area, Nigeria

    Ibrahim Jaro Musa


    Full Text Available This study is an assessment of common episodic disaster events in greater Zaria area, Nigeria. The primary and secondary methods were used to obtain information for this study. In the primary method the questionnaire was used while the secondary method provided information on the rate of occurrence of some disasters, which was obtained from fire service in Zaria, Sabon Gari, Soba, Zaria and Markarfi Local government Councils. The common episodic disaster events studied are fire outbreak, violent distinctive Wing or storm, flooding and collapse of buildings and the outbreak of diseases or epidemic. The result revealed that these common episodic disaster events are caused naturally while some are man or human induced. The multiple regression results showed that there is a positive relationship between the occurrence of the episodic disaster events and the causative factors (measured by poverty, ignorance, room heating methods style and the discriminate disposal of waste. The result also revealed that fire outbreak and action of violent wind or storm cause a lot of destruction to peoples houses and properties. And the place of occurrence of the disaster is more at homes, offices places and markets. Also the percentage calculation showed that factors like room heating or warming style, poverty, discriminate disposal of waste, poor drainage system, contribute positively to the occurrence of episodic disaster events. Thus, confirming the result of the multiple regression analysis. It was recommended that people should be educated on how to develop their environment according to development plan, stop the use of wood fuel and charcoal for room heating and stop the discriminate disposal of waste which lend up blocking the drainages.

  16. The socio-economic impact of the railway in Northern Nigeria : a study in transformation of the rural communities along the rail line between Kano and Zaria, 1908–1970s

    Yusuf, Shehu Tijjani


    The study looks at the experience of railway development in the countryside between Kano and Zaria. It looks at the ways the inhabitants perceived, appropriated and domesticated the railroad and how their lives were transformed by it. The communities are located in the two Hausa states of Kano and Z

  17. The socio-economic impact of the railway in Northern Nigeria : a study in transformation of the rural communities along the rail line between Kano and Zaria, 1908–1970s

    Yusuf, Shehu Tijjani


    The study looks at the experience of railway development in the countryside between Kano and Zaria. It looks at the ways the inhabitants perceived, appropriated and domesticated the railroad and how their lives were transformed by it. The communities are located in the two Hausa states of Kano and Z

  18. Sources and levels of concentration of metal pollutants in Kubanni dam, Zaria, Nigeria

    Butu, A.W.


    Full Text Available The paper looked at the sources and levels of concentration of metal pollutants in Kubanni dam, Zaria, Nigeria. The main sources of data for the study were sediment from four different sections of the long profile of the dam. The samples were prepared in the laboratory according to standard methods and the instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA technique was adopted in the analysis using Nigeria Research Reactor – 1 (NIRR – 1. The results of the analysis showed that 29 metal pollutants; Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Dy, Na, K, As, La, Sm, Yb, U, Br, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Rb, Zn,Cs, Ba, Eu, Lu, Hf, Ta, Sb and Th currently exist in Kubanni dam in various levels of concentrations. The results showed that most of the metal pollutants in the dam are routed to anthropogenic activities within the dam catchment area while few are routed to geologic formation. The results further revealed that metal pollutants that their sources are traceable to refuse dumps, farmlands, public drains and effluents showed higher levels of concentration in the dam than the ones that are gradually released from the soil regolith system.

  19. Using drama for school-based adolescent sexuality education in Zaria, Nigeria.

    Kafewo, Samuel Ayedime


    This paper describes the use of drama and participatory methods in a girls-only secondary school in Zaria, Nigeria, as a means of sexuality education, carried out by the Nigerian Popular Theatre Alliance and the Second Chance Organization of Nigeria. The issues addressed had to come from the students, to allow them to develop critical thinking and learn useful lessons. The topics that concerned the group of 15 girls who participated from the school included abortion, premarital sex and pregnancy, teacher-student relationships and lesbianism. Participants developed a play about teacher-student relationships and presented it to the whole school. The presentation was stopped several times in order to involve the audience in discussing the choices available to the protagonist and what they would do in her place. This allowed all the students to explore the problem, generate and assess alternative solutions and communicate their learning to others. It also started a process of change in how the school dealt with girls who were forced to drop out due to sexuality-related problems, including pregnancy. Our long-term aim is advocacy to support the introduction of sexuality education as a permanent element in the curriculum throughout the school system.

  20.  Autosplenectomy of Sickle Cell Disease in Zaria, Nigeria: An Ultrasonographic Assessment

    Mohammed Sirajo Aminu


    Full Text Available  Objectives: During infancy and early childhood, the spleencommonly enlarges in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA, and it thereafter undergoes progressive atrophy due to repeated episodes of vaso-occlusion and infarction, leading to autosplenectomy in adult life. However, this may not always be the case as some studies have reported splenomegaly persisting into adult life. This study aims to determine and review the prevalence of autosplenectomy by abdominal ultrasonography in sickle cell anemic patients in Zaria, Nigeria.Methods: An ex-post-facto cross study of 74 subjects was carried out between May to July in 2010. Hematological parameters were determined by an analyzer while B mode Ultrasonography was used to determine the craniocaudal length of the spleen, if visualized.Results: The mean age of the sickle cell subjects was 23.2 ±5.3 years, while that of the controls was 22.7±12.4 years. Of the 74 sickle cell subjects, 55.4�0were females; while of the 20 controls,50�0were females. Forty one subjects (55.4�20had autosplenectomy and a significant difference existed in the mean splenic size compared with the control (p<0.0001. Only 3 (4.05�20subjects had splenomegaly, while 23 (31�20had a shrunken spleen.Conclusion: Anatomical autosplenectomy is not an uncommon finding in SCA patients. This may be related to inadequate clinical care due to the lack of good health education, ignorance, poverty, and poor standard of care, as well as the lack of newer therapeutic agents.

  1. Knowledge and practice of breast-self examination among female undergraduate students of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, northwestern Nigeria.

    Gwarzo, U M D; Sabitu, K; Idris, S H


    Carcinoma of the breast is an important public health problem in Nigeria and studies have reported low levels of awareness and practice of breast self examination as an important method of prevention. Breast self examination is a cost-effective method of early detection of cancer of the breast especially in resource poor countries. We assessed knowledge and practice of breast-self examination (BSE) among female undergraduate students of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria. In this study, knowledge and practice of BSE were examined among 221 female students aged 16-28 years old studying at Ahmadu Bello University Zaria using self administered questionnaires. It was found that despite nearly three quarter of the respondents (87.7%) had heard of BSE, only 19.0% of them were performing this examination monthly. Regarding the sources of information about BSE among respondents, media was found to be most common followed by health workers accounting for 45.5% and 32.2% respectively. Regular performance of BSE was significantly correlated with duration of stay in the University (X2 = 81.9, df = 3, P 2 = 17.4, df = 2, P CONCLUSION: We observed a disparity between high levels of knowledge of BSE compared to a low level of practice. Public health education using the media could significantly reduce the knowledge-practice gap and early detection of breast lump.

  2. marijuana smoking among secondary school students in zaria ...

    Emmanuel Ameh

    Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria ... students in Zaria LGA to smoke and the effects on academic performance. Methods: A .... cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are associated more with ...

  3. Seroprevalence of Avian Leukosis Virus Antigen Using ELISA Technique in Exotic Broilers and Nigerian Local Chickens in Zaria, Nigeria

    N. A. Sani

    Full Text Available In an attempt to determine the seroprevalence of avian leukosis virus (ALV in exotic broiler chickens and Nigerian local chickens in Zaria, Nigeria, a total of 600 sera (300 from exotic broiler chickens and 300 from Nigerian local chickens, obtained from the live bird market in Zaria, Nigeria, were tested for ALV p27 antigen by the antigen capture-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ac-ELISA technique. The age range of the Nigerian local chickens sampled in this study was 6 – 24 months, while that of the exotic broiler chickens used in this study was 2-3 months. Fourteen out of the 300 sera obtained from the exotic broiler chickens tested positive to ALV p27 antigen, which represents 4.70%, while 180 of the 300 Nigerian local chicken sera were confirmed positive to the antigen, representing 60.00%. Thirteen (92.86% of the fourteen sera from the exotic broiler chickens were lowly positive (ELISA Units range of 10-20% to ALV p27 antigen, while only one (7.14% serum sample was moderately positive to ALV p27 antigen with an ELISA Unit of 29.33%. Of the 180 sera from the Nigerian local chickens that tested positive to ALV p27 antigen , 79 (43.89% were lowly positive with ELISA Units ranging from 10.67% to 21.33%, while 101 (56.11% serum samples were moderately positive to ALV p27 antigen with ELISA Units ranging from 28.0% to 73.33%. A higher seroprevalence of ALV was detected in Nigerian local chickens than the exotic broiler chickens. [Vet. World 2011; 4(8.000: 345-348

  4. Medicinal plants used for the management of diabetes mellitus in Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria

    Umar S. Abubakar


    Full Text Available Context: The knowledge of traditional uses of medicinal plants in the management of diabetes mellitus in Zaria is still intact with the traditional medicine practitioners. Aims: To collect, identify and document medicinal plants used traditionally for the management of diabetes mellitus in Zaria city. Methods: Open-ended informal interviews and general conversation were administered to twenty-two (22 traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs and herb sellers. The data collected included the local names of plants, parts used, method of preparations and mode of administration. Results: Twenty-six (26 species of plants belonging to eighteen (18 families were identified. Herbal remedies were mostly prepared from freshly collected plants, while decoction was the main method of preparation. Leaves and stem bark formed the major parts of plants for herbal preparations. Conclusions: The study has documented different traditional practices used for the management of diabetes mellitus in the study area. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of plant species that have not yet been studied and to identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the antidiabetic activity as claimed by the traditional healers.

  5. Analysis of 4-Year Dog-Bite Cases Treated At Ahmadu Bello University Health Centre, Zaria, Nigeria

    Istifanus Anekoson Joshua


    Full Text Available AIM: Rabies is one of the most typical zoonosis; the disease is endemic in Nigeria and remains an important public health issue. The disease is transmitted mainly through the bite of rabid animal and dog is very important because of the close relationship between humans and dogs. The aim of the study was to analyze the 4 year dog bite cases treated at Ahmadu Bello University (ABU Medical Centre (UHC Zaria, Nigeria. METHOD: A longitudinal study was conducted between 2008 and 2011. Relevant information were obtained using structured questionnaire, interview and participant’s observation was used to study the ecology of the dogs. The medical and veterinary doctors were involved in the collection of the information. Data were analyzed with the aid of SPSS Version 17.0 and Chi square statistics was used to test for significance of association at P< 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 132 cases of dog bite were recorded for the period of the study. Majority (35.4% of the victims of the bite were within the age bracket of 1-10 years (mean age 25± 1.7 years, minimum age - 1 year and maximum age- 68 years, male: female ratio 1: 1.9 , 43.6% were staff family, The most common site of the bites was leg (35.2%. First aid treatment given to the victims before presentation at the hospital, were inadequate. Sixty (45.5% of the victims were given treatment against rabies. 63.6% of the dogs involved in the biting were aged 1-4 years, 55% were not vaccinated against rabies, 81.8% were local breed of dog, 13.6% were stray dogs and the most common likely cause of the bites was provocation (54.5%. CONCLUSION: Dog bite is a common medical condition seen in UHC, ABU Zaria. Factors such as poor vaccination of dogs by owners, high proportion of stray dogs, and poor first aid treatment of dog bite injuries, among others are of public health importance. There is need for intensive public enlightenment. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 661-666

  6. Media and interpersonal persuasions in the polio eradication campaign in northern Nigeria.

    Ozohu-Suleiman, Yakubu


    This study is premised on the increasing global concerns over the widespread resistance to polio eradication campaign in northern Nigeria. It aims to determine the level of campaign acceptance and compare the influences of mass media and interpersonal communication sources in Zaria local government area, being one of the high-risk (WPV-endemic) areas in northern Nigeria, where campaign resistance is known to be high. By way of quantitative survey, the study utilized 10% sample of the populations of eight out of the thirteen Wards in Zaria local government area, with a response rate of 78.6%. Findings reveal close ranks between campaign acceptance and resistance in the local government area, thus further confirming the difficulties still faced in polio eradication campaign in the region. This study also indicates higher performance of Interpersonal than Mass Media sources in influencing campaign acceptance and resistance in the local communities. Contact with friends and relations was rated the most influential interpersonal sources in the acceptance and resistance decision of individuals, while newspapers and magazines were rated most influential media sources that influenced campaign resistance in the local communities. The study concludes that a polio eradication campaign, backed with competent and sufficient communication expertise that utilizes knowledge-based indigenous interpersonal communication strategies will likely result in greater community acceptance in northern Nigeria.

  7. Marijuana smoking among secondary school students in Zaria, Nigeria: factors responsible and effects on academic performance.

    Shehu, A U; Idris, S H


    The use of Marijuana is on the increase worldwide especially among adolescents and youths. Marijuana smoking has gained a foothold in our environment because of peer group influence, accessibility and availability. Its medico-social effects could ruin the life and future of our youths. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and the factors that influence secondary school students in Zaria LGA to smoke and the effects on academic performance. A cross-sectional descriptive study was employed to generate data among secondary school students. A multi-stage sampling technique was used. Data was collected with the use of a structured, pre tested self-administered questionnaire. F2 test was used to test for significance of association between categorical variables. Of the 350 respondents, 262 (74.9%) were males, while 88 (25.1%) were females. The study shows that 33 of the students smoke marijuana giving a prevalence of 9.4%. There were more smokers in the age group 15-19 years (54.6%). Other factors that influence marijuana smoking include family background, peer pressure and attendance of social functions. There was better academic performance (51.1%) among non smokers as compared to smokers (27.2%), and this was found to be statistically significant (chi2 = 11.73, df = 5, P family background, peer pressure and attendance of social function influence marijuana smoking. A comprehensive school health education program should be instituted to curtail this menace.

  8. Aera Handbook Series: Nigeria - A Country Study


    drought and famine undermined the prosperity of farmers and herders . Many Fulani moved into Hausaland and Bor- no at this time to escape areas where...T. Knabe. An Agroclimatological Atlas of the Northern States of Nigeria. Zaria, Nigeria: Ahmadu Bello University Press, 1972. Lagemann, Johannes

  9. Management of anorectal malformation: Changing trend over two decades in Zaria, Nigeria

    Lukong C


    Full Text Available Background: Anorectal malformation is a common congenital defect and its management has evolved over the years. This is a review of the trend in the management of this condition in a major paediatric surgical centre in Nigeria over two decades. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 295 patients with anorectal malformations managed from January 1988 to December 2007 was carried out. Results: There were 188 boys and 107 girls aged 1 day-9 years (median 8 years at presentation. There were 73 (54.5% and 106 (65.8% emergency operations in groups A and B, respectively. There were 61 (45.5% and 55 (34.2% elective operations in groups A and B, respectively. Regarding treatment, in group A, patients requiring colostomy had transverse loop colostomy, while in group B, sigmoid (usually divided colostomy was preferred. The definitive surgery done during the two periods were: group A: cutback anoplasty 29 (47.5%, anal transplant 5 (8.2%, sacroabdominoperineal pullthrough (Stephen′s operation 6 (9.5% and others 21 (34.4%. In group B, posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP 46 (83.7%, anal transplant 1 (1.8%, posterior sagittal anorectovaginourethroplasty (PSARVUP 2 (3.6% and anal dilatation 6 (10.9% were done. Early colostomy-related complication rates were similar in the two groups (P > 0.05. The overall late complication rate was 65.5% in group A and 16.4% in group B (P < 0.05. The mortality was 25 (18.6% in group A compared to 17 (10.6% in group B (P < 0.05. Conclusion: There have been significant changes in the management of anorectal malformations in this centre in the last two decades, resulting in improved outcomes.

  10. (ABUTH), Zaria, Nigeria

    O.P. Oluwole

    rates among African-Americans in the United States and lower rates among the ... Earlier studies on prostate cancer among African and Asian popu- .... improved health education of our male population, increasing the ... Conflict of interest.

  11. Evaluation of the Pollution Status of River Galma Basin in the Vicinity of Dakace Industrial Layout, Zaria, Nigeria

    Udiba Udiba Ugumanim


    Full Text Available Dakace Industrial Layout Zaria habours a number of wet industries, effluents from these industries are discharged through drains and canal that empties into River Galma. The river basin is a booming agricultural area and the river is used for irrigation. A study was conducted at River Galma Basin around Dakace Industrial Layout Zaria to evaluate its heavy metal pollution status. Lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni and manganese (Mn concentrations were analyzed using Shimadzu atomic absorption spectrophotometer (model AA-6800, Japan after wet digestion. The range of concentrations (mg/kg of these metals was Pb (52.77-120.40, Cr (0.56-8.05, Ni (0.17-4.01 and Mn (6.98-22.. The heavy metals concentrations determined were found to be within US EPA, World Health Organization (WHO and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO limits for acceptable soil metal concentrations. However, the mean soil lead level was found to be above Dutch Target value (85 mg/kg which is the bench mark for soil quality. Statistical analysis shows that industrial discharges from Dakace industrial layout have significant influence on the heavy metal profile of the study area. The implications of these findings for public health are fully discussed.

  12. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Adansonia digitata L. Seed oil gotten from Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria, on some strains of bacteria

    P.R.O. Edogbanya


    Full Text Available The use of essential oils as antibacterial agents have become popular over the years, this is in a bid to search for alternative ways of dealing with strains of bacteria that have become resistant to conventional antibiotics. This study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial potentials of Adansonia digitata seed oil from Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria, on the clinical isolates of some bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The oil was extracted from the seeds using the soxhlet extraction method with n-hexane as the solvent. Well diffusion method was used to test susceptibility of the strains of bacteria to the oil, using Gentamycin and Streptomycin as standard positive controls. Experiments were carried out in duplicates. Data obtained from the experiment was analysed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT, with P < 0.05 considered significant. The results revealed that A. digitata oil was unable to create any inhibition zones in the bacteria cultures. From this research it can be concluded that A. digitata oil had no Antibacterial activity.

  13. Morphometric Identification, Gross and Histopathological Lesions of Eimeria Species in Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica in Zaria, Nigeria

    H. A. Umar


    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to identify the species, gross and histopathological lesions of Eimeria in Japanese quails in Zaria. A total of 400 fresh faecal samples were collected and 10 quail birds were purchased from a quail farm. The faecal samples were processed using simple floatation technique. Oocysts shape indices of sporulated oocysts were determined. The intestines were observed for gross lesions and segments were analyzed using Giemsa stain and Haematoxylin and Eosin stain and then observed microscopically for the developmental stages of the parasite. Four species of Eimeria were identified in the study. Eimeria bateri of shape index of 1.36 conformed to the guidelines used while the other three Eimeria species with shape indices of 1.48, 1.03, and 1.40 were not confirmed. The main gross lesion seen was nonhaemorrhagic ballooning of the caeca. Intestinal scrapping smear revealed a developmental stage of the parasite (merozoites in the jejunum. Histopathology also revealed a developmental stage (schizont of the parasite in the caecum and desquamation of the epithelial lining with areas of necrosis. Further study is required using molecular techniques to properly identify the unknown species of Eimeria that were detected in the study.

  14. 'Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from raw meat and meat products in Zaria, Nigeria.

    Ndahi, M D; Kwaga, J K P; Bello, M; Kabir, J; Umoh, V J; Yakubu, S E; Nok, A J


    The bacterial genera Listeria and Staphylococcus have been frequently isolated from food products and are responsible for a number of animal and human diseases. The aim of the study was to simultaneously isolate and characterize L. monocytogenes and Staphylococcus species from 300 samples of raw meat and meat products, to determine the susceptibility of the organisms to commonly used antimicrobial agents and to determine the presence of haemolysin A (hyl) virulence gene in L. monocytogenes and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mecA (SCCmec) gene in the Staph. aureus isolates using PCR. Of the 85 Listeria isolates tested, 12 L. monocytogenes were identified and tested for their sensitivity to 14 antimicrobial agents. All the 12 isolates (100%) were resistant to nine antimicrobial agents, but however sensitive to gentamicin. Only one isolate was found to harbour the hylA gene. Twenty-nine isolates were confirmed as Staph. aureus by the Microbact 12S identification system and were all presumptively identified as methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus species using oxacillin-resistant Staph. aureus basal medium (ORSAB). The 29 Staph. aureus isolates were tested for their sensitivity to 16 antimicrobial agents, and 11 were resistant to methicillin. None of the 11 Staph. aureus isolates harboured the methicillin resistance, mecA gene. Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus are important agents of foodborne diseases. Occurrence of these infectious agents was established in meat and meat products in Zaria, Nigeria. Majority of isolates obtained from this study, displayed multidrug resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents, including methicillin resistance among the Staph. aureus isolates. The potential virulence of L. monocytogenes found in ready-to-eat food was documented by the carriage of hly A gene by one of the isolates. A different mechanism of methicillin resistance or different homologue of mec A gene may be circulating among Nigerian

  15. Epidemiological significance of the breeding of mosquitoes in discarded automobile tyres in Zaria, Northern Nigeria.

    Adebote, D A; Kogi, E; Oniye, S J; Akoje, F


    Waste automobile tyres are suitable receptacles of rainwater thus capable of supporting the breeding of vector mosquito species in close proximity to humans and altering disease transmission risks. Bionomics of mosquitoes in carelessly discarded tyres was explored to unravel species composition and abundance, physicochemical parameters of microhabitats and epidemiological significance. Of the 1179 larvae isolated from 90/212 (42.45%) positive tyres were ten species belonging to Aedes and Culex genera, including Aedes aegypti (46.56%), Culex albiventris (0.25%), Cx. cinereus (0.25%), Cx. grahami (0.68%), Cx. ingrami (1.44%), Cx. nebulosus (2.37%), Cx. mirificus (0.08%), Cx. pipiens pipiens (0.17%), Cx. quinquefasciatus (47.07%) and Cx. tigripes (1.10%). Abundance of the dominant Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus did not differ significantly (P > 0.05), but was higher than those of the other eight species (P < 0.05). The microhabitat pH (range 5.20-9.50), total dissolved solids (range 15-802 ppm) and electrical conductivity (range 30-1603 microscm 1) were obtained in tyres. Abundance of Cx. quinquefasciatus correlated positively and significantly with EC and TDS of breeding water (P < 0.05). The study revealed high potential of the transmission of filariasis and arboviruses including dengue and yellow fever by mosquitoes domiciled in waste tyres.

  16. Chemical Composition and Mineralogy of Harmattan Dust from Kano and Zaria Cities in Northern Nigeria

    W.L.O. Jimoh


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to obtain the mineral composition of the various fractions of Harmattan dust separated according to their specific gravities. Soil dust is a major constituent of airborne particles in the global atmosphere. The generation and transport of dust are processes that continue to this day, playing an important role in geochemical and geophysical processes, including the addition of nutrients to soils and to the oceans. Mineral dust suspended in the atmosphere interacts with the solar and earth’s thermal radiation thereby affecting the climate radiative budget. Studies on the Harmattan dust mineralogy were carried out after separation into six fractions by means of heavy liquid solutions. The major components were; quartz, haematite, illite, micas, feldspars, kaolinite and chlorite. There is increased interest in the properties of small airborne particles because of the role that they play in many environmental processes. Much of this interest stems from the possible impact of aerosol on climate-related processes that involves radiation and cloud. For this reason aerosol, studies are focused on the chemical and physical properties of aerosols that relate to radiation and to hygroscopic behavior.

  17. 149 Muslim Women and Sharia Implementation in Northern Nigeria ...

    The status of Muslim women in the contemporary society has generated a lot of .... education and representation in the traditional leadership, the northern Nigerian ..... (eds) Gender Politics: Women's Writings and Films in. Northern Nigeria ...

  18. Semen bacterial flora of Rhode Island Breeder cocks in Zaria ...

    Semen bacterial flora of Rhode Island Breeder cocks in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. ... procedure, 27 of the 77 semen samples (35.1%) contained bacterial isolates. ... Bacteria isolates obtained from the semen include: Escherichia coli, ... destroyed in the interest of the efficient collection, preservation and delivery of highly ...

  19. Mitigating Radicalism in Northern Nigeria


    laborers and traders from the south settled into can- tonments in most major northern cities. The effect of these sabon gari (“strangers’ quarters” in...result of Peace Club programs. Adults from different ethnic groups now invite each other to child naming ceremonies, weddings, and funerals, which...conventions, establishing standards for charities, and increased international cooperation. In Bangladesh , the government works through the country’s

  20. Pteridophyta collected in Northern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon

    Jan kornaś


    Full Text Available 25 species of Pteridophyta were collected in Northern Nigeria (mainly the Lake Chad Basin and the Mandara Mts. and in the neighbouring parts of Cameroon. 11 of them have not been recorded previously from this area: Isoetes schweinfurthii A. Br. in Bak., Selaginella tenerrima A. Br. ex Kuhn, Ophioglossum gomenzianum Welw. ex A. Br., Marsilea coromandeliana Willd., M. distorta A. Br., M. nubica A. Br., M. subterranea Lepr. ex A. Br., Azolla africana Desv., Ceratopteris richardii Brogn., Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn., and Actiniopleris semiflabellata Pic. Ser.

  1. girl child education: what is the future in northern nigeria


    Northern Nigeria‟s high gender inequity in education places the majority of young girls at a severe disadvantage. ... Less than half of young people (6 – 25 years) living in northern. Nigeria are ... parities between wealthy and poor nations more than any other ..... higher risk of poverty, maternal mortality, child mor- tality, HIV/ ...

  2. A clinico-pathological study of orbito-ocular tumors at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika-Zaria, Nigeria: A 5-year review

    Dominic Chinda


    Full Text Available Background: Orbito-ocular tumors are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in our environment. Patients often present late with unsightly fungating tumors resulting in difficult management and poor outcome. The aim of the study was to determine the clinical profile, diagnostic work-up, treatment and histo-pathological types of orbito-ocular tumors seen at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika-Zaria from June 2006 to June 2011. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients who presented to the eye clinic with orbito-ocular tumors during the study period was made. Information extracted incwudes patient demographics, clinical diagnoses, radiological and sonological reports, surgery performed, and histology reports as well as adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy where indicated. Results: A total of 54 patients were managed during the study period. Those without histology reports were excluded from the study. Forty-nine patients were included for analysis. There were 29 male and 20 female patients giving a male to female ratio of 1.8:1. Their age range was 1.5-74 years with a mean of 22 years. Eighteen of the patients had retinoblastoma, eleven had squamous cell carcinoma, two had Kaposi′ sarcoma, and one case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. There were 2 patients with pre-malignant conditions and 10 patients with benign lesions. Thirty-two of the patients had exenterations, sixteen had excisional biopsies, and one had enucleation. Seventy eight percent of the tumors were malignant. Conclusion: Most of the orbito-ocular tumors seen in this study were malignant. Delayed hospital presentation is a characteristic feature. Retinoblastoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common orbito-ocular tumors.

  3. Vernacular Architecture of Northern Nigeria in the Light of Sustainability

    Danja, Isa Ibrahim; Li, Xue; Dalibi, S. G.


    Nigeria, a country located in the Western part of Africa has been the site of numerous kingdoms and tribal states over the millennia and is divided in to Northern and Southern parts with the Hausa-Fulani’s, a diverse but culturally homogeneous people living in the northern part of Nigeria. The vernacular architecture of the Northern Nigeria (VANN) is perhaps one of the least known but most beautiful of the medieval age, over the centuries a tradition of fine architecture has flourished in the area, the variety and quality of buildings are bound to generate much delight and enthusiasm in anyone who is interested in buildings. Many of their early buildings such as mosques and palaces are bright and colorful. This architectural style is known as Tubali which means the traditional architecture in the Hausa language and globally known as Vernacular Architecture (VA). VANN has many unique features which distinguish it from any other architecture. All buildings, be it modern or old has an impact on the environment; hence the need for sustainable measures and practices regarding such buildings. The aim of this research paper is to examine the features of VANN in the light of sustainability. Reviewed literatures were used to identify the various features of the Vernacular Architecture in the Northern Nigeria which were critically examined in the light of sustainability and its concept. The result showcased the various features of VANN in the light of sustainability and also discussed the factors hindering the sustainable endeavors of VANN with respect to such features.

  4. A decision support tool for basin irrigation in northern Nigeria

    Olumuyiwa S. Asaolu


    Full Text Available Inadequate rainfall, water resources scarcity and attendant food security-related problems have made irrigation technology a necessity. This work presents the development of a decision support system for solving surface irrigation design problems in northern Nigeria. The arid northern states affected by desert encroachment constitute a good candidate and their climatological data was obtained from the Nigerian Metrological Agency. The interactive system was defined in terms of inputs and outputs. The inputs were properties of soil, surface irrigation method and climate. The outputs were mainly the quantity of water application, scheduling pattern, possible design configuration, advance time, cut-off time, application rate, and water use efficiency. The FAO Penman-Monteith equation was used to estimate evapotranspiration values of major crops grown in Nigeria. Mathematical models outlined by Walker and Skogerboe were adapted, and heuristics applied in determining the best configuration that achieves optimum water application efficiency. We encoded the knowledge base using Matlab® software. The application was successfully used for the modification of a farm irrigation scheme in Kaduna state. This indicates that the adoption of new technologies for irrigation design issues could enhance agricultural productivity in northern Nigeria.

  5. Emergency abdominal surgery in Zaria, Nigeria

    Abdominal surgical emergencies constitute a significant portion of a surgeon's ... causes of abdominal emergencies vary from region to region, and even within the ..... Previous studies from our sub-region have consistently shown strangulated ...

  6. Cervical cancer management in Zaria, Nigeria SUMMARY ...


    about cervical cancer is needed to minimise risk factors and encourage early presentation. Governments ... (Standard deviation). Range. Age at presentation. 47.61 years (11.55). 28 to 72 .... return to the hospital for continued care although.

  7. Germination studies in some varieties of Vigna unguiculata L. walp. (cowpea) from northern Nigeria.

    Wada, B Y; Abubakar, B Y


    Unpredictable climate change is already having a profound effect on our agricultural crops thus, the need to have periodic data base on their physiology. The consequences of the change is becoming more wide spread affecting all component of our ecosystem including the vegetable species. The present studies was carried out to study cowpea seed germination and seedling establishment of seven varieties (Sampea-5, Sampea-6, Sampea-7, Sampea-8, Sampea-9, Sampea-10 and Sampea-12) in the laboratory and botanical garden of the Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria-Nigeria. Cowpea is used to substitute the insufficient expensive animal protein in the diet of many people in Nigeria either directly or in other preparation. Water absorption rate of cowpea seeds during imbibitions were determined after 30 min of soaking in water. Significant difference were found among Sampea-5, Sampea-7, Sampea-8, Sampea-10 and Sampea-12 while there was no significant difference between Sampea-6 and Sampea-7 in terms of water absorption rate. Mean comparison showed that the highest germination percentage (100%), seedling weight change (1.52 g), shoot length (25.81 cm), root length (23.12 cm) was observed. Based on this result, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant difference in the rate of imbibitions as well as shoots and root length exist in the seven cowpea varieties.

  8. First detection of intestinal microsporidia in Northern Nigeria

    Omalu ICJ


    Full Text Available Microsporidia are intracellular spore-forming protozoa that are increasingly being recognized as pathogens in humans. Faecal samples were taken from 2250 HIV/AIDS and 1050 HIV-negative patients from Kano and Makurdi in Northern Nigeria, and were investigated for microsporidial infections by Giemsa staining technique (Light microscopy. In Kano, Enterocytozoon bienuesi was detected in 8 (14.17% and Encephalitozoon intestinalis in 5 (2.60% out of 192 HIV/AIDS patients screened. A mixed infection of both 0.52% was observed. Results from Makurdi showed that Enterocytozoon bienuesi was detected in 13 (0.65% and Encephalitozoon intestinalis in 96 (4.78% out of 2008 HIV/AIDS patients examined. No mixed infection was observed. Microsporidial spores were not found in 1050 HIV-negative patients screened from both areas. There was a significant difference (X2, p<0.05 in infection rates between the HIV/AIDS and HIV-negative patients. This study aimed at detecting the prevalence of intestinal microsporidia to provide baseline data on the status of this disease in Nigeria. Detection of Microsporidia in Immuno-compromised patients has not been described previously in this area.

  9. Review: Abdul Raufu Mustapha (ed., Sects & Social Disorder: Muslim Identities & Conflict in Northern Nigeria (2014

    Heinrich Bergstresser


    Full Text Available Review of the edited volume:Abdul Raufu Mustapha (ed., Sects & Social Disorder: Muslim Identities & Conflict in Northern Nigeria, Martlesham: James Currey, 2014, ISBN 9781847011077, 256 pages

  10. Pidgin in the Colonial Governance of Northern Nigeria Philip Atsu ...

    ANDCORPgh changing the world


    May 30, 2016 ... Pidgin in Nigeria developed largely out of the Krio language of Sierra Leone1, and partly from ... communicated through pidgin with their fort slaves who could not speak any form of ..... the most elementary 'pidgin' English.


    Adegboye, B A


    The paper is aimed at analysing the outages on the feeders of the distribution system, in Zaria Town, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The 11 kV feeders are the NNPC feeder, Gaskiya feeder, Sabon Gari feeder, NTC/RLY feeder and the Canteen feeder. The 33 kV feeders, on the other hand, are the Shika feeder, Giwa/Makarfi feeder and the Soba feeder. The analysis is based on the daily outage data collected for a period of about one year (April, 2003 to April, 2004 – thirteen months). From these data, the t...


    Dean SPGS NAU

    Falola suggests that resource mobilization is behind the adoption of indirect rule by ... ethnicity, poverty, illiteracy, media or politics (Ibrahim 1987, 68-69, ... is the nature and mode of Shari'a implementation that is the issue. (2003 .... For example, 110 out of ... Syria, Iraq, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nigeria,.

  13. Between pain and pleasure: Pregnant women′s knowledge and preferences for pain relief in labor, a pilot study from Zaria, Northern Nigeria

    Elizabeth O Ogboli-Nwasor


    Full Text Available Background: Pain relief in labor remains a hot topic and these debates get louder by the day as more women become aware of their rights to better quality of care in labor. This study was conceived in a background where the practice of pain relief in labor is evolving and where women are seeking to fulfill their need for pain-free labor. Objective: To investigate the knowledge, utilization and preferences of methods of pain relief in labor by expectant mothers in order to design a labor analgesia program. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based descriptive study involving 124 antenatal clients in a teaching hospital over a 1 week period. Descriptive statistics were carried out using SPSS for windows version 17. Results: The mean age of clients was 28.8 years (standard deviation = 5.17 with median parity of two and mean gestational age was 31.5 weeks. Majority of the respondents (47.9% were of Hausa/Fulani ethnicity and 97.6% had primary school level education. Majority (87.3% had heard about pain relief methods with the hospital being the source in 79% of cases. The most common method ever heard about was epidural analgesia (69.4%. Only 4% (n = 5 of respondents remembered ever using any form of pain relief agent in labor, of which three received parenteral opioids. In their current pregnancies, 45.2% consented to the use of pain relief in labor; of which, epidural analgesia was preferred by 92.9% (n = 52. Fear of adverse effects on self and infants were cited as reasons for non-consent by some respondents while others had no reason. Conclusion: The study reveals a high awareness of pain relief methods which is not matched by utilization and low knowledge about side-effects, although fear of side-effects is a factor for under-utilization. There is a need to educate adequately as well provide high quality pain relief services in labor in order to dispel with myths, misconceptions and fears associated with the use of methods of pain relief in labor.

  14. NIGERIA.

    Background: Health workers in Nigeria are particularly at increased risk of ... and none to our knowledge in the University ofNigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH). ... level of hepatitis B vaccination and no post exposure prophylaxis among health.

  15. Cows, Bandits, and Violent Conflicts: Understanding Cattle Rustling in Northern Nigeria

    Azeez Olaniyan


    Full Text Available Cattle rustlings have become a major crime in Nigeria recently, with the northern region being the hardest hit. In the past few years, rustling activities have resulted in the theft of a huge number of cows, deaths of people and destruction of property. Daily reports across the northern region have confirmed that cattle rustlings have significantly contributed to the increasing security challenges facing the Nigerian state and seem to have become big business involving the herders, big-time syndicates, and heavily armed bandits. However, despite the growing level of cattle rustling and its consequences for society, the situation has yet to receive adequate scholarly interrogation. This paper investigates the causes and consequences of, and state responses to cattle rustling in Nigeria.

  16. Prevalence and Significance of Parasites of Horses in Some States of Northern Nigeria

    EHIZIBOLO, David O.; KAMANI, Joshua; EHIZIBOLO, Peter O.; EGWU, Kinsley O.; DOGO, Goni I.; SALAMI-SHINABA, Josiah O.


    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of parasites of horses in northern Nigeria. Blood and faecal samples were randomly collected from 243 horses from different stables in some states of northern Nigeria for laboratory analyses. Fifty-seven horses (23.5%) were found infected with parasites. The hemoparasites detected, 21 (8.6%), include Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma evansi. The endoparasites encountered, 29 (11.9%) were Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Paragonimus spp. and Dicrocoelium spp., 3 (1.2%) was Eimeria spp. Four horses (1.6%) had mixed infection of hemo- and endoparasites. This preliminary finding shows that parasitism is a problem in the horse stables examined, and calls for proper stable hygiene, routine tick control and regular deworming programme. PMID:24833991


    Muhammad Rabi’u JA'AFAR-FURO


    Full Text Available The study examines the role of beekeeping amidst condition of abject poverty among the majority of the populationin northern Nigeria, and the much popularised Afforestation Programmes of the public sector. Data were collectedboth from primary and secondary sources. The findings indicated that while the activities/livelihood of the peoplehad devastating effects on the environment (felling of trees of which massive adoption of low-technologybeekeeping would play immense role in reviving the situation, the attitude of the government towards promoting treeplanting campaign in the area has not been encouraging. Its concluded that the livelihoods of the poor majority ofthe people of northern Nigeria had devastating effects on the Afforestation efforts in the area, and beekeepingenterprise could be used as a bridge between the two (poverty and afforestation. It is therefore, stronglyrecommended that policymakers should address the dynamics between poverty, deforestation and beekeeping withthe hope of stabilising the economic situation of the people of northern Nigeria and by extension improves theirincomes and livelihoods

  18. Challenges and Negative Effects of Divorce among Muslim Women in Northern Nigeria

    Rafatu Abdul Hamid


    Full Text Available The alarming explosion of divorce in our present times is a cause of great concern. In fact the divorce rate in Northern Nigeria is high and this is scandalous. The mention of the word (Talaq divorce has now become so cheap that in some marriages, every argument futures this word, either the husband threatens with it or the wife demands it. Hence women are married and divorce at will for minor reasons. This paper is therefore an attempt to highlight some of the causes of rampant divorce and its negative impact on Muslim women in the northern part of Nigeria. Some Shari’ah court cases were also examined in other to find out whether the Judiciary is invulnerable to the problem of divorce among Muslim women in Northern Nigeria. The study reveals that the challenges and negative effects of divorce are usually much stronger on the woman and her off springs than the man. These ranges from psychological trauma, immoral behaviour, Economic hardship, denial of custody, etc.  Using descriptive and analytical methods, this paper interprets Islamic teachings as enshrined in the Qur’an and Sunnah with a view to proffering Islamic solutions on them. The paper recommends among other things, that parents and intending spouses should endeavour to find out the level of Islamic knowledge, habit, character of suitors/wives to be, prior to the marriage in order to prepare adequately for a successful association.

  19. 'Every disease has its cure': faith and HIV therapies in Islamic northern Nigeria.

    Tocco, Jack Ume


    Northern Nigeria has one of the highest levels of HIV prevalence among societies that are predominantly Muslim. In the last decade the region has experienced marked expansion of religiously-oriented healing practices following the formal adoption of Islamic sharia law. Since 2005, international funding has also made antiretroviral therapy (ART) more widely available throughout Nigeria. This study uses ethnographic data collected in Kano, northern Nigeria's largest city, to examine Muslims' perspectives on HIV treatment in the context of popular health beliefs and expanding therapeutic options. The research found that passages from classical Islamic texts are regularly cited by both HIV/AIDS practitioners and patients, especially when talking about the supposition that Allah sends a cure to humankind for every disease. Some religious scholar-practitioners (malamai) working in the Islamic traditions of prophetic medicine insist that HIV can be completely cured given sufficient faith in the supernatural power of the Quran; others claim that the natural ingredients prescribed in Islamic texts can cure HIV. Such assertions contradict the mainstream biomedical position that, with the proper therapeutic regimen, infection with HIV can be managed as a chronic illness, although not cured. Thus, these assertions constitute a challenge to the increasing therapeutic hegemony of antiretroviralbased care in Nigeria. Without falsifying the proposition that a divine cure for HIV exists, many Muslim patients on ART, and the predominantly Muslim biomedical staff who treat them, express scepticism about whether the cure has yet to be revealed to humans. These findings suggest that despite recent efforts in Nigeria to assert a unified Islamic perspective on HIV and AIDS, substantive disagreements persist over the causes, treatments and curability of the disease. The healing systems in which practitioners and patients operate influence how they interpret Islamic texts concerning the

  20. Perception and beliefs about mental illness among adults in Karfi village, northern Nigeria

    Kabir Mohammed


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to examine the knowledge, attitude and beliefs about causes, manifestations and treatment of mental illness among adults in a rural community in northern Nigeria. Methods A cross sectional study design was used. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 250 adults residing in Karfi village, northern Nigeria. Results The most common symptoms proffered by respondents as manifestations of mental illness included aggression/destructiveness (22.0%, loquaciousness (21.2%, eccentric behavior (16.1% and wandering (13.3%. Drug misuse including alcohol, cannabis, and other street drugs was identified in 34.3% of the responses as a major cause of mental illness, followed by divine wrath/ God's will (19%, and magic/spirit possession (18.0%. About 46% of respondents preferred orthodox medical care for the mentally sick while 34% were more inclined to spiritual healing. Almost half of the respondents harbored negative feelings towards the mentally ill. Literate respondents were seven times more likely to exhibit positive feelings towards the mentally ill as compared to non-literate subjects (OR = 7.6, 95% confidence interval = 3.8–15.1. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the need for community educational programs in Nigeria aimed at demystifying mental illness. A better understanding of mental disorders among the public would allay fear and mistrust about mentally ill persons in the community as well as lessen stigmatization towards such persons.

  1. The development of savanna afforestation in northern Nigeria

    Kadeba, O. (Forestry Research Institute, Ibadan (Nigeria))


    The savanna woodland which covers over 80% of the land area of Nigeria is not capable of meeting the requirements of its population for wood and wood products. Since its inception in 1964, the Savanna Forestry Research Project has been concerned mainly with the problems of wood production in this region. The major constraints to tree planting, which include seasonal deficiencies of soil and atmospheric moisture, low levels of soil fertility, selection of suitable exotic tree species and competition in the early stages of tree growth with grasses, have been identified. References are made to some of the major problems that have been solved and those that are being tackled. Some species of exotic trees have proven adaptive to the savanna conditions and are known to be superior to the native savanna trees in terms of growth rates, yields and utility values. The exotic trees which can grown well in the different savanna climatic zones include several species of Eucalyptus and Pinus in addition to teak (Tectona grandis), Gmelina arborea, and neem (Azadirachta indica).

  2. Ostrich Management practices in three states of Northern Nigeria



    Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify management practices associated with ostrich farming in Kano, Kaduna and Plateau States of Nigeria. Seven farms were purposively selected as units of analysis. Primary data were generated by means of a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, administered to the sampled respondents. A simple inductive statistics was applied to the primary data. The result reveals a commercial production of ostrich by 86 % with all the farms engaged in production of other livestock species. Similarly, all the farms had shelter for chicks and breeders which were all erected using wire mesh and poles at above 5 feet fencing level. More over, 100 % of the farms were densely stocked (below 500 m2 for a pair of ostrich with facilities below recommended levels. The result also showed that 100 % of the farms compound feed locally using premix without no providing grit and low (14 % usage of succulent feed. About 29 % of the farms use endoparasitic and anthelminthic drugs as health management practices. On the reproductive practices, only trio (29 % and colony (71 % configurations were practiced. The prominent biosecurity measures include division of farm into disease control unit (100 % and employee enlightenment (86 %. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(2.000: 64-67

  3. Nigeria

    A survey of 1500 students in post-secondary institutions in southwest Nigeria showed that the concept of ... in vocational training who engage in sporadic and ..... Pharmacy shops. 26.7 ..... preference about emergency contraception: a survey.

  4. Nigeria.

    Initial Experience with the Utility of the Infrared Diode Laser in Kaduna,. Nigeria. ... The follow up observation period ranged from none to one year in this initial study. ..... (generally abroad) for logistics and/or financial reasons. Concerning ...


    BLOOD DONORS IN PORT HARCOURT: THE QUESTION OF BLOOD SAFETY .... drug use, high risk sexual activity, injecting with .... constitutes further evidence of the need for efficient ... centers (including ours) in Nigeria under pressure to.

  6. Sufism in Northern Nigeria: Force for Counter-Radicalization?


    political order, which, in the very least, has failed to shield the northern Nige- 20 rian public from many of the burdens they now have to bear . As...the promi- nent writer, jurisprudent, and preacher, Sheikh Abu- bakar Gummi . Born in the early 1920s, he first made a name for himself as a critic of...Gusau, his fellow founder of the Izala. In 1955, Gummi made his first hajj to Mecca. Trav- 21 elling with Bello, he was introduced to King Saud bin

  7. Assessment of potential health impacts on surface water sources in Northern Nigeria

    ZD Umar


    Full Text Available Northern Nigeria represents the most populous region in Nigeria and adequate water supply and sanitation typically leaves a lot to be desired in the region in order to prevent water related diseases to the vulnerable communities of the region. This research work was carried out in Kano state with specific emphasis on Tomas dam which is one of the largest dams established for multipurpose use in Nigeria. The research was aimed at evaluating Physico-chemical and Bacteriological quality of Tomas Dam in Kano State. 240 water samples from 5 sampling stations within eight months were analyzed for bacteriological and physico-chemical quality. The physico-chemical parameters indicated Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD and Water Current Speed results were not significantly different (P>0.05, while other physico-chemical parameters analyzed varied significantly (P<0.05. The study also revealed that Dissolved Oxygen (DO, BOD, Turbidity, and Nitrates recorded higher values than WHO and Federal Environmental Protection Agency, Nigeria (FEPA limits. Total aerobic bacterial counts (TBC and total coliform counts (TCC were determined using pour plate and Most Probable Number (MPN techniques. TBC and TCC were high and exceeded acceptable limits. Faecal coliforms, faecal Streptococciand Klebsiella species constituted 25% of the indicator organisms identified.The observed parameters indicated the Dam was contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. Variations in the weather conditions, animal and anthropogenic interferences were all directly or indirectly related to faecal contamination in the dam. Preventing indiscriminate faecal discharge close to the Dam and sufficient water treatment before consumption are of prime importance to public health as the dam was established for agricultural purposes. DOI: International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 125-136

  8. Nigeria.

    Semaan, Leslie; Hillian, John

    Nigeria is Africa's most populous nation, and one of its richest. During the 1970s, oil prices fueled rapid development. With world-wide crude oil prices now fluctuating, the future of this diverse, turbulent country is uncertain. The unit contains three sections: the Text, Suggestions for the Teacher, and the Slide-Tape Script. An overview of the…

  9. Nigeria

    in Jus, Nigeria. There is dearth of information on the effect of the IUD on client weight during the period ol' use. ... predispose to_anaemia and some degree of weight loss. .. Methoa': A .... women With heavy menstrual periods, dysmenorrhoea ...

  10. Nigeria


    influenza, or bird flu , in a 22-year-old deceased female from Lagos. She is believed to be the first human to have died from the disease in Sub-Saharan...countries.71 A new strain of bird flu was detected in Nigeria in August 2008. 71 For

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Three Leprosy Case Detection Methods in Northern Nigeria

    Ezenduka, Charles; Post, Erik; John, Steven; Suraj, Abdulkarim; Namadi, Abdulahi; Onwujekwe, Obinna


    Background Despite several leprosy control measures in Nigeria, child proportion and disability grade 2 cases remain high while new cases have not significantly reduced, suggesting continuous spread of the disease. Hence, there is the need to review detection methods to enhance identification of early cases for effective control and prevention of permanent disability. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of three leprosy case detection methods in Northern Nigeria to identify the most cost-effective approach for detection of leprosy. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the additional benefits of using several case detection methods in addition to routine practice in two north-eastern states of Nigeria. Primary and secondary data were collected from routine practice records and the Nigerian Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme of 2009. The methods evaluated were Rapid Village Survey (RVS), Household Contact Examination (HCE) and Traditional Healers incentive method (TH). Effectiveness was measured as number of new leprosy cases detected and cost-effectiveness was expressed as cost per case detected. Costs were measured from both providers' and patients' perspectives. Additional costs and effects of each method were estimated by comparing each method against routine practise and expressed as incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). All costs were converted to the U.S. dollar at the 2010 exchange rate. Univariate sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate uncertainties around the ICER. Results The ICER for HCE was $142 per additional case detected at all contact levels and it was the most cost-effective method. At ICER of $194 per additional case detected, THs method detected more cases at a lower cost than the RVS, which was not cost-effective at $313 per additional case detected. Sensitivity analysis showed that varying the proportion of shared costs and subsistent wage for valuing unpaid time did not significantly change the




    Jul 2, 2013 ... model were used as input parameters for the prediction of soil loss in the same ... given system and therefore when used for ... in the design of erosion-control measures and ... processes in hydrology, plant sciences, ... rainfall- event and dynamic distributed model ... located at Ahmadu Bello University farm,.

  13. Profile of chest trauma in Zaria Nigeria: A prelminary report

    S A Edaigbini


    Materials and Methods A prospective study of trauma patients admitted to Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital through the Accident and Emergency units was commenced in January 2008.This preliminary report is for the period of 27months.The clinical history, physical examination and outcome of management recorded in a predesigned proforma, were analysed with SPSS 15 and the patients were followed up in the surgical outpatient department. Results A total of 4784 patients (3143 men and 1641 women were admitted during this period for trauma. There were a total of 628(13.13% deaths. Of the 42 consecutive patients identified with chest trauma35 (83.3% were males and 7(16.7% were females. The age range was from 5-75years and the mean age was 35.4years, while the most affected ages were in the range of 20 to 49years. Blunt injury constituted 71.4% and penetrating injury constituted 28.6%. Road traffic accident was responsible for 61.9%, stab injury 21.4%, falls 7.1%, gunshot injury 4.8%, impalement 2.4% and animal attack also 2.4%. The average time taken between accident and admission was 31hours,40minutes and 12seconds while the average duration of hospital stay was 16.10 days. The injury pattern included rib fracture(s (23.8%, hemopneumothorax (14.3%, hemothorax (7.1%, pneumothorax (4.8%, combinations of chest injuries (7.1%, chest laceration 7.1%, bruises 11.9%, lung contusion 4.8%, subcutaneous empyema 2.4%, flail chest 4.8% and no specific injury (11.9%. Associated injuries included head injury (63.6%, orthopaedic injury (27.3% and combinations (abdominal, head, orthopaedic (9.1%. The fatality of road traffic accident was 36.8%. No patient was attended to by paramedics at the scene of accident while 21.9% of the patients had pre-hospital resuscitation in peripheral clinics before admission. The transfusion requirement was 14.3%. One patient (2.4% required a median sternotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass, 54.8% required tube thoracostomy while 42.9% had general resuscitation /non-operative intervention. Only one (2.4% required ICU care. The complication rate was 4.8%. The mortality rate was 2.4%. Only 7(16.7% patients were seen beyond the first outpatient clinic appointment. Conclusion Most patients arriving at the hospital survived, requiring general resuscitation or simple tube thoracostomy with few complications. Mortalities from trauma and the cause of death at the site of accident are often not accounted for due to non-presentation to the hospital and lack of autopsy for those that present.

  14. Management and Outcomes of Male Breast Cancer in Zaria, Nigeria

    Adamu Ahmed


    Full Text Available Male breast cancer is an uncommon disease accounting for only 1% of all breast cancers. We present the evaluation, treatment and outcome of male patients seen with breast cancer in our institution. Male patients that had histological diagnosis of breast cancer from 2001 to 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. After evaluation patients were treated with modified radical mastectomy. Combination chemotherapy was given to patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. Radiotherapy and hormonal therapy were also employed. There were 57 male patients with breast cancer which accounted for 9% of all breast cancers seen during the study period. Their mean age was 59 ± 2.3 years. The mean tumor diameter was 13 ± 2.5 cm. Fifty three (93% patients presented with advanced disease including 15 with distant metastasis. Four patients with stage II disease were treated with modified radical mastectomy, chemotherapy and tamoxifen. Of the 30 patients with sage III disease that had modified radical mastectomy, complete axillary clearance and tumor free margins were achieved in 25. Overall 21 (36.8% patients were tumor free at one year. Overall 5-year survival was 22.8%. In conclusion, male patients with breast cancer present with advanced disease which is associated with poor outcome of treatment.

  15. Dept. of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

    Fisher did not stop there but graded the strength of evidence against null hypothesis. .... which null hypothesis is true will result in P < 0.05!. Finally, with these and ..... odds ratio) null hypothesis is rejected at 0.05 levels. 6. Finally, the use of CIs ...

  16. A large seroprevalence survey of brucellosis in cattle herds under diverse production systems in northern Nigeria

    Mai Hassan M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was carried out to investigate the status of brucellosis in cattle under various management systems in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states, northern Nigeria. Using multi-stage sampling, serum samples of 4,745 cattle from 271 herds were tested using the Rose-Bengal plate-agglutination test (RBPT and positives were confirmed using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA. Results Prevalence estimates were calculated by adjusting for sampling weights and where possible for test sensitivity and specificity. Thirty-seven percent of all animals were RBPT positive, and after confirmation with c-ELISA the overall animal-level prevalence, adjusted for sampling weights, was 26.3% (95% CI, 22.1%-31.0%. Of the herds sampled, 210 (77.5%; 95% CI, 68.6%-84.5% had at least one animal positive to both tests; this did not differ significantly between states (P = 0.538. Mean within-herd seroprevalence in positive herds was 30.2% (95% CI, 25.3%-35.1% and ranged from 3.1% to 85.7%. Overall animal-level seroprevalences of 29.2% (95% CI, 22.5%-36.9% n = 1,827, 23.3% (95% CI, 18.9%-28.3% n = 1,870 and 26.7% (95% CI, 18.8%-36.7% n = 1,048 were observed in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states, respectively (P = 0.496. A significantly higher seroprevalence was found in males (38.2%; 95% CI, 31.7%-45.2% than in females (24.7%; 95% CI, 20.4%-29.5% (P P P 7 years. Seroprevalence also varied between management systems (P  Conclusion This is the first large study to assess the prevalence of bovine brucellosis over a wide geographic area of northern Nigeria, in a variety of management systems and using accurate tests. The seroprevalence of brucellosis was high, and higher than results of previous studies in northern Nigeria. The pastoral management systems of the traditional Fulanis may be encouraging the dissemination of the disease. Public enlightenment of the farmers about the disease, vaccination and appropriate national

  17. Correlates of Female-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence in Kano, Northern Nigeria.

    Amole, Taiwo G; Bello, Shehu; Odoh, Chisom; Aliyu, Muktar H; Iliyasu, Zubairu


    Women are by no means the exclusive victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). This study assessed the lifetime prevalence and predictors of female-perpetrated IPV among public servants in Kano, Nigeria. Using a descriptive cross-sectional design and systematic sampling, pre-tested structured self-administered questionnaires were used to assess prevalence, types, and predictors of IPV among 302 married men. The lifetime prevalence of IPV was 66.8% (n = 177; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [60.7, 72.4]). Of surveyed men who have ever experienced violence, 78.0% (n = 138), 81.4% (n = 144), and 16.4% (n = 29) encountered physical assault, psychological aggression, and sexual coercion, respectively. After controlling for confounders, having ≥5 children, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) [95% CI] = 3.93 [1.16, 13.29], p = .027, and childhood experience of violence, aOR [95% CI] = 0.14 [0.05, 0.39], p = .0001, remained significant predictors of female-perpetrated IPV. In conclusion, female-perpetrated IPV is prevalent in northern Nigeria. Addressing IPV will require comprehensive violence prevention measures, including counseling and support for victims and exposed children. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Mycotoxin exposure in rural residents in northern Nigeria: a pilot study using multi-urinary biomarkers.

    Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Warth, Benedikt; Ogara, Isaac M; Abia, Wilfred A; Ezekiel, Victoria C; Atehnkeng, Joseph; Sulyok, Michael; Turner, Paul C; Tayo, Grace O; Krska, Rudolf; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit


    A pilot, cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted in eight rural communities in northern Nigeria to investigate mycotoxin exposures in 120 volunteers (19 children, 20 adolescents and 81 adults) using a modern LC-MS/MS based multi-biomarker approach. First morning urine samples were analyzed and urinary biomarker levels correlated with mycotoxin levels in foods consumed the day before urine collection. A total of eight analytes were detected in 61/120 (50.8%) of studied urine samples, with ochratoxin A, aflatoxin M1 and fumonisin B1 being the most frequently occurring biomarkers of exposure. These mycotoxin biomarkers were present in samples from all age categories, suggestive of chronic (lifetime) exposures. Rough estimates of mycotoxin intake suggested some exposures were higher than the tolerable daily intake. Overall, rural consumer populations from Nasarawa were more exposed to several mixtures of mycotoxins in their diets relative to those from Kaduna as shown by food and urine biomarker data. This study has shown that mycotoxin co-exposure may be a major public health challenge in rural Nigeria; this calls for urgent intervention.

  19. Obstetric fistula and sociocultural practices in Hausa community of Northern Nigeria.

    Amodu, Oluwakemi C; Salami, Bukola; Richter, Solina


    Obstetric Fistula is a childbirth injury that disproportionately affects women in sub-Saharan Africa. Although poverty plays an important role in perpetuating obstetric fistula, sociocultural practices has a significant influence on susceptibility to the condition. This paper aims to explore narratives in the literature on obstetric fistula in the context of Hausa ethno-lingual community of Northern Nigeria and the potential role of nurses and midwives in addressing obstetric fistula. Three major cultural practices predispose Hausa women to obstetric fistula: early marriages and early child bearing; unskilled birth attendance and female circumcision and sociocultural constraints to healthcare access for women during childbirth. There is a failure to implement the International rights of the girl child in Nigeria which makes early child marriage persist. The Hausa tradition constrains the decision making power of women for seeking health care during childbirth. In addition, there is a shortage of nurses and midwives to provide healthcare service to women during childbirth. To improve health access for women, there is a need to increase political commitment and budget for health human resource distribution to underserved areas in the Hausa community. There is also a need to advance power and voice of women to resist oppressive traditions and to provide them with empowerment opportunities to improve their social status. The practice of traditional birth attendants can be regulated and the primary health care services strengthened. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of Passive Cooling Techniques in Residential Buildings: A Case Study of Northern Nigeria

    Muktar Inusa


    Full Text Available In this paper a critical analysis of how to passively cool residential buildings in Northern Nigeria was particular passive design and some passive cooling strategies were analyzed. The physical properties permitting to achieve these benefits is presented as well as ways by which they can be applied. Energy in Nigeria has been a major challenging issue as the government has been struggling to increase the national grid. This paper identifies passive design strategies that can be adopted in this climatic region to minimize the use of energy for cooling, greatly boost thermal comfort and embroider passive architecture. It is most important to achieve thermal comfort through natural means or energy efficient means. The paper discusses methods by which the cooling load of buildings can be reduced tremendously and to maximize the use of natural ways to achieve thermal comfort in buildings, it also shows the ways these passive design and cooling strategies can be adopted. The paper concludes that the application of these techniques will reduce energy demand and provide a more comfortable living environment and low carbon emitting buildings that are environmentally conscious and energy efficient.

  1. Evaluation of trace elements in some northern-Nigeria traditional medicinal plants using INAA technique

    Oladipo, M.O.A., E-mail: [Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria); Njinga, R.L., E-mail: [Physics Department, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State (Nigeria); Baba, A. [Physics Department, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State (Nigeria); Muhammad, H.L. [Chemistry Department, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State (Nigeria)


    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for multi-trace elemental determination of six medicinal plants: Boerhavia diffusa, Euphoria hirta, Senna occidentalis, Senna obtusofolia, Cyprus dilatatus and Mitracarpus villosu. These plants were irradiated in the Nigeria Research reactor-1, at flux levels of 2.25E+11 ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1} in the outer channel and 5.0E+11 ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1} in the inner channel. A total of the twenty one elemental concentrations were evaluated highlighted the similarity between the elements obtained for the six plants. It was found that Euphoria hirta and Senna occidentalis have similar concentrations of elements. Boerhavia difusa, Mitracarpus villosus, Cyprus dilatalus and Senna obttusifolia were also similar in elemental content to each other, while Boerhavia difusa was the only exceptional outlier. The accuracy of measurements was evaluated by analyzing IAEA-359 cabbage references standard materials and the results show good agreement with certified or literature values within {+-}0.01% to {+-}0.87%. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of neutron activation analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-trace elemental determination of six medicinal plants in northern Nigeria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accuracy of the measurements was based on analyzing IAEA-359 cabbage, a standard reference material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results showed good agreement with certified values within {+-}0.01 % to {+-}0.87%.

  2. Estimating Maternal Mortality Level in Rural Northern Nigeria by the Sisterhood Method

    Henry V. Doctor


    Full Text Available Maternal mortality is one of the major challenges to health systems in sub Saharan Africa. This paper estimates the lifetime risk of maternal death and maternal mortality ratio (MMR in four states of Northern Nigeria. Data from a household survey conducted in 2011 were utilized by applying the “sisterhood method” for estimating maternal mortality. Female respondents (15–49 years were interviewed thereby creating a retrospective cohort of their sisters who reached the reproductive age of 15 years. A total of 3,080 respondents reported 7,731 maternal sisters of which 593 were reported dead and 298 of those dead were maternal-related deaths. This corresponded to a lifetime risk of maternal death of 9% (referring to a period about 10.5 years prior to the survey and an MMR of 1,271 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births; 95% CI was 1,152–1,445 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. The study calls for improvement of the health system focusing on strategies that will accelerate reduction in MMR such as availability of skilled birth attendants, access to emergency obstetrics care, promotion of facility delivery, availability of antenatal care, and family planning. An accelerated reduction in MMR in the region will contribute towards the attainment of the Millennium Development Goal of maternal mortality reduction in Nigeria.

  3. A Review of Traditional Plants Used in the Treatment of Epilepsy Amongst the Hausa/Fulani Tribes of Northern Nigeria

    J. Muazu; Kaita, A H


    Five prescriptions used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribe of Northern Nigeria were collected from traditional healers. The five prescriptions containing eight plants were reviewed as in literature to ascertain scientific basis of their use in treatment of epilepsy. Securidaca longipedunculata (family Polygalaceace) was reported to have such property; Mitragyna inermis (family Rubiaceae) has alkaloids structurally similar to clinically useful anticonvulsant. Celtis in...

  4. Assessment of surface and groundwater quality for use in aquaculture in parts of northern Nigeria

    S. A. Arabi,


    Full Text Available In recent times, fish farming (aquaculture has become a major source of income and a substitute for beef in many homes all over Nigeria because a kilogram of fish is cheaper especially the so call ice-fish compare to same kilogram of beef. As a result, many people have embraced fish farming and while some aquaculturist have recorded loss, only few got it right especially at the initial stage of the fish farming business. Some fish farm had average fish weighing a kilogram while others have average weighing less than half a kilogram due to many factors ranging from contamination of pond water from pile up of feeding stuff at bottom of the pond to the use of ground or surface water whose constituents or chemically controlled parameters have adverse effects on harvest in aquaculture. This study was carried out to ascertain the worth or not of surface and groundwater from parts of northern Nigeria for fish farming. Thirty seven surface and groundwater samples were collected during the peak of dry season and analyzed for physicochemical parameter, major and minor elements that can have adverse effects on fish farming using model V-2000 multi-analyte photometer, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, pH and conductivity meter. Some of the measurements were carried out in-situ, while others were carried out in the laboratory. Most of the samples (92% analyzed indicate that they can be used efficiently for aquaculture, only few were observed to have some adverse effects on the intended use and these include pH, salinity, sodium contents and residual sodium carbonate which are closely related to the pH of water samples analyzed. It can be summarized that the studied water samples are generally good for aquaculture.

  5. Pathways to psychiatric care for children and adolescents at a tertiary facility in northern Nigeria

    Jibril O. Abdulmalik


    Full Text Available There is limited availability of mental health services in Nigeria, and indeed most of Africa. Available services are also often under-utilized because of widespread ignorance and supernatural beliefs about the etiology of mental illnesses. The consequence, therefore, is a long and tedious pathway to care for the mentally ill, especially children and adolescents. This was a study of all new patients, aged 18 years and below, presenting over a 6 month period in 2009 (January – June at the outpatient clinic of a tertiary psychiatric facility in northern Nigeria. A socio-demographic questionnaire was utilized, along with a record of the clinician’s assessment of diagnosis for 242 patients. Subjects who had been withdrawn from school, or any previously engaged-in activity for longer than 4 weeks on account of the illness, were recorded as having disability from the illness. The children were aged 1-18 years (mean=12.3; SD=5.2 with males accounting for 51.7% (125 while 14.5% of the females (n=117 were married. Two thirds (64.5% of the patients had been ill for longer than 6 months prior to presentation. One hundred and forty four subjects (59.5% had received no care at all, while 36.4% had received treatment from traditional/religious healers prior to presentation. The most disabling conditions were ADHD (80%, mental retardation (77.8%, epilepsy (64.1% and psychotic disorders (50%. There is urgent need for extending mental health services into the community in order to improve access to care and increase awareness about effective and affordable treatments.

  6. Pathways to Psychiatric Care for Children and Adolescents at a Tertiary Facility in Northern Nigeria.

    Abdulmalik, Jibril O; Sale, Shehu


    There is limited availability of mental health services in Nigeria, and indeed most of Africa. Available services are also often under-utilized because of widespread ignorance and supernatural beliefs about the etiology of mental illnesses. The consequence, therefore, is a long and tedious pathway to care for the mentally ill, especially children and adolescents. This was a study of all new patients, aged 18 years and below, presenting over a 6 month period in 2009 (January - June) at the outpatient clinic of a tertiary psychiatric facility in northern Nigeria. A socio-demographic questionnaire was utilized, along with a record of the clinician's assessment of diagnosis for 242 patients. Subjects who had been withdrawn from school, or any previously engaged-in activity for longer than 4 weeks on account of the illness, were recorded as having disability from the illness. The children were aged 1-18 years (mean=12.3; SD=5.2) with males accounting for 51.7% (125) while 14.5% of the females (n=117) were married. Two thirds (64.5%) of the patients had been ill for longer than 6 months prior to presentation. One hundred and forty four subjects (59.5%) had received no care at all, while 36.4% had received treatment from traditional/religious healers prior to presentation. The most disabling conditions were ADHD (80%), mental retardation (77.8%), epilepsy (64.1%) and psychotic disorders (50%). There is urgent need for extending mental health services into the community in order to improve access to care and increase awareness about effective and affordable treatments.

  7. High maternal and neonatal mortality rates in northern Nigeria: an 8-month observational study

    Guerrier G


    Full Text Available Gilles Guerrier,1 Bukola Oluyide,2 Maria Keramarou,1 Rebecca Grais1 1Epicentre, Paris, France; 2Médecins Sans Frontières, Paris, France Background: Despite considerable efforts to reduce the maternal mortality ratio, numerous pregnant women continue to die in many developing countries, including Nigeria. We conducted a study to determine the incidence and causes of maternal mortality over an 8-month period in a rural-based secondary health facility located in Jahun, northern Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed in a 41-bed obstetric ward. From October 2010 to May 2011, demographic data, obstetric characteristics, and outcome were collected from all pregnant women admitted. The total number of live births during the study period was recorded in order to calculate the maternal mortality ratio. Results: There were 2,177 deliveries and 39 maternal deaths during the study period, with a maternal mortality ratio of 1,791/100,000 live births. The most common causes of maternal mortality were hemorrhage (26%, puerperal sepsis (19%, and obstructed labor (5%. No significant difference (P = 0.07 in mean time to reach the hospital was noted between fatal cases (1.9 hours, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–2.6 and nonfatal cases (1.4 hours, 95% CI 1.4–1.5. Two hundred and sixty-six women were admitted presenting with stillbirth. Maternal mortality was higher for unbooked patients than for booked patients (odds ratio 5.1, 95% CI 3.5–6.2, P < 0.0001. The neonatal mortality rate was calculated at 46/1,000 live births. The main primary causes of neonatal deaths were prematurity (44% and birth asphyxia (22%. Conclusion: Maternal and neonatal mortality remains unacceptably high in this setting. Reducing unbooked emergencies should be a priority with continuous programs including orthodox practices in order to meet the fifth Millennium Development Goal. Keywords: fetal mortality, maternal mortality, Nigeria, antenatal care

  8. Empyema thoracis in Zaria; A preliminary report

    S A Edaigbini


    Full Text Available Aims and Objective To study the nature and pattern of presentation of empyema thoracis (and the association between duration or time of presentation and educational level and level of income respectively, the aetiology, and different treatment outcomes. Materials and Methods A prospective study of all patients who presented with Empyema Thoracis between January 2008 to May 2010 was carried out at ABUTH Zaria. The diagnosis of empyema thoracis was entertained from either the presence of pus in the pleural space or the culture of actively multiplying bacteria in a serous Data was analysed with SPSS 15. Results A total of 26 patients were managed, 19(73.1% men, 7(26.9% women. There were 4(15.4% acute and 22(84.6% chronic empyema. One male had bilateral chronic empyema giving 13 right-sided, and 14 left-sided empyema. Tuberculosis was responsible for 26.9% of the cases, 38.4% were post-pneumonic, while postoperative, and AIDS were each responsible for 11.5% and trauma 7.7%. Five patients had decortication, 2 had rib resection and open drainage, and the remainder were managed on tube thoracostomy. Two patients were discharged against medical advice, 6 were lost during follow-up. Fourteen (53.8% were educated (1 acute and 13 chronic. Twelve (46.2 % were uneducated (3 acute and 9 chronic. Fourteen patients (2 acute and 12 chronic earned average or above average income while 12 (46.2% earned below average income (2 acute and 10 chronic. There was no association between duration of presenting complaints and level of education or level of income (Fisher′s exact test was, 0.306 and 1.000, respectively at a P value of 0.05 Conclusion Empyema thoracis is persistent and prevalent in our environment despite improvements in diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Most patients present late and this is not related to income or level of education. The commonest organism isolated from empyema fluid in developing countries is staphylococcus aureus but most empyema

  9. Primary School Environment Trend, Class-Ratio and Head Teachers Overcrowded Classrooms Management Strategies in Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria

    Babatunde, Ehinola Gabriel


    Primary school Enrolment Trend, Class-Ratio and Head Teachers overcrowded classrooms management strategies in Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria was investigated. The purpose of the study is to examine the current enrolment trend in public primary schools in northern senatorial District of Ondo State. Also, is to ascertain the…

  10. Soil Assessment along Toposequences in Rural Northern Nigeria: A Geomedical Approach

    Lena Hartmann


    Full Text Available Case numbers of endemic Ca-deficiency rickets (CDR have been reported to be alarmingly rising among children of subsistence farms in developing countries within the last 30 years. Fluoride toxicities in the environment are known to not be related to the disease. To investigate if, instead, CDR is caused by a nutrient deficiency in the environment, subsistence farms in an endemic CDR area near Kaduna, northern Nigeria, were investigated for bedrock, slope forms, soil types, and soil characteristics. The natural environment was investigated according to the World Reference Base, soil texture was analysed by pipette and sieving, and plant-available macronutrients were determined using barium-chloride or Ca-acetate-lactate extraction. The analyses showed that granite and slope deposits were the dominant parent materials. The typical slope forms and soil types were Lixisols and Acrisols on pediments, Fluvisols in river valleys, and Plinthosols and Acrisols on plains. Compared with West African background values, all of the soils had normal soil textures but were low in macronutrients. Comparisons to critical limits, however, showed that only the P concentrations were critically low, which are typical for savanna soils. A link between nutrient deficiency in soils and CDR in the Kaduna area was therefore considered unlikely.

  11. Plaque and growth characteristics of different polioviruses isolated from acute flaccid paralysis in Northern Nigeria.

    Sule, W F; Oyedele, O I; Osei-Kwasi, M; Odoom, J K; Adu, F D


    To determine some virulent trait-related properties of poliovirus isolates from children with acute flaccid paralysis following vaccination with oral polio vaccine (OPV). Six polioviruses earlier characterised into wild, vaccine-derived and OPV-like were studied using the plaque morphology and growth kinetics at supra-optimal temperature. Department of Virology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Polio isolates from six children who developed acute flaccid paralysis following vaccinations with various doses of OPV were used. All the children were located in the Northern part of the country where poliovirus is still circulating. The two vaccine-derived polioviruses acquired wild type characteristics. All the six poliovirus isolates developed different forms of plaques ranging from tiny, small and large. The plaque formed could however not be used to identify the different isolates. Growth of the different isolates at supra-optimal temperature showed that the three wild polioviruses grew to a higher titre when compared with the Sabin 2 control. The two vaccine derived isolates behaved like the wild poliovirus while the OPV-like virus acquired an intermediate characteristics between wild and sabin. The wild polioviruses represented in this study are among the last vestiges of the circulating polioviruses found in the world. It is possible that the observed biological properties of wild types 1 and 3 described in the study are typical of the West African polioviruses. These properties will provide useful previews to the final identification of some important clinical isolates especially type 1 which may grow rapidly in cell culture.

  12. Burden of congenital inguinal hernia and hydrocele in northern and southern Nigeria: An opportunity for awareness creation

    Musa Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Background: Nigeria, with a population of >150 million people in which half of the population are children encounters challenges in paediatric surgery practice in rural areas. There are paediatric surgeons in Nigeria, but majority practice in tertiary health facilities in cities. The poor rural dwellers have little or no access to such highly trained specialists. Hence, children with congenital and acquired paediatric surgical pathologies including anterior abdominal wall defects not only grow up with these diseases to adulthood, they are also exposed to various health hazards posed by unqualified personnel. Therefore, we are evaluating the burden of congenital inguinal hernia/hydrocele in northern and southern Nigeria for awareness creation and the way forward. Materials and Methods: Data obtained from organised free hernia missions to the rural populace from northern and southern Nigeria by the West African Collage of Surgeons in 2010 and Kano State Government in 2013 was analysed. Results: A total of 811 patients aged from 3 months (0.25 years to 35 years was screened and found to have congenital hernia and/or hydrocele from the two centres. 171 (21.1% were successfully operated, while the remaining 640 (78.9% could not benefit from a surgical procedure during the missions. There were n = 46 (26.9% patients with various forms of genital mutilations/and or surgical mismanagements among the operated patients. Conclusion: The burden of congenital anterior abdominal wall defects among Nigerian children is high. A little effort could bring succor and create awareness among this group of people.

  13. Infection control and practice of standard precautions among healthcare workers in northern Nigeria

    O E Amoran


    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs have been reported to be a serious problem in the healthcare services as they are common causes of illness and mortality among hospitalized patients including healthcare workers (HCWs. Compliance with these standard precautions has been shown to reduce the risk of exposure to blood and body fluids. Aims: This study therefore assesses the level of knowledge and compliance with standard precautions by the various cadre of HCWs and the factors influencing compliance in hospital environment in Nasarawa State, Northern Nigeria. Settings and Design: Nasarawa State has a current human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS prevalence rate of 10.0%, which was higher than most states in Nigeria with a high level of illiteracy and ignorance. Majority of the people reside in the rural areas while a few are found in the towns, informal settlements with no direct access to healthcare facilities are common. Materials and Methods: This study is an analytical, cross-sectional study. Proportional sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample and a structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect relevant information from the healthcare providers working in Nasarawa State from January to February 2009. Statistical analysis used: To describe patient characteristics, we calculated proportions and medians. For categorical variables, we compared proportions using chi-square tests. A logistic regression model was produced with infection control as outcome variable to identify associated factors. Results: A total of 421 HCWs were interviewed, Majority (77.9% correctly describe universal precaution and infection control with 19.2, 19.2, and 28.0%, respectively unable to recognize vaccination, postexposure prophylaxis, and surveillance for emerging diseases as standard precaution for infection control. About 70.1% usually wear gloves before handling patients or

  14. Predictors of public attitude toward living organ donation in Kano, northern Nigeria.

    Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S; Lawan, Umar M; Abubakar, Mustapha; Adamu, Bappa


    Organ shortage is a major public health challenge for transplant programs globally. The sustenance of such programs as an effective therapy for end-stage organ failure (ESOF) requires an exploration of public awareness and willingness to donate organs. This is imperative, especially in developing countries where ESOF is highly prevalent. We studied the awareness and predictors of public attitude toward organ donation in Kano city in northern Nigeria. Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed the awareness and willingness to donate solid organs among 400 adults in the Kano metropolis. Three hundred and five of the 383 respondents (79.6%) reported that they had heard about organ donation. There was a significant variation of awareness by education and ethnicity (P donate an organ. Gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-4.95], educational attainment (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.35-5.88), marital status (AOR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.97-9.1), religion (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.43-8.10) and ethnicity (AOR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.04-5.35) were significant predictors of willingness to donate an organ. Preferred organ recipients were parents (48.9%), children (21.3%), spouses (14.6%) and other relatives (13.4%). Reasons for willingness to donate organs included religion (51.2%), moral obligation (21.4%) and compassion (11.9%), among others. However, there was widespread ignorance of religious precepts concerning organ donation. The high level of awareness and willingness to donate organs in this society could be further enhanced by intensive information, education and communication strategies providing clear messages on societal benefits, religious aspects and bioethical guidance regarding organ donation.

  15. Understanding Market Participation Choices and Decisions of Maize and Cowpea Farmers in Northern Nigeria

    Mignouna, DB.


    Full Text Available Alleviating poverty and reducing food insecurity have received close critical attention from many researchers in sub-Saharan Africa. Farmers' participation in agricultural markets has been seen as a potent strategy for improving their livelihoods. This paper applies econometrics to farm survey data from Bauchi and Kano states as major maize and cowpea growing areas hit by one of the most important root parasites known as Striga to determine the factors behind farmers' decisions about participation in the agricultural market and the volume of their output to be marketed. Relevant data was collected from 600 households in both states and results from the Double-Hurdle model indicated that price and non-price constraints played significant roles in determining decisions on participation in the markets for both maize and cowpea. Household and total farm sizes, price and ease of transportation through access to motorized equipment were positively related to decision to participate in the maize market. However, the volume of sale of traded produce was influenced by location-specific variable which underscores socio-economic and population-related factors favoring market access that are present more in Kano than in Bauchi. Age of the household head and total farm size were significantly related to decision to participate in the cowpea market while results of the second stage of the model indicate that access to mobile phone and location variable affect positively the volume of cowpea sold. The role of price was conspicuous in both produce markets as the main incentive for households' participation. The paper concludes with policy implications aimed at providing better market opportunities to farmers thereby improving their welfare in northern Nigeria and other areas with similar socio-economic and bio-physical conditions in West Africa.

  16. Predictors of public attitude toward living organ donation in Kano, northern Nigeria

    Zubairu Iliyasu


    Full Text Available Organ shortage is a major public health challenge for transplant programs globally. The sustenance of such programs as an effective therapy for end-stage organ failure (ESOF requires an exploration of public awareness and willingness to donate organs. This is imperative, especially in developing countries where ESOF is highly prevalent. We studied the awareness and predictors of public attitude toward organ donation in Kano city in northern Nigeria. Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed the awareness and willingness to donate solid organs among 400 adults in the Kano metropolis. Three hundred and five of the 383 respondents (79.6% reported that they had heard about organ donation. There was a significant variation of awareness by education and ethnicity (P <0.05. Most respondents, 303 (79.1%, were willing to donate an organ. Gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.40-4.95], educational attainment (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.35-5.88, marital status (AOR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.97-9.1, religion (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.43-8.10 and ethnicity (AOR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.04-5.35 were significant predictors of willingness to donate an organ. Preferred organ recipients were parents (48.9%, children (21.3%, spouses (14.6% and other relatives (13.4%. Reasons for willingness to donate organs included religion (51.2%, moral obligation (21.4% and compassion (11.9%, among others. However, there was widespread ignorance of religious precepts concerning organ donation. The high level of awareness and willingness to donate organs in this society could be further enhanced by intensive information, education and communication strategies providing clear messages on societal benefits, religious aspects and bioethical guidance regarding organ donation.



    Even though these spirits are represented by physical objects, they are ..... System in Postcolonial Benin (Nigeria) Society', in African Journal of Legal Studies ... 14 R. Weiss, 'Cyber Sex Expose, Centre City, MN: Hazdelden available online in ...

  18. An appraisal of the of eco-climatic characteristics in Northern Nigeria



    Aug 1, 2013 ... 1Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna, Bosso Campus 920003, ... increased human activities have being and will continue .... Nigeria is a political definition use to describe all states.

  19. The Journalists Initiatives on Immunisation Against Polio and Improved Acceptance of the Polio Vaccine in Northern Nigeria 2007–2015

    Warigon, Charity; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Zakari, Furera; Damisa, Eunice; Idowu, Audu; Bawa, Samuel; Gali, Emmanuel; Tegegne, Sisay G.; Hammanyero, Kulchumi; Nsubuga, Peter; Korir, Charles; Vaz, Rui G.


    Background. The polio eradication initiative had major setbacks in 2003 and 2007 due to media campaigns in which renowned scholars and Islamic clerics criticized polio vaccines. The World Health Organization (WHO) partnered with journalists in 2007 to form the Journalists Initiatives on Immunisation Against Polio (JAP), to develop communication initiatives aimed at highlighting polio eradication activities and the importance of immunization in northern Nigeria. Methods. We evaluated the impact of JAP activities in Kaduna State by determining the total number of media materials produced and the number of newspaper clips and bulletins published in support of polio eradication. We also determined the number of households in noncompliant communities that became compliant with vaccination during 2015 supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) after JAP interventions and compared caregivers’ sources of information about SIAs in 2007 before and after the JAP was formed. Results. Since creation of the JAP, >500 reports have been published and aired, with most portraying polio vaccine positively. During June 2015 SIAs in high-risk wards of Kaduna STATE, JAP interventions resulted in vaccination of 5122 of 5991 children (85.5%) from noncompliant households. During early 2007, the number of caregivers who had heard about SIA rounds from the media increased from 26% in January, before the JAP was formed, to 33% in March, after the initiation of JAP activities. Conclusions. The formation of the JAP resulted in measurable improvement in the acceptance of polio vaccine in northern Nigeria. PMID:26721745

  20. Environmental Impact of Toxic Metal Load in Some Military Training Areas within the One Division of Nigerian Army, Kaduna, Nigeria

    Georgina Nwaedozie


    Full Text Available The results of six trace metals in the three military training areas in Nigeria, within Kaduna metropolis, viz:- Armed Forces Command and Staff College, Jaji, Nigeria Air Force Base, Kaduna and Nigeria Army Depot, Zaria were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The level of lead, copper, chromium, zinc manganese and Nickel were assessed. The samples were collected in the month of September and the highest concentration of lead was found in Nigerian Air Force base shooting range (526.49mg/kg. Lead was also found to be high in the Shooting range of Nigeria Army Depot, Zaria (216.49 mg/kg while the Armed Forces Command and Staff College shooting range, Jaji has the least value (54.39mg/kg. The trend of trace metals in Nigeria Army Depot, Zaria , Shooting range is Mn > Pb > Zn> Cr>Cu >Ni while in Nigeria Armed Forces Command and Staff College Jaji, Shooting range it is Mn >Cr > Pb> Zn >Cu> Ni and at the Nigeria Air Force base, Kaduna it changes to Pb> Mn > Cu > Zn >Cr. The high value of Mn and Pb obtained in all the areas could be attributed to military activities. This result obtained indicates that military training areas are polluted with trace metals. The results are explained in terms of its health effect on the troops and the host community.

  1. Bridging the communication gap: successes and challenges of mobile phone technology in a health and demographic surveillance system in northern Nigeria.

    Doctor, Henry V; Olatunji, Alabi; Jumare, Abdul'azeez


    Maternal and child health indicators are generally poor in Nigeria with the northern part of the country having the worst indicators than the southern part. Efforts to address maternal and health challenges in Nigeria include, among others, improvement in health and management information systems. We report on the experience of mobile phone technology in supporting the activities of a health and demographic surveillance system in northern Nigeria. Our experience calls for the need for the Nigerian Government, the mobile network companies, and the international community at large to consolidate their efforts in addressing the mobile network coverage and power supply challenges in order to create an enabling environment for socio-economic development particularly in rural and disadvantaged areas. Unless power and mobile network challenges are addressed, health interventions that rely on mobile phone technology will not have a significant impact in improving maternal and child health.

  2. Polio field census and vaccination of underserved populations--northern Nigeria, 2012-2013.


    In 2012, the World Health Assembly declared completion of polio eradication a public health emergency. However, wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission remains endemic in three countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan). In Nigeria, the National Stop Transmission of Polio (N-STOP) program, under the umbrella of the Nigerian Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP), has been developed to implement innovative strategies that address the remaining polio eradication challenges in Nigeria. One N-STOP initiative focuses on locating and vaccinating children agedpolio vaccination coverage likely contributes to ongoing WPV transmission. During August 2012-April 2013, N-STOP conducted field outreach activities that enumerated 40,212 remote settlements, including 4,613 (11.5%) settlements never visited by vaccination teams during previous polio supplemental immunization activities (SIAs). Enumeration resulted in documentation of 906,201 children agedpolio vaccination, and in detection of 211 unreported cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) with onset of illness in the 6 months before enumeration. Sustaining access to underserved populations in remote settlements in future SIAs will increase overall population immunity and should decrease WPV transmission. By providing a flexible and capable workforce consisting of Nigerian citizens, N-STOP is able to support evaluation and implementation of innovative polio eradication strategies in Nigeria while building local public health capacity with a potential to address other public health problems following the eradication of polio from Nigeria.

  3. Task Shifting Provision of Contraceptive Implants to Community Health Extension Workers: Results of Operations Research in Northern Nigeria.

    Charyeva, Zulfiya; Oguntunde, Olugbenga; Orobaton, Nosa; Otolorin, Emmanuel; Inuwa, Fatima; Alalade, Olubisi; Abegunde, Dele; Danladi, Saba'atu


    Contraceptive use remains low in Nigeria, with only 11% of women reporting use of any modern method. Access to long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) is constrained by a severe shortage of human resources. To assess feasibility of task shifting provision of implants, we trained community health extension workers (CHEWs) to insert and remove contraceptive implants in rural communities of Bauchi and Sokoto states in northern Nigeria. We conducted 2- to 3-week training sessions for 166 selected CHEWs from 82 facilities in Sokoto state (September 2013) and 84 health facilities in Bauchi state (December 2013). To assess feasibility of the task shifting approach, we conducted operations research using a pretest-posttest design using multiple sources of information, including surveys with 151 trained CHEWs (9% were lost to follow-up) and with 150 family planning clients; facility observations using supply checklists (N = 149); direct observation of counseling provided by CHEWs (N = 144) and of their clinical (N = 113) skills; as well as a review of service statistics (N = 151 health facilities). The endline assessment was conducted 6 months after the training in each state. CHEWs inserted a total of 3,588 implants in 151 health facilities over a period of 6 months, generating 10,088 couple-years of protection (CYP). After practicing on anatomic arm models, most CHEWs achieved competency in implant insertions after insertions with 4-5 actual clients. Clinical observations revealed that CHEWs performed implant insertion tasks correctly 90% of the time or more for nearly all checklist items. The amount of information that CHEWs provided clients increased between baseline and endline, and over 95% of surveyed clients reported being satisfied with CHEWs' services in both surveys. The study found that supervisors not only observed and corrected insertion skills, as needed, during supervisory visits but also encouraged CHEWs to conduct more community



    Others included Tabiun, “Abdulazeez12 and Professor Yadudu13. Authors like Amos,14 .... The adoption of IFRS in Nigeria today does not negate ..... M.Thesis, Faculty of Law, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ife, 2006, p.1. 40. Moh‟d Daud B, ...

  5. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Domestic Violence among Pregnant Women in Northern Nigeria

    Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S.; Galadanci, Hadiza S.; Hayatu, Zainab; Aliyu, Muktar H.


    Many women experience domestic violence during pregnancy. The magnitude and risk factors for domestic violence during pregnancy are not well documented in many countries, including Nigeria. Using interviewer- administered questionnaires the authors investigated predictors of domestic violence during current pregnancy among women presenting for…

  6. Tracking Vaccination Teams During Polio Campaigns in Northern Nigeria by Use of Geographic Information System Technology: 2013–2015

    Touray, Kebba; Mkanda, Pascal; Tegegn, Sisay G.; Nsubuga, Peter; Erbeto, Tesfaye B.; Banda, Richard; Etsano, Andrew; Shuaib, Faisal; Vaz, Rui G.


    Introduction. Nigeria is among the 3 countries in which polio remains endemic. The country made significant efforts to reduce polio transmission but remains challenged by poor-quality campaigns and poor team performance in some areas. This article demonstrates the application of geographic information system technology to track vaccination teams to monitor settlement coverage, reduce the number of missed settlements, and improve team performance. Methods. In each local government area where tracking was conducted, global positioning system–enabled Android phones were given to each team on a daily basis and were used to record team tracks. These tracks were uploaded to a dashboard to show the level of coverage and identify areas missed by the teams. Results. From 2012 to June 2015, tracking covered 119 immunization days. A total of 1149 tracking activities were conducted. Of these, 681 (59%) were implemented in Kano state. There was an improvement in the geographic coverage of settlements and an overall reduction in the number of missed settlements. Conclusions. The tracking of vaccination teams provided significant feedback during polio campaigns and enabled supervisors to evaluate performance of vaccination teams. The reports supported other polio program activities, such as review of microplans and the deployment of other interventions, for increasing population immunity in northern Nigeria. PMID:26609004

  7. Upstream dams and downstream water allocation: The case of the Hadejia-Jama'are floodplain, northern Nigeria

    Barbier, Edward B.


    This paper models the economic and hydrological impacts of upstream water diversion on downstream floodplain activities. The model is illustrated and applied to the example of the Hadejia-Jama'are River Basin, northern Nigeria. Full implementation of all the upstream dams and large-scale irrigation schemes in the river basin would produce losses of US20.2-20.9 million in present value terms in terms of flooplain agriculture, forestry, and fishing. The associated annual losses from declining groundwater levels in surrounding areas would be around 1.2 million for tube well irrigation and 4.76 million for domestic water consumption. The introduction of a regulated flooding regime for upstream dams would probably protect the groundwater recharge function of the downstream floodplain and reduce substantially the losses to agriculture, forestry, and fishing to around 15.4-16.5 million.

  8. Socio-economic aspects of the intensive growing of cowpeas (vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. in Kano, northern Nigeria

    P. Van Damme


    Full Text Available The costs and benefits of single crop cowpea and cowpea grown in, a traditional mixed cropping system are calculated for the Kano area, in northern Nigeria. If all the technical requirements are met, single crop cowpea is more profitable, on a financial return per unit land basis, than the traditional crop mixture. A one year effort to try and familiarize traditional farmers with a new variety and new production methods is clearly not enough and may even demotivate a number of farmers when the yields, and financial , returns, are low. To ensure that the improved technologies are adopted, it will be necessary to provide a credit programme enabling farmers to purchase the improved inputs, and a marketing structure that guarantees fixed and stable market prices throughout the year.

  9. A review of traditional plants used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribes of northern Nigeria.

    Muazu, J; Kaita, A H


    Five prescriptions used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribe of Northern Nigeria were collected from traditional healers. The five prescriptions containing eight plants were reviewed as in literature to ascertain scientific basis of their use in treatment of epilepsy. Securidaca longipedunculata (family Polygalaceace) was reported to have such property; Mitragyna inermis (family Rubiaceae) has alkaloids structurally similar to clinically useful anticonvulsant. Celtis integrefolia (family Ulmaceae) was reported to contain gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) that its deficiency may lead to convulsions. The remaining plants were basically helpful in alleviation of associated symptoms of epilepsy except Centaurea praecox (family Asteraceae) which was reported to have neurotoxic substances that may worsen the disease.

  10. Nutritional Factors Associated with Anaemia in Pregnant Women in Northern Nigeria

    VanderJagt, Dorothy J.; Brock, Hugh S.; Melah, George S.; El-Nafaty, Aliyu U.; Crossey, Michael J.; Glew, Robert H


    This study was conducted to assess the relative contribution of iron, folate, and B12 deficiency to anaemia in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. In total, 146 pregnant women, who attended two antenatal clinics in Gombe, Nigeria, were recruited into the study. The majority (54%) of the women were in the third trimester. Blood samples were obtained for determination of haematocrit and for measurement of serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, ferritin, folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine...

  11. Effects of Heat Stress on the Well-Being, Fertility, and Hatchability of Chickens in the Northern Guinea Savannah Zone of Nigeria: A Review

    Ayo, J. O.; Obidi, J. A.; P.I. Rekwot


    The paper examines heat stress and its adverse effects as a hindrance to profitable poultry production in the tropics, with emphasis on the Northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria. It elucidates the general negative effects of heat stress on physiological parameters of domestic chickens, and the specific impact of the stress on reproduction in the tropics. The deleterious effects are expressed in poor poultry well-being and reproductive performance. It is concluded that measures aimed at all...

  12. Global and local contexts: the Northern Ogoja Leprosy Scheme, Nigeria, 1945-1960

    Manton John


    Full Text Available Deriving funding from missionary sources in Ireland, Britain and the USA, and from international leprosy relief organizations such as the British Empire Leprosy Relief Association (BELRA and drawing on developing capacities in international public health under the auspices of WHO and UNICEF through the 1950s, the Roman Catholic Mission Ogoja Leprosy Scheme applied international expertise at a local level with ever-increasing success and coverage. This paper supplements the presentation of a successful leprosy control programme in missionary narratives with an appreciation of how international medical politics shaped the parameters of success and the development of therapeutic understanding in the late colonial period in Nigeria.

  13. Evaluating the Impact of Risk on Contractor’s Tender Figure in Public Buildings Projects in Northern Nigeria

    L. O. Oyewobi


    Full Text Available It has become almost impossible to have projects completed within the initial cost and time in Nigeria; this is as a result of many factors the construction industry is being plagued with ranging from estimating risk to time and cost overruns. The construction industry is widely associated with a high degree of risk and uncertainty due to the nature of its operating heterogeneous environment. The paper aimed at evaluating the impact of estimating risk on contractor’s tender sum with a view of ensuring efficient delivery of projects in the Northern part of Nigeria. A survey was conducted using questionnaire and a total of four headings of risk factors were identified. Research findings showed defects in design, inflation, contractor’s competence and political uncertainty as well as changes in government had greatest impact on contractor’s tender figure whereas likely trend in wages rates over the period, excessive approval procedure in administration government department, unavailability of sufficient amount of unskilled labor and technical manpower and resources of the company were the most significant factors to be considered by contractors when estimating the pricing risk. The paper recommends that construction professionals should identify and adequately quantify project estimating risk factors. Adding a risk premium to quotation and time estimation has to be supported by governmental owner organizations and other agencies in the local construction sector. Competent contractors should be allowed to tender so as to see the incidence of these estimating risks as an important aspect that requires attention while evaluating contractor’s tender sum.

  14. Water requirement and irrigation schedule for tomato in northern guinea savanna zone, Nigeria

    Ibraheem Alhassan


    Full Text Available Assessment of water requirement and irrigation schedule for tomato with the support of FAO-CROPWAT simulation model was carried out for Yola, Nigeria with the aim of planning irrigation schedules for tomato and develop recommendations for improve irrigation practices. The climatic data for 2012/2013 and soil properties of the study area were input into the program. Tomato crop properties were updated by the FAO data and three irrigation intervals were tested (7 and 10 days irrigation intervals and irrigation schedule of 10 days interval during initial and development stage and 6 days interval at mid and late season stages of tomato crop. The simulated results analysis for tomato according to the irrigation schedule showed that highest yield reduction of 16.2% was recorded with 10 days irrigation interval treatment and the least of 0.4% with irrigation interval of 10 days at first two growth stages and 6 days at last two stages. FAO-CROPWAT 8.0 can be used in planning proper irrigation schedule for tomato in Yola, Nigeria.

  15. Comparison of high- versus low-intensity community health worker intervention to promote newborn and child health in Northern Nigeria

    Findley SE


    Full Text Available Sally E Findley,1 Omolara T Uwemedimo,2 Henry V Doctor,1,3 Cathy Green,4 Fatima Adamu,5 Godwin Y Afenyadu61Department of Population and Family Health, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; 2Pediatric Global Health Program, Cohen Children’s Medical Centre of New York, Division of General Pediatrics, New Hyde Park, NY, USA; 3Operations Research Unit, Programme for Reviving Routine Immunization in Northern Nigeria-Maternal Newborn and Child Health (PRRINN-MNCH, Abia State House, Abuja, Nigeria; 4Health Partners International, Waterside Centre, Lewes, East Sussex, United Kingdom; 5Social Development and Community Engagement Unit, 6Operations Research Unit, PRRINN-MNCH Programme, Nassarawa GRA, Kano State, NigeriaBackground: In Northern Nigeria, infant mortality rates are two to three times higher than in the southern states, and, in 2008, a partnership program to improve maternal, newborn, and child health was established to reduce infant and child mortality in three Northern Nigeria states. The program intervention zones received government-supported health services plus integrated interventions at primary health care posts and development of community-based service delivery (CBSD with a network of community volunteers and community health workers (CHWs, who focus on educating women about danger signs for themselves and their infants and promoting appropriate responses to the observation of those danger signs, consistent with the approach of the World Health Organization Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness strategy. Before going to scale in the rest of the state, it is important to identify the relative effectiveness of the low-intensity volunteer approach versus the more intensive CBSD approach with CHWs.Methods: We conducted stratified cluster sample household surveys at baseline (2009 and follow-up (2011 to assess changes in newborn and sick child care practices among women with births in

  16. Spatial distribution of calcium in food, water and soil and its possible influence on rickets disease in Northern Nigeria.

    Hartmann, Lena; Sponholz, Barbara


    Since the 1990s, children of the Gbagyi tribe in Northern Nigeria have been suffering severe rickets with an incidence of up to 40% in the children's generation. The disease seems to be prevalent in an area of approximately 100 km(2) south-east of Kaduna. According to broad medical studies in that area, there is no evidence for a genetic disposition but for a nutritional cause of the disease. A lack of calcium was found in blood and was calculated to originate from diet. We therefore checked parent material, soil, maize cobs (Zea mays) and drinking water for their specific Ca contents from a region with rickets problem (study area A) and compared the results to Ca amounts in similar samples from a region where rickets is unknown among the Gbagyi population (study area B). It thereby became apparent that there are no differences in mineralogical composition of the parent material between the study areas, but that Ca contents in soil, maize cobs and drinking water are 47.6%, 26.6%, respectively, 79.1% lower in study area A compared to study area B. This result suggests that there may indeed be a nutritionally and/or environmentally influence on rickets disease. Nevertheless, further research on this topic is required.

  17. Strengthening Routine Immunization in Areas of Northern Nigeria at High Risk for Polio Transmission During 2012–2014

    Ali, Daniel; Banda, Richard; Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Adagadzu, Julie; Murele, Bolatito; Seruyange, Rachel; Makam, Jeevan; Mkanda, Pascal; Okpessen, Bassey; Tegegne, Sisay G.; Folorunsho, Adeboye S.; Erbeto, Tesfaye B.; Yehualashet, Yared G.; Vaz, Rui G.


    Background. Following the 2012 declaration by World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Director for Africa and the WHO Executive Board to ramp up routine immunization (RI) activities, began to intensify activities to strengthen RI. This study assessed how the intensification of RI helped strengthen service delivery in local government areas (LGAs) of northern Nigeria at high risk for polio transmission. Methods. A retrospective study was performed by analyzing RI administrative data and findings from supportive supervisory visits in 107 high-risk LGAs. Results. Our study revealed that administrative coverage with 3rd dose of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine in the 107 high-risk LGAs improved from a maximum average coverage of 33% during the preintensification period of 2009–2011 to 74% during the postintensification period of 2012–2014. Conclusions. Routine immunization could be strengthened in areas where coverage is low, and RI has been identified to be weak when certain key routine activities are intensified. PMID:26917576

  18. Reducing resistance to polio immunisation with free health camps and Bluetooth messaging: An update from Kaduna, Northern, Nigeria.

    Birukila, Gerida; Babale, Sufiyan M; Epstein, Helen; Gugong, Victor; Anger, Robert; Corkum, Melissa; Jehoshaphat Nebanat, Albarka; Musoke, Fredrick; Alabi, Olaniran


    Since 1997, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative has sponsored regular door-to-door polio immunisation campaigns in northern Nigeria. On 30 July 2015, the country was finally declared poliofree, a hard won success. At various times, polio eradication has been threatened by rumours and community tensions. For example, in 2003, local Imams, traditional leaders and politicians declared a polio campaign boycott, due to the concerns about the safety of the polio vaccine. Although the campaigns resumed in 2004, many parents continued to refuse vaccination because of the persistence of rumours of vaccine contamination, and anger about the poor state of health services for conditions other than polio. To address this, UNICEF and Nigerian Government partners piloted two interventions: (1) mobile 'health camps' to provide ambulatory care for conditions other than polio and (2) an audiovisual clip about vaccine safety and other health issues, shareable on multimedia mobile phones via Bluetooth pairing. The mobile phone survey found that Bluetooth compatible messages could rapidly spread behavioural health messages in low-literacy communities. The health camps roughly doubled polio vaccine uptake in the urban ward where it was piloted. This suggests that polio eradication would have been accelerated by improving primary health care services.

  19. Appraisal of Information Technology Requirements in Quantity Surveying Firms in Northern Nigeria

    Y. U. Datti


    Full Text Available A worrisome trend in the adoption of emerging technologies for competitive advantages and improved productivities by QSs have been observed in that there is overwhelming evidence that there is an increasing usage of IT in quantity surveying firms but little or no noticeable benefits on the practice. It however becomes pertinent to ask then, that despite the increases adoption of computing and telecommunication technologies, why isn’t there any noticeable change due to the impacts of IT in the Nigerian Construction Industry with particular reference to Quantity Surveying practices. The study appraised the requirement of IT in quantity surveying practice in Nigeria. It examined the position of IT in quantity surveying firms in terms of its requirement and analyzed IT requirements-based problem constraining quantity surveying firms. The study is a survey research designed to obtain information on information technology in QS firms. A self-administered questionnaire was employed to quantity surveyors in consulting firms for responses. Responses were returned and analyzed using severity index and later ranked in order of importance. The results indicate a high level of computerization of professional services among the firms with greater number of their computers being networked. However, despite high level of networking of available computers, sharing of printers and other scarce tools/technologies are not established. Compared to developed countries such as Canada, Australia, United Kingdom and USA, the position of IT requirements in QS firms in Nigeria can be said to be at basic level with organization possessing and applying basic IT tools and technologies (e.g. scanners, digital cameras, dvd/cd-rom, general purpose software, QS application software, chat programs etc. in their daily operation and processes. While most firms are progressing toward intermediate level by possessing intermediate IT tools and technologies (e.g. teleconferencing

  20. Health care providers' readiness to screen for intimate partner violence in Northern Nigeria.

    John, I A; Lawoko, Stephen; Svanström, L; Mohammed, A Z


    Research on screening for intimate partner violence (IPV) within health care in a sub-Saharan African context is rare. This paper assessed factors associated with the readiness to screen for IPV among care providers (HCP, n = 274) at Kano hospital, Nigeria. Readiness was measured using the Domestic Violence Health Care Providers' survey instrument, which measures grade of perceived self-efficacy in screening for IPV, fear for victim/provider safety, access to system support to refer IPV victims, professional roles resistant/ fear of offending clients, and blaming the victim for being abused victim. Social workers perceived a higher self-efficacy and better access to system support networks to refer victims than peers in other occupation categories. Female care providers and doctors were less likely to blame the victim than males and social workers, respectively. Younger care providers of Yoruba ethnicity and social workers were less likely to perceive conflicting professional roles related to screening than older providers of Hausa ethnicity and doctors, respectively. Implications of our findings for interventions and further research are discussed.

  1. Shifting livelihood strategies in northern Nigeria - extensified production and livelihood diversification amongst Fulani pastoralists.

    Majekodunmi, Ayodele O; Dongkum, Charles; Langs, Tok; Shaw, Alexandra P M; Welburn, Susan C


    This paper presents an in-depth investigation of the livelihood strategies of Fulani pastoralists in north central Nigeria. Results show a diversified crop-livestock system aimed at spreading risk and reducing cattle offtake, adapted to natural resource competition and insecurity by extensification, with further diversification into off-farm activities to spread risk, increase livelihood security and capture opportunities. However, significant costs were associated with extensification, and integration of crop and livestock enterprises was limited. Mean total income per capita in the study area was $554 or $1.52/person/day with 42% of households earning less than 1.25/person/day. Income levels were positively correlated with income diversity and price received per animal sold, rather than herd size. The outcomes of this livelihood strategy were favourable across the whole community, but when individual households are considered, there was evidence of moderate economic inequality in total income, cash income and herd size (Gini coefficient 0.32, 0.35 and 0.43 respectively). The poorest households were quite vulnerable, with low assets, income and income diversity. Implications for sustainability are discussed given the likelihood that the negative trends of reduced access to natural resources and insecurity will continue.

  2. Promoting the Adoption of Innovations through Participatory Approaches: Example from Northern Nigeria

    Abdoulaye, T.


    Full Text Available Participatory research and development approaches involving all stakeholders along the value chain have recently been hypothesized to produce quicker outcomes than the linear technology transfer model. This paper analyzed the crop yield obtained by farmers and their uptake of improved technologies in a 2009 survey, one year after the completion of project field activities. It was a multi-stakeholder project involving research, extension, farmer groups, marketers and policymakers, that operated for 4 years (2005-2008 in Borno state of Nigeria. Survey results indicated that farmers who participated in project activities' have been successful in increasing crop yields. Both yields and per capita production of major crops were statistically significantly higher (ñ≤ 0.05 in project communities compared to non-project ones. It is also estimated that there was a decline in percentage of households in food insecurity situation in project communities. Probit regression revealed that participation in project activities had a positive and significant effect on household food security (ñ≤ 0.05. It is then concluded that development interventions that involve multiple stakeholder partnership, use of participatory research and extension approach can help increase technology uptake among resourcepoor farmers as well as increase food production and food security in a region.


    M Ajala


    Full Text Available This study examines the performance of market participants in pig marketing in Zango-Kataf Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to describe the organizational pattern of pig marketing; identify the major problems militating against the marketing efficiency and evaluate the marketing margins of pig at various levels of the marketing channel/chain. The study investigated the pig marketing practices in this area through interviews with producers, rural assemblers, wholesalers, commission agents and retailers. The data collected were analyzed using costs and marketing margins to assess market performance. Empirical findings indicated that the difference (margin between the price received by producers and the retail price of pork and butchers’ sales of by-products was N4,192.40 (US $32.75 per head of pigs. This margin expressed as percentage of the sum of the price paid by pork consumers and by-products merchants was 22% and was shared by the intermediate agents in the marketing chain. Several factors perceived by participants in the market as limiting constraints to pig production and marketing are inadequate abattoir, absence of refrigerators, absence of standard weights and measures, high cost of transportation, lack of access to formal credit sources and lack of good roads. The study recommends the provision of credit facilities, installation of processing plants, use of weights and infrastructural developments in order to increase overall volume of the market.

  4. Geochemistry of the granitic rocks from the Kwandonkaya Complex, northern Nigeria

    Imeokparia, E. G.

    The Kwandonkaya Complex forms one of the most prominent and typical ring structures in the Centre of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. Lithologically, it is composed of amphibole and biotite granites emplaced within Archean basement gneisses and migmatites. The chemical and mineralogical characteristics of this complex suggest that it was derived from crustal source materials. Trace elements are high in Rb, Li, F, Sn, Nb, W and low in Sr and Ba compared to the world average for rocks of similar composition indicating a high degree of fractionation. However, the {K}/{Rb} ratios and petrographic evidence indicate that recrystallization may have redistributed the elements after the initial solidification of the rocks particularly in the biotite granites; and that the distribution of tin may have been initially controlled by crystal-silicate melt equilibra. Tin probably preferentially entered the aqueous phase during the late stages of solidification. It was the interaction between this phase and early formed minerals that led to greisenization and tin-tungsten mineralization. Although total rock chemical composition show no marked trends the composition of the biotites and hornblende define a trend in the compositional triangle Fe 3+Fe 2+Mg. When the biotites are related to the experimentally studied ternary system KFe 33+AlSi 3O 12(H-1)KFe 32+AlSi 3O 10(OH) 2KMg 3AlSi 3O 10(OH) 2 and coupled with the estimated position of biotite solid solutions for different oxygen buffers, the trend suggests that oxygen fugacities in the magmas during biotite formation were slightly higher than those defined by the Fe 2SiO 4SiO 2Fe 3O 4 buffer. The ratio of ferric to ferrous iron in pairs of the minerals from the Kwandonkaya Complex is the same for both hornblende and biotite and suggests crystallization in a closed but buffered environment.

  5. Systematic assessment of fault stability in the Northern Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria: Implication for hydrocarbon prospects and increased seismicities

    Adewole, E. O.; Healy, D.


    Accurate information on fault networks, the full stress tensor, and pore fluid pressures are required for quantifying the stability of structure-bound hydrocarbon prospects, carbon dioxide sequestration, and drilling prolific and safe wells, particularly fluid injections wells. Such information also provides essential data for a proper understanding of superinduced seismicities associated with areas of intensive hydrocarbon exploration and solid minerals mining activities. Pressure and stress data constrained from wells and seismic data in the Northern Niger Delta Basin (NNDB), Nigeria, have been analysed in the framework of fault stability indices by varying the maximum horizontal stress direction from 0° to 90°, evaluated at depths of 2 km, 3.5 km and 4 km. We have used fault dips and azimuths interpreted from high resolution 3D seismic data to calculate the predisposition of faults to failures in three faulting regimes (normal, pseudo-strike-slip and pseudo-thrust). The weighty decrease in the fault stability at 3.5 km depth from 1.2 MPa to 0.55 MPa demonstrates a reduction of the fault strength by high magnitude overpressures. Pore fluid pressures > 50 MPa have tendencies to increase the risk of faults to failure in the study area. Statistical analysis of stability indices (SI) indicates faults dipping 50°-60°, 80°-90°, and azimuths ranging 100°-110° are most favourably oriented for failure to take place, and thus likely to favour migrations of fluids given appropriate pressure and stress conditions in the dominant normal faulting regime of the NNDB. A few of the locally assessed stability of faults show varying results across faulting regimes. However, the near similarities of some model-based results in the faulting regimes explain the stability of subsurface structures are greatly influenced by the maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) direction and magnitude of pore fluid pressures.

  6. Organic geochemical characterisation of shallow marine Cretaceous formations from Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria

    Sarki Yandoka, Babangida M.; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Abubakar, M. B.; Hakimi, Mohammed Hail; Jauro, Aliyu; Adegoke, Adebanji Kayode


    The shallow marine shales of the Cretaceous formations namely Yolde, Dukul, Jessu, Sekuliye and Numanha ranging in age from Cenomanian to Coniacian within the Yola Sub-basin in the Northern Benue Trough, northeastern Nigeria were analysed to provide an overview on their hydrocarbon generation potential. This study is based on pyrolysis analysis, total organic carbon content (TOC), extractable organic matter (EOM), biomarker distributions and measured vitrinite reflectance. The present-day TOC contents range between 0.24 and 0.71 wt. % and Hydrogen Index (HI) values between 8.7 and 113 mg HC/g TOC with Type III/IV kerogens. Based on the present-day kerogen typing, the shale sediments are expected to generate mainly gas. Biomarker compositions indicates deposition in a marine environment under suboxic conditions with prevalent contribution of aquatic organic matter and a significant amount of terrigenous organic matter input. Organic matter that is dominated by marine components contains kerogens of Type II and Type II-III. This study shows that the organic matter has been affected by volcanic intrusion and consequently, have reached post-mature stage of oil generation. These higher thermal maturities levels are consistent with the vitrinite reflectance ranging from 0.85 to 2.35 Ro % and high Tmax (440-508 °C) values as supported by biomarker maturity ratios. Based on this study, a high prospect for major gas and minor oil generation potential is anticipated from the shallow marine Cretaceous formations from Yola Sub-basin.

  7. Effects of Heat Stress on the Well-Being, Fertility, and Hatchability of Chickens in the Northern Guinea Savannah Zone of Nigeria: A Review

    Ayo, J. O.; Obidi, J. A.; Rekwot, P. I.


    The paper examines heat stress and its adverse effects as a hindrance to profitable poultry production in the tropics, with emphasis on the Northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria. It elucidates the general negative effects of heat stress on physiological parameters of domestic chickens, and the specific impact of the stress on reproduction in the tropics. The deleterious effects are expressed in poor poultry well-being and reproductive performance. It is concluded that measures aimed at alleviating heat stress in domestic chickens must be adopted in order to enhance reproductive and, consequently, efficiency of modern poultry production in the tropics. PMID:23738109

  8. Agro-ecological features of the introduction and spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 in northern Nigeria

    Giuliano Cecchi


    Full Text Available Nigeria was the first African country to report highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 virus outbreaks in February 2006 and has since been the most severely hit country in sub-Saharan Africa. A retrospective survey carried out towards the end of 2007, coupled with follow-up spatial analysis, support the notion that the H5N1 virus may have spread from rural areas of northern Nigeria near wetlands frequented by palaearctic migratory birds. Possibly, this could have happened already during November to December 2005, one or two months prior to the first officially reported outbreak in a commercial poultry farm (Kaduna state. It is plausible that backyard poultry played a more important role in the H5N1 propagation than thought previously. Farming landscapes with significant numbers of domestic ducks may have helped to bridge the geographical and ecological gap between the waterfowl in the wetlands and the densely populated poultry rich states in north-central Nigeria, where the virus had more sizeable, visible impact.

  9. The cost-effectiveness in the use of HIV counselling and testing-mobile outreaches in reaching men who have sex with men (MSM in northern Nigeria

    Chiedu Ifekandu


    Full Text Available Introduction: Men who have sex with men (MSM are at increased risk of HIV and other STI infections in Nigeria. This is because MSM are afraid to seek medical help because the healthcare workers in various facilities are afraid of the consequences if they provide services for MSM citing the law as a reason not to intervene. MSM in northern states of Nigeria are facing double-jeopardy because the few international partners working in MSM in Nigeria are pulling out of these volatile areas because of the fear of attacks by the Boko Haram and the Nigerian law enforcement agencies. Objectives: The intervention was conducted to promote affordable and sustainable HIV care and treatment for MSM in Nigeria. Methods: This intervention was conducted in the Boko Haram ravaged cities of Kano and Maiduguri (North-East Nigeria. Twenty MSM-key influencers from the two cities were identified and trained on HIV counselling and testing, caregivers, case managers and on initiation process for ARV treatment for new HIV+MSM as well as ethical considerations. Results: The mean age of the key influencers was 24 years +/−SD. Each of the trained 20 key influencers reached 20 MSM-peer with condom promotion, HCT, referral to identified MSM-community health centers and follow-up/caregiving within the space of one month. The project was able to reach 400 MSM in the two cities. 89% of the peers consented to HCT. HIV prevalence among the participants was at 18%. The project recorded ARV-successful referral to healthcare facilities for the respondents that tested positive. The key influencers have been following up for ARV-adherence. Conclusions: Use of community members should be promoted for sustainability and ownership. It also helps in eradicating socio-cultural barrier to HIV intervention for MSM. Moreover, this proves to be one of the safest and affordable methods of reaching MSM in Nigeria in this ugly time of legalization of homophobia in the country's constitution.

  10. The use of formative research to inform the design of a seasonal malaria chemoprevention intervention in northern Nigeria.

    Strachan, Clare E; Kana, Musa; Martin, Sandrine; Dada, John; Wandera, Naome; Marasciulo, Madeleine; Counihan, Helen; Kolawole, Maxwell; Babale, Tanimu; Hamade, Prudence; Meek, Sylvia R; Baba, Ebenezer


    Experience of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is growing in the Sahel sub-region of Africa, though there remains insufficient evidence to recommend a standard deployment strategy. In 2012, a project was initiated in Katsina state, northern Nigeria, to design an appropriate and effective community-based delivery approach for SMC, in consultation with local stakeholders. Formative research (FR) was conducted locally to explore the potential feasibility and acceptability of SMC and to highlight information gaps and practical considerations to inform the intervention design. The FR adopted qualitative methods; 36 in-depth interviews and 18 focus group discussions were conducted across 13 target groups active across the health system and within the community. Analysis followed the 'framework' approach. The process for incorporating the FR results into the project design was iterative which was initiated by a week-long 'intervention design' workshop with relevant stakeholders. The FR highlighted both supportive and hindering factors to be considered in the intervention design. Malaria control was identified as a community priority, the community health workers were a trusted resource and the local leadership exerted strong influence over household decisions. However, there were perceived challenges with quality of care at both community and health facility levels, referral linkage and supportive supervision were weak, literacy levels lower than anticipated and there was the potential for suspicion of 'outside' interventions. There was broad consensus across target groups that community-based SMC drug delivery would better enable a high coverage of beneficiaries and potentially garner wider community support. A mixed approach was recommended, including both community fixed-point and household-to-household SMC delivery. The FR findings were used to inform the overall distribution strategy, mechanisms for integration into the health system, capacity building and

  11. Serological prevalence of leptospirosis in cattle slaughtered in the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

    Emmanuel O. Ngbede


    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an occupational zoonosis caused by pathogenic leptospires. In this study, the presence and prevalence of antibodies specific to Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo in 142 cattle slaughtered between June and July 2011 was investigated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Five (3.50% of the 142 cattle sampled were seropositive for antibodies to Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo. Despite the fact that there was no significant difference (p>0.05 in seropositivity between sexes and between breeds sampled, there was a significant difference (p<0.05 in sero-positivity between the different age groups examined. Leptospirosis is present in cattle slaughtered in the Zango abattoir; butchers and abattoir workers are exposed to infected animals and are at risk of being infected by Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo.

  12. Safety of liver biopsy as a day procedure in Abuth Zaria, Nigeria.

    Samuel, David Olorunfemi; Oluleke, Ibinaiye Philip; Omotara, Samaila Modupeola


    Chronic liver disease (CLD) is an important condition, diagnosed mainly by liver biopsy and is a leading cause of death among the working class group. It is a major burden in sub-Saharan Africa where it leads to hepatocellular carcinoma with a high mortality. This study was a retrospective one undertaken to determine the safety of performing liver biopsy procedure between January 2000 to January 2009 in terms of the frequency of indications and side effects. A total of 279 entries were found out of which 270 (96.77%) had a definitive liver biopsy histology result. The main indication for liver biopsy was chronic viral hepatitis in 150 patients (53.76%) while the commonest complication was the post-procedure pain that was seen in 16 patients (5.7%). The average duration of hospital stay after biopsy was 6.08 ± 0.52 hours.

  13. ABO (H) secretor status of sickle cell disease patients in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    Olorunshola, K V; Audu, L


    Certain individuals secrete ABO blood group antigens in body fluids and secretions while others do not. In this study, the presence of water soluble agglutinogens in body fluids such as blood, saliva and urine of 64 sickle cell disease patients and 75 AA genotype subjects who served as control were taken and tested by hem-agglutination inhibition method. Data obtained was expressed in percentages. Results revealed that 84.4% sickle cell patients were secretors while 15.6% were non secretors. Amongst the control, 97.3% were secretors while 3.1% were non secretors. 81.2% SS and 3.2% SS+F patients were secretors while 15.6% SS were non secretors, 68% AA were secretors and 29.3% AS were secretors while 2.7% AA were non secretors. The result showed that a non secretor is more likely to be an SS than a secretor and Secretor status is influenced by hemoglobin genotype.

  14. Prevalence and Antibiogram Pattern of Some Nosocomial Pathogens Isolated from Hospital Environment in Zaria, Nigeria

    Chrinius Hammuel


    Full Text Available Many ordinary surfaces and hands of healthcare givers in hospitals are sometimes inadequately decontaminated with routine disinfection techniques. It is necessary to determine the distribution of these pathogens in the hospitals. In this study 160 swab samples were collected from ten different surfaces including nurses’ hand swab, Nurses’ table top, door knob/handle, toilet seat, operation table, sink, stretcher, floor, bedrail, and cupboard. Biochemical tests were used to identify the bacteria. Kirby-Bauer-Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI modified single disc diffusion technique was used to determine the antibiogram profile of the pathogens at 0.5 scale McFarland’s standard (1.5 × 108 cells/ml. The total percentage prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 50.80%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 28.60% and Escherichia coli 20.60%. Out of 20.60% of E. coli isolates7.7% were found to be E. coli O157:H7. S. aureus isolates were highly resistant to ampcillin and cefoxitin P. aeruginosa and E. coli were resistant to tetracycline. The multiple antibiotic resistance indexes of the pathogens were more than 0.2. Among the isolates, S. aureus showed more multidrug resistance (31.30% and E. coli had the least multidrug. Frequently touched surfaces within the hospital environment are contaminated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. These pathogens can be transfer from surfaces to patients and to surfaces again through healthcare workers. The widespread use of antimicrobials, especially over- or inappropriate use of antibiotics, has contributed to an increased incidence of antimicrobial-resistant organisms.

  15. An innovation for improving maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) service delivery in Jigawa State, northern Nigeria: a qualitative study of stakeholders' perceptions about clinical mentoring.

    Okereke, Ekechi; Tukur, Jamilu; Aminu, Amina; Butera, Jean; Mohammed, Bello; Tanko, Mustapha; Yisa, Ibrahim; Obonyo, Benson; Egboh, Mike


    An effective capacity building process for healthcare workers is required for the delivery of quality health care services. Work-based training can be applied for the capacity building of health care workers while causing minimum disruption to service delivery within health facilities. In 2012, clinical mentoring was introduced into the Jigawa State Health System through collaboration between the Jigawa State Ministry of Health and the Partnership for Transforming Health Systems Phase 2 (PATHS2). This study evaluates the perceptions of different stakeholders about clinical mentoring as a strategy for improving maternal, newborn and child health service delivery in Jigawa State, northern Nigeria. Interviews were conducted in February 2013 with different stakeholders within Jigawa State in Northern Nigeria. There were semi-structured interviews with 33 mentored health care workers as well as the health facility departmental heads for Obstetrics and Pediatrics in the selected clinical mentoring health facilities. In-depth interviews were also conducted with the clinical mentors and two senior government health officials working within the Jigawa State Ministry of Health. The qualitative data were audio-recorded; transcribed and thematically analysed. The study findings suggest that clinical mentoring improved service delivery within the clinical mentoring health facilities. Significant improvements in the professional capacity of mentored health workers were observed by clinical mentors, heads of departments and the mentored health workers. Best practices were introduced with the support of the clinical mentors such as appropriate baseline investigations for pediatric patients, the use of magnesium sulphate and misoprostol for the management of eclampsia and post-partum hemorrhage respectively. Government health officials indicate that clinical mentoring has led to more emphasis on the need for the provision of better quality health services. Stakeholders report that

  16. Evaluation of maize yield in an on-farm maize-soybean and maize-Lablab crop rotation systems in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria.

    Okogun, J A; Sanginga, N; Abaidoo, R C


    An attempt was made to solving the problem of shortfall of fertilizer to maize production in the Northern Guinea Savanna (NGS) of Nigeria by harnessing the potentials of legume/cereal crop rotation in on-farm trials. The yield of maize that succeeded two soybean varieties and Lablab in a two-cycle of soybean/maize and Lablab/maize crop rotation in NGS Nigeria was assessed in researcher-managed and farmer-managed plots. Though maize that followed the soybean received between 5 kg N ha(-1) from improved soybean variety (TGx 1448-2E) and 17 kg N ha(-1) from farmer soybean variety (Samsoy-2) as N balance, this did not significantly (p = 0.05) affect the maize yields. The soybean shed 90-100% of its leaves at physiological maturity which resulted in about 110 kg N ha(-1) N uptake. This source of N might be one of the factors responsible for the increase in maize yield that followed soybean (20 to 24%) compared with continuous maize yield plot. Maize yield in previous Lablab plot was significantly (p = 0.05) higher than in all other treatments. Maize yield in farmer-managed plot ranged between 0.13 and 4.53 t ha(-1), maize yield in researcher-managed plot was over 200% higher than maize yield in farmer-managed plot because of poor crop management on the part of the farmer.

  17. Introduction of an innovation for the reduction of maternal mortality in Kano State, northern Nigeria: a case study of magnesium sulphate.

    Tukur, J; Ogedengbe, C; Nwanchukwu, E; Araoyinbo, I A; Yakasai, I A; Adaji, S E; Ajala, B


    In this project, sponsored by the McArthur Foundation and the Population Council, magnesium sulphate was introduced in February 2007 to 10 general hospitals in Kano State, northern Nigeria. Changes were monitored via data collected at the hospital. At an initial training of the trainers' workshop, 25 master trainers were trained. They then conducted step down trainings and trained 160 clinical providers. Within 12 months, 1045 patients were treated with magnesium sulphate. The attributable deaths from eclampsia fell by 42.4%. The community became aware of an improved outcome for eclampsia. The providers expressed satisfaction with the outcome of the treated patients. Four of the master trainers trained 30 clinical providers from the other 25 general hospitals. Initiatives for the reduction of maternal mortality should be evidence-based.

  18. Lessons learned from setting up the Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System in the resource-constrained context of northern Nigeria

    Olatunji Alabi


    Full Text Available Background: The present time reflects a period of intense effort to get the most out of public health interventions, with an emphasis on health systems reform and implementation research. Population health approaches to determine which combinations are better at achieving the goals of improved health and well-being are needed to provide a ready response to the need for timely and real-world piloting of promising interventions. Objective: This paper describes the steps needed to establish a population health surveillance site in order to share the lessons learned from our experience launching the Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS in a relatively isolated, rural district in Zamfara, northern Nigeria, where strict Muslim observance of gender separation and seclusion of women must be respected by any survey operation. Discussion: Key to the successful launch of the Nahuche HDSS was the leadership's determination, stakeholder participation, support from state and local government areas authorities, technical support from the INDEPTH Network, and international academic partners. Solid funding from our partner health systems development programme during the launch period was also essential, and provided a base from which to secure long-term sustainable funding. Perhaps the most difficult challenges were the adaptations needed in order to conduct the requisite routine population surveillance in the communities, where strict Muslim observance of gender separation and seclusion of women, especially young women, required recruitment of female interviewers, which was in turn difficult due to low female literacy levels. Local community leaders were key in overcoming the population's apprehension of the fieldwork and modern medicine, in general. Continuous engagement and sensitisation of all stakeholders was a critical step in ensuring sustainability. While the experiences of setting up a new HDSS site may vary globally, the experiences

  19. Source to point of use drinking water changes and knowledge, attitude and practices in Katsina State, Northern Nigeria

    Onabolu, B.; Jimoh, O. D.; Igboro, S. B.; Sridhar, M. K. C.; Onyilo, G.; Gege, A.; Ilya, R.

    In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This is associated with the use of decentralised water supply systems in rural areas which are not fully reticulated to the household taps, creating a need for an integrated water quality monitoring system. As an initial step towards establishing the system in the north west and north central zones of Nigeria, The Katsina State Rural Water and Sanitation Agency, responsible for ensuring access to safe water and adequate sanitation to about 6 million people carried out a three pronged study with the support of UNICEF Nigeria. Part 1 was an assessment of the legislative and policy framework, institutional arrangements and capacity for drinking water quality monitoring through desk top reviews and Key Informant Interviews (KII) to ascertain the institutional capacity requirements for developing the water quality monitoring system. Part II was a water quality study in 700 households of 23 communities in four local government areas. The objectives were to assess the safety of drinking water, compare the safety at source and household level and assess the possible contributory role of end users’ Knowledge Attitudes and Practices. These were achieved through water analysis, household water quality tracking, KII and questionnaires. Part III was the production of a visual documentary as an advocacy tool to increase awareness of the policy makers of the linkages between source management, treatment and end user water quality. The results indicate that except for pH, conductivity and manganese, the improved water sources were safe at source. However there was a deterioration in water quality between source and


    women in Zaria environs, northern Nigeria: has primary ... women go through as a result of pregnancy was brought to the fore.4 The Safe Motherhood Initiative that resulted from the Nairobi conference articulated .... The age range was.

  1. Factors influencing the selection of delivery with no one present in Northern Nigeria: implications for policy and programs

    Fapohunda B


    Full Text Available Bolaji Fapohunda,1 Nosakhare Orobaton1,21International Division, John Snow Inc, Rosslyn, VA, USA; 2Targeted States High Impact Project (TSHIP, Bauchi, NigeriaAbstract: This paper examines the effects of demographic, socioeconomic, and women's autonomy factors on the utilization of delivery assistance in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from the Nigeria 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression procedures were conducted. The study revealed that delivery with no one present and with unskilled attendance accounted for roughly 95% of all births in Sokoto State. Mothers with existing high risk factors, including higher parity, were more likely to select unsafe/unskilled delivery practices than younger, lower-parity mothers. Evidenced by the high prevalence of delivery with traditional birth attendants, this study demonstrates that expectant mothers are willing to obtain care from a provider, and their odds of using accessible, affordable, skilled delivery is high, should such an option be presented. This conclusion is supported by the high correlation between a mother's socioeconomic status and the likelihood of using skilled attendance. To improve the access to, and increase the affordability of, skilled health attendants, we recommended two solutions: 1 the use of cash subsidies to augment women's incomes in order to reduce finance-related barriers in the use of formal health services, thus increasing demand; and 2 a structural improvement that will increase women's economic security by improving their access to higher education, income, and urban ideation.Keywords: Sokoto State, delivery attendance, maternal mortality rate, maternal health, reproductive health, demographic and health surveys, poverty

  2. Assessment of the quality of antenatal care services provided by health workers using a mobile phone decision support application in northern Nigeria: a pre/post-intervention study.

    Marion McNabb

    Full Text Available Given the shortage of skilled healthcare providers in Nigeria, frontline community health extension workers (CHEWs are commonly tasked with providing maternal and child health services at primary health centers. In 2012, we introduced a mobile case management and decision support application in twenty primary health centers in northern Nigeria, and conducted a pre-test/post-test study to assess whether the introduction of the app had an effect on the quality of antenatal care services provided by this lower-level cadre.Using the CommCare mobile platform, the app dynamically guides CHEWs through antenatal care protocols and collects client data in real time. Thirteen health education audio clips are also embedded in the app for improving and standardizing client counseling. To detect changes in quality, we developed an evidence-based quality score consisting of 25 indicators, and conducted a total of 266 client exit interviews. We analyzed baseline and endline data to assess changes in the overall quality score as well as changes in the provision of key elements of antenatal care.Overall, the quality score increased from 13.3 at baseline to 17.2 at endline (p<0.0001, out of a total possible score of 25, with the most significant improvements related to health counseling, technical services provided, and quality of health education.These study results suggest that the introduction of a low-cost mobile case management and decision support application can spur behavior change and improve the quality of services provided by a lower level cadre of healthcare workers. Future research should employ a more rigorous experimental design to explore potential longer-term effects on client health outcomes.

  3. Nigeria. Spotlight.

    Lecky, M


    Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, currently has no official population policy; however, recent news releases from the Federal Ministry of Information indicate that efforts to deal with rapid population growth may be forthcouming. Adequate census materials are lacking. In 1984 population size was estimated to be 88 million, and in 1983 the estimated crude birth rate was 48-51/1000, the estimated crude death rate was 16-18/1000, and the population growth rate was approximately 3.0%-3.5%. Other estimates for 1983 placed the infant mortality rate at 134 and life expectancy at 49 years. The total fertility rate observed in a 1981 World Fertility Study was 5.4, but this rate was questioned by investigators, who believe it is too low. World Bank projections, based on the assumption that fertility declines will begin soon, indicate that the population will reach 618 million before stabilizing toward the end of the 21st century. At the present time, only 6% of Nigeria's women of reproductive age use contraception, and most of these women contracept only for spacing purposes. Nigeria, which obtained independence in 1960, is plagued by internal strife between different ethnic groups. The northern region, populated by the Hausa is less developed economically than the southern region. The Ibo, who play a major role in the nation's commerical and government sectors, predominated in the the southeastern region, and the Yoruba are the most populous group in the southwestern region. 1/2 of the population if Muslim, 40% is Christian, and the remaining proportion practices traditional religions. During the 1960s, Nigeria derived 2/3 of it gross national product from agriculture, and especially from the export of cocoa, groundnuts, and palm oil. During the 1970s the economy changed markedly as the country began to exploit its oil reserves. By 1983, agriculture accounted for only 20% of the gross national product, and 98% of the country's total exports of US$11.3 billion

  4. Constraints in the Control of African Trypanosomiasis the Prevailing Factors in Kurmin Kaduna, Northern, Nigeria (Review Article

    Attahir Abubakar


    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to further highlight the prevailing factors in the control of African trypanosomosis in Nigeria. The effectiveness of trypanocides as a means of control is being curtailed by, wide spread drug resistance, lack of alternative drugs, multiple resistance, fake drugs,insufficient veterinary services, proliferation of quacks, high cost of trypanocides and the ability of the parasite to survive in cryptic foci poorly accessible to drugs. Trypanotolerance is a relative rather than absolute trait, severely affected by heavy challenge, malnutrition, stress, breed, age, season, and concurrent disease, Trypanotolerant breeds are poorly utilized and accepted because of their size, productivity and traction power compared with the large zebu breeds. Use of insecticide has been the most effective and reliable method of control but fear of emergence of resistance, cross resistance, environmental damage, accumulation in food chains with damaging effect on fertility etc constitute a major drawback on its use. Poor policies formulation and enforcement, human beliefs and behaviors, tsetse redistribution, mechanical transmitters and reservoire host has hindered effective control. The scanty inform ation on distribution, prevalence and economic impact of trypanosomosis in Nigeria, coupled with corruption, lack of community participation, inability to implement cost effective control strategies, these has resulted in the negative attitude of national governments and international funding organizations towards control of the disease, leading to collapse of many control projects. There is no control method that can be used alone; rather a combination of different control methods has proven effective due to the social, economical and cultural behaviors of Nigerians.


    Halima Mohammed Lawal


    Full Text Available Tillage practices influence soil physical, chemical and biological qualities which in-turn alters plant growth and crop yield. In the Northern Guinea Savanna (NGS ecological zone of Nigeria, agricultural production is mainly constrained by low soil nutrient and water holding capacity, it is therefore, imperative to develop appropriate management practices that will give optimal soil hydro-physical properties for proper plant growth, effective soil and water management and environmental conservation. This study investigated the effect of three tillage practices (no till, reduced till and conventional till and four cover crops (Centrosema pascuorum, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Cucurbita maxima and Glyine max and a bare/control (no cover crop on some soil physical properties of a Typic Haplusult during the rainy seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013 in Samaru, NGS ecological zone of Nigeria. The field trials were laid out in a split plot arrangement with tillage practices in the main plots and cover crops in the subplots, all treatments were replicated three times. Auger and core soil samples were collected at the end of each cropping season each year in three replicates from each treatment plot at four depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-15 and 15-20 cm. Particle size distribution, bulk density, total pore volume and water retention at various soil matric potentials were determined using standard methods. Data obtained were compared with optimum values and fitted into a RETC computer code for quantifying soil hydraulic behavior and physical quality. Results showed that different tillage practices had varied effect on soil physical properties. No-till had the highest water holding capacity at most suction points evaluated, it had 4.3 % and 12.9 % more soil moisture than the reduced till  and conventionally tilled systems across all matric potentials while Centrosema pascuorum (3.1% and Cucurbita maxima (5.5% were best among evaluated cover crops in retaining soil moisture

  6. Herd-level risk factors for Campylobacter fetus infection, Brucella seropositivity and within-herd seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle in northern Nigeria.

    Mai, H M; Irons, P C; Kabir, J; Thompson, P N


    Brucellosis and campylobacteriosis are economically important diseases affecting bovine reproductive efficiency in Nigeria. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in 271 cattle herds in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states of northern Nigeria using multistage cluster sampling. Serum from 4745 mature animals was tested for Brucella antibodies using the Rose-Bengal plate test and positives were confirmed in series-testing protocol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Preputial scrapings from 602 bulls were tested using culture and identification for Campylobacter fetus. For each disease, a herd was classified as positive if one or more animals tested positive. For each herd, information on potential managemental and environmental risk factors was collected through a questionnaire administered during an interview with the manager, owner or herdsman. Multiple logistic regression models were used to model the odds of herd infection for each disease. A zero-inflated Poisson model was used to model the count of Brucella-positive animals within herds, with the number tested as an exposure variable. The presence of small ruminants (sheep and/or goats) on the same farm, and buying-in of >3 new animals in the previous year or failure to practice quarantine were associated with increased odds of herd-level campylobacteriosis and brucellosis, as well as increased within-herd counts of Brucella-positive animals. In addition, high rainfall, initial acquisition of animals from markets, practice of gynaecological examination and failure to practice herd prophylactic measures were positively associated with the odds of C. fetus infection in the herd. Herd size of >15, pastoral management system and presence of handling facility on the farm were associated with increased odds, and gynaecological examination with reduced odds of herd-level Brucella seropositivity. Furthermore, the zero-inflated Poisson model showed that borrowing or sharing of bulls was associated with

  7. Response of grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L., to method and rate of cattle kraal manure application at Kadawa and Samaru in Nigeria

    Abdullahi Ahmed Manga


    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted between June and October 2010 wet season at two different locations. The first was at the Horticultural Research Garden of the Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR, Samaru in the Northern Guinea Savanna agro-ecological zone and the second experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of the Irrigation Research Sub-Station (IRS, Kadawa in the Sudan Savanna agro-ecological zone also of the Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria to evaluate the response of grain amaranth growth and green edible vegetable yield components to three methods of cattle kraal manure application (broadcasting, side banding and spot placement incorporated and five rates of cattle kraal manure application (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1, using the variety ‘Pure branch’. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD and replicated three times. Cattle kraal manure application rates significantly (p > 0.05 increased growth of green edible vegetable yield characters of grain amaranth except stem girth at Samaru. Growth and green edible vegetable yield characters were generally not influenced by methods of cattle kraal manure application except for plant height, number of leaves per plant at 12 WAT at Samaru, and plant fresh weight at 12 WAT at Kadawa and dry weight at 4 and 12 WAT at Samaru and 12 WAT at Kadawa. Application of cattle kraal manure of 10 t ha-1 to Amaranthus cruenthus gave the highest mean values which were comparable to those of 15 and 20 t ha-1 rates for all the characters measured such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry weights. Thus, the finding suggests that 10 t ha-1 should be recommended to farmers growing Amaranthus in the Northern Guinea and Sudan Savanna of Nigerian agro-ecologies.



    in the northern part of Nigeria and other crimes committed in other parts of Nigeria with arms, ... injuries not just to humans alone, but also to the environment, economy and is ... production and/or acquisition of arms by groups or individuals for.

  9. Knowledge of Radiation Hazards, Radiation Protection Practices and Clinical Profile of Health Workers in a Teaching Hospital in Northern Nigeria.

    Awosan, K J; Ibrahim, Mto; Saidu, S A; Ma'aji, S M; Danfulani, M; Yunusa, E U; Ikhuenbor, D B; Ige, T A


    Use of ionizing radiation in medical imaging for diagnostic and interventional purposes has risen dramatically in recent years with a concomitant increase in exposure of patients and health workers to radiation hazards. To assess the knowledge of radiation hazards, radiation protection practices and clinical profile of health workers in UDUTH, Sokoto, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 110 Radiology, Radiotherapy and Dentistry staff selected by universal sampling technique. The study comprised of administration of standardized semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire (to obtain information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of radiation hazards, and radiation protection practices of participants), clinical assessment (comprising of chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasound and laboratory investigation on hematological parameters), and evaluation of radiation exposure of participants (extracted from existing hospital records on their radiation exposure status). The participants were aged 20 to 65 years (mean = 34.04 ± 8.83), most of them were males (67.3%) and married (65.7%). Sixty five (59.1%) had good knowledge of radiation hazards, 58 (52.7%) had good knowledge of Personal Protective Devices (PPDs), less than a third, 30 (27.3%) consistently wore dosimeter, and very few (10.9% and below) consistently wore the various PPDs at work. The average annual radiation exposure over a 4 year period ranged from 0.0475mSv to 1.8725mSv. Only 1 (1.2%) of 86 participants had abnormal chest X-ray findings, 8 (9.4%) of 85 participants had abnormal abdominal ultrasound findings; while 17 (15.5%) and 11 (10.0%) of 110 participants had anemia and leucopenia respectively. This study demonstrated poor radiation protection practices despite good knowledge of radiation hazards among the participants, but radiation exposure and prevalence of abnormal clinical conditions were found to be low. Periodic in-service training and monitoring on radiation safety was




    Oct 13, 2011 ... annual total amount, and frequency of fall, kinetic energy and ... annual rainfall increases from the northern frontier of the region ... Nigeria Meteorological Agency, Lagos for the ..... Estimation for Australia's Tropics. Aust. J. Soil.

  11. Hydrocarbon potential of Early Cretaceous lacustrine sediments from Bima Formation, Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria: Insight from organic geochemistry and petrology

    Sarki Yandoka, Babangida M.; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Abubakar, M. B.; Adegoke, Adebanji Kayode; Maigari, A. S.; Haruna, A. I.; Yaro, Usman Y.


    The Early Cretaceous lacustrine sediments from Bima Formation in the Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, northeastern Nigeria were studied based on organic geochemistry and petrology. This is in other to provide information on hydrocarbon generation potential; organic matter type (quality), richness (quantity), origin/source inputs, redox conditions (preservation) and thermal maturation in relation to thermal effect of Tertiary volcanics. The total organic carbon (TOC) contents ranges from 0.38 to 0.86 wt % with extractable organic matter (EOM) below 1000 ppm and pyrolysis S2 yield values from 0.16 to 0.68 mg/g, suggesting poor to fair source rock richness. Based on kerogen pyrolysis and microscopy coupled with biomarker parameters, the organic matters contain Type I (lacustrine algae), Type III (terrestrially derived land-plants) and Type IV kerogens deposited in a mixed lacustrine-terrestrial environment under suboxic to relatively anoxic conditions. This suggest potential occurrence of Early Cretaceous lacustrine sediments (perhaps Lower Cretaceous petroleum system) in Yola Sub-basin of the Northern Benue Trough as present in the neighbouring basins of Chad, Niger and Sudan Republics that have both oil and gas generation potential within the same rift trend (WCARS). Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) and Tmax values of the lacustrine shales ranges from 1.12 to 2.32 VRo% and 448-501 °C, respectively, indicating peak-late to post-maturity stage. This is supported by the presence of dark brown palynomorphs, amorphous organic matter and phytoclasts as well as inertinite macerals. Consequently, the organic matters in the lacustrine shales of Bima Formation in the Yola Sub-basin appeared as a source of oil (most likely even waxy) and gas prone at a relatively deeper part of the basin. However, the high thermal maturity enhanced the organic matters and most of the hydrocarbons that formed in the course of thermal maturation were likely expelled to the reservoir rock units

  12. Koranic education and militant Islam in Nigeria

    Winters, Clyde Ahmad


    In this article the author outlines and discusses the influence of Koranic schools, and their students ( almagiri) on the rise of fundamentalism and the spreading of militant Islam in Northern Nigeria. The author contends that while Islamic fundamentalism is the banner of both the Western-oriented Muslims and traditional Nigerian Muslims, it differs in expression in Northern Nigeria. The article shows that these differences result from the influence of the Koranic schools on the traditional teachers ( ulama) and their students on the one hand, and Western universities, Wahhabi Arabs, and Western-oriented teachers and their students on the other. The origins of the Koranic school curriculum in Nigeria, the training of traditional Muslim teachers, and the lifestyle of the students are discussed. The author shows how certain socialization patterns found in the Koranic schools and `almagiri' system seem congruent with the political attitudes and values stressed by spokesmen of militant Islamic sects in Northern Nigeria.

  13. Reducing rural maternal mortality and the equity gap in northern Nigeria: the public health evidence for the Community Communication Emergency Referral strategy

    Aradeon SB


    Full Text Available Susan B Aradeon,1 Henry V Doctor2 1Freelance International Consultant (Social and Behavioral Change Communication, Aventura, FL, USA; 2Department of Information, Evidence and Research, Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, World Health Organization, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG maternal mortality target risks being underachieved like its Millennium Development Goal (MDG predecessor. The MDG skilled birth attendant (SBA strategy proved inadequate to end preventable maternal deaths for the millions of rural women living in resource-constrained settings. This equity gap has been successfully addressed by integrating a community-based emergency obstetric care strategy into the intrapartum care SBA delivery strategy in a large scale, northern Nigerian health systems strengthening project. The Community Communication Emergency Referral (CCER strategy catalyzes community capacity for timely evacuations to emergency obstetric care facilities instead of promoting SBA deliveries in environments where SBA availability and accessibility will remain inadequate for the near and medium term. Community Communication is an innovative, efficient, equitable, and culturally appropriate community mobilization approach that empowers low- and nonliterate community members to become the communicators. For the CCER strategy, this community mobilization approach was used to establish and maintain emergency maternal care support structures. Public health evidence demonstrates the success of integrating the CCER strategy into the SBA strategy and the practicability of this combined strategy at scale. In intervention sites, the maternal mortality ratio reduced by 16.8% from extremely high levels within 4 years. Significantly, the CCER strategy contributed to saving one-third of the lives saved in the project sites, thereby maximizing the effectiveness of the SBAs and upgraded emergency obstetric care facilities. Pre- and

  14. Wealth, household heterogeneity and livelihood diversification of Fulani pastoralists in the Kachia Grazing Reserve, northern Nigeria, during a period of social transition

    Ducrotoy, Marie J.; Revie, Crawford W.; Shaw, Alexandra P. M.; Musa, Usman B.; Bertu, Wilson J.; Gusi, Amahyel M.; Ocholi, Reuben A.; Majekodunmi, Ayodele O.; Welburn, Susan C.


    Background A mixed methods study was undertaken in the Kachia Grazing Reserve of northern Nigeria. Surveys in March, June and October 2011 included focus group discussions, key informant and in-depth household interviews, concerning livelihood practices, animal health, ownership, and productivity. In May 2011, 249 Fulani families fleeing post-election violence entered the reserve with their livestock, increasing the number of households by one third. Results Despite being settled within a grazing reserve, over half of households sent all their cattle away on seasonal transhumance and another third sent some away. Cattle accounted for 96% of total tropical livestock units (TLU), of which 26% were cattle kept permanently outside the reserve. While all households cited livestock as their main source of income, 90% grew crops and 55% derived income from off-farm activities. A multiple correspondence analysis showed that for each extra member of a household its TLU value increased by 2.0 [95% CI, 1.4–2.7], while for each additional marriage its TLU increased by 15.7 [95% CI, 7.1–24.3]. A strong association was also observed between small herds, small households with only one wife, alongside marked geographical wealth differences within the reserve. New immigrant families had larger household sizes (33) and livestock holdings (122 TLU) than old settlers (22 people and 67 TLU). Prior to the mass immigration, the distribution of TLU per person was unimodal: 41% of households were classified as ‘poor’ and 27% as ‘medium’, whereas post-immigration it was bi-modal, with 26% classified as ‘very poor’ and 28% as ‘medium’. Conclusions While cattle remain the principal source of Fulani income and wealth, the inhabitants of Kachia Grazing Reserve have diversified their livelihood strategies to respond to changing circumstances and stress, especially the limited availability of grazing within the reserve and political insecurity outside, resulting in continued

  15. Dermatoglyphics and Cheiloscopic Patterns in Cancer Patients; A Study in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH, Zaria, Nigeria

    Uduak Umana


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the association between digital dermatoglyphics of the hands and lip prints with cancer. Dermatoglyphics has proved to be a very important tool used for identification of many gene-linked abnormalities or diseases. Same can also be said of Lip prints which as dermatoglyphics are unique to individuals and has been shown to be a useful genetic markers in some congenital and clinical diseases. It has been used widely as a marker for the inheritance of cleft lip deformity. The study was conducted using 100 confirmed cancer patients. The digital dermatoglyphic patterns were studied using method of Cummins while the lip prints were identified and classified according to method of Suzuki and Tsuchihashi (1970. A control group of healthy subjects numbering 126 without familial history of diagnosed cancer were selected at random. Associations between the variables were tested using the Chi-square test for independence. The result indicated statistically significant association between finger print pattern and lip prints of the female and cervical cancer. The cervical cancer group presented with 74.9% of loop pattern on the right compared to the 64.0% in the normal, while the left hands had 68.5% in the case compared to the 61.2% (p<0.001. While the lip prints in the cancer cases were found to have high percentage of the branched type; 62.4%, compared to the 56.5% in the normal. In conclusion, dermatoglyphics and cheiloscopy can be used as a maker in the detection of females at risk of developing cervical cancer.

  16. Uyo, Nigeria

    AIDS risk behaviours is related ... KEY WORDS: Alcohol dependence, alcohol abuse, family type, hazardous drinking, responsible drinking ... Box 4230, University Post Ofice, Uyo, Nigeria. E-mail: ..... decrease in academic performance among.

  17. Analysis of Nigeria research reactor-1 thermal power calibration methods

    Agbo, Sunday Arome; Ahmed, Yusuf Aminu; Ewa, Ita Okon; Jibrin, Yahaya [Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria)


    This paper analyzes the accuracy of the methods used in calibrating the thermal power of Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1), a low-power miniature neutron source reactor located at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The calibration was performed at three different power levels: low power (3.6 kW), half power (15 kW), and full power (30 kW). Two methods were used in the calibration, namely, slope and heat balance methods. The thermal power obtained by the heat balance method at low power, half power, and full power was 3.7 ± 0.2 kW, 15.2 ± 1.2 kW, and 30.7 ± 2.5 kW, respectively. The thermal power obtained by the slope method at half power and full power was 15.8 ± 0.7 kW and 30.2 ± 1.5 kW, respectively. It was observed that the slope method is more accurate with deviations of 4% and 5% for calibrations at half and full power, respectively, although the linear fit (slope method) on average temperature-rising rates during the thermal power calibration procedure at low power (3.6 kW) is not fitting. As such, the slope method of power calibration is not suitable at lower power for NIRR-1.

  18. Horizontal and Vertical Distribution of Heavy Metals in Farm Produce and Livestock around Lead-Contaminated Goldmine in Dareta and Abare, Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria

    O. E. Orisakwe


    Full Text Available Background. Hitherto studies in response to the June 2010 lead poisoning, Zamfara State, Nigeria, have focused on clinical interventions without information on livestock and other metals. Objective. This study has investigated the distribution of heavy metals in farm produce and livestock around lead-contaminated goldmine in Dareta and Abare, Zamfara State, Nigeria. Methods. Vegetables, soil, water, blood, and different meat samples were harvested from goat, sheep, cattle, and chicken from Dareta, Abare, and Gusau communities. The samples were digested with 10 mL of a mix of nitric and perchloric acids; the mixture was then heated to dryness. Lead, cadmium, zinc, chromium, copper, magnesium, and nickel were analysed using flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The daily intake, bioaccumulation factor, and target hazard quotient (THQ were calculated. Results. Chicken bone-muscles from Dareta had the highest concentrations of lead, zinc, and nickel (28.2750, 16.1650, and 4.2700 mg/kg, resp., while chicken brain had the highest levels of cadmium, magnesium (0.3800 and 67.5400 mg/kg, and chromium (6.1650 mg/kg, kidney tissue inclusive. Conclusion. In addition to lead, cadmium may also be of concern in the contaminated mining communities of Zamfara State, Nigeria, given the high levels of cadmium in meat and vegetables samples from these areas.

  19. The effect of educational intervention on family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices among married women in a military barrack in northern Nigeria.

    Abdulrazaq, A G; Kabir, S; Mohammad, N S; Suleiman, I H


    Army barracks in Nigeria have low contraceptive prevalence rates (CPRs) and many children per family. The aim of this interventional study, involving 963 married women, is to determine the impact of health education on family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices among married barrack women. The intervention group attended a 50-minute health talk and demonstrations on family planning methods. In the intervention group, the mean knowledge score rose significantly, from 5.5 points to 7.8 points post-intervention (t = -16.7281, p = 0.0000, df = 460). In addition, the CPR increased significantly, from 11.8% at baseline to 22.4% post-intervention (McNemar's chi2 = 125.41, p = 0.0000). Such significant changes were not noted in the control group. We conclude that health education is an effective intervention for improving knowledge about and attitudes towards contraceptives and their use among married women in military barracks in Nigeria. Intense and sustained health education is therefore recommended in addressing the low CPR in Nigeria.

  20. Revolutionary Pressures and Social Movements in Nigeria: The ...



    May 20, 2011 ... applied to the northern parts of the country, in order to distinguish those parts .... Many incidences of corrupt enrichment abound in Nigeria. ... are jobless youths who are easily captivated by the looting sprees the exercise.


    In Nigeria, indigenous chicken constitute about 92.7% of the total chicken population of ... extensive system roaming freely and scavenging for food. These birds ... production systems are conducive for parasitism, but 'because ... intensive systems certain parasites with an indirect cycle .... Management and Welfare. C.A.B..

  2. Western, Nigeria

    schools students in the Ibarapa district of Southwestern Nigeria. A baseline ... A follow-up survey using the same sampling procedures as baseline was conducted to ... Scores that measured the students' perceived self-efficacy for safe sex increased significantly .... the opportunity of social interactions among students of the ...

  3. Bacteriological And Nutritional Analysis Of Groundnut Cake Sold In An Open Market In Samaru Zaria-Kaduna State



    Full Text Available Abstract Bacteriological and nutritional analysis of groundnut cake powder sold in open market at Samaru-Zaria was studied. The samples collected from four zones of the study area were analysed for possible microbiological contamination and its nutritional quality. The results indicated a microbial load of 1.93 x 105 cfug and 1.94 x 105 cfug for zones A and B respectively 1.01 x 105 cfug for zone C and 2.37 x 105 cfug for zone D. The bacterial isolates found to be associated with the groundnut cake powder in this study included Klebsiella oxytoca Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus cereus E. coli P. aeruginosa and Streptococcus feacalis. The nutrients content of the sample included carbohydrates 55.15 moisture 12.65 lipid 15.40 protein 12.60 ash 3.95 and crude fibre 0.25. Groundnut cake sold in the study area is highly contaminated with bacteria except for samples from zone C which is within the Food and Drugs Agency FDA recommendation of 1.0 x 105cfuml as allowable microbial contamination for food. The high level of microbial contamination is a serious cause for concern as it may trigger epidemics. However the product is highly nutritious.

  4. Acceptability and feasibility of medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol in Nigeria.

    Okonofua, Friday; Shittu, Oladapo; Shochet, Tara; Diop, Ayisha; Winikoff, Beverly


    To examine the acceptability and feasibility of medical abortion in Nigeria. In total, 250 women who were eligible for legal pregnancy termination with a gestational age of up to 63 days since last menstrual period were enrolled in Benin City and Zaria between May 2005 and October 2006. Participants received 200 mg of oral mifepristone in the clinic and then took 400 μg of oral misoprostol 2 days later-choosing to either return to the clinic or take it at home. Women returned 2 weeks later for an assessment of abortion status. The vast majority (96.3%) of women had successful complete abortions. Ultrasound was used to determine outcome in less than one-third (28.9%) of participants. Most women (83.2%) took the misoprostol at home. Almost all (96.2%) participants were satisfied or very satisfied with the abortion method. The introduction of medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol could greatly expand current method options and improve the quality of reproductive health care in Nigeria and other settings in which access to legal abortion services is limited. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Widowers' accounts of maternal mortality among women of low socioeconomic status in Nigeria.

    Nwokocha, Ezebunwa Ethelbert


    The research is based on information collected on 50 deceased Nigerian women of low socioeconomic status in different locations of the country including Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna, Zaria, Minna, Enugu, and Port-Harcourt among others. They had some common characteristics such as low levels of education, involvement in petty trading and were clients of a microfinance bank as small loan receivers. Primary data were generated mainly through verbal autopsy with widowers employing in-depth interviews and key informant interviews. In addition, unobtrusive observation was carried out in these locations to ascertain in some instances the distance between the deceased homes and health facilities patronised by the women. Secondary data were specific to death certificates of the deceased supplied by the widowers. Both ethnographic summaries and content analysis were employed in data analysis to account for contextual differences, especially in a multicultural society like Nigeria. The findings implicated several issues that are taken for granted at the micro-family and macro-society levels. It specifically revealed that small loans alone are not sufficient to empower poor women to make meaningful contributions to their own reproductive health in a patriarchal society like Nigeria. Results also indicated that cultural differences as well as rural-urban dichotomy were not proximate determinants of maternal behaviour; the latter rather finds expression in low socioeconomic status. Consequently, policy relevant recommendations that could contribute to significant maternal mortality reduction were proffered.

  6. Human rotavirus genotypes causing acute watery diarrhea among ...


    Jun 17, 2014 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Jan-Feb 2015 • Vol 18 • Issue 1. Abstract. Background: Diarrhea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in the .... Pennap et al. from Zaria, northern Nigeria, a case‑controlled.

  7. Download this PDF file


    Aug 8, 2001 ... its journey into the outside world and on its life thereafter. The chances of normal vaginal ... survival chances of a new-born and a good predictor of the ... nutritional status, as well as the general health of women, are the most ..... Osuhor D.C. Birthweights in Southern Zaria, Northern Nigeria. J. trap. Pediat'.

  8. Roles for SOF in a Staggering Nigeria


    languages and approximately 350 ethno-linguistic groups, Nigeria can indubitably be dubbed a cultural patchwork. Three dominant groups, the Ibo , Yoruba...and Hausa, comprise 60 percent of the population.13 The Ibo and Yoruba mainly occupy the south of the country and are generally Christians. The...minorities, and twelve states of Yoruba and Ibo , or related confession.”14 Extreme poverty in the Northern states Poverty is what primarily

  9. Near-Surface Investigation of Groundwater Contamination in the Regolith Aquifer of Palladan, Zaria using Borehole log and Tomography Techniques

    S.I. Jegede


    Full Text Available Two geophysical Tomography techniques- Electrical resistivity and Seismic refraction were used to investigate the subsurface of a potentially polluted dumpsite in Palladan a densely populated area of Zaria, with a view to examining the possible subsurface distribution of groundwater contamination plume. The presence of domestic wells in the residences of the people which are distances 10.0 to 30.0 m from the dump facilitated analysis of water chemistry to enhance the geophysical interpretation. The groundwater level in the dumpsite site was found to be higher than the surrounding area, thereby creating a local deviation from the regional groundwater flow. Due to this the contaminants from the waste site spread out in the nearby soil and groundwater. The resistivity models clearly show a top layer of about 10.0 m thickness with low resistivity, whereas the resistivity has an inverse correlation with distance from the waste disposal site. Bore hole log shows that the top upper 10.0 m of soil consists of loose permeable laterite with high water content followed by a layer of degraded sand before the weathered basement which suggests the possibility of the contamination penetrating deeper into the regolith aquifer. This agrees with the result of the water chemistry analysis which shows elevation in concentration of contaminants above the WHO guidelines. The borehole log also indicated the presence of fracture basement at a depth of 23.0 m this correlated well with the Seismic refraction result. The study therefore suggests that these fractures also facilitate the migration of the contaminants. Based on the combined results, the contamination plume seems to have migrated not less than 500.0 m in the southern direction which is also the direction of hydraulic gradient.

  10. Reducing rural maternal mortality and the equity gap in northern Nigeria: the public health evidence for the Community Communication Emergency Referral strategy

    Aradeon, Susan B; Doctor, Henry V


    The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) maternal mortality target risks being underachieved like its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) predecessor. The MDG skilled birth attendant (SBA) strategy proved inadequate to end preventable maternal deaths for the millions of rural women living in resource-constrained settings. This equity gap has been successfully addressed by integrating a community-based emergency obstetric care strategy into the intrapartum care SBA delivery strategy in a large scale, northern Nigerian health systems strengthening project. The Community Communication Emergency Referral (CCER) strategy catalyzes community capacity for timely evacuations to emergency obstetric care facilities instead of promoting SBA deliveries in environments where SBA availability and accessibility will remain inadequate for the near and medium term. Community Communication is an innovative, efficient, equitable, and culturally appropriate community mobilization approach that empowers low- and nonliterate community members to become the communicators. For the CCER strategy, this community mobilization approach was used to establish and maintain emergency maternal care support structures. Public health evidence demonstrates the success of integrating the CCER strategy into the SBA strategy and the practicability of this combined strategy at scale. In intervention sites, the maternal mortality ratio reduced by 16.8% from extremely high levels within 4 years. Significantly, the CCER strategy contributed to saving one-third of the lives saved in the project sites, thereby maximizing the effectiveness of the SBAs and upgraded emergency obstetric care facilities. Pre- and postimplementation Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey results and qualitative assessments support the CCER theory of change. This theory of change rests on a set of implementation steps that rely on three innovative components: Community Communication, Rapid Imitation Practice, and CCER support

  11. Structural adjustment and the urban informal sector in Nigeria.

    Dawson J; Oyeyinka B


    Based on a survey conducted in Lagos and Zaria during 1992 which included 210 interviews in each city with entrepreneurs across seven branches: tailoring, leather-work, wood-work, construction, retailing, metal-work and transport.

  12. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Imported Frozen Fish Scomber scombrus Species Sold in Nigeria: A Case Study in Zaria Metropolis

    Abdullahi Abubakar


    Full Text Available This study assesses the likely health risks to human contamination of heavy metals from fish consumption. The analysis of the idea of fish destination and status (fishing area for heavy metals was determined by the assessment of its risk limits (daily intake of metal and health risk index. Variations in the accumulation of heavy metals concentrations were between various tissues/organs (skin, muscle, gills, liver, intestine, kidneys, brain, and bones across the batches of two fishing origins. Post hoc (Duncan multicomparison shows that there are significant differences (PHg>Pb>Cd>Ni and were above the recommended safety limits outlined by FAO/WHO. However, the consumer’s health risk with the consumption of fish muscles tissues shows that there are greater tendencies for cadmium, lead, and mercury exposure. Also consumption of Scomber scombrus species above the recommended daily intake (stated in this study might lead to ingestion of heavy metals at unacceptable concentrations.

  13. [Adult Education in Nigeria.

    Odokara, Elijah O.

    Focusing on eastern Nigeria, these studies describe educational planning to combat anomia (uncertainty and despair) in war-ravaged rural areas; the role of the University of Nigeria in social action, womens education, young farmers' clubs, and other activities aimed at postwar reconstruction; a proposal for improving family life education for…

  14. The Political Economy of Food Dependency in Nigeria


    demand, the discovery of oil, the neglect of the peasant farmers and other factors like the rural to .... in the northern part of Nigeria, while in the eastern region, palm oil was highly encouraged. ..... from Indonesia, Thailand etc. Government ...

  15. The Language-in-Education Politics in Nigeria

    Igboanusi, Herbert; Peter, Lothar


    Against the backdrop of the rejection of mother tongue-based bilingual education in Southern Nigeria and in Northern linguistic minority areas, this study investigates the micropolitics of language education by interrogating everyday language practices of education stakeholders which are at variance with language-in-education policy. It relied on…

  16. Studies on bovine demodecosis in northern Nigeria.

    Slingenbergh, J; Mohammed, A N; Bida, S A


    Summary The study reported in the present paper discusses the clinical and histological picture of bovine demodecosis and the morphology of Demodex mites as seen in four cows suffering from generalized demodecosis. There were no clinical signs of other skin affections. Changes in both the number and the appearance of visible skin lesions were seen and related to the level of nutrition and the exposure to sunshine of the cattle. Histological sections of some skin nodules showed the presence of mite colonies in the hair follicles. Only adults were seen in the sebaceous glands. Microscopical study of the morphology of the mites revealed the presence of two types of demodicids in the skin lesions and three types from epilated eyelashes. Morphological criteria are presented to aid in identification of species and of life stages.

  17. Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) infestation on cassava genotypes grown at different ecozones in Nigeria.

    Ariyo, O A; Dixon, A G O; Atiri, G I


    Large-scale screening of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, genotypes for resistance to infestation by whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, the vector of cassava mosaic geminiviruses, is limited. A range of new cassava elite clones were therefore assessed for the whitefly infestation in the 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 cropping seasons in experimental fields of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. On each scoring day, between 0600 and 0800 hours when the whiteflies were relatively immobile, adult whitefly populations on the five topmost expanded leaves of cassava cultivars were counted. All through the 6-mo scoring period, there was a highly significant difference in whitefly infestation among the new cassava elite clones. Vector population buildup was observed in Ibadan (forest-savanna transition zone) and Onne (humid forest), 2 mo after planting (MAP). Mean infestation across cassava genotypes was significantly highest (16.6 whiteflies per plant) in Ibadan and lowest in Zaria (0.2). Generally, whitefly infestation was very low in all locations at 5 and 6 MAP. During this period, cassava genotypes 96/1439 and 91/02324 significantly supported higher infestations than other genotypes. Plants of 96/1089A and TMS 30572 supported the lowest whitefly infestation across cassava genotypes in all locations. The preferential whitefly visitation, the differences between locations in relation to whitefly population, cassava mosaic disease, and the fresh root yield of cassava genotypes are discussed.

  18. Health Care Seeking Behavior among Caregivers of Sick Children Who Had Cerebral Malaria in Northwestern Nigeria

    Edwin E. Eseigbe


    Full Text Available Cerebral malaria is a significant cause of childhood morbidity in our region. The challenges of effective management include time and quality of treatment. The study appraised the health care seeking behavior of caregivers of sick children who developed cerebral malaria, in Zaria, northwestern Nigeria. Caregivers indentified were parents 29 (87.9% and grandparents 4 (12.1%. Most of them were in the upper social classes. Health care options utilized before presentation at our facility were formal health facility 24 (72.7%, patent medicine seller 12 (36.4%, home treatment 10 (30.3%, and herbal concoction 6 (18.2% with majority 24 (72.7% using more than one option. Antimalarial therapy was instituted in 25 (75.6% of the cases. Mortality was significantly associated with the use of herbal concoction, treatment at a formal health facility and patent medicine seller, multiple convulsions, age less than 5 years, and noninstitution of antimalarial therapy before presentation. The study showed use of inappropriate health care options by caregivers and highlighted the need to pursue an awareness drive among caregivers on the use of health care options.

  19. seeking behavior in Nigeria


    Jun 2, 2014 ... Key Words: Immunization; growth chart; health-seeking behavior; child health; Nigeria. African Health ..... expensive but have short waiting time. They were ... urban resident) In the urban area, cost, time, perceived severity of ...


    Although diarrhoea is a preventable disease, it still remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among Nigeria children. A Nigerian child under age of five has an average of 4.3 diarrhoea episodes ... sociation with other infectious dis-.

  1. Violence in Nigeria

    assassinated1. -^*. Department of International Relations, Obafemy A. University, He Ife, Nigeria. ... social fabric gradually unraveled until the fateful military intervention .... regime. Gurr's theory is also useful to the extent to which it can explain.

  2. ife, southwestern nigeria


    and prevention of malaria, and the factors of vulnerability to malaria in, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Data on ... African countries with high prevalence rate of ... methods for mapping disease occurrence has .... respondent which includes age, sex, marital.

  3. nigeria's banking sector reforms


    sector reforms to enthrone sound financial practices and good corporate governance ... April - June 2009 . 9. NIGERIA'S BANKING SECTOR REFORMS: THE JOURNEY SO FAR ..... implementation of a code of sound corporate governance in ...


    publicity. In Nigeria, our traditional society has a rich socio-cultural .... membership size loyalty and also finance profitable investment by cooperatives which ... the method of channeling loans to rural women through cooperatives. Such credits ...

  5. Nigeria Mission Performance Reporting System

    US Agency for International Development — The Performance Reporting System (PRS) is a reporting system that enables USAID/Nigeria Implementing Partners to report their performance data and USAID/Nigeria...

  6. Natural Gamma Radiation in Rocks from Kerri-Kerri Formation, Northeastern Nigeria

    Bachama, Y. D.; Ahmed, A. L.; Lawal, K. M.; Arabi, A. S.


    In a study on uranium favourability in Nigeria, it was suggested that the Kerri-Kerri Formation located in the Upper Benue Trough, Northeastern Nigeria is a potential host of uranium mineralization, hence the need to assess the level of natural gamma radiation from the rocks of the area. Laboratory γ-ray spectrometric analysis was carried out with a HPGe detector by (EG & G Ortec Inc.) at the Center for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Thirty six (36) rock samples were collected from the study area from which nine (9) composite samples were formed for the laboratory γ-ray analysis. The mean concentrations of the radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K were 26.9988 Bq/kg, 61.9131 Bq/kg and 91.7042 Bq/kg respectively. The mean absorbed dose rate was 15.646 nGyh-1 which is lower than the world average value of 51.5 nGyh-1. The average internal and external hazard indices were found to be 0.404 and 0.331 respectively which are lower than the acceptable limits of value was 122.60 Bq kg-1 which is well within and less the permissible limit of 370 Bq kg-1. Since the radiological hazard parameters are all lower than the permissible limits, the study area can be considered as safe due to natural gamma radiation and the rocks of the area can be used safely for building and construction purposes.

  7. Seroprevalence of human papillomavirus immunoglobulin G antibodies among women presenting at the reproductive health clinic of a university teaching hospital in Nigeria

    Aminu M


    Full Text Available M Aminu,1 JZ Gwafan,1 HI Inabo,1 AO Oguntayo,2 EE Ella,1 AK Koledade21Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, NigeriaBackground: Human papillomavirus (HPV is the cause of 90%–95% of squamous cell cancers. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV can lead to development of precancerous lesions of the cervix in 5%–10% of infected women, and can progress to invasive cervical cancer 15–20 years later. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of HPV immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies among women of reproductive age attending a reproductive health clinic at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria.Methods: The study was descriptive, cross-sectional, and experimental, combining the use of a structured questionnaire and analysis of serum samples obtained from 350 consecutive consenting women. The serum samples were analyzed for IgG antibodies to HPV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: We found a seroprevalence of 42.9% (150/350 for IgG antibodies to HPV in these women. Women aged 45–49 years and those who had their sexual debut aged 20–23 years had the highest HPV seroprevalence, ie, 50% (57/114 and 51.1% (46/90, respectively. Presence of antibodies varied according to sociodemographic factors, but was significantly associated with educational status, tribe, and religion (P<0.05. Human papillomavirus infection was not significantly associated with the reproductive characteristics and sexual behavior of the women. Antibodies to HPV were detected in 50.0% (9/18 of women with a family history of cervical cancer and in 30.8% (4/13 of those with a history or signs of WHIM (warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, immunodeficiency, myelokathexis syndrome as a genetic disorder (P>0.05.Conclusion: Further studies are needed to determine the HPV serotypes and evaluate the risk of natural development

  8. (ABUTH) Shika, Zaria

    Prof Ezechukwu


    Jul 23, 2012 ... for periodic assessment of the continuing sensitivity of the causative agents to ... Table 1: Distribution of cases of acute bacterial menin- gitis in 66 patients ... A history of use of antibiotics before presentation was obtained in 30 ...

  9. Determinants of health disparities: The perennial struggle against polio in Nigeria

    Nosayaba Osazuwa-Peters


    Full Text Available Polio remains a global public health issue, and even though it has been eradicated from most countries of the world, countries like Nigeria, the largest black nation on earth, threatens the dream of total eradication of polio from the surface of the earth. Transmission of wild polio virus has never been eliminated in Nigeria, but even worse is the number of countries, both in Sub-Saharan Africa and all over the world that has become re-infected by polio virus strains from Northern Nigeria in recent past. Although a lot has been documented about the Nigerian polio struggle, one aspect that has received little attention on this issue is ethnic and geographic disparities between the Southern and the Northern parts of Nigeria. Understanding these disparities involved in polio virus transmission in Nigeria, as well as the social determinants of health prevalent in Northern Nigeria will help government and other stakeholders and policy makers to synergize their efforts in the fight against this perennial scourge.

  10. Prevalence of haemoparasitic infections in dairy cattle (Friesian breeds at nagari integrated dairy farms, Gauta-Nike village, Keffi local government area, Nasarawa state, north central of Nigeria

    S.M. Abdullahi


    Full Text Available The of prevalence ofhaemoparasites of cattle located in Nagari Integrated Farms, Gauta-NikeVillage, Keffi Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria was conducted inOctober 2012 where 50 Friesian cattle (male and females are kept on intensivesystem of management were randomly selected. Blood samples were collected in ananticoagulant sample bottle and submitted to the Parasitology Laboratory ofFaculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna state ofNigeria for parasitological examination. Giemsa stained thin blood smears wereexamined for hemoparasites and Hematocrit Centrifuge Technique (HCT was usedto determine the presence of motile parasites. An overall prevalence of 90%(82% female and 8% male was recorded for all samples examined, 21 (42% wereinfected with Anaplasma marginale, Theileria mutans shows 20 (40% prevalenceand 4 (8% were infected by Babesia bigemina. Mixed infection between Anaplasmamarginale and Babesia bigemina revealed 2 (4% while Anaplasma marginale andTheileria mutans was 7 (14%. There was a significant difference (P > 0.05in infections caused by Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Theileriamutans (Table 1 and also between sexes(Table 3,  but there was no significant difference  (P<0.05 between any of the mixedinfections observed (Table 2. The result of this study shows thesehemoparasites are endemic in the cattle under study which may result in seriousdisease conditions when such animals are subjected to stressful condition.

  11. Sero-epidemiological survey and risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria

    Victor O. Akinseye


    Full Text Available Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Nigeria; however, limited data exist on nationwide studies and risk factors associated with the disease. Using a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey, we determined the prevalence of and risk factors for brucellosis in slaughtered cattle in three geographical regions of Nigeria. Serum samples from randomly selected unvaccinated cattle slaughtered over a period of 3 years (between December 2010 and September 2013 from northern, southern and south-western Nigeria were tested for antibodies to Brucella abortus using the Rose Bengal test. Data associated with risk factors of brucellosis were analysed by Stata Version 12. In all, 8105 cattle were screened. An overall seroprevalence of 3.9% (315/8105 was recorded by the Rose Bengal test, with 3.8%, 3.4% and 4.0% from the northern, southern and south-western regions, respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that cattle screened in northern Nigeria were less likely to be seropositive for antibodies to Brucella spp. than those from south-western Nigeria (odds ratio = 0.94; 95% confidence interval: 0.73–1.22. However, logistic regression analysis revealed that breed ( p = 0.04 and sex ( p £ 0.0001 of cattle were statistically significant for seropositivity to Brucella spp. The study found that brucellosis was endemic at a low prevalence among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria, with sex and breed of cattle being significant risk factors. Considering the public health implications of brucellosis, we advocate coordinated surveillance for the disease among diverse cattle populations in Nigeria, as is carried out in most developed countries.Keywords: Bovine brucellosis, RBT, Epidemiology, Public Health, Nigeria

  12. Potential future risk of cholera due to climate change in northern ...

    Potential future risk of cholera due to climate change in northern Nigeria. ... African Research Review. Journal Home · ABOUT ... Several studies have raised concern that climate change may exacerbate the risk of the disease in the future.


    PATTERN OF NEURO-OPHTHALMIC DISORDERS IN A TERTIARY EYE. CENTRE IN NIGERIA. A E Omoti , M J M ... movement or light was determined. The external ... assessed by color desaturation tests and visual field assessment by the ...

  14. (TVET) in Nigeria



    Jul 26, 2012 ... ... to TVET in Nigeria. Key words: TVET, global economy, globalization ... scenario where the economics of countries the world over have taken a beating and the ... consequent effects manifest as bankruptcies, credit crunches, deflation (or disinflation), .... Any modern economy is built on knowledge, skills.

  15. African Journals Online: Nigeria

    Items 101 - 150 of 221 ... It publishes articles reviews and short communications in the field of clinical ... Journal of Librarianship and Information Science in Africa .... The Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria focuses on the following ... veterinary sciences, nursing services and medical education and other related ...

  16. Nigeria's youth at risk.

    Igwe, S A


    Improved family and community support would prevent many youth in Nigeria from risk behavior including drinking alcohol, smoking, and using illicit drugs. In Rivers State, 70% of secondary students have had at least 1 alcoholic drink. Further, in Bendel State, 13% of 15-19 year olds in the coastal region drink alcohol compared with 75% of those in the hinterland. Since alcohol affects good judgment skills, this behavior is especially risky during rituals and social activities and causes accidents. Youth who drink are likely to have unplanned and unprotected sexual intercourse. Drinking during pregnancy is associated with miscarriages, low birth weight, and birth defects. Despite the problems with youth and drinking, Nigeria does not have law restricting sales of alcohol to youth. In Nigeria smoking was once predominantly a male habit but is now increasing quickly among women. Most smokers 1st begin their habit when 18 years old. Even thought he Nigerian government has restricted smoking in public places, it has not yet been effective. Smoking has numerous negative effects such as lung cancer, other cancers, shorter life spans, low birth weight, prematurity, higher perinatal mortality, and more labor complications. Moreover the tobacco and alcohol companies advertise widely using ingenious and persuasive promotions. Youth are especially vulnerable to these slick promotions. Cannabis remains the most common illegal drug. Heroin use is growing among urban adolescents in Nigeria, however. Nigeria also serves as a transhipment point for drugs to the US as well as a consumption point. Drug use results in rising numbers of patients in mental hospitals and treatment centers. A particular concern of drug use is transmission of HIV and hepatitis B via needles. Smokers and alcohol drinkers are likely to also be drug users. Families, government, and community organizations need to collaborate to prevent these risk behaviors among youth.

  17. Nigeria: Current Issues


    confirmed the presence of H5N1 virus, which causes avian influenza, or bird flu , in a 22-year-old deceased female from Lagos. She is believed to al. 43 U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, “Fewer Bird Flu Outbreaks This Year,” Apr. 2, 2007. 44 U.S. State Department, “Nigeria,” Country

  18. Small Hydropower in Nigeria



    Nigeria is the most populaous black nation in the world. It has an area of 913,072 square kilometres. The country population is about 120 million. There are three major languages, Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo, although there is still more than 380 dialects in local languages. There are large number of household on the African continent that are unelectrified.In Nigeria about 70 million people remain literally in the dark without access to electricity. The majority of these numbers are in the rural areas. This workshop is apt in a number of ways. It is a joint effort between government, private sector, the academic and other practitioners in small hydro power station, it is also a promotion of business and industrial activities as well as development of renewable energy resources. I wish to commend the organizers of this workshop. The focus of the workshop is relevant to the agenda of the Federal Ministry of Power and Steel and aspirations of the Federal Government of Nigeria to provide regular and steady electricity to majority of Nigerians before the end of year 2001.

  19. primary health care in nigeria



    Jul 31, 2014 ... Key Words: Primary Health Care, Strategies for implementation, Constraints, Alma Ata Declaration, Nigeria. 4th June, 2014. Accepted: ... including family planning; immunization against the ... evolved to meet the challenges associated with these diversities. .... and urban areas in Nigeria with the intention of.

  20. effects of soil types and enhanced nutrient levels on the productivity ...


    Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. *Correspondence author: ... Keywords: Eudrilius eugeniae, earthworm, productivity, soil types. INTRODUCTION ... Collection of Earthworms.

  1. Country Report: Citizenship Education and Curriculum Development in Nigeria

    Oyeleke Oluniyi


    Full Text Available The article highlights the evolutionary trends of citizenship education in Nigeria. The 1914 British amalgamation of erstwhile Northern and Southern Protectorates gave birth to Nigeria as a state. The disparage ethnic composition of the new state, especially after independence, necessitated finding a common ground to promote committed citizens, against primordial ethnic cleavages and indigenization. It is not therefore surprising that the role of education in fostering national citizenship and consciousness was emphasized. Initially, social studies was used as a curriculum framework, until lately when a new subject, civics, was created in primary and junior secondary schools. The author considers the historical, cultural and political context underlining these curricular changes and identifies the current and future challenges face by the implementation of Civics curricular in Nigerian schools.

  2. Estimating malaria burden in Nigeria: a geostatistical modelling approach

    Nnadozie Onyiri


    Full Text Available This study has produced a map of malaria prevalence in Nigeria based on available data from the Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa (MARA database, including all malaria prevalence surveys in Nigeria that could be geolocated, as well as data collected during fieldwork in Nigeria between March and June 2007. Logistic regression was fitted to malaria prevalence to identify significant demographic (age and environmental covariates in STATA. The following environmental covariates were included in the spatial model: the normalized difference vegetation index, the enhanced vegetation index, the leaf area index, the land surface temperature for day and night, land use/landcover (LULC, distance to water bodies, and rainfall. The spatial model created suggests that the two main environmental covariates correlating with malaria presence were land surface temperature for day and rainfall. It was also found that malaria prevalence increased with distance to water bodies up to 4 km. The malaria risk map estimated from the spatial model shows that malaria prevalence in Nigeria varies from 20% in certain areas to 70% in others. The highest prevalence rates were found in the Niger Delta states of Rivers and Bayelsa, the areas surrounding the confluence of the rivers Niger and Benue, and also isolated parts of the north-eastern and north-western parts of the country. Isolated patches of low malaria prevalence were found to be scattered around the country with northern Nigeria having more such areas than the rest of the country. Nigeria’s belt of middle regions generally has malaria prevalence of 40% and above.

  3. Nigeria using more condoms.


    Marie Stopes International says a project it supports in Nigeria is making good progress in its efforts to promote the use of condoms to protect against STDs and for contraception. The program, which uses social marketing methods, is headed by Stewart Parkinson from the UK. His previous experience has been in the private sector; he has worked in sales, marketing, and advertising for companies like Coca Cola, Budweiser, Securicor, and Mates. "Social marketing," he says, "is simply getting people to buy a product". He sees no clash with more conventional health education practitioners, believing that the two approaches can complement each other. "Much of the work simply involves pointing out the benefits of condoms," says Parkinson. "You can convert large numbers of people to the idea in a short space of time if you get the message right]" Nevertheless, as he points out, the conversion rate usually drops after that. "At first the take-up is from middle-income people, who already have a latent demand for condoms. The poor are harder to reach." He says Nigeria is a very suitable country for a private sector approach to condom promotion, as there is no functioning public sector. He recently paid a visit to Zimbabwe, where the public sector is strong, and agrees that different approaches may be suitable there. The scheme provided 85% of the 65 million condoms used in Nigeria last year. Stewart Parkinson says, "It's working out at only US$5 to provide protection for one couple per year--a very cheap intervention]"

  4. China in Nigeria


    organization, has a branch office in Nigeria. 34 Not only is Chinese money flowing into Africa, but Chinese migrants are rushing there too. There is a wave...the Continent,” Journal of International Affairs 62, no. 2 (Spring 2009): 44, 51. 35 Giles Mohan and May Tan-Mullins, “Chinese Migrants in Africa... receptive to assistance from the world’s two largest powers. In the area of aid, tri-lateral cooperation (China, U.S., African countries) is gaining a

  5. Information Needs and Use of Library Resources by Special Needs Students in Selected Government Schools in Kaduna State and Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria

    Christiana Alami Atabor


    Full Text Available This study is on the information needs and use of library resources by special needs students in selected government schools in Kaduna State and Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. The survey technique was employed in the study. Five schools (i.e., Kaduna State Special Education School; Government Technical College, Malali, Kaduna; Alhudahuda College Zaria; Government Secondary School, Kwali and Government Secondary School, Kuje were purposefully selected out of a total of seven. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire for two respondent groups (i.e., special needs students and teachers/librarians. A total of 5 teachers/librarians and 345 special needs students were selected for the study. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings of the study show that the special needs students have high needs for information on education, employment opportunities, health matter, and human rights. The major information resources in the libraries are books, magazines, newspapers, and few Braille materials. In general, special needs students have a moderate level of satisfaction with the resources in the libraries. The major issue identified by special needs students is insufficient information resources, especially in Braille. On the part of the teachers/librarians, inadequate funds for the acquisition of information resources and the employment of qualified librarians/teachers are found to be the major challenges faced by the libraries.

  6. Attitudes of women toward intimate partner violence: a study of rural women in Nigeria.

    Antai, Diddy E; Antai, Justina B


    Predictors of rural women's attitudes in Nigeria toward intimate partner violence (IPV) were investigated using a random sample of rural women (n = 3911) aged 15-49 years from the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Findings were suggestive of social, religious, and cultural influences in the women's attitudes towards IPV. Women resident in the three northern regions, the South South region, Muslim women, women with low levels of education and low household wealth were more likely to tolerate IPV. This is reflective of the socio-economic disadvantages they face, as well as the cultural and religious restrictions imposed on these women.



    Feb 21, 2008 ... “Department of Physics, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria ... The characteristic pattern of rainfall in Calabar, a coastal - tropical location ... percentiles over most of Australia for ... meteorological records of the Margaret.

  8. Nigeria: a federation gone wrong

    J.F. Kirsten


    Full Text Available Due to its size, large population, oil-based economy and geographical location in West Africa. Nigeria is regarded as an important state in Africa. The country is also one of the longest surviving federal states on the continent and therefore represents an ongoing experiment in federalism in the Third World. Since its independence in 1960, however, Nigeria has been devastated by chronic political instability. This article tries to address the issue why this is the case and to identify ethnic-religious diversity and successive military regimes as the most important sources for the mentioned political unrest. The course and nature of political instability in Nigeria is pul in historical context - a context which also include the secession attempt by Riafra as one of the tragic highlights in the past of Nigeria. In conclusion, the author speculates on ways and options as to how secession attempts can be prevented and a larger amount of national political stability be achieved.

  9. Political Advertising Design in Nigeria

    DR Nneka


    Apr 14, 2015 ... Indexed African Journals Online (AJOL) Vol. 4(2) ... Political Advertising Design in Nigeria, 1960-2007. Amifor, John .... the exposure attained by some of the nationalists who studied in Europe and America.

  10. in Benin City, Southern Nigeria

    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calabar, Nigeria;. 2 Department of ... have attempted to use them as bio-control agents for ... stages such as mosquitoes (Lindberg, 1974; ...... cyclopoid copepods (Crustacea: Copepoda).

  11. Nigeria Journal of Business Administration

    The Nigeria Journal of Business Administration has as its principal goal the promotion of academic excellence in research in the management sciences and the ... Articles are carefully selected to provide the reader with an analytical, ...

  12. ' drug vendors in Uyo, Nigeria

    presence of known pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and ... process operating personnel and packaging of the final ... Nigeria. Materials and Methods ... Purified representative colonies were preserved in slants.

  13. Elections and Electoral Tribunal in Nigeria



    Apr 19, 2011 ... Through such elections, citizens participate in the governance ... the Nigeria's electoral history since its corporate existence as a sovereign state. .... not only corrupt, but unfit to correct the perceived anomalies in the Nigeria's.

  14. Water Resources: Management and Strategies in Nigeria ...

    Water Resources: Management and Strategies in Nigeria. ... flood conditions. Suggestions were made on ways of planning sustainable water supply systems for Nigeria. Key words: Water Resources, Management, Strategies, Climate Change ...



    new trends include the setting of up of some independent media agencies and international affiliations by ... The paper will discuss the development of advertising in Nigeria .... The first Television advertisement in Nigeria was for Star Beer and.

  16. Practice of Trabeculectomy by Ophthalmologists in Nigeria


    May 22, 2017 ... with Statistical Package for Social Science version 16.0. Relationships .... skills in trabeculectomy as part of their program, with a minimum ..... blindness and visual impairment in Nigeria: The Nigeria national blindness and ...

  17. Workplace Counselling in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects ...

    Workplace Counselling in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects. ... mechanism, a risk management tool, and a medium of organizational change. Keywords – workplace counselling, counsellor, employee, company, employee-care, Nigeria.


    affairs in the management of municipal solid waste in most parts of Nigeria. .... 13 Damilola Olawuyi, The Principles of Nigerian Environmental Law (Business ..... To achieve sustainable waste management practices in Nigeria, first it is.

  19. An investigation of reactivity effect due to inadvertent filling of the irradiation channels with water in NIRR-1 Nigeria Research Reactor-1.

    Iliyasu, U; Ibrahim, Y V; Umar, Sadiq; Agbo, S A; Jibrin, Y


    Investigation of reactivity variation due to flooding of the irradiation channels of Nigeria Research Reactor (NIRR-1) a low power miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR) located at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria using the MCNP code for High Enrich Uranium (HEU) and Low Enrich Uranium (LEU) core has been simulated in this present study. In this work, the excess reactivity worth of flooding HEU core for 1 inner, 2 inner, 3 inner, 4 inner and all inner are 0.318mk, 0.577mk, 0.318mk, 1.204mk and 1.503mk respectively, and outer irradiation channels are 0.119mk, 0.169mk, 0.348mk, 0.438mk and 0.418mk respectively, the highest excess reactivity result from flooding both inner and outer irradiation channels is 2.04mk (±1.72×10(-7)), the excess reactivity for LEU core was 0.299mk, 0.568mk, 0.896mk, 1.195mk and 1.524mk in the inner irradiation channels, and the outer irradiation channels are 0.129mk, 0.189mk, 0.219mk, 0.269mk and 0.548mk where the highest excess reactivity was 1.942mk (±1.64×10(-7)) resulting from flooding inner and outer irradiation channels. The reactivity induced by flooding of the irradiation channels of NIRR-1 with water is within design safety limit enshrined in Safety Analysis Report of NIRR-1. The results also compare well with literature.

  20. Nigeria: child health.

    Amobi, I

    The child in Nigeria is loved and pampered but food may be scarce or inadequate in nutrients, and he/she has overcrowding and poor sanitation to deal with as well as a maze of conflicting and hybrid values and way of life. Statistics show that in black Africa 1 child out of 5 will survive up to his 5th birthday. The infant mortality rate is high primarily because of inadequate nutrition and communicable diseases. The 10 most common diseases in Africa from 4 sample countries, i.e., Ethiopia, Nigeria, Uganda, and Kenya are: malaria; gastroenteritis, measles; respiratory tract infections; malnutrition; intestinal worm, anemias; tetanus; meningitis; and tuberuclosis. All these diseases are preventable, but prevention is more difficult because there are few health workers and inadequate facilities. 80 pediatricians and a few unrecognized pediatric trained nurses look after about 40 million children in Nigeria. Nutrition plays a prominent role in both growth and development. Local food may be plentiful but some families are unable to balance their diets. There is malnutrition or undernutrition because of ignorance, poverty, and feeding habits. In Africa the effect of malnutrition is most marked during weaning. In a traditional African society a child does not lack for love and affection. There are no unwanted pregnancies, no motherless children, no unmarried women, for the extended family system absorbs many of these shocks. The circumstances of the family are related to the incidence of child abuse, which is increasing. Children are used as cheap labor by both parents and guardians. In the current 5-year development plan, the government is making a bold step in health care. Some of the major goals of this 4th 5-year development plan in health care delivery include: rapid expansion of facilities to achieve 100% primary health care coverage by the year 2000; emphasizing preventive care; decentralization so that the local government areas are implementation units


    Mary Gloria C. Njoku


    Full Text Available Exploring the state of Nigerian leadership, there is a clear indication that the nation is in distress and therefore needs a leader who would be able to get the best out of Nigerian followers and lead the nation to stability. This leader must be trustworthy, emotionally intelligent, firm, willing to suffer for the nation, focused on breaking down ethnic divide, and inspiring hope in the people. The leader must be capable of taking in varied information and solving complex problems effectively and efficiently. This paper adopts the concept of leadership as one that involves a social influence process, a leader/leaders and followers. This perspective is impacted by social psychological principles of social influence and clinical psychology socioemotional intelligence and will therefore discuss leadership for Nigeria from these perspectives.

  2. Challenging tradition in Nigeria.

    Supriya, K E


    In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs.

  3. Climate Change Impacts on Crop Production in Nigeria

    Mereu, V.; Gallo, A.; Carboni, G.; Spano, D.


    a wide variety of possible climate projections for the impact analysis. Multiple combinations of soil and climate conditions and crop management and varieties were considered for each Agro-Ecological Zone (AEZ) of Nigeria. A sensitivity analysis was made to evaluate the model response to changes in precipitation and temperature. The climate impact assessment was made by comparing the yield obtained with the climate data for the present period and the yield obtainable under future climate conditions. The results were analyzed at state, AEZ and country levels. The analysis shows a general reduction in crop yields in particular in the dryer regions of northern Nigeria.

  4. Changes in the timing of sexual initiation among young Muslim and Christian women in Nigeria.

    Agha, Sohail


    Sexual initiation during adolescence has important demographic and health consequences for a population, yet no systematic analysis of changes in the timing of sexual initiation has been conducted in Nigeria. Two rounds of national surveys conducted in 1990 and 2003 were used to examine changes in the timing of sexual initiation among female adolescents in Nigeria. Multivariate survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards models was used to assess changes in the risk of sexual initiation and to identify the correlates of first sex. Contrary to what has been reported in several Nigerian studies, there was no decline in age at first sex among Christian adolescents. Age at first sex did not change significantly for Christian adolescents, although premarital sex appears to have increased-primarily due to an increase in the age at marriage. Age at first sex did increase among Muslim women. Premarital sex remained low among Muslim women. A number of socioeconomic variables were associated with the timing of sexual initiation. Weekly exposure to the mass media was associated with earlier sexual initiation. The degree to which an environment was liberal or restrictive was a key determinant of the timing of sexual initiation in Nigeria. The findings also illustrate the important role of socioeconomic factors in determining the timing of sexual initiation in Nigeria. As secondary education increases in Northern Nigeria, additional increases in the age at sexual debut are likely among Muslim women. The study raises concerns about the influence of the mass media on the timing of first sex in Nigeria. The evidence of an absence of changes in the timing of sexual initiation among Christian women in more than a decade implies that programs which aim to delay the timing of sexual initiation in Southern Nigeria may have limited success. With age at marriage already high among Christian women, programs that focus on abstinence until marriage may also be pursuing an approach with

  5. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication--Nigeria, January 2014-July 2015.

    Etsano, Andrew; Gunnala, Rajni; Shuaib, Faisal; Damisa, Eunice; Mkanda, Pascal; Ticha, Johnson M; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Chevez, Ana Elena; Enemaku, Ogu; Corkum, Melissa; Davis, Lora B; Nganda, Gatei-Wa; Burns, Cara C; Wassilak, Steven G F; Vertefeuille, John F


    Since the 1988 launch of global poliomyelitis eradication efforts, four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions have been certified polio-free. Nigeria is one of only three countries, along with Afghanistan and Pakistan, where transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted. During 2003-2013, northern Nigeria served as a reservoir for WPV reintroduction into 26 previously polio-free countries. In 2012, the Nigerian government launched a national polio eradication emergency plan to intensify efforts to interrupt WPV transmission. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Nigeria during January 2014-July 2015 and updates previous reports. No WPV cases have been reported to date in 2015, compared with a total of six cases reported during 2014. Onset of paralysis in the latest reported WPV type 1 (WPV1) case was July 24, 2014. Only one case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) has been reported to date in 2015, compared with 20 cVDPV2 cases during the same period in 2014. Pending final laboratory testing of 218 remaining specimens of 16,617 specimens collected since January 2015, Nigeria could be removed from the WHO list of polio-endemic countries in September 2015. Major remaining challenges to the national polio eradication program include sustaining political support and program funding in the absence of active WPV transmission, maintaining high levels of population immunity in hard-to-reach areas, and accessing children in security-compromised areas of the northeastern states.

  6. Accidental Childhood Poisoning in Enugu, South‑East, Nigeria

    of Nigeria with some differences in the incidence and pattern of childhood poisoning ... regulatory policies on secure packaging and prescription ... Paediatric Unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, South‑East, Nigeria.

  7. South-South, Nigeria

    Ovutor Owhoeli


    Full Text Available A total of 213 faecal samples were collected from four abattoirs and households to determine the prevalence of helminthes infections in exotic and indigenous goats in Port Harcourt, South-South, Nigeria. The study revealed that out of 153 exotic goats (Red Sokoto Capra hircus, 112 were infected with various species of gastrointestinal helminths; out of 60 indigenous goats (West African dwarf Capra hircus, 49 were also infected with various types of gastrointestinal helminths. The formol-ether concentration method was used to analyse the specimens. The study revealed that an overall prevalence of (75.5% was recorded, out of which 57 (76.0%, 55 (70.5%, and 49 (81.6% were recorded for exotic goat in the months of May–September, 2010, exotic goat in the months October 2010–February, 2011 and for indigenous goats, respectively. The overall prevalence amongst the infected animals was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Species of helminthes revealed from the study were, Haemonchus, Strongyloides, Chabertia, Trichuris, Ostertagia, Bunostomum, Trichostrongyloida, Ascaris, Tenia, Avitelina, Fasciola, Eurytrema, Gastrothylax, Schistosoma, and Dicrocoelium.


    many other African states under military rule,. Nigeria and its ... mood of the people and thus initiated the now .... an ameliorative role of a limited duration for the ..... the 2nd. Infantry Division, was able to report that the demobilisation exercise.

  9. molecular identification of rotavirus strains associated with diarrhea ...


    3Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Jos teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. ABSTRACT ... associated with diarrhea among children in Kwara state, Nigeria. A total of 150 ... each case. ..... Children with Acute Gastroenteritis in Zaria,.

  10. Solar energy applications in Nigeria

    Ilenikhena, P.A.; Ezemonye, L.I.N.


    Solar radiation being abundantly present in Nigeria was one area of focus in renewable energy sources. Researches were carried out and technologies produced for direct harnessing of the energy in six energy centres across the country. Some state governments in collaboration with non-governmental agencies also sponsored solar energy projects in some villages that are not connected to the national grid.

  11. (NTFPs) in Kogi State, Nigeria



    Jan 10, 2011 ... gathering non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in Kogi. State, Nigeria. Awe F. ..... fact that they need money to purchase the food they ... have the intention of maintaining valuable skills and passing on ... Information for Agricultural Development in ACP. Countries. Spore ... The Analysis of Price and Markets.

  12. Some Factories in Southern Nigeria

    study is an outgrowth, 267 Personnel Managers were elevated to management ... effect, the factory manager now occupies a more important position in the man- ... overview at an empirical and theoretical level of factory managers in Nigeria ... gerial work is diverse and this, according to Hales (1986), can be captured by ...

  13. arinta waterfall, ekiti state, nigeria


    The supervising ministry on tourism and forestry in Ekiti State, Nigeria in charge of this site ... not only as an alternative to mass tourism, but also as a ... Being a nature based tourism; it takes ..... slope in the past in order to reduce water run-.

  14. Pattern of childhood gynaecological presentations in a Nigerian tertiary health facility

    Randawa A


    Full Text Available Background: Gynaecological problems in children and adolescents are often both medically and psychologically unique and require a highly skilled approach differing from those utilized for an adult female population. There is paucity of data on childhood gynaecological problems in our environment. The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence and pattern of common gynaecological problems in the prepubertal child at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria, Northern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study involving case file-based data analysis over a 10-year period (1995-2004 of 62 children aged 1 month-12 years at the Gynaecology unit of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria, Northern Nigeria. Results: Sixty-two children were seen, 17 infants, 14 under 5 years of age, and the rest (31 were aged 6-12 years. The commonest condition was labial fusion (33.9%, urethral prolapse (14.5%, and suspected sexual assault (12%. Ambiguous genitalia (9.7%, vaginitis (6.5 %, and ovarian tumour (4.8% were also encountered. Conclusion: Labial fusion, urethral prolapse, and suspected sexual assault are the commonest childhood gynaecological morbidities in Zaria. Provision of gynaecological services at every level of health care system to cater for young females is advocated.

  15. Nigeria Seeks Energy Investment from China

    Shan Wenge


    @@ Nigeria sent a delegation to China in mid-July to seek investment in the oil-enriched nation. Currently, Nigeria has granted the Chinese oil companies the permits of four oil fields while the Chinese side offered technical support in the energy cooperation field. In addition to the energy sector, Nigeria's invitation of investment this time also covers transportation, finance, telecommunications and manufacturing sector.

  16. Demand for Women's Health Services in Northern Nigeria: A Review ...


    This literature review focuses on social and cultural barriers to contraceptive use, antenatal care, and ... More research is needed to identify pathways of information that can ... perceptions and values that drive demand, as well ... EBSCO host Academic SEARCH Complete. ..... tour in Egypt, facilitated their use of internet and.

  17. Polypharmacy in psychiatric out- patient practice in northern Nigeria

    treatment of patients with partial, inadequate or no response.5,6,7 It is held that ... primary treatment. In most developing countries, physicians are taught to embrace .... the study was cross-sectional in nature, data collection for each individual ...

  18. Age at menarche among school girls in Sokoto, Northern Nigeria

    The aims of the study were to compare the age at menarche between rural and urban girls ... of a higher socio-economic class tended to report a lower age of ... high socio-economic group. .... most (80.9%) of the urban girls were in social class.

  19. 47 Ethical Challenge of Desertification in Northern Nigeria Mark ...


    climate change, soil erosion, gas flaring, oil pollution, ..... Desertification is also a threat to landscape and land space. Land is not just a resource in African cosmology. ... stove, biogas plants, solar cooks, heaters, and dryers to reduce.

  20. Strategies for the control of desertification in northern Nigeria ...

    FUTY Journal of the Environment ... This ugly trend is further exacerbated by increase in the rate of fuel wood extraction especially by communities ... Litters that drop from most leguminous trees decay and add more organic matter to the soil.

  1. Childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections in Northern Nigeria


    Mar 2, 2015 ... the first 12months of life, malnutrition of weight -for - age- z -score ≤ 2, lack ... mental, while constitutional determinants would include gender, atopic ... ated risk factors for ALRTI among hospitalized Nigerian children. Subjects ...


    inertia, water balance, physiological strength, and susceptibility to predation between adults .... Judd PW and Rose FL 1977 Aspects of the thermal biology of the Texas tortoise ... pctrdolis lmheoeki) and their conservation in northern Tanzania.

  3. Anglo-French rapprochement and the rise of Islamic fundamentalism in Nigeria in the 1950s

    Olakunle A. Lawal


    Full Text Available The dawn of the 1950s in Nigeria witnessed an increase in the rise of Islamic religious fundamentalism, especially in the Northern parts of the country. This paper explores the different dimensions to the problem of Islamic religious fundamentalism in Nigeria in the 1950s, including an attempt by Britain to involve the French government in the search for solutions to the problem. The paper argues that the problem of Islamic fundamentalism in Nigeria in the 1950s revolved around the doctrinal schism between the two foremost Sufi brotherhoods (the Qādiriyyah and the Tijāniyyah in West Africa. The fact that the problem arose at a time when Britain was preparing Nigeria for independence merely increased attention to the problem. The paper suggests that even though Britain and France had similar religious experiences in their colonies, the approaches made to solve the problems arising from the issues were similar in content though different in implementation. The paper concludes that although Britain accepted in principle to adopt the French approach, the eventual solution to the problem of religious fundamentalism was arrived at through a combination of local (home-grown approaches, as well as the domestication of the French ideas.

  4. Democracy and development in Nigeria

    Tolu Lawal


    Full Text Available Democracy and development are global phenomena. Every country in the world aspires and claims to be democratic. This is because of the role of the latter in developmental process. This paper examined the linkage between democracy and development in Nigeria, using ethics as the yardstick for democratic adherence. The paper adopted content analysis approach to source its data and concluded that democracy is an ingredient of development. It must therefore be sustained to evolve and ensure sustainable development.

  5. Youth Reproductive & Sexual Health in Nigeria

    Sampson, Melodi


    Nearly one third of Nigeria's total population of 148.1 million is between the ages of 10 and 24. Nigerian adolescents' sizeable share of the population makes them integral to the country's social, political and economic development. Nigeria's development is compromised by the sexual and reproductive health issues afflicting its youth. Lack of…

  6. Towards the improvement of maize in Nigeria

    Eijnatten, van C.L.M.


    Approximately 600,000 tons of maize were produced annually in Nigeria. Maize was the main grain crop in southern Nigeria and its production in the middle belt was rapidly increasing. Most of the crop was eaten as dry grain, a little before maturity. A preference was recorded for floury varieties of

  7. ICT and Higher Educational System in Nigeria

    Idowu, Adeyemi I.; Esere, Mary


    This paper examines the integration of ICT in higher education in Nigeria. The possibilities and reach of information technologies can tear down territorial boundaries and make available equal information and knowledge of different categories as soon as necessary data are fed on the website. Nevertheless, Nigeria as a nation is yet to take full…

  8. Household Structure and Living Conditions in Nigeria

    Mberu, Blessing Uchenna


    Data on 7,632 households from the 1999 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey are used to examine household structure and living conditions in Nigeria. The study finds significant disadvantage in living conditions of single-adult, female- and single-adult, male-headed households relative to two-parent households. Extended households show no…



    Programme in 1972, which was the first of its kind in the history of Nigeria. This was followed ... However, three significant stages to the evolution of mortgage institutions in Nigeria can be identified. ..... planning and control. In fact, it was ..... Poverty, Inequality and Social Exclusion: Strategies for Sustaining. Development in ...

  10. Climate Change Dynamics and Imperatives for Food Security in Nigeria

    Olumide D. Onafeso


    Full Text Available Decadal variability in African rainfall is projected from General Circulation Models (GCMs to continue under elevated greenhouse gas scenarios. Effects on rain intensity, spatio-temporal variability of growing seasons, flooding, drought, and land-use change impose feedbacks at regional-local scales. Yet, empirical knowledge of associated impacts on crop yield is limited; thus, we examined the imperatives for food security in Nigeria. Bivariate correlation and multiple regression suggests impending drought in the northern region where livestock farming is predominant. Relative contributions of climate independent variables in determining crop yield by backward selection procedures with stepwise approach indexed the impacts of annual climate variability by a parameter computed as annual yield minus mean annual yield divided by the standard deviation. Results show Z-distribution approximately 5 to + 5, when 3 indicate impacts significant at 95% confidence levels. In conclusion, we established the interwoven relationship between climatic change and food security.

  11. Lead poisoning of children in Africa, III. Kaduna, Nigeria.

    Nriagu, J; Oleru, N T; Cudjoe, C; Chine, A


    This study investigated the prevalence of elevated blood lead (PbB) levels in children 1-6 years old in Kaduna, a medium size city in northern Nigeria. Mean PbB was found to be 10.6 micrograms/dl, and 2% of the children had PbB levels greater than 30 micrograms/dl. Highest average PbB levels were found in children 5 years old and was attributed to the tendency for this age group to play longer in contaminated outdoor environments. The strongest associations were found between PbB and whether the family owned a car or lived in a house on a tarred road. Potential sources of lead in the city as well as household and behavior risk factors likely to result in exposure of children to lead are discussed. This study provides additional data pointing to childhood lead poisoning as being a major public health problem in urban areas of Africa.

  12. Boko Haram: The Development of a Militant Religious Movement in Nigeria Boko Haram: Die Entwicklung einer militanten religiösen Bewegung in Nigeria

    Roman Loimeier


    Full Text Available Since 2009, the radical Muslim movement in northern Nigeria known as Boko Haram has become widely known in Western media for both its militant actions and its ultra-fundamentalist programme. This analysis examines Boko Haram from a historical perspective, viewing the movement as a result of social, political and generational dynamics within the larger field of northern Nigerian radical Islam. The contribution also considers some of the theological dimensions of the dispute between Boko Haram and its Muslim opponents and presents the different stages of militant activity through which this movement has gone so far. The article shows that movements such as Boko Haram are deeply rooted in northern Nigeria’s specific economic, religious and political development and are thus likely to crop up again if basic frame conditions such as social injustice, corruption and economic mismanagement do not change.Seit 2009 wurde die unter dem Namen Boko Haram bekannte radikale muslimische Bewegung in Nordnigeria in westlichen Medien für ihre militanten Aktionen und ihr ultrafundamentalistisches Programm bekannt. Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht die Bewegung aus historischer Perspektive und sieht die Entstehung von Boko Haram als Ergebnis sozialer, politischer und generationsbezogener Dynamiken innerhalb des radikalen Islam im Norden Nigerias. Der Autor verweist zudem auf theologische Dimensionen der Auseinandersetzung zwischen der Bewegung und ihren muslimischen Gegnern und stellt die verschiedenen Phasen militanter Aktionen Boko Harams dar, die bislang erkennbar sind. Der Beitrag belegt, dass Bewegungen wie Boko Haram tief in den spezifischen ökonomischen, religiösen und politischen Bedingungen im Norden Nigerias verwurzelt sind und daher immer wieder entstehen können, sollten sich wesentliche Rahmenbedingungen – wie soziale Ungerechtigkeit, Korruption und ökonomisches Missmanagement – nicht ändern.


    Michael, O S


    The book appraised in this edition of Chronicles of Medical History, History of Dentistry in Nigeria, is a product of many years of painstaking research. The Author, Professor Eyitope Ogunbodede, has put together an excellent book that is a great work of art. Dentistry is one of the first specialties in medicine with a very long history; evidence of periodontal disease has been traced back to at least 100, 000 years in human remains. However, the book by Professor Ogunbodede is the first comprehensive record of the History of dentistry in Nigeria. It is a must-read for every medical professional practicing in Nigeria and a worthy addition to every library.

  14. Female Traders in I badan, Nigeria

    many countries, especially developing countries like. Nigeria, BSE will most ... reproductive health status and clinical assessment .... Arab Emirates, South Asia and Brazil [14, 1 5, 16]. flrmals of I ... niques on the risk of death from breast cancer.

  15. Rural Entrepreneurship in Nigeria: Lessons From Scientific ...

    Rural Entrepreneurship in Nigeria: Lessons From Scientific Management. ... Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research. Journal Home ... This article focussed on the lessons that can be garnered from the tenets of Scientific Management.

  16. Hysterectomy in Adolescents, in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Alasia Datonye

    Background. Hysterectomy in adolescents is a very difficult decision to ... reproductive health services to adolescents especially those who are sexually active. ... fifth of the world's population . In Nigeria, over ... consequences. Unsafe abortions ...

  17. teoarthritis in Nigeria: A multicentre study

    The efficacy and toleration of celecoxib (Celebrex®) in the treatment of os- teoarthritis in Nigeria: A .... pital?3 The symptoms ofosteoarthritis (OA) may be relieved in some patients by ..... ostcoarthritis, Rheumatoid Arthrilis and Acute pain. Drugs.

  18. Potentials of Microalgae Biodiesel Production in Nigeria

    Prof. Ogunji

    and sub-tropical countries is five times higher than non-tropical ..... Reports show that carbon dioxide has a profound effect on the ..... freshwater brakish and marine phytoplankton of Warri/Forcadoes estuaries of southern. Nigeria. Nig. J. Bot.

  19. Electronic Banking And Bank Performance In Nigeria


    Mar 1, 2013 ... However, the revolution in the banking industry in Nigeria started .... with the banks overall strategic and business plans, and adequate expertise should be employed to operate and ..... 2010 from http://www.bis./pub/bcbs/pdf.

  20. Maternal and child health project in Nigeria.

    Okafor, Chinyelu B


    Maternal deaths in developing countries are rooted in womens powerlessness and their unequal access to employment, finance, education, basic health care, and other resources. Nigeria is Africa's most populous country, and it is an oil producing country, but Nigeria has one of the worst maternal mortality rates in Africa. These deaths were linked to deficiencies in access to health care including poor quality of health services, socio-cultural factors, and access issues related to the poor status of women. To address these problems, a participatory approach was used to bring Christian women from various denominations in Eastern Nigeria together. With technical assistance from a research unit in a university in Eastern Nigeria, the women were able to implement a Safe Motherhood project starting from needs assessment to program evaluation. Lessons learned from this program approach are discussed.

  1. FRCPsych, Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital, Abeokuta, Nigeria


    Jan 1, 2001 ... Eighty six percent of the accused were first time offenders. Adverse life events .... religious sentiments run deep in Nigeria, often with fatal consequences. ..... illness, and thus early search for treatment should be encouraged in ...



    The information obtained include age, sex, place of injury, month of injury, cause of ... However in developing countries like Nigeria, these ... problems : ignorance, poverty and disease, in ... of burn injury preventive measures to minimise the.

  3. Adult Education and Anomia in Rural Nigeria

    Odokara, E. O.


    Extracts from an article describing the efforts of the University of Nigeria to dispel post-civil war anomia among the rural population, and to direct various reconstruction and rehabilitation programs to rural areas. (Author/JB)

  4. Nigeria: One Step Forward, Two Steps Back


    has repeatedly engaged in electoral malpractice resulting in allegations of mismanagement, voter fraud, and results manipulation. Consequently...Tolu Lawal, et al. “Governance Crisis and the Crisis of Leadership in Nigeria,” International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social...Governance Crisis and the Crisis of Leadership in Nigeria,” International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 7

  5. Food Security and Nutition trend in Nigeria


    Nigeria has a chequered history of food production, sustainability and food security. This paper discusses the food and nutrition situation of Nigeria, it highlights some of the socio-economic factors- price, income, employment, demography (population density) that has influenced the food consumption system (supply, distribution, consumption) and addresses some of the major issues that would arise therein. It was observed that more Nigerians live below the poverty line and are food insecure. ...

  6. Eradicating Corruption in Public Office in Nigeria

    Wada Attah Ademu


    Full Text Available This paper attempts to provide a model for dealing with the problem of corruption in Nigeria. It uses an analytical approach to explore the Singapore model of dealing with acts of corruption to serve as a model for Nigeria. Corruption is inimical to socio-economic development of any country where it is practised on any scale. This explains why all nations make efforts to minimize or eradicate corruption in their economies. Nigeria has been ranked among the most corrupt nations of the World by many international anti-corruption agencies. If other nations take measures to eradicate corruption from their economies because of its negative consequences, Nigeria cannot be an exception. Corruption has led to gross misuse of public funds in Nigeria and has caused untold hardship to her citizens via non-payments of people’s benefits and lack of provision of basic public utilities. To deal with corruption in Nigeria, various anti-corruption agencies were set up but the problem remains. This paper therefore recommends the Singapore model as a method of dealing with corruption in Nigeria. This model holds each sectional head responsible for any act of corruption in his/her unit if established. The government was strong and determined to deal with the transgressors; there was political will to tame corruption and therefore there was government support to the anti-corruption agencies. If this model is adopted and faithfully implemented, corruption could be eradicated from Nigeria. In addition, constitutional amendments that would update and clearly define acts that constitute corrupt practices as these acts manifest in various forms are necessary to facilitate interpretation and enforcement of anti-corruption laws.

  7. Chino Décor Construction Nigeria Ltd.

    You Wanlong


    @@ Q: What are the core industries of the investment of your company in Africa? A: In 1989 when I visited Africa for the first time, I went to Nigeria. In the coming decade, I struggled in Africa. I used to run a hotel; following, I struggled in the sphere of investment. Up to now, we have established the market strategy in Africa which bases on Nigeria.

  8. Oil Politics and National Security in Nigeria


    Staff College Nigeria, January 23, 2008), 8. 4 Adam Groves, “ Shell and Society: Securing the Niger Delta,” International Relations, accessed July 8...Counterinsurgency.”39 They argue that Shell Nigeria’s adoption of a range of measures including social development were ineffective because some of the...taxes on cash crops grown in other parts of Nigeria (palm oil and cocoa in the south west, and groundnut/peanuts in the north), which meant that the

  9. 449 Revolutionary Pressures and Social Movements in Nigeria: The ...



    Jul 21, 2011 ... of revolutionary pressures vis-a-vis social movements in Nigeria in general .... same vein, the Kaiama Declaration of the Ijaw Youth Congress of December. 1998 ..... Face of A Nation, Democracy in Nigeria, Modern Approach.

  10. Idealogy and Economic Development in Nigeria | Orugbani | African ...

    Idealogy and Economic Development in Nigeria. ... views, theories and aims that constitute apolitical, social or economic programme of a state. ... This article is ananalysis of the claim by the Nigerian ruling class that Nigeria has noideology.

  11. Concentration in the North Eastern Nigeria's Yam Market: A Gini ...

    Concentration in the North Eastern Nigeria's Yam Market: A Gini Coefficient Analysis. ... yam differentiation were yam varieties and size or length and market information were ... Key word: Lorenz Curve, Gini Coefficient Analysis, Yam, Nigeria.

  12. Curbing Corruption in Nigeria: The Imperatives of Good Leadership



    Jul 26, 2012 ... effectively fighting and curbing corruption and the leadership style in. Nigeria. ... By 2009, the Global Perception Index (CPI) by TI rated Nigeria ..... any credible political leadership in the context of the pervasive electoral.

  13. recycle materials potential of imported used vehicles in nigeria

    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. ... vehicles as a means of solving acute/shortage of transportation facilities. ... fewer fossil fuels are burned and less carbon dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere.

  14. Nigeria needs to take responsibility for its IDPs

    Bagoni Alhaji Bukar


    Full Text Available There remain legal and policy challenges in assisting and protectinginternally displaced persons in Nigeria. The Government of Nigeria hasdrafted a national policy on IDPs but it has yet to be officially adopted.

  15. Vaccines and immunization: The past, present and future in Nigeria ...

    Vaccines and immunization: The past, present and future in Nigeria. ... health system which include adequate financing, dynamic and motivated workforce, ... the achievements of the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria and many other ...

  16. Male infertility in Nigeria: A neglected reproductive health issue ...

    Male infertility in Nigeria: A neglected reproductive health issue requiring attention. ... in Nigeria are sexually transmitted infections and hormonal abnormalities. ... a proper diagnosis, and adequate treatment given where causes are treatable.

  17. Critique of Distance Learning Programme in Nigeria: The Case of ...

    Critique of Distance Learning Programme in Nigeria: The Case of National Teachers Institute. ... Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria ... instructional method, materials and technology used, and library services were highlighted.

  18. Juvenile Delinquency and Justice in Lagos State, Nigeria: A ...

    Juvenile Delinquency and Justice in Lagos State, Nigeria: A Sociological Appraisal. ... This paper discussed the emergence of the Child's Right act in Nigeria in ... of children and young persons who found themselves on the justice corridor.

  19. Indirect Monetary Policy Reforms and Output Growth in Nigeria: An ...

    Indirect Monetary Policy Reforms and Output Growth in Nigeria: An Empirical ... changes (reforms) since the inception of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). ... place when monetary management was largely based on direct controls and those ...

  20. Awareness of childhood pneumonia in Benin City, Nigeria | Nwaneri ...

    Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Edaiken market, Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects: All traders, women and men in Edaiken market Benin City Nigeria. ... There is need for improved public awareness on childhood pneumonia in ...

  1. Entrepreneurship Education and Graduates Unemployment in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Emunemu, B. O.; Kasali, O. J.


    This study investigated entrepreneurship and graduates' unemployment in Nigeria.The problem of unemployment in Nigeria has become endemic. There have been reported cases of under-employment, seasonal, casual and full blown unemployment. Previous studies on unemployment and factors influencing it in Nigeria identify poor educational standards,…

  2. Trends in Educational Evaluations in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

    Ndubueze, M. Okoloeze; Iyoke, J. O.; Okoh, S. C.; Beatrice, N. Akubuilo


    The paper highlights the trends in educational evaluations in Nigeria starting from the pre-colonial Nigeria to the contemporary. Nigeria first practiced traditional educational evaluation but the system was criticized for lack of documented data. Then the colonial one-shot end of programme evaluation which was later found to be judgmental, breeds…

  3. Oral health knowledge and practice of 12 to 14-year-old Almajaris in Nigeria: A problem of definition and a call to action.

    Idowu, Enoch Abiodun; Afolabi, Adedapo Olanrewaju; Nwhator, Solomon Olusegun


    We studied oral health knowledge and practices of 12 to 14-year-old Almajiri boys in northern Nigeria because we found few studies on their health, and none on their oral health. We present our study after explaining the desperate life circumstances and context of Nigeria's approximately 10 million Almajiri youth. Our results, when compared with those of previously studied populations (those most similar in terms of environment, age range, and oral health characteristics) show that the Almajiris fare poorly. Although the international community has paid some attention to the Nigerian Almajiri children's educational needs, there has been little support for health, and none for oral health. We argue that the World Health Organization could better assist Nigeria and these children by assuring that the Almajiris are not excluded from programs targeting children classified as 'street children', and make specific recommendations.

  4. Hydatidiform mole in Jos, Nigeria

    Amaka N Ocheke


    Full Text Available Background: Hydatidiform mole is a relatively common gynecological problem which could present like spontaneous abortion, one of the commonest gynecological emergencies. It has the propensity to become malignant but can easily be identified and treated. The aim of this study was to determine the demographics, clinical features, treatment options and outcome of patients with hydatidiform mole in our environment. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective review of all the cases of hydatidiform mole seen at the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH, Jos, Nigeria over a 5-year period. Results: There were 34 cases of hydatidiform mole giving an incidence of 1 in 357 deliveries. However only 25 case notes were available for analysis and the mean age of patients was 28±3 years. Vaginal bleeding (92%, honeycomb appearance on ultrasound scan (84%, and passage of vesicles (60% were the most common clinical findings while suction curettage was the mode of treatment for all the patients in this study. Twenty-eight percent of cases were confirmed by histology. No patient came for follow-up after the third month of diagnosis. Twenty percent of the patients booked for antenatal care within 9 months of diagnosis while 12% of patients presented as gynecological emergencies with features of malignant disease within six months of diagnosis. Conclusion: Hydatidiform mole is common in Jos, North Central Nigeria, and presents most commonly with vaginal bleeding with over 10% becoming malignant. Hence all patients who present with vaginal bleeding should be screened for HM. None of the patients completed the recommended duration of follow-up and only about ¼ had histology reports. Concerted efforts need to be made to address the challenges of patients adhering to recommended follow-up protocols and having to pay first before investigations are done.

  5. The Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria: What could have been the precursors?

    Olusegun Anthony Ofongo


    Full Text Available The problem of insurgency has for several decades occupied a good part of the attention of IR scholars. This paper explores the various perspectives on the formation and radicalization of Boko Haram in Nigeria. The focus is on the extent to which illiteracy, unemployment, poverty, weak state capability, the almajiri crisis and the mobilization of ethno-religious identity explain simmering insurgency in Nigeria. The group has experienced ferocious onslaught on their activities by the Nigerian Military. The article relies on secondary data. This has enabled the author to draw heavily from literature espousing the diverse perspectives put forth as explanations for the uprising. Fragile state theory serves as a framework for analysis. On this basis, the article demonstrates the low-cost availability of foot soldiers from the almajiri pool, resulting from the state’s inability or unwillingness to provide better education, and employment opportunities, and widespread poverty has exposed youths to indoctrination, criminalization and terrorism. In order to ensure the effectiveness of counter terrorism efforts, the military option should not be solely relied on. Rather, efforts should be geared towards addressing the various underlying social, political and economic triggers of violent insurgency, especially in northern Nigeria where such triggers are pervasive.

  6. Bacillus anthracis Diversity and Geographic Potential across Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad: Further Support of a Novel West African Lineage.

    Blackburn, Jason K; Odugbo, Moses Ode; Van Ert, Matthew; O'Shea, Bob; Mullins, Jocelyn; Perreten, Vincent; Perrenten, Vincent; Maho, Angaya; Hugh-Jones, Martin; Hadfield, Ted


    Zoonoses, diseases affecting both humans and animals, can exert tremendous pressures on human and veterinary health systems, particularly in resource limited countries. Anthrax is one such zoonosis of concern and is a disease requiring greater public health attention in Nigeria. Here we describe the genetic diversity of Bacillus anthracis in Nigeria and compare it to Chad, Cameroon and a broader global dataset based on the multiple locus variable number tandem repeat (MLVA-25) genetic typing system. Nigerian B. anthracis isolates had identical MLVA genotypes and could only be resolved by measuring highly mutable single nucleotide repeats (SNRs). The Nigerian MLVA genotype was identical or highly genetically similar to those in the neighboring countries, confirming the strains belong to this unique West African lineage. Interestingly, sequence data from a Nigerian isolate shares the anthrose deficient genotypes previously described for strains in this region, which may be associated with vaccine evasion. Strains in this study were isolated over six decades, indicating a high level of temporal strain stability regionally. Ecological niche models were used to predict the geographic distribution of the pathogen for all three countries. We describe a west-east habitat corridor through northern Nigeria extending into Chad and Cameroon. Ecological niche models and genetic results show B. anthracis to be ecologically established in Nigeria. These findings expand our understanding of the global B. anthracis population structure and can guide regional anthrax surveillance and control planning.

  7. Bacillus anthracis Diversity and Geographic Potential across Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad: Further Support of a Novel West African Lineage.

    Jason K Blackburn

    Full Text Available Zoonoses, diseases affecting both humans and animals, can exert tremendous pressures on human and veterinary health systems, particularly in resource limited countries. Anthrax is one such zoonosis of concern and is a disease requiring greater public health attention in Nigeria. Here we describe the genetic diversity of Bacillus anthracis in Nigeria and compare it to Chad, Cameroon and a broader global dataset based on the multiple locus variable number tandem repeat (MLVA-25 genetic typing system. Nigerian B. anthracis isolates had identical MLVA genotypes and could only be resolved by measuring highly mutable single nucleotide repeats (SNRs. The Nigerian MLVA genotype was identical or highly genetically similar to those in the neighboring countries, confirming the strains belong to this unique West African lineage. Interestingly, sequence data from a Nigerian isolate shares the anthrose deficient genotypes previously described for strains in this region, which may be associated with vaccine evasion. Strains in this study were isolated over six decades, indicating a high level of temporal strain stability regionally. Ecological niche models were used to predict the geographic distribution of the pathogen for all three countries. We describe a west-east habitat corridor through northern Nigeria extending into Chad and Cameroon. Ecological niche models and genetic results show B. anthracis to be ecologically established in Nigeria. These findings expand our understanding of the global B. anthracis population structure and can guide regional anthrax surveillance and control planning.

  8. Nigeria's Satellite Programme Development: Prospects and Challenges

    Akinyede, Joseph

    Nigeria's desire to maximize the benefits of space technology for its sustainable development, has become a reality with the establishment of the National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) in May 1999 and the approval of the national Space Policy and Programmes in July 2001. In November, 2000, the Federal Government took a bold step with the signing of an agreement with the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) of United Kingdom (UK) for the design, construction and launch of a medium resolution micro-satellite - NigeriaSat-1 with a Ground Sampling Distance of thirty-two (32) meters. The agreement also covers the Know-How-Technology-Training (KHTT) to Nigerian Engineers and Scientists for a period of 18th months at SSTL‘s facility in the U.K.. NigeriaSat-1 was successfully launched into Leo Earth Orbit on 27th September, 2003. NigeriaSat- 1 is one of the five (5) satellites belonging to Nigeria, Algeria, Turkey, United Kingdom and China being operated in a Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). The launch of NigeriaSat-1 has promoted access to information which has become a strategy for mass socio-economic development, as information underscores all developmental effort be it in education, provision of health services, marketing, construction industry, tourism, defense, etc. As a follow-up to the successful launch of NigeriaSat-1, the government of Nigeria started the implementation of a Nigerian communication satellite (NigcomSat-1) to address the problem of communication which is the greatest drawbacks to the socio-economic development of the country, particularly in the areas of rural telephone, tele-education, tele-medicine, egovernment, e-commerce and real-time monitoring services. NigcomSat-1, which carries 40- hybrid transponders in the C, KU, KA and L bands, has a 15 years life span and coverage of the African continent, Middle East and part of Europe was launched in May 2007. To satisfy geospatial data needs in sectors such as survey

  9. Economical Utilization of Associated Gas in Nigeria

    Lukman Obayopo Alimi


    Full Text Available Oil production is often accompanied by associated natural gas as valuable by-product of oil processing. Large amount of this vital energy component is flared during these processes, mostly in developing countries. For a longer period of time more gas is flares in Nigeria than anywhere else in Africa and second to Russian in the world, with daily estimates of roughly 2.5 billion cubic feet. This is equivalent to around 40% of all Africa´s natural gas consumption, and annual financial loss to Nigeria is about 1.8 billion Euros. Gas flaring contributes to major environmental pollution problems, which affects oil producing areas of the Niger Delta in Nigeria. This research attempts to look into the environmental issues in the region and proposes possible solutions, with recommendations that will contribute to improve associated gas utilization. This study describes gas to liquid (GTL conversion technology as a sustainable option to utilize associated gas in Nigeria, and also evaluates the economic attractiveness of the process. This conversion technology could contribute to total elimination of gas flaring and reduces the overdependence on importation of refined products (petrol, diesel and kerosene from foreign countries into Nigeria.

  10. The advent and growth of television broadcasting in Nigeria: its political and educational overtones.

    Umeh, C C


    In 1959, the regional government of Western Nigeria established the 1st television station in Nigeria and in Africa. Even though it promoted the station as a means to educate the people about development and the world, it initially served as a means for an opposition leader to address the people of Western Nigeria. The regional governments of Eastern and Northern Nigeria and the federal government in Lagos followed and started their own TV stations in the early 1960s. All 4 of these stations basically existed to serve partisan political objectives for the various governments. Any stations established after these 4 continued this same political and regionalistic heritage. In 1973, a new surge of regional consciousness occurred after the now military government allowed the division of the country into 19 states. This change, the concurrent oil boom, and the effectiveness and importance of existing TV broadcasting led to a new surge of state owned TV stations. 3 years later, the military government established the National Television Authority (NTA) to coordinate nationwide coverage. The NTA then acquired existing TV stations. This event slowed the growth of TV broadcasting until 1979 when military government rule ended. The 5 political parties vying for election in the states revoked the NTA charter and a proliferation of TV stations occurred. This also happened because the civilian administration was disorganized. As regionalization played a role in the broadcasting of political propaganda, so did it play a role in educational programming, Despite TV broadcasting's political ties, it has been successful in producing quality educational programs for schools and colleges nationwide via the NTA network with the assistance of UNESCO.

  11. Meteorological influences on the interannual variability of meningitis incidence in northwest Nigeria.

    Abdussalam, Auwal; Monaghan, Andrew; Dukic, Vanja; Hayden, Mary; Hopson, Thomas; Leckebusch, Gregor


    Northwest Nigeria is a region with high risk of bacterial meningitis. Since the first documented epidemic of meningitis in Nigeria in 1905, the disease has been endemic in the northern part of the country, with epidemics occurring regularly. In this study we examine the influence of climate on the interannual variability of meningitis incidence and epidemics. Monthly aggregate counts of clinically confirmed hospital-reported cases of meningitis were collected in northwest Nigeria for the 22-year period spanning 1990-2011. Several generalized linear statistical models were fit to the monthly meningitis counts, including generalized additive models. Explanatory variables included monthly records of temperatures, humidity, rainfall, wind speed, sunshine and dustiness from weather stations nearest to the hospitals, and a time series of polysaccharide vaccination efficacy. The effects of other confounding factors -- i.e., mainly non-climatic factors for which records were not available -- were estimated as a smooth, monthly-varying function of time in the generalized additive models. Results reveal that the most important explanatory climatic variables are mean maximum monthly temperature, relative humidity and dustiness. Accounting for confounding factors (e.g., social processes) in the generalized additive models explains more of the year-to-year variation of meningococcal disease compared to those generalized linear models that do not account for such factors. Promising results from several models that included only explanatory variables that preceded the meningitis case data by 1-month suggest there may be potential for prediction of meningitis in northwest Nigeria to aid decision makers on this time scale.

  12. Health policy and systems research and analysis in Nigeria: examining health policymakers' and researchers' capacity assets, needs and perspectives in south-east Nigeria.

    Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Mbachu, Chinyere; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Okwuosa, Chinenye; Etiaba, Enyi; Nyström, Monica E; Gilson, Lucy


    Health policy and systems research and analysis (HPSR+A) has been noted as central to health systems strengthening, yet the capacity for HPSR+A is limited in low- and middle-income countries. Building the capacity of African institutions, rather than relying on training provided in northern countries, is a more sustainable way of building the field in the continent. Recognising that there is insufficient information on African capacity to produce and use HPSR+A to inform interventions in capacity development, the Consortium for Health Policy and Systems Analysis in Africa (2011-2015) conducted a study with the aim to assess the capacity needs of its African partner institutions, including Nigeria, for HPSR+A. This paper provides new knowledge on health policy and systems research assets and needs of different stakeholders, and their perspectives on HPSR+A in Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Enugu state, south-east Nigeria. It involved reviews and content analysis of relevant documents and interviews with organizations' academic staff, policymakers and HPSR+A practitioners. The College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu campus (COMUNEC), was used as the case study and the HPSR+A capacity needs were assessed at the individual, unit and organizational levels. The HPSR+A capacity needs of the policy and research networks were also assessed. For academicians, lack of awareness of the HPSR+A field and funding were identified as barriers to strengthening HPSR+A in Nigeria. Policymakers were not aware of the availability of research findings that could inform the policies they make nor where they could find them; they also appeared unwilling to go through the rigors of reading extensive research reports. There is a growing interest in HPSR+A as well as a demand for its teaching and, indeed, opportunities for building the field through research and teaching abound. However, there is a need to incorporate HPSR+A teaching and research at an

  13. Nigeria

    words, crises are states of events afler a consistent level of conflict and violence have ..... constructed and constantly modified. People choose to be ... citizenship and the inflation of the idea of ethnie consciousness out of all proportion in ...

  14. NIGERIA '

    mothers' perception of obstetric care in these facilities and their attitude towards some ... may be more sensitive, less expensive and more ... certain health related behaviors like compliance with ..... of consumers' satisfaction with medical care.

  15. Nigeria

    Again, field diagnosis of the presence of ruminal foreign bodies is naturally a difficult one except where ... fiber, or of individual nutrients particularly salt, cobalt or phosphorous ... compound farms and human population pressure on land.

  16. Nigeria

    Teenage sexual activity is increasing globally widi a trend towards ... of parental control have been implicated.2,5'10 13. More than ... try.1'13 Unwanted teenage pregnancy and its outcomes ... Data for the survey was collected using a self-ad-.

  17. Nigeria

    World Bank Group


    Principle 11 of the International Association of Deposit Insurers (IADI) Core Principles (CP 11) states that deposit insurers are required to have available to them all funding mechanisms necessary to ensure the prompt reimbursement of depositors’ claims. One of the Essential Criteria under CP 11 is that the size of the fund, the “fund reserve ratio”, should be based on “clear, consistent and well-developed criteria.” Currently, the Nigerian Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC) sets its reser...

  18. NIGERIA. - . ~

    total world aquaculture production (excluding aquatic plants) in 2002 and ... production was 201,707 tonnes of local total fish supply representing 5.3%, with an average ... In recognition of this fact, the National Institute for Freshwater Fishery.

  19. Nigeria

    birth weight dijference among the various haemoglobin concentration groups. (X' = 4. 969 and p > ... measure of iron status in pregnancy as it is affected by the expansion of ..... V,Bhargava S.K. Relationship of maternal serum ferritin with foetal ...

  20. NIGERIA '

    Methods: Cross-sectional survey conducted in a textile and a bottling ... could not complete the questionnaire on their own. ... The level of significance was set at .... Laboratory 57.2 ... outline for rehabilitation for aural casualties both military.

  1. ' " Nigeria

    Introduction : La grossesse chez des jeunes constitue un risque grave pour la santé et un problème ... Les objets de cette étude étaient de décider la fréquence de la grossesse des jeunes"- ..... contraceptive use among female adolescents» A.

  2. Nigeria


    importance in the world: as more en- ergy resources become available in the near future in Sub- Saharan Africa ( Mozambique , Uganda, expansion in South...any single country. At the same time, developments in the US domestic economy and en- This ACLED Country Report was compiled by Caitriona Dowd using

  3. The Politics of Amnesty in Nigeria: A Comparative Analysis of the Boko Haram and Niger Delta Insurgencies

    Michael Nwankpa


    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of the Niger Delta amnesty programme and the proposed amnesty for Boko Haram insurgents in Nigeria. The motivation for comparing the two groups derives from the growing demand from some notable groups and individuals, mainly from the northern part of Nigeria, that the Boko Haram insurgents be granted amnesty just as the Niger Delta armed militants. One of such strong voices in favour of amnesty for Boko Haram insurgents is the Sultan of Sokoto, AlhajiSa’adAbubakar, who, on the 7th of March 2013, called for “total and unconditional” amnesty for Boko Haram. Sultan Abubakar’s demand has attracted mixed reaction as it is largely supported by the northern group-Arewa Consultative Forum (ACF and rejected by others such as the Christian Association of Nigeria (CAN. The most serious reaction comes from the presidency in its commission, on April 24th 2013, of a presidential Committee on Dialogue and Peaceful Resolution of Security Challenges in the North. After an extension by 2 months of its initial 90 days task, the Turaki-led Committee on Dialogue and Peaceful Resolution of Security Challenges in the North has finally submitted its recommendations to the president. Two key recommendations are: the need to set up an advisory committee for continuous dialogue with Boko Haram (as the leadership of Boko Haram refused to dialogue and a victims’ support fund to help victims of Boko Haram.

  4. Prevention of lassa Fever in Nigeria.

    Inegbenebor, Ute; Okosun, John; Inegbenebor, Josephine


    Although specific treatment is available for Lassa fever, early diagnosis is still difficult in most Nigerian primary and secondary health centers. This study was carried out to compare the case-fatality rates of Lassa fever and other medical diseases commonly seen in adult medical wards, to determine the community habits that make Lassa fever endemic in Edo Central District of Nigeria, with the aim of prescribing preventive measures for its control in Nigeria. The records of 908 inpatients in the adult medical wards of Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua and responses from respondents interviewed by trained interviewers on their knowledge, attitudes and practices pertaining to Lassa fever were used for this study. The case-fatality rate of Lassa fever in this center was 28%. Cultural factors and habits were found to favor endemicity of Lassa fever in Edo Central District of Nigeria. Preventive measures were prescribed for families and communities.

  5. Personality and Development of Crime in Nigeria

    Tenibiaje Dele Joseph


    Full Text Available The research was undertaken to investigate the differences in the personality traits of prison inmates and non- inmates and development of crime. The study was carried out in Nigerian Prisons located in five states in southwestern Nigeria. The sample comprised of 200 subjects made up of 121 inmates and 79 non-inmates. The non-inmates were the students of U niversity of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria, public servants and nurses in Ekiti State, Nigeria, aged 17 to 45 years. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was used to collect information from the respondents. The result of the investigation showed that the inmates scored significantly high than the non-inmates in extroversion, neuroticism and psychoticism dimensions.

  6. Has Wild Poliovirus Been Eliminated from Nigeria?

    Famulare, Michael


    Wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) has not been seen anywhere since the last case of WPV3-associated paralysis in Nigeria in November 2012. At the time of writing, the most recent case of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in Nigeria occurred in July 2014, and WPV1 has not been seen in Africa since a case in Somalia in August 2014. No cases associated with circulating vaccine-derived type 2 poliovirus (cVDPV2) have been detected in Nigeria since November 2014. Has WPV1 been eliminated from Africa? Has WPV3 been eradicated globally? Has Nigeria interrupted cVDPV2 transmission? These questions are difficult because polio surveillance is based on paralysis and paralysis only occurs in a small fraction of infections. This report provides estimates for the probabilities of poliovirus elimination in Nigeria given available data as of March 31, 2015. It is based on a model of disease transmission that is built from historical polio incidence rates and is designed to represent the uncertainties in transmission dynamics and poliovirus detection that are fundamental to interpreting long time periods without cases. The model estimates that, as of March 31, 2015, the probability of WPV1 elimination in Nigeria is 84%, and that if WPV1 has not been eliminated, a new case will be detected with 99% probability by the end of 2015. The probability of WPV3 elimination (and thus global eradication) is > 99%. However, it is unlikely that the ongoing transmission of cVDPV2 has been interrupted; the probability of cVDPV2 elimination rises to 83% if no new cases are detected by April 2016.

  7. Descriptive characterization of the 2010 cholera outbreak in Nigeria.

    Dalhat, Mahmood Muazu; Isa, Aisha Nasiru; Nguku, Patrick; Nasir, Sani-Gwarzo; Urban, Katharina; Abdulaziz, Mohammed; Dankoli, Raymond Salanga; Nsubuga, Peter; Poggensee, Gabriele


    In 2010, 18 States of Nigeria reported cholera outbreaks with a total of 41,787 cases including 1,716 deaths (case-fatality rate [CFR]: 4.1%). This exceeded the mean overall CFR of 2.4% reported in Africa from 2000-2005 and the WHO acceptable rate of 1%. We conducted a descriptive analysis of the 2010 cholera outbreak to determine its epidemiological and spatio-temporal characteristics. We conducted retrospective analysis of line lists obtained from 10 of the 18 states that submitted line lists to the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH). We described the outbreak by time, place and person and calculated the attack rates by state as well as the age- and sex-specific CFR from cholera cases for whom information on age, sex, place of residence, onset of symptoms and outcome were available. A total of 21,111 cases were reported with an overall attack rate and CFR of 47.8 cases /100,000 population and 5.1%, respectively. The CFR ranged in the states between 3.8% and 8.9%. The age-specific CFR was highest among individuals 65 years and above (14.6%). The epidemiological curve showed three peaks with increasing number of weekly reported cases. A geographical clustering of LGAs reporting cholera cases could be seen in all ten states. During the third peak which coincided with flooding in five states the majority of newly affected LGAs were situated next to LGAs with previously reported cholera cases, only few isolated outbreaks were seen. Our study showed a cholera outbreak that grew in magnitude and spread to involve the whole northern part of the country. It also highlights challenges of suboptimal surveillance and response in developing countries as well as potential endemicity of cholera in the northern part of Nigeria. There is the need for a harmonized, coordinated approach to cholera outbreaks through effective surveillance and response with emphasis on training and motivating front line health workers towards timely detection, reporting and response. Findings from the

  8. When women deliver with no one present in Nigeria: who, what, where and so what?

    Fapohunda, Bolaji M; Orobaton, Nosakhare G


    With the current maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 630/100,000 live births, Nigeria ranks among the nations with the highest mortality rates in the world. The use of skilled assistants during delivery has been identified a key predictor in the reduction of mortality rates in the world over. Not only are Nigerian women predominantly using unskilled attendants, one in five births are delivered with No One Present (NOP). We assessed who, what, where and the so what of this practice using 2008 Nigeria DHS (NDHS) data. The study revealed that the prevalence of NOP is highest in the northern part of Nigeria with 94% of all observed cases. Socio-demographic factors, including, women's age at birth, birth order, being Muslim, and region of residence, were positively associated with NOP deliveries. Mother's education, higher wealth quintiles, urban residence, decision-making autonomy, and a supportive environment for women's social and economic security were inversely associated with NOP deliveries. Women's autonomy and social standing were critical to choosing to deliver with skilled attendance, which were further amplified by economic prosperity. Women's' economic wellbeing is entwined with their feelings of independence and freedom. Programs that seek to improve the autonomy of women and their strategic participation in sound health seeking decisions will, most likely, yield better results with improvements in women's education, income, jobs, and property ownership. As a short term measure, the use of conditional cash transfer, proven to work in several countries, including 18 in sub-Saharan Africa, is recommended. Its use has the potential to reduce household budget constraint by lowering cost-related barriers associated with women's ability to demand and use life-saving services. Given the preponderance of NOP in the Northern region, the study suggests that interventions to eradicate NOP deliveries must initially focus this region as priority.

  9. When women deliver with no one present in Nigeria: who, what, where and so what?

    Bolaji M Fapohunda

    Full Text Available With the current maternal mortality ratio (MMR of 630/100,000 live births, Nigeria ranks among the nations with the highest mortality rates in the world. The use of skilled assistants during delivery has been identified a key predictor in the reduction of mortality rates in the world over. Not only are Nigerian women predominantly using unskilled attendants, one in five births are delivered with No One Present (NOP. We assessed who, what, where and the so what of this practice using 2008 Nigeria DHS (NDHS data. The study revealed that the prevalence of NOP is highest in the northern part of Nigeria with 94% of all observed cases. Socio-demographic factors, including, women's age at birth, birth order, being Muslim, and region of residence, were positively associated with NOP deliveries. Mother's education, higher wealth quintiles, urban residence, decision-making autonomy, and a supportive environment for women's social and economic security were inversely associated with NOP deliveries. Women's autonomy and social standing were critical to choosing to deliver with skilled attendance, which were further amplified by economic prosperity. Women's' economic wellbeing is entwined with their feelings of independence and freedom. Programs that seek to improve the autonomy of women and their strategic participation in sound health seeking decisions will, most likely, yield better results with improvements in women's education, income, jobs, and property ownership. As a short term measure, the use of conditional cash transfer, proven to work in several countries, including 18 in sub-Saharan Africa, is recommended. Its use has the potential to reduce household budget constraint by lowering cost-related barriers associated with women's ability to demand and use life-saving services. Given the preponderance of NOP in the Northern region, the study suggests that interventions to eradicate NOP deliveries must initially focus this region as priority.

  10. Pattern of skin disorders in a rural community in Lagos State, Nigeria ...

    west Nigeria. All consenting adults and children with parental consent that presented for the screening ... Keywords: pattern, skin disorders, skin infection, rural, community, Nigeria ..... Skin diseases in South-east Nigeria: a current perspective.

  11. Corruption, NGOs, and Development in Nigeria.

    Smith, Daniel Jordan


    This article examines corruption in Nigeria's development sector, particularly in the vastly growing arena of local non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Grounded in ethnographic case studies, the analysis explores why local NGOs in Nigeria have proliferated so widely, what they do in practice, what effects they have beyond their stated aims, and how they are perceived and experienced by ordinary Nigerians. It shows that even faux NGOs and disingenuous political rhetoric about civil society, democracy, and development are contributing to changing ideals and rising expectations in these same domains.


    Daniel Eseme GBEREVBIE


    Full Text Available Governments exist among others to implement policies for the enhancement of the living standard of citizens. To accomplish this goal, public enterprises are established to provide goods and services. With the use of secondary data, the paper examines privatization policy in Nigeria. It observed government interference, lack of transparency and accountability as the major hindrances to the successful implementation of the policy. The paper therefore recommends that for privatization to achieve its goals, government should stop interfering in the implementation of the policy and appoint people of credible character to manage the implementing agency of privatization in Nigeria.

  13. Tobacco control in Nigeria- policy recommendations

    Agaku Israel


    Full Text Available Abstract Major strides towards national tobacco control have been made since Nigeria became signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC in June 2004. The Nigerian senate passed a bill on March 15, 2011 which is expected to be signed into law shortly, to regulate and control production, manufacture, sale, advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco or tobacco products. This paper highlights how the proposed tobacco control law provides a unique opportunity to domesticate the WHO FCTC, expand on smokeless tobacco regulation and develop a science base to improve tobacco control measures in Nigeria.

  14. Download this PDF file

    Department of Surgery, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. Reprint requests ... age 2 fair badly as they tolerate burns poorly and the mortality rate ..... Burns of the face, eye, mouth, and ... In: Plastic surgery in the tropics: ...



    Feb 27, 2004 ... Department of Electrical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. ... Goschler(l 983) described a practical application of data networks utilising power lines during and after the ... The principle is extended to load.

  16. phytochemical properties and antibacterial activities of the leaf and ...


    2Department of Medical Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, NIGERIA ... World Health Organization ..... Table 2: Phytochemical characteristics of the leaf and latex extracts of Calotropis procera. Ingredient. Ethanol.

  17. Download this PDF file

    Dr. Ahmed

    The susceptibility of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus 1762, Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 ... pupal stages of the mosquitoes were collected from different localities within Zaria, Nigeria and .... Further studies on this species are being suggested.

  18. Medication errors in anaesthetic practice: a report of two cases and ...



    Sep 3, 2013 ... Department of Anaesthesia, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria ... management of the cases is presented, and the findings from the literature are ... While there is relatively little information about drug.



    2- Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria ... 2006). Thus, it imposes a large economic burden on global health .... Malaysia. C. 090202. February 2009. February 2012 A4-2318. China.

  20. Pattern of microbial isolates and microbial sensitivity among HIV ...



    Apr 14, 2015 ... HIV positive pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria in Zaria, Nigeria ... Over time, the body`s ability to fight common infection is lost and ... women because of both anatomical and physiological changes in pregnancy.

  1. Lukman et al. (5)


    2Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria- Nigeria ... b Currently on Sabbatical leave at Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept., Elizade University, .... There are reports.



    A minimum of three review reports is normally required ... Department of Civil Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. .... Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University,.

  3. Kinetic Study of Calcination of Jakura Limestone Using Power Rate ...

    National Research Institute for Chemical Technology, P.M. B 1052, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. [*Author ... calcination of Jakura limestone was also found to be first order reaction with respect to CaCO3 ..... Kinetics and Reactor Design, Gulp.

  4. Samaru Journal of Information Studies -main-fx


    Faculty of Science in Ahmadu Bello University Zaria (ABU), Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study was ... published using the conventional system. It is acknowledged that it ... online peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers as well as ...

  5. Download this PDF file

    dcu user

    Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, ZariaNigeria. ABSTRACT ... effective reduction in degradation reactions in the presence of the test tin ester. The 10 x 10. -4 ..... previous article even though the alkyds were stabilized with ...

  6. compressibility characteristics of compacted black cotton soil treated ...


    1,21,21,21,2 DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY ZARIA,NIGERIA .... Modification of black cotton soil by chemical ...... Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Jan., ... British Standard Institute.

  7. Attitude of final year medical students towards community medicine ...

    Attitude of final year medical students towards community medicine in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. ... A total of 94 graduating medical students during the 2006/2007 academic session were invited to participate in ... Article Metrics.

  8. Computational biology and bioinformatics in Nigeria.

    Fatumo, Segun A; Adoga, Moses P; Ojo, Opeolu O; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Adeoye, Tolulope; Ewejobi, Itunuoluwa; Adebiyi, Marion; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Bewaji, Clement; Nashiru, Oyekanmi


    Over the past few decades, major advances in the field of molecular biology, coupled with advances in genomic technologies, have led to an explosive growth in the biological data generated by the scientific community. The critical need to process and analyze such a deluge of data and turn it into useful knowledge has caused bioinformatics to gain prominence and importance. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research area that applies techniques, methodologies, and tools in computer and information science to solve biological problems. In Nigeria, bioinformatics has recently played a vital role in the advancement of biological sciences. As a developing country, the importance of bioinformatics is rapidly gaining acceptance, and bioinformatics groups comprised of biologists, computer scientists, and computer engineers are being constituted at Nigerian universities and research institutes. In this article, we present an overview of bioinformatics education and research in Nigeria. We also discuss professional societies and academic and research institutions that play central roles in advancing the discipline in Nigeria. Finally, we propose strategies that can bolster bioinformatics education and support from policy makers in Nigeria, with potential positive implications for other developing countries.

  9. Law and University Administration in Nigeria.

    Ojo, J. D.

    This book examines the legal issues and problems surrounding the administration of higher education in Nigeria. It focuses on the need for each university to have a legal unit to handle the legal problems of staff, students, and those in the neighboring community. Further, it addresses the problems currently found within the academic community…

  10. Civil Society and Democratic Governance in Nigeria

    Ibitoye, M. O.


    Full Text Available It is quite intriguing that fifty-two years after Nigeria attained her nominal independence from her colonial masters and twelve years into her democratic dispensation following a protracted and most challenging struggle against a rapacious military hegemony, the dividends of good governance have largely eluded the majority who wallow in abject poverty in the midst of abundant resources. Thus, the current democratic experiment appears to be fraught with similar imperfections that plagued the past democratic attempts thereby making transformation a myth rather than reality in Nigeria. The dire need to institutionalize the culture of good governance in Nigeria so as to improve the quality of life of the Nigerian people informs the position of this study. Hence, civil society has been adopted as a veritable tool for achieving good governance. This paper, therefore, attempts to carry out a thorough exposition of civil society organization vis- a- vis its transformatory role as an arbiter to redeem the Nigeria society from imminent total collapse as the country is yet to arrive at the ultimate destination of democracy as the government of the people, duly elected by the people, in the service of the people.

  11. Nigeria : Strengthening Monetary and Liquidity Management

    International Monetary Fund; World Bank


    The 2002 Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) identified considerable problems in containing the upsurge in liquidity in the financial system, partly caused by spending of oil receipts. In the face of persistent excess liquidity in the financial system, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) made numerous adjustments in the monetary policy framework and instruments; however, these had a l...

  12. Revenue Allocation and Economic Development in Nigeria

    Dagwom Yohanna Dang


    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the impact of revenue allocation on economic development in Nigeria. Specifically, the study looks at how the various revenue allocations to the three tiers of government affect real gross domestic product (RGDP in Nigeria using time series data for the period 1993 to 2012. Error correction model (ECM and Pairwise Granger Causality test are used in analyzing the data. The study carries out test of stationarity of the variables using Augmented Dickey–Fuller unit root test and test of long-run relationship among the variables using Johansen Cointegration test. The study’s findings show that revenue allocations have significant causal relationship with economic development in Nigeria, with only revenue allocation to states having significant negative relationship. Unidirectional causality runs from revenue allocations to real GDP in Nigeria. All variables of the study are cointegrated and have a long-run relationship that 87.62% of the short-run disequilibrium is corrected yearly. The study recommends among others that more financial control and value for money audit should be carried out to minimize wastages and corruption in the states of the federation, so as to change the direction of influence of states’ revenue allocation on economic development.

  13. Gender Inequality in Academia: Evidences from Nigeria

    Ogbogu, Christiana O.


    Universities and other institutions of higher education in Nigeria see themselves as liberal and open-minded. They support social movements that encourage principles of democracy and social justice, yet their mode of governance is male dominated and patriarchal. This study, therefore, identified the causes of gender inequality in academia and the…


    Ike Odimegwu

    However, this educational policy has now been jettisoned from the school curriculum. The nation has drifted from rules and practices meant to make Nigeria .... of more inclusive institutions which reflect the needs and concerns of all citizens. ..... 3 S. Wong, “Multiculturalism in Malaysia and Singapore” in Helium, 8. Oct. 2006 ...

  15. The State and Empowerment Policies in Nigeria

    Emmanuel Joseph Chukuma Duru


    Full Text Available Since independence in 1960, successive governments in Nigeria have come up with various poverty alleviation strategies aimed at empowering Nigerians in rural and urban areas. Several of these programmes not withstanding, poverty in Nigeria remains an issue of great concern as over 75 per cent of the citizens live below poverty line.This paper seeks to examine the constructions of empowerment in Nigeria's poverty alleviation programmes with particular focus on the Obasanjo regime's Poverty Alleviation Programme (PAP. Methodologically, the paper utilizes predominantly secondary sources of data given its nature. And our findings reveal that poverty subsists in Nigeria despite all counter measures because the programmes and empowerment strategies so far adopted have remained remedial, and have fundamentally failed to address basic issues like enhancing the productive base of the society and youth empowerment. Thus, the paper concludes that poverty alleviation programmes can only make meaning when they seek a radical transformation of the society through qualitative and mass education both in rural and urban centres among other things.

  16. The Forest Products Industry in Nigeria

    First Lady

    are the saw mill, wood based panel, furniture, safety match and the wood treatment industries. .... The wood treatment plants in Nigeria should by now be .... While the need for preservative treatment of wood is becoming germane locally as a ...

  17. Refugee Education: The State of Nigeria's Preparedness

    Obashoro-John, Oluwayemisi A.; Oni, Gbolabo J.


    The spate of insurgences and conflicts in the country and around the sub-region has led to the increased presence of refugees and Internally Displaced People (IDPs) in Nigeria. This has resultant challenges on the basic needs of refugees and IDPs at different levels. One of the highest priorities of refugees and IDPs communities is education.…

  18. Sustainable wood waste management in Nigeria

    Owoyemi Jacob Mayowa


    Full Text Available Wood industries produce large volumes of residues which must be utilized, marketed or properly disposed of. Heaps of wood residues are common features in wood industries throughout the year. In Nigeria, this residue is generally regarded as waste and this has led to open burning practices, dumping in water bodies or dumping in an open area which constitutes environmental pollution. Sawmills in Nigeria generated over 1,000,000 m3 of wood waste in 2010 while about 5000 m3 of waste was generated in plywood mills. Nigeria generates about 1.8 million tons of sawdust annually and 5.2 million tons of wood wastes. The impact of improper disposal of waste wood on the environment affects both the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Also burning of waste wood releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere causing various health issues. Reuse/recycling of these wood residues in Nigeria will reduce the pressure on our ever decreasing forests, reduce environmental pollution, create wealth and employment. The literature available on this subject was reviewed and this article, therefore, focuses on the various methods of wood waste disposal and its utilization in Nigerian wood industries, the effects of wood waste on the environment as well as on human health and the benefits of proper wood waste management practices.

  19. Obesity in Pregnancy in Southeast Nigeria



    Dec 22, 2011 ... Nigeria and the factors responsible for the deaths. Methods: This was a ... Death of a baby. (including still ... at the hospitals during labour, multiple pregnancies and low birth .... status. Only 29.4% of the pregnant mothers were.

  20. Promoting environmental protection in Nigeria through ...

    Promoting environmental protection in Nigeria through environmental education: the role of women. ... face serious environmental challenges on several fronts including poverty, ... activities and through raising public awareness of the environment. ... inadequate trained personnel, lack of government commitment to funding, ...

  1. Monetary Policy and Nigeria's Economic Development | Akujuobi ...

    Monetary Policy and Nigeria's Economic Development. ... Itwas found that cash reserve ratio was significant in impacting on ... bill at 5.6%, minimum rediscount rate at 7.4% and liquidity rate at7.7%, while interest rate was not significant at all.

  2. Nigeria Secondary School Science Teachers‟ Awareness and ...

    First Lady

    Items 41 - 50 ... science teachers for the challenges of Vision 20: 2020 in South West,. Nigeria. Using a ... was observed in the level of preparation between rural and urban but there ... It is now evident that capital is a result and product of the development process rather .... community, generation and location to another. That is ...

  3. The English Language of the Nigeria Police

    Chinwe, Udo Victoria


    In the present day Nigeria, the quality of the English language spoken by Nigerians, is perceived to have been deteriorating and needs urgent attention. The proliferation of books and articles in the recent years can be seen as the native outcrop of its received attention and recognition as a matter of discourse. Evidently, every profession,…

  4. Malaria treatment services in Nigeria: A review

    Benjamin SC Uzochukwu


    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major Public Health problem in Nigeria and causes death and illness in children and adults, especially pregnant women. Malaria case management remains a vital component of the malaria control strategies. This entails early diagnosis and prompt treatment with effective antimalarial medicines. The objectives of this review is to enable health professionals to understand the magnitude of malaria treatment services in Nigeria, to improve knowledge for rational malaria management within different health system contexts with a view to improving access to malaria treatment. The review therefore looks at the following areas: clinical disease and epidemiology; the burden of malaria in Nigeria; objectives of treatment; antimalarial treatment policy; malaria diagnosis, treatment strategies/ National responses; treatment sources. The review concludes that for improved malaria treatment services in Nigeria, there is an urgent need to develop adequate strategies that will ensure better access to medicines by getting evidence-based and effective medicines to the people who need them, whether by reducing their costs, promoting equity in access, improving their distribution, increasing their efficacy and acceptability, or slowing down the development of antimicrobial resistance.

  5. chemistry syllabus of the nigeria science curriculum

    Preferred Customer

    confusing language, ideas too demanding, insufficient explanation and ... For example, the Science Teachers Association of Nigeria ... in the four local government areas used for the study using the random sampling technique. .... local examples and teaching aids to illustrate principles and concepts, especially in practical.

  6. Rethinking Public Administration Professionalism in Nigeria

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    enhancing professionalism of public administration in Nigeria and elsewhere. Key words: .... engagement in any arbitrary act which is prejudicial to the rights of any person. • membership of any society ..... the Country's infrastructures such as in the health, education, transport and other social services .... Community Service.


    Nigeria which have different patterns of daily life, customs .... water and is often stored in recycled beverage bottles used also for storage of water and placing it within the reach ... compounds such as drugs, caustic soda and traditional mixtures ...

  8. Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics

    Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics (NJPAP) is a journal dedicated to the ... Variations of surface temparature with solar activity at two stations in the tropics ... Activation energy of psuedobinary alloy of Al-Bi-Se mixed systems · EMAIL ...

  9. (ED) by men in Edo state, Nigeria

    E. (Eshiobo) Irekpita


    May 3, 2017 ... b Dept. of Surgery, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria c Dept. of ... good evidence of a cause–effect relationship. Hypertension, dia- ..... women with breast cancer documented that cultural beliefs, tra- ditional medicine .... Because of the sensitive nature of the topic in the African setting,.

  10. Education and Political Restructure in Nigeria

    Ayeni, Matthew Adedeji; Adeleye, Joseph Olusola


    To say that education is a potent factor in any political restructuring is an indisputable fact. For a meaningful political development to take place in any nation, especially like Nigeria. The place of education is never in doubt to influence positively those in the position of authority to ascertain what are needed to put in place for effective…

  11. Children with Diarrhoea in Lagos, Nigeria

    the aetiology of diarrhoea] illness in Nigerian children. [Afr. J. Health Sci. 2002; 9: ... diarrhoeal disease in young children in Lagos,. Nigeria we .... day and a higher rate of admission (Table 2). Using a logistic .... Schoub BD. Genome variants ...

  12. Family Quality of Life in Nigeria

    Ajuwon, P. M.; Brown, I.


    Background: The limited literature that exists about intellectual disabilities (ID) in Nigeria suggests that perceptions of ID may be shaped by social and cultural beliefs, and that socio-economic factors have prevented the development of policy and services. The present study sought to explore these suggestions in more detail by administering the…

  13. Counseling View of Abortion in Nigeria

    Ogwokhademhe, M. C.; Sowho, Paulina O.


    Guidance and counseling are twin words that help people adjust to their psychological, emotional, social and psychosocial problems which tend to occur in human life. Abortion, which is a prevalent problem in Nigeria mostly among the teenage girls, has drawn the attentions of the counselors, teachers, guardians, administrators, researchers and the…


    relatively reduced resistance to diseases in the body, which portentous food ... sources per capital per day in Nigeria is averaged of 10% of the total protein ... of this committee was not made public to users thus its proper evaluation and adequacy ... grant loan to fanners because of the high risk and uncertainty involved.

  15. Access to Information in Rural Nigeria.

    Aboyade, B. Olabimpe


    This paper focuses on intensified information transfer activities in rural areas of Nigeria: community development work, agricultural extension service, mass media (newspapers, television, radio, problems of communication), and the role of the library (reinforcing messages, repackaging information, acquiring specialized materials, coordinating…


    'Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria. “Dept. ofPhysics ... of 'its strategic location and possible tectonic relation to ... 8018' E and 80 55' E covering a total land mass of ... petroleum. Theory of methods used.

  17. Computational biology and bioinformatics in Nigeria.

    Segun A Fatumo


    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, major advances in the field of molecular biology, coupled with advances in genomic technologies, have led to an explosive growth in the biological data generated by the scientific community. The critical need to process and analyze such a deluge of data and turn it into useful knowledge has caused bioinformatics to gain prominence and importance. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research area that applies techniques, methodologies, and tools in computer and information science to solve biological problems. In Nigeria, bioinformatics has recently played a vital role in the advancement of biological sciences. As a developing country, the importance of bioinformatics is rapidly gaining acceptance, and bioinformatics groups comprised of biologists, computer scientists, and computer engineers are being constituted at Nigerian universities and research institutes. In this article, we present an overview of bioinformatics education and research in Nigeria. We also discuss professional societies and academic and research institutions that play central roles in advancing the discipline in Nigeria. Finally, we propose strategies that can bolster bioinformatics education and support from policy makers in Nigeria, with potential positive implications for other developing countries.

  18. 585 Idealogy and Economic Development in Nigeria



    Oct 17, 2010 ... economy in Nigeria but they have also enshrined it in the 1999 constitution. Ideology or no ideology, .... It now remains for us to see how the ... acknowledge that 'the manufacturing industry is currently dominate by assembly ...

  19. Trust in Government: A Note from Nigeria

    Iroghama Paul Iroghama


    Full Text Available The relationship between trust in government and factors that accounts for Nigerians citizen trust in their government has been of interest due a dearth of literature on such issue. This study is an attempt to bridge the gap from a public policy perspective. One of the measures usually used in the literature to measure trust or distrust in government is perception of corruption, but there are other yardsticks with which to measure determinant of trust in government, such as economic performance or political participation. This study used a micro-level analysis of public opinion survey data (question by question to ascertain empirical linkages of political trust within Nigeria. To this end, Afrobarometer survey Round Four conducted in 2008 was used for the analyses. Descriptive statistics provide background information on the sample, while multivariate logistic regression using SPSS were used to model the citizens’ trust for government in Nigeria. This study revealed that political trust or trust in governments in Nigeria stems from a number of factors. These are economy performance, media, interest in public affairs, religious membership, political participation, interpersonal trust, lack of basic needs, and management of corruption. Furthermore, the variables that influence trust in government the most are interpersonal trust and government management of corruption issue. Those that reported interpersonal trust also reported that they have trust for the government. While those that believe the governments are fighting or managing corruption nicely have a tendency to trust in the government. Although this study does not claim to provide all the answer on political trust or trust in governments in Nigeria, its attempt is to bridge gap in the literature on the topic and to assist future research in the area, as nothing exist on the topic as the moment. It is hope the subject will forms a basis upon which further analytical work on political


    Money, Udih


    This paper is an opinion one that examined the significant role of entrepreneurship enlightenment in the creation and development of job in Nigeria. Entrepreneurship enlightenment that is continuous and reaching the citizens will help in the creation and development of job. It is viewed that entrepreneurship enlightenment is a giant stride towards creation and development of job in Nigeria. This paper also touches the challenges facing entrepreneurship development and job creation in Nigeria....

  1. An Overview of Female Genital Mutilation in Nigeria

    Okeke, TC; Anyaehie, USB; Ezenyeaku, CCK


    Nigeria, due to its large population, has the highest absolute number of female genital mutilation (FGM) worldwide, accounting for about one-quarter of the estimated 115–130 million circumcised women in the world. The objective of this review is to ascertain the current status of FGM in Nigeria. Pertinent literature on FGM retrieved from internet services [Google search on FGM in Nigeria, Nigeria, PubMed of the national library of medicine www.medconsumer. Info/tropics/fgm.htm, Bio...

  2. Citizenship Education as a Panacea for Political Stability in Nigeria

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Key Words: citizenship education, political stability, governance. Introduction ... the civil rule in Nigeria include armed robbering, assassination, bribery and corruption, appointing .... such as corporate governance, international governance.

  3. Predictors of maternal mortality in institutional deliveries in Nigeria


    7. Hospital Services Management Board, Katsina, Nigeria. 8. Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, ... Key words: maternal mortality; maternal death; predictors .... instrumental delivery, symphysiotomy, or assisted ..... For this reason,.

  4. Ethics of clinical trials in Nigeria

    Patrick I Okonta


    Full Text Available The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria.

  5. Ethics of clinical trials in Nigeria.

    Okonta, Patrick I


    The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria.

  6. Child sexual abuse in Zaria, North

    Prof Ezechukwu


    Feb 7, 2012 ... ries as a result of physical force such as multiple bruises ... there is little or no attention to child protection training .... family influence. ... According to an analysis by Grossin et al,5 in Paris, vic- ... Body trauma may also be noticeable in older children who offer resistance.5 However; our study only found.

  7. Zaria Universal Oxygenator Holder phase I

    Sunday Adoga Edaigbini


    Full Text Available Introduction: The conduct of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery requires the use of equipment and devices like the oxygenator. The oxygenator comes in different makes and each manufacturer customizes the carrier or ′holder′ of this device specific to their design. Aim: This paper presents an innovation designed to overcome the need to purchase a different holder for every oxygenator thereby cutting the cost. Materials and Methods: A sheet of iron measuring 1.9 cm (width × 0.1 cm (thickness was used to design the holder circular main frame. Another sheet measuring 2 cm (width × 0.6 cm (thickness × 24 cm (length was used to construct a V-shaped handle with the arms of the V attached to the main frame 7 cm apart. At the narrow base of the handle is a latch requiring two 13-gauge screws to attach the holder to the heart-lung machine. Within the circumference of the main frame are four T-shaped side arms which grip the oxygenator; located at 2, 5, 7 and 11 O′clock positions. The stem of the T consist of a 0.6 cm (thickness × 13 cm (length rod drilled through the main frame. The cross of the T consists of variable lengths of the same sheet as the mainframe attached to the stem by a screw mechanism. At the base of the T, is attached a circular handle (4 cm in diameter made of 0.4 cm iron rod. Result: An oxygenator holder which weighs 1.75 kg with a total length of 54 cm (the diameter of the mainframe is 30 cm. Its advantages include (i affordability, (ii materials are locally accessible, (iii versatility (iv reproducibility. The disadvantages include, (i it requires some time to fit, (ii caution is required in fitting the oxygenator to avoid breakage, (iii a spanner is required to lock the latch. Conclusion: The concept of a universal holder is pertinent, especially in resource poor environments to avoid purchasing a new holder whenever the usual oxygenator common to the centre is unavailable. This device is amenable to further modifications to meet the unforeseen challenges.

  8. Introducing School Children in Nigeria to SPACE Technology As a Tool for Mitigation of National Catastrophes

    Alabi, O.


    The zonal workshops organized by the space education outreach unit of the African Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education utilized recent catastrophic events in Nigeria to attract pre-collegiate youths to space science and technology (SST). About 200 school children, aged between 10 and 18 years participated in the program which was coordinated at 2 different geopolitical zones in Nigeria in 2014. The 2-day event was packed with a lot of fun-filled, hands-on educational activities demonstrating the use of outer space to address prevailing socio-economic problems in the nation. The students were introduced to the Nigerian Earth Observation Satellites, and learned why these satellites cannot be used to track the school girls kidnapped by the terrorist group in the northern part of the country. They were also introduced to other types of satellites and participated in activities on the applications of TRMM satellite data to monitor flood events in Nigeria. The Global Positioning System (GPS) technology was introduced as a navigational tool to curb criminal activities in the country and participants used the hand-held GPS unit for geocaching. The program culminated in the launching of space clubs in all the participating schools and a teacher from each school received resource materials on DVD to nurture the space club. To assess the impact of the workshop on the knowledge level of the participants in space science, quiz competitions were administered and the average score of the students was above 70%. The enthusiasm displayed by the students, coupled with the brilliant performance in the evaluation tests, indicated that this method of informal education, that linked science to the alleviation of national disasters is viable, not only for stimulating the interest of Nigerian pre-collegiate youths in SST, but also to inspire the young learners and develop their interest in the Sciences, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM).

  9. Comparing and Contrasting Three Cultural Food Customs from Nigeria and Analyzing the Nutrient Content of Diets from These Cultures with the Aim of Proffering Nutritional Intervention.

    Adegboye, Omoyemi Roseline; Smith, Chris; Anang, Daniel; Musa, Haruna


    Nigeria is a multicultural country with a diverse cultural food. Most Nigerians' cultural diet is based on staple food accompanied by stew. In the South West and Eastern region (where Yorubas and Igbos are the dominant ethnic groups), staple foods are yam and cassava by-product (garri, fufu and lafun) with vegetables prepared as stew, often over cooked, thereby losing essential micronutrients. In Northern Nigeria (where the Hausas and Fulanis are the dominant ethnic groups), grains such as sorghum, millet form the main diet; these are served with palm oil based soup made with tomatoes and okra. Meat is sometimes added. Among the Hausas, meat is usually reserved for special occasions. Various types of malnutrition prevalent in developing countries such as Nigeria are iron deficiency anemia (ID/A), protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), Vitamin A deficiency (VAD), iodine deficiency disorder (IDD). The proposed long-term measure by the Federal government of Nigeria for the resolution of these various types of malnutrition is dietary diversification. A review of the literature on Nigerian cultural diets identified gaps in knowledge with respect to the nutritional values of Nigerian ethnic diets.

  10. Dermatologic conditions in teenage adolescents in Nigeria

    Henshaw EB


    Full Text Available Eshan B Henshaw,1 Olayinka A Olasode,2 Evelyn E Ogedegbe,3 Imaobong Etuk4 1Dermatology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, 2Department of Dermatology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, 3Cedarcrest Hospital, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory, 4Department of Pediatrics, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria Background: Skin disorders are common in adolescents, and the impact on quality of life can be enormous, particularly when viewed against the backdrop of the visibility of skin diseases and the psychologically vulnerable period of adolescence. However, few studies have documented the magnitude of skin disorders in this subset of individuals. We therefore estimated the point prevalence and pattern of dermatologic conditions in adolescents attending various secondary schools in Calabar, Southern Nigeria. Methods: Using a structured questionnaire, relevant sociodemographic information was obtained from 1,447 teenage adolescents from eight secondary schools. Thereafter, a whole body examination was conducted to determine the presence and types of skin disorders seen. Results: Skin diseases were seen in 929 students. The point prevalence was higher in males (72.1% than in females (58.3%. Private schools had a higher prevalence than public schools. The six most common dermatoses were acne vulgaris, pityriasis versicolor, nevi, tinea, miliaria, and keloid/hypertrophic scars, and accounted for over 80% of the dermatoses seen. Conclusion: The point prevalence of dermatoses in senior secondary school adolescents was 64.2%. Although a large number of skin disorders were observed, only a handful accounted for a significant proportion of the diseases seen. This increases the ease of training community health workers in the recognition and treatment of common skin diseases. Age, race, and climatic factors are important determinants of skin diseases in adolescents in

  11. Aspects of Aquatic Pollution in Nigeria

    A.T. Ekubo; J.F.N. Abowei


    Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. Yet aquatic resources consists of extremely wide range of floral and fauna resources which offer a broad array of goods with potential utilitarian application in agriculture, innovative industry and the pharmaceutical industry which renders valuable benefits and services. The slow poisoning of the waters is witnessed in Nigeria and the destruction of vegetation and agricultural land by oil spills which occur during petroleum operations...

  12. Aspects of Aquatic Pollution in Nigeria

    A.T. Ekubo; J.F.N. Abowei


    Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. Yet aquatic resources consists of extremely wide range of floral and fauna resources which offer a broad array of goods with potential utilitarian application in agriculture, innovative industry and the pharmaceutical industry which renders valuable benefits and services. The slow poisoning of the waters is witnessed in Nigeria and the destruction of vegetation and agricultural land by oil spills which occur during petroleum operations...


    Abdulrahim A.T; Diso I.S; EL-Jummah A. M


    The use of concentrators in the forms of solar energy collectors in order to concentrate sunrays for better usage is on the increase worldwide. To this effect, different types of solar concentrators have being developed over the years for various applications. The present study reviewed the various solar concentrators developed in Nigeria such as the parabolic fresnel concentrator, paraboloid solar cooker, parabolic trough collector, conical concentrator, compound parabolic solar concentrator...

  14. Factors Associated with Research Wrongdoing in Nigeria

    Adeleye, Omokhoa A.; Adebamowo, Clement A


    Concerns about research wrongdoing in biomedical research are growing in developing countries, where research ethics training and research regulatory systems are just emerging. In a first-time study in Africa, medical/dental researchers (N = 132) in two states in Nigeria were interviewed on a wide range of research wrongdoings and potential predictors. Using multivariate logistic regression, significant predictors of research wrongdoing were identified. Some 22.0% admitted to at least one of ...

  15. Factors which predict violence victimization in Nigeria

    Lincoln J Fry


    Full Text Available Background: Violence is a major public health issue, globally as well as in the African continent. This paper looks at Nigeria and begins the process of identifying the factors that predict interpersonal violence in that country. The purpose is to interpret the implications of the results presented here for violence prevention programmes in Nigeria. Materials and Methods : The study is based on the responses of 2324 Nigerians included in Round Four of the Afrobarometer surveys. The study concentrates on 579 respondents who reported either they or someone else in their family had been the victim of violence, defined as being physically attacked, in the past year. Results: A logistical regression analysis revealed five significant factors that predicted interpersonal violence: being the victim of a property crime, the fear of crime, the respondents faith, whethera police station was in the local area and poverty. The findings revealed that 43.7% of the sample had been victimised within the past year and 18.8% had been the victim of both violent and property crimes. One surprising findingwas the number of respondents who were re-victimised; 75% of violence victims also had been property crime victims. Conclusions: These findings suggest that target hardening should be the basis to plan, implement and evaluate violence prevention programmes in Nigeria. Prevention personnel and/or law enforcement need to respond to reported incidents of property and/or violence victimisation and attempt to prepare victims to protect both their premises and their persons in the future.

  16. The Ministry of Christ Embassy, Lagos. Nigeria

    T.A. Falaye


    Full Text Available The ministry of Christ Embassy is one of the fastest growing indigenous churches in Nigeria. The Church is quite attractive to the youths and has grown in bounds all over the country, especially in the Southern part of Nigeria. On the strength of its wide spread coverage, and the age group that the church attracts, the writer is of the opinion that highlighting her activities would be of benefit to church historians and others in church ministry. The writer employed both historical and sociological methodology in his article. It is recommended that the founder of the church should make attempt to translate his sermons and other materials to main languages in Nigeria. The advantage is that the church would be able to reach out to several others. In addition, there is the need for openness especially in the area of financial management in the church. The financial aspect is said to be locked-in between the leadership. It is noted by the writer that such transparency would build greater confidence in others who may desire to join the church in future.

  17. Pond Fish Culture Practices in Nigeria

    J.A. Akankali


    Full Text Available Pond fish culture practices in Nigeria was reviewed to refresh the minds of fish and other interested stake holders on some basic principles involved in pond fish culture. Fish pond system is the commonest agricultural techniques in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Profit making, job creation, provision of raw materials for several industries and increase in foreign exchange earnings are some benefits. However, loss of land and introduction some water borne diseases are some disadvantages in pond fish culture. This articles reviews the fish pond management processes, stocking of ponds, feeding of fish, types of culture, fish farming combined with other branches of agriculture, rearing of fish for purposes other than food, other fish culture, types of fish used for fish culture in central east Africa, general biology of the species of value in fish culture and suitable combinations of fish for stocking to reawaken the minds of individuals, companies and government on the need to develop pond fish culture in Nigeria.




    Full Text Available Most of the road networks in the developing countries of Africa are in deplorable conditions. Nigeria being one of these countries is not an exception. The conditions of the roads in Nigeria were examined. The causes of these conditions of the roads in Nigeria were articulated and their effects to the citizen, government and theeconomy of the country were highlighted and solutions to these problems given in the form of recommendations that will remedy the situation. Some of the identified causes were; poor design and construction, poor maintenance of already built highways, use of low quality materials in construction, poor workmanship and poorsupervision of construction work and the plying of heavy traffic that were not meant for the road on the road. Some of the recommendations to remedy the situation are; Use of the appropriate design of the roads, avoiding unnecessary congestion of the roads with traffic especially heavy traffics that were not meant for the roads inthe first place, prompt maintenance of the roads, application of suitable construction material in the construction of the roads, applying appropriate tests to the soil in road construction, use of qualified engineering personnel in road construction and the application of sanctions for highway failures.

  19. The 'beyond parental control' label in Nigeria.

    Atilola, Olayinka; Omigbodun, Olayinka; Bella-Awusah, Tolulope


    Recent reports in Nigeria indicate a geometric rise in incarcerated adolescents, with an overwhelming majority of this increase being attributed to adolescents being declared 'beyond parental control'. There is a nagging suspicion that the Nigerian juvenile justice system has over criminalised adolescents by declaring them 'beyond control' when behavioural problems have actually resulted from child abuse/neglect and family disruption. A study was undertaken in a juvenile justice institution in Nigeria to assess the adequacy of pre-incarceration parental care among adolescents that had been declared as 'beyond parental control'. The study included 75 adolescent boys that had been declared as 'beyond parental control' and a comparison group of 144 matched school going boys. It examined self-reports received from the adolescent boys regarding their pre-incarceration family life and social circumstances, as well as the behavioural problems they had experienced. The findings indicate that adolescent boys who were declared as 'beyond parental control' had a significantly higher lifetime history of behavioural problems than the comparison group, and they also had significantly higher indicators of pre-incarceration child abuse/neglect and problems with stability and consistency of primary support. These findings pose questions regarding the presumption of adequate parental care prior to the declaration of 'beyond parental control'. It also raises questions about child rights protection and juvenile justice reform in Nigeria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Capital Market and Unemployment in Nigeria

    Bamidele M. Ilo


    Full Text Available This paper examines how the Nigerian capital market affects unemployment in Nigeria with a view to identifying how the market has been able to curtail unemployment over the years or otherwise. It employes annual series data from 1986 to 2012 on unemployment, market capitalization and other data obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria, Statistical Bulletin. The study adopts the Johansson cointegration vector error correction technique for data analysis. The result shows that unemployment has risen unabatedly since the adoption of Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP with an average unemployment rate of 8.12 per cent for the period while market capitalization relative to the size the economy is 14.42 per cent. The analysis also shows that while, economic growth significantly curtails unemployment capital market development fails to limit unemployment. The stock market thus has grown over the years at the expense job creation in Nigeria. It is expected that efforts are geared towards efficient capital market development to enhance mobilization of funds for long term investments by firms and propel job creation along the value chain. The government should also focus on developing those labour intensive sectors of the economy while pursuing its economic growth policy.

  1. Glazed Tiles as Floor Finish in Nigeria

    Toyin Emmanuel AKINDE


    Full Text Available Tile is no doubt rich in antiquity; its primordial  show, came as mosaic with primary prospect in sacred floor finish before its oblivion, courtesy of, later consciousness towards wall finish in banquets, kitchens, toilets, restaurants and even bars. Today, its renaissance as floor finish is apparent in private and public architectural structures with prevalence in residential, recreational, commercial, governmental and other spaces. In Nigeria, the use of glazed tiles as floor finish became apparent, supposedly in mid-twentieth century; and has since, witnessed ever increasing demands from all sundry; a development that is nascent and has necessitated its mass  production locally with pockets of firms in the country. The latter however, is a resultant response to taste cum glazed tiles affordability, whose divergent sophistication in design, colour, size and shape is believed preferred to terrazzo, carpet and floor flex tile. Accessible as glazed tile and production is, in recent times; its dearth of a holistic literature in Nigeria is obvious. In the light of the latter, this paper examine glazed tiles as floor finish in Nigeria, its advent, usage, production, challenge, benefit and prospect with the hope of opening further frontier in discipline specifics.

  2. Impact of Sex Education in Kogi State, Nigeria

    Sule, H. A.; Akor, J. A.; Toluhi, O. J.; Suleiman, R. O.; Akpihi, L.; Ali, O. U.


    The focus of this study was to investigate the impact of family sex education in secondary schools on students in Kogi State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. A total of 1,960 secondary school students were drawn by stratified random sampling from 40 schools within Kogi State, Nigeria. Three research questions were…

  3. Health Literacy and the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria

    Evawoma-Enuku, Usiwoma; Oyitso, Mabel; Enuku, Christie Akpoigho


    In this paper, the authors examined health related challenges facing Nigeria. They argued that the relationship between literacy and health in today's knowledge-based economy further puts pressure on countries like Nigeria to raise its literacy rates if it is to compete in the global market. This line of thought is based on the fact that in…


    Prof Alex C Asigbo

    In practice, many members of the Nigeria. Police are ... Key words: image, Night Duty, Nigeria police, drama ... Many African communities and/or countries have a number ... same vein, Nwabueze (2011), names the creative writer the referee ... that were 'acted' in front of audiences in a theatron (Australian .... T-o-o m-u-c-h.

  5. The Western Pennsylvania Educators Inter-Cultural Experience in Nigeria.

    Vold, Larry A.; Vold, Edwina

    The project selected 16 educators representing liberal arts faculty, education faculty, and public school teachers to train them about Africa. The training had three phases: (1) an on-campus program on African history, politics, economics, and geography, focusing on Nigeria; (2) six weeks in Nigeria, meeting with prominent educators, politicians,…

  6. Current molecular epidemiology of Lassa virus in Nigeria.

    Ehichioya, Deborah U; Hass, Meike; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Ehimuan, Jacqueline; Asogun, Danny A; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Kleinsteuber, Katja; Lelke, Michaela; ter Meulen, Jan; Akpede, George O; Omilabu, Sunday A; Günther, Stephan; Olschläger, Stephan


    Recent Lassa virus strains from Nigeria were completely or partially sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the predominance of lineage II and III strains, the existence of a previously undescribed (sub)lineage in Nigeria, and the directional spread of virus in the southern part of the country. The Bayesian analysis also provided estimates for divergence times within the Lassa virus clade.

  7. NELA: A Community Response to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

    Soyinka, Femi; Ogundare, Dipo; Olowookere, Kemi; Akinsola, Yemisi; Alade, Adeyemi; Moronkola, O. A.


    The greatest current threat to humanity, most especially in the developing countries of the world, is HIV/AIDS. The first case of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria was in 1986 in Lagos. Due to inaction and denial by the people, there was a rapid but subtle transmission of the virus within Nigeria's various populations and communities. Presently, the disease has…

  8. The Impact of Infrastructural Development on Nigeria's Industrial ...

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    of GDP) was used as an indicator of Nigeria's industrial sector performance, while index of electricity ... World Bank (1994) defines infrastructure to be an umbrella ... at different strata of industrial development to properly demystify income and levels of productivity .... The distribution of road infrastructure in Ekiti state, Nigeria.




    Jul 1, 2017 ... National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control ... NAFDAC's choice of MAS as a new strategy in identifying fake and substandard drugs in. Nigeria. .... As a result, cloning of fast moving drugs is so perfect that even .... Some of the factors encouraging counterfeiting of drugs in Nigeria include:.

  10. University Staff's Perception of Deregulation on Higher Education in Nigeria

    Adebayo, Florence Aduke


    The study investigated the university staff's perception on deregulation of higher education in Nigeria. Descriptive research of the survey type was used for the study. The population comprised all the university staff of universities in Ekiti and Ondo states, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 700 academic and…

  11. The Use of Adolescents as Domestic Servants in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Okafor, Emeka Emmanuel


    The use of adolescents as domestic servants has become prevalent in most urban centers in Nigeria. This study focused on adolescents who work as domestic househelps in urban centers with special reference to Ibadan, Nigeria. The main objective of the study is to examine their mode of recruitment, the nature of their work as well the impact of such…

  12. Prospects and challenges of apiculture business in Nigeria - a review

    Prospects and challenges of apiculture business in Nigeria - a review. ... in Nigeria, various uses of honey and other bee products, the global demand for bee ... approach and should be promoted by a well organized extension service to act as ...

  13. Providing safe medicines for children in Nigeria: The impediments ...

    harms children had suffered in Nigeria from the use of medicines, there is a ... of a pediatric national drug formulary for health professionals in Nigeria, creating a .... Formulary (BNF) and National Standard Treatment ..... network would seamlessly coordinate research ..... infobrief%206-web.pdf [last accessed on 2009 Aug].

  14. Employablity Skills among Graduates of Estate Management in Nigeria

    Egbenta, Idu Robert


    There is wide claim that employers have a high level of dissatisfaction associated with graduates from Nigeria higher institutions of learning. This paper examines whether graduates of estate management in Nigeria higher institutions have employability skills for productive employment. The study randomly sampled 59 principal partners or heads of…

  15. 75 FR 56509 - Multi-Sector Trade Mission to Nigeria

    2010-09-16 --and other Internet Web sites, press releases to general and trade media... International Trade Administration Multi-Sector Trade Mission to Nigeria AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Statement: Multi-Sector Trade Mission to Nigeria...

  16. Skilled Birth Attendance in Nigeria: A Function of Frequency and ...

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Keywords: Antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, pregnancy, Nigeria. Résumé. Le taux .... Islam, or other/no religion); residence (urban vs. rural); region of .... South East. 9.7. 17.6. 2.2 ..... in Nigeria. Although there is evidence that male.

  17. Mathematical solutions for Hepatitis B virus infection in Nigeria ...

    Mathematical solutions for Hepatitis B virus infection in Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... transmission dynamics and control of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Nigeria using mathematical ... Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland ...

  18. Validation of Siriraj Stroke Score in southeast Nigeria

    Chukwuonye II


    Full Text Available Innocent Ijezie Chukwuonye,1 Kenneth Arinze Ohagwu,2 Enoch Ogbonnaya Uche,3,4 Abali Chuku,5 Rowland Ihezuo Nwanke,2 Christopher Chukwuemeka Ohagwu,6 Ignatius U Ezeani,7 Collins Ogbonna Nwabuko,8 Martin Anazodo Nnoli,9 Efosa Oviasu,4,10 Okechukwu Samuel Ogah4,11 1Division of Nephrology, 2Division of Neurology, Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria; 3Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria; 4Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria; 6Department of Radiography, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria; 7Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria; 8Department of Hematology, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria; 9Department of Anatomical Pathology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria; 10Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria; 11Division of Cardiology, University College Hospital Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Abstract: The aim of the study is to validate the use of Siriraj Stroke Score (SSS in the diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic and acute ischemic stroke in southeast Nigeria. This was a prospective study on validity of SSS in the diagnosis of stroke types in southeast Nigeria. Subjects diagnosed with stroke for whom brain computerized tomography (CT scan was performed on admission were recruited during the study period. SSS was calculated for each subject, and the SSS diagnosis was compared with brain CT scan-based diagnosis. A total of 2,307 patients were admitted in the hospital medical wards during the study period, of whom 360 (15.6% were stroke patients and of these, 113 (31.4% adult subjects met the inclusion criteria. The mean age of the subjects was 66.5±2.6 years. The mean interval between ictus and presentation was 2

  19. Folklore linked to pregnancy and birth in Nigeria.

    Okafor, C B


    As a part of a safe motherhood project implemented in eastern Nigeria between 1992 and 1996, in-house interviews were conducted with rural women and traditional birth attendants in the seven states of eastern Nigeria. The overall project was designed to contribute toward the reduction of maternal mortality and morbidity through the involvement of community leaders and women's organizations in women's health activities in rural Nigeria. It also focused on identifying and addressing some of the underlying cultural factors in maternal mortality and morbidity in Nigeria. Findings from the interview show that women in rural eastern Nigeria still hold many folklore beliefs about pregnancy and childbirth, and some of these beliefs lead to delay in the referral of complications to hospitals.

  20. Design and Development of Animal Drawn Ground Metered Axle Mechanism Boom Sprayer

    Michael C. Amonye


    Full Text Available A spraying technology was developed for use by rural farmers in Northern Nigeria. The farming systems in these areas are put into consideration and in keeping with appropriate technology initiative. The technology was designed to offer the farmers an equitable sprayer that shall be drawn by animal farm power and that is effective and affordable. The equipment was constructed using the parameters obtained from design and tested at a farmland within the University premises of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, in Nigeria. The equipment consists of a boom with multiple Controlled Droplet Applicator (CDA atomizer nozzles, a gear pump, a chemical tank, and chair for an operator; all attached to a framework bolted to a rear axle. It was observed that the Dynamic Wheel Load assuming even distribution of load was found to be 1575N and a net pull of 820N. The net pull offers convenient task and shall easily swallow energy requirement for spraying uphill terrains.

  1. Analysis of Global Solar Irradiance over Climatic Zones in Nigeria for Solar Energy Applications

    Adekunle Ayodotun Osinowo


    Full Text Available Satellite derived solar irradiance over 25 locations in the 5 climatic zones of Nigeria (tropical rainforest TRF, Guinea savannah GS, Sahel savannah SHS, Sudan savannah SUS, and Mangrove swamp forest MSF was analyzed. To justify its use, the satellite data was tested for goodness of agreement with ground measured solar radiation data using 26-year mean monthly and daily data over 16 locations in the 5 climatic zones. The well-known R2, RMSE, MBE, and MPE statistical tests were used and good agreement was found. The 25 locations were grouped into the 5 climatic zones. Frequency distribution of global solar irradiance was done for each of the climatic zones. This showed that 46.88%, and 40.6% of the number of days (9794 over TRF and MSF, respectively, had irradiation within the range of 15.01–20.01 MJ/m2/day. For the GS, SHS, and SUS, 46.19%, 55.84% and 58.53% of the days had total irradiation within the range of 20.01–25.01 MJ/m2/day, respectively. Generally, in all the climatic zones, coefficients of variation of solar radiation were high and mean values were low in July and August. Contour maps showed that high and low values of global solar irradiance and clearness index were observed in the Northern and Southern locations of Nigeria, respectively.

  2. The role of climate and socioeconomic factors on the spatiotemporal variability of cholera in Nigeria

    Abdussalam, Auwal; Thornes, John; Leckebusch, Gregor


    Nigeria has a number of climate-sensitive infectious diseases; one of the most important of these diseases that remains a threat to public health is cholera. This study investigates the influences of both meteorological and socioeconomic factors on the spatiotemporal variability of cholera in Nigeria. A stepwise multiple regression models are used to estimate the influence of the year-to-year variations of cholera cases and deaths for individual states in the country and as well for three groups of states that are classified based on annual rainfall amount. Specifically, seasonal mean maximum and minimum temperatures and annual rainfall totals were analysed with annual aggregate count of cholera cases and deaths, taking into account of the socioeconomic factors that are potentially enhancing vulnerability such as: absolute poverty, adult literacy, access to pipe borne water and population density. Result reveals that the most important explanatory meteorological and socioeconomic variables in explaining the spatiotemporal variability of the disease are rainfall totals, seasonal mean maximum temperature, absolute poverty, and accessibility to pipe borne water. The influences of socioeconomic factors appeared to be more pronounced in the northern part of the country, and vice-versa in the case of meteorological factors. Also, cross validated models output suggests a strong possibility of disease prediction, which will help authorities to put effective control measures in place which depend on prevention, and or efficient response.

  3. Criminal Law in Nigeria in the Last 53 Years: Trends and Prospects for the Future

    Akeem Olajide Bello


    Full Text Available Objectives: The article is an overview of developments in substantive criminal law in Nigeria in the last 53 years. It examines the sharing of constitutional legislative powers to enact criminal laws between the federal (national government and the state (local governments. The examination of federal laws revealed proactive legislative activity responding to emerging local and international criminal law issues. The main development at the state level is the introduction by States in Northern Nigeria of Sharia Penal Codes and the enactment of the Criminal Law of Lagos State 2011. A common trend is the entrenchment of death penalty as punishment for some crimes. Implications: While federal criminal laws have responded to emerging realties, state criminal laws have generally failed to respond to emerging issues at the state level. Consequently, in most of the southern states criminal laws introduced in 1916 have continued to apply. Value: The paper demonstrates the need for southern States to reform their criminal laws to respond to emerging realties, the federal government to respond to some outstanding criminal law issues and calls for a suspension of death penalty and a revaluation of its continued relevance.

  4. Two Voices from Nigeria: Nigeria through the Literature of Chinua Achebe and Buchi Emecheta.

    Reese, Lyn

    This unit, designed for use in both history and English classes, uses excerpts from novels as a way to view Nigerian culture and history through the eyes of its people. The literature used comes primarily from the work of two of Nigeria's important novelists: Chinua Achebe and Buchi Emecheta. Both offer views from the Igbo culture of southeast…

  5. Reproduction in the one humped camel (Camelus dromedarius in semi arid Nigeria

    M.A. Umaru


    Full Text Available This review examines the one humped camel (Camelus dromedarius a considerable number of the dromedary about 50,000 is found in the semi-arid part of Northern Nigeria. Apart from the wide use of the camel as a draught animal the camel now serve as a source of milk, meat and hide in this region, these notes examines the anatomical basis of reproduction, pregnancy, and its diagnosis, fertility, and the application of modern  techniques in camel reproduction. Different techniques and equipments are now being employed for explicit study of the reproductive processes in the camel. Transrectal ultrasaonographic scanning machine is now being used to study ovulation pattern and timing, video endoscopic hysteroscopy is another technique employed to study various aspects of the camel conceptus. Techniques like oestrous synchronization, super ovulation, semen collection artificial insemination, embryo recovery and transfer are all used in the study of camel.

  6. Trends and characteristics of oral and maxillofacial injuries in Nigeria: a review of the literature

    Ogunlewe Mobolanle


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The etiology of maxillofacial injuries varies from one country to another and even within the same country depending on the prevailing socioeconomic, cultural and environmental factors. Periodic verification of the etiology of maxillofacial injuries helps to recommend ways in which maxillofacial injuries can be averted. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyse the characteristics and trends of maxillofacial injuries in Nigeria based on a systematic review of the literature. Methods A literature search using MEDLINE was conducted for publications on maxillofacial injuries in Nigeria. The relevant references in these publications were manually searched for additional non-Medline articles or abstracts. Forty-two studies met the inclusion criteria and the full-texts of these articles were thoroughly examined. Due to lack of uniformity and consistency in assessment and measurement variables, and treatment modalities in most of the studies, it was impossible to apply the traditional methods of a systematic review. Therefore, a narrative approach was conducted to report the findings of the included studies. Results Although, other causes like assaults, sport injuries, and industrial accidents increased in numbers, throughout the period between 1965 and 2003, road traffic crashes remained the major etiological factor of maxillofacial injuries in all regions, except northeastern region where assault was the major cause. A significant increase in motorcycles related maxillofacial injuries was observed in most urban and suburban centres of the country. Animal attacks were not an unusual cause of maxillofacial injuries in most parts of northern Nigeria. Patients in the age group of 21–30 years were mostly involved. A strong tendency toward an equal male-to-female ratio was observed between earlier and later periods. Conclusion Road traffic crashes remain the major cause of maxillofacial injuries in Nigeria, unlike in most

  7. Petroleum Profit Tax and Economic Growth: Cointegration Evidence from Nigeria

    G.N. Ogbonna


    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of petroleum profit tax on the economic growth of Nigeria. To achieve the objective of this paper, relevant secondary data were collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN and the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS from 1970 to 2010. The secondary data collected from the relevant government agencies in Nigeria were analysed with relevant econometric tests of Breusch-Godfrey Serial Correlation LM, White Heteroskedasticity, Ramsey RESET, Jarque Bera, Johansen Co-integration and Granger Causality. The results show that there exists a long run equilibrium relationship between economic growth and petroleum profit tax. It was also found that petroleum profit tax does granger cause gross domestic product of Nigeria. On the basis of the empirical analysis, the paper concludes that petroleum profit tax is one of the most important direct taxes in Nigeria that affects the economic growth of the country and therefore should be properly managed to reduce the level of evasion by petroleum exploration companies in Nigeria. The paper recommends among others that companies involved in petroleum operations should be properly supervised by the relevant tax authority (FIRS to reduce the level of tax evasion; government should show more accountability in the management of tax revenue and finally, the level of corruption in Nigeria and that of government officials should be drastically reduced to win the confidence of tax payers for voluntary tax compliance.


    Chima C. Ngumah


    Full Text Available With the growing demerits of fossil fuels - its finitude and its negative impact on the environment and public health - renewable energy is becoming a favoured emerging alternative. For over a millennium anaerobic digestion (AD has been employed in treating organic waste (biomass. The two main products of anaerobic digestion, biogas and biofertilizer, are very important resources. Since organic wastes are always available and unavoidable too, anaerobic digestion provides an efficient means of converting organic waste to profitable resources. This paper elucidates the potential benefits of organic waste generated in Nigeria as a renewable source of biofuel and biofertilizer. The selected organic wastes studied in this work are livestock wastes (cattle excreta, sheep and goat excreta, pig excreta, poultry excreta; and abattoir waste, human excreta, crop residue, and municipal solid waste (MSW. Using mathematical computation based on standard measurements, Nigeria generates about 542.5 million tons of the above selected organic waste per annum. This in turn has the potential of yielding about 25.53 billion m³ of biogas (about 169 541.66 MWh and 88.19 million tons of biofertilizer per annum. Both have a combined estimated value of about N 4.54 trillion ($ 29.29 billion. This potential biogas yield will be able to completely displace the use of kerosene and coal for domestic cooking, and reduce the consumption of wood fuel by 66%. An effective biogas programme in Nigeria will also remarkably reduce environmental and public health concerns, deforestation, and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions.


    Chima C. Ngumah


    Full Text Available With the growing demerits of fossil fuels - its finitude and its negative impact on the environment and public health - renewable energy is becoming a favoured emerging alternative. For over a millennium anaerobic digestion (AD has been employed in treating organic waste (biomass. The two main products of anaerobic digestion, biogas and biofertilizer, are very important resources. Since organic wastes are always available and unavoidable too, anaerobic digestion provides an efficient means of converting organic waste to profitable resources. This paper elucidates the potential benefits of organic waste generated in Nigeria as a renewable source of biofuel and biofertilizer. The selected organic wastes studied in this work are livestock wastes (cattle excreta, sheep and goat excreta, pig excreta, poultry excreta; and abattoir waste, human excreta, crop residue, and municipal solid waste (MSW. Using mathematical computation based on standard measurements, Nigeria generates about 542.5 million tons of the above selected organic waste per annum. This in turn has the potential of yielding about 25.53 billion m³ of biogas (about 169 541.66 MWh and 88.19 million tons of biofertilizer per annum. Both have a combined estimated value of about N 4.54 trillion ($ 29.29 billion. This potential biogas yield will be able to completely displace the use of kerosene and coal for domestic cooking, and reduce the consumption of wood fuel by 66%. An effective biogas programme in Nigeria will also remarkably reduce environmental and public health concerns, deforestation, and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions.

  10. Prevalence of Malaria Plasmodium in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Okonko, I. O.


    Full Text Available This study reports the prevalence of malaria caused by plasmodium between genders in Abeokuta, the capital city of Ogun State located in the forest zone of southwestern Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2004. Blood film examination for malaria parasites in 708 patients; 366 males and 342 females. Microscopic examination of thick films techniques was employed for this study. Of the 708 (100% patients examined, 577 (81.5% were Plasmodium-positive. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 81.5% was noted in this study. Female subjects were more infected (42.4% than males (41.9% however, there was no significant difference in the sex of the subjects studied (p=0.05. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 86.9% was noted in samples collected in year 2003 than in other years studied. There was significant difference in the years under study (p=0.05. This study shows that a good percentage of people were infested by malaria Plasmodium. This could be attributed to lack of adequate accommodation and poor sanitary conditions in the area under study. Although several efforts have been made to effectively control the high incidence of malaria in Nigeria, these have been largely unsuccessful due to a number of reasons such as irrigated urban agriculture which can be the malaria vector’s breeding ground in the city, stagnant gutters and swamps in our environment where mosquitoes breed in millions, and lack of political will and commitment of the government in its disease management program, low awareness of the magnitude of malaria problem, poor health practices by individuals and communities and resistance to drugs. Therefore, future interventions in Nigeria should be directed toward controlling malaria in the context of a moderate transmission setting; thus, large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets or widespread use of indoor residual spraying may be less cost-effective than enhanced surveillance with effective case management or

  11. Options for enhancing agricultural productivity in Nigeria:

    Nkonya, Ephraim; Pender, John L., ed.; Kato, Edward


    Since 2003, economic growth in Nigeria has been strong. Annual GDP grew by 9.1 percent per annum between 2003 and 2005 and by 6 .1 percent per annum between 2006 and 2008. Much of this growth can be attributed to the non-oil economy which has grown rapidly. This is due primarily to agriculture, which contributes approximately 35 percent to total GDP and supports 70 percent of the population. Agricultural research has been shown to be crucial in increasing agricultural productivity and reducin...

  12. Corruption, NGOs, and Development in Nigeria

    Smith, Daniel Jordan


    This article examines corruption in Nigeria’s development sector, particularly in the vastly growing arena of local non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Grounded in ethnographic case studies, the analysis explores why local NGOs in Nigeria have proliferated so widely, what they do in practice, what effects they have beyond their stated aims, and how they are perceived and experienced by ordinary Nigerians. It shows that even faux NGOs and disingenuous political rhetoric about civil society, democracy, and development are contributing to changing ideals and rising expectations in these same domains. PMID:24265511

  13. AIDS NGOS and corruption in Nigeria.

    Smith, Daniel Jordan


    Using two ethnographic case studies, the intersecting dynamics of inequality, morality, and corruption are examined as they play out in Nigerian AIDS NGOs. To the Nigerian public, local AIDS organizations are widely seen as conduits for corruption. But local opinions of particular NGOs and their leaders turn less on whether donor resources were misused and more on the ways that people who accumulate the benefits of corruption use them socially. Nevertheless, discontent swirls about corruption in general, a fact that suggests a gradual change in people's understandings of the processes that produce inequality in Nigeria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. AIDS NGOS and corruption in Nigeria

    Smith, Daniel Jordan


    Using two ethnographic case studies, the intersecting dynamics of inequality, morality, and corruption are examined as they play out in Nigerian AIDS NGOs. To the Nigerian public, local AIDS organizations are widely seen as conduits for corruption. But local opinions of particular NGOs and their leaders turn less on whether donor resources were misused and more on the ways that people who accumulate the benefits of corruption use them socially. Nevertheless, discontent swirls about corruption in general, a fact that suggests a gradual change in people's understandings of the processes that produce inequality in Nigeria. PMID:22469532

  15. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Nigeria

    Odiase Justice I


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breast feeding (EBF has important protective effects on the survival of infants and decreases risk for many early-life diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors associated with EBF in Nigeria. Methods Data on 658 children less than 6 months of age were obtained from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2003. The 2003 NDHS was a multi-stage cluster sample survey of 7864 households. EBF rates were examined against a set of individual, household and community level variables using a backward stepwise multilevel logistic regression method. Results The average EBF rate among infants younger than 6 months of age was 16.4% (95%CI: 12.6%-21.1% but was only 7.1% in infants in their fifth month of age. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariate analyses revealed that the odds of EBF were higher in rich (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR = 1.15, CI = 0.28-6.69 and middle level (AOR = 2.45, CI = 1.06-5.68 households than poor households. Increasing infant age was associated with significantly less EBF (AOR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.51-0.82. Mothers who had four or more antenatal visits were significantly more likely to engage in EBF (AOR = 2.70, 95%CI = 1.04-7.01. Female infants were more likely to be exclusively breastfed than male infants (AOR = 2.13, 95%CI = 1.03-4.39. Mothers who lived in the North Central geopolitical region were significantly more likely to exclusively breastfeed their babies than those mothers who lived in other geopolitical regions. Conclusions The EBF rate in Nigeria is low and falls well short of the expected levels needed to achieve a substantial reduction in child mortality. Antenatal care was strongly associated with an increased rate of EBF. Appropriate infant feeding practises are needed if Nigeria is to reach the child survival Millennium Development Goal of reducing infant mortality from about 100 deaths per 1000 live births to a target of 35 deaths per 1000 live

  16. Transforming vaccines supply chains in Nigeria.

    Sarley, David; Mahmud, Mustafa; Idris, Jide; Osunkiyesi, Modele; Dibosa-Osadolor, Onome; Okebukola, Peter; Wiwa, Owens


    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and in 2012 was suffering some of the lowest vaccination rates in the World. A combination of factors had resulted in a dysfunctional immunization cold chain and supply chain. Recognizing that the number of unimmunized children contributed to high levels of under-5-mortality, and that health MDGs would not be attained, Minister of State for Health Mohammed Pate launched a vaccines transformation project in 2013. In partnership with BMGF, GAVI, UNICEF, WHO, other donors and implementing partners the transformation journey has so far taken three years and achieved impressive results. It has though faced challenges along the way and with the financial burden of GAVI graduation facing Nigeria, the economic downturn and the decentralized funding of health services, the results are far from sustained. This paper documents the work undertaken at the Federal level and then highlights specific work undertaken in partnership with Lagos State Government. It identifies the importance of taking an end to end approach and looking at the root causes of weak system performance. The strategy combined simple innovations in how data was captured, recorded and used to drive decision making. It included a comprehensive and systematic approach to cold chain procurement, installation and maintenance with a shift to a culture of active cold chain maintenance that is performing with higher levels of uptime. It also included supply chain redesign at both the Federal and State level. Finally, it involved an institutional transformation at the National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA) to establish a data driven Department of Logistics and Health Commodities (DLHC) to manage the many challenges in immunizing 7.5 million children annually. While results have been impressive, there have been many challenges and lessons learned on the way. As Nigeria gets ready for its graduation from GAVI, a robust agile performing cold chain and

  17. Planning and Restoration of Environmental Values in Nigeria Dysfunctional Societies

    J. O Basorun


    Full Text Available Urban centers in Nigeria are becoming dysfunctional – a situation that threatens ourenvironmental values. This study, examines the pattern, process and problems of thesesocieties which experience rapid urban development pressure on account of highpopulation growth and decentralization of governance in the form of states and localgovernment creations. The study adopts extensive review of literature and findings revealthat Nigeria records very high level of urbanization and pollution, lacks effective culturaland physical planning policies, mismanages its urban open spaces, without adequatepersonnel to plan and organize the urban environments. Recommendations were madeon ways of restoring these environmental values through effective planning of urbancenters in Nigeria.

  18. Fertilization of Northern Hardwoods

    R. Lea; D.G. Brockway


    Northern hardwoods grow over a considerable range of climatic and edaphic conditions and exhibit a wide range in productivity.Many northern hardwood forests are capable of high production relative to other forest types, but are often slow to reach maximum productivity because of low nutrient availability.Altering the patterns of biomass accumulation so that managers...

  19. Macroeconomic Dynamics and Financial Crisis in Nigeria

    Ph. D. Olusegun Olowe


    Full Text Available This work as an empirical economics assessment examined the role of domestic macroeconomic policies with emphasis on the management of the impact of macroeconomic variables on the global financial crisis in Nigeria.. It applies VAR framework on annual time series data from 1969 to 2009. The paper opines that the Nigerian economy is far from converging towards a sustainable equilibrium in the short run. The paper suggests that attitudinal change, monetary and fiscal policies could be used to address the Nigerian version of the global financial crisis. However, the right mix of these policies to avoid conflicts in the light of dampening effects of the global financial melt-down as well as the possible effects of the global financial crisis and macroeconomic fluctuations on economic development in Nigeria is of relevance..The direction and magnitude of relevant policy to stimulate increased government intervention, it was observed that there is the need for comparative dynamics of economies in order to return to the path of sustainable growth and development

  20. Pattern of Ocular Injuries in Owo, Nigeria

    Charles Oluwole Omolase


    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the pattern of ocular injuries in patients presenting to the eye clinic and the accident and emergency department of Federal Medical Center, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Methods: This prospective study was conducted between January and December 2009. Federal Medical Center, Owo is the only tertiary hospital in Ondo State, Nigeria. The eye center located at this medical center was the only eye care facility in the community at the time of this study. All patients were interviewed with the aid of an interviewer-administered questionnaire and underwent a detailed ocular examination. Results: Of 132 patients included in the study, most (84.1% sustained blunt eye injury while (12.1% had penetrating eye injury. A considerable proportion of patients (37.9% presented within 24 hours of injury. Vegetative materials were the most common (42.4% offending agent, a minority of patients (22% was admitted and none of the patients had used eye protection at the time of injury. Conclusion: In the current series, blunt eye injury was the most common type of ocular trauma. The community should be educated and informed about the importance of preventive measures including protective eye devices during high risk activities. Patients should be encouraged to present early following ocular injury.

  1. Understanding the Impact of Leadership in Nigeria

    Nichodemus O. Ejimabo


    Full Text Available This critical ethnographic study focused on identifying the leadership practices of past and present leaders involved in the operation of the Nigerian government, with emphasis on the Eastern Region. The author was committed and determined to discovering a pattern of meaning through its natural setting, was equally interested in the process rather than outcomes, in context rather than specific variables, and in discovery rather than confirmation in order to gain in-depth knowledge and understanding of the issues and problems associated with the leadership situation in the country. For clarity, the investigator used Northouse leadership approach to understand the leadership in the current Nigerian leadership situation. Twelve past and present leaders in the government operations of the Eastern Region of Nigeria participated in the study, and the leadership assessment instrument survey questionnaire was used to support the study. While the study showed a great need for change in leadership, the results of the study revealed that most of the leaders and policy makers in the Eastern Region of the country lack effective leadership skills for the positions they hold. The study also suggested some recommendations for improving the current leadership situation in Nigeria.

  2. The Reality of Electronic Payments in Nigeria

    Emmanuel Amie Esezobor


    Full Text Available Nigeria wants its financial system to operate like in the developed economies of the world so that come year 2020, it will be seen and recognized as one of the leading economies in the world. To achieve this lofty target, the payment system was directed by fiat by the apex bank, Central Bank of Nigeria to be by electronic methods so that the system of paying cash for virtually every purchase will now give way to electronic payment. Lagos State was selected as a pilot study for five other states in the country to join 1st July, 2013. There are far-reaching implications for a country with a mammoth population of 140 million people; the majority of whom are not aware of the new payment direction. This research aimed therefore to find out how prepared and willing Nigerians are in embracing electronic payments system. I found out at the end of the study, that Nigerians were not impressed with the cashless policy and the attempt to introduce N5,000 cash note along with a repackaging of new coins to replace the existing lower denominations of cash in notes. Rather, they want policy makers and the government to address the grave insecurity to life and property in the land and provide stable electricity and water supply.


    Soumia Ait-Hida


    Full Text Available Nigeria has recently been confronted with increased terrorist activity by a group called Boko Haram. This group has been able to survive counterterrorist measures by the Nigerian government and has increased its attacks on targets inside and outside its traditional area of operation. On Christmas 2011, at least 25 churchgoers were killed. Earlier, Boko Haram hit the headquarters of the United Nations in Abuja, Nigeria’s federal capital, in a suicide attack, leaving at least 23 people killed and more than 80 injured. This article will look into Boko Haram, its ideology, its methods, and its international connections. In order to determine whether or not the group is driven by religious motives, the authors consider Boko Haram’s use of religion as an ideology, as an instrument for recruitment, as a legitimation of extreme violence and as a criterion for the selection of targets. These indicators will be examined in order to learn more about the character of Boko Haram, about its ideology, its methods, and its international connections. The authors conclude that Boko Haram is indeed primarily driven by religious motives while its members are motivated by a Jihadist version of Islam. They view themselves as believers of the only true interpretation of the Islamic faith. Their aim is to establish an Islamic state in Nigeria on the basis of the Sharia.

  4. The need for veterinary nursing in Nigeria

    Funmilayo A. Okanlawon, RN, PhD, FWACN


    Full Text Available Traditionally, nursing care has been identified as an integral part of human medicine but is not well recognised in veterinary medicine as practised in Nigeria. In caring for human beings, a nurse is expected to have the fundamental understanding of disease aetiology, manifestations, diagnosis, manage-ment, rehabilitation, prevention and control. This is equally applicable to the care of animals. The role of veterinary nursing in veterinary medicine is significant considering the multitude of issues involved in the care of animals. The keeping of domestic animals is becoming popular and consequently the spread of infectious diseases from animals to human beings is on the increase. It is vital for human beings and animals to coexist in a healthy environment. The authors examine the importance of nursing care in veterinary medicine, the current situation in Nigeria, the role of veterinary nurses, the inter-professional approach to veterinary medicine, preparedness for the emergence of infectious diseases and career opportunities for veterinary nurses. This premise falls within the context of the ‘One Health’ concept.

  5. Helping women traders. Organizing for change: Nigeria.

    Obadina, E


    In Nigeria, the World Bank developed a pilot project, the Women's Management Training Outreach Programme (WMTOP), to improve the managerial skills of illiterate and semiliterate rural business women and farmers. In 1993, WMTOP chose the Country Women's Association of Nigeria (COWAN) for training. The result for a local group of cooperative kola nut traders was improved time management techniques, a more profitable division of labor, and the ability to keep better written financial records. WMTOP has taught women from 58 local groups (reaching 2600 women) the principles of human resource management, finance and credit, microproject management, and marketing. Although participants praise the project, a lack of money for business expansion continues to hold the women back from real success. Funding for WMTOP comes from the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank, which exists primarily to train government functionaries. This extension to include nongovernmental organizations in the training program is a result of the World Bank's effort to promote self-sufficiency. WMTOP attempts to take the program directly to the women, and the trainers live with the trainees in their home villages during the follow-up sessions. All of the WMTOP materials have been translated into Yoruba to eliminate misunderstandings. WMTOP seed money will end in 1996, but there is hope that this positive program will interest donors.

  6. Earnings and bank profitability in Nigeria

    John N. N. Ugoani


    Full Text Available Bank earnings in form of retained profit help in the capital formation of banks. This is critical because capital inadequacy is often a cause of bank failures. During the banking crisis in Nigeria the gross earnings of many banks diminished considerably due to frauds and bad management. For example, in 2009 the Central Bank of Nigeria revoked the operating licences of fourteen banks which had huge nonperforming loans and were making losses. The fragility in the Nigerian banking system in the 1990s and beyond was compounded due to wide spread poor corporate governance practices and imprudent lending that led to the erosion of gross earnings and profitability. The study employed the exploratory research design. Data analyses were done through description statistics and the regression technique using the statistical package for the social sciences. The regression result was Y = 4.926 + 1.877x meaning that with an increase of 1 percent in gross earnings bank profitability increases by 1.88 percent. This is the crux of the study.

  7. Social Justice, Civil Society and the Dramatist in Democratic Nigeria ...

    Social Justice, Civil Society and the Dramatist in Democratic Nigeria. ... democracy as being unique to the cultural environment, yet the human-rights violations, ... Drama and theatre, being veritable media of communication are considered ...

  8. Interest rate and commercial banks' lending operations in Nigeria: A ...

    Interest rate and commercial banks' lending operations in Nigeria: A structural break analysis using chow test. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... enhance commercial bank operations resulting in a more competitive financial market ...

  9. Religion and violence in Nigeria: The way forward | Ntamu | Sophia ...

    Religion and violence in Nigeria: The way forward. ... Islam approve of violence with its attendant social and economic problems in the name ... of our national development because of the negative impact of violence on the lives of the citizenry.

  10. Library Automation in Nigeria: The Bowen University Library ...

    The paper shares Bowen University Library, Iwo, Nigeria automation experiences using Open Source Library Management Software, Koha. ... settle the issue of regular power supply with management before embarking on automation project.

  11. Information System and Insurance Business in Nigeria | Oladipo ...

    Information System and Insurance Business in Nigeria. ... It is an invaluable resource to management as long as the businesses require data process. ... Simple percentage descriptive statist tics method was used for data presentation.

  12. 119 Rebranding as an Administrative Strategy in Nigeria: The ...



    Jan 18, 2011 ... relations would be needed to kick-start the process, here lies the rebranding initiative, only time ... Appadorai, A. (2004), The substance of politics, New Delhi, India: ... a press conference to the launch: The Rebranding Nigeria.

  13. A Case Study Of Workers In South-Western Nigeria.

    politics on career development of workers in the south-western Nigeria. Three hundred .... situation where there is uncertainty or consensus about choice. Wagner III ... However, personality factors are important determinants of organization ...

  14. Diglossia and Code Switching in Nigeria: Implications for English ...


    implications of the diglossic situations in Nigeria for English language teaching and .... Second, it has been observed that code-switching occurs frequently and unconsciously in ... with learning activities that reflect real-life experiences.

  15. effects of strike cost on economic development in nigeria


    examines strike cost and economic development in Nigeria. Taking strike ... Industrial conflict is constant and an inevitable part of any organization. The concept .... political leadership .lips service; poor knowledge of the society and complete.



    between fundamental human rights, social rights, the oil and gas industry in Nigeria and the environment. .... Republic of Russia. The judgment of ... Supreme Court has, through an expansive policy of constitutional interpretation, maintained ...

  17. Predicting Nigeria budget allocation using regression analysis: A ...

    Predicting Nigeria budget allocation using regression analysis: A data mining approach. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Budget is used by the Government as a guiding tool for planning and management of its resources to aid in ...

  18. Psychosocial aspects of epilepsy in Nigeria: a review

    morbidity. Conclusion: Epilepsy, a stigmatizing disorder in Nigeria, has a significant impact on the day to day functioning of ... Epilepsy is the most common non-infectious neurological .... In children, Iloeje19 had earlier reported that 18% of the.

  19. Upsurge of paediatric tuberculosis in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Has HIV ...

    Background: The Niger Delta region in Southern Nigeria is peculiar, not only for its oil and ... which enhance the occurrence of communicable diseases like tuberculosis and ... Because childhood tuberculous infection is a reflection of ongoing ...

  20. Contraceptive choices amongst women in Kano, Nigeria: A five (5 ...

    Contraceptive choices amongst women in Kano, Nigeria: A five (5) year review. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... of contraceptive usage the preferred method and the source of information on contraception among the ...

  1. Credit Risk Management and Interest Income of Banks in Nigeria

    Fapetu, Oladapo


    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of credit risk on the interest income of banks in Nigeria between the period of 2000 and 2014. Unbalanced panel data analysis was used to estimate the model with unit root test, Breusch Pagan test, trend analysis, descriptive statistics, Perasan CD Test, heteroskedasticity test, heterogeneity test, serial correlation test, Jarquebera, F-statistics, random effect, fixed effect, time effect, Prob value, Hausman test and rho as the estimation parameters. The study discovered that NPL, LLP and LA are statistically significant in explaining the variation in interest income across banks in Nigeria, while LA/TD is not statistically significant in explaining the variation in interest income across banks in Nigeria. Based on this, the study recommends that regular update of credit policy and adequate measures to monitor loans should be put in place by banks in Nigeria, as these measures will reduce bad loans and ultimately cause a reduction in loan loss provisions.

  2. The Implications of Legal Reform in the Nigeria Power Sector


    Energy or power is indeed an indispensable component of economic growth .... sustainable in the long run being perishable and non-renewable. Renewable .... Niger power review: Development of electricity industry in Nigeria (1960-. 1985).

  3. Research and Development Potentials in Biofuel Production in Nigeria

    Nekky Umera

    Although, Nigeria's natural resource wealth (including renewable energy potentials) has been well ... African Research Review Vol. 3 (3), April, 2009. ... countries, the production of energy in concert with sustainable food production and the ...

  4. Hydrological Data Banking for Sustainable Development in Nigeria: An Overview

    Ocheri Maxwell


    Full Text Available This paper examines the importance of hydrological data banking for sustainable development in Nigeria. Water related projects have failed woefully in Nigeria because they are executed without recourse to or lack of relevant hydrological data. Hydrologists primarily are saddled with the responsibilities of data gathering, processing, storage and retrieval on all components of the hydrological cycle such as precipitation, evaporation, runoff, infiltration, stream flow to mention a few. This however can only be done when hydrologists are adequately trained and efficient hydrological gauging stations with up to date equipment are established. The current situation in Nigeria is that hydrological data banking is lacking which is linked with inadequate and inefficient guaging stations and trained manpower. There is the need to make hydrological data collection, processing, storage/retrieval and banking for sustainable development a must in Nigeria. Government and relevant agencies and institutions need to step up action in this wise.

  5. Ischemic priapism in South‑East Nigeria: Presentation, management ...


    Sep 4, 2015 ... Enlightenment is vital in reducing ischemia time. Emphasis on ... Nigeria: Presentation, management challenges, and aftermath issues. Niger ... author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

  6. Patterns of Antenatal Care Seeking Behavior in South East Nigeria ...

    The effects of age, education, SES, and ANC seeking behavior were analyzed. ... KEY WORDS: Antenatal care, health seeking behavior, inequities, Nigeria, women of childbearing age ..... individual, family or community choice of health care.

  7. Bacteriological water quality of Elechi creek in Port Harcourt, Nigeria ...

    Bacteriological water quality of Elechi creek in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... the possible influence and sources of contamination around each zone. ... contamination of the water body with pathogenic bacteria; hence the water is of low quality and ...

  8. What Is Nigeria? Unsettling the Myth of Exceptionalism

    Aghogho Akpome


    Full Text Available This article explores perceptions and representations of Nigeria and Nigerians in the popular global imaginary. It analyses selected popular media narratives in order to foreground contradictions and paradoxes in the ways in which the country and people of Nigeria are discursively constructed. By doing so, it interrogates stereotypes of corruption and criminality as well as myths of exceptionalism about Nigeria and Nigerians originating from both within and outside the country. The analysis reveals that the generalised portrayal of Nigeria and Nigerians as exceptional social subjects is characterised by contradictions and inaccuracies in dominant representational practices and cannot be justified by the verifiable empirical information available on the country and its people.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of a decoction used by Southwestern Nigeria ...



    Nov 19, 2007 ... 1Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Lagos, Akoka Nigeria. 2Department of ... petent to provide healthcare by using herb, animals, and mineral substances as ... Other ingredients added were 20 g of black ...


    Mohammed Abubakar Mawoli


    Full Text Available Islamic banking has become a global phenomenon as both Islamic and western countries have embraced it. However, the move by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN to introduce Islamic Banking in Nigeria was met with many criticisms, especially from the Non-Muslims. As a divorce from subjective criticisms typical of religious opponents’ discussions, the study examined the viability of Islamic banking in Nigeria using market segmentation criteria. Being a library research, secondary data was obtained from various secondary sources and analyzed descriptively. The study found that, the targeted Muslim segment is substantial, identifiable, measurable, accessible and reliable. Hence, the study concludes that the introduction of Islamic banking in Nigeria is worthwhile and the future of Islamic banks in the country is bright and prosperous. The study, therefore, recommends that though Islamic banking has come to stay, Muslims and non-Muslims should support its establishment as all citizens irrespective of religious affiliation are likely to benefit from it.

  11. prediction of rainfall magnitudes and variations in nigeria

    engr peter ekpo

    Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. .... maximum annual rainfall depth of return period T. ..... of Gdańsk Meteorological Station. ... Landsliding in Pittwater. Australian. Geomechanics: Vol 42 No 1 March 2007. 3.

  12. Common Occupational Health Problems In Disease Control In Nigeria

    Common Occupational Health Problems In Disease Control In Nigeria. ... laboratories, hazardous gases like ethylene oxide and nitrous oxides; physical agents like ... When duely exposed, health workers are at high risk of health problems like ...

  13. Plastination technology for anatomical studies in Nigeria: Opinion of ...


    Apr 9, 2013 ... Nigeria: Opinion of teachers at medical institutions. Authors: ... of new techniques and computer science, alternative methods of teaching anatomy have come .... checked by every team member to ensure accurate data input.

  14. Compulsory School Attendance in Nigeria: What are the Reasons ...

    Compulsory School Attendance in Nigeria: What are the Reasons for ... raised to direct the thrust of study whose population comprised all the students in ... revealed further that male, old, poor and urban - resident pupils rate the reasons for

  15. Repugnancy Doctrine and Customary Law in Nigeria: A Positive ...

    Nekky Umera

    Keywords: customary law, repugnancy doctrine, British colonialism. Introduction. The state .... is usually associated with international law. It is, therefore ... English law that were applicable in Nigeria – sometimes referred to as the 'general law' ...

  16. Abattoir operations and waste management in Nigeria: A review of ...

    Abattoir operations and waste management in Nigeria: A review of challenges and ... meat have been issues of public health and global environmental concerns. ... if the current challenges militating against the establishment, operations and ...

  17. Macroeconomic Variables and Money Supply: Evidence from Nigeria

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    long and short run relationship and causality of employed variables. The results ..... result that EXR has a negative and slightly insignificant impact on M2 in Nigeria. The ... Money in a developing economy: A portfolio approach to money.

  18. An Analysis of Air Transportation in Nigeria | Ladan | Journal of ...

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN ... An efficient air transport contributes to economic growth and development. However in Nigeria,lt suffer from poor reputation for operational efficiency and safety. This is attested by ...

  19. The Capital Market in Nigeria in Historical Perspective | Balogun ...

    The Capital Market in Nigeria in Historical Perspective. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... It is against this background that this paper considers the establishment and operation of the Securities and Exchange Commission.

  20. Amaechi Alex Ugwuja Abstract Nigeria's emergence as a player on ...

    Dean SPGS NAU

    abound to buttress the commitment of Nigeria to Africa - her values and interests. ... have been summed in one single concept – the concept of African. Personality. .... Furthermore, Hassan Saliu notes that “the Murtala administration promptly ...

  1. Gravity and geothermal anomalies in Borno Basin, Nigeria ...

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... This paper briefly attempts the interpretation of the gravity anomalies to ... gravity data to geodynamics in the exploration for geothermal energy as an additional source of energy for Nigeria.

  2. (12) A blueprint for agricultural development in Nigeria

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    Nigerian economic development and revealed that foreign .... Table 3 Population and Output of major Agricultural Commodities (2000-2012). Year ... interested in farming while the aged farmers who ..... from all companies operating in Nigeria.

  3. Effective information management in academic libraries in Nigeria ...

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... needed and providing mechanism for ensuring accountability and managing risk. There has been concern for educational institutions in Nigeria to solve the problem ...

  4. clinical profile of atopic dermatitis in benin city, nigeria.

    Department of Medicine University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. ... Subjects: All new cases of atopic dermatitis presenting to the clinic during the study' period. Results: 594 .... New York: Mcgraw-Hill, 1993: 1543. 1564. 2.

  5. NEPAD and Governance Question in Nigeria: Progress and ...

    NEPAD and Governance Question in Nigeria: Progress and Challenges. ... for Africa's rejuvenation of the spirit of good governance and development. ... as global economic meltdown, internal conflicts and state-centric interest which have ...

  6. Tourism and economic development in Nigeria: an empirical ...

    Tourism and economic development in Nigeria: an empirical investigation. ... role in tourist destination development by the government, government involvement in the planning and execution of marketing of tourism potentials, the invitation of ...

  7. Challenges of Effective English Language Learning in Nigeria ...

    The factors that influence the students. effective learning of the English ... learners, the attitude of students towards the study of the English language, the nature of ... the methods of teaching and the availability of teaching aids in Nigeria ...

  8. An appraisal of construction management practice in Nigeria | Ugwu ...

    An appraisal of construction management practice in Nigeria. ... A questionnaire survey was conducted and fifty-seven (57) factors were identified, ... the project team, lack of construction management knowledge and known work progress.

  9. Climate Change: A Threat to Agricultural Production in Nigeria ...

    In recent times, climate change has generated a global issue of discourse, because ... to Nigeria because of its effects on agricultural production and food security. ... climate and climate components and the impact of their possible change on ...

  10. Management and human values in Nigeria: A theoretical approach ...

    Management and human values in Nigeria: A theoretical approach. ... evolving ethical and human value-based practices as a form of competitive advantage ... has consistently shifted towards value-based models of growth in the workplace.


    Ike Odimegwu

    law, human rights and Nigerian democracy, fundamental rights in. 2011 constitution (As Amended), conclusion and finally recommendation. ..... Nigeria or any executive or administrative the government, to disabilities or restrictions to which ...

  12. institutional mechanisms for human rights protection in nigeria


    legal and institutional mechanisms for protecting the human rights guaranteed in .... by the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, African Charter, the .... special care administrative acts which are or appear to be contrary to any law or.

  13. Water Quality Assessment of River Areba, Niger Delta, Nigeria ...

    Water Quality Assessment of River Areba, Niger Delta, Nigeria Using Physical ... phosphate (0.78mg/l) were above World Health Organization limits for drinking water. Seasonally, water temperatures, total dissolved solids, biological oxygen ...

  14. Health-Sector Performance in Post-Independent Nigeria: A ...

    However, available information, using healthcare indices such as life ... health expenditure in Nigeria, without considering its link with governance. ... Several related literature were reviewed and secondary data were used for the regression.

  15. Ethical Dilemmas in Contemporary Ophthalmic Practice in Nigeria

    determination that cuts across all areas of human endeavors. Conclusion: .... and attentive is likely to gain the necessary confidence to share .... evisceration, but the parents declined. In whose .... Medical negligence in Nigeria: An Appraisal. Univ Ado.

  16. Obesity and Hypertension amongst Traders in Ijebu Ode, Nigeria

    Dr Olaleye

    1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta Nigeria. 2University of ... where overweight and obesity kill more people than. *Corresponding ..... community-dwelling elderly Yoruba Nigerians. Acta Neurol.

  17. nigeria's cobweb of corruption and the path to underdevelopment


    Corruption is seen as a symptom of numerous ..... politics, the struggle for and the exercise of power created the context and culture of predation and ..... of this to Nigeria is bad image among the international communities, and lack of trust.

  18. Counselling for Gender Sensitivity in Nigeria: Counsellors' Roles ...

    Counselling for Gender Sensitivity in Nigeria: Counsellors' Roles. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... This paper examined the need for Nigerian counsellors to engage in gender sensitive counselling in order to promote ...

  19. Religious violence in Nigeria: Causal diagnoses and strategic ...

    based on assumptions, since 'religious distribution' is not an index in Nigeria's ..... capacity to manage diversity, corruption, rising inequality between the rich and ... (2008: 287) opined that the wrong perception of other people's religion or.

  20. Urban Road Transportation in Nigeria From 1960 To 2006 ...


    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol.1 No.1 March. ... The nature of urban road transportation problems in Nigeria as at today can ... the provision of transport services within cities and inter-cities transport system.

  1. Estimation of Solar Radiation in South Eastern Nigeria | Nwokocha ...

    Estimation of Solar Radiation in South Eastern Nigeria. ... Knowledge of global solar radiation is of fundamental importance for all solar energy conversion ... the Sayigh equation for estimating the global solar radiation, analyzing data from ...

  2. Prospects and challenges of ecotourism development in Nigeria ...

    Prospects and challenges of ecotourism development in Nigeria. ... Journal of Environmental Extension ... This paper highlights the prospects and challenges of ecotourism as a veritable tool for sustainable economic development and the ...

  3. Academic mentoring and the future of tertiary education in Nigeria ...

    Academic mentoring and the future of tertiary education in Nigeria. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... early perspectives of mentoring undergraduates, the rationale for academic mentoring, the ...

  4. IT-Based Solutions to the Electoral System in Nigeria


    Dec 1, 2012 ... takes critical steps to addressing these numerous elections vices in Nigeria's electoral system, with the aim to ... According to Igbuzor, [8] there is consensus among theorists and ... violence ranges from acts of assault, arson,.

  5. A Review on Malaria Eradication: What hope for Nigeria? * AMADI ...


    Environ. Manage. Sept. 2016. Vol. 20 (3) 781-787. Full-text Available Online at ... the infecting strain, development of resistance or immunity in ... Nigeria, the phenomenon of climate change provides no marked ..... John Swain and Company.

  6. Psychosocial health challenges of the elderly in Nigeria: a narrative ...

    Psychosocial health challenges of the elderly in Nigeria: a narrative review. ... affect psychosocial health status of elderly Nigerians, namely: changes in family ... as the educational system, health services, community-based initiatives, local or ...

  7. Patterns of Antenatal Care Seeking Behavior in South East Nigeria ...

    Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences ... Behavior in South East Nigeria: Exploring Relationship with Age, Education, and Socioeconomic Status ... Subjects and Methods: A household survey was conducted in 10 randomly ...

  8. Human Capital Development: A Strategy for Moving Nigeria into the ...

    Human Capital Development: A Strategy for Moving Nigeria into the ... Countries without abundant resources have been excelling because of the emphasis on ... building because she has not been treating education as a priority sector.

  9. Economics of yam marketing in Umuahia, Abia state, Nigeria ...

    Economics of yam marketing in Umuahia, Abia state, Nigeria. ... of 64 yam traders using a structured questionnaire and multi stage sampling technique. ... 25 percent in the level of satisfaction derived from a kilogram of yam sold in the market.

  10. Rainfall Variability and the Recent Climate Extremes in Nigeria ...

    Weather patterns affecting the country are driven by the northward and southward ... Climatic and statistical analyses were employed to investigate two extreme ... of Nigeria have suffered from inter-annual to seasonal climatic variabilities and ...

  11. The Role of Home Economics in Higher Institutions in Nigeria ...

    The Role of Home Economics in Higher Institutions in Nigeria. ... and enhance role of Home Economics teacher's effectiveness and there should be awareness creation on the importance of Home Economics in higher institutions of learning.

  12. Educational reform in Nigeria: the case of Multicultural Education for ...

    This paper deals with the educational philosophy of a well-known Turkish ... groups of stakeholders (administrators, teachers, students and parents). ... The findings indicate that the Gülenian style of education, as it is implemented in Nigeria, ...

  13. Islamic Teacher Preparation in Nigeria: Challenges and Prospects ...

    Islamic Teacher Preparation in Nigeria: Challenges and Prospects. ... practicability of the objectives of Islamic Teacher Education and suggests systems or models for its ... Keywords: Teacher Preparation; Islamic Teacher; In- Service Training.

  14. Mass media and challenges of sustainable development in Nigeria ...

    Mass media and challenges of sustainable development in Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Being an integral part of the social system, the mass media is a major stakeholder in the realization of sustainable ...

  15. Perspectives on the Santiago Principles and the Nigeria Sovereign ...

    ... women/child/drug trafficking, maternal/infant mortality rates and social vices. ... Scholars have attributed this development to corruption and fiscal ... line with the Santiago Principles will go a long way to bridging the inequality gap in Nigeria.

  16. Democracy and Violent Conflicts in Nigeria: Implications for National ...

    First Lady

    corruption, unemployment and poverty are some of the factors which make democracy in Nigeria‟s ... economic dimension of social conflicts in Nigeria. Vol. ... poverty, unemployment and inequality have reduced from high level. The objective ...

  17. Assessment of Water Supply Quality in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

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